Science.gov

Sample records for adaptive metric knn

  1. Improving GPU-accelerated adaptive IDW interpolation algorithm using fast kNN search.

    PubMed

    Mei, Gang; Xu, Nengxiong; Xu, Liangliang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient parallel Adaptive Inverse Distance Weighting (AIDW) interpolation algorithm on modern Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). The presented algorithm is an improvement of our previous GPU-accelerated AIDW algorithm by adopting fast k-nearest neighbors (kNN) search. In AIDW, it needs to find several nearest neighboring data points for each interpolated point to adaptively determine the power parameter; and then the desired prediction value of the interpolated point is obtained by weighted interpolating using the power parameter. In this work, we develop a fast kNN search approach based on the space-partitioning data structure, even grid, to improve the previous GPU-accelerated AIDW algorithm. The improved algorithm is composed of the stages of kNN search and weighted interpolating. To evaluate the performance of the improved algorithm, we perform five groups of experimental tests. The experimental results indicate: (1) the improved algorithm can achieve a speedup of up to 1017 over the corresponding serial algorithm; (2) the improved algorithm is at least two times faster than our previous GPU-accelerated AIDW algorithm; and (3) the utilization of fast kNN search can significantly improve the computational efficiency of the entire GPU-accelerated AIDW algorithm. PMID:27610308

  2. Improving GPU-accelerated adaptive IDW interpolation algorithm using fast kNN search.

    PubMed

    Mei, Gang; Xu, Nengxiong; Xu, Liangliang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient parallel Adaptive Inverse Distance Weighting (AIDW) interpolation algorithm on modern Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). The presented algorithm is an improvement of our previous GPU-accelerated AIDW algorithm by adopting fast k-nearest neighbors (kNN) search. In AIDW, it needs to find several nearest neighboring data points for each interpolated point to adaptively determine the power parameter; and then the desired prediction value of the interpolated point is obtained by weighted interpolating using the power parameter. In this work, we develop a fast kNN search approach based on the space-partitioning data structure, even grid, to improve the previous GPU-accelerated AIDW algorithm. The improved algorithm is composed of the stages of kNN search and weighted interpolating. To evaluate the performance of the improved algorithm, we perform five groups of experimental tests. The experimental results indicate: (1) the improved algorithm can achieve a speedup of up to 1017 over the corresponding serial algorithm; (2) the improved algorithm is at least two times faster than our previous GPU-accelerated AIDW algorithm; and (3) the utilization of fast kNN search can significantly improve the computational efficiency of the entire GPU-accelerated AIDW algorithm.

  3. An Adaptable Metric Shapes Perceptual Space.

    PubMed

    Hisakata, Rumi; Nishida, Shin'ya; Johnston, Alan

    2016-07-25

    How do we derive a sense of the separation of points in the world within a space-variant visual system? Visual directions are thought to be coded directly by a process referred to as local sign, in which a neuron acts as a labeled line for the perceived direction associated with its activation [1, 2]. The separations of visual directions, however, are not given, nor are they directly related to the separations of signals on the receptive surface or in the brain, which are modified by retinal and cortical magnification, respectively [3]. To represent the separation of directions veridically, the corresponding neural signals need to be scaled in some way. We considered this scaling process may be influenced by adaptation. Here, we describe a novel adaptation paradigm, which can alter both apparent spatial separation and size. We measured the perceived separation of two dots and the size of geometric figures after adaptation to random dot patterns. We show that adapting to high-density texture not only increases the apparent sparseness (average element separation) of a lower-density pattern, as expected [4], but paradoxically, it reduces the apparent separation of dot pairs and induces apparent shrinkage of geometric form. This demonstrates for the first time a contrary linkage between perceived density and perceived extent. Separation and size appear to be expressed relative to a variable spatial metric whose properties, while not directly observable, are revealed by reductions in both apparent size and texture density. PMID:27426520

  4. Stability and Performance Metrics for Adaptive Flight Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Nguyen, Nhan; VanEykeren, Luarens

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of verifying adaptive control techniques for enabling safe flight in the presence of adverse conditions. Since the adaptive systems are non-linear by design, the existing control verification metrics are not applicable to adaptive controllers. Moreover, these systems are in general highly uncertain. Hence, the system's characteristics cannot be evaluated by relying on the available dynamical models. This necessitates the development of control verification metrics based on the system's input-output information. For this point of view, a set of metrics is introduced that compares the uncertain aircraft's input-output behavior under the action of an adaptive controller to that of a closed-loop linear reference model to be followed by the aircraft. This reference model is constructed for each specific maneuver using the exact aerodynamic and mass properties of the aircraft to meet the stability and performance requirements commonly accepted in flight control. The proposed metrics are unified in the sense that they are model independent and not restricted to any specific adaptive control methods. As an example, we present simulation results for a wing damaged generic transport aircraft with several existing adaptive controllers.

  5. Adaptive distance metric learning for diffusion tensor image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Kong, Youyong; Wang, Defeng; Shi, Lin; Hui, Steve C N; Chu, Winnie C W

    2014-01-01

    High quality segmentation of diffusion tensor images (DTI) is of key interest in biomedical research and clinical application. In previous studies, most efforts have been made to construct predefined metrics for different DTI segmentation tasks. These methods require adequate prior knowledge and tuning parameters. To overcome these disadvantages, we proposed to automatically learn an adaptive distance metric by a graph based semi-supervised learning model for DTI segmentation. An original discriminative distance vector was first formulated by combining both geometry and orientation distances derived from diffusion tensors. The kernel metric over the original distance and labels of all voxels were then simultaneously optimized in a graph based semi-supervised learning approach. Finally, the optimization task was efficiently solved with an iterative gradient descent method to achieve the optimal solution. With our approach, an adaptive distance metric could be available for each specific segmentation task. Experiments on synthetic and real brain DTI datasets were performed to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed distance metric learning approach. The performance of our approach was compared with three classical metrics in the graph based semi-supervised learning framework.

  6. Adaptive Distance Metric Learning for Diffusion Tensor Image Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Youyong; Wang, Defeng; Shi, Lin; Hui, Steve C. N.; Chu, Winnie C. W.

    2014-01-01

    High quality segmentation of diffusion tensor images (DTI) is of key interest in biomedical research and clinical application. In previous studies, most efforts have been made to construct predefined metrics for different DTI segmentation tasks. These methods require adequate prior knowledge and tuning parameters. To overcome these disadvantages, we proposed to automatically learn an adaptive distance metric by a graph based semi-supervised learning model for DTI segmentation. An original discriminative distance vector was first formulated by combining both geometry and orientation distances derived from diffusion tensors. The kernel metric over the original distance and labels of all voxels were then simultaneously optimized in a graph based semi-supervised learning approach. Finally, the optimization task was efficiently solved with an iterative gradient descent method to achieve the optimal solution. With our approach, an adaptive distance metric could be available for each specific segmentation task. Experiments on synthetic and real brain DTI datasets were performed to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed distance metric learning approach. The performance of our approach was compared with three classical metrics in the graph based semi-supervised learning framework. PMID:24651858

  7. Image-quality metrics for characterizing adaptive optics system performance.

    PubMed

    Brigantic, R T; Roggemann, M C; Bauer, K W; Welsh, B M

    1997-09-10

    Adaptive optics system (AOS) performance is a function of the system design, seeing conditions, and light level of the wave-front beacon. It is desirable to optimize the controllable parameters in an AOS to maximize some measure of performance. For this optimization to be useful, it is necessary that a set of image-quality metrics be developed that vary monotonically with the AOS performance under a wide variety of imaging environments. Accordingly, as conditions change, one can be confident that the computed metrics dictate appropriate system settings that will optimize performance. Three such candidate metrics are presented. The first is the Strehl ratio; the second is a novel metric that modifies the Strehl ratio by integration of the modulus of the average system optical transfer function to a noise-effective cutoff frequency at which some specified image spectrum signal-to-noise ratio level is attained; and the third is simply the cutoff frequency just mentioned. It is shown that all three metrics are correlated with the rms error (RMSE) between the measured image and the associated diffraction-limited image. Of these, the Strehl ratio and the modified Strehl ratio exhibit consistently high correlations with the RMSE across a broad range of conditions and system settings. Furthermore, under conditions that yield a constant average system optical transfer function, the modified Strehl ratio can still be used to delineate image quality, whereas the Strehl ratio cannot.

  8. Improved Segmentation of White Matter Tracts with Adaptive Riemannian Metrics

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Xiang; Zygmunt, Kristen; Whitaker, Ross T.; Fletcher, P. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel geodesic approach to segmentation of white matter tracts from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Compared to deterministic and stochastic tractography, geodesic approaches treat the geometry of the brain white matter as a manifold, often using the inverse tensor field as a Riemannian metric. The white matter pathways are then inferred from the resulting geodesics, which have the desirable property that they tend to follow the main eigenvectors of the tensors, yet still have the flexibility to deviate from these directions when it results in lower costs. While this makes such methods more robust to noise, the choice of Riemannian metric in these methods is ad hoc. A serious drawback of current geodesic methods is that geodesics tend to deviate from the major eigenvectors in high-curvature areas in order to achieve the shortest path. In this paper we propose a method for learning an adaptive Riemannian metric from the DTI data, where the resulting geodesics more closely follow the principal eigenvector of the diffusion tensors even in high-curvature regions. We also develop a way to automatically segment the white matter tracts based on the computed geodesics. We show the robustness of our method on simulated data with different noise levels. We also compare our method with tractography methods and geodesic approaches using other Riemannian metrics and demonstrate that the proposed method results in improved geodesics and segmentations using both synthetic and real DTI data. PMID:24211814

  9. Distributed Computation of the knn Graph for Large High-Dimensional Point Sets

    PubMed Central

    Plaku, Erion; Kavraki, Lydia E.

    2009-01-01

    High-dimensional problems arising from robot motion planning, biology, data mining, and geographic information systems often require the computation of k nearest neighbor (knn) graphs. The knn graph of a data set is obtained by connecting each point to its k closest points. As the research in the above-mentioned fields progressively addresses problems of unprecedented complexity, the demand for computing knn graphs based on arbitrary distance metrics and large high-dimensional data sets increases, exceeding resources available to a single machine. In this work we efficiently distribute the computation of knn graphs for clusters of processors with message passing. Extensions to our distributed framework include the computation of graphs based on other proximity queries, such as approximate knn or range queries. Our experiments show nearly linear speedup with over one hundred processors and indicate that similar speedup can be obtained with several hundred processors. PMID:19847318

  10. Flight Validation of a Metrics Driven L(sub 1) Adaptive Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobrokhodov, Vladimir; Kitsios, Ioannis; Kaminer, Isaac; Jones, Kevin D.; Xargay, Enric; Hovakimyan, Naira; Cao, Chengyu; Lizarraga, Mariano I.; Gregory, Irene M.

    2008-01-01

    The paper addresses initial steps involved in the development and flight implementation of new metrics driven L1 adaptive flight control system. The work concentrates on (i) definition of appropriate control driven metrics that account for the control surface failures; (ii) tailoring recently developed L1 adaptive controller to the design of adaptive flight control systems that explicitly address these metrics in the presence of control surface failures and dynamic changes under adverse flight conditions; (iii) development of a flight control system for implementation of the resulting algorithms onboard of small UAV; and (iv) conducting a comprehensive flight test program that demonstrates performance of the developed adaptive control algorithms in the presence of failures. As the initial milestone the paper concentrates on the adaptive flight system setup and initial efforts addressing the ability of a commercial off-the-shelf AP with and without adaptive augmentation to recover from control surface failures.

  11. Selective visual attention based clutter metric with human visual system adaptability.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bo; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Huang, Jing-Tao; Wang, Jian; Jiang, Yang

    2016-09-20

    Most existing clutter metrics are proposed based on fixed structural features and experienced weight measures. In this paper, we identify the clutter as selective visual attention effects and propose a type of clutter metric. First, adaptive structural features are extracted from the blocks with an edge-structure similarity to the target. Next, the confusing blocks are selected by the similarity threshold based on the attention guidance map. The clutter is estimated by quantifying the effects of confusing blocks on target acquisition performance. The comparative field experiments, with a Search_2 dataset, show that the proposed metric is consistent with the adaptability of the human visual system (HVS) and outperforms other metrics. PMID:27661600

  12. Stability Metrics for Simulation and Flight-Software Assessment and Monitoring of Adaptive Control Assist Compensators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodel, A. S.; Whorton, Mark; Zhu, J. Jim

    2008-01-01

    Due to a need for improved reliability and performance in aerospace systems, there is increased interest in the use of adaptive control or other nonlinear, time-varying control designs in aerospace vehicles. While such techniques are built on Lyapunov stability theory, they lack an accompanying set of metrics for the assessment of stability margins such as the classical gain and phase margins used in linear time-invariant systems. Such metrics must both be physically meaningful and permit the user to draw conclusions in a straightforward fashion. We present in this paper a roadmap to the development of metrics appropriate to nonlinear, time-varying systems. We also present two case studies in which frozen-time gain and phase margins incorrectly predict stability or instability. We then present a multi-resolution analysis approach that permits on-line real-time stability assessment of nonlinear systems.

  13. Closed-loop adaptive optics using a CMOS image quality metric sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Chueh; Rayankula, Aditya; Giles, Michael K.; Furth, Paul M.

    2006-08-01

    When compared to a Shack-Hartmann sensor, a CMOS image sharpness sensor has the advantage of reduced complexity in a closed-loop adaptive optics system. It also has the potential to be implemented as a smart sensor using VLSI technology. In this paper, we present a novel adaptive optics testbed that uses a CMOS sharpness imager built in the New Mexico State University (NMSU) Electro-Optics Research Laboratory (EORL). The adaptive optics testbed, which includes a CMOS image quality metric sensor and a 37-channel deformable mirror, has the capability to rapidly compensate higher-order phase aberrations. An experimental performance comparison of the pinhole image sharpness feedback method and the CMOS imager is presented. The experimental data shows that the CMOS sharpness imager works well in a closed-loop adaptive optics system. Its overall performance is better than that of the pinhole method, and it has a fast response time.

  14. QRS detection using K-Nearest Neighbor algorithm (KNN) and evaluation on standard ECG databases.

    PubMed

    Saini, Indu; Singh, Dilbag; Khosla, Arun

    2013-07-01

    The performance of computer aided ECG analysis depends on the precise and accurate delineation of QRS-complexes. This paper presents an application of K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) algorithm as a classifier for detection of QRS-complex in ECG. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on two manually annotated standard databases such as CSE and MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database. In this work, a digital band-pass filter is used to reduce false detection caused by interference present in ECG signal and further gradient of the signal is used as a feature for QRS-detection. In addition the accuracy of KNN based classifier is largely dependent on the value of K and type of distance metric. The value of K = 3 and Euclidean distance metric has been proposed for the KNN classifier, using fivefold cross-validation. The detection rates of 99.89% and 99.81% are achieved for CSE and MIT-BIH databases respectively. The QRS detector obtained a sensitivity Se = 99.86% and specificity Sp = 99.86% for CSE database, and Se = 99.81% and Sp = 99.86% for MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database. A comparison is also made between proposed algorithm and other published work using CSE and MIT-BIH Arrhythmia databases. These results clearly establishes KNN algorithm for reliable and accurate QRS-detection.

  15. Quality metric in matched Laplacian of Gaussian response domain for blind adaptive optics image deconvolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shiping; Zhang, Rongzhi; Yang, Yikang; Xu, Rong; Liu, Changhai; Li, Jisheng

    2016-04-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) in conjunction with subsequent postprocessing techniques have obviously improved the resolution of turbulence-degraded images in ground-based astronomical observations or artificial space objects detection and identification. However, important tasks involved in AO image postprocessing, such as frame selection, stopping iterative deconvolution, and algorithm comparison, commonly need manual intervention and cannot be performed automatically due to a lack of widely agreed on image quality metrics. In this work, based on the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) local contrast feature detection operator, we propose a LoG domain matching operation to perceive effective and universal image quality statistics. Further, we extract two no-reference quality assessment indices in the matched LoG domain that can be used for a variety of postprocessing tasks. Three typical space object images with distinct structural features are tested to verify the consistency of the proposed metric with perceptual image quality through subjective evaluation.

  16. Complexity and Pilot Workload Metrics for the Evaluation of Adaptive Flight Controls on a Full Scale Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt; Schaefer, Jacob; Burken, John J.; Larson, David; Johnson, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Flight research has shown the effectiveness of adaptive flight controls for improving aircraft safety and performance in the presence of uncertainties. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA)'s Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) project designed and conducted a series of flight experiments to study the impact of variations in adaptive controller design complexity on performance and handling qualities. A novel complexity metric was devised to compare the degrees of simplicity achieved in three variations of a model reference adaptive controller (MRAC) for NASA's F-18 (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) Full-Scale Advanced Systems Testbed (Gen-2A) aircraft. The complexity measures of these controllers are also compared to that of an earlier MRAC design for NASA's Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) project and flown on a highly modified F-15 aircraft (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois). Pilot comments during the IRAC research flights pointed to the importance of workload on handling qualities ratings for failure and damage scenarios. Modifications to existing pilot aggressiveness and duty cycle metrics are presented and applied to the IRAC controllers. Finally, while adaptive controllers may alleviate the effects of failures or damage on an aircraft's handling qualities, they also have the potential to introduce annoying changes to the flight dynamics or to the operation of aircraft systems. A nuisance rating scale is presented for the categorization of nuisance side-effects of adaptive controllers.

  17. Preserved Network Metrics across Translated Texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabatbat, Josephine Jill T.; Monsanto, Jica P.; Tapang, Giovanni A.

    2014-09-01

    Co-occurrence language networks based on Bible translations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) translations in different languages were constructed and compared with random text networks. Among the considered network metrics, the network size, N, the normalized betweenness centrality (BC), and the average k-nearest neighbors, knn, were found to be the most preserved across translations. Moreover, similar frequency distributions of co-occurring network motifs were observed for translated texts networks.

  18. Metric Education Evaluation Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansky, Bob; And Others

    This document was developed out of a need for a complete, carefully designed set of evaluation instruments and procedures that might be applied in metric inservice programs across the nation. Components of this package were prepared in such a way as to permit local adaptation to the evaluation of a broad spectrum of metric education activities.…

  19. Metric Madness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroon, Cindy D.

    2007-01-01

    Created for a Metric Day activity, Metric Madness is a board game for two to four players. Students review and practice metric vocabulary, measurement, and calculations by playing the game. Playing time is approximately twenty to thirty minutes.

  20. Comparing distance metrics for rotation using the k-nearest neighbors algorithm for entropy estimation.

    PubMed

    Huggins, David J

    2014-02-15

    Distance metrics facilitate a number of methods for statistical analysis. For statistical mechanical applications, it is useful to be able to compute the distance between two different orientations of a molecule. However, a number of distance metrics for rotation have been employed, and in this study, we consider different distance metrics and their utility in entropy estimation using the k-nearest neighbors (KNN) algorithm. This approach shows a number of advantages over entropy estimation using a histogram method, and the different approaches are assessed using uniform randomly generated data, biased randomly generated data, and data from a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of bulk water. The results identify quaternion metrics as superior to a metric based on the Euler angles. However, it is demonstrated that samples from MD simulation must be independent for effective use of the KNN algorithm and this finding impacts any application to time series data. PMID:24311273

  1. Synthesis and characterizations of BNT-BT-KNN ceramics for energy storage applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekhar, M.; Kumar, P.

    2016-09-01

    Dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of the (0.94-x) Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3-xK0.5Na0.5NbO3/BNT-BT-KNN ceramics with x = 0.02 and 0.05 (2KNN and 5KNN) were studied in detail. Dielectric study and temperature-dependent polarization hysteresis loops indicated a ferroelectric-to-antiferroelectric transition at depolarization temperature (Td). The low Td in both the ceramic samples suggested the dominant antiferroelectric ordering at room temperature (RT), which was also confirmed by RT polarization and strain hysteresis loops studies. Antiferroelectric-to-paraelectric phase transition temperature (Tm) was nearly same for both systems. The 5KNN ceramic samples showed the relaxor behaviour. The values of the dielectric constant, Td, and maximum strain percentage increased, whereas the coercive field and remnant polarization decreased with the increase of the KNN percentage in the BNT-BT-KNN system. High-energy storage density ∼0.5 J/cm3 at RT hinted about the suitability of the 5KNN system for energy storage applications.

  2. Metric Conversion

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-12

    Metric Weights and Measures The metric system is based on 10s.  For example, 10 millimeters = 1 centimeter, 10 ... (BIPM) brochure on the International System of Units (SI)  contains more detail about prefixes.   Metric System Examples ...

  3. Automatic Classification of Protein Structure Using the Maximum Contact Map Overlap Metric

    SciTech Connect

    Andonov, Rumen; Djidjev, Hristo Nikolov; Klau, Gunnar W.; Le Boudic-Jamin, Mathilde; Wohlers, Inken

    2015-10-09

    In this paper, we propose a new distance measure for comparing two protein structures based on their contact map representations. We show that our novel measure, which we refer to as the maximum contact map overlap (max-CMO) metric, satisfies all properties of a metric on the space of protein representations. Having a metric in that space allows one to avoid pairwise comparisons on the entire database and, thus, to significantly accelerate exploring the protein space compared to no-metric spaces. We show on a gold standard superfamily classification benchmark set of 6759 proteins that our exact k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) scheme classifies up to 224 out of 236 queries correctly and on a larger, extended version of the benchmark with 60; 850 additional structures, up to 1361 out of 1369 queries. Finally, our k-NN classification thus provides a promising approach for the automatic classification of protein structures based on flexible contact map overlap alignments.

  4. Fabrication of transparent lead-free KNN glass ceramics by incorporation method

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The incorporation method was employed to produce potassium sodium niobate [KNN] (K0.5Na0.5NbO3) glass ceramics from the KNN-SiO2 system. This incorporation method combines a simple mixed-oxide technique for producing KNN powder and a conventional melt-quenching technique to form the resulting glass. KNN was calcined at 800°C and subsequently mixed with SiO2 in the KNN:SiO2 ratio of 75:25 (mol%). The successfully produced optically transparent glass was then subjected to a heat treatment schedule at temperatures ranging from 525°C -575°C for crystallization. All glass ceramics of more than 40% transmittance crystallized into KNN nanocrystals that were rectangular in shape and dispersed well throughout the glass matrix. The crystal size and crystallinity were found to increase with increasing heat treatment temperature, which in turn plays an important role in controlling the properties of the glass ceramics, including physical, optical, and dielectric properties. The transparency of the glass samples decreased with increasing crystal size. The maximum room temperature dielectric constant (εr) was as high as 474 at 10 kHz with an acceptable low loss (tanδ) around 0.02 at 10 kHz. PMID:22340426

  5. Dragged metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novello, M.; Bittencourt, E.

    2013-05-01

    We show that the path of any accelerated body in an arbitrary spacetime geometry g_{μ ν } can be described as a geodesic in a dragged metric hat{q}_{μ ν } that depends only on the background metric and on the motion of the body. Such procedure allows the interpretation of all kinds of non-gravitational force as modifications of the spacetime metric. This method of effective elimination of the forces by changing the metric of the substratum can be understood as a generalization of the d'Alembert principle applied to all relativistic processes.

  6. Key landscape ecology metrics for assessing climate change adaptation options: rate of change and patchiness of impacts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    López-Hoffman, Laura; Breshears, David D.; Allen, Craig D.; Miller, Marc L.

    2013-01-01

    Under a changing climate, devising strategies to help stakeholders adapt to alterations to ecosystems and their services is of utmost importance. In western North America, diminished snowpack and river flows are causing relatively gradual, homogeneous (system-wide) changes in ecosystems and services. In addition, increased climate variability is also accelerating the incidence of abrupt and patchy disturbances such as fires, floods and droughts. This paper posits that two key variables often considered in landscape ecology—the rate of change and the degree of patchiness of change—can aid in developing climate change adaptation strategies. We use two examples from the “borderland” region of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. In piñon-juniper woodland die-offs that occurred in the southwestern United States during the 2000s, ecosystem services suddenly crashed in some parts of the system while remaining unaffected in other locations. The precise timing and location of die-offs was uncertain. On the other hand, slower, homogeneous change, such as the expected declines in water supply to the Colorado River delta, will likely impact the entire ecosystem, with ecosystem services everywhere in the delta subject to alteration, and all users likely exposed. The rapidity and spatial heterogeneity of faster, patchy climate change exemplified by tree die-off suggests that decision-makers and local stakeholders would be wise to operate under a Rawlsian “veil of ignorance,” and implement adaptation strategies that allow ecosystem service users to equitably share the risk of sudden loss of ecosystem services before actual ecosystem changes occur. On the other hand, in the case of slower, homogeneous, system-wide impacts to ecosystem services as exemplified by the Colorado River delta, adaptation strategies can be implemented after the changes begin, but will require a fundamental rethinking of how ecosystems and services are used and valued. In

  7. Mastering Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrot, Annette M.

    2005-01-01

    By the time students reach a middle school science course, they are expected to make measurements using the metric system. However, most are not practiced in its use, as their experience in metrics is often limited to one unit they were taught in elementary school. This lack of knowledge is not wholly the fault of formal education. Although the…

  8. Forensic Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bort, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important review topics the author teaches in middle school is the use of metric measurement for problem solving and inquiry. For many years, she had students measuring various objects around the room using the tools of metric measurement. She dutifully taught hypothesizing, data collecting, and drawing conclusions. It was…

  9. Sustainability Metrics: The San Luis Basin Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is about promoting humanly desirable dynamic regimes of the environment. Metrics: ecological footprint, net regional product, exergy, emergy, and Fisher Information. Adaptive management: (1) metrics assess problem, (2) specific problem identified, and (3) managemen...

  10. Accelerating k-NN Algorithm with Hybrid MPI and OpenSHMEM

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jian; Hamidouche, Khaled; Zheng, Jie; Lu, Xiaoyi; Vishnu, Abhinav; Panda, Dhabaleswar

    2015-08-05

    Machine Learning algorithms are benefiting from the continuous improvement of programming models, including MPI, MapReduce and PGAS. k-Nearest Neighbors (k-NN) algorithm is a widely used machine learning algorithm, applied to supervised learning tasks such as classification. Several parallel implementations of k-NN have been proposed in the literature and practice. However, on high-performance computing systems with high-speed interconnects, it is important to further accelerate existing designs of the k-NN algorithm through taking advantage of scalable programming models. To improve the performance of k-NN on large-scale environment with InfiniBand network, this paper proposes several alternative hybrid MPI+OpenSHMEM designs and performs a systemic evaluation and analysis on typical workloads. The hybrid designs leverage the one-sided memory access to better overlap communication with computation than the existing pure MPI design, and propose better schemes for efficient buffer management. The implementation based on k-NN program from MaTEx with MVAPICH2-X (Unified MPI+PGAS Communication Runtime over InfiniBand) shows up to 9.0% time reduction for training KDD Cup 2010 workload over 512 cores, and 27.6% time reduction for small workload with balanced communication and computation. Experiments of running with varied number of cores show that our design can maintain good scalability.

  11. Structural, dielectric and ferroelectric study of (1-ϕ)(NBT-KNN)-ϕSBexT ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, Sridevi; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-11-01

    (1-ϕ)(0.93 Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-0.07K0.5Na0.5NbO3)-ϕSr0.8Bi2.15Ta2O9/(1-ϕ)(NBT-KNN)-ϕSBexT (ϕ=0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16 wt%) ceramic samples were synthesized by conventional solid state reaction route. Secondary phases started developing for higher SBexT content in the (1-ϕ)(NBT-KNN)-ϕSBexT ceramic samples. Decrease of transition temperature (Tm) with the increase of SBexT content in (1-ϕ)(NBT-KNN)-ϕSBexT ceramics was attributed to the increase of internal stress. Remnant polarization (Pr), leakage current density and polarization degradation values reduced with the increase of SBexT content in (1-ϕ)(NBT-KNN)-ϕSBexT ceramic samples. Retention of good ferroelectric properties and enhancement of fatigue-free behavior with the incorporation of SBexT phase in (1-ϕ)(NBT-KNN)-ϕSBexT ceramic samples suggested their usefulness for ferroelectric memory applications.

  12. Metric transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This report describes NASA's metric transition in terms of seven major program elements. Six are technical areas involving research, technology development, and operations; they are managed by specific Program Offices at NASA Headquarters. The final program element, Institutional Management, covers both NASA-wide functional management under control of NASA Headquarters and metric capability development at the individual NASA Field Installations. This area addresses issues common to all NASA program elements, including: Federal, state, and local coordination; standards; private industry initiatives; public-awareness initiatives; and employee training. The concluding section identifies current barriers and impediments to metric transition; NASA has no specific recommendations for consideration by the Congress.

  13. Edible Metrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mecca, Christyna E.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise that introduces students to scientific measurements using only metric units. At the conclusion of the exercise, students eat the experiment. Requires dried refried beans, crackers or chips, and dried instant powder for lemonade. (DDR)

  14. Think Metric

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1978-01-01

    The International System of Units, as the metric system is officially called, provides for a single "language" to describe weights and measures over the world. We in the United States together with the people of Brunei, Burma, and Yemen are the only ones who have not put this convenient system into effect. In the passage of the Metric Conversion Act of 1975, Congress determined that we also will adopt it, but the transition will be voluntary.

  15. Photometric redshift estimation for quasars by integration of KNN and SVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bo; Ding, Hong-Peng; Zhang, Yan-Xia; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2016-05-01

    The massive photometric data collected from multiple large-scale sky surveys offer significant opportunities for measuring distances of celestial objects by photometric redshifts. However, catastrophic failure is an unsolved problem with a long history and it still exists in the current photometric redshift estimation approaches (such as the k-nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithm). In this paper, we propose a novel two-stage approach by integration of KNN and support vector machine (SVM) methods together. In the first stage, we apply the KNN algorithm to photometric data and estimate their corresponding z phot. Our analysis has found two dense regions with catastrophic failure, one in the range of z phot ɛ [0.3, 1.2] and the other in the range of zphot ɛ [1.2, 2.1]. In the second stage, we map the photometric input pattern of points falling into the two ranges from their original attribute space into a high dimensional feature space by using a Gaussian kernel function from an SVM. In the high dimensional feature space, many outliers resulting from catastrophic failure by simple Euclidean distance computation in KNN can be identified by a classification hyperplane of SVM and can be further corrected. Experimental results based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasar data show that the two-stage fusion approach can significantly mitigate catastrophic failure and improve the estimation accuracy of photometric redshifts of quasars. The percents in different |δz| ranges and root mean square (rms) error by the integrated method are 83.47%, 89.83%, 90.90% and 0.192, respectively, compared to the results by KNN (71.96%, 83.78%, 89.73% and 0.204).

  16. STN area detection using K-NN classifiers for MER recordings in Parkinson patients during neurostimulator implant surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiaffino, L.; Rosado Muñoz, A.; Guerrero Martínez, J.; Francés Villora, J.; Gutiérrez, A.; Martínez Torres, I.; Kohan, y. D. R.

    2016-04-01

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) applies electric pulses into the subthalamic nucleus (STN) improving tremor and other symptoms associated to Parkinson’s disease. Accurate STN detection for proper location and implant of the stimulating electrodes is a complex task and surgeons are not always certain about final location. Signals from the STN acquired during DBS surgery are obtained with microelectrodes, having specific characteristics differing from other brain areas. Using supervised learning, a trained model based on previous microelectrode recordings (MER) can be obtained, being able to successfully classify the STN area for new MER signals. The K Nearest Neighbours (K-NN) algorithm has been successfully applied to STN detection. However, the use of the fuzzy form of the K-NN algorithm (KNN-F) has not been reported. This work compares the STN detection algorithm of K-NN and KNN-F. Real MER recordings from eight patients where previously classified by neurophysiologists, defining 15 features. Sensitivity and specificity for the classifiers are obtained, Wilcoxon signed rank non-parametric test is used as statistical hypothesis validation. We conclude that the performance of KNN-F classifier is higher than K-NN with p<0.01 in STN specificity.

  17. Quality metrics for product defectiveness at KCD

    SciTech Connect

    Grice, J.V.

    1993-07-01

    Metrics are discussed for measuring and tracking product defectiveness at AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). Three new metrics, the metric (percent defective) that preceded the new metrics, and several alternatives are described. The new metrics, Percent Parts Accepted, Percent Parts Accepted Trouble Free, and Defects Per Million Observations, (denoted by PPA, PATF, and DPMO, respectively) were implemented for KCD-manufactured product and purchased material in November 1992. These metrics replace the percent defective metric that had been used for several years. The PPA and PATF metrics primarily measure quality performance while DPMO measures the effects of continuous improvement activities. The new metrics measure product quality in terms of product defectiveness observed only during the inspection process. The metrics were originally developed for purchased product and were adapted to manufactured product to provide a consistent set of metrics plant- wide. The new metrics provide a meaningful tool to measure the quantity of product defectiveness in terms of the customer`s requirements and expectations for quality. Many valid metrics are available and all will have deficiencies. These three metrics are among the least sensitive to problems and are easily understood. They will serve as good management tools for KCD in the foreseeable future until new flexible data systems and reporting procedures can be implemented that can provide more detailed and accurate metric computations.

  18. KNN/BNT Composite Lead-Free Films for High-Frequency Ultrasonic Transducer Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Sien Ting; Ji, Hong Fen; Li, Xiang; Ren, Wei; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Lead-free K0.5Na0.5NbO3/Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 (KNN/BNT) films have been fabricated by a composite sol-gel technique. Crystalline KNN fine powder was dispersed in the BNT precursor solution to form a composite slurry which was then spin-coated onto a platinum-buffered Si substrate. Repeated layering and vacuum infiltration were applied to produce 5-μm-thick dense composite film. By optimizing the sintering temperature, the films exhibited good dielectric and ferroelectric properties comparable to PZT films. A 193-MHz high-frequency ultrasonic transducer fabricated from this composite film showed a −6-dB bandwidth of approximately 34%. A tungsten wire phantom was imaged to demonstrate the capability of the transducer. PMID:21244994

  19. Condensed version of the k-NN rule for remote sensing images classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jozwik, Adam; Serpico, Sebastiano B.; Roli, Fabio

    1995-11-01

    The k-NN rules and their modifications offer usually very good performance. The main disadvantage of the k-NN rules is the necessity of keeping the reference set (i.e. training set) in the computer memory. In the present paper a method is proposed to reduce the size of the reference set without decreasing the classification quality. Ten different experiments with very large real data sets were performed to check the effectiveness of the new approach. Each experiment involved 5 classes, 15 features, 2440 objects in the training set and 6399 objects in the testing set. The obtained results show that the decision rule based on the condensed reference set can offer even better classification quality than the one derived from the original data set.

  20. A multiple-point spatially weighted k-NN method for object-based classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yunwei; Jing, Linhai; Li, Hui; Atkinson, Peter M.

    2016-10-01

    Object-based classification, commonly referred to as object-based image analysis (OBIA), is now commonly regarded as able to produce more appealing classification maps, often of greater accuracy, than pixel-based classification and its application is now widespread. Therefore, improvement of OBIA using spatial techniques is of great interest. In this paper, multiple-point statistics (MPS) is proposed for object-based classification enhancement in the form of a new multiple-point k-nearest neighbour (k-NN) classification method (MPk-NN). The proposed method first utilises a training image derived from a pre-classified map to characterise the spatial correlation between multiple points of land cover classes. The MPS borrows spatial structures from other parts of the training image, and then incorporates this spatial information, in the form of multiple-point probabilities, into the k-NN classifier. Two satellite sensor images with a fine spatial resolution were selected to evaluate the new method. One is an IKONOS image of the Beijing urban area and the other is a WorldView-2 image of the Wolong mountainous area, in China. The images were object-based classified using the MPk-NN method and several alternatives, including the k-NN, the geostatistically weighted k-NN, the Bayesian method, the decision tree classifier (DTC), and the support vector machine classifier (SVM). It was demonstrated that the new spatial weighting based on MPS can achieve greater classification accuracy relative to the alternatives and it is, thus, recommended as appropriate for object-based classification.

  1. Blog Classification: Adding Linguistic Knowledge to Improve the K-NN Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayoudh, Ines; Bechet, Nicolas; Roche, Mathieu

    Blogs are interactive and regularly updated websites which can be seen as diaries. These websites are composed by articles based on distinct topics. Thus, it is necessary to develop Information Retrieval approaches for this new web knowledge. The first important step of this process is the categorization of the articles. The paper above compares several methods using linguistic knowledge with k-NN algorithm for automatic categorization of weblogs articles.

  2. Improving Estimation Accuracy of Quasars’ Photometric Redshifts by Integration of KNN and SVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bo; Ding, Hongpeng; Zhang, Yanxia; Zhao, Yongheng

    2015-08-01

    The massive photometric data collected from multiple large-scale sky surveys offers significant opportunities for measuring distances of many celestial objects by photometric redshifts zphot in a wide coverage of the sky. However, catastrophic failure, an unsolved problem for a long time, exists in the current photometric redshift estimation approaches (such as k-nearest-neighbor). In this paper, we propose a novel two-stage approach by integration of k-nearest-neighbor (KNN) and support vector machine (SVM) methods together. In the first stage, we apply KNN algorithm on photometric data and estimate their corresponding zphot. By analysis, we observe two dense regions with catastrophic failure, one in the range of zphot [0.1,1.1], the other in the range of zphot [1.5,2.5]. In the second stage, we map the photometric multiband input pattern of points falling into the two ranges from original attribute space into high dimensional feature space by Gaussian kernel function in SVM. In the high dimensional feature space, many bad estimation points resulted from catastrophic failure by using simple Euclidean distance computation in KNN can be identified by classification hyperplane SVM and further be applied correction. Experimental results based on SDSS data for quasars showed that the two-stage fusion approach can significantly mitigate catastrophic failure and improve the estimation accuracy of photometric redshift.

  3. Make It Metric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camilli, Thomas

    Measurement is perhaps the most frequently used form of mathematics. This book presents activities for learning about the metric system designed for upper intermediate and junior high levels. Discussions include: why metrics, history of metrics, changing to a metric world, teaching tips, and formulas. Activities presented are: metrics all around…

  4. A comparison of the spatial linear model to Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) methods for forestry applications.

    PubMed

    Ver Hoef, Jay M; Temesgen, Hailemariam

    2013-01-01

    Forest surveys provide critical information for many diverse interests. Data are often collected from samples, and from these samples, maps of resources and estimates of aerial totals or averages are required. In this paper, two approaches for mapping and estimating totals; the spatial linear model (SLM) and k-NN (k-Nearest Neighbor) are compared, theoretically, through simulations, and as applied to real forestry data. While both methods have desirable properties, a review shows that the SLM has prediction optimality properties, and can be quite robust. Simulations of artificial populations and resamplings of real forestry data show that the SLM has smaller empirical root-mean-squared prediction errors (RMSPE) for a wide variety of data types, with generally less bias and better interval coverage than k-NN. These patterns held for both point predictions and for population totals or averages, with the SLM reducing RMSPE from 9% to 67% over some popular k-NN methods, with SLM also more robust to spatially imbalanced sampling. Estimating prediction standard errors remains a problem for k-NN predictors, despite recent attempts using model-based methods. Our conclusions are that the SLM should generally be used rather than k-NN if the goal is accurate mapping or estimation of population totals or averages.

  5. NASA metrication activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlannes, P. N.

    1978-01-01

    NASA's organization and policy for metrification, history from 1964, NASA participation in Federal agency activities, interaction with nongovernmental metrication organizations, and the proposed metrication assessment study are reviewed.

  6. Automatic Classification of Protein Structure Using the Maximum Contact Map Overlap Metric

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Andonov, Rumen; Djidjev, Hristo Nikolov; Klau, Gunnar W.; Le Boudic-Jamin, Mathilde; Wohlers, Inken

    2015-10-09

    In this paper, we propose a new distance measure for comparing two protein structures based on their contact map representations. We show that our novel measure, which we refer to as the maximum contact map overlap (max-CMO) metric, satisfies all properties of a metric on the space of protein representations. Having a metric in that space allows one to avoid pairwise comparisons on the entire database and, thus, to significantly accelerate exploring the protein space compared to no-metric spaces. We show on a gold standard superfamily classification benchmark set of 6759 proteins that our exact k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) scheme classifiesmore » up to 224 out of 236 queries correctly and on a larger, extended version of the benchmark with 60; 850 additional structures, up to 1361 out of 1369 queries. Finally, our k-NN classification thus provides a promising approach for the automatic classification of protein structures based on flexible contact map overlap alignments.« less

  7. Defining Sustainability Metric Targets in an Institutional Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauch, Jason N.; Newman, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to expand on the development of university and college sustainability metrics by implementing an adaptable metric target strategy. Design/methodology/approach: A combined qualitative and quantitative methodology is derived that both defines what a sustainable metric target might be and describes the path a…

  8. Evaluation of normalization methods for cDNA microarray data by k-NN classification

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wei; Xing, Eric P; Myers, Connie; Mian, Saira; Bissell, Mina J

    2004-12-17

    Non-biological factors give rise to unwanted variations in cDNA microarray data. There are many normalization methods designed to remove such variations. However, to date there have been few published systematic evaluations of these techniques for removing variations arising from dye biases in the context of downstream, higher-order analytical tasks such as classification. Ten location normalization methods that adjust spatial- and/or intensity-dependent dye biases, and three scale methods that adjust scale differences were applied, individually and in combination, to five distinct, published, cancer biology-related cDNA microarray data sets. Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) classification error was employed as the quantitative end-point for assessing the effectiveness of a normalization method. In particular, a known classifier, k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), was estimated from data normalized using a given technique, and the LOOCV error rate of the ensuing model was computed. We found that k-NN classifiers are sensitive to dye biases in the data. Using NONRM and GMEDIAN as baseline methods, our results show that single-bias-removal techniques which remove either spatial-dependent dye bias (referred later as spatial effect) or intensity-dependent dye bias (referred later as intensity effect) moderately reduce LOOCV classification errors; whereas double-bias-removal techniques which remove both spatial- and intensity effect reduce LOOCV classification errors even further. Of the 41 different strategies examined, three two-step processes, IGLOESS-SLFILTERW7, ISTSPLINE-SLLOESS and IGLOESS-SLLOESS, all of which removed intensity effect globally and spatial effect locally, appear to reduce LOOCV classification errors most consistently and effectively across all data sets. We also found that the investigated scale normalization methods do not reduce LOOCV classification error. Using LOOCV error of k-NNs as the evaluation criterion, three double

  9. An improved k-NN method based on multiple-point statistics for classification of high-spatial resolution imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y.; Jing, L.; Li, H.; Liu, Q.; Ding, H.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the potential of multiple-point statistics (MPS) for object-based classification is explored using a modified k-nearest neighbour (k-NN) classification method (MPk-NN). The method first utilises a training image derived from a classified map to characterise the spatial correlation between multiple points of land cover classes, overcoming the limitations of two-point geostatistical methods, and then the spatial information in the form of multiple-point probability is incorporated into the k-NN classifier. The remotely sensed image of an IKONOS subscene of the Beijing urban area was selected to evaluate the method. The image was object-based classified using the MPk-NN method and several alternatives, including the traditional k-NN, the geostatistically weighted k-NN, the Bayesian method, the decision tree classifier (DTC), and the support vector machine classifier (SVM). It was demonstrated that the MPk-NN approach can achieve greater classification accuracy relative to the alternatives, which are 82.05% and 89.12% based on pixel and object testing data, respectively. Thus, the proposed method is appropriate for object-based classification.

  10. NASA metric transition plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA science publications have used the metric system of measurement since 1970. Although NASA has maintained a metric use policy since 1979, practical constraints have restricted actual use of metric units. In 1988, an amendment to the Metric Conversion Act of 1975 required the Federal Government to adopt the metric system except where impractical. In response to Public Law 100-418 and Executive Order 12770, NASA revised its metric use policy and developed this Metric Transition Plan. NASA's goal is to use the metric system for program development and functional support activities to the greatest practical extent by the end of 1995. The introduction of the metric system into new flight programs will determine the pace of the metric transition. Transition of institutional capabilities and support functions will be phased to enable use of the metric system in flight program development and operations. Externally oriented elements of this plan will introduce and actively support use of the metric system in education, public information, and small business programs. The plan also establishes a procedure for evaluating and approving waivers and exceptions to the required use of the metric system for new programs. Coordination with other Federal agencies and departments (through the Interagency Council on Metric Policy) and industry (directly and through professional societies and interest groups) will identify sources of external support and minimize duplication of effort.

  11. The high density phase of the k-NN hard core lattice gas model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Trisha; Rajesh, R.

    2016-07-01

    The k-NN hard core lattice gas model on a square lattice, in which the first k next nearest neighbor sites of a particle are excluded from being occupied by another particle, is the lattice version of the hard disc model in two dimensional continuum. It has been conjectured that the lattice model, like its continuum counterpart, will show multiple entropy-driven transitions with increasing density if the high density phase has columnar or striped order. Here, we determine the nature of the phase at full packing for k up to 820 302 . We show that there are only eighteen values of k, all less than k  =  4134, that show columnar order, while the others show solid-like sublattice order.

  12. (100)-Textured KNN-based thick film with enhanced piezoelectric property for intravascular ultrasound imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Benpeng; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Ma, Teng; Yang, Xiaofei; Li, Yongxiang; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa

    2015-01-01

    Using tape-casting technology, 35 μm free-standing (100)-textured Li doped KNN (KNLN) thick film was prepared by employing NaNbO3 (NN) as template. It exhibited similar piezoelectric behavior to lead containing materials: a longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d33) of ∼150 pm/V and an electromechanical coupling coefficient (kt) of 0.44. Based on this thick film, a 52 MHz side-looking miniature transducer with a bandwidth of 61.5% at −6 dB was built for Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging. In comparison with 40 MHz PMN-PT single crystal transducer, the rabbit aorta image had better resolution and higher noise-to-signal ratio, indicating that lead-free (100)-textured KNLN thick film may be suitable for IVUS (>50 MHz) imaging. PMID:25991874

  13. (100)-Textured KNN-based thick film with enhanced piezoelectric property for intravascular ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Benpeng; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Ma, Teng; Yang, Xiaofei; Li, Yongxiang; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa

    2015-04-01

    Using tape-casting technology, 35 μm free-standing (100)-textured Li doped KNN (KNLN) thick film was prepared by employing NaNbO3 (NN) as template. It exhibited similar piezoelectric behavior to lead containing materials: a longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d33) of ˜150 pm/V and an electromechanical coupling coefficient (kt) of 0.44. Based on this thick film, a 52 MHz side-looking miniature transducer with a bandwidth of 61.5% at -6 dB was built for Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging. In comparison with 40 MHz PMN-PT single crystal transducer, the rabbit aorta image had better resolution and higher noise-to-signal ratio, indicating that lead-free (100)-textured KNLN thick film may be suitable for IVUS (>50 MHz) imaging.

  14. Estimation of the activation energy of sintering in KNN ceramics using master sintering theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajan; Patro, P. K.; Kulkarni, Ajit R.; Harendranath, C. S.

    2014-04-01

    The master sintering curve (MSC) of K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN) ceramics was constructed using constant heating rate dilatometry data based on the combined stage sintering model. The linear shrinkage was recorded using three heating rates 5 °C, 7 °C and 11 °C/ min. The obtained results suggest that in MSC, the sintered density is a unique function of the integral of a temperature function over time and it is independent of the sintering history. The MSC theory can be applied to predict shrinkage and final density. Also, it can be used to design a reproducible process to fabricate ceramics with required density.

  15. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  16. Metrics in Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindbeck, John R.

    The United States is rapidly becoming a metric nation. Industry, education, business, and government are all studying the issue of metrication to learn how they can prepare for it. The book is designed to help teachers and students in career education programs learn something about metrics. Presented in an easily understood manner, the textbook's…

  17. Aberration correction by maximizing generalized sharpness metrics.

    PubMed

    Fienup, J R; Miller, J J

    2003-04-01

    The technique of maximizing sharpness metrics has been used to estimate and compensate for aberrations with adaptive optics, to correct phase errors in synthetic-aperture radar, and to restore images. The largest class of sharpness metrics is the sum over a nonlinear point transformation of the image intensity. How the second derivative of the point nonlinearity varies with image intensity determines the effects of various metrics on the imagery. Some metrics emphasize making shadows darker, and other emphasize making bright points brighter. One can determine the image content needed to pick the best metric by computing the statistics of the image autocorrelation or of the Fourier magnitude, either of which is independent of the phase error. Computationally efficient, closed-form expressions for the gradient make possible efficient search algorithms to maximize sharpness.

  18. Metric Education and the Metrics Debate: A Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappelet, Jean Loup

    A short history of the use of the metric system is given. The role of education in metrication is discussed. The metric activities of three groups of metrics advocates, the business community, private groups, and government agencies, are described. Arguments advanced by metric opponents are also included. The author compares the metric debate with…

  19. Metrics That Matter.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Julia C; Frakt, Austin B; Pizer, Steven D

    2016-04-01

    Increasingly, performance metrics are seen as key components for accurately measuring and improving health care value. Disappointment in the ability of chosen metrics to meet these goals is exemplified in a recent Institute of Medicine report that argues for a consensus-building process to determine a simplified set of reliable metrics. Overall health care goals should be defined and then metrics to measure these goals should be considered. If appropriate data for the identified goals are not available, they should be developed. We use examples from our work in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) on validating waiting time and mental health metrics to highlight other key issues for metric selection and implementation. First, we focus on the need for specification and predictive validation of metrics. Second, we discuss strategies to maintain the fidelity of the data used in performance metrics over time. These strategies include using appropriate incentives and data sources, using composite metrics, and ongoing monitoring. Finally, we discuss the VA's leadership in developing performance metrics through a planned upgrade in its electronic medical record system to collect more comprehensive VHA and non-VHA data, increasing the ability to comprehensively measure outcomes. PMID:26951272

  20. Metrics That Matter.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Julia C; Frakt, Austin B; Pizer, Steven D

    2016-04-01

    Increasingly, performance metrics are seen as key components for accurately measuring and improving health care value. Disappointment in the ability of chosen metrics to meet these goals is exemplified in a recent Institute of Medicine report that argues for a consensus-building process to determine a simplified set of reliable metrics. Overall health care goals should be defined and then metrics to measure these goals should be considered. If appropriate data for the identified goals are not available, they should be developed. We use examples from our work in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) on validating waiting time and mental health metrics to highlight other key issues for metric selection and implementation. First, we focus on the need for specification and predictive validation of metrics. Second, we discuss strategies to maintain the fidelity of the data used in performance metrics over time. These strategies include using appropriate incentives and data sources, using composite metrics, and ongoing monitoring. Finally, we discuss the VA's leadership in developing performance metrics through a planned upgrade in its electronic medical record system to collect more comprehensive VHA and non-VHA data, increasing the ability to comprehensively measure outcomes.

  1. About Using the Metric System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.

    This booklet contains a brief introduction to the use of the metric system. Topics covered include: (1) what is the metric system; (2) how to think metric; (3) some advantages of the metric system; (4) basics of the metric system; (5) how to measure length, area, volume, mass and temperature the metric way; (6) some simple calculations using…

  2. Dielectric properties of lead-free BZT-KNN perovskite ceramics for energy storage.

    PubMed

    Gui, Dong-Yun; Liu, Han-Xing; Hao, Hua; Sun, Yue; Cao, Ming-He; Yu, Zhi-Yong

    2011-10-17

    Lead-free (1-x)Ba(Zr₀.₁₅Ti₀.₈₅)O₃-x(K₀.₅Na₀.₅)NbO₃ ; x=0-0.05) (BZT-KNN) perovskite ceramics, a materials with potential applications for energy storage, are investigated. The samples are prepared by a solid-state reaction method. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to study the microstructure of the samples. Their dielectric properties and impedance spectra are reported as functions of temperature and frequency. The addition of 1 mol % (K₀.₅Na₀.₅)NbO₃ to Ba(Zr₀.₁₅Ti₀.₈₅)O₃ improves the dielectric constant and enhances its diffuseness in a wide temperature range. The small amount of (K₀.₅Na₀.₅)NbO₃ is found to markedly affect the microstructure of the Ba(Zr₀.₁₅Ti₀.₈₅)O₃ ceramic (grain size and other characteristics) without changing the phase or crystal symmetry. In addition, we report that fine substructures in the grains, so-called sheet structures, are responsible for the dielectric properties (both diffuseness and dielectric constant) of (1-x)Ba(Zr₀.₁₅Ti₀.₈₅)O₃-x(K₀.₅Na₀.₅)NbO₃ (x=0-0.03; especially x=0.01) ceramics.

  3. Nanoscale Insight into Lead-Free BNT-BT-xKNN

    SciTech Connect

    Dittmer, Robert; Jo, Wook; Rödel, Jürgen; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2012-01-01

    Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) is used to afford insight into the nanoscale electromechanical behavior of lead-free piezoceramics. Materials based on Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} exhibit high strains mediated by a field-induced phase transition. Using the band excitation technique the initial domain morphology, the poling behavior, the switching behavior, and the time-dependent phase stability in the pseudo-ternary system (1-x)(0.94Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}-0.06BaTiO{sub 3})-xK{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3} (0 {le} x {ge} 18 mol%) are revealed. In the base material (x = 0 mol%), macroscopic domains and ferroelectric switching can be induced from the initial relaxor state with sufficiently high electric field, yielding large macroscopic remanent strain and polarization. The addition of KNN increases the threshold field required to induce long range order and decreases the stability thereof. For x = 3 mol% the field-induced domains relax completely, which is also reflected in zero macroscopic remanence. Eventually, no long range order can be induced for x {ge} 3 mol%. This PFM study provides a novel perspective on the interplay between macroscopic and nanoscopic material properties in bulk lead-free piezoceramics.

  4. Metrication in the States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of State Governments, Lexington, KY.

    Prompted by the widespread use of the metric system by most major industrial countries of the world, the United States Congress in 1969 initiated the passage of a bill authorizing the research and investigation of metrication to determine the worldwide impact of its use on this country so as to decide which route it should take. Data were obtained…

  5. Surveillance metrics sensitivity study.

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Michael S.; Bierbaum, Rene Lynn; Robertson, Alix A.

    2011-09-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  6. Surveillance Metrics Sensitivity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bierbaum, R; Hamada, M; Robertson, A

    2011-11-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  7. Metrics for Cosmetology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of cosmetology students, this instructional package on cosmetology is part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational terminology, measurement terms, and tools currently in use. Each of the…

  8. Arbitrary Metrics in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James

    2006-01-01

    Many psychological tests have arbitrary metrics but are appropriate for testing psychological theories. Metric arbitrariness is a concern, however, when researchers wish to draw inferences about the true, absolute standing of a group or individual on the latent psychological dimension being measured. The authors illustrate this in the context of 2…

  9. Complementary PLS and KNN algorithms for improved 3D-QSDAR consensus modeling of AhR binding

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Multiple validation techniques (Y-scrambling, complete training/test set randomization, determination of the dependence of R2test on the number of randomization cycles, etc.) aimed to improve the reliability of the modeling process were utilized and their effect on the statistical parameters of the models was evaluated. A consensus partial least squares (PLS)-similarity based k-nearest neighbors (KNN) model utilizing 3D-SDAR (three dimensional spectral data-activity relationship) fingerprint descriptors for prediction of the log(1/EC50) values of a dataset of 94 aryl hydrocarbon receptor binders was developed. This consensus model was constructed from a PLS model utilizing 10 ppm x 10 ppm x 0.5 Å bins and 7 latent variables (R2test of 0.617), and a KNN model using 2 ppm x 2 ppm x 0.5 Å bins and 6 neighbors (R2test of 0.622). Compared to individual models, improvement in predictive performance of approximately 10.5% (R2test of 0.685) was observed. Further experiments indicated that this improvement is likely an outcome of the complementarity of the information contained in 3D-SDAR matrices of different granularity. For similarly sized data sets of Aryl hydrocarbon (AhR) binders the consensus KNN and PLS models compare favorably to earlier reports. The ability of 3D-QSDAR (three dimensional quantitative spectral data-activity relationship) to provide structural interpretation was illustrated by a projection of the most frequently occurring bins on the standard coordinate space, thus allowing identification of structural features related to toxicity. PMID:24257141

  10. Sustainability Indicators and Metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is about preserving human existence. Indicators and metrics are absolutely necessary to provide at least a semi-quantitative assessment of progress towards or away from sustainability. Otherwise, it becomes impossible to objectively assess whether progress is bei...

  11. An Arithmetic Metric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominici, Diego

    2011-01-01

    This work introduces a distance between natural numbers not based on their position on the real line but on their arithmetic properties. We prove some metric properties of this distance and consider a possible extension.

  12. A metric for success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carver, Gary P.

    1994-05-01

    The federal agencies are working with industry to ease adoption of the metric system. The goal is to help U.S. industry compete more successfully in the global marketplace, increase exports, and create new jobs. The strategy is to use federal procurement, financial assistance, and other business-related activities to encourage voluntary conversion. Based upon the positive experiences of firms and industries that have converted, federal agencies have concluded that metric use will yield long-term benefits that are beyond any one-time costs or inconveniences. It may be time for additional steps to move the Nation out of its dual-system comfort zone and continue to progress toward metrication. This report includes 'Metric Highlights in U.S. History'.

  13. Aceto-white temporal pattern classification using k-NN to identify precancerous cervical lesion in colposcopic images.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Mesa, Héctor-Gabriel; Cruz-Ramírez, Nicandro; Hernández-Jiménez, Rodolfo

    2009-09-01

    After Pap smear test, colposcopy is the most used technique to diagnose cervical cancer due to its higher sensitivity and specificity. One of the most promising approaches to improve the colposcopic test is the use of the aceto-white temporal patterns intrinsic to the color changes in digital images. However, there is not a complete understanding of how to use them to segment colposcopic images. In this work, we used the classification algorithm k-NN over the entire length of the aceto-white temporal pattern to automatically discriminate between normal and abnormal cervical tissue, reaching a sensitivity of 71% and specificity of 59%.

  14. Dynamic partial reconfiguration implementation of the SVM/KNN multi-classifier on FPGA for bioinformatics application.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Hanaa M; Benkrid, Khaled; Seker, Huseyin

    2015-01-01

    Bioinformatics data tend to be highly dimensional in nature thus impose significant computational demands. To resolve limitations of conventional computing methods, several alternative high performance computing solutions have been proposed by scientists such as Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). The latter have shown to be efficient and high in performance. In recent years, FPGAs have been benefiting from dynamic partial reconfiguration (DPR) feature for adding flexibility to alter specific regions within the chip. This work proposes combing the use of FPGAs and DPR to build a dynamic multi-classifier architecture that can be used in processing bioinformatics data. In bioinformatics, applying different classification algorithms to the same dataset is desirable in order to obtain comparable, more reliable and consensus decision, but it can consume long time when performed on conventional PC. The DPR implementation of two common classifiers, namely support vector machines (SVMs) and K-nearest neighbor (KNN) are combined together to form a multi-classifier FPGA architecture which can utilize specific region of the FPGA to work as either SVM or KNN classifier. This multi-classifier DPR implementation achieved at least ~8x reduction in reconfiguration time over the single non-DPR classifier implementation, and occupied less space and hardware resources than having both classifiers. The proposed architecture can be extended to work as an ensemble classifier.

  15. Multi-color space threshold segmentation and self-learning k-NN algorithm for surge test EUT status identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian; Liu, Gui-xiong

    2016-09-01

    The identification of targets varies in different surge tests. A multi-color space threshold segmentation and self-learning k-nearest neighbor algorithm ( k-NN) for equipment under test status identification was proposed after using feature matching to identify equipment status had to train new patterns every time before testing. First, color space (L*a*b*, hue saturation lightness (HSL), hue saturation value (HSV)) to segment was selected according to the high luminance points ratio and white luminance points ratio of the image. Second, the unknown class sample S r was classified by the k-NN algorithm with training set T z according to the feature vector, which was formed from number of pixels, eccentricity ratio, compactness ratio, and Euler's numbers. Last, while the classification confidence coefficient equaled k, made S r as one sample of pre-training set T z '. The training set T z increased to T z+1 by T z ' if T z ' was saturated. In nine series of illuminant, indicator light, screen, and disturbances samples (a total of 21600 frames), the algorithm had a 98.65%identification accuracy, also selected five groups of samples to enlarge the training set from T 0 to T 5 by itself.

  16. Dynamic partial reconfiguration implementation of the SVM/KNN multi-classifier on FPGA for bioinformatics application.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Hanaa M; Benkrid, Khaled; Seker, Huseyin

    2015-08-01

    Bioinformatics data tend to be highly dimensional in nature thus impose significant computational demands. To resolve limitations of conventional computing methods, several alternative high performance computing solutions have been proposed by scientists such as Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). The latter have shown to be efficient and high in performance. In recent years, FPGAs have been benefiting from dynamic partial reconfiguration (DPR) feature for adding flexibility to alter specific regions within the chip. This work proposes combing the use of FPGAs and DPR to build a dynamic multi-classifier architecture that can be used in processing bioinformatics data. In bioinformatics, applying different classification algorithms to the same dataset is desirable in order to obtain comparable, more reliable and consensus decision, but it can consume long time when performed on conventional PC. The DPR implementation of two common classifiers, namely support vector machines (SVMs) and K-nearest neighbor (KNN) are combined together to form a multi-classifier FPGA architecture which can utilize specific region of the FPGA to work as either SVM or KNN classifier. This multi-classifier DPR implementation achieved at least ~8x reduction in reconfiguration time over the single non-DPR classifier implementation, and occupied less space and hardware resources than having both classifiers. The proposed architecture can be extended to work as an ensemble classifier. PMID:26738068

  17. Using Metrics in Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bame, E. Allen

    This metric supplement is intended as a guide to aid the industrial arts teacher in incorporating metrics in the classroom. A list of student objectives for measurement skills is followed by an overview of the history of measurement, an argument for change to the metric system in the United States, and a discussion of metric basics (common terms).…

  18. Successful Experiences in Teaching Metric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Jeffrey V., Ed.

    In this publication are presentations on specific experiences in teaching metrics, made at a National Bureau of Standards conference. Ideas of value to teachers and administrators are described in reports on: SI units of measure; principles and practices of teaching metric; metric and the school librarian; teaching metric through television and…

  19. Cyber threat metrics.

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.

  20. Evaluation metrics for biostatistical and epidemiological collaborations.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Doris McGartland; Del Junco, Deborah J; Bhore, Rafia; Lindsell, Christopher J; Oster, Robert A; Wittkowski, Knut M; Welty, Leah J; Li, Yi-Ju; Demets, Dave

    2011-10-15

    Increasing demands for evidence-based medicine and for the translation of biomedical research into individual and public health benefit have been accompanied by the proliferation of special units that offer expertise in biostatistics, epidemiology, and research design (BERD) within academic health centers. Objective metrics that can be used to evaluate, track, and improve the performance of these BERD units are critical to their successful establishment and sustainable future. To develop a set of reliable but versatile metrics that can be adapted easily to different environments and evolving needs, we consulted with members of BERD units from the consortium of academic health centers funded by the Clinical and Translational Science Award Program of the National Institutes of Health. Through a systematic process of consensus building and document drafting, we formulated metrics that covered the three identified domains of BERD practices: the development and maintenance of collaborations with clinical and translational science investigators, the application of BERD-related methods to clinical and translational research, and the discovery of novel BERD-related methodologies. In this article, we describe the set of metrics and advocate their use for evaluating BERD practices. The routine application, comparison of findings across diverse BERD units, and ongoing refinement of the metrics will identify trends, facilitate meaningful changes, and ultimately enhance the contribution of BERD activities to biomedical research.

  1. Metrics of Scholarly Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacioppo, John T.; Cacioppo, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Ruscio and colleagues (Ruscio, Seaman, D'Oriano, Stremlo, & Mahalchik, this issue) provide a thoughtful empirical analysis of 22 different measures of individual scholarly impact. The simplest metric is number of publications, which Simonton (1997) found to be a reasonable predictor of career trajectories. Although the assessment of the scholarly…

  2. Teaching Metric Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltsounis, Bob

    1977-01-01

    Eight recommendations on how to teach the metric system to both elementary and secondary students are presented in this article: let the students measure; use the word "about"; have students "guesstimate"; make comparisons; don't teach conversions; stress place value concepts; teach measurement as a three-step process; and "relax". (JC)

  3. Metrics and Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collegiate Athletic Association, Shawnee Mission, KS.

    Designed as a guide to aid the National Collegiate Athletic Association membership and others who must relate measurement of distances, weights, and volumes to athletic activity, this document presents diagrams of performance areas with measurements delineated in both imperial and metric terms. Illustrations are given for baseball, basketball,…

  4. Metric Style Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Council of Ministers of Education, Toronto (Ontario).

    This guide was designed to provide a measure of uniformity across Canada with respect to metric terminology and symbolism, and is designed to enable users to understand and apply Systeme International d'Unites (SI) to everyday life with ease and confidence. This document was written with the intent of being helpful to the greatest number of…

  5. Engineering performance metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delozier, R.; Snyder, N.

    1993-03-01

    Implementation of a Total Quality Management (TQM) approach to engineering work required the development of a system of metrics which would serve as a meaningful management tool for evaluating effectiveness in accomplishing project objectives and in achieving improved customer satisfaction. A team effort was chartered with the goal of developing a system of engineering performance metrics which would measure customer satisfaction, quality, cost effectiveness, and timeliness. The approach to developing this system involved normal systems design phases including, conceptual design, detailed design, implementation, and integration. The lessons teamed from this effort will be explored in this paper. These lessons learned may provide a starting point for other large engineering organizations seeking to institute a performance measurement system accomplishing project objectives and in achieving improved customer satisfaction. To facilitate this effort, a team was chartered to assist in the development of the metrics system. This team, consisting of customers and Engineering staff members, was utilized to ensure that the needs and views of the customers were considered in the development of performance measurements. The development of a system of metrics is no different than the development of any type of system. It includes the steps of defining performance measurement requirements, measurement process conceptual design, performance measurement and reporting system detailed design, and system implementation and integration.

  6. Software Quality Assurance Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McRae, Kalindra A.

    2004-01-01

    Software Quality Assurance (SQA) is a planned and systematic set of activities that ensures conformance of software life cycle processes and products conform to requirements, standards and procedures. In software development, software quality means meeting requirements and a degree of excellence and refinement of a project or product. Software Quality is a set of attributes of a software product by which its quality is described and evaluated. The set of attributes includes functionality, reliability, usability, efficiency, maintainability, and portability. Software Metrics help us understand the technical process that is used to develop a product. The process is measured to improve it and the product is measured to increase quality throughout the life cycle of software. Software Metrics are measurements of the quality of software. Software is measured to indicate the quality of the product, to assess the productivity of the people who produce the product, to assess the benefits derived from new software engineering methods and tools, to form a baseline for estimation, and to help justify requests for new tools or additional training. Any part of the software development can be measured. If Software Metrics are implemented in software development, it can save time, money, and allow the organization to identify the caused of defects which have the greatest effect on software development. The summer of 2004, I worked with Cynthia Calhoun and Frank Robinson in the Software Assurance/Risk Management department. My task was to research and collect, compile, and analyze SQA Metrics that have been used in other projects that are not currently being used by the SA team and report them to the Software Assurance team to see if any metrics can be implemented in their software assurance life cycle process.

  7. Accounting for Dependence Induced by Weighted KNN Imputation in Paired Samples, Motivated by a Colorectal Cancer Study

    PubMed Central

    Suyundikov, Anvar; Stevens, John R.; Corcoran, Christopher; Herrick, Jennifer; Wolff, Roger K.; Slattery, Martha L.

    2015-01-01

    Missing data can arise in bioinformatics applications for a variety of reasons, and imputation methods are frequently applied to such data. We are motivated by a colorectal cancer study where miRNA expression was measured in paired tumor-normal samples of hundreds of patients, but data for many normal samples were missing due to lack of tissue availability. We compare the precision and power performance of several imputation methods, and draw attention to the statistical dependence induced by K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) imputation. This imputation-induced dependence has not previously been addressed in the literature. We demonstrate how to account for this dependence, and show through simulation how the choice to ignore or account for this dependence affects both power and type I error rate control. PMID:25849489

  8. Parallel Anisotropic Tetrahedral Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Darmofal, David L.

    2008-01-01

    An adaptive method that robustly produces high aspect ratio tetrahedra to a general 3D metric specification without introducing hybrid semi-structured regions is presented. The elemental operators and higher-level logic is described with their respective domain-decomposed parallelizations. An anisotropic tetrahedral grid adaptation scheme is demonstrated for 1000-1 stretching for a simple cube geometry. This form of adaptation is applicable to more complex domain boundaries via a cut-cell approach as demonstrated by a parallel 3D supersonic simulation of a complex fighter aircraft. To avoid the assumptions and approximations required to form a metric to specify adaptation, an approach is introduced that directly evaluates interpolation error. The grid is adapted to reduce and equidistribute this interpolation error calculation without the use of an intervening anisotropic metric. Direct interpolation error adaptation is illustrated for 1D and 3D domains.

  9. Bibliography on metrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C. R.; Powel, M. B.

    1990-08-01

    This is a bibliography on metrication, the conversion to the International System of Units (SI), compiled from citations dated from January 1977 through July 1989. Citations include books, conference proceedings, newspapers, periodicals, government and civilian documents and reports. Subject indices for each type of citation and an author index for the entire work are included. A variety of subject categories such as legislation, construction, avionics, consumers, engineering, education, management, standards, agriculture, marketing and many others are available.

  10. Metrics for Energy Resilience

    SciTech Connect

    Paul E. Roege; Zachary A. Collier; James Mancillas; John A. McDonagh; Igor Linkov

    2014-09-01

    Energy lies at the backbone of any advanced society and constitutes an essential prerequisite for economic growth, social order and national defense. However there is an Achilles heel to today?s energy and technology relationship; namely a precarious intimacy between energy and the fiscal, social, and technical systems it supports. Recently, widespread and persistent disruptions in energy systems have highlighted the extent of this dependence and the vulnerability of increasingly optimized systems to changing conditions. Resilience is an emerging concept that offers to reconcile considerations of performance under dynamic environments and across multiple time frames by supplementing traditionally static system performance measures to consider behaviors under changing conditions and complex interactions among physical, information and human domains. This paper identifies metrics useful to implement guidance for energy-related planning, design, investment, and operation. Recommendations are presented using a matrix format to provide a structured and comprehensive framework of metrics relevant to a system?s energy resilience. The study synthesizes previously proposed metrics and emergent resilience literature to provide a multi-dimensional model intended for use by leaders and practitioners as they transform our energy posture from one of stasis and reaction to one that is proactive and which fosters sustainable growth.

  11. Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-18

    Fishes and marine mammals may suffer a range of potential effects from exposure to intense underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities such as pile driving, shipping, sonars, and underwater blasting. Several underwater sound recording (USR) devices have been built to acquire samples of the underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities. Software becomes indispensable for processing and analyzing the audio files recorded by these USRs. The new Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility Software (AAMI) is specifically designed for analysis of underwater sound recordings to provide data in metrics that facilitate evaluation of the potential impacts of the sound on aquatic animals. In addition to the basic functions, such as loading and editing audio files recorded by USRs and batch processing of sound files, the software utilizes recording system calibration data to compute important parameters in physical units. The software also facilitates comparison of the noise sound sample metrics with biological measures such as audiograms of the sensitivity of aquatic animals to the sound, integrating various components into a single analytical frame.

  12. Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface

    2012-12-18

    Fishes and marine mammals may suffer a range of potential effects from exposure to intense underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities such as pile driving, shipping, sonars, and underwater blasting. Several underwater sound recording (USR) devices have been built to acquire samples of the underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities. Software becomes indispensable for processing and analyzing the audio files recorded by these USRs. The new Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility Software (AAMI) is specificallymore » designed for analysis of underwater sound recordings to provide data in metrics that facilitate evaluation of the potential impacts of the sound on aquatic animals. In addition to the basic functions, such as loading and editing audio files recorded by USRs and batch processing of sound files, the software utilizes recording system calibration data to compute important parameters in physical units. The software also facilitates comparison of the noise sound sample metrics with biological measures such as audiograms of the sensitivity of aquatic animals to the sound, integrating various components into a single analytical frame.« less

  13. Performance Metrics for Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Wang, Na; Romero, Rachel L.; Deru, Michael P.

    2010-09-30

    Commercial building owners and operators have requested a standard set of key performance metrics to provide a systematic way to evaluate the performance of their buildings. The performance metrics included in this document provide standard metrics for the energy, water, operations and maintenance, indoor environmental quality, purchasing, waste and recycling and transportation impact of their building. The metrics can be used for comparative performance analysis between existing buildings and industry standards to clarify the impact of sustainably designed and operated buildings.

  14. Some References on Metric Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    This resource work lists metric information published by the U.S. Government and the American National Standards Institute. Also organizations marketing metric materials for education are given. A short table of conversions is included as is a listing of basic metric facts for everyday living. (LS)

  15. Metrication in a global environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aberg, J.

    1994-01-01

    A brief history about the development of the metric system of measurement is given. The need for the U.S. to implement the 'SI' metric system in the international markets, especially in the aerospace and general trade, is discussed. Development of metric implementation and experiences locally, nationally, and internationally are included.

  16. Metrication, American Style. Fastback 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izzi, John

    The purpose of this pamphlet is to provide a starting point of information on the metric system for any concerned or interested reader. The material is organized into five brief chapters: Man and Measurement; Learning the Metric System; Progress Report: Education; Recommended Sources; and Metrication, American Style. Appendixes include an…

  17. Optical metrics and projective equivalence

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Stephen; Dunajski, Maciej; Gibbons, Gary; Warnick, Claude

    2011-04-15

    Trajectories of light rays in a static spacetime are described by unparametrized geodesics of the Riemannian optical metric associated with the Lorentzian spacetime metric. We investigate the uniqueness of this structure and demonstrate that two different observers, moving relative to one another, who both see the Universe as static may determine the geometry of the light rays differently. More specifically, we classify Lorentzian metrics admitting more than one hyper-surface orthogonal timelike Killing vector and analyze the projective equivalence of the resulting optical metrics. These metrics are shown to be projectively equivalent up to diffeomorphism if the static Killing vectors generate a group SL(2,R), but not projectively equivalent in general. We also consider the cosmological C metrics in Einstein-Maxwell theory and demonstrate that optical metrics corresponding to different values of the cosmological constant are projectively equivalent.

  18. Sustainable chemistry metrics.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Flores, Francisco García

    2009-01-01

    Green chemistry has developed mathematical parameters to describe the sustainability of chemical reactions and processes, in order to quantify their environmental impact. These parameters are related to mass and energy magnitudes, and enable analyses and numerical diagnoses of chemical reactions. The environmental impact factor (E factor), atom economy, and reaction mass efficiency have been the most influential metrics, and they are interconnected by mathematical equations. The ecodesign concept must also be considered for complex industrial syntheses, as a part of the sustainability of manufacturing processes. The aim of this Concept article is to identify the main parameters for evaluating undesirable environmental consequences. PMID:19780101

  19. Comparing Resource Adequacy Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanez, Eduardo; Milligan, Michael

    2014-11-13

    As the penetration of variable generation (wind and solar) increases around the world, there is an accompanying growing interest and importance in accurately assessing the contribution that these resources can make toward planning reserve. This contribution, also known as the capacity credit or capacity value of the resource, is best quantified by using a probabilistic measure of overall resource adequacy. In recognizing the variable nature of these renewable resources, there has been interest in exploring the use of reliability metrics other than loss of load expectation. In this paper, we undertake some comparisons using data from the Western Electricity Coordinating Council in the western United States.

  20. Building a Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Shakira

    2007-01-01

    Launch Services Program is a Kennedy Space Center based program whose job it is to undertake all the necessary roles required to successfully launch Expendable Launch Vehicles. This project was designed to help Launch Services Program accurately report how successful they have been at launching missions on time or +/- 2 days from the scheduled launch date and also if they weren't successful, why. This information will be displayed in the form of a metric, which answers these questions in a clear and accurate way.

  1. SI (Metric) handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Artusa, Elisa A.

    1994-01-01

    This guide provides information for an understanding of SI units, symbols, and prefixes; style and usage in documentation in both the US and in the international business community; conversion techniques; limits, fits, and tolerance data; and drawing and technical writing guidelines. Also provided is information of SI usage for specialized applications like data processing and computer programming, science, engineering, and construction. Related information in the appendixes include legislative documents, historical and biographical data, a list of metric documentation, rules for determining significant digits and rounding, conversion factors, shorthand notation, and a unit index.

  2. Pure Lovelock Kasner metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camanho, Xián O.; Dadhich, Naresh; Molina, Alfred

    2015-09-01

    We study pure Lovelock vacuum and perfect fluid equations for Kasner-type metrics. These equations correspond to a single Nth order Lovelock term in the action in d=2N+1,2N+2 dimensions, and they capture the relevant gravitational dynamics when aproaching the big-bang singularity within the Lovelock family of theories. Pure Lovelock gravity also bears out the general feature that vacuum in the critical odd dimension, d=2N+1, is kinematic, i.e. we may define an analogue Lovelock-Riemann tensor that vanishes in vacuum for d=2N+1, yet the Riemann curvature is non-zero. We completely classify isotropic and vacuum Kasner metrics for this class of theories in several isotropy types. The different families can be characterized by means of certain higher order 4th rank tensors. We also analyze in detail the space of vacuum solutions for five- and six dimensional pure Gauss-Bonnet theory. It possesses an interesting and illuminating geometric structure and symmetries that carry over to the general case. We also comment on a closely related family of exponential solutions and on the possibility of solutions with complex Kasner exponents. We show that the latter imply the existence of closed timelike curves in the geometry.

  3. Exploring Metric Symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Zwart, P.H.; Grosse-Kunstleve, R.W.; Adams, P.D.

    2006-07-31

    Relatively minor perturbations to a crystal structure can in some cases result in apparently large changes in symmetry. Changes in space group or even lattice can be induced by heavy metal or halide soaking (Dauter et al, 2001), flash freezing (Skrzypczak-Jankun et al, 1996), and Se-Met substitution (Poulsen et al, 2001). Relations between various space groups and lattices can provide insight in the underlying structural causes for the symmetry or lattice transformations. Furthermore, these relations can be useful in understanding twinning and how to efficiently solve two different but related crystal structures. Although (pseudo) symmetric properties of a certain combination of unit cell parameters and a space group are immediately obvious (such as a pseudo four-fold axis if a is approximately equal to b in an orthorhombic space group), other relations (e.g. Lehtio, et al, 2005) that are less obvious might be crucial to the understanding and detection of certain idiosyncrasies of experimental data. We have developed a set of tools that allows straightforward exploration of possible metric symmetry relations given unit cell parameters and a space group. The new iotbx.explore{_}metric{_}symmetry command produces an overview of the various relations between several possible point groups for a given lattice. Methods for finding relations between a pair of unit cells are also available. The tools described in this newsletter are part of the CCTBX libraries, which are included in the latest (versions July 2006 and up) PHENIX and CCI Apps distributions.

  4. Handbook of aircraft noise metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, R. L.; Pearsons, K. S.

    1981-01-01

    Information is presented on 22 noise metrics that are associated with the measurement and prediction of the effects of aircraft noise. Some of the instantaneous frequency weighted sound level measures, such as A-weighted sound level, are used to provide multiple assessment of the aircraft noise level. Other multiple event metrics, such as day-night average sound level, were designed to relate sound levels measured over a period of time to subjective responses in an effort to determine compatible land uses and aid in community planning. The various measures are divided into: (1) instantaneous sound level metrics; (2) duration corrected single event metrics; (3) multiple event metrics; and (4) speech communication metrics. The scope of each measure is examined in terms of its: definition, purpose, background, relationship to other measures, calculation method, example, equipment, references, and standards.

  5. Handbook of aircraft noise metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, R. L.; Pearsons, K. S.

    1981-03-01

    Information is presented on 22 noise metrics that are associated with the measurement and prediction of the effects of aircraft noise. Some of the instantaneous frequency weighted sound level measures, such as A-weighted sound level, are used to provide multiple assessment of the aircraft noise level. Other multiple event metrics, such as day-night average sound level, were designed to relate sound levels measured over a period of time to subjective responses in an effort to determine compatible land uses and aid in community planning. The various measures are divided into: (1) instantaneous sound level metrics; (2) duration corrected single event metrics; (3) multiple event metrics; and (4) speech communication metrics. The scope of each measure is examined in terms of its: definition, purpose, background, relationship to other measures, calculation method, example, equipment, references, and standards.

  6. Do-It-Yourself Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klubeck, Martin; Langthorne, Michael; Padgett, Don

    2006-01-01

    Something new is on the horizon, and depending on one's role on campus, it might be storm clouds or a cleansing shower. Either way, no matter how hard one tries to avoid it, sooner rather than later he/she will have to deal with metrics. Metrics do not have to cause fear and resistance. Metrics can, and should, be a powerful tool for improvement.…

  7. The metric system: An introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumley, Susan M.

    On 13 Jul. 1992, Deputy Director Duane Sewell restated the Laboratory's policy on conversion to the metric system which was established in 1974. Sewell's memo announced the Laboratory's intention to continue metric conversion on a reasonable and cost effective basis. Copies of the 1974 and 1992 Administrative Memos are contained in the Appendix. There are three primary reasons behind the Laboratory's conversion to the metric system. First, Public Law 100-418, passed in 1988, states that by the end of fiscal year 1992 the Federal Government must begin using metric units in grants, procurements, and other business transactions. Second, on 25 Jul. 1991, President George Bush signed Executive Order 12770 which urged Federal agencies to expedite conversion to metric units. Third, the contract between the University of California and the Department of Energy calls for the Laboratory to convert to the metric system. Thus, conversion to the metric system is a legal requirement and a contractual mandate with the University of California. Public Law 100-418 and Executive Order 12770 are discussed in more detail later in this section, but first they examine the reasons behind the nation's conversion to the metric system. The second part of this report is on applying the metric system.

  8. The metric system: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Lumley, S.M.

    1995-05-01

    On July 13, 1992, Deputy Director Duane Sewell restated the Laboratory`s policy on conversion to the metric system which was established in 1974. Sewell`s memo announced the Laboratory`s intention to continue metric conversion on a reasonable and cost effective basis. Copies of the 1974 and 1992 Administrative Memos are contained in the Appendix. There are three primary reasons behind the Laboratory`s conversion to the metric system. First, Public Law 100-418, passed in 1988, states that by the end of fiscal year 1992 the Federal Government must begin using metric units in grants, procurements, and other business transactions. Second, on July 25, 1991, President George Bush signed Executive Order 12770 which urged Federal agencies to expedite conversion to metric units. Third, the contract between the University of California and the Department of Energy calls for the Laboratory to convert to the metric system. Thus, conversion to the metric system is a legal requirement and a contractual mandate with the University of California. Public Law 100-418 and Executive Order 12770 are discussed in more detail later in this section, but first they examine the reasons behind the nation`s conversion to the metric system. The second part of this report is on applying the metric system.

  9. Image Labeling for LIDAR Intensity Image Using K-Nn of Feature Obtained by Convolutional Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umemura, Masaki; Hotta, Kazuhiro; Nonaka, Hideki; Oda, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    We propose an image labeling method for LIDAR intensity image obtained by Mobile Mapping System (MMS) using K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) of feature obtained by Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). Image labeling assigns labels (e.g., road, cross-walk and road shoulder) to semantic regions in an image. Since CNN is effective for various image recognition tasks, we try to use the feature of CNN (Caffenet) pre-trained by ImageNet. We use 4,096-dimensional feature at fc7 layer in the Caffenet as the descriptor of a region because the feature at fc7 layer has effective information for object classification. We extract the feature by the Caffenet from regions cropped from images. Since the similarity between features reflects the similarity of contents of regions, we can select top K similar regions cropped from training samples with a test region. Since regions in training images have manually-annotated ground truth labels, we vote the labels attached to top K similar regions to the test region. The class label with the maximum vote is assigned to each pixel in the test image. In experiments, we use 36 LIDAR intensity images with ground truth labels. We divide 36 images into training (28 images) and test sets (8 images). We use class average accuracy and pixel-wise accuracy as evaluation measures. Our method was able to assign the same label as human beings in 97.8% of the pixels in test LIDAR intensity images.

  10. Cancer therapy prognosis using quantitative ultrasound spectroscopy and a kernel-based metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangeh, Mehrdad J.; Hashim, Amr; Giles, Anoja; Czarnota, Gregory J.

    2014-03-01

    In this study, a kernel-based metric based on the Hilbert-Schmidt independence criterion (HSIC) is proposed in a computer-aided-prognosis system to monitor cancer therapy effects. In order to induce tumour cell death, sarcoma xenograft tumour-bearing mice were injected with microbubbles followed by ultrasound and X-ray radiation therapy successively as a new anti-vascular treatment. High frequency (central frequency 30 MHz) ultrasound imaging was performed before and at different times after treatment and using spectroscopy, quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parametric maps were derived from the radiofrequency (RF) signals. The intensity histogram of midband fit parametric maps was computed to represent the pre- and post-treatment images. Subsequently, the HSIC-based metric between preand post-treatment samples were computed for each animal as a measure of distance between the two distributions. The HSIC-based metrics computes the distance between two distributions in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS), meaning that by using a kernel, the input vectors are non-linearly mapped into a different, possibly high dimensional feature space. Computing the population means in this new space, enhanced group separability (compared to, e.g., Euclidean distance in the original feature space) is ideally obtained. The pre- and post-treatment parametric maps for each animal were thus represented by a dissimilarity measure, in which a high value of this metric indicated more treatment effect on the animal. It was shown in this research that this metric has a high correlation with cell death and if it was used in supervised learning, a high accuracy classification was obtained using a k-nearest-neighbor (k-NN) classifier.

  11. Software metrics: Software quality metrics for distributed systems. [reliability engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, J. V.

    1981-01-01

    Software quality metrics was extended to cover distributed computer systems. Emphasis is placed on studying embedded computer systems and on viewing them within a system life cycle. The hierarchy of quality factors, criteria, and metrics was maintained. New software quality factors were added, including survivability, expandability, and evolvability.

  12. Metrication: A Guide for Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer and Corporate Affairs Dept., Ottawa (Ontario).

    The widespread use of the metric system by most of the major industrial powers of the world has prompted the Canadian government to investigate and consider use of the system. This booklet was developed to aid the consuming public in Canada in gaining some knowledge of metrication and how its application would affect their present economy.…

  13. Metric Activities, Grades K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Bob, Comp.

    This pamphlet presents worksheets for use in fifteen activities or groups of activities designed for teaching the metric system to children in grades K through 6. The approach taken in several of the activities is one of conversion between metric and English units. The majority of the activities concern length, area, volume, and capacity. A…

  14. Metrics for Numerical Control Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students preparing to be numerical control operators, this instructional package is one of eight for the manufacturing occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

  15. Metrics for Key Punch Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of key punch operator students, this instructional package is one of three for the business and office occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational terminology,…

  16. Metrics--Libraries and Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Vivian S.; Anderson, Gregg

    1975-01-01

    The 1975 librarian must determine whether to begin collecting materials on the International System of Measurements (metric system). Librarians are urged to learn and use the metric system, provide displays, and collect materials to better serve their patrons. Bibliography. (Author/LS)

  17. Conversion to the Metric System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crunkilton, John C.; Lee, Jasper S.

    1974-01-01

    The authors discuss background information about the metric system and explore the effect of metrication of agriculture in areas such as equipment calibration, chemical measurement, and marketing of agricultural products. Suggestions are given for possible leadership roles and approaches that agricultural education might take in converting to the…

  18. A metric for space.

    PubMed

    Moser, Edvard I; Moser, May-Britt

    2008-01-01

    Not all areas of neuronal systems investigation have matured to the stage where computation can be understood at the microcircuit level. In mammals, insights into cortical circuit functions have been obtained for the early stages of sensory systems, where signals can be followed through networks of increasing complexity from the receptors to the primary sensory cortices. These studies have suggested how neurons and neuronal networks extract features from the external world, but how the brain generates its own codes, in the higher-order nonsensory parts of the cortex, has remained deeply mysterious. In this terra incognita, a path was opened by the discovery of grid cells, place-modulated entorhinal neurons whose firing locations define a periodic triangular or hexagonal array covering the entirety of the animal's available environment. This array of firing is maintained in spite of ongoing changes in the animal's speed and direction, suggesting that grid cells are part of the brain's metric for representation of space. Because the crystal-like structure of the firing fields is created within the nervous system itself, grid cells may provide scientists with direct access to some of the most basic operational principles of cortical circuits. PMID:19021254

  19. Metrics. A Resource Guide for Home Economics. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Ruth

    This guide is to be used as a resource for teaching metrics at various educational levels in the home economics program. The lessons are intended for flexible use by the teacher, and the contents can be adapted for use with varying abilities, ages, and teaching-learning situations. Categorized into ten units, each unit includes concepts,…

  20. The Metric System--An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovey, Larry; Hovey, Kathi

    1983-01-01

    Sections look at: (1) Historical Perspective; (2) Naming the New System; (3) The Metric Units; (4) Measuring Larger and Smaller Amounts; (5) Advantage of Using the Metric System; (6) Metric Symbols; (7) Conversion from Metric to Customary System; (8) General Hints for Helping Children Understand; and (9) Current Status of Metric Conversion. (MP)

  1. GPS Metric Tracking Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    As Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) applications become more prevalent for land- and air-based vehicles, GPS applications for space vehicles will also increase. The Applied Technology Directorate of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has developed a lightweight, low-cost GPS Metric Tracking Unit (GMTU), the first of two steps in developing a lightweight, low-cost Space-Based Tracking and Command Subsystem (STACS) designed to meet Range Safety's link margin and latency requirements for vehicle command and telemetry data. The goals of STACS are to improve Range Safety operations and expand tracking capabilities for space vehicles. STACS will track the vehicle, receive commands, and send telemetry data through the space-based asset, which will dramatically reduce dependence on ground-based assets. The other step was the Low-Cost Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Transceiver (LCT2), developed by the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF), which allows the vehicle to communicate with a geosynchronous relay satellite. Although the GMTU and LCT2 were independently implemented and tested, the design collaboration of KSC and WFF engineers allowed GMTU and LCT2 to be integrated into one enclosure, leading to the final STACS. In operation, GMTU needs only a radio frequency (RF) input from a GPS antenna and outputs position and velocity data to the vehicle through a serial or pulse code modulation (PCM) interface. GMTU includes one commercial GPS receiver board and a custom board, the Command and Telemetry Processor (CTP) developed by KSC. The CTP design is based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with embedded processors to support GPS functions.

  2. Variable metric conjugate gradient methods

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, T.; Manteuffel, T.

    1994-07-01

    1.1 Motivation. In this paper we present a framework that includes many well known iterative methods for the solution of nonsymmetric linear systems of equations, Ax = b. Section 2 begins with a brief review of the conjugate gradient method. Next, we describe a broader class of methods, known as projection methods, to which the conjugate gradient (CG) method and most conjugate gradient-like methods belong. The concept of a method having either a fixed or a variable metric is introduced. Methods that have a metric are referred to as either fixed or variable metric methods. Some relationships between projection methods and fixed (variable) metric methods are discussed. The main emphasis of the remainder of this paper is on variable metric methods. In Section 3 we show how the biconjugate gradient (BCG), and the quasi-minimal residual (QMR) methods fit into this framework as variable metric methods. By modifying the underlying Lanczos biorthogonalization process used in the implementation of BCG and QMR, we obtain other variable metric methods. These, we refer to as generalizations of BCG and QMR.

  3. Double metric, generalized metric, and α' -deformed double field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohm, Olaf; Zwiebach, Barton

    2016-03-01

    We relate the unconstrained "double metric" of the "α' -geometry" formulation of double field theory to the constrained generalized metric encoding the spacetime metric and b -field. This is achieved by integrating out auxiliary field components of the double metric in an iterative procedure that induces an infinite number of higher-derivative corrections. As an application, we prove that, to first order in α' and to all orders in fields, the deformed gauge transformations are Green-Schwarz-deformed diffeomorphisms. We also prove that to first order in α' the spacetime action encodes precisely the Green-Schwarz deformation with Chern-Simons forms based on the torsionless gravitational connection. This seems to be in tension with suggestions in the literature that T-duality requires a torsionful connection, but we explain that these assertions are ambiguous since actions that use different connections are related by field redefinitions.

  4. Improved Adaptive-Reinforcement Learning Control for morphing unmanned air vehicles.

    PubMed

    Valasek, John; Doebbler, James; Tandale, Monish D; Meade, Andrew J

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents an improved Adaptive-Reinforcement Learning Control methodology for the problem of unmanned air vehicle morphing control. The reinforcement learning morphing control function that learns the optimal shape change policy is integrated with an adaptive dynamic inversion control trajectory tracking function. An episodic unsupervised learning simulation using the Q-learning method is developed to replace an earlier and less accurate Actor-Critic algorithm. Sequential Function Approximation, a Galerkin-based scattered data approximation scheme, replaces a K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) method and is used to generalize the learning from previously experienced quantized states and actions to the continuous state-action space, all of which may not have been experienced before. The improved method showed smaller errors and improved learning of the optimal shape compared to the KNN. PMID:18632393

  5. Improved Adaptive-Reinforcement Learning Control for morphing unmanned air vehicles.

    PubMed

    Valasek, John; Doebbler, James; Tandale, Monish D; Meade, Andrew J

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents an improved Adaptive-Reinforcement Learning Control methodology for the problem of unmanned air vehicle morphing control. The reinforcement learning morphing control function that learns the optimal shape change policy is integrated with an adaptive dynamic inversion control trajectory tracking function. An episodic unsupervised learning simulation using the Q-learning method is developed to replace an earlier and less accurate Actor-Critic algorithm. Sequential Function Approximation, a Galerkin-based scattered data approximation scheme, replaces a K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) method and is used to generalize the learning from previously experienced quantized states and actions to the continuous state-action space, all of which may not have been experienced before. The improved method showed smaller errors and improved learning of the optimal shape compared to the KNN.

  6. Smooth metrics for snapping strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Ruth; Hindmarsh, Mark

    1995-11-01

    We construct two possible metrics for Abelian Higgs vortices with ends on black holes. We show how the detail of the vortex fields smooths out the nodal singularities which exist in the idealized metrics. A corollary is that apparently topologically stable strings might be able to split by black hole pair production. We estimate the rate per unit length by reference to related Ernst and C-metric instantons, concluding that it is completely negligible for GUT-scale strings. The estimated rate for macroscopic superstrings is much higher, although still extremely small, unless there is an early phase of strong coupling.

  7. Daylight metrics and energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Mardaljevic, John; Heschong, Lisa; Lee, Eleanor

    2009-12-31

    The drive towards sustainable, low-energy buildings has increased the need for simple, yet accurate methods to evaluate whether a daylit building meets minimum standards for energy and human comfort performance. Current metrics do not account for the temporal and spatial aspects of daylight, nor of occupants comfort or interventions. This paper reviews the historical basis of current compliance methods for achieving daylit buildings, proposes a technical basis for development of better metrics, and provides two case study examples to stimulate dialogue on how metrics can be applied in a practical, real-world context.

  8. Truss Performance and Packaging Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin M.; Collins, Timothy J.; Doggett, William; Dorsey, John; Watson, Judith

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper a set of performance metrics are derived from first principals to assess the efficiency of competing space truss structural concepts in terms of mass, stiffness, and strength, for designs that are constrained by packaging. The use of these performance metrics provides unique insight into the primary drivers for lowering structural mass and packaging volume as well as enabling quantitative concept performance evaluation and comparison. To demonstrate the use of these performance metrics, data for existing structural concepts are plotted and discussed. Structural performance data is presented for various mechanical deployable concepts, for erectable structures, and for rigidizable structures.

  9. Issues in Benchmark Metric Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crolotte, Alain

    It is true that a metric can influence a benchmark but will esoteric metrics create more problems than they will solve? We answer this question affirmatively by examining the case of the TPC-D metric which used the much debated geometric mean for the single-stream test. We will show how a simple choice influenced the benchmark and its conduct and, to some extent, DBMS development. After examining other alternatives our conclusion is that the “real” measure for a decision-support benchmark is the arithmetic mean.

  10. Measure for Measure: A Guide to Metrication for Workshop Crafts and Technical Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schools Council, London (England).

    This booklet is designed to help teachers of the industrial arts in Great Britain during the changeover to metric units which is due to be substantially completed during the period 1970-1975. General suggestions are given for adapting equipment in metalwork and engineering and woodwork and technical drawing by adding some metric equipment…

  11. Converting Residential Drawing Courses to Metric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetsch, David L.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the process of metric conversion in residential drafting courses. Areas of concern are metric paper sizes; metric scale; plot, foundation, floor and electric plans; wall sections; elevations; and heat loss/ heat gain calculations. (SK)

  12. Using TRACI for Sustainability Metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    TRACI, the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts, has been developed for sustainability metrics, life cycle impact assessment, and product and process design impact assessment for developing increasingly sustainable products, processes,...

  13. Let's Make Metric Ice Cream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Marianna

    1975-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity which involved sixth grade students in a learning situation including making ice cream, safety procedures in a science laboratory, calibrating a thermometer, using metric units of volume and mass. (EB)

  14. Spacetime metric from linear electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obukhov, Yuri N.; Hehl, Friedrich W.

    1999-07-01

    The Maxwell equations are formulated on an arbitrary (1+3)-dimensional manifold. Then, imposing a (constrained) linear constitutive relation between electromagnetic field (E,B) and excitation (D,ℌ), we derive the metric of spacetime therefrom.

  15. Hyperbolic geometry for colour metrics.

    PubMed

    Farup, Ivar

    2014-05-19

    It is well established from both colour difference and colour order perpectives that the colour space cannot be Euclidean. In spite of this, most colour spaces still in use today are Euclidean, and the best Euclidean colour metrics are performing comparably to state-of-the-art non-Euclidean metrics. In this paper, it is shown that a transformation from Euclidean to hyperbolic geometry (i.e., constant negative curvature) for the chromatic plane can significantly improve the performance of Euclidean colour metrics to the point where they are statistically significantly better than state-of-the-art non-Euclidean metrics on standard data sets. The resulting hyperbolic geometry nicely models both qualitatively and quantitatively the hue super-importance phenomenon observed in colour order systems.

  16. Modestobacter caceresii sp. nov., novel actinobacteria with an insight into their adaptive mechanisms for survival in extreme hyper-arid Atacama Desert soils.

    PubMed

    Busarakam, Kanungnid; Bull, Alan T; Trujillo, Martha E; Riesco, Raul; Sangal, Vartul; van Wezel, Gilles P; Goodfellow, Michael

    2016-06-01

    A polyphasic study was designed to determine the taxonomic provenance of three Modestobacter strains isolated from an extreme hyper-arid Atacama Desert soil. The strains, isolates KNN 45-1a, KNN 45-2b(T) and KNN 45-3b, were shown to have chemotaxonomic and morphological properties in line with their classification in the genus Modestobacter. The isolates had identical 16S rRNA gene sequences and formed a branch in the Modestobacter gene tree that was most closely related to the type strain of Modestobacter marinus (99.6% similarity). All three isolates were distinguished readily from Modestobacter type strains by a broad range of phenotypic properties, by qualitative and quantitative differences in fatty acid profiles and by BOX fingerprint patterns. The whole genome sequence of isolate KNN 45-2b(T) showed 89.3% average nucleotide identity, 90.1% (SD: 10.97%) average amino acid identity and a digital DNA-DNA hybridization value of 42.4±3.1 against the genome sequence of M. marinus DSM 45201(T), values consistent with its assignment to a separate species. On the basis of all of these data, it is proposed that the isolates be assigned to the genus Modestobacter as Modestobacter caceresii sp. nov. with isolate KNN 45-2b(T) (CECT 9023(T)=DSM 101691(T)) as the type strain. Analysis of the whole-genome sequence of M. caceresii KNN 45-2b(T), with 4683 open reading frames and a genome size of ∽4.96Mb, revealed the presence of genes and gene-clusters that encode for properties relevant to its adaptability to harsh environmental conditions prevalent in extreme hyper arid Atacama Desert soils.

  17. Modestobacter caceresii sp. nov., novel actinobacteria with an insight into their adaptive mechanisms for survival in extreme hyper-arid Atacama Desert soils.

    PubMed

    Busarakam, Kanungnid; Bull, Alan T; Trujillo, Martha E; Riesco, Raul; Sangal, Vartul; van Wezel, Gilles P; Goodfellow, Michael

    2016-06-01

    A polyphasic study was designed to determine the taxonomic provenance of three Modestobacter strains isolated from an extreme hyper-arid Atacama Desert soil. The strains, isolates KNN 45-1a, KNN 45-2b(T) and KNN 45-3b, were shown to have chemotaxonomic and morphological properties in line with their classification in the genus Modestobacter. The isolates had identical 16S rRNA gene sequences and formed a branch in the Modestobacter gene tree that was most closely related to the type strain of Modestobacter marinus (99.6% similarity). All three isolates were distinguished readily from Modestobacter type strains by a broad range of phenotypic properties, by qualitative and quantitative differences in fatty acid profiles and by BOX fingerprint patterns. The whole genome sequence of isolate KNN 45-2b(T) showed 89.3% average nucleotide identity, 90.1% (SD: 10.97%) average amino acid identity and a digital DNA-DNA hybridization value of 42.4±3.1 against the genome sequence of M. marinus DSM 45201(T), values consistent with its assignment to a separate species. On the basis of all of these data, it is proposed that the isolates be assigned to the genus Modestobacter as Modestobacter caceresii sp. nov. with isolate KNN 45-2b(T) (CECT 9023(T)=DSM 101691(T)) as the type strain. Analysis of the whole-genome sequence of M. caceresii KNN 45-2b(T), with 4683 open reading frames and a genome size of ∽4.96Mb, revealed the presence of genes and gene-clusters that encode for properties relevant to its adaptability to harsh environmental conditions prevalent in extreme hyper arid Atacama Desert soils. PMID:27108251

  18. Coverage Metrics for Model Checking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penix, John; Visser, Willem; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    When using model checking to verify programs in practice, it is not usually possible to achieve complete coverage of the system. In this position paper we describe ongoing research within the Automated Software Engineering group at NASA Ames on the use of test coverage metrics to measure partial coverage and provide heuristic guidance for program model checking. We are specifically interested in applying and developing coverage metrics for concurrent programs that might be used to support certification of next generation avionics software.

  19. Metrics for Linear Kinematic Features in Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, G.; Coon, M.; Sulsky, D.

    2006-01-01

    The treatment of leads as cracks or discontinuities (see Coon et al. presentation) requires some shift in the procedure of evaluation and comparison of lead-resolving models and their validation against observations. Common metrics used to evaluate ice model skills are by and large an adaptation of a least square "metric" adopted from operational numerical weather prediction data assimilation systems and are most appropriate for continuous fields and Eilerian systems where the observations and predictions are commensurate. However, this class of metrics suffers from some flaws in areas of sharp gradients and discontinuities (e.g., leads) and when Lagrangian treatments are more natural. After a brief review of these metrics and their performance in areas of sharp gradients, we present two new metrics specifically designed to measure model accuracy in representing linear features (e.g., leads). The indices developed circumvent the requirement that both the observations and model variables be commensurate (i.e., measured with the same units) by considering the frequencies of the features of interest/importance. We illustrate the metrics by scoring several hypothetical "simulated" discontinuity fields against the lead interpreted from RGPS observations.

  20. Metrics with Galilean conformal isometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bagchi, Arjun; Kundu, Arnab

    2011-03-15

    The Galilean conformal algebra (GCA) arises in taking the nonrelativistic limit of the symmetries of a relativistic conformal field theory in any dimensions. It is known to be infinite dimensional in all spacetime dimensions. In particular, the 2d GCA emerges out of a scaling limit of linear combinations of two copies of the Virasoro algebra. In this paper, we find metrics in dimensions greater than 2 which realize the finite 2d GCA (the global part of the infinite algebra) as their isometry by systematically looking at a construction in terms of cosets of this finite algebra. We list all possible subalgebras consistent with some physical considerations motivated by earlier work in this direction and construct all possible higher-dimensional nondegenerate metrics. We briefly study the properties of the metrics obtained. In the standard one higher-dimensional ''holographic'' setting, we find that the only nondegenerate metric is Minkowskian. In four and five dimensions, we find families of nontrivial metrics with a rather exotic signature. A curious feature of these metrics is that all but one of them are Ricci-scalar flat.

  1. A wavelet contrast metric for the targeting task performance metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, Bradley L.; Flug, Eric A.

    2016-05-01

    Target acquisition performance depends strongly on the contrast of the target. The Targeting Task Performance (TTP) metric, within the Night Vision Integrated Performance Model (NV-IPM), uses a combination of resolution, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and contrast to predict and model system performance. While the dependence on resolution and SNR are well defined and understood, defining a robust and versatile contrast metric for a wide variety of acquisition tasks is more difficult. In this correspondence, a wavelet contrast metric (WCM) is developed under the assumption that the human eye processes spatial differences in a manner similar to a wavelet transform. The amount of perceivable information, or useful wavelet coefficients, is used to predict the total viewable contrast to the human eye. The WCM is intended to better match the measured performance of the human vision system for high-contrast, low-contrast, and low-observable targets. After further validation, the new contrast metric can be incorporated using a modified TTP metric into the latest Army target acquisition software suite, the NV-IPM.

  2. Metrication study for large space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creswick, F. A.; Weller, A. E.

    1973-01-01

    Various approaches which could be taken in developing a metric-system design for the Large Space Telescope, considering potential penalties on development cost and time, commonality with other satellite programs, and contribution to national goals for conversion to the metric system of units were investigated. Information on the problems, potential approaches, and impacts of metrication was collected from published reports on previous aerospace-industry metrication-impact studies and through numerous telephone interviews. The recommended approach to LST metrication formulated in this study cells for new components and subsystems to be designed in metric-module dimensions, but U.S. customary practice is allowed where U.S. metric standards and metric components are not available or would be unsuitable. Electrical/electronic-system design, which is presently largely metric, is considered exempt from futher metrication. An important guideline is that metric design and fabrication should in no way compromise the effectiveness of the LST equipment.

  3. Non-metric chaotic inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Enqvist, Kari; Koivisto, Tomi; Rigopoulos, Gerasimos E-mail: T.S.Koivisto@astro.uio.no

    2012-05-01

    We consider inflation within the context of what is arguably the simplest non-metric extension of Einstein gravity. There non-metricity is described by a single graviscalar field with a non-minimal kinetic coupling to the inflaton field Ψ, parameterized by a single parameter γ. There is a simple equivalent description in terms of a massless field and an inflaton with a modified potential. We discuss the implications of non-metricity for chaotic inflation and find that it significantly alters the inflaton dynamics for field values Ψ∼>M{sub P}/γ, dramatically changing the qualitative behaviour in this regime. In the equivalent single-field description this is described as a cuspy potential that forms of barrier beyond which the inflation becomes a ghost field. This imposes an upper bound on the possible number of e-folds. For the simplest chaotic inflation models, the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio receive small corrections dependent on the non-metricity parameter. We also argue that significant post-inflationary non-metricity may be generated.

  4. Symbolic planning with metric time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMillan, T. R.

    1992-03-01

    Most AI planning systems have considered time in a qualitative way only. For example, a plan may require one action to come 'before' another. Metric time enables AI planners to represent action durations and reason over quantitative temporal constraints such as windows of opportunity. This paper presents preliminary results observed while developing a theory of multi-agent adversarial planning for battle management research. Quantitative temporal reasoning seems essential in this domain. For example, Orange may plan to block Blue's attack by seizing a river ford which Blue must cross, but only if Orange can get there during the window of opportunity while Blue is approaching the ford but has not yet arrived. In nonadversarial multi-agent planning, metric time enables planners to detect windows of opportunity for agents to help or hinder each other. In single-agent planning, metric time enables planners to reason about deadlines, temporally constrained resource availability, and asynchronous processes which the agent can initiate and monitor. Perhaps surprisingly, metric time increases the computational complexity of planning less than might be expected, because it reduces the computational complexity of modal truth criteria. To make this observation precise, we review Chapman's analysis to modal truth criteria and describe a tractable heuristic criterion, 'worst case necessarily true.' Deciding if a proposition is worst case necessarily true, in a single-agent plan with n steps, requires O(n) computations only if qualitative temporal information is used. We show how it can be decided in O(log n) using metric time.

  5. How Soon Will We Measure in Metric?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Kenneth F.

    1977-01-01

    A brief history of measurement systems beginning with the Egyptians and Babylonians is given, ending with a discussion of the metric system and its adoption by the United States. Tables of metric prefixes, metric units, and common metric conversions are included. (MN)

  6. Predicting persistence in the sediment compartment with a new automatic software based on the k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) algorithm.

    PubMed

    Manganaro, Alberto; Pizzo, Fabiola; Lombardo, Anna; Pogliaghi, Alberto; Benfenati, Emilio

    2016-02-01

    The ability of a substance to resist degradation and persist in the environment needs to be readily identified in order to protect the environment and human health. Many regulations require the assessment of persistence for substances commonly manufactured and marketed. Besides laboratory-based testing methods, in silico tools may be used to obtain a computational prediction of persistence. We present a new program to develop k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) models. The k-NN algorithm is a similarity-based approach that predicts the property of a substance in relation to the experimental data for its most similar compounds. We employed this software to identify persistence in the sediment compartment. Data on half-life (HL) in sediment were obtained from different sources and, after careful data pruning the final dataset, containing 297 organic compounds, was divided into four experimental classes. We developed several models giving satisfactory performances, considering that both the training and test set accuracy ranged between 0.90 and 0.96. We finally selected one model which will be made available in the near future in the freely available software platform VEGA. This model offers a valuable in silico tool that may be really useful for fast and inexpensive screening.

  7. Synthesis Array Topology Metrics in Location Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugha Sundaram, GA

    2015-08-01

    Towards addressing some of the fundamental mysteries in physics at the micro- and macro-cosm level, that form the Key Science Projects (KSPs) for the Square Kilometer Array (SKA; such as Probing the Dark Ages and the Epoch of Reionization in the course of an Evolving Universe; Galaxy Evolution, Cosmology, and Dark Energy; and the Origin and evolution of Cosmic Magnetism) a suitable interfacing of these goals has to be achieved with its optimally designed array configuration, by means of a critical evaluation of the radio imagingcapabilities and metrics. Of the two forerunner sites, viz. Australia and South Africa, where pioneering advancements to state-of-the-art in synthesis array radio astronomy instrumentation are being attempted in the form of pathfinders to the SKA, for its eventual deployment, a diversity of site-dependent topology and design metrics exists. Here, the particular discussion involves those KSPs that relate to galactic morphology and evolution, and explores their suitability as a scientific research goal from the prespective of the location-driven instrument design specification. Relative merits and adaptability with regard to either site shall be presented from invoking well-founded and established array-design and optimization principles designed into a customized software tool.

  8. Eye Tracking Metrics for Workload Estimation in Flight Deck Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Kyle; Schnell, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Flight decks of the future are being enhanced through improved avionics that adapt to both aircraft and operator state. Eye tracking allows for non-invasive analysis of pilot eye movements, from which a set of metrics can be derived to effectively and reliably characterize workload. This research identifies eye tracking metrics that correlate to aircraft automation conditions, and identifies the correlation of pilot workload to the same automation conditions. Saccade length was used as an indirect index of pilot workload: Pilots in the fully automated condition were observed to have on average, larger saccadic movements in contrast to the guidance and manual flight conditions. The data set itself also provides a general model of human eye movement behavior and so ostensibly visual attention distribution in the cockpit for approach to land tasks with various levels of automation, by means of the same metrics used for workload algorithm development.

  9. Rainbow metric from quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assanioussi, Mehdi; Dapor, Andrea; Lewandowski, Jerzy

    2015-12-01

    In this Letter, we describe a general mechanism for emergence of a rainbow metric from a quantum cosmological model. This idea is based on QFT on a quantum spacetime. Under general assumptions, we discover that the quantum spacetime on which the field propagates can be replaced by a classical spacetime, whose metric depends explicitly on the energy of the field: as shown by an analysis of dispersion relations, quanta of different energy propagate on different metrics, similar to photons in a refractive material (hence the name "rainbow" used in the literature). In deriving this result, we do not consider any specific theory of quantum gravity: the qualitative behaviour of high-energy particles on quantum spacetime relies only on the assumption that the quantum spacetime is described by a wave-function Ψo in a Hilbert space HG.

  10. Colonoscopy Quality: Metrics and Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Calderwood, Audrey H.; Jacobson, Brian C.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Colonoscopy is an excellent area for quality improvement 1 because it is high volume, has significant associated risk and expense, and there is evidence that variability in its performance affects outcomes. The best endpoint for validation of quality metrics in colonoscopy is colorectal cancer incidence and mortality, but because of feasibility issues, a more readily accessible metric is the adenoma detection rate (ADR). Fourteen quality metrics were proposed by the joint American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy/American College of Gastroenterology Task Force on “Quality Indicators for Colonoscopy” in 2006, which are described in further detail below. Use of electronic health records and quality-oriented registries will facilitate quality measurement and reporting. Unlike traditional clinical research, implementation of quality improvement initiatives involves rapid assessments and changes on an iterative basis, and can be done at the individual, group, or facility level. PMID:23931862

  11. Metrics correlation and analysis service (MCAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Baranovski, Andrew; Dykstra, Dave; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Hesselroth, Ted; Mhashilkar, Parag; Levshina, Tanya; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    The complexity of Grid workflow activities and their associated software stacks inevitably involves multiple organizations, ownership, and deployment domains. In this setting, important and common tasks such as the correlation and display of metrics and debugging information (fundamental ingredients of troubleshooting) are challenged by the informational entropy inherent to independently maintained and operated software components. Because such an information 'pond' is disorganized, it a difficult environment for business intelligence analysis i.e. troubleshooting, incident investigation and trend spotting. The mission of the MCAS project is to deliver a software solution to help with adaptation, retrieval, correlation, and display of workflow-driven data and of type-agnostic events, generated by disjoint middleware.

  12. Thermodynamic Metrics and Optimal Paths

    SciTech Connect

    Sivak, David; Crooks, Gavin

    2012-05-08

    A fundamental problem in modern thermodynamics is how a molecular-scale machine performs useful work, while operating away from thermal equilibrium without excessive dissipation. To this end, we derive a friction tensor that induces a Riemannian manifold on the space of thermodynamic states. Within the linear-response regime, this metric structure controls the dissipation of finite-time transformations, and bestows optimal protocols with many useful properties. We discuss the connection to the existing thermodynamic length formalism, and demonstrate the utility of this metric by solving for optimal control parameter protocols in a simple nonequilibrium model.

  13. Health metrics for helminth infections.

    PubMed

    King, Charles H

    2015-01-01

    Health metrics based on health-adjusted life years have become standard units for comparing the disease burden and treatment benefits of individual health conditions. The Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY) and the Quality-Adjusted Life Year (QALY) are the most frequently used in cost-effect analyses in national and global health policy discussions for allocation of health care resources. While sometimes useful, both the DALY and QALY metrics have limitations in their ability to capture the full health impact of helminth infections and other 'neglected tropical diseases' (NTDs). Gaps in current knowledge of disease burden are identified, and interim approaches to disease burden assessment are discussed.

  14. The flexibility of optical metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittencourt, Eduardo; Pereira, Jonas P.; Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Smolyaninova, Vera N.

    2016-08-01

    We firstly revisit the importance, naturalness and limitations of the so-called optical metrics for describing the propagation of light rays in the limit of geometric optics. We then exemplify their flexibility and nontriviality in some nonlinear material media and in the context of nonlinear theories of the electromagnetism, both in the presence of curved backgrounds, where optical metrics could be flat and inaccessible regions for the propagation of photons could be conceived, respectively. Finally, we underline and discuss the relevance and potential applications of our analyses in a broad sense, ranging from material media to compact astrophysical systems.

  15. Invariant metrics for Hamiltonian systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rangarajan, G. ); Dragt, A.J. ); Neri, F. )

    1991-05-01

    In this paper, invariant metrics are constructed for Hamiltonian systems. These metrics give rise to norms on the space of homeogeneous polynomials of phase-space variables. For an accelerator lattice described by a Hamiltonian, these norms characterize the nonlinear content of the lattice. Therefore, the performance of the lattice can be improved by minimizing the norm as a function of parameters describing the beam-line elements in the lattice. A four-fold increase in the dynamic aperture of a model FODO cell is obtained using this procedure. 7 refs.

  16. Metrics for the comparative evaluation of chemical plume identification algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truslow, E.; Golowich, S.; Manolakis, D.; Ingle, V. K.

    2015-05-01

    The detection of chemical agents with hyperspectral longwave infrared sensors is a difficult problem with many civilian and military applications. System performance can be evaluated by comparing the detected gases in each pixel with the ground truth for each pixel using a confusion matrix. In the presence of chemical mixtures the confusion matrix becomes extremely large and difficult to interpret due to its size. We propose summarizing the confusion matrix using simple scalar metrics tailored for specific applications. Ideally, an identifier should determine exactly which chemicals are in each pixel, but in many applications it is acceptable for the output to contain additional chemicals or lack some constituent chemicals. A performance metric for identification problems should give partially correct results a lower weight than completely correct results. The metric we propose using, the Dice metric, weighs each output by its similarity with the truth for each pixel, thereby giving less importance to partially correct outputs, while still giving full scores only to exactly correct results. Using the Dice metric we evaluated the performance of two identification algorithms: an adaptive cosine estimator (ACE) detector bank approach, and Bayesian model averaging (BMA). Both algorithms were tested individually on real background data with synthetically embedded plumes; performance was evaluated using standard detection performance metrics, and then using the proposed identification metric. We show that ACE performed well as a detector but poorly as an identifier; however, BMA performed poorly as a detector but well as an identifier. Cascading the two algorithms should lead to a system with a substantially lower false alarm rate than using BMA alone, and much better identification performance than the ACE detector bank alone.

  17. Maximum margin metric learning based target detection for hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yanni; Zhang, Liangpei; Zhang, Lefei; Du, Bo

    2015-10-01

    Target detection is one of the most important problems in hyperspectral image (HSI) processing. However, the classical algorithms depend on the specific statistical hypothesis test, and the algorithms may only perform well under certain conditions, e.g., the adaptive matched subspace detector algorithm assumes that the background covariance matrices do not include the target signatures, which seldom happens in the real world. How to develop a proper metric for measuring the separability between targets and backgrounds becomes the key in target detection. This paper proposes an efficient maximum margin metric learning (MMML) based target detection algorithm, which aims at exploring the limited samples in metric learning and transfers the metric learning problem for hyperspectral target detection into a maximum margin problem which can be optimized via a cutting plane method, and maximally separates the target samples from the background ones. The extensive experimental results with different HSIs demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms both the state-of-the-art target detection algorithms and the other classical metric learning methods.

  18. Trajectory Planning by Preserving Flexibility: Metrics and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Idris, Husni R.; El-Wakil, Tarek; Wing, David J.

    2008-01-01

    In order to support traffic management functions, such as mitigating traffic complexity, ground and airborne systems may benefit from preserving or optimizing trajectory flexibility. To help support this hypothesis trajectory flexibility metrics have been defined in previous work to represent the trajectory robustness and adaptability to the risk of violating safety and traffic management constraints. In this paper these metrics are instantiated in the case of planning a trajectory with the heading degree of freedom. A metric estimation method is presented based on simplifying assumptions, namely discrete time and heading maneuvers. A case is analyzed to demonstrate the estimation method and its use in trajectory planning in a situation involving meeting a time constraint and avoiding loss of separation with nearby traffic. The case involves comparing path-stretch trajectories, in terms of adaptability and robustness along each, deduced from a map of estimated flexibility metrics over the solution space. The case demonstrated anecdotally that preserving flexibility may result in enhancing certain factors that contribute to traffic complexity, namely reducing proximity and confrontation.

  19. Guidelines for Teaching Metric Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    The primary purpose of these guidelines is to provide teachers and other decision-makers with a suggested framework within which sound planning for metric education can be done. Student behavioral objectives are listed by topic. Each objective is coded to indicate grade level, topic, and objective number. A chart is provided to show a kindergarten…

  20. Measuring in Metric. Student Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Curriculum Research and Development Group.

    This supplementary mathematics textbook is designed to teach pupils in the intermediate grades about the vocabulary and use of the metric system of measurement. The book limits exploration to the units of measurement for length, capacity, mass, temperature, area, and volume, with only the following prefixes considered: kilo, hecto, deka, deci,…

  1. Metric-Free Distributional Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haertel, Edward H.; And Others

    Two methods are presented for comparing distributions, such as achievement test score distributions, for distinctly different groups of persons in such a way that the comparison will not be influenced by the particular metric of the test being used. Both methods use percentile scores. One method, attributed to Flanagan, fits a straight line to the…

  2. New metrics for blog mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulicny, Brian; Baclawski, Ken; Magnus, Amy

    2007-04-01

    Blogs represent an important new arena for knowledge discovery in open source intelligence gathering. Bloggers are a vast network of human (and sometimes non-human) information sources monitoring important local and global events, and other blogs, for items of interest upon which they comment. Increasingly, issues erupt from the blog world and into the real world. In order to monitor blogging about important events, we must develop models and metrics that represent blogs correctly. The structure of blogs requires new techniques for evaluating such metrics as the relevance, specificity, credibility and timeliness of blog entries. Techniques that have been developed for standard information retrieval purposes (e.g. Google's PageRank) are suboptimal when applied to blogs because of their high degree of exophoricity, quotation, brevity, and rapidity of update. In this paper, we offer new metrics related for blog entry relevance, specificity, timeliness and credibility that we are implementing in a blog search and analysis tool for international blogs. This tools utilizes new blog-specific metrics and techniques for extracting the necessary information from blog entries automatically, using some shallow natural language processing techniques supported by background knowledge captured in domain-specific ontologies.

  3. Improving an Imperfect Metric System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, E. Lewis

    1974-01-01

    Suggests some improvements and additional units necessary for the International Metric System to expand its use to all measureable entities and defined quantities, especially in the measurement of time and angles. Included are tables of proposed unit systems in contrast with the presently available systems. (CC)

  4. Metrics: The Future is Now!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community School District 18, Brooklyn, NY.

    Presented are junior high school curriculum materials for teaching the metric system. Included are behavioral objectives, pre- and post-tests, introductory and historical material, and units on linear measurement, geometry, weight, capacity, and temperature. Each unit contains many student activities such as puzzles, fill in the blanks problems,…

  5. Metric Units in Primary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lighthill, M. J.; And Others

    Although this pamphlet is intended as background material for teachers in English primary schools changing to the System International d'Unites (SI units), the form of the metric system being adopted by the United Kingdom, the educational implications of the change and the lists of apparatus suitable for use with children up to 14 years of age are…

  6. Powerful Metrics: Strategic and Transformative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    To be a valuable partner at the strategic level, human resources can and should contribute to both institutional effectiveness measurement and workforce metrics. In this article, the author examines how to link HR initiatives with key institutional strategies, clarifies essential HR responsibilities for workforce results, explores return on human…

  7. Semantic Metrics for Analysis of Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etzkorn, Letha H.; Cox, Glenn W.; Farrington, Phil; Utley, Dawn R.; Ghalston, Sampson; Stein, Cara

    2005-01-01

    A recently conceived suite of object-oriented software metrics focus is on semantic aspects of software, in contradistinction to traditional software metrics, which focus on syntactic aspects of software. Semantic metrics represent a more human-oriented view of software than do syntactic metrics. The semantic metrics of a given computer program are calculated by use of the output of a knowledge-based analysis of the program, and are substantially more representative of software quality and more readily comprehensible from a human perspective than are the syntactic metrics.

  8. Metrics for Labeled Markov Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desharnais, Josee; Jagadeesan, Radha; Gupta, Vineet; Panangaden, Prakash

    1999-01-01

    Partial Labeled Markov Chains are simultaneously generalizations of process algebra and of traditional Markov chains. They provide a foundation for interacting discrete probabilistic systems, the interaction being synchronization on labels as in process algebra. Existing notions of process equivalence are too sensitive to the exact probabilities of various transitions. This paper addresses contextual reasoning principles for reasoning about more robust notions of "approximate" equivalence between concurrent interacting probabilistic systems. The present results indicate that:We develop a family of metrics between partial labeled Markov chains to formalize the notion of distance between processes. We show that processes at distance zero are bisimilar. We describe a decision procedure to compute the distance between two processes. We show that reasoning about approximate equivalence can be done compositionally by showing that process combinators do not increase distance. We introduce an asymptotic metric to capture asymptotic properties of Markov chains; and show that parallel composition does not increase asymptotic distance.

  9. Health Metrics for Helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Health metrics based on health-adjusted life years have become standard units for comparing the disease burden and treatment benefits of individual health conditions. The Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY) and the Quality-Adjusted Life Year (QALY) are the most frequently used in cost-effect analyses in national and global health policy discussions for allocation of health care resources. While sometimes useful, both the DALY and QALY metrics have limitations in their ability to capture the full health impact of helminth infections and other ‘neglected tropical diseases’ (NTDs). Gaps in current knowledge of disease burden are identified, and interim approaches to disease burden assessment are discussed. PMID:24333545

  10. Quality Metrics in Inpatient Neurology.

    PubMed

    Dhand, Amar

    2015-12-01

    Quality of care in the context of inpatient neurology is the standard of performance by neurologists and the hospital system as measured against ideal models of care. There are growing regulatory pressures to define health care value through concrete quantifiable metrics linked to reimbursement. Theoretical models of quality acknowledge its multimodal character with quantitative and qualitative dimensions. For example, the Donabedian model distils quality as a phenomenon of three interconnected domains, structure-process-outcome, with each domain mutually influential. The actual measurement of quality may be implicit, as in peer review in morbidity and mortality rounds, or explicit, in which criteria are prespecified and systemized before assessment. As a practical contribution, in this article a set of candidate quality indicators for inpatient neurology based on an updated review of treatment guidelines is proposed. These quality indicators may serve as an initial blueprint for explicit quality metrics long overdue for inpatient neurology.

  11. Object-oriented productivity metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John L.; Eller, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    Software productivity metrics are useful for sizing and costing proposed software and for measuring development productivity. Estimating and measuring source lines of code (SLOC) has proven to be a bad idea because it encourages writing more lines of code and using lower level languages. Function Point Analysis is an improved software metric system, but it is not compatible with newer rapid prototyping and object-oriented approaches to software development. A process is presented here for counting object-oriented effort points, based on a preliminary object-oriented analysis. It is proposed that this approach is compatible with object-oriented analysis, design, programming, and rapid prototyping. Statistics gathered on actual projects are presented to validate the approach.

  12. Summer temperature metrics for predicting brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) distribution in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrish, Donna; Butryn, Ryan S.; Rizzo, Donna M.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a methodology to predict brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) distribution using summer temperature metrics as predictor variables. Our analysis used long-term fish and hourly water temperature data from the Dog River, Vermont (USA). Commonly used metrics (e.g., mean, maximum, maximum 7-day maximum) tend to smooth the data so information on temperature variation is lost. Therefore, we developed a new set of metrics (called event metrics) to capture temperature variation by describing the frequency, area, duration, and magnitude of events that exceeded a user-defined temperature threshold. We used 16, 18, 20, and 22°C. We built linear discriminant models and tested and compared the event metrics against the commonly used metrics. Correct classification of the observations was 66% with event metrics and 87% with commonly used metrics. However, combined event and commonly used metrics correctly classified 92%. Of the four individual temperature thresholds, it was difficult to assess which threshold had the “best” accuracy. The 16°C threshold had slightly fewer misclassifications; however, the 20°C threshold had the fewest extreme misclassifications. Our method leveraged the volumes of existing long-term data and provided a simple, systematic, and adaptable framework for monitoring changes in fish distribution, specifically in the case of irregular, extreme temperature events.

  13. Marketing metrics for medical practices.

    PubMed

    Zahaluk, David; Baum, Neil

    2012-01-01

    There's a saying by John Wanamaker who pontificated, "Half the money I spend on advertising is wasted; the trouble is, I don't know which half". Today you have opportunities to determine which parts of your marketing efforts are effective and what is wasted. However, you have to measure your marketing results. This article will discuss marketing metrics and how to use them to get the best bang for your marketing buck.

  14. Metric reconstruction from Weyl scalars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiting, Bernard F.; Price, Larry R.

    2005-08-01

    The Kerr geometry has remained an elusive world in which to explore physics and delve into the more esoteric implications of general relativity. Following the discovery, by Kerr in 1963, of the metric for a rotating black hole, the most major advance has been an understanding of its Weyl curvature perturbations based on Teukolsky's discovery of separable wave equations some ten years later. In the current research climate, where experiments across the globe are preparing for the first detection of gravitational waves, a more complete understanding than concerns just the Weyl curvature is now called for. To understand precisely how comparatively small masses move in response to the gravitational waves they emit, a formalism has been developed based on a description of the whole spacetime metric perturbation in the neighbourhood of the emission region. Presently, such a description is not available for the Kerr geometry. While there does exist a prescription for obtaining metric perturbations once curvature perturbations are known, it has become apparent that there are gaps in that formalism which are still waiting to be filled. The most serious gaps include gauge inflexibility, the inability to include sources—which are essential when the emitting masses are considered—and the failure to describe the ell = 0 and 1 perturbation properties. Among these latter properties of the perturbed spacetime, arising from a point mass in orbit, are the perturbed mass and axial component of angular momentum, as well as the very elusive Carter constant for non-axial angular momentum. A status report is given on recent work which begins to repair these deficiencies in our current incomplete description of Kerr metric perturbations.

  15. Multi-Metric Sustainability Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cowlin, Shannon; Heimiller, Donna; Macknick, Jordan; Mann, Margaret; Pless, Jacquelyn; Munoz, David

    2014-12-01

    A readily accessible framework that allows for evaluating impacts and comparing tradeoffs among factors in energy policy, expansion planning, and investment decision making is lacking. Recognizing this, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) funded an exploration of multi-metric sustainability analysis (MMSA) to provide energy decision makers with a means to make more comprehensive comparisons of energy technologies. The resulting MMSA tool lets decision makers simultaneously compare technologies and potential deployment locations.

  16. Measuring Sustainability: Deriving Metrics From Objectives (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The definition of 'sustain', to keep in existence, provides some insight into the metrics that are required to measure sustainability and adequately respond to assure sustainability. Keeping something in existence implies temporal and spatial contexts and requires metrics that g...

  17. Joint learning of labels and distance metric.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Wang, Meng; Hong, Richang; Zha, Zhengjun; Hua, Xian-Sheng

    2010-06-01

    Machine learning algorithms frequently suffer from the insufficiency of training data and the usage of inappropriate distance metric. In this paper, we propose a joint learning of labels and distance metric (JLLDM) approach, which is able to simultaneously address the two difficulties. In comparison with the existing semi-supervised learning and distance metric learning methods that focus only on label prediction or distance metric construction, the JLLDM algorithm optimizes the labels of unlabeled samples and a Mahalanobis distance metric in a unified scheme. The advantage of JLLDM is multifold: 1) the problem of training data insufficiency can be tackled; 2) a good distance metric can be constructed with only very few training samples; and 3) no radius parameter is needed since the algorithm automatically determines the scale of the metric. Extensive experiments are conducted to compare the JLLDM approach with different semi-supervised learning and distance metric learning methods, and empirical results demonstrate its effectiveness.

  18. Measure Metric: A Multi-State Consortium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Kenneth W.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the "Measure Metric" series of twelve fifteen-minute programs and related classroom materials for grades 5 and 6 for teaching the metric system and the International System of Units (SI). (SL)

  19. Joint learning of labels and distance metric.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Wang, Meng; Hong, Richang; Zha, Zhengjun; Hua, Xian-Sheng

    2010-06-01

    Machine learning algorithms frequently suffer from the insufficiency of training data and the usage of inappropriate distance metric. In this paper, we propose a joint learning of labels and distance metric (JLLDM) approach, which is able to simultaneously address the two difficulties. In comparison with the existing semi-supervised learning and distance metric learning methods that focus only on label prediction or distance metric construction, the JLLDM algorithm optimizes the labels of unlabeled samples and a Mahalanobis distance metric in a unified scheme. The advantage of JLLDM is multifold: 1) the problem of training data insufficiency can be tackled; 2) a good distance metric can be constructed with only very few training samples; and 3) no radius parameter is needed since the algorithm automatically determines the scale of the metric. Extensive experiments are conducted to compare the JLLDM approach with different semi-supervised learning and distance metric learning methods, and empirical results demonstrate its effectiveness. PMID:19963702

  20. A possible molecular metric for biological evolvability.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Aditya; Jayaram, B

    2012-07-01

    Proteins manifest themselves as phenotypic traits, retained or lost in living systems via evolutionary pressures. Simply put, survival is essentially the ability of a living system to synthesize a functional protein that allows for a response to environmental perturbations (adaptation). Loss of functional proteins leads to extinction. Currently there are no universally applicable quantitative metrics at the molecular level for either measuring 'evolvability' of life or for assessing the conditions under which a living system would go extinct and why. In this work, we show emergence of the first such metric by utilizing the recently discovered stoichiometric margin of life for all known naturally occurring (and functional) proteins. The constraint of having well-defined stoichiometries of the 20 amino acids in naturally occurring protein sequences requires utilization of the full scope of degeneracy in the genetic code, i.e. usage of all codons coding for an amino acid, by only 11 of the 20 amino acids. This shows that the non-availability of individual codons for these 11 amino acids would disturb the fine stoichiometric balance resulting in non-functional proteins and hence extinction. Remarkably, these amino acids are found in close proximity of any given amino acid in the backbones of thousands of known crystal structures of folded proteins. On the other hand, stoichiometry of the remaining 9 amino acids, found to be farther/distal from any given amino acid in backbones of folded proteins, is maintained independent of the number of codons available to synthesize them, thereby providing some robustness and hence survivability.

  1. Energy and momentum in multiple metric theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talshir, Idan

    2013-07-01

    We derive the expressions for canonical energy, momentum, and angular momentum for multiple metric theories. We prove that although the metric fields are generally interacting, the total energy is the sum of conserved energies corresponding to each metric. A positive energy theorem is given as a result. In addition, we present an Hamiltonian formalism for a subgroup of multimetric theories.

  2. A Look at Metrics in Distributive Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canei, Robert A.

    The United States will convert to the metric system of measurement in the near future, and the distributive education programs in high school and at the adult level will have to train the needed personnel for business. The manual gives the basic conversion methods and instruction in teaching metrics. Metric programs conducted for business…

  3. Metric Education. Interpretive Report No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.

    This report reviews the findings of two projects funded by the National Institute of Education (NIE) ano conducted by the American Institutes for Research (AIR). The project reports, "Going Metric" and "Metric Inservice Teacher Training," document the impact of metric conversion on the educational systems of Great Britain, New Zeland, Australia,…

  4. Hyperkahler metrics on focus-focus fibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jie

    In this thesis, we focus on the study of hyperkahler metric in four dimensional cases, and practice GMN's construction of hyperkahler metric on focus-focus fibrations. We explicitly compute the action-angle coordinates on the local model of focus-focus fibration, and show its semi-global invariant should be harmonic to admit a compatible holomorphic 2-form. Then we study the canonical semi-flat metric on it. After the instanton correction inspired by physics, we get a family of the generalized Ooguri-Vafa metric on focus-focus fibrations, which becomes more local examples of explicit hyperkahler metric in four dimensional cases. In addition, we also make some exploration of the Ooguri-Vafa metric in the thesis. We study the potential function of the Ooguri-Vafa metric, and prove that its nodal set is a cylinder of bounded radius 1 < R < 1. As a result, we get that only on a finite neighborhood of the singular fibre the Ooguri-Vafa metric is a hyperkahler metric. Finally, we give some estimates for the diameter of the fibration under the Oogui-Vafa metric, which confirms that the Oogui-Vafa metric is not complete. The new family of metric constructed in the thesis, we think, will provide more examples to further study of Lagrangian fibrations and mirror symmetry in future.

  5. Metrics, Lumber, and the Shop Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craemer, Peter J.

    1978-01-01

    As producers of lumber are preparing to convert their output to the metric system, wood shop and building construction teachers must become familiar with the metric measurement language and methods. Manufacturers prefer the "soft conversion" process of changing English to metric units rather than hard conversion, or redimensioning of lumber. Some…

  6. Metrics for Evaluation of Student Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelanek, Radek

    2015-01-01

    Researchers use many different metrics for evaluation of performance of student models. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of commonly used metrics, to discuss properties, advantages, and disadvantages of different metrics, to summarize current practice in educational data mining, and to provide guidance for evaluation of student…

  7. Achieving effective landscape conservation: evolving demands adaptive metrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid changes in demographics and on- and off-farm land use limit the impacts of U.S. conservation programs and present particular challenges to future conservation efforts. The fragmentation of landscape through urban, suburban, and peri-urban development, coincident with demographic shifts, has s...

  8. Rapid cytometric antibiotic susceptibility testing utilizing adaptive multidimensional statistical metrics.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tzu-Hsueh; Ning, Xinghai; Wang, Xiaojian; Murthy, Niren; Tzeng, Yih-Ling; Dickson, Robert M

    2015-02-01

    Flow cytometry holds promise to accelerate antibiotic susceptibility determinations; however, without robust multidimensional statistical analysis, general discrimination criteria have remained elusive. In this study, a new statistical method, probability binning signature quadratic form (PB-sQF), was developed and applied to analyze flow cytometric data of bacterial responses to antibiotic exposure. Both sensitive lab strains (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and a multidrug resistant, clinically isolated strain (E. coli) were incubated with the bacteria-targeted dye, maltohexaose-conjugated IR786, and each of many bactericidal or bacteriostatic antibiotics to identify changes induced around corresponding minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC). The antibiotic-induced damages were monitored by flow cytometry after 1-h incubation through forward scatter, side scatter, and fluorescence channels. The 3-dimensional differences between the flow cytometric data of the no-antibiotic treated bacteria and the antibiotic-treated bacteria were characterized by PB-sQF into a 1-dimensional linear distance. A 99% confidence level was established by statistical bootstrapping for each antibiotic-bacteria pair. For the susceptible E. coli strain, statistically significant increments from this 99% confidence level were observed from 1/16x MIC to 1x MIC for all the antibiotics. The same increments were recorded for P. aeruginosa, which has been reported to cause difficulty in flow-based viability tests. For the multidrug resistant E. coli, significant distances from control samples were observed only when an effective antibiotic treatment was utilized. Our results suggest that a rapid and robust antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) can be constructed by statistically characterizing the differences between sample and control flow cytometric populations, even in a label-free scheme with scattered light alone. These distances vs paired controls coupled with rigorous statistical confidence limits offer a new path toward investigating initial biological responses, screening for drugs, and shortening time to result in antimicrobial sensitivity testing.

  9. Texture metric that predicts target detection performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culpepper, Joanne B.

    2015-12-01

    Two texture metrics based on gray level co-occurrence error (GLCE) are used to predict probability of detection and mean search time. The two texture metrics are local clutter metrics and are based on the statistics of GLCE probability distributions. The degree of correlation between various clutter metrics and the target detection performance of the nine military vehicles in complex natural scenes found in the Search_2 dataset are presented. Comparison is also made between four other common clutter metrics found in the literature: root sum of squares, Doyle, statistical variance, and target structure similarity. The experimental results show that the GLCE energy metric is a better predictor of target detection performance when searching for targets in natural scenes than the other clutter metrics studied.

  10. Comparing Resource Adequacy Metrics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M.

    2014-09-01

    As the penetration of variable generation (wind and solar) increases around the world, there is an accompanying growing interest and importance in accurately assessing the contribution that these resources can make toward planning reserve. This contribution, also known as the capacity credit or capacity value of the resource, is best quantified by using a probabilistic measure of overall resource adequacy. In recognizing the variable nature of these renewable resources, there has been interest in exploring the use of reliability metrics other than loss of load expectation. In this paper, we undertake some comparisons using data from the Western Electricity Coordinating Council in the western United States.

  11. A class of integrable metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Batista, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    In four dimensions, the most general metric admitting two commuting Killing vectors and a rank-two Killing tensor can be parametrized by ten arbitrary functions of a single variable. We show that picking a special vierbein, reducing the system to eight functions, implies the existence of two geodesic and share-free, null congruences, generated by two principal null directions of the Weyl tensor. Thus, if the spacetime is an Einstein manifold, the Goldberg-Sachs theorem implies it is Petrov type D, and by explicit construction, is in the Carter class. Hence, our analysis provides a straightforward connection between the most general integrable structure and the Carter family of spacetimes.

  12. Determining GPS average performance metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, G. V.

    1995-01-01

    Analytic and semi-analytic methods are used to show that users of the GPS constellation can expect performance variations based on their location. Specifically, performance is shown to be a function of both altitude and latitude. These results stem from the fact that the GPS constellation is itself non-uniform. For example, GPS satellites are over four times as likely to be directly over Tierra del Fuego than over Hawaii or Singapore. Inevitable performance variations due to user location occur for ground, sea, air and space GPS users. These performance variations can be studied in an average relative sense. A semi-analytic tool which symmetrically allocates GPS satellite latitude belt dwell times among longitude points is used to compute average performance metrics. These metrics include average number of GPS vehicles visible, relative average accuracies in the radial, intrack and crosstrack (or radial, north/south, east/west) directions, and relative average PDOP or GDOP. The tool can be quickly changed to incorporate various user antenna obscuration models and various GPS constellation designs. Among other applications, tool results can be used in studies to: predict locations and geometries of best/worst case performance, design GPS constellations, determine optimal user antenna location and understand performance trends among various users.

  13. Wildlife toxicity extrapolations: Dose metric

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbrother, A.; Berg, M. van den

    1995-12-31

    Ecotoxicological assessments must rely on the extrapolation of toxicity data from a few indicator species to many species of concern. Data are available from laboratory studies (e.g., quail, mallards, rainbow trout, fathead minnow) and some planned or serendipitous field studies of a broader, but by no means comprehensive, suite of species. Yet all ecological risk assessments begin with an estimate of risk based on information gleaned from the literature. One is then confronted with the necessity of extrapolating toxicity information from a limited number of indicator species to all organisms of interest. This is a particularly acute problem when trying to estimate hazards to wildlife in terrestrial systems as there is an extreme paucity of data for most chemicals in all but a handful of species. This section continues the debate by six panelists of the ``correct`` approach for determining wildlife toxicity thresholds by examining which dose metric to use for threshold determination and interspecific extrapolation, Since wild animals are exposed to environmental contaminants primarily through ingestion, should threshold values be expressed as amount of chemical in the diet (e.g., ppm) or as a body weight-adjusted dose (mg/kg/day)? Which of these two approaches is most relevant for ecological risk assessment decision making? Which is best for interspecific extrapolations? Converting from one metric to the other can compound uncertainty if the actual consumption rates of a species is unknown. How should this be dealt with? Is it of sufficient magnitude to be of concern?

  14. Metrics for building performance assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Koles, G.; Hitchcock, R.; Sherman, M.

    1996-07-01

    This report documents part of the work performed in phase I of a Laboratory Directors Research and Development (LDRD) funded project entitled Building Performance Assurances (BPA). The focus of the BPA effort is to transform the way buildings are built and operated in order to improve building performance by facilitating or providing tools, infrastructure, and information. The efforts described herein focus on the development of metrics with which to evaluate building performance and for which information and optimization tools need to be developed. The classes of building performance metrics reviewed are (1) Building Services (2) First Costs, (3) Operating Costs, (4) Maintenance Costs, and (5) Energy and Environmental Factors. The first category defines the direct benefits associated with buildings; the next three are different kinds of costs associated with providing those benefits; the last category includes concerns that are broader than direct costs and benefits to the building owner and building occupants. The level of detail of the various issues reflect the current state of knowledge in those scientific areas and the ability of the to determine that state of knowledge, rather than directly reflecting the importance of these issues; it intentionally does not specifically focus on energy issues. The report describes work in progress and is intended as a resource and can be used to indicate the areas needing more investigation. Other reports on BPA activities are also available.

  15. Multifractal Resilience Metrics for Complex Systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertzer, D. J.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Lovejoy, S.

    2011-12-01

    The term resilience has become extremely fashionable, especially for complex systems, whereas corresponding operational definitions have remained rather elusive (Carpenter et al. 2001). More precisely, the resilience assessment of man-made systems (from nuclear plants to cities) to geophysical extremes require mathematically defined resilience metrics based on some conceptual definition, e.g. the often cited definition of "ecological resilience" (Hollings 1973): "the capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and reorganize while undergoing change so as to still retain essentially the same function, structure, identity, and feedbacks". Surprisingly, whereas it was acknowledged by Folke et al. (2010) that "multiscale resilience is fundamental for understanding the interplay between persistence and change, adaptability and transformability", the relation between resilience and scaling has not been so much questioned, see however Peterson (2000). We argue that is rather indispensable to go well beyond the attractor approach (Pimm and Lawton 1977; Collings and Wollkind 1990;), as well as extensions (Martin et al., 2011) into the framework of the viability theory (Aubin 1991; Aubin et al. 2011). Indeed, both are rather limited to systems that are complex only in time. Scale symmetries are indeed indispensable to reduce the space-time complexity by defining scale independent observables, which are the singularities of the original, scale dependent fields. These singularities enable to define across-scale resilience, instead of resilience at a given scale.

  16. A Sensor-Independent Gust Hazard Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric C.

    2001-01-01

    A procedure for calculating an intuitive hazard metric for gust effects on airplanes is described. The hazard metric is for use by pilots and is intended to replace subjective pilot reports (PIREPs) of the turbulence level. The hazard metric is composed of three numbers: the first describes the average airplane response to the turbulence, the second describes the positive peak airplane response to the gusts, and the third describes the negative peak airplane response to the gusts. The hazard metric is derived from any time history of vertical gust measurements and is thus independent of the sensor making the gust measurements. The metric is demonstrated for one simulated airplane encountering different types of gusts including those derived from flight data recorder measurements of actual accidents. The simulated airplane responses to the gusts compare favorably with the hazard metric.

  17. From smooth curves to universal metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürses, Metin; Şişman, Tahsin ćaǧrı; Tekin, Bayram

    2016-08-01

    A special class of metrics, called universal metrics, solves all gravity theories defined by covariant field equations purely based on the metric tensor. Since we currently lack the knowledge of what the full quantum-corrected field equations of gravity are at a given microscopic length scale, these metrics are particularly important in understanding quantum fields in curved backgrounds in a consistent way. However, finding explicit universal metrics has been a difficult problem as there does not seem to be a procedure for it. In this work, we overcome this difficulty and give a construction of universal metrics of d -dimensional spacetime from curves constrained to live in a (d -1 )-dimensional Minkowski spacetime or a Euclidean space.

  18. A Metric Conceptual Space Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Benjamin; Raubal, Martin

    The modeling of concepts from a cognitive perspective is important for designing spatial information systems that interoperate with human users. Concept representations that are built using geometric and topological conceptual space structures are well suited for semantic similarity and concept combination operations. In addition, concepts that are more closely grounded in the physical world, such as many spatial concepts, have a natural fit with the geometric structure of conceptual spaces. Despite these apparent advantages, conceptual spaces are underutilized because existing formalizations of conceptual space theory have focused on individual aspects of the theory rather than the creation of a comprehensive algebra. In this paper we present a metric conceptual space algebra that is designed to facilitate the creation of conceptual space knowledge bases and inferencing systems. Conceptual regions are represented as convex polytopes and context is built in as a fundamental element. We demonstrate the applicability of the algebra to spatial information systems with a proof-of-concept application.

  19. Metrics for antibody therapeutics development.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Janice M

    2010-01-01

    A wide variety of full-size monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and therapeutics derived from alternative antibody formats can be produced through genetic and biological engineering techniques. These molecules are now filling the preclinical and clinical pipelines of every major pharmaceutical company and many biotechnology firms. Metrics for the development of antibody therapeutics, including averages for the number of candidates entering clinical study and development phase lengths for mAbs approved in the United States, were derived from analysis of a dataset of over 600 therapeutic mAbs that entered clinical study sponsored, at least in part, by commercial firms. The results presented provide an overview of the field and context for the evaluation of on-going and prospective mAb development programs. The expansion of therapeutic antibody use through supplemental marketing approvals and the increase in the study of therapeutics derived from alternative antibody formats are discussed.

  20. Common Metrics for Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinfeld, Aaron; Lewis, Michael; Fong, Terrence; Scholtz, Jean; Schultz, Alan; Kaber, David; Goodrich, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to identify common metrics for task-oriented human-robot interaction (HRI). We begin by discussing the need for a toolkit of HRI metrics. We then describe the framework of our work and identify important biasing factors that must be taken into consideration. Finally, we present suggested common metrics for standardization and a case study. Preparation of a larger, more detailed toolkit is in progress.

  1. Brain lateralization of metrical accenting in musicians.

    PubMed

    Abecasis, Donna; Brochard, Renaud; Del Río, David; Dufour, André; Ortiz, Tomás

    2009-07-01

    The perception of meter, or the alternation of strong and weak beats, was assessed in musically trained listeners through magnetoencephalography. Metrical accents were examined with no temporal disruption of the serial grouping of tones. Results showed an effect of metrical processing among identical standard tones in the left hemisphere, with larger responses on strong than on weak beats. Moreover, processing of occasional increases in intensity (phenomenal accents) varied as a function of metrical position in the left hemisphere, but not in the right. Our findings support the view of a relatively early, left-hemispheric effect of metrical processing in musicians.

  2. Performance comparison of video quality metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Kotevski; Pece, Mitrevski

    2010-02-01

    The development of digital video technology, due to its nature, introduced new approach to the objective video quality estimation. Basically there are two types of metrics for measuring the quality of digital video: purely mathematically defined video quality metrics (DELTA, MSAD, MSE, SNR and PSNR) where the error is mathematically calculated as a difference between the original and processed pixel, and video quality metrics that have similar characteristics as the Human Visual System (SSIM, NQI, VQM), where the perceptual quality is also considered in the overall quality estimation. The metrics from the first group are more technical ones and because the visual quality of perception is more complex than pixel error calculation, many examples show that their video quality estimation is deficiently accurate. The second group of metrics work in a different manner compared to previous, calculating the scene structure in the overall video quality estimation. This paper is concerned with experimental comparison of the performance of Structural Similarity (SSIM) and Video Quality Metric (VQM) metrics for objective video quality estimation. For the purpose of this experiment, more than 300 short video sequences were prepared. The measurements of these video sequences are used to draw the metrics dependence to common changes in processed video sequences. These changes include changes in: brightness, contrast, hue, saturation and noise. This paper pinpoints the key characteristics of each metric, gives the conclusion of the better performing one and gives directions for improvement of objective video quality estimation.

  3. Semantic Metrics for Object Oriented Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etzkorn, Lethe

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to research a new suite of object-oriented (OO) software metrics, called semantic metrics, that have the potential to help software engineers identify fragile, low quality code sections much earlier in the development cycle than is possible with traditional OO metrics. With earlier and better Fault detection, software maintenance will be less time consuming and expensive, and software reusability will be improved. Because it is less costly to correct faults found earlier than to correct faults found later in the software lifecycle, the overall cost of software development will be reduced. Semantic metrics can be derived from the knowledge base of a program understanding system. A program understanding system is designed to understand a software module. Once understanding is complete, the knowledge-base contains digested information about the software module. Various semantic metrics can be collected on the knowledge base. This new kind of metric measures domain complexity, or the relationship of the software to its application domain, rather than implementation complexity, which is what traditional software metrics measure. A semantic metric will thus map much more closely to qualities humans are interested in, such as cohesion and maintainability, than is possible using traditional metrics, that are calculated using only syntactic aspects of software.

  4. Perspectives on future metric conversion. The view of principal metric conversion planning and coordinating organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A summary report by the U.S. Metric Board consisted two area-findings and recommendations. Among the findings, the following areas were covered: metric conversion on an individual company level, the cost analysis, consumer response, the dual system, and legal barriers. Among the recommendations of interest are the following: continued enforcement of the metric conversion act, public awareness, consumer, and education programs should continue, and enactment of a uniform metric conversion legislation.

  5. Metrics for Automotive Merchandising, Petroleum Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students in automotive merchandising and petroleum marketing classes, this instructional package is one of five for the marketing and distribution cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know…

  6. A Complexity Metric for Automated Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aweiss, Arwa

    2009-01-01

    A metric is proposed to characterize airspace complexity with respect to an automated separation assurance function. The Maneuver Option metric is a function of the number of conflict-free trajectory change options the automated separation assurance function is able to identify for each aircraft in the airspace at a given time. By aggregating the metric for all aircraft in a region of airspace, a measure of the instantaneous complexity of the airspace is produced. A six-hour simulation of Fort Worth Center air traffic was conducted to assess the metric. Results showed aircraft were twice as likely to be constrained in the vertical dimension than the horizontal one. By application of this metric, situations found to be most complex were those where level overflights and descending arrivals passed through or merged into an arrival stream. The metric identified high complexity regions that correlate well with current air traffic control operations. The Maneuver Option metric did not correlate with traffic count alone, a result consistent with complexity metrics for human-controlled airspace.

  7. Metrics for Food Preparation, Baking, Meat Cutting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of food preparation, baking, meat cutting students, this instructional package is one of five for the home economics occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

  8. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have led to the following approach. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are considered to be exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is defined after many trade-offs. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, SVM/[ESM + function (TRL)], with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is given by SVM. Cost is represented by higher ESM and lower TRL. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of a suggested System Value Metric and an overall ALS system metric.

  9. Metrics of a Paradigm for Intelligent Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hexmoor, Henry

    1999-01-01

    We present metrics for quantifying organizational structures of complex control systems intended for controlling long-lived robotic or other autonomous applications commonly found in space applications. Such advanced control systems are often called integration platforms or agent architectures. Reported metrics span concerns about time, resources, software engineering, and complexities in the world.

  10. Particle dynamics in the original Schwarzschild metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fimin, N. N.; Chechetkin, V. M.

    2016-04-01

    The properties of the original Schwarzschild metric for a point gravitating mass are considered. The laws of motion in the corresponding space-time are established, and the transition from the Schwarzschildmetric to the metric of a "dusty universe" are studied. The dynamics of a system of particles in thr post-Newtonian approximation are analyzed.

  11. Moving to Metrics in Our Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, E. Glenadine

    This speech, addressed to school administrators, outlines the reasons for implementing instruction in the metric system and offers advice on several aspects of this implementation. The author observes that although the primary responsibility for teaching metric measurement will fall on the mathematics teacher, other teachers (e.g., science,…

  12. Metrics for Architectural, Civil, Mechanical Drafting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of architectural, civil, mechanical drafting students, this instructional package is one of six for the communication media occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the…

  13. Handbook for Metric Usage (First Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Home Economics Association, Washington, DC.

    Guidelines for changing to the metric system of measurement with regard to all phases of home economics are presented in this handbook. Topics covered include the following: (1) history of the metric system, (2) the International System of Units (SI): derived units of length, mass, time, and electric current; temperature; luminous intensity;…

  14. Bounded Linear Stability Margin Analysis of Nonlinear Hybrid Adaptive Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Boskovic, Jovan D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a bounded linear stability analysis for a hybrid adaptive control that blends both direct and indirect adaptive control. Stability and convergence of nonlinear adaptive control are analyzed using an approximate linear equivalent system. A stability margin analysis shows that a large adaptive gain can lead to a reduced phase margin. This method can enable metrics-driven adaptive control whereby the adaptive gain is adjusted to meet stability margin requirements.

  15. Incidental learning of temporal structures conforming to a metrical framework.

    PubMed

    Brandon, Melissa; Terry, Josephine; Stevens, Catherine J; Tillmann, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Implicit learning of sequential structures has been investigated mostly for visual, spatial, or motor learning, but rarely for temporal structure learning. The few experiments investigating temporal structure learning have concluded that temporal structures can be learned only when coupled with another structural dimension, such as musical pitch or spatial location. In these studies, the temporal structures were without metrical organization and were dependent upon participants' response times (Response-to-Stimulus Intervals). In our study, two experiments investigated temporal structure learning based on Inter-Onset-Intervals in the presence of an uncorrelated second dimension (ordinal structure) with metrically organized temporal structures. Our task was an adaptation of the classical Serial Reaction Time paradigm, using an implicit task in the auditory domain (syllable identification). Reaction times (RT) revealed that participants learned the temporal structures over the exposure blocks (decrease in RT) without a correlated ordinal dimension. The introduction of a test block with a novel temporal structure slowed RT and exemplified the typical implicit learning profile. Post-test results suggested that participants did not have explicit knowledge of the metrical temporal structures. These findings provide the first evidence of the learning of temporal structure with an uncorrelated ordinal structure, and set a foundation for further investigation of temporal cognition.

  16. Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Clements, Samuel L.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Kirkham, Harold; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Smith, David L.; Weimar, Mark R.; Gardner, Chris; Varney, Jeff

    2014-07-01

    A smart grid uses digital power control and communication technology to improve the reliability, security, flexibility, and efficiency of the electric system, from large generation through the delivery systems to electricity consumers and a growing number of distributed generation and storage resources. To convey progress made in achieving the vision of a smart grid, this report uses a set of six characteristics derived from the National Energy Technology Laboratory Modern Grid Strategy. The Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report defines and examines 21 metrics that collectively provide insight into the grid’s capacity to embody these characteristics. This appendix presents papers covering each of the 21 metrics identified in Section 2.1 of the Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report. These metric papers were prepared in advance of the main body of the report and collectively form its informational backbone.

  17. Program for implementing software quality metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Yule, H.P.; Riemer, C.A.

    1992-04-01

    This report describes a program by which the Veterans Benefit Administration (VBA) can implement metrics to measure the performance of automated data systems and demonstrate that they are improving over time. It provides a definition of quality, particularly with regard to software. Requirements for management and staff to achieve a successful metrics program are discussed. It lists the attributes of high-quality software, then describes the metrics or calculations that can be used to measure these attributes in a particular system. Case studies of some successful metrics programs used by business are presented. The report ends with suggestions on which metrics the VBA should use and the order in which they should be implemented.

  18. Musicians and the metric structure of words.

    PubMed

    Marie, Céline; Magne, Cyrille; Besson, Mireille

    2011-02-01

    The present study aimed to examine the influence of musical expertise on the metric and semantic aspects of speech processing. In two attentional conditions (metric and semantic tasks), musicians listened to short sentences ending in trisyllabic words that were semantically and/or metrically congruous or incongruous. Both ERPs and behavioral data were analyzed and the results were compared to previous nonmusicians' data. Regarding the processing of meter, results showed that musical expertise influenced the automatic detection of the syllable temporal structure (P200 effect), the integration of metric structure and its influence on word comprehension (N400 effect), as well as the reanalysis of metric violations (P600 and late positivities effects). By contrast, results showed that musical expertise did not influence the semantic level of processing. These results are discussed in terms of transfer of training effects from music to speech processing.

  19. Metrics and Benchmarks for Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uselton, Samuel P.; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    What is a "good" visualization? How can the quality of a visualization be measured? How can one tell whether one visualization is "better" than another? I claim that the true quality of a visualization can only be measured in the context of a particular purpose. The same image generated from the same data may be excellent for one purpose and abysmal for another. A good measure of visualization quality will correspond to the performance of users in accomplishing the intended purpose, so the "gold standard" is user testing. As a user of visualization software (or at least a consultant to such users) I don't expect visualization software to have been tested in this way for every possible use. In fact, scientific visualization (as distinct from more "production oriented" uses of visualization) will continually encounter new data, new questions and new purposes; user testing can never keep up. User need software they can trust, and advice on appropriate visualizations of particular purposes. Considering the following four processes, and their impact on visualization trustworthiness, reveals important work needed to create worthwhile metrics and benchmarks for visualization. These four processes are (1) complete system testing (user-in-loop), (2) software testing, (3) software design and (4) information dissemination. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Metrics for border management systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2009-07-01

    There are as many unique and disparate manifestations of border systems as there are borders to protect. Border Security is a highly complex system analysis problem with global, regional, national, sector, and border element dimensions for land, water, and air domains. The complexity increases with the multiple, and sometimes conflicting, missions for regulating the flow of people and goods across borders, while securing them for national security. These systems include frontier border surveillance, immigration management and customs functions that must operate in a variety of weather, terrain, operational conditions, cultural constraints, and geopolitical contexts. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project 08-684 (Year 1), the team developed a reference framework to decompose this complex system into international/regional, national, and border elements levels covering customs, immigration, and border policing functions. This generalized architecture is relevant to both domestic and international borders. As part of year two of this project (09-1204), the team determined relevant relative measures to better understand border management performance. This paper describes those relative metrics and how they can be used to improve border management systems.

  1. A new multi-neuron spike-train metric

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, Conor; Sen, Kamal

    2009-01-01

    The Victor-Purpura spike-train metric has recently been extended to a family of multi-neuron metrics and used to analyze spike trains recorded simultaneously from pairs of proximate neurons. The Victor-Purpura metric is one of the two metrics commonly used for quantifying the distance between two spike trains, the other is the van Rossum metric. Here, we suggest an extension of the van Rossum metric to a multi-neuron metric. We believe this gives a metric which is both natural and easy to calculate. Both types of multi-neuron metric are applied to simulated data and are compared. PMID:18194108

  2. Hawking’s singularity theorem for C1,1-metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunzinger, Michael; Steinbauer, Roland; Stojković, Milena; Vickers, James A.

    2015-04-01

    We provide a detailed proof of Hawking’s singularity theorem in the regularity class {{C}1,1}, i.e., for spacetime metrics possessing locally Lipschitz continuous first derivatives. The proof uses recent results in {{C}1,1}-causality theory and is based on regularisation techniques adapted to the causal structure.

  3. 14 CFR 1274.206 - Metric Conversion Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... metric measurement system is stated in NPD 8010.2, Use of the Metric System of Measurement in NASA... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metric Conversion Act. 1274.206 Section... WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Pre-Award Requirements § 1274.206 Metric Conversion Act. The Metric...

  4. Launch Vehicle Production and Operations Cost Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Neeley, James R.; Blackburn, Ruby F.

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, launch vehicle cost has been evaluated based on $/Kg to orbit. This metric is calculated based on assumptions not typically met by a specific mission. These assumptions include the specified orbit whether Low Earth Orbit (LEO), Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO), or both. The metric also assumes the payload utilizes the full lift mass of the launch vehicle, which is rarely true even with secondary payloads.1,2,3 Other approaches for cost metrics have been evaluated including unit cost of the launch vehicle and an approach to consider the full program production and operations costs.4 Unit cost considers the variable cost of the vehicle and the definition of variable costs are discussed. The full program production and operation costs include both the variable costs and the manufacturing base. This metric also distinguishes operations costs from production costs, including pre-flight operational testing. Operations costs also consider the costs of flight operations, including control center operation and maintenance. Each of these 3 cost metrics show different sensitivities to various aspects of launch vehicle cost drivers. The comparison of these metrics provides the strengths and weaknesses of each yielding an assessment useful for cost metric selection for launch vehicle programs.

  5. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have reached a consensus. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is then set accordingly. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, [SVM + TRL]/ESM, with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is the sum of SVM and TRL. Cost is represented by ESM. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of the suggested System Value Metric.

  6. Altmetrics - a complement to conventional metrics.

    PubMed

    Melero, Remedios

    2015-01-01

    Emerging metrics based on article-level does not exclude traditional metrics based on citations to the journal, but complements them. Both can be employed in conjunction to offer a richer picture of an article use from immediate to long terms. Article-level metrics (ALM) is the result of the aggregation of different data sources and the collection of content from multiple social network services. Sources used for the aggregation can be broken down into five categories: usage, captures, mentions, social media and citations. Data sources depend on the tool, but they include classic metrics indicators based on citations, academic social networks (Mendeley, CiteULike, Delicious) and social media (Facebook, Twitter, blogs, or Youtube, among others). Altmetrics is not synonymous with alternative metrics. Altmetrics are normally early available and allow to assess the social impact of scholarly outputs, almost at the real time. This paper overviews briefly the meaning of altmetrics and describes some of the existing tools used to apply this new metrics: Public Library of Science--Article-Level Metrics, Altmetric, Impactstory and Plum.

  7. Altmetrics – a complement to conventional metrics

    PubMed Central

    Melero, Remedios

    2015-01-01

    Emerging metrics based on article-level does not exclude traditional metrics based on citations to the journal, but complements them. Both can be employed in conjunction to offer a richer picture of an article use from immediate to long terms. Article-level metrics (ALM) is the result of the aggregation of different data sources and the collection of content from multiple social network services. Sources used for the aggregation can be broken down into five categories: usage, captures, mentions, social media and citations. Data sources depend on the tool, but they include classic metrics indicators based on citations, academic social networks (Mendeley, CiteULike, Delicious) and social media (Facebook, Twitter, blogs, or Youtube, among others). Altmetrics is not synonymous with alternative metrics. Altmetrics are normally early available and allow to assess the social impact of scholarly outputs, almost at the real time. This paper overviews briefly the meaning of altmetrics and describes some of the existing tools used to apply this new metrics: Public Library of Science - Article-Level Metrics, Altmetric, Impactstory and Plum. PMID:26110028

  8. An Underwater Color Image Quality Evaluation Metric.

    PubMed

    Yang, Miao; Sowmya, Arcot

    2015-12-01

    Quality evaluation of underwater images is a key goal of underwater video image retrieval and intelligent processing. To date, no metric has been proposed for underwater color image quality evaluation (UCIQE). The special absorption and scattering characteristics of the water medium do not allow direct application of natural color image quality metrics especially to different underwater environments. In this paper, subjective testing for underwater image quality has been organized. The statistical distribution of the underwater image pixels in the CIELab color space related to subjective evaluation indicates the sharpness and colorful factors correlate well with subjective image quality perception. Based on these, a new UCIQE metric, which is a linear combination of chroma, saturation, and contrast, is proposed to quantify the non-uniform color cast, blurring, and low-contrast that characterize underwater engineering and monitoring images. Experiments are conducted to illustrate the performance of the proposed UCIQE metric and its capability to measure the underwater image enhancement results. They show that the proposed metric has comparable performance to the leading natural color image quality metrics and the underwater grayscale image quality metrics available in the literature, and can predict with higher accuracy the relative amount of degradation with similar image content in underwater environments. Importantly, UCIQE is a simple and fast solution for real-time underwater video processing. The effectiveness of the presented measure is also demonstrated by subjective evaluation. The results show better correlation between the UCIQE and the subjective mean opinion score.

  9. SAPHIRE 8 Quality Assurance Software Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt G. Vedros

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this review of software metrics is to examine the quality of the metrics gathered in the 2010 IV&V and to set an outline for results of updated metrics runs to be performed. We find from the review that the maintenance of accepted quality standards presented in the SAPHIRE 8 initial Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) of April, 2010 is most easily achieved by continuing to utilize the tools used in that effort while adding a metric of bug tracking and resolution. Recommendations from the final IV&V were to continue periodic measurable metrics such as McCabe's complexity measure to ensure quality is maintained. The four software tools used to measure quality in the IV&V were CodeHealer, Coverage Validator, Memory Validator, Performance Validator, and Thread Validator. These are evaluated based on their capabilities. We attempted to run their latest revisions with the newer Delphi 2010 based SAPHIRE 8 code that has been developed and was successful with all of the Validator series of tools on small tests. Another recommendation from the IV&V was to incorporate a bug tracking and resolution metric. To improve our capability of producing this metric, we integrated our current web reporting system with the SpiraTest test management software purchased earlier this year to track requirements traceability.

  10. Altmetrics - a complement to conventional metrics.

    PubMed

    Melero, Remedios

    2015-01-01

    Emerging metrics based on article-level does not exclude traditional metrics based on citations to the journal, but complements them. Both can be employed in conjunction to offer a richer picture of an article use from immediate to long terms. Article-level metrics (ALM) is the result of the aggregation of different data sources and the collection of content from multiple social network services. Sources used for the aggregation can be broken down into five categories: usage, captures, mentions, social media and citations. Data sources depend on the tool, but they include classic metrics indicators based on citations, academic social networks (Mendeley, CiteULike, Delicious) and social media (Facebook, Twitter, blogs, or Youtube, among others). Altmetrics is not synonymous with alternative metrics. Altmetrics are normally early available and allow to assess the social impact of scholarly outputs, almost at the real time. This paper overviews briefly the meaning of altmetrics and describes some of the existing tools used to apply this new metrics: Public Library of Science--Article-Level Metrics, Altmetric, Impactstory and Plum. PMID:26110028

  11. Fighter agility metrics. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liefer, Randall K.

    1990-01-01

    Fighter flying qualities and combat capabilities are currently measured and compared in terms relating to vehicle energy, angular rates and sustained acceleration. Criteria based on these measurable quantities have evolved over the past several decades and are routinely used to design aircraft structures, aerodynamics, propulsion and control systems. While these criteria, or metrics, have the advantage of being well understood, easily verified and repeatable during test, they tend to measure the steady state capability of the aircraft and not its ability to transition quickly from one state to another. Proposed new metrics to assess fighter aircraft agility are collected and analyzed. A framework for classification of these new agility metrics is developed and applied. A complete set of transient agility metrics is evaluated with a high fidelity, nonlinear F-18 simulation. Test techniques and data reduction methods are proposed. A method of providing cuing information to the pilot during flight test is discussed. The sensitivity of longitudinal and lateral agility metrics to deviations from the pilot cues is studied in detail. The metrics are shown to be largely insensitive to reasonable deviations from the nominal test pilot commands. Instrumentation required to quantify agility via flight test is also considered. With one exception, each of the proposed new metrics may be measured with instrumentation currently available.

  12. Is it possible to predict long-term success with k-NN? Case study of four market indices (FTSE100, DAX, HANGSENG, NASDAQ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Y.; Gorban, A. N.; Y Yang, T.

    2014-03-01

    This case study tests the possibility of prediction for 'success' (or 'winner') components of four stock & shares market indices in a time period of three years from 02-Jul-2009 to 29-Jun-2012.We compare their performance ain two time frames: initial frame three months at the beginning (02/06/2009-30/09/2009) and the final three month frame (02/04/2012-29/06/2012).To label the components, average price ratio between two time frames in descending order is computed. The average price ratio is defined as the ratio between the mean prices of the beginning and final time period. The 'winner' components are referred to the top one third of total components in the same order as average price ratio it means the mean price of final time period is relatively higher than the beginning time period. The 'loser' components are referred to the last one third of total components in the same order as they have higher mean prices of beginning time period. We analyse, is there any information about the winner-looser separation in the initial fragments of the daily closing prices log-returns time series.The Leave-One-Out Cross-Validation with k-NN algorithm is applied on the daily log-return of components using a distance and proximity in the experiment. By looking at the error analysis, it shows that for HANGSENG and DAX index, there are clear signs of possibility to evaluate the probability of long-term success. The correlation distance matrix histograms and 2-D/3-D elastic maps generated from ViDaExpert show that the 'winner' components are closer to each other and 'winner'/'loser' components are separable on elastic maps for HANGSENG and DAX index while for the negative possibility indices, there is no sign of separation.

  13. Optimized Seizure Detection Algorithm: A Fast Approach for Onset of Epileptic in EEG Signals Using GT Discriminant Analysis and K-NN Classifier

    PubMed Central

    Rezaee, Kh.; Azizi, E.; Haddadnia, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is a severe disorder of the central nervous system that predisposes the person to recurrent seizures. Fifty million people worldwide suffer from epilepsy; after Alzheimer’s and stroke, it is the third widespread nervous disorder. Objective In this paper, an algorithm to detect the onset of epileptic seizures based on the analysis of brain electrical signals (EEG) has been proposed. 844 hours of EEG were recorded form 23 pediatric patients consecutively with 163 occurrences of seizures. Signals had been collected from Children’s Hospital Boston with a sampling frequency of 256 Hz through 18 channels in order to assess epilepsy surgery. By selecting effective features from seizure and non-seizure signals of each individual and putting them into two categories, the proposed algorithm detects the onset of seizures quickly and with high sensitivity. Method In this algorithm, L-sec epochs of signals are displayed in form of a third-order tensor in spatial, spectral and temporal spaces by applying wavelet transform. Then, after applying general tensor discriminant analysis (GTDA) on tensors and calculating mapping matrix, feature vectors are extracted. GTDA increases the sensitivity of the algorithm by storing data without deleting them. Finally, K-Nearest neighbors (KNN) is used to classify the selected features. Results The results of simulating algorithm on algorithm standard dataset shows that the algorithm is capable of detecting 98 percent of seizures with an average delay of 4.7 seconds and the average error rate detection of three errors in 24 hours. Conclusion Today, the lack of an automated system to detect or predict the seizure onset is strongly felt.

  14. Optimized Seizure Detection Algorithm: A Fast Approach for Onset of Epileptic in EEG Signals Using GT Discriminant Analysis and K-NN Classifier

    PubMed Central

    Rezaee, Kh.; Azizi, E.; Haddadnia, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is a severe disorder of the central nervous system that predisposes the person to recurrent seizures. Fifty million people worldwide suffer from epilepsy; after Alzheimer’s and stroke, it is the third widespread nervous disorder. Objective In this paper, an algorithm to detect the onset of epileptic seizures based on the analysis of brain electrical signals (EEG) has been proposed. 844 hours of EEG were recorded form 23 pediatric patients consecutively with 163 occurrences of seizures. Signals had been collected from Children’s Hospital Boston with a sampling frequency of 256 Hz through 18 channels in order to assess epilepsy surgery. By selecting effective features from seizure and non-seizure signals of each individual and putting them into two categories, the proposed algorithm detects the onset of seizures quickly and with high sensitivity. Method In this algorithm, L-sec epochs of signals are displayed in form of a third-order tensor in spatial, spectral and temporal spaces by applying wavelet transform. Then, after applying general tensor discriminant analysis (GTDA) on tensors and calculating mapping matrix, feature vectors are extracted. GTDA increases the sensitivity of the algorithm by storing data without deleting them. Finally, K-Nearest neighbors (KNN) is used to classify the selected features. Results The results of simulating algorithm on algorithm standard dataset shows that the algorithm is capable of detecting 98 percent of seizures with an average delay of 4.7 seconds and the average error rate detection of three errors in 24 hours. Conclusion Today, the lack of an automated system to detect or predict the seizure onset is strongly felt. PMID:27672628

  15. Mental workload classification using heart rate metrics.

    PubMed

    Henelius, Andreas; Hirvonen, Kati; Holm, Anu; Korpela, Jussi; Muller, Kiti

    2009-01-01

    The ability of different short-term heart rate variability metrics to classify the level of mental workload (MWL) in 140 s segments was studied. Electrocardiographic data and event related potentials (ERPs), calculated from electroencephalographic data, were collected from 13 healthy subjects during the performance of a computerised cognitive multitask test with different task load levels. The amplitude of the P300 component of the ERPs was used as an objective measure of MWL. Receiver operating characteristics analysis (ROC) showed that the time domain metric of average interbeat interval length was the best-performing metric in terms of classification ability.

  16. Inspecting baby Skyrmions with effective metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, G. W.; Goulart, E.

    2014-05-01

    In the present paper we investigate the causal structure of the baby Skyrme model using appropriate geometrical tools. We discuss several features of excitations propagating on top of background solutions and show that the evolution of high frequency waves is governed by a curved effective geometry. Examples are given for which the effective metric describes the interaction between waves and solitonic solutions such as kinks, antikinks, and hedgehogs. In particular, it is shown how violent processes involving the collisions of solitons and antisolitons may induce metrics which are not globally hyperbolic. We argue that it might be illuminating to calculate the effective metric as a diagnostic test for pathological regimes in numerical simulations.

  17. Metrics for comparison of crystallographic maps

    SciTech Connect

    Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V.; Lunin, Vladimir Y.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Adams, Paul D.

    2014-10-01

    Numerical comparison of crystallographic contour maps is used extensively in structure solution and model refinement, analysis and validation. However, traditional metrics such as the map correlation coefficient (map CC, real-space CC or RSCC) sometimes contradict the results of visual assessment of the corresponding maps. This article explains such apparent contradictions and suggests new metrics and tools to compare crystallographic contour maps. The key to the new methods is rank scaling of the Fourier syntheses. The new metrics are complementary to the usual map CC and can be more helpful in map comparison, in particular when only some of their aspects, such as regions of high density, are of interest.

  18. Generalized metric formulation of double field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohm, Olaf; Hull, Chris; Zwiebach, Barton

    2010-08-01

    The generalized metric is a T-duality covariant symmetric matrix constructed from the metric and two-form gauge field and arises in generalized geometry. We view it here as a metric on the doubled spacetime and use it to give a simple formulation with manifest T-duality of the double field theory that describes the massless sector of closed strings. The gauge transformations are written in terms of a generalized Lie derivative whose commutator algebra is defined by a double field theory extension of the Courant bracket.

  19. Random Effects Diagonal Metric Multidimensional Scaling Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, Douglas B.; Gonzalez, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Defines a random effects diagonal metric multidimensional scaling model, gives its computational algorithms, describes researchers' experiences with these algorithms, and provides an illustration of the use of the model and algorithms. (Author/SLD)

  20. Environmental metrics for community health improvement.

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, Benjamin; Frumkin, Howard

    2010-07-01

    Environmental factors greatly affect human health. Accordingly, environmental metrics are a key part of the community health information base. We review environmental metrics relevant to community health, including measurements of contaminants in environmental media, such as air, water, and food; measurements of contaminants in people (biomonitoring); measurements of features of the built environment that affect health; and measurements of "upstream" environmental conditions relevant to health. We offer a set of metrics (including unhealthy exposures, such as pollutants, and health-promoting assets, such as parks and green space) selected on the basis of relevance to health outcomes, magnitude of associated health outcomes, corroboration in the peer-reviewed literature, and data availability, especially at the community level, and we recommend ways to use these metrics most effectively.

  1. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2009 (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.

    2011-08-01

    Document provides Clean Cities coalition metrics about the use of alternative fuels; the deployment of alternative fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles driven.

  2. MPLS/VPN traffic engineering: SLA metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkaoui, Omar; MacGibbon, Brenda; Blais, Michel; Serhrouchni, Ahmed

    2001-07-01

    Traffic engineering must be concerned with a broad definition of service that includes network availability, reliability and stability, as well as traditional traffic data on loss, throughput, delay and jitter. MPLS and Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) significantly contribute to security and Quality of Service (QoS) within communication networks, but there remains a need for metric measurement and evaluation. The purpose of this paper is to propose a methodology which gives a measure for LSP ( Lfew abel Switching Paths) metrics in VPN MPLS networks. We propose here a statistical method for the evaluation of those metrics. Statistical methodology is very important in this type of study since there is a large amount of data to consider. We use the notions of sample surveys, self-similar processes, linear regression, additive models and bootstrapping. The results obtained allows us to estimate the different metrics for such SLAs.

  3. Effectively nonlocal metric-affine gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovnev, Alexey; Koivisto, Tomi; Sandstad, Marit

    2016-03-01

    In metric-affine theories of gravity such as the C-theories, the spacetime connection is associated to a metric that is nontrivially related to the physical metric. In this article, such theories are rewritten in terms of a single metric, and it is shown that they can be recast as effectively nonlocal gravity. With some assumptions, known ghost-free theories with nonsingular and cosmologically interesting properties may be recovered. Relations between different formulations are analyzed at both perturbative and nonperturbative levels, taking carefully into account subtleties with boundary conditions in the presence of integral operators in the action, and equivalences between theories related by nonlocal redefinitions of the fields are verified at the level of equations of motion. This suggests a possible geometrical interpretation of nonlocal gravity as an emergent property of non-Riemannian spacetime structure.

  4. Hilbert's projective metric in quantum information theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeb, David; Kastoryano, Michael J.; Wolf, Michael M.

    2011-08-01

    We introduce and apply Hilbert's projective metric in the context of quantum information theory. The metric is induced by convex cones such as the sets of positive, separable or positive partial transpose operators. It provides bounds on measures for statistical distinguishability of quantum states and on the decrease of entanglement under protocols involving local quantum operations and classical communication or under other cone-preserving operations. The results are formulated in terms of general cones and base norms and lead to contractivity bounds for quantum channels, for instance, improving Ruskai's trace-norm contraction inequality. A new duality between distinguishability measures and base norms is provided. For two given pairs of quantum states we show that the contraction of Hilbert's projective metric is necessary and sufficient for the existence of a probabilistic quantum operation that maps one pair onto the other. Inequalities between Hilbert's projective metric and the Chernoff bound, the fidelity and various norms are proven.

  5. Classroom reconstruction of the Schwarzschild metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassner, Klaus

    2015-11-01

    A promising way to introduce general relativity (GR) in the classroom is to study the physical implications of certain given metrics, such as the Schwarzschild one. This involves lower mathematical expenditure than an approach focusing on differential geometry in its full glory and permits to emphasize physical aspects before attacking the field equations. Even so, in terms of motivation, lacking justification of the metric employed may pose an obstacle. The paper discusses how to establish the weak-field limit of the Schwarzschild metric with a minimum of relatively simple physical assumptions, avoiding the field equations but admitting the determination of a single parameter from experiment. An attractive experimental candidate is the measurement of the perihelion precession of Mercury, because the result was already known before the completion of GR. It is shown how to determine the temporal and radial coefficients of the Schwarzschild metric to sufficiently high accuracy to obtain quantitative predictions for all the remaining classical tests of GR.

  6. A metric to search for relevant words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hongding; Slater, Gary W.

    2003-11-01

    We propose a new metric to evaluate and rank the relevance of words in a text. The method uses the density fluctuations of a word to compute an index that measures its degree of clustering. Highly significant words tend to form clusters, while common words are essentially uniformly spread in a text. If a word is not rare, the metric is stable when we move any individual occurrence of this word in the text. Furthermore, we prove that the metric always increases when words are moved to form larger clusters, or when several independent documents are merged. Using the Holy Bible as an example, we show that our approach reduces the significance of common words when compared to a recently proposed statistical metric.

  7. How Metric Conversion Affects Administrative Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straka, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    Changes necessary in the administrative activities of educational institutions following conversion to the metric system are outlined for secretarial practices, purchasing, internal reporting and forms, computer operations, travel, publications, buildings and plant, new buildings, sport facilities, and health services. (MF)

  8. Wave equation on spherically symmetric Lorentzian metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Bokhari, Ashfaque H.; Al-Dweik, Ahmad Y.; Zaman, F. D.; Kara, A. H.; Karim, M.

    2011-06-15

    Wave equation on a general spherically symmetric spacetime metric is constructed. Noether symmetries of the equation in terms of explicit functions of {theta} and {phi} are derived subject to certain differential constraints. By restricting the metric to flat Friedman case the Noether symmetries of the wave equation are presented. Invertible transformations are constructed from a specific subalgebra of these Noether symmetries to convert the wave equation with variable coefficients to the one with constant coefficients.

  9. GRC GSFC TDRSS Waveform Metrics Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortensen, Dale J.

    2013-01-01

    The report presents software metrics and porting metrics for the GGT Waveform. The porting was from a ground-based COTS SDR, the SDR-3000, to the CoNNeCT JPL SDR. The report does not address any of the Operating Environment (OE) software development, nor the original TDRSS waveform development at GSFC for the COTS SDR. With regard to STRS, the report presents compliance data and lessons learned.

  10. Metrics for Offline Evaluation of Prognostic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav; Celaya, Jose; Saha, Bhaskar; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Prognostic performance evaluation has gained significant attention in the past few years. Currently, prognostics concepts lack standard definitions and suffer from ambiguous and inconsistent interpretations. This lack of standards is in part due to the varied end-user requirements for different applications, time scales, available information, domain dynamics, etc. to name a few. The research community has used a variety of metrics largely based on convenience and their respective requirements. Very little attention has been focused on establishing a standardized approach to compare different efforts. This paper presents several new evaluation metrics tailored for prognostics that were recently introduced and were shown to effectively evaluate various algorithms as compared to other conventional metrics. Specifically, this paper presents a detailed discussion on how these metrics should be interpreted and used. These metrics have the capability of incorporating probabilistic uncertainty estimates from prognostic algorithms. In addition to quantitative assessment they also offer a comprehensive visual perspective that can be used in designing the prognostic system. Several methods are suggested to customize these metrics for different applications. Guidelines are provided to help choose one method over another based on distribution characteristics. Various issues faced by prognostics and its performance evaluation are discussed followed by a formal notational framework to help standardize subsequent developments.

  11. On Applying the Prognostic Performance Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav; Celaya, Jose; Saha, Bhaskar; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Prognostics performance evaluation has gained significant attention in the past few years. As prognostics technology matures and more sophisticated methods for prognostic uncertainty management are developed, a standardized methodology for performance evaluation becomes extremely important to guide improvement efforts in a constructive manner. This paper is in continuation of previous efforts where several new evaluation metrics tailored for prognostics were introduced and were shown to effectively evaluate various algorithms as compared to other conventional metrics. Specifically, this paper presents a detailed discussion on how these metrics should be interpreted and used. Several shortcomings identified, while applying these metrics to a variety of real applications, are also summarized along with discussions that attempt to alleviate these problems. Further, these metrics have been enhanced to include the capability of incorporating probability distribution information from prognostic algorithms as opposed to evaluation based on point estimates only. Several methods have been suggested and guidelines have been provided to help choose one method over another based on probability distribution characteristics. These approaches also offer a convenient and intuitive visualization of algorithm performance with respect to some of these new metrics like prognostic horizon and alpha-lambda performance, and also quantify the corresponding performance while incorporating the uncertainty information.

  12. Evaluating Algorithm Performance Metrics Tailored for Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav; Celaya, Jose; Saha, Bhaskar; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Prognostics has taken a center stage in Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) where it is desired to estimate Remaining Useful Life (RUL) of the system so that remedial measures may be taken in advance to avoid catastrophic events or unwanted downtimes. Validation of such predictions is an important but difficult proposition and a lack of appropriate evaluation methods renders prognostics meaningless. Evaluation methods currently used in the research community are not standardized and in many cases do not sufficiently assess key performance aspects expected out of a prognostics algorithm. In this paper we introduce several new evaluation metrics tailored for prognostics and show that they can effectively evaluate various algorithms as compared to other conventional metrics. Specifically four algorithms namely; Relevance Vector Machine (RVM), Gaussian Process Regression (GPR), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), and Polynomial Regression (PR) are compared. These algorithms vary in complexity and their ability to manage uncertainty around predicted estimates. Results show that the new metrics rank these algorithms in different manner and depending on the requirements and constraints suitable metrics may be chosen. Beyond these results, these metrics offer ideas about how metrics suitable to prognostics may be designed so that the evaluation procedure can be standardized. 1

  13. Building structural similarity database for metric learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Guoxin; Pappas, Thrasyvoulos N.

    2015-03-01

    We propose a new approach for constructing databases for training and testing similarity metrics for structurally lossless image compression. Our focus is on structural texture similarity (STSIM) metrics and the matched-texture compression (MTC) approach. We first discuss the metric requirements for structurally lossless compression, which differ from those of other applications such as image retrieval, classification, and understanding. We identify "interchangeability" as the key requirement for metric performance, and partition the domain of "identical" textures into three regions, of "highest," "high," and "good" similarity. We design two subjective tests for data collection, the first relies on ViSiProG to build a database of "identical" clusters, and the second builds a database of image pairs with the "highest," "high," "good," and "bad" similarity labels. The data for the subjective tests is generated during the MTC encoding process, and consist of pairs of candidate and target image blocks. The context of the surrounding image is critical for training the metrics to detect lighting discontinuities, spatial misalignments, and other border artifacts that have a noticeable effect on perceptual quality. The identical texture clusters are then used for training and testing two STSIM metrics. The labelled image pair database will be used in future research.

  14. Metrics in the science of surge.

    PubMed

    Handler, Jonathan A; Gillam, Michael; Kirsch, Thomas D; Feied, Craig F

    2006-11-01

    Metrics are the driver to positive change toward better patient care. However, the research into the metrics of the science of surge is incomplete, research funding is inadequate, and we lack a criterion standard metric for identifying and quantifying surge capacity. Therefore, a consensus working group was formed through a "viral invitation" process. With a combination of online discussion through a group e-mail list and in-person discussion at a breakout session of the Academic Emergency Medicine 2006 Consensus Conference, "The Science of Surge," seven consensus statements were generated. These statements emphasize the importance of funded research in the area of surge capacity metrics; the utility of an emergency medicine research registry; the need to make the data available to clinicians, administrators, public health officials, and internal and external systems; the importance of real-time data, data standards, and electronic transmission; seamless integration of data capture into the care process; the value of having data available from a single point of access through which data mining, forecasting, and modeling can be performed; and the basic necessity of a criterion standard metric for quantifying surge capacity. Further consensus work is needed to select a criterion standard metric for quantifying surge capacity. These consensus statements cover the future research needs, the infrastructure needs, and the data that are needed for a state-of-the-art approach to surge and surge capacity.

  15. Separation of variables for the Dirac equation in an extended class of Lorentzian metrics with local rotational symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, B. R.; Kamran, N.

    1991-09-01

    The question of the separability of the Dirac equation in metrics with local rotational symmetry is reexamined by adapting the analysis of Kamran and McLenaghan [J. Math. Phys. 25, 1019 (1984)] for the metrics admitting a two-dimensional Abelian local isometry group acting orthogonally transitively. This generalized treatment, which involves the choice of a suitable system of local coordinates and spinor frame, allows one to establish the separability of the Dirac equation within the class of metrics for which the previous analysis of Iyer and Vishveshwara [J. Math. Phys. 26, 1034 (1985)] had left the question of separability open.

  16. Experimental constraints on metric and non-metric theories of gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, Clifford M.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental constraints on metric and non-metric theories of gravitation are reviewed. Tests of the Einstein Equivalence Principle indicate that only metric theories of gravity are likely to be viable. Solar system experiments constrain the parameters of the weak field, post-Newtonian limit to be close to the values predicted by general relativity. Future space experiments will provide further constraints on post-Newtonian gravity.

  17. Efficient dual approach to distance metric learning.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chunhua; Kim, Junae; Liu, Fayao; Wang, Lei; van den Hengel, Anton

    2014-02-01

    Distance metric learning is of fundamental interest in machine learning because the employed distance metric can significantly affect the performance of many learning methods. Quadratic Mahalanobis metric learning is a popular approach to the problem, but typically requires solving a semidefinite programming (SDP) problem, which is computationally expensive. The worst case complexity of solving an SDP problem involving a matrix variable of size D×D with O(D) linear constraints is about O(D(6.5)) using interior-point methods, where D is the dimension of the input data. Thus, the interior-point methods only practically solve problems exhibiting less than a few thousand variables. Because the number of variables is D(D+1)/2, this implies a limit upon the size of problem that can practically be solved around a few hundred dimensions. The complexity of the popular quadratic Mahalanobis metric learning approach thus limits the size of problem to which metric learning can be applied. Here, we propose a significantly more efficient and scalable approach to the metric learning problem based on the Lagrange dual formulation of the problem. The proposed formulation is much simpler to implement, and therefore allows much larger Mahalanobis metric learning problems to be solved. The time complexity of the proposed method is roughly O(D(3)), which is significantly lower than that of the SDP approach. Experiments on a variety of data sets demonstrate that the proposed method achieves an accuracy comparable with the state of the art, but is applicable to significantly larger problems. We also show that the proposed method can be applied to solve more general Frobenius norm regularized SDP problems approximately.

  18. The LSST Metrics Analysis Framework (MAF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. Lynne; Yoachim, Peter; Chandrasekharan, Srinivasan; Connolly, Andrew J.; Cook, Kem H.; Ivezic, Zeljko; Krughoff, K. Simon; Petry, Catherine E.; Ridgway, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    Studying potential observing strategies or cadences for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a complicated but important problem. To address this, LSST has created an Operations Simulator (OpSim) to create simulated surveys, including realistic weather and sky conditions. Analyzing the results of these simulated surveys for the wide variety of science cases to be considered for LSST is, however, difficult. We have created a Metric Analysis Framework (MAF), an open-source python framework, to be a user-friendly, customizable and easily extensible tool to help analyze the outputs of the OpSim.MAF reads the pointing history of the LSST generated by the OpSim, then enables the subdivision of these pointings based on position on the sky (RA/Dec, etc.) or the characteristics of the observations (e.g. airmass or sky brightness) and a calculation of how well these observations meet a specified science objective (or metric). An example simple metric could be the mean single visit limiting magnitude for each position in the sky; a more complex metric might be the expected astrometric precision. The output of these metrics can be generated for a full survey, for specified time intervals, or for regions of the sky, and can be easily visualized using a web interface.An important goal for MAF is to facilitate analysis of the OpSim outputs for a wide variety of science cases. A user can often write a new metric to evaluate OpSim for new science goals in less than a day once they are familiar with the framework. Some of these new metrics are illustrated in the accompanying poster, "Analyzing Simulated LSST Survey Performance With MAF".While MAF has been developed primarily for application to OpSim outputs, it can be applied to any dataset. The most obvious examples are examining pointing histories of other survey projects or telescopes, such as CFHT.

  19. The dynamics of metric-affine gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Vitagliano, Vincenzo; Sotiriou, Thomas P.; Liberati, Stefano

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: > The role and the dynamics of the connection in metric-affine theories is explored. > The most general second order action does not lead to a dynamical connection. > Including higher order invariants excites new degrees of freedom in the connection. > f(R) actions are also discussed and shown to be a non- representative class. - Abstract: Metric-affine theories of gravity provide an interesting alternative to general relativity: in such an approach, the metric and the affine (not necessarily symmetric) connection are independent quantities. Furthermore, the action should include covariant derivatives of the matter fields, with the covariant derivative naturally defined using the independent connection. As a result, in metric-affine theories a direct coupling involving matter and connection is also present. The role and the dynamics of the connection in such theories is explored. We employ power counting in order to construct the action and search for the minimal requirements it should satisfy for the connection to be dynamical. We find that for the most general action containing lower order invariants of the curvature and the torsion the independent connection does not carry any dynamics. It actually reduces to the role of an auxiliary field and can be completely eliminated algebraically in favour of the metric and the matter field, introducing extra interactions with respect to general relativity. However, we also show that including higher order terms in the action radically changes this picture and excites new degrees of freedom in the connection, making it (or parts of it) dynamical. Constructing actions that constitute exceptions to this rule requires significant fine tuned and/or extra a priori constraints on the connection. We also consider f(R) actions as a particular example in order to show that they constitute a distinct class of metric-affine theories with special properties, and as such they cannot be used as representative toy theories to

  20. Implementing the Data Center Energy Productivity Metric

    SciTech Connect

    Sego, Landon H.; Marquez, Andres; Rawson, Andrew; Cader, Tahir; Fox, Kevin M.; Gustafson, William I.; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2012-10-01

    As data centers proliferate in both size and number, their energy efficiency is becoming increasingly important. We discuss the properties of a number of the proposed metrics of energy efficiency and productivity. In particular, we focus on the Data Center Energy Productivity (DCeP) metric, which is the ratio of useful work produced by the data center to the energy consumed performing that work. We describe our approach for using DCeP as the principal outcome of a designed experiment using a highly instrumented, high performance computing data center. We found that DCeP was successful in clearly distinguishing between different operational states in the data center, thereby validating its utility as a metric for identifying configurations of hardware and software that would improve (or even maximize) energy productivity. We also discuss some of the challenges and benefits associated with implementing the DCeP metric, and we examine the efficacy of the metric in making comparisons within a data center and among data centers.

  1. Metrics for the NASA Airspace Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Neitzke, Kurt W.

    2009-01-01

    This document defines an initial set of metrics for use by the NASA Airspace Systems Program (ASP). ASP consists of the NextGen-Airspace Project and the NextGen-Airportal Project. The work in each project is organized along multiple, discipline-level Research Focus Areas (RFAs). Each RFA is developing future concept elements in support of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), as defined by the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO). In addition, a single, system-level RFA is responsible for integrating concept elements across RFAs in both projects and for assessing system-wide benefits. The primary purpose of this document is to define a common set of metrics for measuring National Airspace System (NAS) performance before and after the introduction of ASP-developed concepts for NextGen as the system handles increasing traffic. The metrics are directly traceable to NextGen goals and objectives as defined by the JPDO and hence will be used to measure the progress of ASP research toward reaching those goals. The scope of this document is focused on defining a common set of metrics for measuring NAS capacity, efficiency, robustness, and safety at the system-level and at the RFA-level. Use of common metrics will focus ASP research toward achieving system-level performance goals and objectives and enable the discipline-level RFAs to evaluate the impact of their concepts at the system level.

  2. Graphlet Based Metrics for the Comparison of Gene Regulatory Networks

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Alberto J. M.; Dominguez, Calixto; Contreras-Riquelme, Sebastián; Holmes, David S.; Perez-Acle, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the control of gene expression remains one of the main challenges in the post-genomic era. Accordingly, a plethora of methods exists to identify variations in gene expression levels. These variations underlay almost all relevant biological phenomena, including disease and adaptation to environmental conditions. However, computational tools to identify how regulation changes are scarce. Regulation of gene expression is usually depicted in the form of a gene regulatory network (GRN). Structural changes in a GRN over time and conditions represent variations in the regulation of gene expression. Like other biological networks, GRNs are composed of basic building blocks called graphlets. As a consequence, two new metrics based on graphlets are proposed in this work: REConstruction Rate (REC) and REC Graphlet Degree (RGD). REC determines the rate of graphlet similarity between different states of a network and RGD identifies the subset of nodes with the highest topological variation. In other words, RGD discerns how th GRN was rewired. REC and RGD were used to compare the local structure of nodes in condition-specific GRNs obtained from gene expression data of Escherichia coli, forming biofilms and cultured in suspension. According to our results, most of the network local structure remains unaltered in the two compared conditions. Nevertheless, changes reported by RGD necessarily imply that a different cohort of regulators (i.e. transcription factors (TFs)) appear on the scene, shedding light on how the regulation of gene expression occurs when E. coli transits from suspension to biofilm. Consequently, we propose that both metrics REC and RGD should be adopted as a quantitative approach to conduct differential analyses of GRNs. A tool that implements both metrics is available as an on-line web server (http://dlab.cl/loto). PMID:27695050

  3. Implementing the Metric System in Personal and Public Service Occupations. Metric Implementation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Wilson P.; And Others

    Addressed to the personal and public service occupations teacher, this guide is intended to provide appropriate information, viewpoints, and attitudes regarding the metric system and to make suggestions regarding presentation of the material in the classroom. An introductory section on teaching suggestions emphasizes the need for a "think metric"…

  4. Metrics. A Basic Core Curriculum for Teaching Metrics to Vocational Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albracht, James; Simmons, A. D.

    This core curriculum contains five units for use in teaching metrics to vocational students. Included in the first unit are a series of learning activities to familiarize students with the terminology of metrics, including the prefixes and their values. Measures of distance and speed are covered. Discussed next are measures of volume used with…

  5. Elementary Metric Curriculum - Project T.I.M.E. (Timely Implementation of Metric Education). Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community School District 18, Brooklyn, NY.

    This is the second part of a two-part teacher's manual for an ISS-based elementary school course in the metric system. Behavioral objectives and student activities are included. Topics include: (1) capacity; (2) calculation of volume and surface area of cylinders and cones; (3) mass; (4) temperature; and (5) metric conversions. (BB)

  6. 43 CFR 12.915 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Metric system of measurement. 12.915... Requirements § 12.915 Metric system of measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C. 205) declares that the metric system is the preferred...

  7. 48 CFR 611.002-70 - Metric system implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... information or comparison. Hard metric means the use of only standard metric (SI) measurements in specifications, standards, supplies and services. Hybrid system means the use of both traditional and hard metric.... (c) Definitions. Dual system means the use of both traditional and metric systems. For example,...

  8. NASA education briefs for the classroom. Metrics in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The use of metric measurement in space is summarized for classroom use. Advantages of the metric system over the English measurement system are described. Some common metric units are defined, as are special units for astronomical study. International system unit prefixes and a conversion table of metric/English units are presented. Questions and activities for the classroom are recommended.

  9. A proposal test of the space-time metricity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassi, A. M.; Strini, G.

    Among the standard hypothesis about gravitational theories, there is the "metricity" hypothesis for the space-time metric. Hehl, McCrea, Ne'eman and others have proposed a non-metricity. With the help of simple additional hypothesis, based on a previous experiment by Harris et al., the authors propose a metricity test by means of spectroscopic tests on meteorites.

  10. 43 CFR 12.915 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Metric system of measurement. 12.915... Requirements § 12.915 Metric system of measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C. 205) declares that the metric system is the preferred...

  11. 43 CFR 12.915 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Metric system of measurement. 12.915... Requirements § 12.915 Metric system of measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C. 205) declares that the metric system is the preferred...

  12. 29 CFR 95.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Metric system of measurement. 95.15 Section 95.15 Labor... Requirements § 95.15 Metric system of measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C. 205), declares that the metric system is the preferred...

  13. 15 CFR 14.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Metric system of measurement. 14.15... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 14.15 Metric system of measurement. The Metric Conversion... activities. Metric implementation may take longer where the use of the system is initially impractical...

  14. 34 CFR 74.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metric system of measurement. 74.15 Section 74.15... Metric system of measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C. 205) declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for...

  15. 22 CFR 518.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Metric system of measurement. 518.15 Section 518... Pre-Award Requirements § 518.15 Metric system of measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C. 205), declares that the metric system is...

  16. 2 CFR 215.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Metric system of measurement. 215.15 Section... ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-110) Pre-Award Requirements § 215.15 Metric system of measurement. The Metric... metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The Act requires...

  17. 20 CFR 435.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Metric system of measurement. 435.15 Section..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 435.15 Metric system of measurement. The Metric... metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The Act requires...

  18. 49 CFR 19.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Metric system of measurement. 19.15 Section 19.15... Requirements § 19.15 Metric system of measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C. 205), declares that the metric system is the preferred...

  19. Codes in W*-Metric Spaces: Theory and Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumgardner, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a "W*"-metric space, which is a particular approach to non-commutative metric spaces where a "quantum metric" is defined on a von Neumann algebra. We generalize the notion of a quantum code and quantum error correction to the setting of finite dimensional "W*"-metric spaces, which includes codes and error correction for classical…

  20. Metric Education: We Are Getting Ready for the Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrawal, Piyush C.; And Others

    This handbook was prepared to aid teachers and teacher educators spread the messages "think metric" and "live metric." It includes a project description of a metric evaluation program and discussions of (1) an inservice training component; (2) a course outline for training programs; (3) the arguments for and against use of the metric system; (4)…

  1. New Born-Infeld and Dp-brane actions under 2-metric and 3-metric prescriptions

    SciTech Connect

    Miao Yangang

    2007-04-15

    The parent action method is utilized to the Born-Infeld and Dp-brane theories. Various new forms of Born-Infeld and Dp-brane actions are derived by using this systematic approach, in which both the already known 2-metric and newly proposed 3-metric prescriptions are considered. An auxiliary worldvolume tensor field, denoted by {omega}{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}, is introduced and treated probably as an additional worldvolume metric because it plays a similar role to that of the auxiliary worldvolume (also called intrinsic) metric {gamma}{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}. Some properties, such as duality, permutation and Weyl invariance as a local worldvolume symmetry of the new forms are analyzed. In particular, a new symmetry, i.e. the double Weyl invariance is discovered in 3-metric forms.

  2. Metrication report to the Congress. 1991 activities and 1992 plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    During 1991, NASA approved a revised metric use policy and developed a NASA Metric Transition Plan. This Plan targets the end of 1995 for completion of NASA's metric initiatives. This Plan also identifies future programs that NASA anticipates will use the metric system of measurement. Field installations began metric transition studies in 1991 and will complete them in 1992. Half of NASA's Space Shuttle payloads for 1991, and almost all such payloads for 1992, have some metric-based elements. In 1992, NASA will begin assessing requirements for space-quality piece parts fabricated to U.S. metric standards, leading to development and qualification of high priority parts.

  3. Evaluating Search Engine Relevance with Click-Based Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radlinski, Filip; Kurup, Madhu; Joachims, Thorsten

    Automatically judging the quality of retrieval functions based on observable user behavior holds promise for making retrieval evaluation faster, cheaper, and more user centered. However, the relationship between observable user behavior and retrieval quality is not yet fully understood. In this chapter, we expand upon, Radlinski et al. (How does clickthrough data reflect retrieval quality, In Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM), 43-52, 2008), presenting a sequence of studies investigating this relationship for an operational search engine on the arXiv.org e-print archive. We find that none of the eight absolute usage metrics we explore (including the number of clicks observed, the frequency with which users reformulate their queries, and how often result sets are abandoned) reliably reflect retrieval quality for the sample sizes we consider. However, we find that paired experiment designs adapted from sensory analysis produce accurate and reliable statements about the relative quality of two retrieval functions. In particular, we investigate two paired comparison tests that analyze clickthrough data from an interleaved presentation of ranking pairs, and find that both give accurate and consistent results. We conclude that both paired comparison tests give substantially more accurate and sensitive evaluation results than the absolute usage metrics in our domain.

  4. Pragmatic quality metrics for evolutionary software development models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royce, Walker

    1990-01-01

    Due to the large number of product, project, and people parameters which impact large custom software development efforts, measurement of software product quality is a complex undertaking. Furthermore, the absolute perspective from which quality is measured (customer satisfaction) is intangible. While we probably can't say what the absolute quality of a software product is, we can determine the relative quality, the adequacy of this quality with respect to pragmatic considerations, and identify good and bad trends during development. While no two software engineers will ever agree on an optimum definition of software quality, they will agree that the most important perspective of software quality is its ease of change. We can call this flexibility, adaptability, or some other vague term, but the critical characteristic of software is that it is soft. The easier the product is to modify, the easier it is to achieve any other software quality perspective. This paper presents objective quality metrics derived from consistent lifecycle perspectives of rework which, when used in concert with an evolutionary development approach, can provide useful insight to produce better quality per unit cost/schedule or to achieve adequate quality more efficiently. The usefulness of these metrics is evaluated by applying them to a large, real world, Ada project.

  5. Critical insights for a sustainability framework to address integrated community water services: Technical metrics and approaches.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiaobo; Schoen, Mary E; Ma, Xin Cissy; Hawkins, Troy R; Ashbolt, Nicholas J; Cashdollar, Jennifer; Garland, Jay

    2015-06-15

    Planning for sustainable community water systems requires a comprehensive understanding and assessment of the integrated source-drinking-wastewater systems over their life-cycles. Although traditional life cycle assessment and similar tools (e.g. footprints and emergy) have been applied to elements of these water services (i.e. water resources, drinking water, stormwater or wastewater treatment alone), we argue for the importance of developing and combining the system-based tools and metrics in order to holistically evaluate the complete water service system based on the concept of integrated resource management. We analyzed the strengths and weaknesses of key system-based tools and metrics, and discuss future directions to identify more sustainable municipal water services. Such efforts may include the need for novel metrics that address system adaptability to future changes and infrastructure robustness. Caution is also necessary when coupling fundamentally different tools so to avoid misunderstanding and consequently misleading decision-making.

  6. Feature fusion based on Wootters metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Weimin; Chen, Aihong; Gong, Zhaozhe

    2016-10-01

    For further enhancing the completeness and conciseness of the existing quantum-inspired feature fusion methods, this paper applies the quantum-related theories of Wootters metric and Fisher linear discriminant to dimension reduction and feature fusion. From the perspective of quantum metric spaces, i.e. phase space and probability space, this paper proposes two different feature fusion methods which take the Wootters statistical distance as the key factor to detect and fuse the duplicate feature data, and are different to the already developed quantum-inspired feature fusion methods. The experimental results reflect the superiority of the proposed feature fusion methods based on the Wootters metric for their better performances on relative completeness and conciseness.

  7. Metric Learning for Hyperspectral Image Segmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Brian D.; Thompson, David R.; Gilmore, Martha S.; Castano, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    We present a metric learning approach to improve the performance of unsupervised hyperspectral image segmentation. Unsupervised spatial segmentation can assist both user visualization and automatic recognition of surface features. Analysts can use spatially-continuous segments to decrease noise levels and/or localize feature boundaries. However, existing segmentation methods use tasks-agnostic measures of similarity. Here we learn task-specific similarity measures from training data, improving segment fidelity to classes of interest. Multiclass Linear Discriminate Analysis produces a linear transform that optimally separates a labeled set of training classes. The defines a distance metric that generalized to a new scenes, enabling graph-based segmentation that emphasizes key spectral features. We describe tests based on data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer (CRISM) in which learned metrics improve segment homogeneity with respect to mineralogical classes.

  8. Metrics for comparison of crystallographic maps

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V.; Lunin, Vladimir Y.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Adams, Paul D.

    2014-10-01

    Numerical comparison of crystallographic contour maps is used extensively in structure solution and model refinement, analysis and validation. However, traditional metrics such as the map correlation coefficient (map CC, real-space CC or RSCC) sometimes contradict the results of visual assessment of the corresponding maps. This article explains such apparent contradictions and suggests new metrics and tools to compare crystallographic contour maps. The key to the new methods is rank scaling of the Fourier syntheses. The new metrics are complementary to the usual map CC and can be more helpful in map comparison, in particular when only some of their aspects,more » such as regions of high density, are of interest.« less

  9. Social Metrics Applied to Smart Tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes, O.; Gutiérrez, E.; Gutiérrez, F.; Sánchez, J. A.

    2016-09-01

    We present a strategy to make productive use of semantically-related social data, from a user-centered semantic network, in order to help users (tourists and citizens in general) to discover cultural heritage, points of interest and available services in a smart city. This data can be used to personalize recommendations in a smart tourism application. Our approach is based on flow centrality metrics typically used in social network analysis: flow betweenness, flow closeness and eccentricity. These metrics are useful to discover relevant nodes within the network yielding nodes that can be interpreted as suggestions (venues or services) to users. We describe the semantic network built on graph model, as well as social metrics algorithms used to produce recommendations. We also present challenges and results from a prototypical implementation applied to the case study of the City of Puebla, Mexico.

  10. Enhanced Accident Tolerant LWR Fuels: Metrics Development

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon Bragg-Sitton; Lori Braase; Rose Montgomery; Chris Stanek; Robert Montgomery; Lance Snead; Larry Ott; Mike Billone

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is conducting research and development on enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) for light water reactors (LWRs). This mission emphasizes the development of novel fuel and cladding concepts to replace the current zirconium alloy-uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel system. The overall mission of the ATF research is to develop advanced fuels/cladding with improved performance, reliability and safety characteristics during normal operations and accident conditions, while minimizing waste generation. The initial effort will focus on implementation in operating reactors or reactors with design certifications. To initiate the development of quantitative metrics for ATR, a LWR Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels Metrics Development Workshop was held in October 2012 in Germantown, MD. This paper summarizes the outcome of that workshop and the current status of metrics development for LWR ATF.

  11. Landscape pattern metrics and regional assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neill, R. V.; Riitters, K.H.; Wickham, J.D.; Jones, K.B.

    1999-01-01

    The combination of remote imagery data, geographic information systems software, and landscape ecology theory provides a unique basis for monitoring and assessing large-scale ecological systems. The unique feature of the work has been the need to develop and interpret quantitative measures of spatial pattern-the landscape indices. This article reviews what is known about the statistical properties of these pattern metrics and suggests some additional metrics based on island biogeography, percolation theory, hierarchy theory, and economic geography. Assessment applications of this approach have required interpreting the pattern metrics in terms of specific environmental endpoints, such as wildlife and water quality, and research into how to represent synergystic effects of many overlapping sources of stress.

  12. Computing and Using Metrics in the ADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneken, E. A.; Accomazzi, A.; Kurtz, M. J.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Holachek, A.; Murray, S. S.

    2015-04-01

    Finding measures for research impact, be it for individuals, institutions, instruments, or projects, has gained a lot of popularity. There are more papers written than ever on new impact measures, and problems with existing measures are being pointed out on a regular basis. Funding agencies require impact statistics in their reports, job candidates incorporate them in their resumes, and publication metrics have even been used in at least one recent court case. To support this need for research impact indicators, the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has developed a service that provides a broad overview of various impact measures. In this paper we discuss how the ADS can be used to quench the thirst for impact measures. We will also discuss a couple of the lesser-known indicators in the metrics overview and the main issues to be aware of when compiling publication-based metrics in the ADS, namely author name ambiguity and citation incompleteness.

  13. An informative confidence metric for ATR.

    SciTech Connect

    Bow, Wallace Johnston Jr.; Richards, John Alfred; Bray, Brian Kenworthy

    2003-03-01

    Automatic or assisted target recognition (ATR) is an important application of synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Most ATR researchers have focused on the core problem of declaration-that is, detection and identification of targets of interest within a SAR image. For ATR declarations to be of maximum value to an image analyst, however, it is essential that each declaration be accompanied by a reliability estimate or confidence metric. Unfortunately, the need for a clear and informative confidence metric for ATR has generally been overlooked or ignored. We propose a framework and methodology for evaluating the confidence in an ATR system's declarations and competing target hypotheses. Our proposed confidence metric is intuitive, informative, and applicable to a broad class of ATRs. We demonstrate that seemingly similar ATRs may differ fundamentally in the ability-or inability-to identify targets with high confidence.

  14. Information on the metric system and related fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, E.

    1976-01-01

    This document contains about 7,600 references on the metric system and conversion to the metric system. These references include all known documents on the metric system as of December 1975, the month of enactment of the Metric Conversion Act of 1975. This bibliography includes books, reports, articles, presentations, periodicals, legislation, motion pictures, TV series, film strips, slides, posters, wall charts, education and training courses, addresses for information, and sources for metric materials and services. A comprehensive index is provided.

  15. A neural net-based approach to software metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boetticher, G.; Srinivas, Kankanahalli; Eichmann, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Software metrics provide an effective method for characterizing software. Metrics have traditionally been composed through the definition of an equation. This approach is limited by the fact that all the interrelationships among all the parameters be fully understood. This paper explores an alternative, neural network approach to modeling metrics. Experiments performed on two widely accepted metrics, McCabe and Halstead, indicate that the approach is sound, thus serving as the groundwork for further exploration into the analysis and design of software metrics.

  16. Asymptotic stability of vacuum twisting type II metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natorf, Włodzimierz

    2012-02-01

    We generalize the result of Lukács et al. on asymptotic stability of the Schwarzschild metric with respect to perturbations in the Robinson-Trautman class of metrics to the case of Petrov type II twisting metrics, under the condition of asymptotic flatness at future null infinity. The Bondi energy is used as the Lyapunov functional and we prove that the "final state" of such metrics is the Kerr metric.

  17. Hermitian metrics on F-manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Liana; Hertling, Claus

    2016-09-01

    An F-manifold is complex manifold with a multiplication on the holomorphic tangent bundle, which satisfies a certain integrability condition. Important examples are Frobenius manifolds and especially base spaces of universal unfoldings of isolated hypersurface singularities. This paper reviews the construction of hermitian metrics on F-manifolds from tt∗ geometry. It clarifies the logic between several notions. It also introduces a new canonical hermitian metric. Near irreducible points it makes the manifold almost hyperbolic. This holds for the singularity case and will hopefully lead to applications there.

  18. Stability and integration over Bergman metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klevtsov, Semyon; Zelditch, Steve

    2014-07-01

    We study partition functions of random Bergman metrics, with the actions defined by a class of geometric functionals known as `stability functions'. We introduce a new stability invariant — the critical value of the coupling constant — defined as the minimal coupling constant for which the partition function converges. It measures the minimal degree of stability of geodesic rays in the space the Bergman metrics, with respect to the action. We calculate this critical value when the action is the ν-balancing energy, and show that on a Riemann surface of genus h.

  19. Kerr Schild metrics and gravitational radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natorf, Włodzimierz

    2005-10-01

    We describe conditions assuring that the Kerr Schild type solutions of Einstein's equations with pure radiation fields are asymptotically flat at future null infinity. Such metrics cannot describe “true” gravitational radiation from bounded sources—it is shown that the Bondi news function vanishes identically. We obtain formulae for the total energy and angular momentum at ℐ. As an example we consider a non-stationary generalization of the Kerr metric given by Vaidya and Patel. Angular momentum and total energy are expressed in closed form as functions of retarded time.

  20. Metrical Patterns of Words and Production Accuracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Richard G.; Goffman, Lisa

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the influence of metrical patterns (syllable stress and serial position) of words on the production accuracy of 20 children (ages 22 months to 28 months). Among results were that one-fourth of the initial unstressed syllables were omitted and that consonant omissions, though few, tended to occur in the initial position.…

  1. DOME: operational metrics under one roof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primas, F.; Marteau, S.; Tacconi-Garman, L. E.; Mainieri, V.; Rejkuba, M.; Mysore, S.

    2012-09-01

    Thirteen VLT/I instruments plus some extra critical components like the block-scheduling of the Laser Guide Star Facility and VLTI baselines make for a rather complex machine that constantly challenges our operational efficiencies. DOME (Dashboard for Operational Metrics at ESO) is an ongoing project developed, implemented and maintained by the ESO User Support Department. It aims at providing an ESO-internal dashboard where key operational metrics are published and updated at regular intervals. Here, we will present the project and report on the indicators that have been looked at until now.ty and VLTI baselines make for a rather complex machine that constantly challenges our operational efficiencies. DOME (Dashboard for Operational Metrics at ESO) is an ongoing project developed, implemented and maintained by the ESO User Support Department. It aims at providing an ESO-internal dashboard where key operational metrics are published and updated at regular intervals. Here, we will present the project and report on the indicators that have been looked at until now.

  2. Standardised metrics for global surgical surveillance.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Thomas G; Makary, Martin A; Haynes, Alex B; Dziekan, Gerald; Berry, William R; Gawande, Atul A

    2009-09-26

    Public health surveillance relies on standardised metrics to evaluate disease burden and health system performance. Such metrics have not been developed for surgical services despite increasing volume, substantial cost, and high rates of death and disability associated with surgery. The Safe Surgery Saves Lives initiative of WHO's Patient Safety Programme has developed standardised public health metrics for surgical care that are applicable worldwide. We assembled an international panel of experts to develop and define metrics for measuring the magnitude and effect of surgical care in a population, while taking into account economic feasibility and practicability. This panel recommended six measures for assessing surgical services at a national level: number of operating rooms, number of operations, number of accredited surgeons, number of accredited anaesthesia professionals, day-of-surgery death ratio, and postoperative in-hospital death ratio. We assessed the feasibility of gathering such statistics at eight diverse hospitals in eight countries and incorporated them into the WHO Guidelines for Safe Surgery, in which methods for data collection, analysis, and reporting are outlined. PMID:19782877

  3. Vehicle Integrated Prognostic Reasoner (VIPR) Metric Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornhill, Dennis; Bharadwaj, Raj; Mylaraswamy, Dinkar

    2013-01-01

    This document outlines a set of metrics for evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic schemes developed for the Vehicle Integrated Prognostic Reasoner (VIPR), a system-level reasoner that encompasses the multiple levels of large, complex systems such as those for aircraft and spacecraft. VIPR health managers are organized hierarchically and operate together to derive diagnostic and prognostic inferences from symptoms and conditions reported by a set of diagnostic and prognostic monitors. For layered reasoners such as VIPR, the overall performance cannot be evaluated by metrics solely directed toward timely detection and accuracy of estimation of the faults in individual components. Among other factors, overall vehicle reasoner performance is governed by the effectiveness of the communication schemes between monitors and reasoners in the architecture, and the ability to propagate and fuse relevant information to make accurate, consistent, and timely predictions at different levels of the reasoner hierarchy. We outline an extended set of diagnostic and prognostics metrics that can be broadly categorized as evaluation measures for diagnostic coverage, prognostic coverage, accuracy of inferences, latency in making inferences, computational cost, and sensitivity to different fault and degradation conditions. We report metrics from Monte Carlo experiments using two variations of an aircraft reference model that supported both flat and hierarchical reasoning.

  4. Clean Cities 2010 Annual Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.

    2012-10-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2010. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  5. Vestibular Influence on Auditory Metrical Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips-Silver, J.; Trainor, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    When we move to music we feel the beat, and this feeling can shape the sound we hear. Previous studies have shown that when people listen to a metrically ambiguous rhythm pattern, moving the body on a certain beat-adults, by actively bouncing themselves in synchrony with the experimenter, and babies, by being bounced passively in the…

  6. Environmental Decision Support with Consistent Metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most effective ways to pursue environmental progress is through the use of consistent metrics within a decision making framework. The US Environmental Protection Agency’s Sustainable Technology Division has developed TRACI, the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of...

  7. The LSST metrics analysis framework (MAF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. L.; Yoachim, Peter; Chandrasekharan, Srinivasan; Connolly, Andrew J.; Cook, Kem H.; Ivezic, Željko; Krughoff, K. S.; Petry, Catherine; Ridgway, Stephen T.

    2014-07-01

    We describe the Metrics Analysis Framework (MAF), an open-source python framework developed to provide a user-friendly, customizable, easily-extensible set of tools for analyzing data sets. MAF is part of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Simulations effort. Its initial goal is to provide a tool to evaluate LSST Operations Simulation (OpSim) simulated surveys to help understand the effects of telescope scheduling on survey performance, however MAF can be applied to a much wider range of datasets. The building blocks of the framework are Metrics (algorithms to analyze a given quantity of data), Slicers (subdividing the overall data set into smaller data slices as relevant for each Metric), and Database classes (to access the dataset and read data into memory). We describe how these building blocks work together, and provide an example of using MAF to evaluate different dithering strategies. We also outline how users can write their own custom Metrics and use these within the framework.

  8. On A Schwarszchild-Like Metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasiei, Mihai; Gottlieb, Ioan

    2012-12-01

    In this short Note we would like to bring into the attention of people working in General Relativity a Schwarzschild like metric found by Professor Cleopatra Mociuţchi in sixties. It was obtained by the A. Sommerfeld reasoning from his treatise "Elektrodynamik" but using instead of the energy conserving law from the classical Physics, the relativistic energy conserving law.

  9. Metric Conversion and the School Shop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, Arthur A.

    1976-01-01

    Cost of metric conversion in school shops is examined, and the author categories all the shops in the school and gives useful information on which shops are the easiest to convert, which are most complicated, where resistance is most likely to be met, and where conversion is most urgent. The math department is seen as catalyst. (Editor/HD)

  10. Performance Metrics Research Project - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Deru, M.; Torcellini, P.

    2005-10-01

    NREL began work for DOE on this project to standardize the measurement and characterization of building energy performance. NREL's primary research objectives were to determine which performance metrics have greatest value for determining energy performance and to develop standard definitions and methods of measuring and reporting that performance.

  11. Metrication in Building Facilities for Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manderville, L. E.

    1974-01-01

    Today's 868 foundries are designed around the equipment necessary for maximum production and safety. It follows that any change in the product manufactured has a definite effect on the building that houses it. Therefore, it is necessary that development of metrication in the construction industry must be coordinated with its development in…

  12. Validation metrics for turbulent plasma transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, C.

    2016-06-01

    Developing accurate models of plasma dynamics is essential for confident predictive modeling of current and future fusion devices. In modern computer science and engineering, formal verification and validation processes are used to assess model accuracy and establish confidence in the predictive capabilities of a given model. This paper provides an overview of the key guiding principles and best practices for the development of validation metrics, illustrated using examples from investigations of turbulent transport in magnetically confined plasmas. Particular emphasis is given to the importance of uncertainty quantification and its inclusion within the metrics, and the need for utilizing synthetic diagnostics to enable quantitatively meaningful comparisons between simulation and experiment. As a starting point, the structure of commonly used global transport model metrics and their limitations is reviewed. An alternate approach is then presented, which focuses upon comparisons of predicted local fluxes, fluctuations, and equilibrium gradients against observation. The utility of metrics based upon these comparisons is demonstrated by applying them to gyrokinetic predictions of turbulent transport in a variety of discharges performed on the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)], as part of a multi-year transport model validation activity.

  13. What It Will Cost To Go Metric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Board Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Claims that costs of converting the educational system to metrics can be spread over ten years, and are a one-time expenditure whose benefits are longlasting. Examines textbook replacement, modification of shop equipment and other hardware, training of nonteaching employees, and implications for sports. Stresses the need for longrange planning.…

  14. Calabi-Yau metrics and string compactification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Michael R.

    2015-09-01

    Yau proved an existence theorem for Ricci-flat Kähler metrics in the 1970s, but we still have no closed form expressions for them. Nevertheless there are several ways to get approximate expressions, both numerical and analytical. We survey some of this work and explain how it can be used to obtain physical predictions from superstring theory.

  15. The SI Metric System and Practical Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Richard W.

    Intended for use in the technical program of a technical institute or community college, this student manual is designed to provide background in the metric system contributing to employability. Nine units are presented with objectives stated for each unit followed by questions or exercises. (Printed answers are supplied when necessary.) Unit 1…

  16. Beyond Benchmarking: Value-Adding Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitz-enz, Jac

    2007-01-01

    HR metrics has grown up a bit over the past two decades, moving away from simple benchmarking practices and toward a more inclusive approach to measuring institutional performance and progress. In this article, the acknowledged "father" of human capital performance benchmarking provides an overview of several aspects of today's HR metrics…

  17. Clean Cities 2011 Annual Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.

    2012-12-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2011. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  18. Reuse metrics and measurement: A framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reifer, Donald J.

    1990-01-01

    The lessons learned and experience gleaned are described by those who have started to implement the reuse metrics and measurement framework used in controlling the development of common avionics and software for its affiliated aircraft programs. The framework was developed to permit the measurement of the long term cost/benefits resulting from the creation and use of Reusable Software Objects (RSOs). The framework also monitors the efficiency and effectiveness of the Software Reuse Library (SRL). The metrics and measurement framework is defined which was established to allow some determinations and findings to be made relative to software reuse. Seven criteria are discussed which were used to guide the establishment of the proposed reuse framework. Object recapture and creation metrics are explained along with their normalized use in effort, productivity, and quality determination. A single and multiple reuse instance version of a popular cost model is presented which uses these metrics and the measurement scheme proposed to predict the software effort and duration under various reuse assumptions. Studies in using this model to predict actuals taken from the RCI data base of over 1000 completed projects is discussed.

  19. Classifying climate change adaptation frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    Complex socio-ecological demographics are factors that must be considered when addressing adaptation to the potential effects of climate change. As such, a suite of deployable climate change adaptation frameworks is necessary. Multiple frameworks that are required to communicate the risks of climate change and facilitate adaptation. Three principal adaptation frameworks have emerged from the literature; Scenario - Led (SL), Vulnerability - Led (VL) and Decision - Centric (DC). This study aims to identify to what extent these adaptation frameworks; either, planned or deployed are used in a neighbourhood vulnerable to climate change. This work presents a criterion that may be used as a tool for identifying the hallmarks of adaptation frameworks and thus enabling categorisation of projects. The study focussed on the coastal zone surrounding the Sizewell nuclear power plant in Suffolk in the UK. An online survey was conducted identifying climate change adaptation projects operating in the study area. This inventory was analysed to identify the hallmarks of each adaptation project; Levels of dependency on climate model information, Metrics/units of analysis utilised, Level of demographic knowledge, Level of stakeholder engagement, Adaptation implementation strategies and Scale of adaptation implementation. The study found that climate change adaptation projects could be categorised, based on the hallmarks identified, in accordance with the published literature. As such, the criterion may be used to establish the matrix of adaptation frameworks present in a given area. A comprehensive summary of the nature of adaptation frameworks in operation in a locality provides a platform for further comparative analysis. Such analysis, enabled by the criterion, may aid the selection of appropriate frameworks enhancing the efficacy of climate change adaptation.

  20. On the correlation between reservoir metrics and performance for time series classification under the influence of synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Chrol-Cannon, Joseph; Jin, Yaochu

    2014-01-01

    Reservoir computing provides a simpler paradigm of training recurrent networks by initialising and adapting the recurrent connections separately to a supervised linear readout. This creates a problem, though. As the recurrent weights and topology are now separated from adapting to the task, there is a burden on the reservoir designer to construct an effective network that happens to produce state vectors that can be mapped linearly into the desired outputs. Guidance in forming a reservoir can be through the use of some established metrics which link a number of theoretical properties of the reservoir computing paradigm to quantitative measures that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a given design. We provide a comprehensive empirical study of four metrics; class separation, kernel quality, Lyapunov's exponent and spectral radius. These metrics are each compared over a number of repeated runs, for different reservoir computing set-ups that include three types of network topology and three mechanisms of weight adaptation through synaptic plasticity. Each combination of these methods is tested on two time-series classification problems. We find that the two metrics that correlate most strongly with the classification performance are Lyapunov's exponent and kernel quality. It is also evident in the comparisons that these two metrics both measure a similar property of the reservoir dynamics. We also find that class separation and spectral radius are both less reliable and less effective in predicting performance.

  1. Homology-Independent Metrics for Comparative Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Tarcisio José Domingos; Franco, Glória Regina; Lobo, Francisco Pereira

    2015-01-01

    A mainstream procedure to analyze the wealth of genomic data available nowadays is the detection of homologous regions shared across genomes, followed by the extraction of biological information from the patterns of conservation and variation observed in such regions. Although of pivotal importance, comparative genomic procedures that rely on homology inference are obviously not applicable if no homologous regions are detectable. This fact excludes a considerable portion of “genomic dark matter” with no significant similarity — and, consequently, no inferred homology to any other known sequence — from several downstream comparative genomic methods. In this review we compile several sequence metrics that do not rely on homology inference and can be used to compare nucleotide sequences and extract biologically meaningful information from them. These metrics comprise several compositional parameters calculated from sequence data alone, such as GC content, dinucleotide odds ratio, and several codon bias metrics. They also share other interesting properties, such as pervasiveness (patterns persist on smaller scales) and phylogenetic signal. We also cite examples where these homology-independent metrics have been successfully applied to support several bioinformatics challenges, such as taxonomic classification of biological sequences without homology inference. They where also used to detect higher-order patterns of interactions in biological systems, ranging from detecting coevolutionary trends between the genomes of viruses and their hosts to characterization of gene pools of entire microbial communities. We argue that, if correctly understood and applied, homology-independent metrics can add important layers of biological information in comparative genomic studies without prior homology inference. PMID:26029354

  2. The metric on field space, functional renormalization, and metric-torsion quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, Martin; Schollmeyer, Gregor M.

    2016-04-01

    Searching for new non-perturbatively renormalizable quantum gravity theories, functional renormalization group (RG) flows are studied on a theory space of action functionals depending on the metric and the torsion tensor, the latter parameterized by three irreducible component fields. A detailed comparison with Quantum Einstein-Cartan Gravity (QECG), Quantum Einstein Gravity (QEG), and "tetrad-only" gravity, all based on different theory spaces, is performed. It is demonstrated that, over a generic theory space, the construction of a functional RG equation (FRGE) for the effective average action requires the specification of a metric on the infinite-dimensional field manifold as an additional input. A modified FRGE is obtained if this metric is scale-dependent, as it happens in the metric-torsion system considered.

  3. Status of metric conversion in the US and oversight of US Metric Board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The status and trends of metric conversion, and the success of the U.S. Metric Board in carrying out the statutory functions assigned to it under law are investigated. The impact of a dual system of weights and measures; the effects on productivity and rate of technological innovation; the effects of such a dual system in the schools, and on consumers; and the effects on the international trade situation are discussed.

  4. The Universal Plausibility Metric (UPM) & Principle (UPP)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Mere possibility is not an adequate basis for asserting scientific plausibility. A precisely defined universal bound is needed beyond which the assertion of plausibility, particularly in life-origin models, can be considered operationally falsified. But can something so seemingly relative and subjective as plausibility ever be quantified? Amazingly, the answer is, "Yes." A method of objectively measuring the plausibility of any chance hypothesis (The Universal Plausibility Metric [UPM]) is presented. A numerical inequality is also provided whereby any chance hypothesis can be definitively falsified when its UPM metric of ξ is < 1 (The Universal Plausibility Principle [UPP]). Both UPM and UPP pre-exist and are independent of any experimental design and data set. Conclusion No low-probability hypothetical plausibility assertion should survive peer-review without subjection to the UPP inequality standard of formal falsification (ξ < 1). PMID:19958539

  5. A universal metric for ferroic energy materials.

    PubMed

    Brück, Ekkes; Yibole, Hargen; Zhang, Lian

    2016-08-13

    After almost 20 years of intensive research on magnetocaloric effects near room temperature, magnetic refrigeration with first-order magnetocaloric materials has come close to real-life applications. Many materials have been discussed as potential candidates to be used in multicaloric devices. However, phase transitions in ferroic materials are often hysteretic and a metric is needed to estimate the detrimental effects of this hysteresis. We propose the coefficient of refrigerant performance, which compares the net work in a reversible cycle with the positive work on the refrigerant, as a universal metric for ferroic materials. Here, we concentrate on examples from magnetocaloric materials and only consider one barocaloric experiment. This is mainly due to lack of data on electrocaloric materials. It appears that adjusting the field-induced transitions and the hysteresis effects can minimize the losses in first-order materials.This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'. PMID:27402924

  6. A universal metric for ferroic energy materials.

    PubMed

    Brück, Ekkes; Yibole, Hargen; Zhang, Lian

    2016-08-13

    After almost 20 years of intensive research on magnetocaloric effects near room temperature, magnetic refrigeration with first-order magnetocaloric materials has come close to real-life applications. Many materials have been discussed as potential candidates to be used in multicaloric devices. However, phase transitions in ferroic materials are often hysteretic and a metric is needed to estimate the detrimental effects of this hysteresis. We propose the coefficient of refrigerant performance, which compares the net work in a reversible cycle with the positive work on the refrigerant, as a universal metric for ferroic materials. Here, we concentrate on examples from magnetocaloric materials and only consider one barocaloric experiment. This is mainly due to lack of data on electrocaloric materials. It appears that adjusting the field-induced transitions and the hysteresis effects can minimize the losses in first-order materials.This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'.

  7. A perceptual metric for photo retouching.

    PubMed

    Kee, Eric; Farid, Hany

    2011-12-13

    In recent years, advertisers and magazine editors have been widely criticized for taking digital photo retouching to an extreme. Impossibly thin, tall, and wrinkle- and blemish-free models are routinely splashed onto billboards, advertisements, and magazine covers. The ubiquity of these unrealistic and highly idealized images has been linked to eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction in men, women, and children. In response, several countries have considered legislating the labeling of retouched photos. We describe a quantitative and perceptually meaningful metric of photo retouching. Photographs are rated on the degree to which they have been digitally altered by explicitly modeling and estimating geometric and photometric changes. This metric correlates well with perceptual judgments of photo retouching and can be used to objectively judge by how much a retouched photo has strayed from reality. PMID:22123980

  8. A perceptual metric for photo retouching

    PubMed Central

    Kee, Eric; Farid, Hany

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, advertisers and magazine editors have been widely criticized for taking digital photo retouching to an extreme. Impossibly thin, tall, and wrinkle- and blemish-free models are routinely splashed onto billboards, advertisements, and magazine covers. The ubiquity of these unrealistic and highly idealized images has been linked to eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction in men, women, and children. In response, several countries have considered legislating the labeling of retouched photos. We describe a quantitative and perceptually meaningful metric of photo retouching. Photographs are rated on the degree to which they have been digitally altered by explicitly modeling and estimating geometric and photometric changes. This metric correlates well with perceptual judgments of photo retouching and can be used to objectively judge by how much a retouched photo has strayed from reality. PMID:22123980

  9. A perceptual metric for photo retouching.

    PubMed

    Kee, Eric; Farid, Hany

    2011-12-13

    In recent years, advertisers and magazine editors have been widely criticized for taking digital photo retouching to an extreme. Impossibly thin, tall, and wrinkle- and blemish-free models are routinely splashed onto billboards, advertisements, and magazine covers. The ubiquity of these unrealistic and highly idealized images has been linked to eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction in men, women, and children. In response, several countries have considered legislating the labeling of retouched photos. We describe a quantitative and perceptually meaningful metric of photo retouching. Photographs are rated on the degree to which they have been digitally altered by explicitly modeling and estimating geometric and photometric changes. This metric correlates well with perceptual judgments of photo retouching and can be used to objectively judge by how much a retouched photo has strayed from reality.

  10. Metrics for measuring distances in configuration spaces.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Ali; Ghasemi, S Alireza; Schaefer, Bastian; Mohr, Stephan; Lill, Markus A; Goedecker, Stefan

    2013-11-14

    In order to characterize molecular structures we introduce configurational fingerprint vectors which are counterparts of quantities used experimentally to identify structures. The Euclidean distance between the configurational fingerprint vectors satisfies the properties of a metric and can therefore safely be used to measure dissimilarities between configurations in the high dimensional configuration space. In particular we show that these metrics are a perfect and computationally cheap replacement for the root-mean-square distance (RMSD) when one has to decide whether two noise contaminated configurations are identical or not. We introduce a Monte Carlo approach to obtain the global minimum of the RMSD between configurations, which is obtained from a global minimization over all translations, rotations, and permutations of atomic indices. PMID:24320265

  11. A universal metric for ferroic energy materials

    PubMed Central

    Yibole, Hargen; Zhang, Lian

    2016-01-01

    After almost 20 years of intensive research on magnetocaloric effects near room temperature, magnetic refrigeration with first-order magnetocaloric materials has come close to real-life applications. Many materials have been discussed as potential candidates to be used in multicaloric devices. However, phase transitions in ferroic materials are often hysteretic and a metric is needed to estimate the detrimental effects of this hysteresis. We propose the coefficient of refrigerant performance, which compares the net work in a reversible cycle with the positive work on the refrigerant, as a universal metric for ferroic materials. Here, we concentrate on examples from magnetocaloric materials and only consider one barocaloric experiment. This is mainly due to lack of data on electrocaloric materials. It appears that adjusting the field-induced transitions and the hysteresis effects can minimize the losses in first-order materials. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials’. PMID:27402924

  12. New Quality Metrics for Web Search Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, Panagiotis Takis; Ivanova, Lilia; Mustafaraj, Eni

    Web search results enjoy an increasing importance in our daily lives. But what can be said about their quality, especially when querying a controversial issue? The traditional information retrieval metrics of precision and recall do not provide much insight in the case of web information retrieval. In this paper we examine new ways of evaluating quality in search results: coverage and independence. We give examples on how these new metrics can be calculated and what their values reveal regarding the two major search engines, Google and Yahoo. We have found evidence of low coverage for commercial and medical controversial queries, and high coverage for a political query that is highly contested. Given the fact that search engines are unwilling to tune their search results manually, except in a few cases that have become the source of bad publicity, low coverage and independence reveal the efforts of dedicated groups to manipulate the search results.

  13. A parallel variable metric optimization algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straeter, T. A.

    1973-01-01

    An algorithm, designed to exploit the parallel computing or vector streaming (pipeline) capabilities of computers is presented. When p is the degree of parallelism, then one cycle of the parallel variable metric algorithm is defined as follows: first, the function and its gradient are computed in parallel at p different values of the independent variable; then the metric is modified by p rank-one corrections; and finally, a single univariant minimization is carried out in the Newton-like direction. Several properties of this algorithm are established. The convergence of the iterates to the solution is proved for a quadratic functional on a real separable Hilbert space. For a finite-dimensional space the convergence is in one cycle when p equals the dimension of the space. Results of numerical experiments indicate that the new algorithm will exploit parallel or pipeline computing capabilities to effect faster convergence than serial techniques.

  14. Metrics for measuring distances in configuration spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sadeghi, Ali Ghasemi, S. Alireza; Schaefer, Bastian; Mohr, Stephan; Goedecker, Stefan; Lill, Markus A.

    2013-11-14

    In order to characterize molecular structures we introduce configurational fingerprint vectors which are counterparts of quantities used experimentally to identify structures. The Euclidean distance between the configurational fingerprint vectors satisfies the properties of a metric and can therefore safely be used to measure dissimilarities between configurations in the high dimensional configuration space. In particular we show that these metrics are a perfect and computationally cheap replacement for the root-mean-square distance (RMSD) when one has to decide whether two noise contaminated configurations are identical or not. We introduce a Monte Carlo approach to obtain the global minimum of the RMSD between configurations, which is obtained from a global minimization over all translations, rotations, and permutations of atomic indices.

  15. "Your Model Is Predictive-- but Is It Useful?" Theoretical and Empirical Considerations of a New Paradigm for Adaptive Tutoring Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González-Brenes, José P.; Huang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Classification evaluation metrics are often used to evaluate adaptive tutoring systems-- programs that teach and adapt to humans. Unfortunately, it is not clear how intuitive these metrics are for practitioners with little machine learning background. Moreover, our experiments suggest that existing convention for evaluating tutoring systems may…

  16. Reliability of in-stream retention metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savickis, Jevgenijs; Zaramella, Mattia; Marion, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The temporary solute retention within transient storage zones (TSZs) has been shown to have a large effect on the transport of solute. This retention can significantly increase the overall in-stream residence time and as consequence increase the contact time of solute with aquatic interfaces (biota, sediment) and living species. An important question that arises is whether the currently available metrics adequately represent retention mechanism. This work attempts to investigate the reliability of two existing measures, the hydrological retention factor (Rh) and the fraction of median travel time due to transient storage zone (Fmed200). For this purpose, five conservative tracer tests were conducted in four European streams with distinct morphological, sediment composition, vegetation and hydraulic characteristics. The obtained breakthrough curves (BTCs) were used to derive storage zone parameters (storage zone area, storage zone exchange coefficient and mean residence time), which then were used for comparison and in the metric expressions. The storage zone parameters were computed using a single TSZ model OTIS-P and a multiple TSZ model STIR. The STIR model was applied to BTCs as an additional tool to separate TSZs into short timescale (ST) and long timescale (LT). The study results reveal correlation between Fmed200 and LT residence time T2 values, where the streams with the lowest Fmed200 (0.01-0.96) have the smallest long timescale storage zones T2 values, ranging from 912 s to 1402 s. The findings also demonstrate an influence of discharge rate on both retention metrics. The greatest Fmed200 (6.19) and Rh (0.938) values are calculated for the streams with low discharge rates (0.08-0.10 m3s‑1) and a relatively high ST storage zone residence times T1 (159 s to 351 s). Results show that the Fmed200 and Rh metrics are strongly affected by the short timescale transient storage zones, whereas the LT storage zones (hyporheic) effects are not taken into account.

  17. Reliability of in-stream retention metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savickis, Jevgenijs; Zaramella, Mattia; Marion, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The temporary solute retention within transient storage zones (TSZs) has been shown to have a large effect on the transport of solute. This retention can significantly increase the overall in-stream residence time and as consequence increase the contact time of solute with aquatic interfaces (biota, sediment) and living species. An important question that arises is whether the currently available metrics adequately represent retention mechanism. This work attempts to investigate the reliability of two existing measures, the hydrological retention factor (Rh) and the fraction of median travel time due to transient storage zone (Fmed200). For this purpose, five conservative tracer tests were conducted in four European streams with distinct morphological, sediment composition, vegetation and hydraulic characteristics. The obtained breakthrough curves (BTCs) were used to derive storage zone parameters (storage zone area, storage zone exchange coefficient and mean residence time), which then were used for comparison and in the metric expressions. The storage zone parameters were computed using a single TSZ model OTIS-P and a multiple TSZ model STIR. The STIR model was applied to BTCs as an additional tool to separate TSZs into short timescale (ST) and long timescale (LT). The study results reveal correlation between Fmed200 and LT residence time T2 values, where the streams with the lowest Fmed200 (0.01-0.96) have the smallest long timescale storage zones T2 values, ranging from 912 s to 1402 s. The findings also demonstrate an influence of discharge rate on both retention metrics. The greatest Fmed200 (6.19) and Rh (0.938) values are calculated for the streams with low discharge rates (0.08-0.10 m3s-1) and a relatively high ST storage zone residence times T1 (159 s to 351 s). Results show that the Fmed200 and Rh metrics are strongly affected by the short timescale transient storage zones, whereas the LT storage zones (hyporheic) effects are not taken into account.

  18. Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Kirkham, Harold

    2014-07-01

    To convey progress made in achieving the vision of a smart grid, this report uses a set of six characteristics derived from the National Energy Technology Laboratory Modern Grid Strategy. It measures 21 metrics to provide insight into the grid’s capacity to embody these characteristics. This report looks across a spectrum of smart grid concerns to measure the status of smart grid deployment and impacts.

  19. Math Roots: The Beginnings of the Metric System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Art; Norris, Kit; Adams,Thomasina Lott, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the history of the metric system, from a proposal of a sixteenth-century mathematician to its implementation in Revolutionary France some 200 years later. Recent developments in the metric system are also discussed.

  20. Ideal Based Cyber Security Technical Metrics for Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    W. F. Boyer; M. A. McQueen

    2007-10-01

    Much of the world's critical infrastructure is at risk from attack through electronic networks connected to control systems. Security metrics are important because they provide the basis for management decisions that affect the protection of the infrastructure. A cyber security technical metric is the security relevant output from an explicit mathematical model that makes use of objective measurements of a technical object. A specific set of technical security metrics are proposed for use by the operators of control systems. Our proposed metrics are based on seven security ideals associated with seven corresponding abstract dimensions of security. We have defined at least one metric for each of the seven ideals. Each metric is a measure of how nearly the associated ideal has been achieved. These seven ideals provide a useful structure for further metrics development. A case study shows how the proposed metrics can be applied to an operational control system.

  1. 41 CFR 105-72.205 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... system of measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act..., grants, and other business-related activities. Metric implementation may take longer where the use of...

  2. 28 CFR 70.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Metric Conversion Act, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C. 205) declares... business-related activities. Metric implementation may take longer where the use of the system is...

  3. 49 CFR 19.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C. 205), declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement... procurements, grants, and other business-related activities. Metric implementation may take longer where...

  4. 29 CFR 95.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C. 205), declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement... procurements, grants, and other business-related activities. Metric implementation may take longer where...

  5. The Jacobi metric for timelike geodesics in static spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, G. W.

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that the free motion of massive particles moving in static spacetimes is given by the geodesics of an energy-dependent Riemannian metric on the spatial sections analogous to Jacobi's metric in classical dynamics. In the massless limit Jacobi's metric coincides with the energy independent Fermat or optical metric. For stationary metrics, it is known that the motion of massless particles is given by the geodesics of an energy independent Finslerian metric of Randers type. The motion of massive particles is governed by neither a Riemannian nor a Finslerian metric. The properies of the Jacobi metric for massive particles moving outside the horizon of a Schwarschild black hole are described. By constrast with the massless case, the Gaussian curvature of the equatorial sections is not always negative.

  6. Bergman kernel, balanced metrics and black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klevtsov, Semyon

    In this thesis we explore the connections between the Kahler geometry and Landau levels on compact manifolds. We rederive the expansion of the Bergman kernel on Kahler manifolds developed by Tian, Yau, Zelditch, Lu and Catlin, using path integral and perturbation theory. The physics interpretation of this result is as an expansion of the projector of wavefunctions on the lowest Landau level, in the special case that the magnetic field is proportional to the Kahler form. This is a geometric expansion, somewhat similar to the DeWitt-Seeley-Gilkey short time expansion for the heat kernel, but in this case describing the long time limit, without depending on supersymmetry. We also generalize this expansion to supersymmetric quantum mechanics and more general magnetic fields, and explore its applications. These include the quantum Hall effect in curved space, the balanced metrics and Kahler gravity. In particular, we conjecture that for a probe in a BPS black hole in type II strings compactified on Calabi-Yau manifolds, the moduli space metric is the balanced metric.

  7. Toward a meaningful metric of implicit prejudice.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James; Strauts, Erin; Mitchell, Gregory; Tetlock, Philip E

    2015-09-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 100(5) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2015-40760-001). there are errors in some of the values listed in Table 6 that do not alter any of the conclusions or substantive statements in the original article. The corrected portion of Table 6 is in the correction. The positive intercepts in this table represent the estimated IAT score when the criterion has a value of zero (suggesting attitudinal neutrality), except in the equation examining voter preference in Greenwald et al. (2009), where the intercept estimated the IAT score of Obama voters.] The modal distribution of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) is commonly interpreted as showing high levels of implicit prejudice among Americans. These interpretations have fueled calls for changes in organizational and legal practices, but such applications are problematic because the IAT is scored on an arbitrary psychological metric. The present research was designed to make the IAT metric less arbitrary by determining the scores on IAT measures that are associated with observable racial or ethnic bias. By reexamining data from published studies, we found evidence that the IAT metric is "right biased," such that individuals who are behaviorally neutral tend to have positive IAT scores. Current scoring conventions fail to take into account these dynamics and can lead to faulty inferences about the prevalence of implicit prejudice. PMID:25602125

  8. Dynamic Density: An Air Traffic Management Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laudeman, I. V.; Shelden, S. G.; Branstrom, R.; Brasil, C. L.

    1998-01-01

    The definition of a metric of air traffic controller workload based on air traffic characteristics is essential to the development of both air traffic management automation and air traffic procedures. Dynamic density is a proposed concept for a metric that includes both traffic density (a count of aircraft in a volume of airspace) and traffic complexity (a measure of the complexity of the air traffic in a volume of airspace). It was hypothesized that a metric that includes terms that capture air traffic complexity will be a better measure of air traffic controller workload than current measures based only on traffic density. A weighted linear dynamic density function was developed and validated operationally. The proposed dynamic density function includes a traffic density term and eight traffic complexity terms. A unit-weighted dynamic density function was able to account for an average of 22% of the variance in observed controller activity not accounted for by traffic density alone. A comparative analysis of unit weights, subjective weights, and regression weights for the terms in the dynamic density equation was conducted. The best predictor of controller activity was the dynamic density equation with regression-weighted complexity terms.

  9. Hybrid Associative Memories And Metric Data Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfarb, Lev; Verma, Raj

    1988-08-01

    An approach to the design of associative memories and pattern recognition systems which utilizes efficiently hybrid architectures is illustrated. By associative memory we mean a database organization that supports retrieval by content and not only by name (or address), as is the case with practically all existing database systems. The approach is based on a general, metric, model for pattern recognition which was developed to unify in a single model two basic approaches to pattern recognition-geometric and structural-preserving the advantages of each one. The metric model offers the designer a complete freedom in the choice of both the object representation and the dissimilarity measure, and at the same time provides a single analytical framework for combining several object representations in a very efficient recognition scheme. It is our fervent hope that the paper will attract researchers interested in the development of associative memories or image recognition systems to experiment with various optical dissimilarity measures (between two images) the need for which becomes so acute with the realization of the possibilities offered by the metric model.

  10. Metric optimized gating for fetal cardiac MRI.

    PubMed

    Jansz, Michael S; Seed, Mike; van Amerom, Joshua F P; Wong, Derek; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Macgowan, Christopher K

    2010-11-01

    Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging can be used to complement echocardiography for the evaluation of the fetal heart. Cardiac imaging typically requires gating with peripheral hardware; however, a gating signal is not readily available in utero. No successful application of existing technologies to human fetal phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging has been reported to date in the literature. The purpose of this work is to develop a technique for phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal heart that does not require measurement of a gating signal. Metric optimized gating involves acquiring data without gating and retrospectively determining the proper reconstruction by optimizing an image metric. The effects of incorrect gating on phase contrast images were investigated, and the time-entropy of the series of images was found to provide a good measure of the level of corruption. The technique was validated with a pulsatile flow phantom, experiments with adult volunteers, and in vivo application in the fetal population. Images and flow curves from these measurements are presented. Additionally, numerical simulations were used to investigate the degree to which heart rate variability affects the reconstruction process. Metric optimized gating enables imaging with conventional phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging sequences in the absence of a gating signal, permitting flow measurements in the great vessels in utero.

  11. Quantitative Metrics of Robustness in River Deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Tejedor, A.; Longjas, A.; Zaliapin, I. V.

    2014-12-01

    Deltas are landforms with channels that deliver water, sediment and nutrient fluxes from rivers to oceans or inland water bodies via multiple pathways. We conceptualize a delta channel network as a rooted acyclic directed graph where channels are modeled by edges and junctions by vertices. We use spectral graph theory - mainly the geometry of the null space of the directed weighted graph Laplacian - to establish a quantitative framework for extracting important structural and dynamics-related information from river deltas. Using this information, we introduce refined metrics of system complexity, such as entropy. Entropy has been proven to be an important measure of the amount of uncertainty in stochastic systems, and therefore a surrogate of the capacity of the system to undergo changes. Here we present an entropic approach to evaluate the robustness of deltas, showing how the two components of entropy: mutual information and conditional entropy can be interpreted in this framework. We also present other metrics that include, among others, resistance distance and number of alternative paths, which quantify the structural complexity of the system. We use these metrics to better classify deltaic systems, quantify their resilience and propose possible management scenarios.

  12. Experimental validation of navigation workload metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Schryver, J.C.; Wachtel, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    Advanced digital computer display interfaces in the control room may increase operator workload. Workstation monitors provide limited display area, and information is represented in large-scale display networks. Display navigation may generate disorienting effects, require additional resources for window management, and increase memory and data integration requirements. Six ORNL employees participated in an experiment to validate proposed metrics of navigation workload in the advanced control room. The task environment was a display network consisting of 25 windows resembling a simplified Safety Parameter Display System for Pressurized Water Reactors. A repeated measures design with 3 within subjects factors was employed. The factors were task difficulty, navigation distance level, and a blocking factor. Participants were asked to monitor a single parameter or two parameters. Fourteen candidate metrics were tested. Analysis of variance of the modified task load index (MTLX) and rating subscales demonstrated substantial support for the claim that navigation of large-scale display networks can impose additional mental load. Primary and secondary task performance measures exhibited ceiling effects. Memory probes for these tasks were inadequate because they were recognition-based and coarse. Eye gaze measures were not validated, indicating a need for more refined data reduction algorithms. Strong positive correlations were found between MTLX and both navigation duration and standard deviation of pupil diameter. Further study and increased statistical power are required to validate objective navigation workload metrics.

  13. What can article-level metrics do for you?

    PubMed

    Fenner, Martin

    2013-10-01

    Article-level metrics (ALMs) provide a wide range of metrics about the uptake of an individual journal article by the scientific community after publication. They include citations, usage statistics, discussions in online comments and social media, social bookmarking, and recommendations. In this essay, we describe why article-level metrics are an important extension of traditional citation-based journal metrics and provide a number of example from ALM data collected for PLOS Biology.

  14. Decomposition-based transfer distance metric learning for image classification.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yong; Liu, Tongliang; Tao, Dacheng; Xu, Chao

    2014-09-01

    Distance metric learning (DML) is a critical factor for image analysis and pattern recognition. To learn a robust distance metric for a target task, we need abundant side information (i.e., the similarity/dissimilarity pairwise constraints over the labeled data), which is usually unavailable in practice due to the high labeling cost. This paper considers the transfer learning setting by exploiting the large quantity of side information from certain related, but different source tasks to help with target metric learning (with only a little side information). The state-of-the-art metric learning algorithms usually fail in this setting because the data distributions of the source task and target task are often quite different. We address this problem by assuming that the target distance metric lies in the space spanned by the eigenvectors of the source metrics (or other randomly generated bases). The target metric is represented as a combination of the base metrics, which are computed using the decomposed components of the source metrics (or simply a set of random bases); we call the proposed method, decomposition-based transfer DML (DTDML). In particular, DTDML learns a sparse combination of the base metrics to construct the target metric by forcing the target metric to be close to an integration of the source metrics. The main advantage of the proposed method compared with existing transfer metric learning approaches is that we directly learn the base metric coefficients instead of the target metric. To this end, far fewer variables need to be learned. We therefore obtain more reliable solutions given the limited side information and the optimization tends to be faster. Experiments on the popular handwritten image (digit, letter) classification and challenge natural image annotation tasks demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Ghost free massive gravity with singular reference metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongsheng; Li, Xin-Zhou

    2016-06-01

    An auxiliary metric (reference metric) is inevitable in massive gravity theory. In the scenario of the gauge/gravity duality, massive gravity with a singular reference metric is used to study momentum dissipation, which describes the electric and heat conductivity for normal conductors. We demonstrate in detail that the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity with a singular reference metric is ghost free.

  16. Security Metrics: A Solution in Search of a Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblatt, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Computer security is one of the most complicated and challenging fields in technology today. A security metrics program provides a major benefit: looking at the metrics on a regular basis offers early clues to changes in attack patterns or environmental factors that may require changes in security strategy. The term "security metrics" loosely…

  17. Metrication of Technical Career Education. Final Report. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feirer, John L.

    This second volume of the metrication study report contains the instructional materials developed to help the industrial and vocational education fields to use the metric system, primarily in the area of industrial arts from the seventh through the fourteenth year. The materials are presented in three sections. Section 1, Going Metric in…

  18. Understanding Acceptance of Software Metrics--A Developer Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umarji, Medha

    2009-01-01

    Software metrics are measures of software products and processes. Metrics are widely used by software organizations to help manage projects, improve product quality and increase efficiency of the software development process. However, metrics programs tend to have a high failure rate in organizations, and developer pushback is one of the sources…

  19. Regional Sustainability: The San Luis Basin Metrics Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are a number of established, scientifically supported metrics of sustainability. Many of the metrics are data intensive and require extensive effort to collect data and compute. Moreover, individual metrics may not capture all aspects of a system that are relevant to sust...

  20. Nonmaximality of known extremal metrics on torus and Klein bottle

    SciTech Connect

    Karpukhin, M A

    2013-12-31

    The El Soufi-Ilias theorem establishes a connection between minimal submanifolds of spheres and extremal metrics for eigenvalues of the Laplace-Beltrami operator. Recently, this connection was used to provide several explicit examples of extremal metrics. We investigate the properties of these metrics and prove that none of them is maximal. Bibliography: 24 titles.

  1. 36 CFR 1210.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metric system of measurement... system of measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C. 205) declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade...

  2. 45 CFR 2543.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Metric system of measurement. 2543.15 Section 2543...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 2543.15 Metric system of measurement. The Metric Conversion... system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The Act requires each...

  3. 24 CFR 84.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metric system of measurement. 84.15... measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C. 205) declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The...

  4. 32 CFR 32.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... comply with requirements concerning the use of the metric system at 32 CFR 22.530. ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metric system of measurement. 32.15 Section 32..., HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 32.15 Metric system of...

  5. 32 CFR 22.530 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR, 1991 Comp., p. 343), states that: (1) The metric system is the preferred measurement system for U... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metric system of measurement. 22.530 Section 22... of measurement. (a) Statutory requirement. The Metric Conversion Act of 1975, as amended by...

  6. 22 CFR 145.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metric system of measurement. 145.15 Section... system of measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C. 205) declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade...

  7. 40 CFR 30.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metric system of measurement. 30.15... measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C. 205), declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The...

  8. Candidate control design metrics for an agile fighter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.; Bailey, Melvin L.; Ostroff, Aaron J.

    1991-01-01

    Success in the fighter combat environment of the future will certainly demand increasing capability from aircraft technology. These advanced capabilities in the form of superagility and supermaneuverability will require special design techniques which translate advanced air combat maneuvering requirements into design criteria. Control design metrics can provide some of these techniques for the control designer. Thus study presents an overview of control design metrics and investigates metrics for advanced fighter agility. The objectives of various metric users, such as airframe designers and pilots, are differentiated from the objectives of the control designer. Using an advanced fighter model, metric values are documented over a portion of the flight envelope through piloted simulation. These metric values provide a baseline against which future control system improvements can be compared and against which a control design methodology can be developed. Agility is measured for axial, pitch, and roll axes. Axial metrics highlight acceleration and deceleration capabilities under different flight loads and include specific excess power measurements to characterize energy meneuverability. Pitch metrics cover both body-axis and wind-axis pitch rates and accelerations. Included in pitch metrics are nose pointing metrics which highlight displacement capability between the nose and the velocity vector. Roll metrics (or torsion metrics) focus on rotational capability about the wind axis.

  9. 10 CFR 600.306 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Metric system of measurement. 600.306 Section 600.306... system of measurement. (a) The Metric Conversion Act of 1975, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and... system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. (2) The metric system...

  10. 22 CFR 518.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Metric system of measurement. 518.15 Section... ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 518.15 Metric system of measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as... the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The Act requires each Federal agency...

  11. 22 CFR 226.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Metric system of measurement. 226.15 Section....S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-award Requirements § 226.15 Metric system of measurement. (a...) declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce....

  12. 40 CFR 30.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Metric system of measurement. 30.15... measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C. 205), declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The...

  13. 28 CFR 70.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Metric system of measurement. 70.15... AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 70.15 Metric system of measurement. The... that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The...

  14. 22 CFR 518.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Metric system of measurement. 518.15 Section 518... Pre-Award Requirements § 518.15 Metric system of measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as amended by... preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The Act requires each Federal agency to...

  15. 40 CFR 30.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Metric system of measurement. 30.15... measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C. 205), declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The...

  16. 10 CFR 600.115 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Metric system of measurement. 600.115 Section 600.115..., Hospitals, and Other Nonprofit Organizations Pre-Award Requirements § 600.115 Metric system of measurement...) declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The...

  17. 22 CFR 145.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Metric system of measurement. 145.15 Section... system of measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C. 205) declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade...

  18. 22 CFR 226.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Metric system of measurement. 226.15 Section....S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-award Requirements § 226.15 Metric system of measurement. (a...) declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce....

  19. 22 CFR 145.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Metric system of measurement. 145.15 Section... system of measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C. 205) declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade...

  20. 15 CFR 14.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Metric system of measurement. 14.15... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 14.15 Metric system of measurement. The Metric Conversion... system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The Act requires each...

  1. 7 CFR 3019.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Metric system of measurement. 3019.15 Section 3019.15... system of measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C. 205) declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade...

  2. 32 CFR 32.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... comply with requirements concerning the use of the metric system at 32 CFR 22.530. ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Metric system of measurement. 32.15 Section 32..., HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 32.15 Metric system of...

  3. 32 CFR 32.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... comply with requirements concerning the use of the metric system at 32 CFR 22.530. ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Metric system of measurement. 32.15 Section 32..., HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 32.15 Metric system of...

  4. 32 CFR 22.530 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR, 1991 Comp., p. 343), states that: (1) The metric system is the preferred measurement system for U... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Metric system of measurement. 22.530 Section 22... of measurement. (a) Statutory requirement. The Metric Conversion Act of 1975, as amended by...

  5. 32 CFR 22.530 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR, 1991 Comp., p. 343), states that: (1) The metric system is the preferred measurement system for U... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Metric system of measurement. 22.530 Section 22... of measurement. (a) Statutory requirement. The Metric Conversion Act of 1975, as amended by...

  6. 36 CFR 1210.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Metric system of measurement... system of measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C. 205) declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade...

  7. 22 CFR 518.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Metric system of measurement. 518.15 Section 518... Pre-Award Requirements § 518.15 Metric system of measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as amended by... preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The Act requires each Federal agency to...

  8. 10 CFR 600.306 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Metric system of measurement. 600.306 Section 600.306... system of measurement. (a) The Metric Conversion Act of 1975, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and... system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. (2) The metric system...

  9. Tide or Tsunami? The Impact of Metrics on Scholarly Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnell, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    Australian universities are increasingly resorting to the use of journal metrics such as impact factors and ranking lists in appraisal and promotion processes, and are starting to set quantitative "performance expectations" which make use of such journal-based metrics. The widespread use and misuse of research metrics is leading to…

  10. 28 CFR 70.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metric system of measurement. 70.15... AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 70.15 Metric system of measurement. The... that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The...

  11. 7 CFR 3019.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Metric system of measurement. 3019.15 Section 3019.15... system of measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C. 205) declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade...

  12. 14 CFR 1274.206 - Metric Conversion Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C. 205) declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. NASA's policy with respect to the metric measurement system is stated in NPD 8010.2, Use of the Metric System of Measurement in NASA Programs....

  13. 38 CFR 49.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metric system of... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 49.15 Metric system of...) declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The...

  14. 32 CFR 32.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... comply with requirements concerning the use of the metric system at 32 CFR 22.530. ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metric system of measurement. 32.15 Section 32..., HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 32.15 Metric system of...

  15. 36 CFR 1210.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metric system of measurement... system of measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C. 205) declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade...

  16. 40 CFR 30.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metric system of measurement. 30.15... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 30.15 Metric system of...), declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The...

  17. 45 CFR 74.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Metric system of measurement. 74.15 Section 74.15... ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 74.15 Metric system of measurement. The... that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The...

  18. 48 CFR 711.002-70 - Metric system waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Metric system waivers. 711... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS 711.002-70 Metric system waivers. (a) Criteria. The FAR 11.002(b) requirement to use the metric system of measurement for specifications and quantitative data that...

  19. 22 CFR 226.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Metric system of measurement. 226.15 Section....S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-award Requirements § 226.15 Metric system of measurement. (a...) declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce....

  20. NATIONAL LANDSCAPE METRICS BROWSER (V1.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This metric browser website describes and displays wall-to-wall landscape metrics that have been calculated for the entire conterminous U.S. The intent is to provide the user with an overview of the nature and utility of this landscape metric data set. The land cover and pattern ...

  1. Adaptive Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive managem...

  2. Structural similarity quality metrics in a coding context: exploring the space of realistic distortions.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Alan C; Zhao, Xiaonan; Pappas, Thrasyvoulos N

    2008-08-01

    Perceptual image quality metrics have explicitly accounted for human visual system (HVS) sensitivity to subband noise by estimating just noticeable distortion (JND) thresholds. A recently proposed class of quality metrics, known as structural similarity metrics (SSIM), models perception implicitly by taking into account the fact that the HVS is adapted for extracting structural information from images. We evaluate SSIM metrics and compare their performance to traditional approaches in the context of realistic distortions that arise from compression and error concealment in video compression/transmission applications. In order to better explore this space of distortions, we propose models for simulating typical distortions encountered in such applications. We compare specific SSIM implementations both in the image space and the wavelet domain; these include the complex wavelet SSIM (CWSSIM), a translation-insensitive SSIM implementation. We also propose a perceptually weighted multiscale variant of CWSSIM, which introduces a viewing distance dependence and provides a natural way to unify the structural similarity approach with the traditional JND-based perceptual approaches.

  3. Fireplace adapters

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, R.L.

    1983-12-27

    An adapter is disclosed for use with a fireplace. The stove pipe of a stove standing in a room to be heated may be connected to the flue of the chimney so that products of combustion from the stove may be safely exhausted through the flue and outwardly of the chimney. The adapter may be easily installed within the fireplace by removing the damper plate and fitting the adapter to the damper frame. Each of a pair of bolts has a portion which hooks over a portion of the damper frame and a threaded end depending from the hook portion and extending through a hole in the adapter. Nuts are threaded on the bolts and are adapted to force the adapter into a tight fit with the adapter frame.

  4. Goal-Driven Definition of Product Metrics Based on Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briand, Lionel; Morasca, Sandro; Basili, Victor R.

    1995-01-01

    Defining product metrics requires a rigorous and disciplined approach, because useful metrics depend, to a very large extent, on one's goals and assumptions about the studied software process. Unlike in more mature scientific fields, it appears difficult to devise a "universal" set of metrics in software engineering, that can be used across application environments. We propose an approach for the definition of product metrics which is driven by the experimental goals of measurement, expressed via the Goal/Question/Metric (GQM) paradigm, and is based on the mathematical properties of the metrics. This approach integrates several research contributions from the literature into a consistent, practical and rigorous approach. The approach we outline should not be considered as a complete and definitive solution, but as a starting point for discussion about a product metric definition approach widely accepted in the software engineering community. At this point, we intend to provide an intellectual process that we think is necessary to define sound software product metrics. A precise and complete documentation of such an approach will provide the information needed to make the assessment and reuse of a new metric possible. Thus, product metrics are supported by a solid theory which facilitates their review and refinement. Moreover, their definition is made less exploratory and, as a consequence, one is less likely to identify spurious correlations between process and product metrics.

  5. The mathematics of non-linear metrics for nested networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rui-Jie; Shi, Gui-Yuan; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Mariani, Manuel Sebastian

    2016-10-01

    Numerical analysis of data from international trade and ecological networks has shown that the non-linear fitness-complexity metric is the best candidate to rank nodes by importance in bipartite networks that exhibit a nested structure. Despite its relevance for real networks, the mathematical properties of the metric and its variants remain largely unexplored. Here, we perform an analytic and numeric study of the fitness-complexity metric and a new variant, called minimal extremal metric. We rigorously derive exact expressions for node scores for perfectly nested networks and show that these expressions explain the non-trivial convergence properties of the metrics. A comparison between the fitness-complexity metric and the minimal extremal metric on real data reveals that the latter can produce improved rankings if the input data are reliable.

  6. Metrication: An economic wake-up call for US industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carver, G. P.

    1993-03-01

    As the international standard of measurement, the metric system is one key to success in the global marketplace. International standards have become an important factor in international economic competition. Non-metric products are becoming increasingly unacceptable in world markets that favor metric products. Procurement is the primary federal tool for encouraging and helping U.S. industry to convert voluntarily to the metric system. Besides the perceived unwillingness of the customer, certain regulatory language, and certain legal definitions in some states, there are no major impediments to conversion of the remaining non-metric industries to metric usage. Instead, there are good reasons for changing, including an opportunity to rethink many industry standards and to take advantage of size standardization. Also, when the remaining industries adopt the metric system, they will come into conformance with federal agencies engaged in similar activities.

  7. Hybrid metric-Palatini brane system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Qi-Ming; Zhao, Li; Gu, Bao-Min; Yang, Ke; Liu, Yu-Xiao

    2016-07-01

    It is known that the metric and Palatini formalisms of gravity theories have their own interesting features but also suffer from some different drawbacks. Recently, a novel gravity theory called hybrid metric-Palatini gravity was put forward to cure or improve their individual deficiencies. The action of this gravity theory is a hybrid combination of the usual Einstein-Hilbert action and a f (R ) term constructed by the Palatini formalism. Interestingly, it seems that the existence of a light and long-range scalar field in this gravity may modify the cosmological and galactic dynamics without conflicting with the laboratory and Solar System tests. In this paper, we focus on the tensor and scalar perturbations of the thick branes in this novel gravity theory. We consider two models as examples, namely, the thick branes constructed by a background scalar field and by pure gravity. The thick branes in both models have no inner structure. However, affected by the hybrid combination of the metric and Palatini formalisms, the graviton zero mode in the first model has inner structure when the parameter in this model is larger than its critical value, which is different from the cases of general relativity and Palatini f (R ) gravity. We find that the effective four-dimensional gravity can be reproduced on the brane for both models and the scalar zero mode in the model without a background scalar field cannot be localized on the brane, which avoids a fifth force. Moreover, the stability of both brane systems against the linear perturbations can also be ensured.

  8. Documentation for FY2003 BTS GPRA Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Dirks, James A.; Pool, Rita H.

    2002-04-15

    PNNL estimated the FY2003 energy, environmental, and financial benefits (i.e., metrics) of the technologies and practices in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS). BTS uses the estimates of benefits as part of its annual budget request. This report includes an overview of the analytical approaches used to estimate energy savings for the FY2003 appropriated budget for BTS. The report also includes descriptions of key assumptions and the methodology that is used to calculate energy savings estimates for each BTS program.

  9. Documentation for FY2002 BTS GPRA Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Dirks, James A.

    2002-04-15

    PNNL estimated the FY2002 energy, environmental, and financial benefits (i.e., metrics) of the technologies and practices in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS). BTS uses the estimates of benefits as part of its annual budget request. This report includes an overview of the analytical approaches used to estimate energy savings for the FY2002 appropriated budget for BTS. The report also includes descriptions of key assumptions and the methodology that is used to calculate energy savings estimates for each BTS program.

  10. Metrics for comparing plasma mass filters

    SciTech Connect

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-10-15

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter.

  11. Metrics For Comparing Plasma Mass Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2012-08-15

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter. __________________________________________________

  12. Metrics for comparing plasma mass filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-10-01

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter.

  13. Rotating Black Holes and the Kerr Metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Roy Patrick

    2008-10-01

    Since it was first discovered in 1963 the Kerr metric has been used by relativists as a test-bed for conjectures on worm-holes, time travel, closed time-like loops, and the existence or otherwise of global Cauchy surfaces. More importantly, it has also used by astrophysicists to investigate the effects of collapsed objects on their local environments. These two groups of applications should not be confused. Astrophysical Black Holes are not the same as the Kruskal solution and its generalisations.

  14. Energy Metrics for State Government Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Trevor

    Measuring true progress towards energy conservation goals requires the accurate reporting and accounting of energy consumption. An accurate energy metrics framework is also a critical element for verifiable Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Energy conservation in government can reduce expenditures on energy costs leaving more funds available for public services. In addition to monetary savings, conserving energy can help to promote energy security, air quality, and a reduction of carbon footprint. With energy consumption/GHG inventories recently produced at the Federal level, state and local governments are beginning to also produce their own energy metrics systems. In recent years, many states have passed laws and executive orders which require their agencies to reduce energy consumption. In June 2008, SC state government established a law to achieve a 20% energy usage reduction in state buildings by 2020. This study examines case studies from other states who have established similar goals to uncover the methods used to establish an energy metrics system. Direct energy consumption in state government primarily comes from buildings and mobile sources. This study will focus exclusively on measuring energy consumption in state buildings. The case studies reveal that many states including SC are having issues gathering the data needed to accurately measure energy consumption across all state buildings. Common problems found include a lack of enforcement and incentives that encourage state agencies to participate in any reporting system. The case studies are aimed at finding the leverage used to gather the needed data. The various approaches at coercing participation will hopefully reveal methods that SC can use to establish the accurate metrics system needed to measure progress towards its 20% by 2020 energy reduction goal. Among the strongest incentives found in the case studies is the potential for monetary savings through energy efficiency. Framing energy conservation

  15. Adaptive Sampling in Hierarchical Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Knap, J; Barton, N R; Hornung, R D; Arsenlis, A; Becker, R; Jefferson, D R

    2007-07-09

    We propose an adaptive sampling methodology for hierarchical multi-scale simulation. The method utilizes a moving kriging interpolation to significantly reduce the number of evaluations of finer-scale response functions to provide essential constitutive information to a coarser-scale simulation model. The underlying interpolation scheme is unstructured and adaptive to handle the transient nature of a simulation. To handle the dynamic construction and searching of a potentially large set of finer-scale response data, we employ a dynamic metric tree database. We study the performance of our adaptive sampling methodology for a two-level multi-scale model involving a coarse-scale finite element simulation and a finer-scale crystal plasticity based constitutive law.

  16. Comparing Anisotropic Output-Based Grid Adaptation Methods by Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Loseille, Adrien; Krakos, Joshua A.; Michal, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Anisotropic grid adaptation is examined by decomposing the steps of flow solution, ad- joint solution, error estimation, metric construction, and simplex grid adaptation. Multiple implementations of each of these steps are evaluated by comparison to each other and expected analytic results when available. For example, grids are adapted to analytic metric fields and grid measures are computed to illustrate the properties of multiple independent implementations of grid adaptation mechanics. Different implementations of each step in the adaptation process can be evaluated in a system where the other components of the adaptive cycle are fixed. Detailed examination of these properties allows comparison of different methods to identify the current state of the art and where further development should be targeted.

  17. How robust is a robust policy? A comparative analysis of alternative robustness metrics for supporting robust decision analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwakkel, Jan; Haasnoot, Marjolijn

    2015-04-01

    In response to climate and socio-economic change, in various policy domains there is increasingly a call for robust plans or policies. That is, plans or policies that performs well in a very large range of plausible futures. In the literature, a wide range of alternative robustness metrics can be found. The relative merit of these alternative conceptualizations of robustness has, however, received less attention. Evidently, different robustness metrics can result in different plans or policies being adopted. This paper investigates the consequences of several robustness metrics on decision making, illustrated here by the design of a flood risk management plan. A fictitious case, inspired by a river reach in the Netherlands is used. The performance of this system in terms of casualties, damages, and costs for flood and damage mitigation actions is explored using a time horizon of 100 years, and accounting for uncertainties pertaining to climate change and land use change. A set of candidate policy options is specified up front. This set of options includes dike raising, dike strengthening, creating more space for the river, and flood proof building and evacuation options. The overarching aim is to design an effective flood risk mitigation strategy that is designed from the outset to be adapted over time in response to how the future actually unfolds. To this end, the plan will be based on the dynamic adaptive policy pathway approach (Haasnoot, Kwakkel et al. 2013) being used in the Dutch Delta Program. The policy problem is formulated as a multi-objective robust optimization problem (Kwakkel, Haasnoot et al. 2014). We solve the multi-objective robust optimization problem using several alternative robustness metrics, including both satisficing robustness metrics and regret based robustness metrics. Satisficing robustness metrics focus on the performance of candidate plans across a large ensemble of plausible futures. Regret based robustness metrics compare the

  18. Telemedicine Service Use: A New Metric

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Policy makers and funding agencies require relevant information on current practices of the use of telemedicine infrastructure and services. Several metrics have been used to describe average use of telemedicine services. None are adequate. Objective To identify and assess a new metric–consultations per site per week (C/S/W). Methods To determine existing usage, all papers and abstracts published between January 2005 and December 2009 in the Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare and Telemedicine Journal and eHealth were reviewed. Pilot studies, research projects, services reporting less than one year’s data and teleradiology services were excluded. Results In total, 210 reports of telemedicine services were identified, 77 of which provided sufficient data to calculate C/S/W. Average use was low, 1.8±3.5 (median 0.7) C/S/W, with 61% of services reporting less than 1 C/S/W and 71% reporting 2 or fewer C/S/W. Studies reporting on data from 2006 to 2009 showed less use (average 1.5±2.3; median 0.7 C/S/W) than earlier reports from 1996 to 2005 (1.7±2.5; median 0.7 C/S/W). Conclusions The use of this new metric, C/S/W, is proposed as a standard measure of telemedicine service use. The generally low results opens debate about how well current clinical services are used. PMID:23253897

  19. Defining a Standard Metric for Electricity Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Marilyn; Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Koomey, Jonathan; Brown, Richard; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H.; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jose; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B.; Greenberg, Steve; Hafemeister, David; Harris, Jeff; Harvey, Hal; Heitz, Eric; Hirst, Eric; Hummel, Holmes; Kammen, Dan; Kelly, Henry; Laitner, Skip; Levine, Mark; Lovins, Amory; Masters, Gil; McMahon, James E.; Meier, Alan; Messenger, Michael; Millhone, John; Mills, Evan; Nadel, Steve; Nordman, Bruce; Price, Lynn; Romm, Joe; Ross, Marc; Rufo, Michael; Sathaye, Jayant; Schipper, Lee; Schneider, Stephen H; Sweeney, James L; Verdict, Malcolm; Vorsatz, Diana; Wang, Devra; Weinberg, Carl; Wilk, Richard; Wilson, John; Worrell, Ernst

    2009-03-01

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction such as billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this letter we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500 MW existing coal plant operating at a 70percent capacity factor with 7percent T&D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kW h per year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO2 per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in question--Dr. Arthur H. Rosenfeld.

  20. Fanpage metrics analysis. "Study on content engagement"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Zoha; Suberamanian, Kumaran; Zanuddin, Hasmah Binti; Moghavvemi, Sedigheh; Nasir, Mohd Hairul Nizam Bin Md

    2016-08-01

    Social Media is now determined as an excellent communicative tool to connect directly with consumers. One of the most significant ways to connect with the consumers through these Social Networking Sites (SNS) is to create a facebook fanpage with brand contents and to place different posts periodically on these fanpages. In measuring social networking sites' effectiveness, corporate houses are now analyzing metrics in terms of calculating engagement rate, number of comments/share and likings in fanpages. So now, it is very important for the marketers to know the effectiveness of different contents or posts of fanpages in order to increase the fan responsiveness and engagement rate in the fan pages. In the study the authors have analyzed total 1834 brand posts from 17 international brands of Electronics companies. Data of 9 months (From December 2014 to August 2015) have been collected for analyses, which were available online in the Brand' fan pages. An econometrics analysis is conducted using Eviews 9, to determine the impact of different contents on fanpage engagement. The study picked the four most frequently posted content to determine their impact on PTA (people Talking About) metrics and Fanpage engagement activities.

  1. Hausdorff metric BV discontinuity of sweeping processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Olaf; Recupero, Vincenzo

    2016-06-01

    Sweeping processes are a class of evolution differential inclusions arising in elastoplasticity and were introduced by J.J. Moreau in the early seventies. The solution operator of the sweeping processes represents a relevant example of rate independent operator. As a particular case we get the so called play operator, which is a typical example of a hysteresis operator. The continuity properties of these operators were studied in several works. In this note we address the continuity with respect to the strict metric in the space of functions of bounded variation with values in the metric space of closed convex subsets of a Hilbert space. We provide counterexamples showing that for all BV-formulations of the sweeping process the corresponding solution operator is not continuous when its domain is endowed with the strict topology of BV and its codomain is endowed with the L1-topology. This is at variance with the play operator which has a BV-extension that is continuous in this case.

  2. Correlation metric for generalized feature extraction.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yun; Yan, Shuicheng; Huang, Thomas S

    2008-12-01

    Beyond conventional linear and kernel-based feature extraction, we propose in this paper the generalized feature extraction formulation based on the so-called Graph Embedding framework. Two novel correlation metric based algorithms are presented based on this formulation. Correlation Embedding Analysis (CEA), which incorporates both correlational mapping and discriminating analysis, boosts the discriminating power by mapping data from a high-dimensional hypersphere onto another low-dimensional hypersphere and preserving the intrinsic neighbor relations with local graph modeling. Correlational Principal Component Analysis (CPCA) generalizes the conventional Principal Component Analysis (PCA) algorithm to the case with data distributed on a high-dimensional hypersphere. Their advantages stem from two facts: 1) tailored to normalized data, which are often the outputs from the data preprocessing step, and 2) directly designed with correlation metric, which shows to be generally better than Euclidean distance for classification purpose. Extensive comparisons with existing algorithms on visual classification experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. PMID:18988954

  3. Two-Basket Approach and Emission Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K.; Schmale, J.; von Schneidemesser, E.

    2013-12-01

    Cutting the emissions of Short-Lived Climate-Forcing Air Pollutants (SLCPs) gains increasing global attention as a mitigation policy option because of direct benefits for climate and co-benefits such as improvements in air quality. Including SLCPs as target components to abate within a single basket (e.g. the Kyoto Protocol) would, however, face issues with regard to: i) additional assumptions that are required to compare SLCP emissions and CO2 emissions within a basket in terms of climatic effects, especially because of the difference in lifetimes, ii) the accountability of non-climatic effects in the emission trading between SLCPs and CO2. The idea of a two-basket approach was originally proposed as a climatic analogue to the Montreal Protocol dealing with ozone depleting substances (Jackson 2009; Daniel et al. 2012; Smith et al. 2013). In a two-basket approach, emissions are allowed to be traded within a basket but not across the baskets. While this approach potentially ensures scientifically supported emission trading (e.g. (Smith et al. 2013)), this approach leaves open the important issue of how to determine the relative weight between two baskets. Determining the weight cannot be answered by science alone, as the question involves a value judgment as stressed in metric studies (e.g. (Tanaka et al. 2010; Tanaka et al. 2013)). We discuss emission metrics in the context of a two-basket approach and present policy implications of such an approach. In a two-basket approach, the weight between two baskets needs to be determined a priori or exogenously. Here, an opportunity arises to present synergetic policy options targeted at mitigating climate change and air pollution simultaneously. In other words, this could be a strategy to encourage policymakers to consider cross-cutting issues. Under a two-basket climate policy, policymakers would be exposed to questions such as: - What type of damages caused by climate change does one choose to avoid? - To what extent

  4. Adaptive SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Freed, Melanie; Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Clarkson, Eric; Whitaker, Meredith K.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive imaging systems alter their data-acquisition configuration or protocol in response to the image information received. An adaptive pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system might acquire an initial scout image to obtain preliminary information about the radiotracer distribution and then adjust the configuration or sizes of the pinholes, the magnifications, or the projection angles in order to improve performance. This paper briefly describes two small-animal SPECT systems that allow this flexibility and then presents a framework for evaluating adaptive systems in general, and adaptive SPECT systems in particular. The evaluation is in terms of the performance of linear observers on detection or estimation tasks. Expressions are derived for the ideal linear (Hotelling) observer and the ideal linear (Wiener) estimator with adaptive imaging. Detailed expressions for the performance figures of merit are given, and possible adaptation rules are discussed. PMID:18541485

  5. Coverage Metrics for Requirements-Based Testing: Evaluation of Effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staats, Matt; Whalen, Michael W.; Heindahl, Mats P. E.; Rajan, Ajitha

    2010-01-01

    In black-box testing, the tester creates a set of tests to exercise a system under test without regard to the internal structure of the system. Generally, no objective metric is used to measure the adequacy of black-box tests. In recent work, we have proposed three requirements coverage metrics, allowing testers to objectively measure the adequacy of a black-box test suite with respect to a set of requirements formalized as Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) properties. In this report, we evaluate the effectiveness of these coverage metrics with respect to fault finding. Specifically, we conduct an empirical study to investigate two questions: (1) do test suites satisfying a requirements coverage metric provide better fault finding than randomly generated test suites of approximately the same size?, and (2) do test suites satisfying a more rigorous requirements coverage metric provide better fault finding than test suites satisfying a less rigorous requirements coverage metric? Our results indicate (1) only one coverage metric proposed -- Unique First Cause (UFC) coverage -- is sufficiently rigorous to ensure test suites satisfying the metric outperform randomly generated test suites of similar size and (2) that test suites satisfying more rigorous coverage metrics provide better fault finding than test suites satisfying less rigorous coverage metrics.

  6. Adaptive Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, William

    1999-01-01

    Provides information on various adaptive technology resources available to people with disabilities. (Contains 19 references, an annotated list of 129 websites, and 12 additional print resources.) (JOW)

  7. Contour adaptation.

    PubMed

    Anstis, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    It is known that adaptation to a disk that flickers between black and white at 3-8 Hz on a gray surround renders invisible a congruent gray test disk viewed afterwards. This is contrast adaptation. We now report that adapting simply to the flickering circular outline of the disk can have the same effect. We call this "contour adaptation." This adaptation does not transfer interocularly, and apparently applies only to luminance, not color. One can adapt selectively to only some of the contours in a display, making only these contours temporarily invisible. For instance, a plaid comprises a vertical grating superimposed on a horizontal grating. If one first adapts to appropriate flickering vertical lines, the vertical components of the plaid disappears and it looks like a horizontal grating. Also, we simulated a Cornsweet (1970) edge, and we selectively adapted out the subjective and objective contours of a Kanisza (1976) subjective square. By temporarily removing edges, contour adaptation offers a new technique to study the role of visual edges, and it demonstrates how brightness information is concentrated in edges and propagates from them as it fills in surfaces.

  8. Retrieval of noisy fingerprint patterns using metric attractor networks.

    PubMed

    González, Mario; Dominguez, David; Rodríguez, Francisco B; Sánchez, Ángel

    2014-11-01

    This work experimentally analyzes the learning and retrieval capabilities of the diluted metric attractor neural network when applied to collections of fingerprint images. The computational cost of the network decreases with the dilution, so we can increase the region of interest to cover almost the complete fingerprint. The network retrieval was successfully tested for different noisy configurations of the fingerprints, and proved to be robust with a large basin of attraction. We showed that network topologies with a 2D-Grid arrangement adapt better to the fingerprints spatial structure, outperforming the typical 1D-Ring configuration. An optimal ratio of local connections to random shortcuts that better represent the intrinsic spatial structure of the fingerprints was found, and its influence on the retrieval quality was characterized in a phase diagram. Since the present model is a set of nonlinear equations, it is possible to go beyond the naïve static solution (consisting in matching two fingerprints using a fixed distance threshold value), and a crossing evolution of similarities was shown, leading to the retrieval of the right fingerprint from an apparently more distant candidate. This feature could be very useful for fingerprint verification to discriminate between fingerprints pairs.

  9. A remodelling metric for angular fibre distributions and its application to diseased carotid bifurcations.

    PubMed

    Creane, Arthur; Maher, Eoghan; Sultan, Sherif; Hynes, Niamh; Kelly, Daniel J; Lally, Caitríona

    2012-07-01

    Many soft biological tissues contain collagen fibres, which act as major load bearing constituents. The orientation and the dispersion of these fibres influence the macroscopic mechanical properties of the tissue and are therefore of importance in several areas of research including constitutive model development, tissue engineering and mechanobiology. Qualitative comparisons between these fibre architectures can be made using vector plots of mean orientations and contour plots of fibre dispersion but quantitative comparison cannot be achieved using these methods. We propose a 'remodelling metric' between two angular fibre distributions, which represents the mean rotational effort required to transform one into the other. It is an adaptation of the earth mover's distance, a similarity measure between two histograms/signatures used in image analysis, which represents the minimal cost of transforming one distribution into the other by moving distribution mass around. In this paper, its utility is demonstrated by considering the change in fibre architecture during a period of plaque growth in finite element models of the carotid bifurcation. The fibre architecture is predicted using a strain-based remodelling algorithm. We investigate the remodelling metric's potential as a clinical indicator of plaque vulnerability by comparing results between symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid bifurcations. Fibre remodelling was found to occur at regions of plaque burden. As plaque thickness increased, so did the remodelling metric. A measure of the total predicted fibre remodelling during plaque growth, TRM, was found to be higher in the symptomatic group than in the asymptomatic group. Furthermore, a measure of the total fibre remodelling per plaque size, TRM/TPB, was found to be significantly higher in the symptomatic vessels. The remodelling metric may prove to be a useful tool in other soft tissues and engineered scaffolds where fibre adaptation is also present. PMID:22086167

  10. Measurable Control System Security through Ideal Driven Technical Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Sean McBride; Marie Farrar; Zachary Tudor

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division supported development of a small set of security ideals as a framework to establish measurable control systems security. Based on these ideals, a draft set of proposed technical metrics was developed to allow control systems owner-operators to track improvements or degradations in their individual control systems security posture. The technical metrics development effort included review and evaluation of over thirty metrics-related documents. On the bases of complexity, ambiguity, or misleading and distorting effects the metrics identified during the reviews were determined to be weaker than necessary to aid defense against the myriad threats posed by cyber-terrorism to human safety, as well as to economic prosperity. Using the results of our metrics review and the set of security ideals as a starting point for metrics development, we identified thirteen potential technical metrics - with at least one metric supporting each ideal. Two case study applications of the ideals and thirteen metrics to control systems were then performed to establish potential difficulties in applying both the ideals and the metrics. The case studies resulted in no changes to the ideals, and only a few deletions and refinements to the thirteen potential metrics. This led to a final proposed set of ten core technical metrics. To further validate the security ideals, the modifications made to the original thirteen potential metrics, and the final proposed set of ten core metrics, seven separate control systems security assessments performed over the past three years were reviewed for findings and recommended mitigations. These findings and mitigations were then mapped to the security ideals and metrics to assess gaps in their coverage. The mappings indicated that there are no gaps in the security ideals and that the ten core technical metrics provide significant coverage of standard security issues with 87% coverage. Based

  11. Similarity Metrics for Closed Loop Dynamic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark S.; Yang, Lee C.; Bedrossian, Naz; Hall, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    To what extent and in what ways can two closed-loop dynamic systems be said to be "similar?" This question arises in a wide range of dynamic systems modeling and control system design applications. For example, bounds on error models are fundamental to the controller optimization with modern control design methods. Metrics such as the structured singular value are direct measures of the degree to which properties such as stability or performance are maintained in the presence of specified uncertainties or variations in the plant model. Similarly, controls-related areas such as system identification, model reduction, and experimental model validation employ measures of similarity between multiple realizations of a dynamic system. Each area has its tools and approaches, with each tool more or less suited for one application or the other. Similarity in the context of closed-loop model validation via flight test is subtly different from error measures in the typical controls oriented application. Whereas similarity in a robust control context relates to plant variation and the attendant affect on stability and performance, in this context similarity metrics are sought that assess the relevance of a dynamic system test for the purpose of validating the stability and performance of a "similar" dynamic system. Similarity in the context of system identification is much more relevant than are robust control analogies in that errors between one dynamic system (the test article) and another (the nominal "design" model) are sought for the purpose of bounding the validity of a model for control design and analysis. Yet system identification typically involves open-loop plant models which are independent of the control system (with the exception of limited developments in closed-loop system identification which is nonetheless focused on obtaining open-loop plant models from closed-loop data). Moreover the objectives of system identification are not the same as a flight test and

  12. Quantitative adaptation analytics for assessing dynamic systems of systems: LDRD Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gauthier, John H.; Miner, Nadine E.; Wilson, Michael L.; Le, Hai D.; Kao, Gio K.; Melander, Darryl J.; Longsine, Dennis Earl; Vander Meer, Jr., Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Our society is increasingly reliant on systems and interoperating collections of systems, known as systems of systems (SoS). These SoS are often subject to changing missions (e.g., nation- building, arms-control treaties), threats (e.g., asymmetric warfare, terrorism), natural environments (e.g., climate, weather, natural disasters) and budgets. How well can SoS adapt to these types of dynamic conditions? This report details the results of a three year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project aimed at developing metrics and methodologies for quantifying the adaptability of systems and SoS. Work products include: derivation of a set of adaptability metrics, a method for combining the metrics into a system of systems adaptability index (SoSAI) used to compare adaptability of SoS designs, development of a prototype dynamic SoS (proto-dSoS) simulation environment which provides the ability to investigate the validity of the adaptability metric set, and two test cases that evaluate the usefulness of a subset of the adaptability metrics and SoSAI for distinguishing good from poor adaptability in a SoS. Intellectual property results include three patents pending: A Method For Quantifying Relative System Adaptability, Method for Evaluating System Performance, and A Method for Determining Systems Re-Tasking.

  13. Performance metrics for the evaluation of hyperspectral chemical identification systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truslow, Eric; Golowich, Steven; Manolakis, Dimitris; Ingle, Vinay

    2016-02-01

    Remote sensing of chemical vapor plumes is a difficult but important task for many military and civilian applications. Hyperspectral sensors operating in the long-wave infrared regime have well-demonstrated detection capabilities. However, the identification of a plume's chemical constituents, based on a chemical library, is a multiple hypothesis testing problem which standard detection metrics do not fully describe. We propose using an additional performance metric for identification based on the so-called Dice index. Our approach partitions and weights a confusion matrix to develop both the standard detection metrics and identification metric. Using the proposed metrics, we demonstrate that the intuitive system design of a detector bank followed by an identifier is indeed justified when incorporating performance information beyond the standard detection metrics.

  14. Climate adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinzig, Ann P.

    2015-03-01

    This paper is intended as a brief introduction to climate adaptation in a conference devoted otherwise to the physics of sustainable energy. Whereas mitigation involves measures to reduce the probability of a potential event, such as climate change, adaptation refers to actions that lessen the impact of climate change. Mitigation and adaptation differ in other ways as well. Adaptation does not necessarily have to be implemented immediately to be effective; it only needs to be in place before the threat arrives. Also, adaptation does not necessarily require global, coordinated action; many effective adaptation actions can be local. Some urban communities, because of land-use change and the urban heat-island effect, currently face changes similar to some expected under climate change, such as changes in water availability, heat-related morbidity, or changes in disease patterns. Concern over those impacts might motivate the implementation of measures that would also help in climate adaptation, despite skepticism among some policy makers about anthropogenic global warming. Studies of ancient civilizations in the southwestern US lends some insight into factors that may or may not be important to successful adaptation.

  15. Clean Cities 2014 Annual Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Caley; Singer, Mark

    2015-12-22

    Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2014 Annual Metrics Report.

  16. Clean Cities 2013 Annual Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.; Singer, M.

    2014-10-01

    Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2013 Annual Metrics Report.

  17. Nonintegrability of the Zipoy-Voorhees metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukes-Gerakopoulos, Georgios

    2012-08-01

    The low frequency gravitational wave detectors like the evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna/New Gravitational Wave Observatory (eLISA/NGO) will give us the opportunity to test whether the supermassive compact objects lying at the centers of galaxies are indeed Kerr black holes. One way to do such a test is to compare the gravitational wave signals with templates of perturbed black hole spacetimes, the so-called bumpy black hole spacetimes. The Zipoy-Voorhees (ZV) spacetime (known also as the γ spacetime) can be included in the bumpy black hole family, since it can be considered as a perturbation of the Schwarzschild spacetime background. Several authors have suggested that the ZV metric corresponds to an integrable system. Contrary to this integrability conjecture, the present article shows by numerical examples that, in general, ZV belongs to the family of nonintegrable systems.

  18. Metric projection for dynamic multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Jurman, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Evolving multiplex networks are a powerful model for representing the dynamics along time of different phenomena, such as social networks, power grids, biological pathways. However, exploring the structure of the multiplex network time series is still an open problem. Here we propose a two-step strategy to tackle this problem based on the concept of distance (metric) between networks. Given a multiplex graph, first a network of networks is built for each time step, and then a real valued time series is obtained by the sequence of (simple) networks by evaluating the distance from the first element of the series. The effectiveness of this approach in detecting the occurring changes along the original time series is shown on a synthetic example first, and then on the Gulf dataset of political events.

  19. Metric Learning to Enhance Hyperspectral Image Segmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David R.; Castano, Rebecca; Bue, Brian; Gilmore, Martha S.

    2013-01-01

    Unsupervised hyperspectral image segmentation can reveal spatial trends that show the physical structure of the scene to an analyst. They highlight borders and reveal areas of homogeneity and change. Segmentations are independently helpful for object recognition, and assist with automated production of symbolic maps. Additionally, a good segmentation can dramatically reduce the number of effective spectra in an image, enabling analyses that would otherwise be computationally prohibitive. Specifically, using an over-segmentation of the image instead of individual pixels can reduce noise and potentially improve the results of statistical post-analysis. In this innovation, a metric learning approach is presented to improve the performance of unsupervised hyperspectral image segmentation. The prototype demonstrations attempt a superpixel segmentation in which the image is conservatively over-segmented; that is, the single surface features may be split into multiple segments, but each individual segment, or superpixel, is ensured to have homogenous mineralogy.

  20. The metric-restricted inverse design problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Amit; Lewicka, Marta; Pakzad, Mohammad Reza

    2016-06-01

    We study a class of design problems in solid mechanics, leading to a variation on the classical question of equi-dimensional embeddability of Riemannian manifolds. In this general new context, we derive a necessary and sufficient existence condition, given through a system of total differential equations, and discuss its integrability. In the classical context, the same approach yields conditions of immersibility of a given metric in terms of the Riemann curvature tensor. In the present situation, the equations do not close in a straightforward manner, and successive differentiation of the compatibility conditions leads to a new algebraic description of integrability. We also recast the problem in a variational setting and analyze the infimum of the appropriate incompatibility energy, resembling the non-Euclidean elasticity. We then derive a Γ -convergence result for dimension reduction from 3d to 2d in the Kirchhoff energy scaling regime.

  1. Reuse Metrics for Object Oriented Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bieman, James M.

    1998-01-01

    One way to increase the quality of software products and the productivity of software development is to reuse existing software components when building new software systems. In order to monitor improvements in reuse, the level of reuse must be measured. In this NASA supported project we (1) derived a suite of metrics which quantify reuse attributes for object oriented, object based, and procedural software, (2) designed prototype tools to take these measurements in Ada, C++, Java, and C software, (3) evaluated the reuse in available software, (4) analyzed the relationship between coupling, cohesion, inheritance, and reuse, (5) collected object oriented software systems for our empirical analyses, and (6) developed quantitative criteria and methods for restructuring software to improve reusability.

  2. Einstein metrics and Brans-Dicke superfields

    SciTech Connect

    Marques, S.

    1988-01-01

    It is obtained here a space conformal to the Einstein space-time, making the transition from an internal bosonic space, constructed with the Majorana constant spinors in the Majorana representation, to a bosonic ''superspace,'' through the use of Einstein vierbeins. These spaces are related to a Grassmann space constructed with the Majorana spinors referred to above, where the ''metric'' is a function of internal bosonic coordinates. The conformal function is a scale factor in the zone of gravitational radiation. A conformal function dependent on space-time coordinates can be constructed in that region when we introduce Majorana spinors which are functions of those coordinates. With this we obtain a scalar field of Brans-Dicke type. 11 refs.

  3. New Metrics for Observatory Publication Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rots, A.; Winkelman, S.; Becker, G.

    2012-09-01

    We are proposing several new publication metrics that are more meaningful and less sensitive to observatory-specific characteristics than the traditional ones. They fall into three main categories: speed of publication; fraction of observing time published; and archival usage. Citation of results is a fourth category, but it lends itself less well to definite statements. Applied to the bibliography of the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the median time from observation to publication is 2.36 years; after about seven years 90% of the observing time is published; the total annual publication output of the mission is 60-70% of the cumulative observing time available, assuming a two year lag between data retrieval and publication; and after seven years approximately 60% of available exposure time is published more than twice.

  4. Metric projection for dynamic multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Jurman, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Evolving multiplex networks are a powerful model for representing the dynamics along time of different phenomena, such as social networks, power grids, biological pathways. However, exploring the structure of the multiplex network time series is still an open problem. Here we propose a two-step strategy to tackle this problem based on the concept of distance (metric) between networks. Given a multiplex graph, first a network of networks is built for each time step, and then a real valued time series is obtained by the sequence of (simple) networks by evaluating the distance from the first element of the series. The effectiveness of this approach in detecting the occurring changes along the original time series is shown on a synthetic example first, and then on the Gulf dataset of political events. PMID:27626089

  5. Development of Technology Transfer Economic Growth Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastrangelo, Christina M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to determine the feasibility of producing technology transfer metrics that answer the question: Do NASA/MSFC technical assistance activities impact economic growth? The data for this project resides in a 7800-record database maintained by Tec-Masters, Incorporated. The technology assistance data results from survey responses from companies and individuals who have interacted with NASA via a Technology Transfer Agreement, or TTA. The goal of this project was to determine if the existing data could provide indications of increased wealth. This work demonstrates that there is evidence that companies that used NASA technology transfer have a higher job growth rate than the rest of the economy. It also shows that the jobs being supported are jobs in higher wage SIC codes, and this indicates improvements in personal wealth. Finally, this work suggests that with correct data, the wealth issue may be addressed.

  6. Meaningful metrics for observatory publication statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rots, Arnold H.; Winkelman, Sherry L.; Becker, Glenn E.

    2012-09-01

    Observatories have wrestled for decades with the questions how to measure their importance to the astronomical community, what their scientific impact is, and how their performance in that respect compares to that of other observatories. There is a general sense that the answer is to be found in the publication record - specifically, in the refereed journal articles. However, simple parameters (such as the number of papers) are not helpful, because in isolation (applied to a single observatory) they are meaningless, while in comparison between observatories they are subject to external influences that all but invalidate the comparisons. We were fortunate in having the Chandra X-ray Observatory's bibliographic database with its rich variety of metadata available as a resource for experimenting with more sophisticated metrics. Out of this project we propose a modest set that contains meaningful information when viewed in the isolation of a single observatory as well as in comparison with other observatories. Even so, we urge users not to draw conclusions on the basis of the face value of the comparisons, but only after a serious analysis of potential causes for any differences or similarities. We have designed our metrics to provide useful information in three main areas of interest: speed of publication; fraction of observing time published; and archival usage. The basic measured parameters are the percentage of available observing time published as a function of the data's age, at a few specific age values; the median time it takes to publish observations; and similar parameters for multiple publications of the same observations. Citation of results is a fourth category, but it does not lend itself well to comparisons and defies the search for definite statements.

  7. Distance metrics for heme protein electron tunneling.

    PubMed

    Moser, Christopher C; Chobot, Sarah E; Page, Christopher C; Dutton, P Leslie

    2008-01-01

    There is no doubt that distance is the principal parameter that sets the order of magnitude for electron-tunneling rates in proteins. However, there continue to be varying ways to measure electron-tunneling distances in proteins. This distance uncertainty blurs the issue of whether the intervening protein medium has been naturally selected to speed or slow any particular electron-tunneling reaction. For redox cofactors lacking metals, an edge of the cofactor can be defined that approximates the extent in space that includes most of the wavefunction associated with its tunneling electron. Beyond this edge, the wavefunction tails off much more dramatically in space. The conjugated porphyrin ring seems a reasonable edge for the metal-free pheophytins and bacteriopheophytins of photosynthesis. For a metal containing redox cofactor such as heme, an appropriate cofactor edge is more ambiguous. Electron-tunneling distance may be measured from the conjugated heme macrocycle edge or from the metal, which can be up to 4.8 A longer. In a typical protein medium, such a distance difference normally corresponds to a approximately 1000 fold decrease in tunneling rate. To address this ambiguity, we consider both natural heme protein electron transfer and light-activated electron transfer in ruthenated heme proteins. We find that the edge of the conjugated heme macrocycle provides a reliable and useful tunneling distance definition consistent with other biological electron-tunneling reactions. Furthermore, with this distance metric, heme axially- and edge-oriented electron transfers appear similar and equally well described by a simple square barrier tunneling model. This is in contrast to recent reports for metal-to-metal metrics that require exceptionally poor donor/acceptor couplings to explain heme axially-oriented electron transfers.

  8. Bibliometrics: tracking research impact by selecting the appropriate metrics.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashok; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Tatagari, Sindhuja; Esteves, Sandro C; Harlev, Avi; Henkel, Ralf; Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Homa, Sheryl; Puchalt, Nicolás Garrido; Ramasamy, Ranjith; Majzoub, Ahmad; Ly, Kim Dao; Tvrda, Eva; Assidi, Mourad; Kesari, Kavindra; Sharma, Reecha; Banihani, Saleem; Ko, Edmund; Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad; Gosalvez, Jaime; Bashiri, Asher

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, the success of a researcher is assessed by the number of publications he or she publishes in peer-reviewed, indexed, high impact journals. This essential yardstick, often referred to as the impact of a specific researcher, is assessed through the use of various metrics. While researchers may be acquainted with such matrices, many do not know how to use them to enhance their careers. In addition to these metrics, a number of other factors should be taken into consideration to objectively evaluate a scientist's profile as a researcher and academician. Moreover, each metric has its own limitations that need to be considered when selecting an appropriate metric for evaluation. This paper provides a broad overview of the wide array of metrics currently in use in academia and research. Popular metrics are discussed and defined, including traditional metrics and article-level metrics, some of which are applied to researchers for a greater understanding of a particular concept, including varicocele that is the thematic area of this Special Issue of Asian Journal of Andrology. We recommend the combined use of quantitative and qualitative evaluation using judiciously selected metrics for a more objective assessment of scholarly output and research impact.

  9. Two Similarity Metrics for Medical Subject Headings (MeSH):

    PubMed Central

    Smalheiser, Neil R.; Bonifield, Gary

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, we have created and characterized several similarity metrics for relating any two Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms) to each other. The article-based metric measures the tendency of two MeSH terms to appear in the MEDLINE record of the same article. The author-based metric measures the tendency of two MeSH terms to appear in the body of articles written by the same individual (using the 2009 Author-ity author name disambiguation dataset as a gold standard). The two metrics are only modestly correlated with each other (r = 0.50), indicating that they capture different aspects of term usage. The article-based metric provides a measure of semantic relatedness, and MeSH term pairs that co-occur more often than expected by chance may reflect relations between the two terms. In contrast, the author metric is indicative of how individuals practice science, and may have value for author name disambiguation and studies of scientific discovery. We have calculated article metrics for all MeSH terms appearing in at least 25 articles in MEDLINE (as of 2014) and author metrics for MeSH terms published as of 2009. The dataset is freely available for download and can be queried at http://arrowsmith.psych.uic.edu/arrowsmith_uic/mesh_pair_metrics.html. Handling editor: Elizabeth Workman, MLIS, PhD. PMID:27213780

  10. Degeneration of ALF D{sub n} metrics.

    SciTech Connect

    Chalmers, G.; Rocek, M.; Wiles, S.; High Energy Physics; State Univ. of New York

    1999-01-01

    Beginning with the Legendre transform construction of hyperkahler metrics, we analyze the ALF version of the D{sub n} metrics. We determine the constraint equation obtained from extremizing the w coordinate of the generating function F(z; {bar z}; u; {bar u};w) and study its behavior as we send two of the mass parameters of the D{sub n} metric to zero. We find that the constraint equation enforces the limit that the metric becomes that of multi-Taub-NUT.

  11. Citation Metrics: A Primer on How (Not) to Normalize

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidis, John P. A.; Boyack, Kevin; Wouters, Paul F.

    2016-01-01

    Citation metrics are increasingly used to appraise published research. One challenge is whether and how to normalize these metrics to account for differences across scientific fields, age (year of publication), type of document, database coverage, and other factors. We discuss the pros and cons for normalizations using different approaches. Additional challenges emerge when citation metrics need to be combined across multiple papers to appraise the corpus of scientists, institutions, journals, or countries, as well as when trying to attribute credit in multiauthored papers. Different citation metrics may offer complementary insights, but one should carefully consider the assumptions that underlie their calculation. PMID:27599158

  12. Bibliometrics: tracking research impact by selecting the appropriate metrics

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ashok; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Tatagari, Sindhuja; Esteves, Sandro C; Harlev, Avi; Henkel, Ralf; Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Homa, Sheryl; Puchalt, Nicolás Garrido; Ramasamy, Ranjith; Majzoub, Ahmad; Ly, Kim Dao; Tvrda, Eva; Assidi, Mourad; Kesari, Kavindra; Sharma, Reecha; Banihani, Saleem; Ko, Edmund; Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad; Gosalvez, Jaime; Bashiri, Asher

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, the success of a researcher is assessed by the number of publications he or she publishes in peer-reviewed, indexed, high impact journals. This essential yardstick, often referred to as the impact of a specific researcher, is assessed through the use of various metrics. While researchers may be acquainted with such matrices, many do not know how to use them to enhance their careers. In addition to these metrics, a number of other factors should be taken into consideration to objectively evaluate a scientist's profile as a researcher and academician. Moreover, each metric has its own limitations that need to be considered when selecting an appropriate metric for evaluation. This paper provides a broad overview of the wide array of metrics currently in use in academia and research. Popular metrics are discussed and defined, including traditional metrics and article-level metrics, some of which are applied to researchers for a greater understanding of a particular concept, including varicocele that is the thematic area of this Special Issue of Asian Journal of Andrology. We recommend the combined use of quantitative and qualitative evaluation using judiciously selected metrics for a more objective assessment of scholarly output and research impact. PMID:26806079

  13. Metric space formulation of quantum mechanical conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, P. M.; D'Amico, I.

    2014-03-01

    We show that conservation laws in quantum mechanics naturally lead to metric spaces for the set of related physical quantities. All such metric spaces have an "onion-shell" geometry. We demonstrate the power of this approach by considering many-body systems immersed in a magnetic field, with a finite ground state current. In the associated metric spaces we find regions of allowed and forbidden distances, a "band structure" in metric space directly arising from the conservation of the z component of the angular momentum.

  14. Citation Metrics: A Primer on How (Not) to Normalize.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, John P A; Boyack, Kevin; Wouters, Paul F

    2016-09-01

    Citation metrics are increasingly used to appraise published research. One challenge is whether and how to normalize these metrics to account for differences across scientific fields, age (year of publication), type of document, database coverage, and other factors. We discuss the pros and cons for normalizations using different approaches. Additional challenges emerge when citation metrics need to be combined across multiple papers to appraise the corpus of scientists, institutions, journals, or countries, as well as when trying to attribute credit in multiauthored papers. Different citation metrics may offer complementary insights, but one should carefully consider the assumptions that underlie their calculation. PMID:27599158

  15. On maximal analytical extension of the Vaidya metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, V. A.; Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu N.

    2016-07-01

    The classical Vaidya metric is transformed to the special diagonal coordinates in the case of the linear mass function allowing rather easy treatment. We find the exact analytical expressions for metric functions in these diagonal coordinates. Using these coordinates, we elaborate the maximum analytic extension of the Vaidya metric with a linear growth of the black hole mass and construct the corresponding Carter–Penrose diagrams for different specific cases. The derived global geometry is also seemingly valid for a more general behavior of the black hole mass in the Vaidya metric.

  16. Validity of a factorizable metric ansatz in string cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro

    2005-02-15

    To support the validity of a factorizable metric ansatz used in string cosmology, we investigate a toy problem in the Randall-Sundrum I model. For this purpose, we revise the gradient expansion method to conform to the factorizable metric ansatz. By solving the five-dimensional equations of motion and substituting the results into the action, we obtain the four-dimensional effective action. It turns out that the resultant action is equivalent to that obtained by assuming the factorizable metric ansatz. Our analysis gives the support of the validity of the factorizable metric ansatz.

  17. Computations in isometry groups of finite metric spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ganyushkin, A.G.; Sushchanskii, V.I.; Tsvirkunov, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    A meaningful analysis of the structure or properties of a finite metric space requires using its isometry group. This is the group of permutations on the set of points in the space that preserves the binary relations {open_quotes}the points x and y are at a given distance from one another.{close_quotes} The theory of isometry groups of finite metric spaces is therefore a component of the theory of invariant relations of permutation groups. In the framework of their research, Kaluzhnin and his students have obtained a number of deep results. The theory of invariant relations is very useful also because it leads to an efficient programming system for computations in permutation groups defined by their invariant relations and in the associated combinatorial-algebraic objects. This suggests that the approaches and methodology of the general theory may be applied to study isometry groups of finite metric spaces. Direct extension of the results and the algorithms is not always the best strategy, because the specific features of metric spaces can be exploited to analyze the topic in greater detail and to construct more efficient computer algorithms. Section 1 considers the concept of isomorphism of metric spaces and shows that any finite metric space is isomorphic to a space with a metric whose nonzero values completely fill some interval of the natural series. We introduce the chromatic graph associated with a metric space and count the number of pairwise nonisomorphic metric spaces whose chromatic graphs are isomorphic to the given chromatic graph.

  18. Simple approach to improving the extraction of canopy metrics from airborne laser scanning data for tropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Zhengyang; Xu, Qing; Zhang, Chao; Maltamo, Matti; Tokola, Timo

    2016-01-01

    We aim to improve the predictive mapping of stem volume with airborne laser scanning (ALS) data acquired in Laos by adapting the area-based approach (ABA) to a tropical context. Separating laser returns of bushes from main stories with a cut-off threshold is a step very important to the ABA. The adaptation focused here on applying global and plot-adaptive cut-off thresholds to improve the extraction of canopy metrics. In order to select the optimal global cut-off threshold for removing understory bushes and ground objects, a sensitivity analysis of the modeling efficacy to the global cut-off threshold was conducted in the range from 0 to 5 m at 0.1-m intervals. To account for structural variation between plots, a simple plot-adaptive method was proposed for adjusting the threshold of each specific plot. The results showed that the optimal global cut-off threshold, which implicitly assumed the forest structure being homogeneous for all plots was 3.6 m. A model based on the plot-adaptive cut-off thresholds achieved better accuracy (RMSE 28%) than did the optimal global threshold-based model (RMSE 30%). It is concluded that the ALS-based canopy metrics extracted using the plot-adaptive method describe the structural heterogeneity of tropical forests adequately, whereas the global thresholding method is contingent on the forest structure being simple.

  19. Toothbrush Adaptations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Suggestions are presented for helping disabled individuals learn to use or adapt toothbrushes for proper dental care. A directory lists dental health instructional materials available from various organizations. (CB)

  20. Practical Diagnostics for Evaluating Residential Commissioning Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, Craig; Walker, Iain; Siegel, Jeff; Sherman, Max

    2002-06-11

    In this report, we identify and describe 24 practical diagnostics that are ready now to evaluate residential commissioning metrics, and that we expect to include in the commissioning guide. Our discussion in the main body of this report is limited to existing diagnostics in areas of particular concern with significant interactions: envelope and HVAC systems. These areas include insulation quality, windows, airtightness, envelope moisture, fan and duct system airflows, duct leakage, cooling equipment charge, and combustion appliance backdrafting with spillage. Appendix C describes the 83 other diagnostics that we have examined in the course of this project, but that are not ready or are inappropriate for residential commissioning. Combined with Appendix B, Table 1 in the main body of the report summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of all 107 diagnostics. We first describe what residential commissioning is, its characteristic elements, and how one might structure its process. Our intent in this discussion is to formulate and clarify these issues, but is largely preliminary because such a practice does not yet exist. Subsequent sections of the report describe metrics one can use in residential commissioning, along with the consolidated set of 24 practical diagnostics that the building industry can use now to evaluate them. Where possible, we also discuss the accuracy and usability of diagnostics, based on recent laboratory work and field studies by LBNL staff and others in more than 100 houses. These studies concentrate on evaluating diagnostics in the following four areas: the DeltaQ duct leakage test, air-handler airflow tests, supply and return grille airflow tests, and refrigerant charge tests. Appendix A describes those efforts in detail. In addition, where possible, we identify the costs to purchase diagnostic equipment and the amount of time required to conduct the diagnostics. Table 1 summarizes these data. Individual equipment costs for the 24

  1. NEW CATEGORICAL METRICS FOR AIR QUALITY MODEL EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional categorical metrics used in model evaluations are "clear-cut" measures in that the model's ability to predict an exceedance is defined by a fixed threshold concentration and the metrics are defined by observation-forecast sets that are paired both in space and time. T...

  2. 24 CFR 84.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Metric system of measurement. 84.15 Section 84.15 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 84.15 Metric system...

  3. 24 CFR 84.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Metric system of measurement. 84.15 Section 84.15 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 84.15 Metric system...

  4. 24 CFR 84.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Metric system of measurement. 84.15 Section 84.15 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 84.15 Metric system...

  5. 24 CFR 84.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Metric system of measurement. 84.15 Section 84.15 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 84.15 Metric system...

  6. Word Maturity: A New Metric for Word Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landauer, Thomas K.; Kireyev, Kirill; Panaccione, Charles

    2011-01-01

    A new metric, Word Maturity, estimates the development by individual students of knowledge of every word in a large corpus. The metric is constructed by Latent Semantic Analysis modeling of word knowledge as a function of the reading that a simulated learner has done and is calibrated by its developing closeness in information content to that of a…

  7. 48 CFR 711.002-70 - Metric system waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Metric system waivers. 711.002-70 Section 711.002-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT... of markets. (b) Authorization. (1) The USAID Metric Executive (as designated in ADS chapter 323),...

  8. 22 CFR 226.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metric system of measurement. 226.15 Section 226.15 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U... inefficiencies or the loss of markets. Where the metric system is not the predominant standard for a...

  9. Metrics for Evaluating Conventional and Renewable Energy Technologies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M. K.

    2013-01-01

    With numerous options for the future of natural gas, how do we know we're going down the right path? How do we designate a metric to measure and demonstrate change and progress, and how does that metric incorporate all stakeholders and scenarios?

  10. 38 CFR 49.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... measurement. 49.15 Section 49.15 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C. 205) declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The...

  11. 2 CFR 215.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Programs” (56 FR 35801, 3 CFR, 1991 Comp., p. 343). ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metric system of measurement. 215.15 Section... measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C....

  12. 34 CFR 74.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Metric system of measurement. 74.15 Section 74.15 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 74.15 Metric system of measurement. The...

  13. Improving the Plausibility of Success with Inefficient Metrics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    To increase the probability of success in drug discovery, the concept of drug-like properties was introduced. Efficiency metrics that normalize potency against these properties could help reach drug-like space more efficiently. Potential reasons for the inefficient use of metrics and suboptimal decision making are discussed. PMID:24900765

  14. 16 CFR 500.18 - SI metric prefixes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SI metric prefixes. 500.18 Section 500.18 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENT OF GENERAL POLICY OR... PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT § 500.18 SI metric prefixes. The following chart indicates SI prefixes that...

  15. 48 CFR 611.002-70 - Metric system implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... System International d'Unites (SI)) of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures. Metrication... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Metric system implementation. 611.002-70 Section 611.002-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...

  16. 48 CFR 611.002-70 - Metric system implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... System International d'Unites (SI)) of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures. Metrication... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Metric system implementation. 611.002-70 Section 611.002-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...

  17. 48 CFR 611.002-70 - Metric system implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... System International d'Unites (SI)) of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures. Metrication... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Metric system implementation. 611.002-70 Section 611.002-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. 48 CFR 611.002-70 - Metric system implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... System International d'Unites (SI)) of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures. Metrication... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Metric system implementation. 611.002-70 Section 611.002-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...

  19. 16 CFR 500.18 - SI metric prefixes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false SI metric prefixes. 500.18 Section 500.18... PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT § 500.18 SI metric prefixes. The following chart indicates SI prefixes that may be used on a broad range of consumer commodity labels: Prefix Symbol Multiplying factor 1 Kilo- k...

  20. 16 CFR 500.18 - SI metric prefixes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false SI metric prefixes. 500.18 Section 500.18... PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT § 500.18 SI metric prefixes. The following chart indicates SI prefixes that may be used on a broad range of consumer commodity labels: Prefix Symbol Multiplying factor 1 Kilo- k...

  1. 16 CFR 500.18 - SI metric prefixes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false SI metric prefixes. 500.18 Section 500.18... PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT § 500.18 SI metric prefixes. The following chart indicates SI prefixes that may be used on a broad range of consumer commodity labels: Prefix Symbol Multiplying factor 1 Kilo- k...

  2. 16 CFR 500.18 - SI metric prefixes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false SI metric prefixes. 500.18 Section 500.18... PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT § 500.18 SI metric prefixes. The following chart indicates SI prefixes that may be used on a broad range of consumer commodity labels: Prefix Symbol Multiplying factor 1 Kilo- k...

  3. 45 CFR 2543.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The Act requires each Federal agency to establish a date or dates in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce, when the metric... awarding agencies shall follow the provisions of E.O. 12770, “Metric Usage in Federal Government Programs.”...

  4. 45 CFR 2543.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The Act requires each Federal agency to establish a date or dates in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce, when the metric... awarding agencies shall follow the provisions of E.O. 12770, “Metric Usage in Federal Government Programs.”...

  5. 10 CFR 600.115 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The Act requires each Federal agency to establish a date or dates in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce.... DOE will follow the provisions of E.O. 12770, “Metric Usage in Federal Government Programs.”...

  6. 45 CFR 74.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The Act requires each Federal agency to establish a date or dates in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce.... HHS awarding agencies will follow the provisions of E.O. 12770, “Metric Usage in Federal...

  7. 10 CFR 600.115 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metric system of measurement. 600.115 Section 600.115 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Uniform..., Hospitals, and Other Nonprofit Organizations Pre-Award Requirements § 600.115 Metric system of...

  8. 43 CFR 12.915 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Metric system of measurement. 12.915 Section 12.915 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT..., “Metric usage in Federal Government Programs.” When applicable, the awarding agency shall request...

  9. 41 CFR 105-72.205 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... measurement. 105-72.205 Section 105-72.205 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... system of measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C. 205) declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade...

  10. 2 CFR 215.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Programs” (56 FR 35801, 3 CFR, 1991 Comp., p. 343). ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Metric system of measurement. 215.15 Section... ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-110) Pre-Award Requirements § 215.15 Metric system of measurement. The...

  11. 20 CFR 435.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CFR, 1991 Comp., p. 343). ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Metric system of measurement. 435.15 Section..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 435.15 Metric system of measurement. The...

  12. A relativistic acoustic metric for planar black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossenfelder, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate here that the metric of a planar black hole in asymptotic anti-de Sitter space can, on a slice of dimension 3 + 1, be reproduced as a relativistic acoustic metric. This completes an earlier calculation in which the non-relativistic limit was used, and also serves to obtain a concrete form of the Lagrangian.

  13. Metrication of Technical Career Education. Final Report. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feirer, John L.

    The purpose of this study is to help the industrial and vocational education fields to use the metric system, primarily in the area of industrial arts from the seventh through the fourteenth year. Specific objectives of the study were to evaluate the changeover to the metric system in other countries, to analyze selected occupations in technical…

  14. A New Closed-Form Information Metric for Shape Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Adrian; Rangarajan, Anand

    2010-01-01

    Shape matching plays a prominent role in the analysis of medical and biological structures. Recently, a unifying framework was introduced for shape matching that uses mixture-models to couple both the shape representation and deformation. Essentially, shape distances were defined as geodesics induced by the Fisher-Rao metric on the manifold of mixture-model represented shapes. A fundamental drawback of the Fisher-Rao metric is that it is NOT available in closed-form for the mixture model. Consequently, shape comparisons are computationally very expensive. Here, we propose a new Riemannian metric based on generalized ϕ- entropy measures. In sharp contrast to the Fisher-Rao metric, our new metric is available in closed-form. Geodesic computations using the new metric are considerably more efficient. Discriminative capabilities of this new metric are studied by pairwise matching of corpus callosum shapes. Comparisons are conducted with the Fisher-Rao metric and the thin-plate spline bending energy. PMID:17354897

  15. Evaluating hydrological model performance using information theory-based metrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accuracy-based model performance metrics not necessarily reflect the qualitative correspondence between simulated and measured streamflow time series. The objective of this work was to use the information theory-based metrics to see whether they can be used as complementary tool for hydrologic m...

  16. 29 CFR 95.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... system for U.S. trade and commerce. The Act requires each Federal agency to establish a date or dates in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce, when the metric system of measurement will be used in the agency's... accomplishment of federally-funded activities. DOL shall follow the provisions of E.O. 12770, “Metric Usage...

  17. 45 CFR 74.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The Act requires each Federal agency to establish a date or dates in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce.... HHS awarding agencies will follow the provisions of E.O. 12770, “Metric Usage in Federal...

  18. 45 CFR 2543.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The Act requires each Federal agency to establish a date or dates in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce, when the metric... awarding agencies shall follow the provisions of E.O. 12770, “Metric Usage in Federal Government Programs.”...

  19. 29 CFR 95.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... system for U.S. trade and commerce. The Act requires each Federal agency to establish a date or dates in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce, when the metric system of measurement will be used in the agency's... accomplishment of federally-funded activities. DOL shall follow the provisions of E.O. 12770, “Metric Usage...

  20. 34 CFR 74.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... trade and commerce. The Act requires each Federal agency to establish a date or dates in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce, when the metric system of measurement will be used in the agency's... accomplishment of federally-funded activities. The Secretary follows the provisions of E.O. 12770—Metric Usage...