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Sample records for adaptive metropolis dream

  1. Uncertainty based modeling of rainfall-runoff: Combined differential evolution adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) and K-means clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahmatkesh, Zahra; Karamouz, Mohammad; Nazif, Sara

    2015-09-01

    Simulation of rainfall-runoff process in urban areas is of great importance considering the consequences and damages of extreme runoff events and floods. The first issue in flood hazard analysis is rainfall simulation. Large scale climate signals have been proved to be effective in rainfall simulation and prediction. In this study, an integrated scheme is developed for rainfall-runoff modeling considering different sources of uncertainty. This scheme includes three main steps of rainfall forecasting, rainfall-runoff simulation and future runoff prediction. In the first step, data driven models are developed and used to forecast rainfall using large scale climate signals as rainfall predictors. Due to high effect of different sources of uncertainty on the output of hydrologic models, in the second step uncertainty associated with input data, model parameters and model structure is incorporated in rainfall-runoff modeling and simulation. Three rainfall-runoff simulation models are developed for consideration of model conceptual (structural) uncertainty in real time runoff forecasting. To analyze the uncertainty of the model structure, streamflows generated by alternative rainfall-runoff models are combined, through developing a weighting method based on K-means clustering. Model parameters and input uncertainty are investigated using an adaptive Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. Finally, calibrated rainfall-runoff models are driven using the forecasted rainfall to predict future runoff for the watershed. The proposed scheme is employed in the case study of the Bronx River watershed, New York City. Results of uncertainty analysis of rainfall-runoff modeling reveal that simultaneous estimation of model parameters and input uncertainty significantly changes the probability distribution of the model parameters. It is also observed that by combining the outputs of the hydrological models using the proposed clustering scheme, the accuracy of runoff simulation in the

  2. Adaptive Metropolis Sampling with Product Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.; Lee, Chiu Fan

    2005-01-01

    The Metropolis-Hastings (MH) algorithm is a way to sample a provided target distribution pi(z). It works by repeatedly sampling a separate proposal distribution T(x,x') to generate a random walk {x(t)}. We consider a modification of the MH algorithm in which T is dynamically updated during the walk. The update at time t uses the {x(t' less than t)} to estimate the product distribution that has the least Kullback-Leibler distance to pi. That estimate is the information-theoretically optimal mean-field approximation to pi. We demonstrate through computer experiments that our algorithm produces samples that are superior to those of the conventional MH algorithm.

  3. Threat in dreams: an adaptation?

    PubMed

    Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Solms, Mark; Turnbull, Oliver; Tredoux, Colin

    2008-12-01

    Revonsuo's influential Threat Simulation Theory (TST) predicts that people exposed to survival threats will have more threat dreams, and evince enhanced responses to dream threats, compared to those living in relatively safe conditions. Participants in a high crime area (South Africa: n=208) differed significantly from participants in a low crime area (Wales, UK: n=116) in having greater recent exposure to a life-threatening event (chi([1,N=186])(2)=14.84, p<.00012). Contrary to TST's predictions, the SA participants reported significantly fewer threat dreams (chi([1,N=287])(2)=6.11, p<.0134), and did not differ from the Welsh participants in responses to dream threats (Fisher's Exact test, p=.2478). Overall, the incidence of threat in dreams was extremely low-less than 20% of dreams featured realistic survival threats. Escape from dream threats occurred in less than 2% of dreams. We conclude that this evidence contradicts key aspects of TST.

  4. Waking and Dreaming Need Profiles: An Exploratory Study of Adaptive Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Robert Linton, II

    Research has defined the various adaptive, compensatory and complementary functions of dreams. To investigate the evidence of adaptive functioning in the dream state, 30 medical students (21 males, 9 females) from St. George's University, Grenada, completed personal surveys, a waking psychological profile, and a dreaming psychological profile…

  5. Dream Content and Adaptation to a Stressful Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Koninck, Joseph M.; Koulack, David

    1975-01-01

    The present study considered whether it is better to dream about a stressful presleep experience and have anxious dreams, or is it better to dream about something else and have pleasant dreams. (Author/RK)

  6. Overnight emotional adaptation to negative stimuli is altered by REM sleep deprivation and is correlated with intervening dream emotions.

    PubMed

    Lara-Carrasco, Jessica; Nielsen, Tore A; Solomonova, Elizaveta; Levrier, Katia; Popova, Ani

    2009-06-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and dreaming may be implicated in cross-night adaptation to emotionally negative events. To evaluate the impact of REM sleep deprivation (REMD) and the presence of dream emotions on a possible emotional adaptation (EA) function, 35 healthy subjects randomly assigned to REMD (n = 17; mean age 26.4 +/- 4.3 years) and control (n = 18; mean age 23.7 +/- 4.4 years) groups underwent a partial REMD and control nights in the laboratory, respectively. In the evening preceding and morning following REMD, subjects rated neutral and negative pictures on scales of valence and arousal and EA scores were calculated. Subjects also rated dream emotions using the same scales and a 10-item emotions list. REMD was relatively successful in decreasing REM% on the experimental night, although a mean split procedure was applied to better differentiate subjects high and low in REM%. High and low groups differed - but in a direction contrary to expectations. Subjects high in REMD% showed greater adaptation to negative pictures on arousal ratings than did those low in REMD% (P < 0.05), even after statistically controlling sleep efficiency and awakening times. Subjects above the median on EA(valence) had less intense overall dream negativity (P < 0.005) and dream sadness (P < 0.004) than subjects below the median. A correlation between the emotional intensities of the morning dream and the morning picture ratings supports a possible emotional carry-over effect. REM sleep may enhance morning reactivity to negative emotional stimuli. Further, REM sleep and dreaming may be implicated in different dimensions of cross-night adaptation to negative emotions.

  7. Dream controller

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L; Wang, Qiang; Chow, Andrew J

    2013-11-26

    A method and apparatus for intelligently controlling continuous process variables. A Dream Controller comprises an Intelligent Engine mechanism and a number of Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controllers, each of which is suitable to control a process with specific behaviors. The Intelligent Engine can automatically select the appropriate MFA controller and its parameters so that the Dream Controller can be easily used by people with limited control experience and those who do not have the time to commission, tune, and maintain automatic controllers.

  8. Microbial metropolis.

    PubMed

    Wimpenny, Julian

    2009-01-01

    Microorganisms can form tightly knit communities such as biofilms. Many others include marine snow, anaerobic digester granules, the ginger beer plant and bacterial colonies. This chapter is devoted to a survey of the main properties of these communities, with an emphasis on biofilms. We start with attachment to surfaces and the nature of adhesion. The growing community then forms within a matrix, generally of organic macromolecules. Inevitably the environment within such a matrix is different from that outside. Organisms respond by forming crowd-detection and response units; these quorum sensing systems act as switches between planktonic life and the dramatically altered conditions found inside microbial aggregates. The community then matures and changes and may even fail and disappear. Antimicrobial resistance is discussed as an example of multicellular behavior. The multicellular lifestyle has been modeled mathematically and responded to powerful molecular biological techniques. Latterly, microbial systems have been used as models for fundamental evolutionary processes, mostly because of their high rates of reproduction and the ease of genetic manipulation. The life of most microbes is a duality between the yin of the community and the yang of planktonic existence. Sadly far less research has been devoted to adaptation to free-living forms than in the opposite direction. PMID:20943124

  9. Physiology and psychology of dreams.

    PubMed

    Eiser, Alan S

    2005-03-01

    The discovery of the close association between rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and dreaming and development of sleep laboratory techniques ushered in a new era in the study of dreams. For the first time, direct and systematic investigation could be made of such topics as the occurrence, qualities, recollection, and childhood development of dreaming. Experimental methodologies permitted investigation of the responsiveness of dreams to external stimulation and the effects of deprivation of REM sleep. Much effort was devoted to searching for parallels between physiological aspects of REM sleep and characteristics of associated dreams, with modest results. The leading theory of dreaming in the early decades of this research was the psychoanalytic, which views dreams as highly meaningful reflections of unconscious mental functioning. With developments in understanding of the neurophysiology of REM sleep, new theories of dreaming were proposed. The most prominent, the activation-synthesis hypothesis, derived its view of dreaming directly from the neurophysiology of REM sleep, in particular the role of the brain stem, and in its original form regarded dreams as not essentially meaningful. Further developments in neurobiological research, including lesion and brain imaging studies, have established a clearer view of the functional neuroanatomy of REM sleep and dreaming. To what degree, and in what way, implications can be drawn from these findings for the psychology of dreaming is controversial. Some more recent theories of dreaming emphasize an adaptive function related to emotion and a role in learning and memory consolidation.

  10. Dream Symbol or Dream Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himelstein, Philip

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of the symbolic content of dreams to the theory of the dream in psychoanalysis and Gestalt therapy. Points out that the utility of the dream depends upon the techniques of the therapist and not on the validity of the underlying theory of the dream. (LLL)

  11. Content Analysis of the Dreams of Dying Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth-Marnat, Gary

    1987-01-01

    Investigated dream content of 104 dreams from nine terminally ill patients with estimated life expectancy of one year or less. Found differences between dreams of terminally ill and dreams of physically healthy individuals, suggesting an adaptive withdrawal and process of social and emotional disengagement by terminally ill individuals. (Author/NB)

  12. Content Analysis of the Dreams of Dying Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth-Marnat, Gary

    1988-01-01

    Used Hall and Van de Castle dream content scales to score 104 dreams from 9 terminally ill patients. Found subjects had significantly fewer characters, activities, interactions, color descriptions, and less emotional content in their dreams than physically healthy subjects. Dream content suggests adaptive withdrawal and process of social and…

  13. Approach/avoidance in dreams.

    PubMed

    Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Koopowitz, Sheri; Pantelis, Eleni; Solms, Mark

    2012-03-01

    The influential threat simulation theory (TST) asserts that dreaming yields adaptive advantage by providing a virtual environment in which threat-avoidance may be safely rehearsed. We have previously found the incidence of biologically threatening dreams to be around 20%, with successful threat avoidance occurring in approximately one-fifth of such dreams. TST asserts that threat avoidance is over-represented relative to other possible dream contents. To begin assessing this issue, we contrasted the incidence of 'avoidance' dreams with that of their opposite: 'approach' dreams. Because TST states that the threat-avoidance function is only fully activated in ecologically valid (biologically threatening) contexts, we also performed this contrast for populations living in both high- and low-threat environments. We find that 'approach' dreams are significantly more prevalent across both contexts. We suggest these results are more consistent with the view that dreaming is generated by reward-seeking systems than by fear-conditioning systems, although reward-seeking is clearly not the only factor determining the content of dreams.

  14. "They who dream by day": parallels between Openness to Experience and dreaming.

    PubMed

    DeYoung, Colin G; Grazioplene, Rachael G

    2013-12-01

    Individuals high in the personality trait Openness to Experience appear to engage spontaneously (during wake) in processes of elaborative encoding similar to those Llewellyn identifies in both dreaming and the ancient art of memory (AAOM). Links between Openness and dreaming support the hypothesis that dreaming is part of a larger process of cognitive exploration that facilitates adaptation to new experiences.

  15. Big Dreams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The Keen Johnson Building is symbolic of Eastern Kentucky University's historic role as a School of Opportunity. It is a place that has inspired generations of students, many from disadvantaged backgrounds, to dream big dreams. The construction of the Keen Johnson Building was inspired by a desire to create a student union facility that would not…

  16. The Dream

    PubMed Central

    Glucksman, Myron L.

    2001-01-01

    The dream is a unique psychodynamically informative instrument for evaluating the subjective correlates of brain activity during REM sleep. These include feelings, percepts, memories, wishes, fantasies, impulses, conflicts, and defenses, as well as images of self and others. Dream analysis can be used in a variety of clinical settings to assist in diagnostic assessment, psychodynamic formulation, evaluation of clinical change, and the management of medically ill patients. Dreams may serve as the initial indicators of transference, resistance, impending crisis, acting-out, conflict resolution, and decision-making. A clinically functional categorization of dreams can facilitate an understanding of psychopathology, psychodynamics, personality structure, and various components of the psychotherapeutic process. Examples of different types of dreams are provided to illustrate their relevance and use in various clinical situations. PMID:11696648

  17. Wolof Adolescents' Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandewiele, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Wolof tribe adolescents were asked about their dreams and the importance they attached to their dreams. Thirty-one percent believed in dreams' predictive power; girls recalled dreams more often and had more realistic dreams than boys; and dreams about academic achievement were considered most important. (Author/DB)

  18. The phantom limb in dreams.

    PubMed

    Brugger, Peter

    2008-12-01

    Mulder and colleagues [Mulder, T., Hochstenbach, J., Dijkstra, P. U., Geertzen, J. H. B. (2008). Born to adapt, but not in your dreams. Consciousness and Cognition, 17, 1266-1271.] report that a majority of amputees continue to experience a normally-limbed body during their night dreams. They interprete this observation as a failure of the body schema to adapt to the new body shape. The present note does not question this interpretation, but points to the already existing literature on the phenomenology of the phantom limb in dreams. A summary of published investigations is complemented by a note on phantom phenomena in the dreams of paraplegic patients and persons born without a limb. Integration of the available data allows the recommendation for prospective studies to consider dream content in more detail. For instance, "adaptation" to the loss of a limb can also manifest itself by seeing oneself surrounded by amputees. Such projective types of anosognosia ("transitivism") in nocturnal dreams should also be experimentally induced in normally-limbed individuals, and some relevant techniques are mentioned.

  19. Dreams of Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Deirdre

    1989-01-01

    Examined frequency and characteristics of overt dreams of dying among healthy young adults. Dreams of dying were found to be rare but distinctive content category, representing overwhelmingly pleasant dreams. Over one-half of death dreams involved lengthy afterlife sequence, remainder focused on process of death. Death dreams of these healthy…

  20. Dreams of the Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statman, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the author, when teaching dream poems and poem writing to older kids, uses Margaret Atwood's "Dreams of the Animals" to extend the discussion about dreaming and have the children think about dreams that have little to do with their own. Includes examples of students' poems about animal dreams. (SR)

  1. California Dreaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2011-01-01

    After getting her master's degree from UCLA, Nancy Wills dreamed of starting a school-based guitar program so she could teach students to make music on the instrument she'd loved since she was a kid growing up outside of Yosemite, California. She had a strong belief that guitar was perfect for schools, ideal for individualized playing but also…

  2. Dream Weavers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Maria Eugenia

    2010-01-01

    This article shares the success story of Hamissou Samari, an immigrant from Togo, who realized his dream through the help of the Kaplan Foundation scholarship and leadership program for nontraditional students enrolled in community colleges. Designed for underserved community college students in New York, the comprehensive, first-of-its-kind…

  3. Just Dreaming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamon, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Many of the nation's colleges and universities are not sure what the proposed DREAM Act would mean for their institutions--and a number of them are operating amid confusion in trying to serve undocumented students legally in light of the defeat of the measure in the Senate last year to pass the legislation. It would have allowed some immigrants…

  4. Equifinality of formal (DREAM) and informal (GLUE) bayesian approaches in hydrologic modeling?

    SciTech Connect

    Vrugt, Jasper A; Robinson, Bruce A; Ter Braak, Cajo J F; Gupta, Hoshin V

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, a strong debate has emerged in the hydrologic literature regarding what constitutes an appropriate framework for uncertainty estimation. Particularly, there is strong disagreement whether an uncertainty framework should have its roots within a proper statistical (Bayesian) context, or whether such a framework should be based on a different philosophy and implement informal measures and weaker inference to summarize parameter and predictive distributions. In this paper, we compare a formal Bayesian approach using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) with generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) for assessing uncertainty in conceptual watershed modeling. Our formal Bayesian approach is implemented using the recently developed differential evolution adaptive metropolis (DREAM) MCMC scheme with a likelihood function that explicitly considers model structural, input and parameter uncertainty. Our results demonstrate that DREAM and GLUE can generate very similar estimates of total streamflow uncertainty. This suggests that formal and informal Bayesian approaches have more common ground than the hydrologic literature and ongoing debate might suggest. The main advantage of formal approaches is, however, that they attempt to disentangle the effect of forcing, parameter and model structural error on total predictive uncertainty. This is key to improving hydrologic theory and to better understand and predict the flow of water through catchments.

  5. Descartes' dreams.

    PubMed

    Withers, Robert

    2008-11-01

    René Descartes is often regarded as the 'father of modern philosophy'. He was a key figure in instigating the scientific revolution that has been so influential in shaping our modern world. He has been revered and reviled in almost equal measure for this role; on the one hand seen as liberating science from religion, on the other as splitting soul from body and man from nature. He dates the founding of his philosophical methods to the night of 10(th) November 1619 and in particular to three powerful dreams he had that night. This article utilizes Descartes' own interpretations of the dreams, supported by biographical material, as well as contemporary neuroscientific and psychoanalytic theory, to reach a new understanding of them. It is argued that the dreams can be understood as depicting Descartes' personal journey from a state of mind-body dissociation to one of mind-body deintegration. This personal journey may have implications for a parallel journey from Renaissance to modern culture and from modernity to post-modern culture.

  6. Affect integration in dreams and dreaming.

    PubMed

    Grenell, Gary

    2008-03-01

    The processes by which dreaming aids in the ongoing integration of affects into the mind are approached here from complementary psychoanalytic and nonpsychoanalytic perspectives. One relevant notion is that the dream provides a psychological space wherein overwhelming, contradictory, or highly complex affects that under waking conditions are subject to dissociation, splitting, or disavowal may be brought together for observation by the dreaming ego. This process serves the need for psychological balance and equilibrium. A brief discussion of how the mind processes information during dreaming is followed by a consideration of four component aspects of the integrative process: the nature and use of the dream-space, the oscillating "me / not me" quality of the dream, the apparent reality of the dream, and the use of nonpathological projective identification in dreaming. Three clinical illustrations are offered and discussed.

  7. Dreaming and Schizophrenia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickney, Jeffrey L.

    Parallels between dream states and schizophrenia suggest that the study of dreams may offer some information about schizophrenia. A major theoretical assumption of the research on dreaming and schizophrenia is that, in schizophrenics, the dream state intrudes on the awake state creating a dreamlike symptomatology. This theory, called the REM…

  8. Nighttime in dreams.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael; Knoth, Inga Sophia

    2012-04-01

    Based on the continuity hypothesis of dreaming, a study was designed to examine whether time of day within the dream was related to dream emotions. A sample of 1,612 dreams reported by 444 participants was analyzed. As predicted, dream scenarios set at nighttime were associated with less positive and more negative emotions compared to dream scenarios set at other times of the day. In order to pursue this line of research, it would be fruitful to study the dreams of persons with specific nighttime fears.

  9. DREAM DIAGNOSTICS: FRITZ MORGENTHALER'S WORK ON DREAMS.

    PubMed

    Binswanger, Ralf

    2016-07-01

    The unique approach to dreams of Swiss psychoanalyst Fritz Morgenthaler (1919-1984) is presented and discussed. Although rarely discussed in the English-speaking psychoanalytic world, this approach is very alive in German-speaking countries. Focusing on the distinction between the remembered hallucinatory experience of dreamers and the event of telling dreams within psychoanalytic sessions, Morgenthaler made two major innovations: first, he proposed a new understanding and handling of associations to dreams, and second, he offered what he called dream diagnostics as an instrument with which to integrate both resistance and transference into clinical work with dreams. PMID:27428586

  10. DREAM DIAGNOSTICS: FRITZ MORGENTHALER'S WORK ON DREAMS.

    PubMed

    Binswanger, Ralf

    2016-07-01

    The unique approach to dreams of Swiss psychoanalyst Fritz Morgenthaler (1919-1984) is presented and discussed. Although rarely discussed in the English-speaking psychoanalytic world, this approach is very alive in German-speaking countries. Focusing on the distinction between the remembered hallucinatory experience of dreamers and the event of telling dreams within psychoanalytic sessions, Morgenthaler made two major innovations: first, he proposed a new understanding and handling of associations to dreams, and second, he offered what he called dream diagnostics as an instrument with which to integrate both resistance and transference into clinical work with dreams.

  11. Perverse dreams and dreams of perversion.

    PubMed

    Good, Michael I

    2006-10-01

    This paper (1) posits the occurrence of perverse dreams as a type of mental phenomenon in the constellation of perverse processes; (2) considers manifest dreams of frank perversion as a type of perverse dream within the class of perverse dreams as a whole; (3) relates the subtype of perverse dreams without manifest perversions to the occurrence of perverse defenses and the development of a perverse transference; and (4) suggests that consideration to perverse dreams in the psychoanalytic process finds application in identifying and differentiating perverse defenses from neurotic and other characterologic patterns; in identifying and tracing the vicissitudes of difficult perverse transference-countertransference constellations; and in furthering perverse patients' recognition and understanding of particularly troublesome and seemingly intractable issues in their psychic makeup. Clinical material illustrates perverse dreams and their usefulness in the often arduous process of analyzing perverse defenses.

  12. Relation of dreams to waking concerns.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Rosalind; Agargun, Mehmet Y; Kirkby, Jennifer; Friedman, Julie Kabat

    2006-03-30

    To test that dreams are influenced by the pre-sleep waking emotional concerns of the sleeper and have an effect on waking adaptation, 20 depressed and 10 control subjects, who were all going through a divorce, were enrolled in a repeated measures study lasting 5 months. A Current Concerns test was administered on three occasions before nights when every REM period was interrupted to record recalled mental content. The degree of waking concern about the ex-spouse correlated significantly with the number of dreams in which the former partner appeared as a dream character. Those who were in remission at the follow-up evaluation had a higher percentage of well-developed dreams than those who remained depressed. Dreams of the former spouse reported by those in remission differed from those who remained depressed in the expression of dream affect and in the within-dream linkage among units of associated memory material. Dreams of the former spouse that are reported by those who are not in remission lack affect and connection to other memories.

  13. Accelerating Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation by differential evolution with self-adaptive randomized subspace sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Vrugt, Jasper A; Hyman, James M; Robinson, Bruce A; Higdon, Dave; Ter Braak, Cajo J F; Diks, Cees G H

    2008-01-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods have found widespread use in many fields of study to estimate the average properties of complex systems, and for posterior inference in a Bayesian framework. Existing theory and experiments prove convergence of well constructed MCMC schemes to the appropriate limiting distribution under a variety of different conditions. In practice, however this convergence is often observed to be disturbingly slow. This is frequently caused by an inappropriate selection of the proposal distribution used to generate trial moves in the Markov Chain. Here we show that significant improvements to the efficiency of MCMC simulation can be made by using a self-adaptive Differential Evolution learning strategy within a population-based evolutionary framework. This scheme, entitled DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis or DREAM, runs multiple different chains simultaneously for global exploration, and automatically tunes the scale and orientation of the proposal distribution in randomized subspaces during the search. Ergodicity of the algorithm is proved, and various examples involving nonlinearity, high-dimensionality, and multimodality show that DREAM is generally superior to other adaptive MCMC sampling approaches. The DREAM scheme significantly enhances the applicability of MCMC simulation to complex, multi-modal search problems.

  14. Dreaming of seizures.

    PubMed

    Vercueil, Laurent

    2005-08-01

    Could some dreams and temporal lobe seizures share an intrinsic neuronal network? At the interplay of emotion, memory, dream, and temporal lobe seizure, we report on a patient with a left dysplastic amygdala and temporal lobe epilepsy who presented with a typical seizure while dreaming. Neuronal networks subserving affective states are suggested to be involved in emotional dream, memory recall, and amygdalo-hippocampal seizures.

  15. [Dreams and interhemispheric asymmetry].

    PubMed

    Korabel'nikova, E A; Golubev, V L

    2001-01-01

    The dreams of 103 children and adolescents, aged 10-17 years, have been studied. The test group included 78 patients with neurotic disorders; control one consisted of 25 healthy subjects. Dream features, which were common for those with preferentially left asymmetry profile both in patients as well as in healthy subjects, were: less expressed novelty factor and frequent appearance of rare phenomena, such as "déjà vu in wakefulness", reality, "mixed" (overlapped) dreams, prolonged dreams in repeat sleep, frequent changes of personages and scenes of action. Left-hander dream peculiarities, being detected only in neurotic patients but not in healthy subjects, emerged as lucid phenomena deficit, "dream in dreams" and "dream reminiscence in dream" syndrome, which have been found only in left-handers. Right and left hemispheres seem to contribute in different ways to a dream formation. In authors believe that the left hemisphere seems to provide dream origin while the right hemisphere provides dream vividness, figurativeness and affective activation level. PMID:11811128

  16. Interpreting Dream Complications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollub, Dan

    1984-01-01

    Explains different complications, i.e., emotional behavior, speech, and symbolism, suggesting that emotional behavior in dreams is either genuine or opposite from emotional reality. Dream speech delineates boundaries between the conscious and unconscious. Symbolism in dreams presents abstract concepts visually. (BH)

  17. Dreams and Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maltsberger, John T.

    1993-01-01

    Contrasts dreams of suicidal patients to those of nonsuicidal, depressed patients. Notes that dreams of suicidal patients often reveal wishes for revenge, punishment, reunion, fusion, and rebirth and that confusions between patient's body and that of others are suggested by dreams of some suicidal patients. Discusses phenomenon of transparency in…

  18. Creativity and Dream Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schredl, Michael

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between creative interests and dream recall frequency (DRF) by having 44 adults complete dream recall journals as well as a verbal creativity test. Results indicate that persons with both visual and verbal creative skills remember their dreams more. Visual memory may be a mediating variable between…

  19. [Dreams and interhemispheric asymmetry].

    PubMed

    Korabel'nikova, E A; Golubev, V L

    2001-01-01

    The dreams of 103 children and adolescents, aged 10-17 years, have been studied. The test group included 78 patients with neurotic disorders; control one consisted of 25 healthy subjects. Dream features, which were common for those with preferentially left asymmetry profile both in patients as well as in healthy subjects, were: less expressed novelty factor and frequent appearance of rare phenomena, such as "déjà vu in wakefulness", reality, "mixed" (overlapped) dreams, prolonged dreams in repeat sleep, frequent changes of personages and scenes of action. Left-hander dream peculiarities, being detected only in neurotic patients but not in healthy subjects, emerged as lucid phenomena deficit, "dream in dreams" and "dream reminiscence in dream" syndrome, which have been found only in left-handers. Right and left hemispheres seem to contribute in different ways to a dream formation. In authors believe that the left hemisphere seems to provide dream origin while the right hemisphere provides dream vividness, figurativeness and affective activation level.

  20. DreamBox Learning. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "DreamBox Learning" is a supplemental online mathematics program that provides adaptive instruction for students in grades K-5 and focuses on number and operations, place value, and number sense. The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) identified one study of "DreamBox Learning" that both falls within the scope of the Elementary…

  1. Dream Box Learning. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "DreamBox Learning" is a supplemental online mathematics program that provides adaptive instruction for students in grades K-5 and focuses on number and operations, place value, and number sense. The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) identified one study of "DreamBox Learning" that both falls within the scope of the Elementary…

  2. [Neurological interpretation of dreams] .

    PubMed

    Pareja, J A; Gil-Nagel, A

    2000-10-01

    Cerebral cortical activity is constant throughout the entire human life, but substantially changes during the different phases of the sleep-wake cycle (wakefulness, non-REM sleep and REM sleep), as well as in relation to available information. In particular, perception of the environment is closely linked to the wake-state, while during sleep perception turns to the internal domain or endogenous cerebral activity. External and internal information are mutually exclusive. During wakefulness a neuronal mechanism allows attention to focus on the environment whereas endogenous cortical activity is ignored. The opposite process is provided during sleep. The function external attention-internal attention is coupled with the two modes of brain function during wakefulness and during sleep, providing two possible cortical status: thinking and dreaming. Several neurological processes may influence the declaration of the three states of being or may modify their orderly oscillation through the sleep-wake cycle. In addition, endogenous information and its perception (dreams) may be modified. Disturbances of dreaming may configurate in different general clinical scenarios: lack of dreaming, excess of dreaming (epic dreaming), paroxysmal dreaming (epileptic), nightmares, violent dreaming, daytime-dreaming (hallucinations), and lucid dreaming. Sensorial deprivation, as well as the emergence of internal perception may be the underlying mechanism of hallucinations. The probable isomorphism between hallucinations and dreaming is postulated, analyzed and discussed. PMID:11143502

  3. [Neurological interpretation of dreams] .

    PubMed

    Pareja, J A; Gil-Nagel, A

    2000-10-01

    Cerebral cortical activity is constant throughout the entire human life, but substantially changes during the different phases of the sleep-wake cycle (wakefulness, non-REM sleep and REM sleep), as well as in relation to available information. In particular, perception of the environment is closely linked to the wake-state, while during sleep perception turns to the internal domain or endogenous cerebral activity. External and internal information are mutually exclusive. During wakefulness a neuronal mechanism allows attention to focus on the environment whereas endogenous cortical activity is ignored. The opposite process is provided during sleep. The function external attention-internal attention is coupled with the two modes of brain function during wakefulness and during sleep, providing two possible cortical status: thinking and dreaming. Several neurological processes may influence the declaration of the three states of being or may modify their orderly oscillation through the sleep-wake cycle. In addition, endogenous information and its perception (dreams) may be modified. Disturbances of dreaming may configurate in different general clinical scenarios: lack of dreaming, excess of dreaming (epic dreaming), paroxysmal dreaming (epileptic), nightmares, violent dreaming, daytime-dreaming (hallucinations), and lucid dreaming. Sensorial deprivation, as well as the emergence of internal perception may be the underlying mechanism of hallucinations. The probable isomorphism between hallucinations and dreaming is postulated, analyzed and discussed.

  4. Music in dreams.

    PubMed

    Uga, Valeria; Lemut, Maria Chiara; Zampi, Chiara; Zilli, Iole; Salzarulo, Piero

    2006-06-01

    Music in dreams is rarely reported in scientific literature, while the presence of musical themes in dreams of famous musicians is anecdotally reported. We did a systematic investigation to evaluate whether the occurrence of musical dreams could be related to musical competence and practice, and to explore specific features of dreamt pieces. Thirty-five professional musicians and thirty non-musicians filled out a questionnaire about the characteristics of their musical activity and a structured dream log on the awakening for 30 consecutive days. Musicians dream of music more than twice with respect to non-musicians; musical dreams frequency is related to the age of commencement of musical instruction, but not to the daily load of musical activity. Nearly half of the recalled music was non-standard, suggesting that original music can be created in dreams. PMID:16243543

  5. Effects of Training in Dream Recall and Dream Interpretation Skills on Dream Recall, Attitudes, and Dream Interpretation Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochlen, Aaron B.; Ligiero, Daniela P.; Hill, Clara E.; Heaton, Kristin J.

    1999-01-01

    Volunteer clients (N=44) with below-average dream recall and attitudes toward dreams participated in training sessions focusing on either improving dream recall and attitudes toward dreams, building dream-interpretation skills, or educating about counseling. No significant differences were found within the three groups. Results suggest that…

  6. Consciousness in dreams.

    PubMed

    Kahn, David; Gover, Tzivia

    2010-01-01

    This chapter argues that dreaming is an important state of consciousness and that it has many features that complement consciousness in the wake state. The chapter discusses consciousness in dreams and how it comes about. It discusses the changes that occur in the neuromodulatory environment and in the neuronal connectivity of the brain as we fall asleep and begin our night journeys. Dreams evolve from internal sources though the dream may look different than any one of these since something entirely new may emerge through self-organizing processes. The chapter also explores characteristics of dreaming consciousness such as acceptance of implausibility and how that might lead to creative insight. Examples of studies, which have shown creativity in dream sleep, are provided to illustrate important characteristics of dreaming consciousness. The chapter also discusses the dream body and how it relates to our consciousness while dreaming. Differences and similarities between wake, lucid, non-lucid and day dreaming are explored and the chapter concludes with a discussion on what we can learn from each of these expressions of consciousness. PMID:20870068

  7. Consciousness in dreams.

    PubMed

    Kahn, David; Gover, Tzivia

    2010-01-01

    This chapter argues that dreaming is an important state of consciousness and that it has many features that complement consciousness in the wake state. The chapter discusses consciousness in dreams and how it comes about. It discusses the changes that occur in the neuromodulatory environment and in the neuronal connectivity of the brain as we fall asleep and begin our night journeys. Dreams evolve from internal sources though the dream may look different than any one of these since something entirely new may emerge through self-organizing processes. The chapter also explores characteristics of dreaming consciousness such as acceptance of implausibility and how that might lead to creative insight. Examples of studies, which have shown creativity in dream sleep, are provided to illustrate important characteristics of dreaming consciousness. The chapter also discusses the dream body and how it relates to our consciousness while dreaming. Differences and similarities between wake, lucid, non-lucid and day dreaming are explored and the chapter concludes with a discussion on what we can learn from each of these expressions of consciousness.

  8. Marshall Rosenbluth and the Metropolis algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Gubernatis, J.E.

    2005-05-15

    The 1953 publication, 'Equation of State Calculations by Very Fast Computing Machines' by N. Metropolis, A. W. Rosenbluth and M. N. Rosenbluth, and M. Teller and E. Teller [J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1087 (1953)] marked the beginning of the use of the Monte Carlo method for solving problems in the physical sciences. The method described in this publication subsequently became known as the Metropolis algorithm, undoubtedly the most famous and most widely used Monte Carlo algorithm ever published. As none of the authors made subsequent use of the algorithm, they became unknown to the large simulation physics community that grew from this publication and their roles in its development became the subject of mystery and legend. At a conference marking the 50th anniversary of the 1953 publication, Marshall Rosenbluth gave his recollections of the algorithm's development. The present paper describes the algorithm, reconstructs the historical context in which it was developed, and summarizes Marshall's recollections.

  9. Dreaming and insight

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Christopher L.; Ruby, Perrine M.; Malinowski, Josie E.; Bennett, Paul D.; Blagrove, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses claims that dreams can be a source of personal insight. Whereas there has been anecdotal backing for such claims, there is now tangential support from findings of the facilitative effect of sleep on cognitive insight, and of REM sleep in particular on emotional memory consolidation. Furthermore, the presence in dreams of metaphorical representations of waking life indicates the possibility of novel insight as an emergent feature of such metaphorical mappings. In order to assess whether personal insight can occur as a result of the consideration of dream content, 11 dream group discussion sessions were conducted which followed the Ullman Dream Appreciation technique, one session for each of 11 participants (10 females, 1 male; mean age = 19.2 years). Self-ratings of deepened self-perception and personal gains from participation in the group sessions showed that the Ullman technique is an effective procedure for establishing connections between dream content and recent waking life experiences, although wake life sources were found for only 14% of dream report text. The mean Exploration-Insight score on the Gains from Dream Interpretation questionnaire was very high and comparable to outcomes from the well-established Hill (1996) therapist-led dream interpretation method. This score was associated between-subjects with pre-group positive Attitude Toward Dreams (ATD). The need to distinguish “aha” experiences as a result of discovering a waking life source for part of a dream, from “aha” experiences of personal insight as a result of considering dream content, is discussed. Difficulties are described in designing a control condition to which the dream report condition can be compared. PMID:24550849

  10. Dreaming and offline memory processing.

    PubMed

    Wamsley, Erin J; Stickgold, Robert

    2010-12-01

    The activities of the mind and brain never cease. Although many of our waking hours are spent processing sensory input and executing behavioral responses, moments of unoccupied rest free us to wander through thoughts of the past and future, create daydreams, and imagine fictitious scenarios. During sleep, when attention to sensory input is at a minimum, the mind continues to process information, using memory fragments to create the images, thoughts, and narratives that we commonly call 'dreaming'. Far from being a random or meaningless distraction, spontaneous cognition during states of sleep and resting wakefulness appears to serve important functions related to processing past memories and planning for the future. From single-cell recordings in rodents to behavioral studies in humans, recent studies in the neurosciences suggest a new conception of dreaming as part of a continuum of adaptive cognitive processing occurring across the full range of mind/brain states.

  11. 76 FR 58049 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; Honeywell International, Inc.; Metropolis Works Uranium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; Honeywell International, Inc.; Metropolis Works Uranium... assurance for its Metropolis Works uranium conversion facility in Metropolis, Illinois. \\1\\ LBP-11-19,...

  12. Improved metropolis light transport algorithm based on multiple importance sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Huaiqing; Yang, Jiaqian; Liu, Haohan

    2015-12-01

    Metropolis light transport was an unbiased and robust Monte Carlo method, which could efficiently reduce noise during rendering the realistic graphics to resolve the global illumination problem. The basic Metropolis light transport was improved by combining with multiple importance sampling, which better solved the large correlation and high variance between samples caused by the basic Metropolis light transport. The experiences manifested that the quality of images generated by improved algorithm was better compared with the basic Metropolis light transport in the same scenes settings.

  13. Memory in dreams.

    PubMed

    Giustino, Gabriella

    2009-10-01

    In this paper the author discusses a specific type of dreams encountered in her clinical experience, which in her view provide an opportunity of reconstructing the traumatic emotional events of the patient's past. In 1900, Freud described a category of dreams--which he called 'biographical dreams'--that reflect historical infantile experience without the typical defensive function. Many authors agree that some traumatic dreams perform a function of recovery and working through. Bion contributed to the amplification of dream theory by linking it to the theory of thought and emphasizing the element of communication in dreams as well as their defensive aspect. The central hypothesis of this paper is that the predominant aspect of such dreams is the communication of an experience which the dreamer has in the dream but does not understand. It is often possible to reconstruct, and to help the patient to comprehend and make sense of, the emotional truth of the patient's internal world, which stems from past emotional experience with primary objects. The author includes some clinical examples and references to various psychoanalytic and neuroscientific conceptions of trauma and memory. She discusses a particular clinical approach to such dreams and how the analyst should listen to them.

  14. [Phenomenology of dreams].

    PubMed

    Pringuey, Dominique

    2011-10-01

    A phenomenology of dreams searches for meaning, with the aim not only of explaining but also of understanding the experience. What and who is it for? And what about the nearly forgotten dream among the moderns, the banal returning to the nightmare, sleepiness, or dreamlike reverie. Nostalgia for the dream, where we saw a very early state of light, not a ordinaire qu duel. Regret for the dreamlike splendor exceeded by the modeling power of modern aesthetics--film and the explosion of virtual imaging technologies. Disappointment at the discovery of a cognitive permanence throughout sleep and a unique fit with the real upon awaking? An excess of methodological rigor where we validate the logic of the dream, correlating the clinical improvement in psychotherapy and the ability to interpret one's own dreams. The dangerous psychological access when the dream primarily is mine, viewed as a veiled expression of an unspoken desire, or when the dream reveals to me, in an existential conception of man, through time and space, my daily life, my freedom beyond my needs. Might its ultimate sense also mean its abolition? From the story of a famous forgotten dream, based on unexpected scientific data emerges the question: do we dream to forget? The main thing would not be consciousness but confidence, when " the sleeping man, his regard extinguished, dead to himself seizes the light in the night " (Heraclitus).

  15. [Phenomenology of dreams].

    PubMed

    Pringuey, Dominique

    2011-10-01

    A phenomenology of dreams searches for meaning, with the aim not only of explaining but also of understanding the experience. What and who is it for? And what about the nearly forgotten dream among the moderns, the banal returning to the nightmare, sleepiness, or dreamlike reverie. Nostalgia for the dream, where we saw a very early state of light, not a ordinaire qu duel. Regret for the dreamlike splendor exceeded by the modeling power of modern aesthetics--film and the explosion of virtual imaging technologies. Disappointment at the discovery of a cognitive permanence throughout sleep and a unique fit with the real upon awaking? An excess of methodological rigor where we validate the logic of the dream, correlating the clinical improvement in psychotherapy and the ability to interpret one's own dreams. The dangerous psychological access when the dream primarily is mine, viewed as a veiled expression of an unspoken desire, or when the dream reveals to me, in an existential conception of man, through time and space, my daily life, my freedom beyond my needs. Might its ultimate sense also mean its abolition? From the story of a famous forgotten dream, based on unexpected scientific data emerges the question: do we dream to forget? The main thing would not be consciousness but confidence, when " the sleeping man, his regard extinguished, dead to himself seizes the light in the night " (Heraclitus). PMID:22812163

  16. The Reality of Dreams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Samantha

    2008-01-01

    As the author and her colleagues were working on this issue of "Teaching Tolerance" magazine, they were brainstorming connections between Congressman John Lewis's essay, "Reflections on a Dream Deferred" and the legacy of Dr. King's dream. The author commented that while the six of them (three white and three black) were a realization of the…

  17. Dreams, Daydreams and Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R. A.; Luckcock, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    It has been discovered that dreams and daydreams can be productive states in the process of scientific innovation. An attempt is made to provide some typical examples of insights which have come to scientists during dream-like states and in sleep. (Author/MA)

  18. [Dreams and schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Tögel, C

    1983-08-01

    This paper deals with the internal relationship between dream and schizophrenia, which has been a subject of discussion in philosophy and medicine since Kant and Griesinger, and shows that it can be supported by Marxist epistemology. A psychological theory of dream and schizophrenia would therefore have an integrative function with regard to psychotherapy and psychiatry. PMID:6635036

  19. Consciousness and abilities of dream characters observed during lucid dreaming.

    PubMed

    Tholey, P

    1989-04-01

    A description of several phenomenological experiments is given. These were done to investigate of which cognitive accomplishments dream characters are capable in lucid dreams. Nine male experienced lucid dreamers participated as subjects. They were directed to set different tasks to dream characters they met while lucid dreaming. Dream characters were asked to draw or write, to name unknown words, to find rhyme words, to make verses, and to solve arithmetic problems. Part of the dream characters actually agreed to perform the tasks and were successful, although the arithmetic accomplishments were poor. From the phenomenological findings, nothing contradicts the assumption that dream characters have consciousness in a specific sense. Herefrom the conclusion was drawn, that in lucid dream therapy communication with dream characters should be handled as if they were rational beings. Finally, several possibilities of assessing the question, whether dream characters possess consciousness, can be examined with the aid of psychophysiological experiments. PMID:2717365

  20. Consciousness and abilities of dream characters observed during lucid dreaming.

    PubMed

    Tholey, P

    1989-04-01

    A description of several phenomenological experiments is given. These were done to investigate of which cognitive accomplishments dream characters are capable in lucid dreams. Nine male experienced lucid dreamers participated as subjects. They were directed to set different tasks to dream characters they met while lucid dreaming. Dream characters were asked to draw or write, to name unknown words, to find rhyme words, to make verses, and to solve arithmetic problems. Part of the dream characters actually agreed to perform the tasks and were successful, although the arithmetic accomplishments were poor. From the phenomenological findings, nothing contradicts the assumption that dream characters have consciousness in a specific sense. Herefrom the conclusion was drawn, that in lucid dream therapy communication with dream characters should be handled as if they were rational beings. Finally, several possibilities of assessing the question, whether dream characters possess consciousness, can be examined with the aid of psychophysiological experiments.

  1. Chicago's Black Metropolis: Understanding History through a Historic Place.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danzer, Gerald A.

    This lesson focuses on specific places in Chicago's Black Metropolis and analyzes the process by which buildings in that district become historic structures. The lesson is based on the National Register of Historic Places registration file "Black Metropolis Thematic Nomination" and other primary and secondary sources. The unit could be used when…

  2. Dreams: Traditional or Contemporary Technology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacEachren, Zabe

    2003-01-01

    The Anishinabe use of dreams to guide raiding parties and of dream catchers to catch bad dreams guides a discussion of whether dreams are technology. The larger question is how the technology we use places us in relation to the land. Does technology immerse us in nature, or does it separate us from nature so we can measure and control it? (TD)

  3. Using Dreams in Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Connie M.

    1997-01-01

    States that current literature suggests that dreams are seldom used by marriage and family therapists, yet dreams can be powerful tools in therapeutic treatment. Includes clinical examples that demonstrate the effective use of dreams in marriage and family therapy. Discusses the interface between dream interpretation and systems therapy. (MKA)

  4. Characteristics and contents of dreams.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Dreams have been studied from different perspectives: psychoanalysis, academic psychology, and neurosciences. After presenting the definition of dreaming and the methodological tools of dream research, the major findings regarding the phenomenology of dreaming and the factors influencing dream content are briefly reviewed. The so-called continuity hypothesis stating that dreams reflect waking-life experiences is supported by studies investigating the dreams of psychiatric patients and patients with sleep disorders, i.e., their daytime symptoms and problems are reflected in their dreams. Dreams also have an effect on subsequent waking life, e.g., on daytime mood and creativity. The question about the functions of dreaming is still unanswered and open to future research.

  5. Dreaming in the Classroom: Practices, Methods, and Resources in Dream Education. SUNY Series in Dream Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Philip; Bulkeley, Kelly; Welt, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    "Dreaming in the Classroom" provides teachers from virtually all fields with a uniquely informative guidebook for introducing their students to the universal human phenomenon of dreaming. Although dreaming may not be held in high esteem in mainstream Western society, students at all education levels consistently enjoy learning about dreams and…

  6. Consciousness during dreams.

    PubMed

    Cicogna, P C; Bosinelli, M

    2001-03-01

    Two aspects of consciousness are first considered: consciousness as awareness (phenomenological meaning) and consciousness as strategic control (functional meaning). As to awareness, three types can be distinguished: first, awareness as the phenomenal experiences of objects and events; second, awareness as meta-awareness, i.e., the awareness of mental life itself; third, awareness as self-awareness, i.e., the awareness of being oneself. While phenomenal experience and self-awareness are usually present during dreaming (even if many modifications are possible), meta-awareness is usually absent (apart from some particular experiences of self-reflectiveness) with the major exception of lucid dreaming. Consciousness as strategic control may also be present in dreams. The functioning of consciousness is then analyzed, following a cognitive model of dream production. In such a model, the dream is supposed to be the product of the interaction of three components: (a) the bottom-up activation of mnemonic elements coming from LTM systems, (b) interpretative and elaborative top-down processes, and (c) monitoring of phenomenal experience. A feedback circulation is activated among the components, where the top-down interpretative organization and the conscious monitoring of the oneiric scene elicitates other mnemonic contents, according to the requirements of the dream plot. This dream productive activity is submitted to unconscious and conscious processes. PMID:11273624

  7. Consciousness during dreams.

    PubMed

    Cicogna, P C; Bosinelli, M

    2001-03-01

    Two aspects of consciousness are first considered: consciousness as awareness (phenomenological meaning) and consciousness as strategic control (functional meaning). As to awareness, three types can be distinguished: first, awareness as the phenomenal experiences of objects and events; second, awareness as meta-awareness, i.e., the awareness of mental life itself; third, awareness as self-awareness, i.e., the awareness of being oneself. While phenomenal experience and self-awareness are usually present during dreaming (even if many modifications are possible), meta-awareness is usually absent (apart from some particular experiences of self-reflectiveness) with the major exception of lucid dreaming. Consciousness as strategic control may also be present in dreams. The functioning of consciousness is then analyzed, following a cognitive model of dream production. In such a model, the dream is supposed to be the product of the interaction of three components: (a) the bottom-up activation of mnemonic elements coming from LTM systems, (b) interpretative and elaborative top-down processes, and (c) monitoring of phenomenal experience. A feedback circulation is activated among the components, where the top-down interpretative organization and the conscious monitoring of the oneiric scene elicitates other mnemonic contents, according to the requirements of the dream plot. This dream productive activity is submitted to unconscious and conscious processes.

  8. When dreaming is believing: the (motivated) interpretation of dreams.

    PubMed

    Morewedge, Carey K; Norton, Michael I

    2009-02-01

    This research investigated laypeople's interpretation of their dreams. Participants from both Eastern and Western cultures believed that dreams contain hidden truths (Study 1) and considered dreams to provide more meaningful information about the world than similar waking thoughts (Studies 2 and 3). The meaningfulness attributed to specific dreams, however, was moderated by the extent to which the content of those dreams accorded with participants' preexisting beliefs--from the theories they endorsed to attitudes toward acquaintances, relationships with friends, and faith in God (Studies 3-6). Finally, dream content influenced judgment: Participants reported greater affection for a friend after considering a dream in which a friend protected rather than betrayed them (Study 5) and were equally reluctant to fly after dreaming or learning of a plane crash (Studies 2 and 3). Together, these results suggest that people engage in motivated interpretation of their dreams and that these interpretations impact their everyday lives.

  9. Dreams, katharsis and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Kilborne, Benjamin

    2013-06-01

    Over the centuries, the importance and the nature of the relationship of "inside" and "outside" in human experience have shifted, with consequences for notions of mind and body. This paper begins with dreams and healing in the Asklepian tradition. It continues with Aristotle's notions of psuche and how these influenced his conception of katharsis and tragedy. Jumping then to the 17th century, we will consider Descartes' focus on dreams in his theories of thinking. Finally, we will turn explicitly to Freud's use of dreams in relation to his theories of anxiety, of psychic processes and of the Oedipus Complex.

  10. Dreaming and Neuroesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Barcaro, Umberto; Paoli, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper, which is limited to the art of painting, aims to support the idea that a substantial insertion of concepts and methods drawn on dream psychology and dream neuroscience can contribute to the advancements of Neuroesthetics. The historical and scientific reasons are discussed that have determined the so far poor role played by the dream phenomenon in the developments of Neuroesthetics. In the light of recent advancements in psychophysiological research, a method of analyzing artistic products is proposed that is based on the recognition of precise features proper of the dreaming experience. Four examples are given for application of this method, regarding works by Giorgione, Leonardo da Vinci, Vermeer, and Millais, respectively. PMID:26157373

  11. [Dreams and the dead].

    PubMed

    Mestre, Claire

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the issue of dreams and the dead as an essential tool for transcultural psychotherapy and how the dreamlike vision of the dead and its interpretation constitute a turning point in transcultural therapy. Drawing from a clinical example, the author illustrates how the spatial analogy between dreams and the world of the dead has allowed a patient to reconstruct a psychological space severely disturbed by trauma endured.

  12. Enhancing Dream Pleasure with Senoi Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Marie C.

    1984-01-01

    Implemented a thought-control strategy to increase pleasure and reduce displeasure in dreaming and dream-related behaviors in college students (N=63). Results indicated that dreaming and behaviors associated with dreaming were significantly more pleasurable 12 weeks after the dream interventions and maintenance of a daily dream record. (LLL)

  13. Lucid Dreaming in Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Dodet, Pauline; Chavez, Mario; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the frequency, determinants and sleep characteristics of lucid dreaming in narcolepsy Settings: University hospital sleep disorder unit Design: Case-control study Participants: Consecutive patients with narcolepsy and healthy controls Methods: Participants were interviewed regarding the frequency and determinants of lucid dreaming. Twelve narcolepsy patients and 5 controls who self-identified as frequent lucid dreamers underwent nighttime and daytime sleep monitoring after being given instructions regarding how to give an eye signal when lucid. Results: Compared to 53 healthy controls, the 53 narcolepsy patients reported more frequent dream recall, nightmares and recurrent dreams. Lucid dreaming was achieved by 77.4% of narcoleptic patients and 49.1% of controls (P < 0.05), with an average of 7.6 ± 11 vs. 0.3 ± 0.8 lucid dreams/month (P < 0.0001). The frequency of cataplexy, hallucinations, sleep paralysis, dyssomnia, HLA positivity, and the severity of sleepiness were similar in narcolepsy with and without lucid dreaming. Seven of 12 narcoleptic (and 0 non-narcoleptic) lucid dreamers achieved lucid REM sleep across a total of 33 naps, including 14 episodes with eye signal. The delta power in the electrode average, in delta, theta, and alpha powers in C4, and coherences between frontal electrodes were lower in lucid than non-lucid REM sleep in spectral EEG analysis. The duration of REM sleep was longer, the REM sleep onset latency tended to be shorter, and the percentage of atonia tended to be higher in lucid vs. non-lucid REM sleep; the arousal index and REM density and amplitude were unchanged. Conclusion: Narcoleptics have a high propensity for lucid dreaming without differing in REM sleep characteristics from people without narcolepsy. This suggests narcolepsy patients may provide useful information in future studies on the nature of lucid dreaming. Citation: Dodet P, Chavez M, Leu-Semenescu S, Golmard JL, Arnulf I. Lucid dreaming in

  14. The Dreaming Child: Dreams, Religion and Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Dreaming is an integral part of human life. Whilst psychology has generated extensive knowledge and understanding about dreams, it was in religious contexts that they were originally understood. This relationship between dreams and religion is still evident in contemporary society in the scriptures of the Abrahamic faiths, which narrate dreams…

  15. This art of psychoanalysis. Dreaming undreamt dreams and interrupted cries.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Thomas H

    2004-08-01

    It is the art of psychoanalysis in the making, a process inventing itself as it goes, that is the subject of this paper. The author articulates succinctly how he conceives of psychoanalysis, and offers a detailed clinical illustration. He suggests that each analysand unconsciously (and ambivalently) is seeking help in dreaming his 'night terrors' (his undreamt and undreamable dreams) and his 'nightmares' (his dreams that are interrupted when the pain of the emotional experience being dreamt exceeds his capacity for dreaming). Undreamable dreams are understood as manifestations of psychotic and psychically foreclosed aspects of the personality; interrupted dreams are viewed as reflections of neurotic and other non-psychotic parts of the personality. The analyst's task is to generate conditions that may allow the analysand--with the analyst's participation--to dream the patient's previously undreamable and interrupted dreams. A significant part of the analyst's participation in the patient's dreaming takes the form of the analyst's reverie experience. In the course of this conjoint work of dreaming in the analytic setting, the analyst may get to know the analysand sufficiently well for the analyst to be able to say something that is true to what is occurring at an unconscious level in the analytic relationship. The analyst's use of language contributes significantly to the possibility that the patient will be able to make use of what the analyst has said for purposes of dreaming his own experience, thereby dreaming himself more fully into existence.

  16. The use of dreams in spiritual care.

    PubMed

    Stranahan, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of dreams in the context of pastoral care. Although many people dream and consider their dreams to hold some significant spiritual meaning, spiritual care providers have been reluctant to incorporate patients' dreams into the therapeutic conversation. Not every dream can be considered insightful, but probing the meaning of some dreams can enhance spiritual care practice. Hill's Cognitive-Experimental Dream Interpretation Model is applied in the current article as a useful framework for exploring dreams, gaining insight about spiritual problems, and developing a therapeutic plan of action. Bulkeley's criteria for dream interpretation were used to furnish safeguards against inappropriate application of dream interpretation to spiritual assessment and interventions.

  17. [Dreams in ancient Hebrew sources].

    PubMed

    Kottek, Samuel S

    2009-01-01

    As in many cultures dreams are, in Hebrew sources, the object of numerous questions where are dreams from? Which is their function? Are they a physical or metaphysical phenomenon? The article analyzes the topic of nature of dreams in the Bible, with a particolar attention devoted to the Joseph's history. Talmudic text are, in particular, rich in references.

  18. Social dreaming: competition or complementation to individual dreaming?

    PubMed

    Noack, Amélie

    2010-11-01

    Social dreaming is presented as a method to explore the unconscious dimension of the social world. The theoretical position of social dreaming and its historical development is described. Two examples are given for the practical application of social dreaming, a professional meeting of psychotherapists and an experiential workshop dealing with the aftermath of trauma. It is suggested that social dreaming is complementary to individual dreaming and offers insights and explanations, as well as guidance on various levels for applications in clinical, organizational, institutional and social settings.

  19. Using dreams to assess clinical change during treatment.

    PubMed

    Glucksman, Myron L; Kramer, Milton

    2004-01-01

    This article describes several studies that examine the relationship between the manifest content of selected dreams reported by patients and their clinical progress during psychoanalytic and psychodynamically oriented treatment. There are a number of elements that dreaming and psychotherapy have in common: affect regulation; conflict resolution; problem-solving; self-awareness; mastery and adaptation. Four different studies examined the relationship between the manifest content of selected dreams and clinical progress during treatment. In each study, the ratings of manifest content and clinical progress by independent observers were rank-ordered and compared. In three of the four studies there was a significant correlation between the rankings of manifest content and the rankings of clinical progress. This finding suggests that the manifest content of dreams can be used as an independent variable to assess clinical progress during psychoanalytic and psychodynamically oriented treatment.

  20. Dreaming without REM sleep.

    PubMed

    Oudiette, Delphine; Dealberto, Marie-José; Uguccioni, Ginevra; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Merino-Andreu, Milagros; Tafti, Mehdi; Garma, Lucile; Schwartz, Sophie; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2012-09-01

    To test whether mental activities collected from non-REM sleep are influenced by REM sleep, we suppressed REM sleep using clomipramine 50mg (an antidepressant) or placebo in the evening, in a double blind cross-over design, in 11 healthy young men. Subjects were awakened every hour and asked about their mental activity. The marked (81%, range 39-98%) REM-sleep suppression induced by clomipramine did not substantially affect any aspects of dream recall (report length, complexity, bizarreness, pleasantness and self-perception of dream or thought-like mentation). Since long, complex and bizarre dreams persist even after suppressing REM sleep either partially or totally, it suggests that the generation of mental activity during sleep is independent of sleep stage.

  1. Dream disorders and treatment.

    PubMed

    Eiser, Alan S

    2007-09-01

    Consensus does not exist regarding what should constitute a "dream disorder." Conditions with disordered dreaming may be thought of as primary (ie, arising from changes in dreaming per se) or secondary to extrinsic disorders that impinge on structures involved in dreaming. The major primary disorder of dreaming, nightmare disorder, is covered in depth in this article. Definition of nightmare, diagnostic criteria for nightmare disorder, and differential diagnosis are discussed. The value of a sleep-disorders perspective on nightmares, and the possible exacerbating effects of sleep disorders that cause arousals, are indicated. The importance of a perspective that appreciates nightmares as richly and personally meaningful, with links to complex psychological factors present and past, is emphasized. Two types of treatment approaches are discussed: approaches that target the symptom of nightmares in relative isolation, and approaches that aim at working out psychological issues viewed as causing nightmares and a variety of other interconnected symptoms and problems. The former type of treatment includes the cognitive-behavioral approach "imagery rehearsal therapy," and the medication prazosin. The latter approach entails exploratory or psychodynamic psychotherapies. The approaches are seen as so different in scope, aim, and conceptual framework as to defy ready comparison. I think that a thorough psychological/psychiatric evaluation is essential for informed consideration in conjunction with the patient's choice of treatment approach. Sleep terrors are discussed as a non-rapid eye movement sleep arousal disorder that at times may be linked to broader psychological issues warranting consideration of psychotherapy. Brief summaries are provided of dream disorders secondary to other sleep disorders, drug and alcohol effects, medical disorders, and organic brain damage.

  2. Memory sources of dreams: the incorporation of autobiographical rather than episodic experiences.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Josie E; Horton, Caroline L

    2014-08-01

    The present study aimed to explore autobiographical memories (long-lasting memories about the self) and episodic memories (memories about discrete episodes or events) within dream content. We adapted earlier episodic memory study paradigms and reinvestigated the incorporation of episodic memory sources into dreams, operationalizing episodic memory as featuring autonoetic consciousness, which is the feeling of truly re-experiencing or reliving a past event. Participants (n = 32) recorded daily diaries and dream diaries, and reported on wake-dream relations for 2 weeks. Using a new scale, dreams were rated for their episodic richness, which categorized memory sources of dreams as being truly episodic (featuring autonoetic consciousness), autobiographical (containing segregated features of experiences that pertained to waking life) or otherwise. Only one dream (0.5%) was found to contain an episodic memory. However, the majority of dreams (>80%) were found to contain low to moderate incorporations of autobiographical memory features. These findings demonstrate the inactivity of intact episodic memories, and emphasize the activity of autobiographical memory and processing within dreams. Taken together, this suggests that memories for personal experiences are experienced fragmentarily and selectively during dreaming, perhaps in order to assimilate these memories into the autobiographical memory schema.

  3. Capturing Darwin's dream.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Travis C; Faircloth, Brant C

    2016-09-01

    Evolutionary biologists from Darwin forward have dreamed of having data that would elucidate our understanding of evolutionary history and the diversity of life. Sequence capture is a relatively old DNA technology, but its use is growing rapidly due to advances in (i) massively parallel DNA sequencing approaches and instruments, (ii) massively parallel bait construction, (iii) methods to identify target regions and (iv) sample preparation. We give a little historical context to these developments, summarize some of the important advances reported in this special issue and point to further advances that can be made to help fulfill Darwin's dream. PMID:27454358

  4. [Mechanism and function of dreams].

    PubMed

    Maquet, P

    2004-01-01

    Man has been fascinated by his dreams for ages. The discovery of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep revived the interest in dream research. The objective study of dream content allowed the characterization of the main features of human dreams: its perceptual content, its pervasive emotional background, its oddity. The particular pattern of cerebral activity observed during REM by functional neuroimaging seems to match these features. Firstly, the perceptual aspects of dreams would be related to the activation of posterior (occipital and temporal) cortices. Accordingly, patients with occipito-temporal lesions may report a cessation of visual dreams imagery. Secondly, emotional features in dreams would be related to the activation of amygdalar complexes, orbito-frontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. Thirdly, the activation of mesio-temporal areas would account for the memory content commonly found in dreams. Fourthly, the relative hypoactivation of the prefrontal cortex would explain the alteration in logical reasoning, working memory, episodic memory and executive functions that manifest themselves in dream reports from REM sleep awakenings. Despite these recent results, the precise neural correlates of dreaming remain elusive. Likewise, the functions of dreams are unknown, although usually related to the functions of sleep itself. PMID:16035629

  5. Metacognitive mechanisms underlying lucid dreaming.

    PubMed

    Filevich, Elisa; Dresler, Martin; Brick, Timothy R; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-21

    Lucid dreaming is a state of awareness that one is dreaming, without leaving the sleep state. Dream reports show that self-reflection and volitional control are more pronounced in lucid compared with nonlucid dreams. Mostly on these grounds, lucid dreaming has been associated with metacognition. However, the link to lucid dreaming at the neural level has not yet been explored. We sought for relationships between the neural correlates of lucid dreaming and thought monitoring. Human participants completed a questionnaire assessing lucid dreaming ability, and underwent structural and functional MRI. We split participants based on their reported dream lucidity. Participants in the high-lucidity group showed greater gray matter volume in the frontopolar cortex (BA9/10) compared with those in the low-lucidity group. Further, differences in brain structure were mirrored by differences in brain function. The BA9/10 regions identified through structural analyses showed increases in blood oxygen level-dependent signal during thought monitoring in both groups, and more strongly in the high-lucidity group. Our results reveal shared neural systems between lucid dreaming and metacognitive function, in particular in the domain of thought monitoring. This finding contributes to our understanding of the mechanisms enabling higher-order consciousness in dreams.

  6. Metacognitive mechanisms underlying lucid dreaming.

    PubMed

    Filevich, Elisa; Dresler, Martin; Brick, Timothy R; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-21

    Lucid dreaming is a state of awareness that one is dreaming, without leaving the sleep state. Dream reports show that self-reflection and volitional control are more pronounced in lucid compared with nonlucid dreams. Mostly on these grounds, lucid dreaming has been associated with metacognition. However, the link to lucid dreaming at the neural level has not yet been explored. We sought for relationships between the neural correlates of lucid dreaming and thought monitoring. Human participants completed a questionnaire assessing lucid dreaming ability, and underwent structural and functional MRI. We split participants based on their reported dream lucidity. Participants in the high-lucidity group showed greater gray matter volume in the frontopolar cortex (BA9/10) compared with those in the low-lucidity group. Further, differences in brain structure were mirrored by differences in brain function. The BA9/10 regions identified through structural analyses showed increases in blood oxygen level-dependent signal during thought monitoring in both groups, and more strongly in the high-lucidity group. Our results reveal shared neural systems between lucid dreaming and metacognitive function, in particular in the domain of thought monitoring. This finding contributes to our understanding of the mechanisms enabling higher-order consciousness in dreams. PMID:25609624

  7. On talking-as-dreaming.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Thomas H

    2007-06-01

    Many patients are unable to engage in waking-dreaming in the analytic setting in the form of free association or in any other form. The author has found that "talking-as-dreaming" has served as a form of waking-dreaming in which such patients have been able to begin to dream formerly undreamable experience. Such talking is a loosely structured form of conversation between patient and analyst that is often marked by primary process thinking and apparent non sequiturs. Talking-as-dreaming superficially appears to be "unanalytic" in that it may seem to consist "merely" of talking about such topics as books, films, etymology, baseball, the taste of chocolate, the structure of light, and so on. When an analysis is "a going concern," talking-as-dreaming moves unobtrusively into and out of talking about dreaming. The author provides two detailed clinical examples of analytic work with patients who had very little capacity to dream in the analytic setting. In the first clinical example, talking-as-dreaming served as a form of thinking and relating in which the patient was able for the first time to dream her own (and, in a sense, her father's) formerly unthinkable, undreamable experience. The second clinical example involves the use of talking-as-dreaming as an emotional experience in which the formerly "invisible" patient was able to begin to dream himself into existence. The analyst, while engaging with a patient in talking-as-dreaming, must remain keenly aware that it is critical that the difference in roles of patient and analyst be a continuously felt presence; that the therapeutic goals of analysis be firmly held in mind; and that the patient be given the opportunity to dream himself into existence (as opposed to being dreamt up by the analyst).

  8. Delaware's Dream Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2007-01-01

    To librarians at the Delaware Division of Libraries, Governor Ruth Ann Minner, Secretary of State Harriet Smith Windsor, and Assistant Secretary of State Rick Geisenberger are "the Delaware Dream Team." The governor and her team supported funding for the 2004 statewide effort that resulted in the Delaware Master Plan for Library Services and…

  9. Dreams Memories & Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Photography students spend a considerable amount of time working on technical issues in shooting, composing, editing, and processing prints. Another aspect of their learning should include the conception and communication of their ideas. A student's memories and dreams can serve as motivation to create images in visual art. Some artists claim that…

  10. Fulfilling a Dream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Sandy J.; Unebasami, Phyllis

    2005-01-01

    This article profiles Gail Awakuni, principal of James Campbell High School in Ewa Beach, Hawaii, who was named the 2005 MetLife/NASSP National High School Principal of the Year. From the beginning, Awakuni had a dream for the students of James Campbell High School. She knew that they had untapped potential, despite the fact that the school had…

  11. A Dream Realized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierpont, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    This article features the Center for Inquiry, a school where the teachers are making their dreams come true. As a school designed wholly by teachers, the Center for Inquiry (CFI) in Indianapolis, Indiana, is teaching kids how to take ownership of learning. Originally designed to be a school within a school for exchange and preservice teachers, the…

  12. Reviving the American Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Harriet B.

    American society and its educators are faced with many challenges, particularly from the growing use of computers, which lead to the question of whether the American dream of a viable democracy with an equal chance for all can be revived. The individual, community, thought, and morality provide four standpoints from which to consider technological…

  13. Television: Stuff of Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggaley, Jon

    The fluctuating effects of media can be observed by a data collection technique which reveals patterns of audience response similar to those which C.G. Jung observed in his analyses on word association and dreaming. The technique is known as Continuous Response Movement (CRM). A typical CRM training session automates the audience feedback process…

  14. 76 FR 39918 - Honeywell International, Inc., Metropolis Works; License Amendment Request and Request for a Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires participants to submit and serve all... COMMISSION Honeywell International, Inc., Metropolis Works; License Amendment Request and Request for a... Metropolis Works Facility site located in Metropolis, Illinois. License No. SUB-526 authorizes the...

  15. Retrospective dream components and musical preferences.

    PubMed

    Kroth, Jerry; Lamas, Jasmin; Pisca, Nicholas; Bourret, Kristy; Kollath, Miranda

    2008-08-01

    Retrospective dream components endorsed on the KJP Dream Inventory were correlated with those on the Short Test of Musical Preference for 68 graduate students in counseling psychology (11 men). Among 40 correlations, 6 were significant between preferences for Heavy Metal and Dissociative avoidance dreams (.32), Dreaming that you are dreaming (.40), Dreaming that you have fallen unconscious or asleep (.41), Recurring pleasantness (.31), and Awakening abruptly from a dream (-.31); between preferences for Rap/Hip-Hop and Sexual dreams (.27); and between preferences for Jazz and Recurring pleasantness in dreams (.33). Subjects preferring Classical music reported a higher incidence of Dreams of flying (.33) and rated higher Discontentedness in dreams (-.26). The meaning of these low values awaits research based on personality inventories and full dream reports. PMID:18982941

  16. Dreams as modifiers and tests of mental schemas: an emotional selection hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Richard

    2008-04-01

    A process is proposed that helps a person adapt to a social environment. During sleep, this process executes a set of dreams with social content that schemas tentatively incorporate by self-modifying. Due to vast interconnectivity that exists amongst social schemas, such modifications may introduce accidental, maladaptive conflicts. Consequently, a second set of dreams is executed in the form of test scenarios in order to evaluate the schema modifications effected by the first set of dreams. The process would monitor emotions generated during these latter dream tests. If prior, tentative modifications alleviate anxiety, frustration, sadness, or in other ways appear emotionally adaptive, they would be selected for retention. Those modifications that compare negatively to existing, unchanged schemas would be abandoned or further modified and tested. The correspondences of these hypotheses to the sleep cycle, previous dream studies, and functional neurological processes are discussed.

  17. Cognitive antecedents of dream recall.

    PubMed

    Martinetti, R F

    1985-04-01

    222 students completed the Cognitive Processes Survey which assessed imaginal life, orientation toward imaginal life, and defensiveness. Subjects were separated according to number of weekly dreams recalled and tested for short-term memory with the Digit Span of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Analyses of variance showed that imaginal life differed significantly across low, average, and high dream recallers. Orientation toward imaginal life was significant for high dream recallers but not for low recallers. A t test for correlated Digit Span raw scores indicated significant differences between low and high dream recallers. Differences in dream recall seemed better explained by cognitive variables such as short-term memory than attitudinal factors such as defensiveness. Dream recall might be enhanced by increasing the channel capacity of short-term memory and increasing imaginal life through activities such as introspection, daydreaming, and meditation.

  18. The function of dream sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crick, Francis; Mitchison, Graeme

    1983-07-01

    We propose that the function of dream sleep (more properly rapid-eye movement or REM sleep) is to remove certain undesirable modes of interaction in networks of cells in the cerebral cortex. We postulate that this is done in REM sleep by a reverse learning mechanism (see also p. 158), so that the trace in the brain of the unconscious dream is weakened, rather than strengthened, by the dream.

  19. Sharing dreams: sex and other sociodemographic variables.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael

    2009-08-01

    Dream sharing is a common experience for most people. Factors which might be related to dream sharing in a representative German sample were investigated in the present study. As expected, the frequency of positively toned and neutral dreams and the frequency of negatively toned dreams were related to dream sharing. In addition, an effect of sex was found: women shared their dreams more often than men. Dream sharing differing by social class and education might point to class-specific attitudes toward dreams which have not yet been studied in detail.

  20. Modeling Dream and Sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geszti, T.; Pazmandi, F.

    1989-01-01

    Modifying a proposal of Crick and Mitchison, a possible use of dream sleep is suggested to be the refreshment of a bounded short-term memory through the elimination of accidental weak memories, by reinforcing randomly retrieved strong ones. The extreme sensitivity of random retrieval to the pattern amplitude is explained by an infinite-slope change of the attraction basin size. External fields, representing pulse trains of external origin, cause a proliferation of fixed points, helping or disturbing computation.

  1. Women in Educational Leadership within the Tamale Metropolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segkulu, L.; Gyimah, K.

    2016-01-01

    Within the Tamale Metropolis, it is observed that only a few women occupy top level management positions within the Ghana Education Service (GES). A descriptive survey was therefore conducted in 2013/2014 academic year to assess the factors affecting the gender disparity in educational leadership within the Service. Specifically, the study sought…

  2. The Functional Analysis of Dreams: A New Theory of Dreaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karle, Werner; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Presents a relatively new theoretical, clinical, and research approach to dreams. Describes the functional theory of dreams and contrasts the functional approach with the more familiar interpretive approach. Reviews the origins and later spin-offs of the interpretive approach. (Author)

  3. From the dreams of a generation to the theory of dreams: Freud's Roman dreams.

    PubMed

    Meghnagi, David

    2011-06-01

    In The Interpretation of Dreams, Freud's interpretation of oedipal desires does not occur at the expense of historical and personal desires, which are always there as a backdrop. In the relentless examination of his own dreams that Freud makes in order to show the mechanisms inherent in all oneiric deformation, we are also led to another, specifically historical, aspect of the issue of Jewish emancipation, which he experiences at first hand. By analysing his own dreams, Freud not only shows us the mechanisms governing dream formation, but also develops a pointed critique of his contemporary society and its prejudices.

  4. Trait and neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content.

    PubMed

    Blagrove, Mark; Pace-Schott, Edward F

    2010-01-01

    Individuals differ greatly in their dream recall frequency, in their incidence of recalling types of dreams, such as nightmares, and in the content of their dreams. This chapter reviews work on the waking life correlates of these differences between people in their experience of dreaming and reviews some of the neurobiological correlates of these individual differences. The chapter concludes that despite there being trait-like aspects of general dream recall and of dream content, very few psychometrically assessed correlates for dream recall frequency and dream content have been found. More successful has been the investigation of correlates of frequency of particular types of dreams, such as nightmares and lucid dreams, and also of how waking-life experience is associated with dream content. There is also potential in establishing neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content, and recent work on this is reviewed. PMID:20870067

  5. Trait and neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content.

    PubMed

    Blagrove, Mark; Pace-Schott, Edward F

    2010-01-01

    Individuals differ greatly in their dream recall frequency, in their incidence of recalling types of dreams, such as nightmares, and in the content of their dreams. This chapter reviews work on the waking life correlates of these differences between people in their experience of dreaming and reviews some of the neurobiological correlates of these individual differences. The chapter concludes that despite there being trait-like aspects of general dream recall and of dream content, very few psychometrically assessed correlates for dream recall frequency and dream content have been found. More successful has been the investigation of correlates of frequency of particular types of dreams, such as nightmares and lucid dreams, and also of how waking-life experience is associated with dream content. There is also potential in establishing neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content, and recent work on this is reviewed.

  6. Dr. King's Dream. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    This lesson plan teaches students about the life and work of Martin Luther King, Jr. Students listen to a brief biography, view photographs of the March on Washington, hear a portion of King's "I Have a Dream" speech, and discuss what King's words mean to them. Finally, they will create picture books about their own dreams of freedom for Americans…

  7. The Case for Dreaming Big

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domina, Thurston; Conley, AnneMarie; Farkas, George

    2011-01-01

    The American educational system is no fairy tale. Students who think that it takes nothing more than a wish upon a star to make their educational dreams come true are sure to be disappointed. The authors agree with Professor Rosenbaum: In order to realize their educational dreams, students must invest considerable effort. Rather than encouraging…

  8. Personality and Adult Perceptions of Childhood Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacka, Brian

    This study used adult recall of childhood dreams to test Cann and Donderi's (1986) findings that Jungian intuitives recall more archetypal dreams than do sensate subjects, and that introverts recall more everyday dreams than extraverts. It was hypothesized that since dreams recalled from childhood are relatively high in archetypal content, there…

  9. What Do Young Children Dream about?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Nealis, Arlene L.

    2012-01-01

    Young children's dreams can be a way for teachers and caregivers to share with children and an opportunity for children to describe and even draw dreams. In two different preschool settings, in two different geographical locales, 94 children, aged 3-5 years, shared 266 dreams with a trusted, familiar teacher. Dreams were coded anonymously. The…

  10. Beyond DreamWeaving: Honoring Our Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Martha M.

    DreamWeavers listen for the dreams within themselves and within others. The process of career counseling, career management coaching and career/life planning invites practitioners to consistently listen for the dreams, understand that dreams are visions and that visions guide us to action. This paper highlights how career practitioners are called…

  11. Daydreams and nap dreams: Content comparisons.

    PubMed

    Carr, Michelle; Nielsen, Tore

    2015-11-01

    Differences between nighttime REM and NREM dreams are well-established but only rarely are daytime REM and NREM nap dreams compared with each other or with daydreams. Fifty-one participants took daytime naps (with REM or NREM awakenings) and provided both waking daydream and nap dream reports. They also provided ratings of their bizarreness, sensory experience, and emotion intensity. Recall rates for REM (96%) and NREM (89%) naps were elevated compared to typical recall rates for nighttime dreams (80% and 43% respectively), suggesting an enhanced circadian influence. All attribute ratings were higher for REM than for NREM dreams, replicating findings for nighttime dreams. Compared with daydreams, NREM dreams had lower ratings for emotional intensity and sensory experience while REM dreams had higher ratings for bizarreness and sensory experience. Results support using daytime naps in dream research and suggest that there occurs selective enhancement and inhibition of specific dream attributes by REM, NREM and waking state mechanisms. PMID:26164253

  12. Daydreams and nap dreams: Content comparisons.

    PubMed

    Carr, Michelle; Nielsen, Tore

    2015-11-01

    Differences between nighttime REM and NREM dreams are well-established but only rarely are daytime REM and NREM nap dreams compared with each other or with daydreams. Fifty-one participants took daytime naps (with REM or NREM awakenings) and provided both waking daydream and nap dream reports. They also provided ratings of their bizarreness, sensory experience, and emotion intensity. Recall rates for REM (96%) and NREM (89%) naps were elevated compared to typical recall rates for nighttime dreams (80% and 43% respectively), suggesting an enhanced circadian influence. All attribute ratings were higher for REM than for NREM dreams, replicating findings for nighttime dreams. Compared with daydreams, NREM dreams had lower ratings for emotional intensity and sensory experience while REM dreams had higher ratings for bizarreness and sensory experience. Results support using daytime naps in dream research and suggest that there occurs selective enhancement and inhibition of specific dream attributes by REM, NREM and waking state mechanisms.

  13. Dreams in patients with sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Dreaming is defined as mental activity which occurs during sleep. This review will focus on sleep disorders which have been studied in relation to dreaming: insomnia, sleep apnea syndrome, narcolepsy, and the restless legs syndrome. Dream recall is heightened in patients with insomnia and their dreams reflect current stressors. Whereas breathing-related dreams in sleep apnea patients are rare, the deregulation of the REM sleep system in narcolepsy also manifests in dreams which are more bizarre and more negatively toned. Overall, the findings support the arousal-retrieval model of dream recall but also clearly indicate that other factors like cognitive impairment or micro-arousal might affect the dreaming process. The content analytic findings support the continuity hypothesis of dreaming which states that waking-life issues are reflected in dreams. The number of studies in this field is still very small, however, and further research is needed to confirm and expand the reviewed findings.

  14. The roles of the reward system in sleep and dreaming.

    PubMed

    Perogamvros, Lampros; Schwartz, Sophie

    2012-09-01

    The mesolimbic dopaminergic system (ML-DA) allows adapted interactions with the environment and is therefore of critical significance for the individual's survival. The ML-DA system is implicated in reward and emotional functions, and it is perturbed in schizophrenia, addiction, and depression. The ML-DA reward system is not only recruited during wakeful behaviors, it is also active during sleep. Here, we introduce the Reward Activation Model (RAM) for sleep and dreaming, according to which activation of the ML-DA reward system during sleep contributes to memory processes, to the regulation of rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep, and to the generation and motivational content of dreams. In particular, the engagement of ML-DA and associated limbic structures prioritizes information with high emotional or motivational relevance for (re)processing during sleep and dreaming. The RAM provides testable predictions and has clinical implications for our understanding of the pathogenesis of major depression and addiction.

  15. [The dream of flying].

    PubMed

    Goddemeier, Christof

    2005-01-01

    More than a 100 years ago the Wright brothers succeeded in performing the first motor flight in the history of mankind. But irrespective of its technical realisation man has always dealt with flying. So myths, rites and fairy-tales as well reflect the different ideas of flying as these conceptions come to light again and again in dreams and visions. Whether ascension, expression of desire and yearning or sexual metaphor -- the idea of flying seems to be a universal magic figure of thinking.

  16. The american dental dream.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The American Dental Dream-the cultural desire for straight, white teeth-is difficult, if not impossible, for poor and working-class people to achieve. Using ethnographic fiction, autoethnography, poetry, and qualitative interviewing, I brush away the taken-for-granted assumptions about teeth. I explore the personal, relational, and structural consequences of this cultural desire, and show how social class writes itself on our bodies. I write these culture-centered teeth tales to show how one might cope with their teeth. PMID:25257392

  17. The american dental dream.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The American Dental Dream-the cultural desire for straight, white teeth-is difficult, if not impossible, for poor and working-class people to achieve. Using ethnographic fiction, autoethnography, poetry, and qualitative interviewing, I brush away the taken-for-granted assumptions about teeth. I explore the personal, relational, and structural consequences of this cultural desire, and show how social class writes itself on our bodies. I write these culture-centered teeth tales to show how one might cope with their teeth.

  18. An assessment of DREAM, appendix E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddle, W. E.

    1980-01-01

    The design realization, evaluation and modelling (DREAM) system is evaluated. A short history of the DREAM research project is given as well as the significant characteristics of DREAM as a development environment. The design notation which is the basis for the DREAM system is reviewed, and the development tools envisioned as part of DREAM are discussed. Insights into development environments and their production are presented and used to make suggestions for future work in the area of development environments.

  19. Converging Paradigms: A Reflection on Parallel Theoretical Developments in Psychoanalytic Metapsychology and Empirical Dream Research.

    PubMed

    Schmelowszky, Ágoston

    2016-08-01

    In the last decades one can perceive a striking parallelism between the shifting perspective of leading representatives of empirical dream research concerning their conceptualization of dreaming and the paradigm shift within clinically based psychoanalytic metapsychology with respect to its theory on the significance of dreaming. In metapsychology, dreaming becomes more and more a central metaphor of mental functioning in general. The theories of Klein, Bion, and Matte-Blanco can be considered as milestones of this paradigm shift. In empirical dream research, the competing theories of Hobson and of Solms respectively argued for and against the meaningfulness of the dream-work in the functioning of the mind. In the meantime, empirical data coming from various sources seemed to prove the significance of dream consciousness for the development and maintenance of adaptive waking consciousness. Metapsychological speculations and hypotheses based on empirical research data seem to point in the same direction, promising for contemporary psychoanalytic practice a more secure theoretical base. In this paper the author brings together these diverse theoretical developments and presents conclusions regarding psychoanalytic theory and technique, as well as proposing an outline of an empirical research plan for testing the specificity of psychoanalysis in developing dream formation. PMID:27500705

  20. Dr. Barnett's dream

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A.

    1990-04-01

    In 1986, AstroPower was a tiny R D company located at the University of Delaware. Like many other entrepreneurs in the field at that time, the company's president, Dr. Allen Barnett, had a good idea, a good research staff, and the dream of becoming a successful manufacturer of photovoltaic (PV) cells. If the Newark, Del. company's projections remain on track, Barnett plans to become the third largest PV manufacturer in the United States by the end of next year. Were it not for the company's performance to date, such a claim might well be dismissed as idle dreaming. AstroPower Inc. is pursuing a two-pronged strategy: to rapidly bring a new thin-crystal silicon PV cell to commercialization; and, in the meantime, to gain experience in manufacturing and distributing conventional single-crystal and polycrystal silicon cells. The company sold approximately 200 kilowatts (kWp) of cells last year (about half single-crystal and half polycrystal). Its current production capacity is 360 kWp. The company and its products are described.

  1. [Dream recall and sleep disorders].

    PubMed

    Schredl, M; Bozzer, A; Morlock, M

    1997-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between dream recall and sleep disorders. The sample comprised 762 patients who were diagnosed in the sleep laboratory. In the course of the examination they completed the sleep questionnaire SF-B (Görtelmeyer 1986). The results showed a heightened dream recall frequency (DRF) in insomniacs and patients with myoclonia. This result as well as the findings in the control group supports the arousal-retrieval model of dream recall (Koulack u. Goodenough 1976) which emphasizes the importance of nocturnal awakenings. However, this model seems only to be valid for males. In females, DRF is mainly influenced by emotional stress which is best explained by the salience hypothesis of Cohen and MacNeilage (1974). They pointed out that intensive dream emotions lead to high recallability of dream experience. The data gives evidence to the hypothesis of Ermann et al. (1993, 1994) which states that reduced DRF in terms of unsuccessful dream work is accompanied by frequent nocturnal awakenings. DRF of patients with sleep apnea syndrome did not differ from DRF in healthy controls. In addition, sleep apnea parameters did not correlate substantially with DRF. The finding that insomniacs reported more negatively toned dreams in comparison to persons who were examined for sleep apnea but did not showed a pathological apnea index. This may be an hint to increased emotional stress in this patient group. To summarize, the results are promising in clarifying the relationship between sleep disorders and dream life. The next step is to investigate dream reports of these patients by means of content analysis.

  2. Reporting dream experience: Why (not) to be skeptical about dream reports

    PubMed Central

    Windt, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Are dreams subjective experiences during sleep? Is it like something to dream, or is it only like something to remember dreams after awakening? Specifically, can dream reports be trusted to reveal what it is like to dream, and should they count as evidence for saying that dreams are conscious experiences at all? The goal of this article is to investigate the relationship between dreaming, dream reporting and subjective experience during sleep. I discuss different variants of philosophical skepticism about dream reporting and argue that they all fail. Consequently, skeptical doubts about the trustworthiness of dream reports are misguided, and for systematic reasons. I suggest an alternative, anti-skeptical account of the trustworthiness of dream reports. On this view, dream reports, when gathered under ideal reporting conditions and according to the principle of temporal proximity, are trustworthy (or transparent) with respect to conscious experience during sleep. The transparency assumption has the status of a methodologically necessary default assumption and is theoretically justified because it provides the best explanation of dream reporting. At the same time, it inherits important insights from the discussed variants of skepticism about dream reporting, suggesting that the careful consideration of these skeptical arguments ultimately leads to a positive account of why and under which conditions dream reports can and should be trusted. In this way, moderate distrust can be fruitfully combined with anti-skepticism about dream reporting. Several perspectives for future dream research and for the comparative study of dreaming and waking experience are suggested. PMID:24223542

  3. From Freud's dream-work to Bion's work of dreaming: the changing conception of dreaming in psychoanalytic theory.

    PubMed

    Schneider, John A

    2010-06-01

    Bion moved psychoanalytic theory from Freud's theory of dream-work to a concept of dreaming in which dreaming is the central aspect of all emotional functioning. In this paper, I first review historical, theoretical, and clinical aspects of dreaming as seen by Freud and Bion. I then propose two interconnected ideas that I believe reflect Bion's split from Freud regarding the understanding of dreaming. Bion believed that all dreams are psychological works in progress and at one point suggested that all dreams contain elements that are akin to visual hallucinations. I explore and elaborate Bion's ideas that all dreams contain aspects of emotional experience that are too disturbing to be dreamt, and that, in analysis, the patient brings a dream with the hope of receiving the analyst's help in completing the unconscious work that was entirely or partially too disturbing for the patient to dream on his own. Freud views dreams as mental phenomena with which to understand how the mind functions, but believes that dreams are solely the 'guardians of sleep,' and not, in themselves, vehicles for unconscious psychological work and growth until they are interpreted by the analyst. Bion extends Freud's ideas, but also departs from Freud and re-conceives of dreaming as synonymous with unconscious emotional thinking - a process that continues both while we are awake and while we are asleep. From another somewhat puzzling perspective, he views dreams solely as manifestations of what the dreamer is unable to think.

  4. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams.

    PubMed

    Klein, Barrett A

    2011-12-21

    A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans' dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream's significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives.

  5. The Use of Dreams in Psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Schredl, Michael; Bohusch, Claudia; Kahl, Johanna; Mader, Andrea; Somesan, Alexandra

    2000-01-01

    Since the publication of Sigmund Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams, dream interpretation has been a standard technique often used in psychotherapy. However, empirical studies about the frequency of working on dreams in therapy are lacking. The present study elicited, via a self-developed questionnaire, various aspects of work on dreams applied by psychotherapists in private practice. The findings indicate that dreams were often used in therapy, especially in psychoanalysis. In addition, a significant relationship was found between the frequency of the therapists' working on their own dreams and frequency of work on dreams in therapy. Because work on dreams was rated as beneficial for the clients, further studies investigating the effectiveness and the process of working on dreams will be of interest. PMID:10793127

  6. Theoretical trajectories: Dreams and dreaming from Freud to Bion.

    PubMed

    Vinocur Fischbein, Susana; Miramón, Beatriz

    2015-08-01

    This paper aims at comparing Freud's and Bion's conceptual models on dreams and dreaming. Beyond both authors' shared disposition vis-à-vis problems posed by knowledge, a critical gap opens regarding their differing clinical practices. It is hypothesized that their ideas do not belong to irreconcilable paradigms, but that there are continuities besides discontinuities more frequently highlighted between Freudian statements on psychic functioning--described in his theory on dreams--and Bion's findings in his development of both the original theory and the connections between dreaming and thinking. Firstly, Freud's and Bion's epistemological sources are examined as well as their creative use and historical environment. Then certain general theoretical and clinical issues are considered concerning their theories on dreams, the evolution of their ideas and corresponding clinical contexts. In a third section, their confluences and dissimilarities are dealt with, including clinical vignettes belonging to the authors to illustrate their interpretative modes of working. This is meant to show both an implicit theoretical-clinical complementarity and the fact that, though their routes bifurcate about the function of dreams, there remain connecting paths. Lastly, the final remarks review certain issues that have frequently been controversial between these lines of thought.

  7. Theoretical trajectories: Dreams and dreaming from Freud to Bion.

    PubMed

    Vinocur Fischbein, Susana; Miramón, Beatriz

    2015-08-01

    This paper aims at comparing Freud's and Bion's conceptual models on dreams and dreaming. Beyond both authors' shared disposition vis-à-vis problems posed by knowledge, a critical gap opens regarding their differing clinical practices. It is hypothesized that their ideas do not belong to irreconcilable paradigms, but that there are continuities besides discontinuities more frequently highlighted between Freudian statements on psychic functioning--described in his theory on dreams--and Bion's findings in his development of both the original theory and the connections between dreaming and thinking. Firstly, Freud's and Bion's epistemological sources are examined as well as their creative use and historical environment. Then certain general theoretical and clinical issues are considered concerning their theories on dreams, the evolution of their ideas and corresponding clinical contexts. In a third section, their confluences and dissimilarities are dealt with, including clinical vignettes belonging to the authors to illustrate their interpretative modes of working. This is meant to show both an implicit theoretical-clinical complementarity and the fact that, though their routes bifurcate about the function of dreams, there remain connecting paths. Lastly, the final remarks review certain issues that have frequently been controversial between these lines of thought. PMID:25885119

  8. Dreams and dreaming in relation to trauma in childhood.

    PubMed

    Dowling, S

    1982-01-01

    Mrs C experienced two types of repetitive dream linked with childhood trauma. The first type consisted of primal scene experience expressed in images utilizing typical primary process organization, i.e. condensation, displacement, symbolization and representation in visual or auditory imagery. Associated anxiety was intense but relieved with awakening. The second type of repetitive dream was an experience 'beyond anxiety', 'like being buried in a wave' and was without remembered imagery. The overwhelming anxiety did not dissipate with awakening and only gradually receded over succeeding days. It is hypothesized that these two types of dream are derived from quite different forms of mental organization. The former is linked to typical primary process organization, requiring representational thought, the capacity to manipulate mental images. Condensation, displacement, and symbolization are defining aspects of early forms of representational thought. Piaget has demonstrated that this capacity for manipulation of mental images begins at about 15-24 months. The second type of dream, with imageless terror and diffuse feelings of loss and emptiness, was derived from trauma Mrs C sustained at 2 years of age. It is suggested that this form of dream makes use of sensori-motor organization of mental experience and is similar to phenomena described by Lewin and Isakower. Vignettes from three additional analyses are presented as further examples of dream formation following childhood trauma. Piaget's findings concerning early forms of mental organization are briefly considered. These discoveries are helpful in understanding phenomena derived from early childhood experience.

  9. Studying dream content using the archive and search engine on DreamBank.net.

    PubMed

    Domhoff, G William; Schneider, Adam

    2008-12-01

    This paper shows how the dream archive and search engine on DreamBank.net, a Web site containing over 22,000 dream reports, can be used to generate new findings on dream content, some of which raise interesting questions about the relationship between dreaming and various forms of waking thought. It begins with studies that draw dream reports from DreamBank.net for studies of social networks in dreams, and then demonstrates the usefulness of the search engine by employing word strings relating to religious and sexual elements. Examples from two lengthy individual dream series are used to show how the dreams of one person can be studied for characters, activities, and emotions. A final example shows that accurate inferences about a person's religious beliefs can be made on the basis of reading through dreams retrieved with a few keywords. The overall findings are similar to those in studies using traditional forms of content analysis. PMID:18682331

  10. ISS Update: Dream Chaser Spacecraft

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Michael Curie talks with Cheryl McPhillips, Commercial Crew Program Partner Manager for the Sierra Nevada Corporation, the company developing the Dream Chaser spacecraft...

  11. Dreams, Perception, and Creative Realization.

    PubMed

    Glaskin, Katie

    2015-10-01

    This article draws on the ethnography of Aboriginal Australia to argue that perceptual openness, extending from waking life into dreaming experience, provides an important cognitive framework for the apprehension of dreamt experience in these contexts. I argue that this perceptual openness is analogous to the "openness to experience" described as a personality trait that had been linked with dream recall frequency (among other things). An implication of identifying perceptual openness at a cultural rather than at an individual level is two-fold. It provides an example of the ways in which cultural differences affect perception, indicative of cognitive diversity; and, given the relationship between dreams and creativity suggested anecdotally and through research, a cultural orientation toward perceptual openness is also likely to have implications for the realization of creativity that occurs through dreams. Such creativity though cannot be separated from the relational context in which such dreamt material is elaborated and understood.

  12. Dreams, Perception, and Creative Realization.

    PubMed

    Glaskin, Katie

    2015-10-01

    This article draws on the ethnography of Aboriginal Australia to argue that perceptual openness, extending from waking life into dreaming experience, provides an important cognitive framework for the apprehension of dreamt experience in these contexts. I argue that this perceptual openness is analogous to the "openness to experience" described as a personality trait that had been linked with dream recall frequency (among other things). An implication of identifying perceptual openness at a cultural rather than at an individual level is two-fold. It provides an example of the ways in which cultural differences affect perception, indicative of cognitive diversity; and, given the relationship between dreams and creativity suggested anecdotally and through research, a cultural orientation toward perceptual openness is also likely to have implications for the realization of creativity that occurs through dreams. Such creativity though cannot be separated from the relational context in which such dreamt material is elaborated and understood. PMID:26399220

  13. The Dreams of Heroin Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Maryanne

    1972-01-01

    Few heroin addicts get high'' in their dreams. An exploration of the reasons for this failure provides some clues to the conflicts and other problems that retard an addict's progress in therapy. (Author)

  14. Dreams, teachers, and legislation.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F

    2010-11-01

    When I accepted the James D. Mills Award from The American College of Emergency Physicians, I had three goals in mind, which I wanted to share with those attending the commemorative dinner meeting. My first goal was to remind those in attendance that each of us must make our academic dreams come true. My next goal was to acknowledge two of my empowering teachers at the dinner, Dr. Peter Rosen and Dr. William Sacco, who have made revolutionary advances in health care; and finally, I wished to remind the membership of the need to work with Congressional leaders to pass the Access to Emergency Medical Services Act of 2009. I warned the leaders in emergency medicine of the necessity to pass the Access to Emergency Medical Services Act of 2009 to ensure that our emergency medical patients receive prompt and responsible care. This has been our quest.

  15. Dreams, teachers, and legislation.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F

    2010-11-01

    When I accepted the James D. Mills Award from The American College of Emergency Physicians, I had three goals in mind, which I wanted to share with those attending the commemorative dinner meeting. My first goal was to remind those in attendance that each of us must make our academic dreams come true. My next goal was to acknowledge two of my empowering teachers at the dinner, Dr. Peter Rosen and Dr. William Sacco, who have made revolutionary advances in health care; and finally, I wished to remind the membership of the need to work with Congressional leaders to pass the Access to Emergency Medical Services Act of 2009. I warned the leaders in emergency medicine of the necessity to pass the Access to Emergency Medical Services Act of 2009 to ensure that our emergency medical patients receive prompt and responsible care. This has been our quest. PMID:20466505

  16. The Metropolis Monte Carlo method with CUDA enabled Graphic Processing Units

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Clifford; Ji, Weixiao; Blaisten-Barojas, Estela

    2014-02-01

    We present a CPU–GPU system for runtime acceleration of large molecular simulations using GPU computation and memory swaps. The memory architecture of the GPU can be used both as container for simulation data stored on the graphics card and as floating-point code target, providing an effective means for the manipulation of atomistic or molecular data on the GPU. To fully take advantage of this mechanism, efficient GPU realizations of algorithms used to perform atomistic and molecular simulations are essential. Our system implements a versatile molecular engine, including inter-molecule interactions and orientational variables for performing the Metropolis Monte Carlo (MMC) algorithm, which is one type of Markov chain Monte Carlo. By combining memory objects with floating-point code fragments we have implemented an MMC parallel engine that entirely avoids the communication time of molecular data at runtime. Our runtime acceleration system is a forerunner of a new class of CPU–GPU algorithms exploiting memory concepts combined with threading for avoiding bus bandwidth and communication. The testbed molecular system used here is a condensed phase system of oligopyrrole chains. A benchmark shows a size scaling speedup of 60 for systems with 210,000 pyrrole monomers. Our implementation can easily be combined with MPI to connect in parallel several CPU–GPU duets. -- Highlights: •We parallelize the Metropolis Monte Carlo (MMC) algorithm on one CPU—GPU duet. •The Adaptive Tempering Monte Carlo employs MMC and profits from this CPU—GPU implementation. •Our benchmark shows a size scaling-up speedup of 62 for systems with 225,000 particles. •The testbed involves a polymeric system of oligopyrroles in the condensed phase. •The CPU—GPU parallelization includes dipole—dipole and Mie—Jones classic potentials.

  17. Dream Recall and Dream Content in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schredl, Michael; Sartorius, Heiko

    2010-01-01

    Although sleep is widely investigated in children with ADHD, dream studies in this group are completely lacking. The continuity hypothesis of dreaming stating that waking life is reflected in dreams would predict that waking-life symptoms are reflected in the dreams of such children. 103 children with ADHD and 100 controls completed a dream…

  18. Hamiltonian Switch Metropolis Monte Carlo Simulations for Improved Conformational Sampling of Intrinsically Disordered Regions Tethered to Ordered Domains of Proteins

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the topic of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Atomistic Metropolis Monte Carlo (MMC) simulations based on novel implicit solvation models have yielded useful insights regarding sequence-ensemble relationships for IDPs modeled as autonomous units. However, a majority of naturally occurring IDPs are tethered to ordered domains. Tethering introduces additional energy scales and this creates the challenge of broken ergodicity for standard MMC sampling or molecular dynamics that cannot be readily alleviated by using generalized tempering methods. We have designed, deployed, and tested our adaptation of the Nested Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling algorithm. We refer to our adaptation as Hamiltonian Switch Metropolis Monte Carlo (HS-MMC) sampling. In this method, transitions out of energetic traps are enabled by the introduction of an auxiliary Markov chain that draws conformations for the disordered region from a Boltzmann distribution that is governed by an alternative potential function that only includes short-range steric repulsions and conformational restraints on the ordered domain. We show using multiple, independent runs that the HS-MMC method yields conformational distributions that have similar and reproducible statistical properties, which is in direct contrast to standard MMC for equivalent amounts of sampling. The method is efficient and can be deployed for simulations of a range of biologically relevant disordered regions that are tethered to ordered domains. PMID:25136274

  19. Sierra Nevada's Dream Chaser Model Assembly

    NASA Video Gallery

    This time lapse video shows the assembly of a scale model of Sierra Nevada Space Systems' Dream Chaser vehicle. The Dream Chaser model is undergoing final preparations for buffet tests at the Trans...

  20. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Barrett A.

    2011-01-01

    A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans’ dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream’s significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives. PMID:26467945

  1. Dream Deprivation and Facilitation with Hypnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Ira B.; Boone, Donald

    1975-01-01

    The present study attempted to deprive human subjects of dreaming through the administration of a posthypnotic suggestion and to increase or facilitate dreaming through a second suggestion that was used with another group of subjects. (Author/RK)

  2. Dreaming during anaesthesia in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Kate; Skrzypek, Hannah

    2007-09-01

    Dreaming during anaesthesia is defined as any recalled experience (excluding awareness) that occurred between induction of anaesthesia and the first moment of consciousness upon emergence. Dreaming is a commonly-reported side-effect of anaesthesia. The incidence is higher in patients who are interviewed immediately after anaesthesia (approximately 22%) than in those who are interviewed later (approximately 6%). A minority of dreams, which include sensory perceptions obtained during anaesthesia, provide evidence of near-miss awareness. These patients may have risk factors for awareness and this type of dreaming may be prevented by depth of anaesthesia monitoring. Most dreaming however, occurs in younger, fitter patients, who have high home dream recall, who receive propofol-based anaesthesia and who emerge rapidly from anaesthesia. Their dreams are usually short and pleasant, are related to work, family and recreation, are not related to inadequate anaesthesia and probably occur during recovery. Dreaming is a common, fascinating, usually pleasant and harmless phenomenon.

  3. Digital dream analysis: a revised method.

    PubMed

    Bulkeley, Kelly

    2014-10-01

    This article demonstrates the use of a digital word search method designed to provide greater accuracy, objectivity, and speed in the study of dreams. A revised template of 40 word search categories, built into the website of the Sleep and Dream Database (SDDb), is applied to four "classic" sets of dreams: The male and female "Norm" dreams of Hall and Van de Castle (1966), the "Engine Man" dreams discussed by Hobson (1988), and the "Barb Sanders Baseline 250" dreams examined by Domhoff (2003). A word search analysis of these original dream reports shows that a digital approach can accurately identify many of the same distinctive patterns of content found by previous investigators using much more laborious and time-consuming methods. The results of this study emphasize the compatibility of word search technologies with traditional approaches to dream content analysis.

  4. The impact of September 11 on dreaming.

    PubMed

    Bulkeley, Kelly; Kahan, Tracey L

    2008-12-01

    This study focuses on a set of dreams related to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks and their aftermath, using content analysis and cognitive psychology to explore the interweaving of external public catastrophe and internal psychological processes. The study tests several recent claims in contemporary dream research, including the central image theory of Hartmann [Hartmann, E., & Basile, R. (2003). Dream imagery becomes more intense after 9/11/01. Dreaming, 13(2), 61-66; Hartmann, E., & Brezler, T. (2008). A systematic change in dreams after 9/11/01. Sleep, 31(2), 213-218], the media exposure factor postulated by Propper [Propper, R. E., Stickgold, R., Keeley, R., & Christman, S. D. (2007). Is television traumatic? Dreams, stress, and media exposure in the aftermath of September 11, 2001. Psychological Science, 18(4), 334-340], the continuity hypothesis of Domhoff [Domhoff, W. G. (1996). Finding meaning in dreams: A quantitative approach. New York: Plenum], the cognitive and metacognitive approach of Kahan [Kahan, T. L. (2001). Consciousness in dreaming: A metacognitive approach. In K. Bulkeley (Ed.), Dreams: A reader on the religious, cultural, and psychological dimensions of dreaming (pp. 333-360). New York: Palgrave], and the threat simulation theory of Revonsuo [Revonsuo, A. (2000). The reinterpretation of dreams: An evolutionary hypothesis of the function of dreaming. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23(6), 877-901]. Our findings suggest the terrorist attacks had a tangible impact on the content of many people's dreams, but did not fundamentally alter the cognitive processing features of their dreaming. The 9/11 attacks affected what they dreamed about, but not the way they dreamed. PMID:18801664

  5. The impact of September 11 on dreaming.

    PubMed

    Bulkeley, Kelly; Kahan, Tracey L

    2008-12-01

    This study focuses on a set of dreams related to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks and their aftermath, using content analysis and cognitive psychology to explore the interweaving of external public catastrophe and internal psychological processes. The study tests several recent claims in contemporary dream research, including the central image theory of Hartmann [Hartmann, E., & Basile, R. (2003). Dream imagery becomes more intense after 9/11/01. Dreaming, 13(2), 61-66; Hartmann, E., & Brezler, T. (2008). A systematic change in dreams after 9/11/01. Sleep, 31(2), 213-218], the media exposure factor postulated by Propper [Propper, R. E., Stickgold, R., Keeley, R., & Christman, S. D. (2007). Is television traumatic? Dreams, stress, and media exposure in the aftermath of September 11, 2001. Psychological Science, 18(4), 334-340], the continuity hypothesis of Domhoff [Domhoff, W. G. (1996). Finding meaning in dreams: A quantitative approach. New York: Plenum], the cognitive and metacognitive approach of Kahan [Kahan, T. L. (2001). Consciousness in dreaming: A metacognitive approach. In K. Bulkeley (Ed.), Dreams: A reader on the religious, cultural, and psychological dimensions of dreaming (pp. 333-360). New York: Palgrave], and the threat simulation theory of Revonsuo [Revonsuo, A. (2000). The reinterpretation of dreams: An evolutionary hypothesis of the function of dreaming. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23(6), 877-901]. Our findings suggest the terrorist attacks had a tangible impact on the content of many people's dreams, but did not fundamentally alter the cognitive processing features of their dreaming. The 9/11 attacks affected what they dreamed about, but not the way they dreamed.

  6. Minding the dream self: perspectives from the analysis of self-experience in dreams.

    PubMed

    Windt, Jennifer Michelle

    2013-12-01

    Can ancient art of memory (AAOM) principles explain the function of dreaming? The analysis of self-experience in dreams suggests that the answer is no: The phenomenal dream self lacks certain dimensions that are crucial for the efficacy of AAOM in wakefulness. However, the comparison between dreams and AAOM may be fruitful by suggesting new perspectives for the study of lucid dreaming as well an altered perspective on the efficacy of AAOM itself. PMID:24304774

  7. Minding the dream self: perspectives from the analysis of self-experience in dreams.

    PubMed

    Windt, Jennifer Michelle

    2013-12-01

    Can ancient art of memory (AAOM) principles explain the function of dreaming? The analysis of self-experience in dreams suggests that the answer is no: The phenomenal dream self lacks certain dimensions that are crucial for the efficacy of AAOM in wakefulness. However, the comparison between dreams and AAOM may be fruitful by suggesting new perspectives for the study of lucid dreaming as well an altered perspective on the efficacy of AAOM itself.

  8. Multiresolution Morphology and Metabolism of the Metropolis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, L.; Tenenbaum, D.; Tague, C.; Kenworthy, S.; Law, N.; Cadenasso, M.; Pickett, S.

    2002-12-01

    Small watershed research is a hallmark of the LTER network, with catchments subject to different treatments used to develop input-output budgets of water, nutrients and carbon, as well as an understanding of the relations of energy and material cycling to ecological communities and trophic systems. In the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES), this approach emphasizes the role of human society as part of the ecosystem such that individual and institutional activity are defined as important aspects of ecological community and trophic system dynamics. We have been adapting a spatial hydroecological modeling approach to operate across the urban-rural gradient, incorporating an explicit description of the drainage sequence, as well as human sources of irrigation water and fertilizer. As human activity tends to produce sharp gradients in land cover and topographic structure (e.g. property lines, drainage infrastructure), the behavior of human dominated ecosystems may require higher resolution information to adequately characterize system structure and function. We hypothesize that our spatial analysis and modeling methods will show greater sensitivity to topographic and land cover information in the suburban sites than in the agricultural or forested ecosystems. In this paper we concentrate on three of the headwater catchments, including a fully forested catchment (Pond Branch), a suburban catchment (Glyndon) and an agricultural catchment (McDonogh). Continuous discharge gauging by the USGS at each of the three catchments and weekly sampling for stream chemistry have been carried out for all three catchments. Soil moisture has been sampled weekly at a set of sites along a topographic wetness gradient using portable soil moisture meters. Topographically defined flowpath networks were extracted from high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) at 30m resolution, 5m resolution from photogrammetric sources and at 0.5m from LIDAR. Land cover at these resolutions are also

  9. [Dreams in normal and pathological aging].

    PubMed

    Guénolé, Fabian; Marcaggi, Geoffrey; Baleyte, Jean-Marc; Garma, Lucile

    2010-06-01

    Although most of scientific knowledge in dream research is based on young adult studies, this article provides a review of the effects of normal and pathological aging on dream psychology. It starts with preliminary comments about epistemological and methodological principles of dream research, its singularities in aged persons, and the modifications of sleep physiology with age. The whole literature agrees that dream recall progressively decreases from the beginning of adulthood - not in old age - and that dream reports become less intense, perceptually and emotionally. This evolution occurs faster in men than women, with gender differences in the content of dreams. The chronological modifications could be explained partly by changes in lifestyle and attitude towards dreams in early adulthood, but mainly by modifications of sleep physiology, particularly the decrease and qualitative changes of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Dreams have usually little subjective importance in the mental life of aged persons. However, working with dreams can be a valuable tool for psychotherapy in the aged. According to the few existing data, patients suffering degenerative dementia dream much less than healthy aged persons. In Alzheimer's disease, this could be linked to the decrease of REM sleep, and atrophy of associative sensory areas of the cerebral cortex. Most studied aspects of dreaming in degenerative cognitive disorders are REM sleep behavior disorders, and nightmares induced by cholinesterase inhibitors. More studies are needed to better characterize the evolution of dreams with age, particularly studies performed in sleep laboratory.

  10. The Visionary Director: Going for Bigger Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Maggie

    1998-01-01

    Notes that child-care-center directors feel trapped by financial limitations, and encourages administrators to dream of changes to their programs and then to creatively achieve their dreams. Presents strategies for securing positive changes: assessing current situation; representing pieces of dream with blocks; reinventing idea of quilting bees;…

  11. Children's Dreams during the Grief Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Catherine A.

    1999-01-01

    Examines whether grieving children tend to recall dreaming more frequently than nongrieving children. Results reveal that grieving children do tend to recall dreams more frequently and appear to be more aware of their dream worlds. Suggests that counselors interested in creatively assisting clients through the grieving process might utilize this…

  12. Children's Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulkes, David

    Noting that scientific observation of children's dreaming offers unparalleled opportunities to study experience of conscious mental states, this book presents findings from two studies on children's dreaming. Following an argument outlining the problems in equating dreaming with perception, the book explains the use of sleep laboratories and…

  13. When the Music Stops: Releasing the Dream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffey, Thelma

    2005-01-01

    We each carry hopes, dreams, and visions of what our lives and relationships will look like. However, there are times when, in spite of our best efforts, these dreams remain unrealized. This manuscript addresses some unique issues faced by individuals experiencing a dream's death. Although the process described in this manuscript may be…

  14. Dream to Predict? REM Dreaming as Prospective Coding

    PubMed Central

    Llewellyn, Sue

    2016-01-01

    The dream as prediction seems inherently improbable. The bizarre occurrences in dreams never characterize everyday life. Dreams do not come true! But assuming that bizarreness negates expectations may rest on a misunderstanding of how the predictive brain works. In evolutionary terms, the ability to rapidly predict what sensory input implies—through expectations derived from discerning patterns in associated past experiences—would have enhanced fitness and survival. For example, food and water are essential for survival, associating past experiences (to identify location patterns) predicts where they can be found. Similarly, prediction may enable predator identification from what would have been only a fleeting and ambiguous stimulus—without prior expectations. To confront the many challenges associated with natural settings, visual perception is vital for humans (and most mammals) and often responses must be rapid. Predictive coding during wake may, therefore, be based on unconscious imagery so that visual perception is maintained and appropriate motor actions triggered quickly. Speed may also dictate the form of the imagery. Bizarreness, during REM dreaming, may result from a prospective code fusing phenomena with the same meaning—within a particular context. For example, if the context is possible predation, from the perspective of the prey two different predators can both mean the same (i.e., immediate danger) and require the same response (e.g., flight). Prospective coding may also prune redundancy from memories, to focus the image on the contextually-relevant elements only, thus, rendering the non-relevant phenomena indeterminate—another aspect of bizarreness. In sum, this paper offers an evolutionary take on REM dreaming as a form of prospective coding which identifies a probabilistic pattern in past events. This pattern is portrayed in an unconscious, associative, sensorimotor image which may support cognition in wake through being mobilized as a

  15. Dream to Predict? REM Dreaming as Prospective Coding.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, Sue

    2015-01-01

    The dream as prediction seems inherently improbable. The bizarre occurrences in dreams never characterize everyday life. Dreams do not come true! But assuming that bizarreness negates expectations may rest on a misunderstanding of how the predictive brain works. In evolutionary terms, the ability to rapidly predict what sensory input implies-through expectations derived from discerning patterns in associated past experiences-would have enhanced fitness and survival. For example, food and water are essential for survival, associating past experiences (to identify location patterns) predicts where they can be found. Similarly, prediction may enable predator identification from what would have been only a fleeting and ambiguous stimulus-without prior expectations. To confront the many challenges associated with natural settings, visual perception is vital for humans (and most mammals) and often responses must be rapid. Predictive coding during wake may, therefore, be based on unconscious imagery so that visual perception is maintained and appropriate motor actions triggered quickly. Speed may also dictate the form of the imagery. Bizarreness, during REM dreaming, may result from a prospective code fusing phenomena with the same meaning-within a particular context. For example, if the context is possible predation, from the perspective of the prey two different predators can both mean the same (i.e., immediate danger) and require the same response (e.g., flight). Prospective coding may also prune redundancy from memories, to focus the image on the contextually-relevant elements only, thus, rendering the non-relevant phenomena indeterminate-another aspect of bizarreness. In sum, this paper offers an evolutionary take on REM dreaming as a form of prospective coding which identifies a probabilistic pattern in past events. This pattern is portrayed in an unconscious, associative, sensorimotor image which may support cognition in wake through being mobilized as a predictive

  16. "Making dreams come true"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-11-01

    At an exciting stage in the evolution of the European Space Agency's Science Programme, Director-General Antonio Rodota and Director of Science Roger Bonnet will meet the press in ESA Head Office for a frank discussion of progress and problems. The Science Programme serves scientists in all of ESA's Member States, who want to do adventurous research in space of importance to all mankind. Making their dreams come true is more difficult in the face of recent cuts in the Programme's budget. Scientific boldness combined with administrative prudence nevertheless results in a series of current and future projects in which Europe can take pride. Highlights for discussion at the Press Conference will include: * MARS. In 2003, the newly approved mission Mars Express will make Europe's debut at the Red Planet, with innovative science at a very low cost. * THE SUN. SOHO is back in business after a nail-biting summer, Ulysses is heading for its second visit to the polar regions of the Sun, and Cluster II is on schedule for launch in 2000. * ASTRONOMY. Following the outstanding successes of ISO's infrared observations, completed this year, XMM and Integral are preparing to match its achievements by detecting X-rays and gamma-rays from the Universe. Journalists will also be updated about the status of Huygens (already en route for Titan), SMART-1 (new propulsion), Rosetta (comet mission), MiniSTEP (relativity), FIRST (far infra-red astronomy) and Planck (microwave background) -- as well as other adventurous missions under study.

  17. Dreams of the Rarebit Fiend: food and diet as instigators of bizarre and disturbing dreams.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Tore; Powell, Russell A

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1900s, the Dream of the Rarebit Fiend comic strip conveyed how the spicy cheese dish Welsh rarebit leads to bizarre and disturbing dreams. Today, the perception that foods disturb dreaming persists. But apart from case studies, some exploratory surveys, and a few lab studies on how hunger affects dreaming, there is little empirical evidence addressing this topic. The present study examines three aspects of the food/dreaming relationship; it attempts to: (1) assess the prevalence of the perception of food-dependent dreaming and the types of foods most commonly blamed; (2) determine if perceived food-dependent dreaming is associated with dietary, sleep or motivational factors; and (3) explore whether these factors, independent of food/dreaming perceptions, are associated with reports of vivid and disturbing dreams. Three hundred and ninety six students completed questionnaires evaluating sleep, dreams, and dietary habits and motivations. Items queried whether they had noticed if foods produced bizarre or disturbing dreams and if eating late at night influenced their dreams. The perception of food-dependent dreaming had a prevalence of 17.8%; with dairy products being the most frequently blamed food category (39-44%). Those who perceived food-dependent dreaming differed from others by reporting more frequent and disturbing dreams, poorer sleep, higher coffee intake, and lower Intuitive Eating Scale scores. Reports of disturbing dreams were associated with a pathological constellation of measures that includes poorer sleep, binge-eating, and eating for emotional reasons. Reports of vivid dreams were associated with measures indicative of wellness: better sleep, a healthier diet, and longer times between meals (fasting). Results clarify the relationship between food and dreaming and suggest four explanations for the perception of food-dependent dreaming: (1) food specific effects; (2) food-induced distress; (3) folklore influences, and (4) causal

  18. Dreams of the Rarebit Fiend: food and diet as instigators of bizarre and disturbing dreams.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Tore; Powell, Russell A

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1900s, the Dream of the Rarebit Fiend comic strip conveyed how the spicy cheese dish Welsh rarebit leads to bizarre and disturbing dreams. Today, the perception that foods disturb dreaming persists. But apart from case studies, some exploratory surveys, and a few lab studies on how hunger affects dreaming, there is little empirical evidence addressing this topic. The present study examines three aspects of the food/dreaming relationship; it attempts to: (1) assess the prevalence of the perception of food-dependent dreaming and the types of foods most commonly blamed; (2) determine if perceived food-dependent dreaming is associated with dietary, sleep or motivational factors; and (3) explore whether these factors, independent of food/dreaming perceptions, are associated with reports of vivid and disturbing dreams. Three hundred and ninety six students completed questionnaires evaluating sleep, dreams, and dietary habits and motivations. Items queried whether they had noticed if foods produced bizarre or disturbing dreams and if eating late at night influenced their dreams. The perception of food-dependent dreaming had a prevalence of 17.8%; with dairy products being the most frequently blamed food category (39-44%). Those who perceived food-dependent dreaming differed from others by reporting more frequent and disturbing dreams, poorer sleep, higher coffee intake, and lower Intuitive Eating Scale scores. Reports of disturbing dreams were associated with a pathological constellation of measures that includes poorer sleep, binge-eating, and eating for emotional reasons. Reports of vivid dreams were associated with measures indicative of wellness: better sleep, a healthier diet, and longer times between meals (fasting). Results clarify the relationship between food and dreaming and suggest four explanations for the perception of food-dependent dreaming: (1) food specific effects; (2) food-induced distress; (3) folklore influences, and (4) causal

  19. Dreams of the Rarebit Fiend: food and diet as instigators of bizarre and disturbing dreams

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Tore; Powell, Russell A.

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1900s, the Dream of the Rarebit Fiend comic strip conveyed how the spicy cheese dish Welsh rarebit leads to bizarre and disturbing dreams. Today, the perception that foods disturb dreaming persists. But apart from case studies, some exploratory surveys, and a few lab studies on how hunger affects dreaming, there is little empirical evidence addressing this topic. The present study examines three aspects of the food/dreaming relationship; it attempts to: (1) assess the prevalence of the perception of food-dependent dreaming and the types of foods most commonly blamed; (2) determine if perceived food-dependent dreaming is associated with dietary, sleep or motivational factors; and (3) explore whether these factors, independent of food/dreaming perceptions, are associated with reports of vivid and disturbing dreams. Three hundred and ninety six students completed questionnaires evaluating sleep, dreams, and dietary habits and motivations. Items queried whether they had noticed if foods produced bizarre or disturbing dreams and if eating late at night influenced their dreams. The perception of food-dependent dreaming had a prevalence of 17.8%; with dairy products being the most frequently blamed food category (39–44%). Those who perceived food-dependent dreaming differed from others by reporting more frequent and disturbing dreams, poorer sleep, higher coffee intake, and lower Intuitive Eating Scale scores. Reports of disturbing dreams were associated with a pathological constellation of measures that includes poorer sleep, binge-eating, and eating for emotional reasons. Reports of vivid dreams were associated with measures indicative of wellness: better sleep, a healthier diet, and longer times between meals (fasting). Results clarify the relationship between food and dreaming and suggest four explanations for the perception of food-dependent dreaming: (1) food specific effects; (2) food-induced distress; (3) folklore influences, and (4) causal

  20. Dreaming and Offline Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Wamsley, Erin J.

    2015-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that dreaming is influenced by the consolidation of memory during sleep. Following encoding, recently formed memory traces are gradually stabilized and reorganized into a more permanent form of long-term storage. Sleep provides an optimal neurophysiological state to facilitate this process, allowing memory networks to be repeatedly reactivated in the absence of new sensory input. The process of memory reactivation and consolidation in the sleeping brain appears to influence conscious experience during sleep, contributing to dream content recalled on awakening. This article outlines several lines of evidence in support of this hypothesis, and responds to some common objections. PMID:24477388

  1. Dreaming and offline memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Wamsley, Erin J

    2014-03-01

    Converging evidence suggests that dreaming is influenced by the consolidation of memory during sleep. Following encoding, recently formed memory traces are gradually stabilized and reorganized into a more permanent form of long-term storage. Sleep provides an optimal neurophysiological state to facilitate this process, allowing memory networks to be repeatedly reactivated in the absence of new sensory input. The process of memory reactivation and consolidation in the sleeping brain appears to influence conscious experience during sleep, contributing to dream content recalled on awakening. This article outlines several lines of evidence in support of this hypothesis, and responds to some common objections.

  2. Phenomenology of dreams in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Borek, Leora L; Kohn, Robert; Friedman, Joseph H

    2007-01-15

    Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) occurs in approximately one third of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and is associated with a loss of muscle atonia during REM sleep and aggressive dream content. We examined the dream characteristics of PD patients to determine whether dream content differed between patients with RBD and without RBD, men and women with RBD, and men and women with PD. One hundred-twenty patients with a diagnosis of idiopathic PD were consecutively recruited from a movement disorders clinic and were assessed for RBD using clinical diagnostic criteria of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders Revised (2001). Verbatim dream content was obtained from each patient and categorized into dream themes that were coded into nominal categories. Fisher's exact tests determined whether particular dreams were correlated with RBD versus non-RBD, men and women with RBD, and men and women with PD. RBD patients had a higher percentage of violent dreams compared to non-RBD patients. There were no significant sex differences in the dream content of RBD patients. Men with PD had more aggressive dreams compared to females with PD. Aggressive dream content was characteristic of RBD patients and sex differences exist in the dream content of the PD population.

  3. Exploring the dreams of hospice workers.

    PubMed

    Hess, Shirley A; Knox, Sarah; Hill, Clara E; Byers, Tara; Spangler, Patricia

    2014-06-01

    Nine adults who worked at least 1 year with patients at US hospice centers completed an in-person audiotaped dream session focusing on a dream about a patient. Data were analyzed using consensual qualitative research. Patients were generally manifestly present in participants' dreams, and dreams were typically realistic (i.e., not bizarre). In the dream, the dreamer typically interacted with the patient as a caretaker but was also typically frustrated by an inability to help as fully as desired. Dreams gave dreamers insight into the stress of hospice work, their own fears of death, and inter-/intrapersonal interactions beyond hospice work. Dreamers generally sought to take better care of themselves and find balance in their lives after the dream session. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  4. Perinatal loss, trauma, and dream reports.

    PubMed

    Kroth, Jerry; Garcia, Marylynne; Hallgren, Michelle; LeGrue, Emilyann; Ross, Maureen; Scalise, Juliana

    2004-06-01

    This study investigated correlations among dream characteristics and measures of trauma and perinatal bereavement as reported by women who have experienced perinatal loss. 37 women who had experienced perinatal loss were randomly selected from a perinatal support group and administered the Impact of Event Scale, the Perinatal Grief Scale, and the KJP Dream Inventory. Scores on the Impact of Events Scale (IES) correlated with Emotional Pain (.41), Despair (.37), Dreams of Death (.31), Dreams of Water (-.29), and Dreams of Being Famous (-.36). Subjects who reported higher Social Support and Emotional Expressiveness throughout their trauma showed lower scores on IES Total scores (-.52), Despair (-.62), and reported dreaming more in color (.41). Results are discussed in terms of the hypothesized role dreams may play in the grief-recovery process. PMID:15217043

  5. Dreaming of Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldmann, Ingo

    2016-10-01

    Radiative transfer retrievals have become the standard in modelling of exoplanetary transmission and emission spectra. Analysing currently available observations of exoplanetary atmospheres often invoke large and correlated parameter spaces that can be difficult to map or constrain.To address these issues, we have developed the Tau-REx (tau-retrieval of exoplanets) retrieval and the RobERt spectral recognition algorithms. Tau-REx is a bayesian atmospheric retrieval framework using Nested Sampling and cluster computing to fully map these large correlated parameter spaces. Nonetheless, data volumes can become prohibitively large and we must often select a subset of potential molecular/atomic absorbers in an atmosphere.In the era of open-source, automated and self-sufficient retrieval algorithms, such manual input should be avoided. User dependent input could, in worst case scenarios, lead to incomplete models and biases in the retrieval. The RobERt algorithm is build to address these issues. RobERt is a deep belief neural (DBN) networks trained to accurately recognise molecular signatures for a wide range of planets, atmospheric thermal profiles and compositions. Using these deep neural networks, we work towards retrieval algorithms that themselves understand the nature of the observed spectra, are able to learn from current and past data and make sensible qualitative preselections of atmospheric opacities to be used for the quantitative stage of the retrieval process.In this talk I will discuss how neural networks and Bayesian Nested Sampling can be used to solve highly degenerate spectral retrieval problems and what 'dreaming' neural networks can tell us about atmospheric characteristics.

  6. The Five Star Method: A Relational Dream Work Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, Gregory Scott; Thurston, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a systematic method of dream work called the Five Star Method. Based on cocreative dream theory, which views the dream as the product of the interaction between dreamer and dream, this creative intervention shifts the principal focus in dream analysis from the interpretation of static imagery to the analysis of the dreamer's…

  7. On dreaming one's patient: reflections on an aspect of countertransference dreams.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lawrence J

    2007-07-01

    This paper explores the phenomenon of the countertransference dream. Until very recently, such dreams have tended to be seen as reflecting either unanalyzed difficulties in the analyst or unexamined conflicts in the analytic relationship. While the analyst's dream of his/her patient may represent such problems, the author argues that such dreams may also indicate the ways in which the analyst comes to know the patient on a deep, unconscious level by processing the patient's communicative projective identifications. Two extended clinical examples of the author's countertransference dreams are offered. The author also discusses the use of countertransference dreams in psychoanalytic supervision.

  8. Transcending the caesura: reverie, dreaming and counter-dreaming.

    PubMed

    Bergstein, Avner

    2013-08-01

    The author reflects about our capacity to get in touch with primitive, irrepresentable, seemingly unreachable parts of the Self and with the unrepressed unconscious. It is suggested that when the patient's dreaming comes to a halt, or encounters a caesura, the analyst dreams that which the patient cannot. Getting in touch with such primitive mental states and with the origin of the Self is aspired to, not so much for discovering historical truth or recovering unconscious content, as for generating motion between different parts of the psyche. The movement itself is what expands the mind and facilitates psychic growth. Bion's brave and daring notion of 'caesura', suggesting a link between mature emotions and thinking and intra-uterine life, serves as a model for bridging seemingly unbridgeable states of mind. Bion inspires us to 'dream' creatively, to let our minds roam freely, stressing the analyst's speculative imagination and intuition often bordering on hallucination. However, being on the seam between conscious and unconscious, dreaming subverts the psychic equilibrium and poses a threat of catastrophe as a result of the confusion it affords between the psychotic and the non-psychotic parts of the personality. Hence there is a tendency to try and evade it through a more saturated mode of thinking, often relying on external reality. The analyst's dreaming and intuition, perhaps a remnant of intra-uterine life, is elaborated as means of penetrating and transcending the caesura, thus facilitating patient and analyst to bear unbearable states of mind and the painful awareness of the unknowability of the emotional experience. This is illustrated clinically.

  9. Art Competition Encourages Student Dreams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartel, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    In 1971, members of the Naples Art Association (NAA) in Naples, Florida, initiated a scholarship program designed to encourage local young artists to realize their dreams of becoming professionals in the visual arts. Since then, awards have been given annually by the NAA to Collier County high-school students in conjunction with an exhibition of…

  10. Immigration Law & the American Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrini, Michelle, Ed.; Parins, Claire, Ed.; Kittlaus, Jennifer, Ed.; Bliss, Pam, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This magazine is designed to help high school teachers of civics, government, history, law, and law-related education program developers educate students about legal issues. This issue focuses on immigration law and the American Dream. It includes 11 articles: (1) "U.S. Immigration Policy and Globalization" (P. Martin; S. Martin) explains how the…

  11. Dreaming of Shakespeare in Palestine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazou, Rand T.

    2015-01-01

    In September 2011, I travelled to the Palestinian Occupied Territories to participate in an internship with the Al Kasaba Theatre in Ramallah. As part of my internship I was invited to attend rehearsals of "A Midsummer Night's Dream" with students of the Drama Academy Ramallah. Directed by Samer Al-Saber, with movement and choreography…

  12. Dreaming the Future of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetterley, Judith

    1999-01-01

    Articulates "romantic intellectualism" of what graduate work in English might mean and be. Avoids giving a detailed description of a doctoral program. Intends to convey something that might best be called visioning or dreamwork, and offers it in the hope that it may be helpful to others in their individual and collective visioning and dreaming.…

  13. Educational Dreams and Political Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses key themes in a new book of posthumously published writings by Paulo Freire, "Daring to Dream: Toward a Pedagogy of the Unfinished" (Paradigm Publishers, 2007). The paper comments on the structure and content of the book and places it in the context of Freire's wider corpus of published works. Particular attention is paid to…

  14. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  15. Dreaming and personality: Wake-dream continuity, thought suppression, and the Big Five Inventory.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Josie E

    2015-12-15

    Studies have found relationships between dream content and personality traits, but there are still many traits that have been underexplored or have had questionable conclusions drawn about them. Experimental work has found a 'rebound' effect in dreams when thoughts are suppressed prior to sleep, but the effect of trait thought suppression on dream content has not yet been researched. In the present study participants (N=106) reported their Most Recent Dream, answered questions about the content of the dream, and completed questionnaires measuring trait thought suppression and the 'Big Five' personality traits. Of these, 83 were suitably recent for analyses. A significant positive correlation was found between trait thought suppression and participants' ratings of dreaming of waking-life emotions, and high suppressors reported dreaming more of their waking-life emotions than low suppressors did. The results may lend support to the compensation theory of dreams, and/or the ironic process theory of mental control. PMID:26496477

  16. Dreaming and personality: Wake-dream continuity, thought suppression, and the Big Five Inventory.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Josie E

    2015-12-15

    Studies have found relationships between dream content and personality traits, but there are still many traits that have been underexplored or have had questionable conclusions drawn about them. Experimental work has found a 'rebound' effect in dreams when thoughts are suppressed prior to sleep, but the effect of trait thought suppression on dream content has not yet been researched. In the present study participants (N=106) reported their Most Recent Dream, answered questions about the content of the dream, and completed questionnaires measuring trait thought suppression and the 'Big Five' personality traits. Of these, 83 were suitably recent for analyses. A significant positive correlation was found between trait thought suppression and participants' ratings of dreaming of waking-life emotions, and high suppressors reported dreaming more of their waking-life emotions than low suppressors did. The results may lend support to the compensation theory of dreams, and/or the ironic process theory of mental control.

  17. Frequency of lucid dreaming in a representative German sample.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael; Erlacher, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Lucid dreams occur when a person is aware that he is dreaming while he is dreaming. In a representative sample of German adults (N = 919), 51% of the participants reported that they had experienced a lucid dream at least once. Lucid dream recall was significantly higher in women and negatively correlated with age. However, these effects might be explained by the frequency of dream recall, as there was a correlation of .57 between frequency of dream recall and frequency of lucid dreams. Other sociodemographic variables like education, marital status, or monthly income were not related to lucid dream frequency. Given the relatively high prevalence of lucid dreaming reported in the present study, research on lucid dreams might be pursued in the sleep laboratory to expand the knowledge about sleep, dreaming, and consciousness processes in general. PMID:21466083

  18. A Test of Two Theories of Dream Forgetting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segall, Seth Robert

    1980-01-01

    Subjects undergoing assertion training experienced a decrease in dream recall and dream pleasantness. The measures of repression did not account significantly for dream recall or pleasantness variance. Findings are more supportive of interference theory than repression theory. (Author)

  19. A Test of the Salience Hypothesis of Dream Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David B.; MacNeilage, Peter F.

    1974-01-01

    A test was made of the hypothesis that dream salience (subjective impact of the generated dream) would be greater for frequent than infrequent dream recallers. Analysis of the verbal reports confirmed the hypothesis. (Author)

  20. Frequency of lucid dreaming in a representative German sample.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael; Erlacher, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Lucid dreams occur when a person is aware that he is dreaming while he is dreaming. In a representative sample of German adults (N = 919), 51% of the participants reported that they had experienced a lucid dream at least once. Lucid dream recall was significantly higher in women and negatively correlated with age. However, these effects might be explained by the frequency of dream recall, as there was a correlation of .57 between frequency of dream recall and frequency of lucid dreams. Other sociodemographic variables like education, marital status, or monthly income were not related to lucid dream frequency. Given the relatively high prevalence of lucid dreaming reported in the present study, research on lucid dreams might be pursued in the sleep laboratory to expand the knowledge about sleep, dreaming, and consciousness processes in general.

  1. Assessing the dream-lag effect for REM and NREM stage 2 dreams.

    PubMed

    Blagrove, Mark; Fouquet, Nathalie C; Henley-Einion, Josephine A; Pace-Schott, Edward F; Davies, Anna C; Neuschaffer, Jennifer L; Turnbull, Oliver H

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates evidence, from dream reports, for memory consolidation during sleep. It is well-known that events and memories from waking life can be incorporated into dreams. These incorporations can be a literal replication of what occurred in waking life, or, more often, they can be partial or indirect. Two types of temporal relationship have been found to characterize the time of occurrence of a daytime event and the reappearance or incorporation of its features in a dream. These temporal relationships are referred to as the day-residue or immediate incorporation effect, where there is the reappearance of features from events occurring on the immediately preceding day, and the dream-lag effect, where there is the reappearance of features from events occurring 5-7 days prior to the dream. Previous work on the dream-lag effect has used spontaneous home recalled dream reports, which can be from Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (REM) and from non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (NREM). This study addresses whether the dream-lag effect occurs only for REM sleep dreams, or for both REM and NREM stage 2 (N2) dreams. 20 participants kept a daily diary for over a week before sleeping in the sleep laboratory for 2 nights. REM and N2 dreams collected in the laboratory were transcribed and each participant rated the level of correspondence between every dream report and every diary record. The dream-lag effect was found for REM but not N2 dreams. Further analysis indicated that this result was not due to N2 dream reports being shorter, in terms of number of words, than the REM dream reports. These results provide evidence for a 7-day sleep-dependent non-linear memory consolidation process that is specific to REM sleep, and accord with proposals for the importance of REM sleep to emotional memory consolidation.

  2. The reinterpretation of dreams: an evolutionary hypothesis of the function of dreaming.

    PubMed

    Revonsuo, A

    2000-12-01

    Several theories claim that dreaming is a random by-product of REM sleep physiology and that it does not serve any natural function. Phenomenal dream content, however, is not as disorganized as such views imply. The form and content of dreams is not random but organized and selective: during dreaming, the brain constructs a complex model of the world in which certain types of elements, when compared to waking life, are underrepresented whereas others are over represented. Furthermore, dream content is consistently and powerfully modulated by certain types of waking experiences. On the basis of this evidence, I put forward the hypothesis that the biological function of dreaming is to simulate threatening events, and to rehearse threat perception and threat avoidance. To evaluate this hypothesis, we need to consider the original evolutionary context of dreaming and the possible traces it has left in the dream content of the present human population. In the ancestral environment human life was short and full of threats. Any behavioral advantage in dealing with highly dangerous events would have increased the probability of reproductive success. A dream-production mechanism that tends to select threatening waking events and simulate them over and over again in various combinations would have been valuable for the development and maintenance of threat-avoidance skills. Empirical evidence from normative dream content, children's dreams, recurrent dreams, nightmares, post traumatic dreams, and the dreams of hunter-gatherers indicates that our dream-production mechanisms are in fact specialized in the simulation of threatening events, and thus provides support to the threat simulation hypothesis of the function of dreaming.

  3. Dreams by persons with mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Zanasi, Marco; Pecorella, Martina; Chiaramonte, Carlo; Niolu, Cinzia; Siracusano, Alberto

    2008-10-01

    This work evaluated the structure of dreams in depressed patients. The verbal reports of dreams of 100 depressed patients were compared with 251 dreams of a control group. In accordance with the Jungian thought, which views dreams as texts, dream reports were assessed using textual analysis processing techniques. Significant differences were found in parameter values, as well as in the role of the dreamer as an external observer. Considering the length of the dreams' texts, depressed patients used fewer words than the control group. With regard to sensory field, there were fewer lemmas referring to sight for depressed patients than for healthy participants. This work seems to confirm the value of textual analysis in the study of oneiric material

  4. Midsummer's Dream Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-08-01

    How does the Galaxy in which we live look like? It is almost certain that we will never be able to send a probe out of our Milky Way to take a snapshot, in the same way as the first satellites could do to give us striking images of planet Earth. But astronomers do not need this to imagine what our bigger home resembles. And they have a pretty good idea of it. The Milky Way with its several hundreds of billion stars is thought to be a relatively flat disc - 100,000 light-year across [1] - with a central bulge lying in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius (The Archer) and six spiral arms. The Milky Way has most probably also a central bar made of young, bright stars. If we can't take pictures of the Milky Way, we may photograph others galaxies which astronomers think look similar to it. The two galaxies presented here are just two magnificient examples of barred spiral galaxies. One - Messier 83 - is seen face-on, and the other - NGC 4565 - appears edge-on. Together, they give us a nice idea of how the Milky Way may appear from outer space. These images are based on data obtained with the twin FORS1 and FORS2 (FOcal Reducer and Spectrograph) instruments attached to two ESO's 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of the Very Large Telescope Array located on Cerro Paranal. The data were extracted from the ESO Science Archive Facility, which contains approximately 50 Terabytes [2] of scientific data and is, since April 1, 2005, open to the worldwide community. These invaluable data have already led to the publication of more than 1000 scientific papers. They also contains many nice examples of beautiful astronomical objects which could be the theme of as many midsummer's dreams. NGC 4565 The first galaxy pictured here is NGC 4565 [3], which for obvious reasons is also called the Needle Galaxy. First spotted in 1785 by Uranus' discoverer, Sir William Herschel (1738-1822), this is one of the most famous example of an edge-on spiral galaxy and is located some 30 million light

  5. Lucid dreaming: correspondence between dreamed and actual events in one subject during REM sleep.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, P; Schatzman, M; Worsley, A; Adams, J; Stone, S; Baker, A

    1984-06-01

    During lucid dreaming, a subject willed movements of his fingers, toes and feet, remembered tasks, and counted sensory stimuli. Dreamed speech was related to respiration. EMG activity corresponding to dreamed actions was greater in flexor than in extensor limb muscles and was never present in axial muscles. PMID:6743729

  6. Relation between dream content and eye movements tested by lucid dreams.

    PubMed

    Tholey, P

    1983-06-01

    This experiment illustrates that systematic observations in lucid dreams can be used to test hypotheses concerning the relation between dream content and eye movements. The observations were carried out by 5 students who had learned to induce lucid dreams by using the reflection technique developed by the author. Several hypotheses concerning the relation in question could be rejected. PMID:6877973

  7. Lucid dreaming: correspondence between dreamed and actual events in one subject during REM sleep.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, P; Schatzman, M; Worsley, A; Adams, J; Stone, S; Baker, A

    1984-06-01

    During lucid dreaming, a subject willed movements of his fingers, toes and feet, remembered tasks, and counted sensory stimuli. Dreamed speech was related to respiration. EMG activity corresponding to dreamed actions was greater in flexor than in extensor limb muscles and was never present in axial muscles.

  8. Relation between dream content and eye movements tested by lucid dreams.

    PubMed

    Tholey, P

    1983-06-01

    This experiment illustrates that systematic observations in lucid dreams can be used to test hypotheses concerning the relation between dream content and eye movements. The observations were carried out by 5 students who had learned to induce lucid dreams by using the reflection technique developed by the author. Several hypotheses concerning the relation in question could be rejected.

  9. Dreaming is not controlled by hippocampal mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Solms, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Links with the Humanities are to be welcomed, but they cannot be exempted from normal scientific criteria. Any hypothesis regarding the function of dreams that is premised on rapid eye movement (REM)/dream isomorphism is unsupportable on empirical grounds. Llewellyn's hypothesis has the further problem of counter-evidence in respect of its claim that dreaming relies upon hippocampal functions. The hypothesis also lacks face validity.

  10. Increased Lucid Dreaming Frequency in Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Rak, Michael; Beitinger, Pierre; Steiger, Axel; Schredl, Michael; Dresler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: Nightmares are a frequent symptom in narcolepsy. Lucid dreaming, i.e., the phenomenon of becoming aware of the dreaming state during dreaming, has been demonstrated to be of therapeutic value for recurrent nightmares. Data on lucid dreaming in narcolepsy patients, however, is sparse. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of recalled dreams (DF), nightmares (NF), and lucid dreams (LDF) in narcolepsy patients compared to healthy controls. In addition, we explored if dream lucidity provides relief during nightmares in narcolepsy patients. Design: We interviewed patients with narcolepsy and healthy controls. Setting: Telephone interview. Patients: 60 patients diagnosed with narcolepsy (23–82 years, 35 females) and 919 control subjects (14–93 years, 497 females) Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Logistic regression revealed significant (P < 0.001) differences in DF, NF, and LDF between narcolepsy patients and controls after controlling for age and gender, with effect sizes lying in the large range (Cohen's d > 0.8). The differences in NF and LDF between patients and controls stayed significant after controlling for DF. Comparison of 35 narcolepsy patients currently under medication with their former drug-free period revealed significant differences in DF and NF (z < 0.05, signed-rank test) but not LDF (z = 0.8). Irrespective of medication, 70% of narcolepsy patients with experience in lucid dreaming indicated that dream lucidity provides relief during nightmares. Conclusion: Narcolepsy patients experience a markedly higher lucid dreaming frequency compared to controls, and many patients report a positive impact of dream lucidity on the distress experienced from nightmares. Citation: Rak M, Beitinger P, Steiger A, Schredl M, Dresler M. Increased lucid dreaming frequency in narcolepsy. SLEEP 2015;38(5):787–792. PMID:25325481

  11. Are delusional contents replayed during dreams?

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, Armando; Aletti, Giacomo; Carboni, Martina; Cavallotti, Simone; Limosani, Ivan; Manzone, Marialaura; Scarone, Silvio

    2013-09-01

    The relationship between dream content and waking life experiences remains difficult to decipher. However, some neurobiological findings suggest that dreaming can, at least in part, be considered epiphenomenal to ongoing memory consolidation processes in sleep. Both abnormalities in sleep architecture and impairment in memory consolidation mechanisms are thought to be involved in the development of psychosis. The objective of this study was to assess the continuity between delusional contents and dreams in acutely psychotic patients. Ten patients with a single fixed and recurring delusional content were asked to report their dreams during an acute psychotic break. Sixteen judges with four different levels of acquaintance to the specific content of the patients' delusions were asked to group the dreams, expecting that fragments of the delusional thought would guide the task. A mathematical index (f,t) was developed in order to compare correct groupings between the four groups of judges. Most judges grouped the dreams slightly above chance level and no relevant differences could be found between the four groups [F(3,12)=1.297; p=n.s.]. Scoring of dreams for specific delusional themes suggested a continuity in terms of dream and waking mentation for two contents (Grandiosity and Religion). These findings seem to suggest that at least some delusional contents recur within patients' dreams. Future studies will need to determine whether such continuity reflects ongoing consolidation processes that are relevant to current theories of delusion formation and stabilization.

  12. Dreaming and recall during sedation for colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Stait, M L; Leslie, K; Bailey, R

    2008-09-01

    Dreaming is reported by one in five patients who are interviewed on emergence from general anaesthesia, but the incidence, predictors and consequences of dreaming during procedural sedation are not known. In this prospective observational study, 200 patients presenting for elective colonoscopy under intravenous sedation were interviewed on emergence to determine the incidences of dreaming and recall. Sedation technique was left to the discretion of the anaesthetist. The incidence of dreaming was 25.5%. Patients reporting dreaming were younger than those who did not report dreaming. Doses of midazolam and fentanyl were similar between dreamers and non-dreamers, however propofol doses were higher in patients who reported dreams than those who did not. Patients reported short, simple dreams about everyday life--no dream suggested near-miss recall of the procedure. Frank recall of the procedure was reported by 4% of the patients, which was consistent with propofol doses commensurate with light general anaesthesia. The only significant predictor of recall was lower propofol dose. Satisfaction with care was generally high, however dreamers were more satisfied with their care than non-dreamers.

  13. On not being able to dream.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Thomas H

    2003-02-01

    In this paper, the author explores the phenomenon of not being able to dream (as opposed to not being able to remember one's dreams) from three different vantage points. First, from the point of view of psychoanalytic theory, he discusses Bion's idea that the work of dreaming creates the conscious and unconscious mind (and not the other way around). A person who cannot dream is unable to generate differentiable conscious and unconscious experience and, consequently, lives in a psychic state in which he is unable to differentiate waking from sleeping, dreaming from perceiving. The author then approaches the problem of the inability to dream from the perspective achieved by a literary work. He discusses a Borges fiction that creates, in a singularly artful way, the experience of not being able to dream. Finally, the author utilises the vantage point of a detailed account of a clinical experience to explore what it means not to be able to dream. He describes an initial state characterised by the patient's proliferation of unutilisable 'psychic noise' which, over a period of years, led to the analyst's experiencing 'reverie-deprivation' and brief periods of countertransference psychosis. Two analytic sessions are presented and discussed in which psychological work was done that contributed to an enhanced capacity on the part of both patient and analyst for genuine dreaming - both in sleep and in analytic reverie states.

  14. [The weakness of individual psychologic dream theory].

    PubMed

    Strunz, F

    1988-05-13

    This article undertakes a critical evaluation of Adlerian dream theory. The main weakness of the theory is found to be its lack of an inherent instance of truth that shows the dreamer the way to a better and more feasible life style. Contemporary Adlerians' treatment of the master's dream dogmas and their practical use in psychotherapy are described. There seems to be a convergence movement of today's practical application methods of the dream in all psychotherapeutic schools. Adlerian dream interpretation in the original sense intended by Adler is practised nowhere by psychotherapists today and seems largely antiquated.

  15. Spatiotemporal analysis of the spread of meningococcal meningitis in kaduna metropolis, 2007 - 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umaru, E. T.; Ludin, A. M. N.; Sabri, S.

    2014-02-01

    Meningococcal meningitis is an airborne disease that has been a threat to human life for over a century now. This study aims to describe the spatiotemporal spread of Meningococcal meningitis in the population residing in Kaduna metropolis. All the reported cases (suspected and confirmed) within the Kaduna metropolis from 2007 to 2011 were collected from files of the patients. Only patients who are resident in Kaduna metropolis were considered. For each year, the directional distribution, standard distance and the spatiotemporal pattern were explored. The analysis of the directional distribution shows the direction and the angle that the spread is more biased to at the different years. Standard distance shows the different areas of coverage for the spread of the disease for those five years which points to those areas that need more attention. The spatiotemporal results revealed that some specific neighbourhoods within the metropolis had the cases reoccurring within the five year period especially at the western and central parts of the metropolis. This indicates that much more attention is needed in those areas as regards preventive strategies by the policy makers and the stake holders. The spread of Meningococcal meningitis disease in Kaduna metropolis is much more dominant in some specific neighbourhood.

  16. The dream of home ownership.

    PubMed

    Loxterkamp, David

    2009-01-01

    Part of the American Dream involves home ownership and its claim to a stronger investment in one's family, neighborhood, and community. The medical version of that dream is called private practice. Almost overnight, it seems, we have awakened to the reality that most primary care physicians are now employed by large corporations or hospital networks. What does this mean for our patients and the practice of medicine? Did patients lose a sense of ownership when insurance companies began to speak on their behalf? Have boutique practices, Internet sales, and online information banks restored their control? This essay explores the fundamental question, "Does ownership matter?" and suggests what we all can do to retrieve paradise lost. PMID:19433846

  17. The Dream of Home Ownership

    PubMed Central

    Loxterkamp, David

    2009-01-01

    Part of the American Dream involves home ownership and its claim to a stronger investment in one’s family, neighborhood, and community. The medical version of that dream is called private practice. Almost overnight, it seems, we have awakened to the reality that most primary care physicians are now employed by large corporations or hospital networks. What does this mean for our patients and the practice of medicine? Did patients lose a sense of ownership when insurance companies began to speak on their behalf? Have boutique practices, Internet sales, and online information banks restored their control? This essay explores the fundamental question, “Does ownership matter?” and suggests what we all can do to retrieve paradise lost. PMID:19433846

  18. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  19. Dreams and Mediation in Music Video.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Gary

    The most extensive use of dream imagery in popular culture occurs in the visual arts, and in the past five years it has become evident that music video (a semi-narrative hybrid of film and television) is the most dreamlike media product of all. The rampant depiction and implication of dreams and media fantasies in music video are often strongly…

  20. Mom, Apple Pie, and the American Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grambs, Jean Dresden

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how the mom-and-apple-pie facet of the American dream no longer seems to be working. Ways to redefine that dream so that women, men, children, and families are comfortable with each other and are able to develop a mutual dependence which also allows for mutual independence are examined. (RM)

  1. Dreams in Patients Remitted from Reactive Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauri, Peter

    1976-01-01

    The goal of the study described here was to learn more about dream content in patients who had recovered from serious depression. The question was asked whether these formerly depressed patients still showed depressive traits in their nocturnal dreams, even though their daytime behavior and mood now approached entirely normal levels. (Author)

  2. Students' Knowledge of Sleep and Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palladino, Joseph J.; Carducci, Bernardo J.

    1984-01-01

    A 34-item sleep and dream information questionnaire was administered to 232 introductory psychology students to introduce them to the topics of sleep and dreams and to evaluate their knowledge of these areas. A majority of the items were answered correctly by students. Serious misconceptions by students are discussed. (RM)

  3. The dream as religion of the mind.

    PubMed

    Mancia, M

    1988-01-01

    Dreams are defined as a religion of the mind in the sense that they can re-ligare--i.e. unite in a complex relationship--the components involved in the construction of the mind and its representation. The paper discusses the processes of splitting and projective identification which are manifested in dreams and appear to be essential for the transformation of emotional experiences, the acquisition of knowledge and mental growth. On the basis of clinical findings, a revision of Freud's theory of dreams is proposed: the concept of an internal world dominated by good and bad parent figures suggests a theological function for dreams connected with a state of necessity. Dreams represent a real experience which, in analysis, becomes a representation of the internal organization in its immediate present. For this reason, work on dreams makes it possible to acquire knowledge of one's internal objects and of their relationship with the Self. The work on the internal world offered by dreams is made possible by the recovery of memory, the agency responsible for a fusion between current reality and that of infancy as reactivated in the transference. Finally, some aspects of the processes active in dreams are discussed, which make them similar to poetic texts.

  4. Biological treatments of textile industrial effluents in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ugoji, E O; Aboaba, O O

    2004-10-01

    The assessment of the effluents from two textile industries in Ilupeju in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria showed that they were high in conductivity, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS) and contained traces of heavy metals like Ca, Zn but high concentrations of Cr and Pb. These wastewaters are normally discharged into neighbouring water bodies. Five bacterial groups, namely Micrococcus sp., Enterobacter sp., Alcaligens sp., Bacillus sp. and Acinetobacter sp. were isolated from these effluents. They were used individually for biotreatment and found to be able to utilize the components of the wastewaters for growth, Bacillus sp. and Acinetobacter sp. being the most efficient utilizers as they were able to reduce BOD to zero. The total viable count (TVC) increased significantly depicting growth of the bacterial population. The pH was regulated from 3.4-6.80 for NSF effluent and 12.2-10.29 for STI effluent. The work emphasises the level of industrial pollution in our environment as wastes are indiscrimately dumped into surrounding water bodies in urban areas, the textile industry being a case study. The treatment of any form of waste before disposal into the environment is important and ensures safety of the populace. PMID:15907081

  5. Dreaming and waking: similarities and differences revisited.

    PubMed

    Kahan, Tracey L; LaBerge, Stephen P

    2011-09-01

    Dreaming is often characterized as lacking high-order cognitive (HOC) skills. In two studies, we test the alternative hypothesis that the dreaming mind is highly similar to the waking mind. Multiple experience samples were obtained from late-night REM sleep and waking, following a systematic protocol described in Kahan (2001). Results indicated that reported dreaming and waking experiences are surprisingly similar in their cognitive and sensory qualities. Concurrently, ratings of dreaming and waking experiences were markedly different on questions of general reality orientation and logical organization (e.g., the bizarreness or typicality of the events, actions, and locations). Consistent with other recent studies (e.g., Bulkeley & Kahan, 2008; Kozmová & Wolman, 2006), experiences sampled from dreaming and waking were more similar with respect to their process features than with respect to their structural features.

  6. The dynamic radiation environment assimilation model (DREAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, Geoffrey D; Koller, Josef; Tokar, Robert L; Chen, Yue; Henderson, Michael G; Friedel, Reiner H

    2010-01-01

    The Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM) is a 3-year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy to provide global, retrospective, or real-time specification of the natural and potential nuclear radiation environments. The DREAM model uses Kalman filtering techniques that combine the strengths of new physical models of the radiation belts with electron observations from long-term satellite systems such as GPS and geosynchronous systems. DREAM includes a physics model for the production and long-term evolution of artificial radiation belts from high altitude nuclear explosions. DREAM has been validated against satellites in arbitrary orbits and consistently produces more accurate results than existing models. Tools for user-specific applications and graphical displays are in beta testing and a real-time version of DREAM has been in continuous operation since November 2009.

  7. Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream? Print A A A Text Size Can I stop myself from having a wet dream? – Tom* You really can't stop wet dreams, ...

  8. Age Differences in Dreams. II: Distortion and Other Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepelin, Harold

    1981-01-01

    Age-related change in manifest dream content was assessed in dreams recalled from REM sleep by (N=58) men aged (27-64), and in dreams recalled from sleep at home. Evidence indicated a small age-related decline in dream distortion and family-related content. (Author)

  9. Measuring consciousness in dreams: the lucidity and consciousness in dreams scale.

    PubMed

    Voss, Ursula; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Windt, Jennifer; Frenzel, Clemens; Hobson, Allan

    2013-03-01

    In this article, we present results from an interdisciplinary research project aimed at assessing consciousness in dreams. For this purpose, we compared lucid dreams with normal non-lucid dreams from REM sleep. Both lucid and non-lucid dreams are an important contrast condition for theories of waking consciousness, giving valuable insights into the structure of conscious experience and its neural correlates during sleep. However, the precise differences between lucid and non-lucid dreams remain poorly understood. The construction of the Lucidity and Consciousness in Dreams scale (LuCiD) was based on theoretical considerations and empirical observations. Exploratory factor analysis of the data from the first survey identified eight factors that were validated in a second survey using confirmatory factor analysis: INSIGHT, CONTROL, THOUGHT, REALISM, MEMORY, DISSOCIATION, NEGATIVE EMOTION, and POSITIVE EMOTION. While all factors are involved in dream consciousness, realism and negative emotion do not differentiate between lucid and non-lucid dreams, suggesting that lucid insight is separable from both bizarreness in dreams and a change in the subjectively experienced realism of the dream. PMID:23220345

  10. Measuring consciousness in dreams: the lucidity and consciousness in dreams scale.

    PubMed

    Voss, Ursula; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Windt, Jennifer; Frenzel, Clemens; Hobson, Allan

    2013-03-01

    In this article, we present results from an interdisciplinary research project aimed at assessing consciousness in dreams. For this purpose, we compared lucid dreams with normal non-lucid dreams from REM sleep. Both lucid and non-lucid dreams are an important contrast condition for theories of waking consciousness, giving valuable insights into the structure of conscious experience and its neural correlates during sleep. However, the precise differences between lucid and non-lucid dreams remain poorly understood. The construction of the Lucidity and Consciousness in Dreams scale (LuCiD) was based on theoretical considerations and empirical observations. Exploratory factor analysis of the data from the first survey identified eight factors that were validated in a second survey using confirmatory factor analysis: INSIGHT, CONTROL, THOUGHT, REALISM, MEMORY, DISSOCIATION, NEGATIVE EMOTION, and POSITIVE EMOTION. While all factors are involved in dream consciousness, realism and negative emotion do not differentiate between lucid and non-lucid dreams, suggesting that lucid insight is separable from both bizarreness in dreams and a change in the subjectively experienced realism of the dream.

  11. The threat simulation theory of the evolutionary function of dreaming: Evidence from dreams of traumatized children.

    PubMed

    Valli, Katja; Revonsuo, Antti; Pälkäs, Outi; Ismail, Kamaran Hassan; Ali, Karzan Jalal; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2005-03-01

    The threat simulation theory of dreaming (TST) () states that dream consciousness is essentially an ancient biological defence mechanism, evolutionarily selected for its capacity to repeatedly simulate threatening events. Threat simulation during dreaming rehearses the cognitive mechanisms required for efficient threat perception and threat avoidance, leading to increased probability of reproductive success during human evolution. One hypothesis drawn from TST is that real threatening events encountered by the individual during wakefulness should lead to an increased activation of the system, a threat simulation response, and therefore, to an increased frequency and severity of threatening events in dreams. Consequently, children who live in an environment in which their physical and psychological well-being is constantly threatened should have a highly activated dream production and threat simulation system, whereas children living in a safe environment that is relatively free of such threat cues should have a weakly activated system. We tested this hypothesis by analysing the content of dream reports from severely traumatized and less traumatized Kurdish children and ordinary, non-traumatized Finnish children. Our results give support for most of the predictions drawn from TST. The severely traumatized children reported a significantly greater number of dreams and their dreams included a higher number of threatening dream events. The dream threats of traumatized children were also more severe in nature than the threats of less traumatized or non-traumatized children.

  12. [Sleep and dreams in pictures].

    PubMed

    Stoll, R T

    1995-04-11

    Human life is divided into two thirds wakefulness and one third sleep. A newborn child sleeps to strengthen, the adult for regeneration. At the end of life man sinks down into the sleep of death: Hypnos and Thanatos are twin sons of the Queen of Night. Myths from different cultures are influenced by the experience of sleep and its inner world of pictures, the dreams. Artists, painters and sculptors let their visions float steadily into new pictures, and creatures of sleep formed out of diverse materials. Devine sleep, sleep for new life, sleep of health, creative sleep, prophetic sleep, sleep for revelation and for decisions. PMID:7732243

  13. The dialogical dimension in therapists' dreams about their patients.

    PubMed

    Kron, T

    1991-01-01

    The author develops a conception of the dialogical dimension in therapists' dreams about their patients by using elements of Martin Buber's dialogue philosophy, particularly "Inclusion." By way of illustration, the author discusses one of her cases, and a dream she had about her patient, "The Dream of the Meeting." The dream is interpreted along the lines of the classical countertransference interpretation, the projective identification and the uncovering of the dialogical dimension. The use of dreams as part of "Inclusion" therapy is then discussed.

  14. The phenomenology of lucid dreaming: an online survey.

    PubMed

    Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel; Johnson, Miriam; Schredl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In lucid dreams the dreamer is aware that he or she is dreaming. Although such dreams are not that uncommon, many aspects of lucid dream phenomenology are still unclear. An online survey was conducted to gather data about lucid dream origination, duration, active or passive participation in the dream, planned actions for lucid dreams, and other phenomenological aspects. Among the 684 respondents who filled out the questionnaire, there were 571 lucid dreamers (83.5%). According to their reports, lucid dreams most often originate spontaneously in adolescence. The average lucid dream duration is about 14 minutes. Lucid dreamers are likely to be active in their lucid dreams and plan to accomplish different actions (e.g., flying, talking with dream characters, or having sex), yet they are not always able to remember or successfully execute their intentions (most often because of awakening or hindrances in the dream environment). The frequency of lucid dream experience was the strongest predictor of lucid dream phenomenology, but some differences were also observed in relation to age, gender, or whether the person is a natural or self-trained lucid dreamer. The findings are discussed in light of lucid dream research, and suggestions for future studies are provided. PMID:24934010

  15. The phenomenology of lucid dreaming: an online survey.

    PubMed

    Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel; Johnson, Miriam; Schredl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In lucid dreams the dreamer is aware that he or she is dreaming. Although such dreams are not that uncommon, many aspects of lucid dream phenomenology are still unclear. An online survey was conducted to gather data about lucid dream origination, duration, active or passive participation in the dream, planned actions for lucid dreams, and other phenomenological aspects. Among the 684 respondents who filled out the questionnaire, there were 571 lucid dreamers (83.5%). According to their reports, lucid dreams most often originate spontaneously in adolescence. The average lucid dream duration is about 14 minutes. Lucid dreamers are likely to be active in their lucid dreams and plan to accomplish different actions (e.g., flying, talking with dream characters, or having sex), yet they are not always able to remember or successfully execute their intentions (most often because of awakening or hindrances in the dream environment). The frequency of lucid dream experience was the strongest predictor of lucid dream phenomenology, but some differences were also observed in relation to age, gender, or whether the person is a natural or self-trained lucid dreamer. The findings are discussed in light of lucid dream research, and suggestions for future studies are provided.

  16. Walking dreams in congenital and acquired paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Saurat, Marie-Thérèse; Agbakou, Maité; Attigui, Patricia; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2011-12-01

    To test if dreams contain remote or never-experienced motor skills, we collected during 6 weeks dream reports from 15 paraplegics and 15 healthy subjects. In 9/10 subjects with spinal cord injury and in 5/5 with congenital paraplegia, voluntary leg movements were reported during dream, including feelings of walking (46%), running (8.6%), dancing (8%), standing up (6.3%), bicycling (6.3%), and practicing sports (skiing, playing basketball, swimming). Paraplegia patients experienced walking dreams (38.2%) just as often as controls (28.7%). There was no correlation between the frequency of walking dreams and the duration of paraplegia. In contrast, patients were rarely paraplegic in dreams. Subjects who had never walked or stopped walking 4-64 years prior to this study still experience walking in their dreams, suggesting that a cerebral walking program, either genetic or more probably developed via mirror neurons (activated when observing others performing an action) is reactivated during sleep.

  17. Walking dreams in congenital and acquired paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Saurat, Marie-Thérèse; Agbakou, Maité; Attigui, Patricia; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2011-12-01

    To test if dreams contain remote or never-experienced motor skills, we collected during 6 weeks dream reports from 15 paraplegics and 15 healthy subjects. In 9/10 subjects with spinal cord injury and in 5/5 with congenital paraplegia, voluntary leg movements were reported during dream, including feelings of walking (46%), running (8.6%), dancing (8%), standing up (6.3%), bicycling (6.3%), and practicing sports (skiing, playing basketball, swimming). Paraplegia patients experienced walking dreams (38.2%) just as often as controls (28.7%). There was no correlation between the frequency of walking dreams and the duration of paraplegia. In contrast, patients were rarely paraplegic in dreams. Subjects who had never walked or stopped walking 4-64 years prior to this study still experience walking in their dreams, suggesting that a cerebral walking program, either genetic or more probably developed via mirror neurons (activated when observing others performing an action) is reactivated during sleep. PMID:21704532

  18. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Topsoil around Beijing Metropolis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ranhao; Chen, Liding

    2016-01-01

    The topsoil around Beijing metropolis, China, is experiencing impacts of rapid urbanization, intensive farming, and extensive industrial emissions. We analyzed the concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr from 87 topsoil samples in the pre-rainy season and 115 samples in the post-rainy season. These samples were attributed to nine land use types: forest, grass, shrub, orchard, wheat, cotton, spring maize, summer maize, and mixed farmland. The pollution index (PI) of heavy metals was calculated from the measured and background concentrations. The ecological risk index (RI) was assessed based on the PI values and toxic-response parameters. The results showed that the mean PI values of Pb, Cr, and Cd were > 1 while those of Cu, Ni, and Zn were < 1. All the samples had low ecological risk for Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cr while only 15.35% of samples had low ecological risk for Cd. Atmospheric transport rather than land use factors best explained the seasonal variations in heavy metal concentrations and the impact of atmospheric transport on heavy metal concentrations varied according to the heavy metal types. The concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Cr decreased from the pre- to post-rainy season, while those of Ni, Pb, and Zn increased during this period. Future research should be focused on the underlying atmospheric processes that lead to these spatial and seasonal variations in heavy metals. The policymaking on environmental management should pay close attention to potential ecological risks of Cd as well as identifying the transport pathways of different heavy metals. PMID:27159454

  19. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Topsoil around Beijing Metropolis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ranhao; Chen, Liding

    2016-01-01

    The topsoil around Beijing metropolis, China, is experiencing impacts of rapid urbanization, intensive farming, and extensive industrial emissions. We analyzed the concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr from 87 topsoil samples in the pre-rainy season and 115 samples in the post-rainy season. These samples were attributed to nine land use types: forest, grass, shrub, orchard, wheat, cotton, spring maize, summer maize, and mixed farmland. The pollution index (PI) of heavy metals was calculated from the measured and background concentrations. The ecological risk index (RI) was assessed based on the PI values and toxic-response parameters. The results showed that the mean PI values of Pb, Cr, and Cd were > 1 while those of Cu, Ni, and Zn were < 1. All the samples had low ecological risk for Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cr while only 15.35% of samples had low ecological risk for Cd. Atmospheric transport rather than land use factors best explained the seasonal variations in heavy metal concentrations and the impact of atmospheric transport on heavy metal concentrations varied according to the heavy metal types. The concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Cr decreased from the pre- to post-rainy season, while those of Ni, Pb, and Zn increased during this period. Future research should be focused on the underlying atmospheric processes that lead to these spatial and seasonal variations in heavy metals. The policymaking on environmental management should pay close attention to potential ecological risks of Cd as well as identifying the transport pathways of different heavy metals. PMID:27159454

  20. Motorcycling freedom: a paraplegics dream.

    PubMed

    Lomman, D; Kirk, B

    2006-03-01

    People with disabilities have the same rights as other members of society in directing and implementing the decisions which affect their lives, although it is not always afforded them due to physical limitations. A chance encounter by the author, a University of Western Australia mechanical engineering student, with a paraplegic man who expressed his dream of being able to ride a motorcycle again led to the design and build of a specially modified motorcycle that could be ridden safely and comfortably by a person without the use of their legs. The prototype involved several modifications which allow it to be ridden by a paraplegic person. They included, a thumb controlled pneumatic gear shifter, an integrated front and rear brake actuated with a single hand lever, ergonomic supports to hold the riders legs in place and an automatic stabilising system to balance the motorcycle at low speeds. The benefits that result from the inclusion of people with disabilities into regular leisure activities include normalisation as well as a sense of independence and freedom for the individual. It also allowed one man the chance to reach for his dreams.

  1. REM Sleep Behavioral Events and Dreaming

    PubMed Central

    Muntean, Maria-Lucia; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Walters, Arthur S.; Mollenhauer, Brit; Sixel-Döring, Friederike

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To clarify whether motor behaviors and/ or vocalizations during REM sleep, which do not yet fulfill diagnostic criteria for REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and were defined as REM sleep behavioral events (RBEs), correspond to dream enactments. Methods: 13 subjects (10 patients with Parkinson disease [PD] and 3 healthy controls) originally identified with RBE in a prospective study (DeNoPa cohort) were reinvestigated 2 years later with 2 nights of video-supported polysomnography (vPSG). The first night was used for sleep parameter analysis. During the 2nd night, subjects were awakened and questioned for dream recall and dream content when purposeful motor behaviors and/or vocalizations became evident during REM sleep. REM sleep without atonia (RWA) was analyzed on chin EMG and the cutoff set at 18.2% as specific for RBD. Results: At the time of this investigation 9 of 13 subjects with previous RBE were identified with RBD based upon clinical and EMG criteria. All recalled vivid dreams, and 7 subjects were able to describe dream content in detail. Four of 13 subjects with RBE showed RWA values below cutoff values for RBD. Three of these 4 subjects recalled having non-threatening dreams, and 2 (of these 3) were able to describe these dreams in detail. Conclusion: RBE with RWA below the RBD defining criteria correlate to dreaming in this selected cohort. There is evidence that RBEs are a precursor to RBD. Citation: Muntean ML, Trenkwalder C, Walters AS, Mollenhauer B, Sixel-Döring F. REM sleep behavioral events and dreaming. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(5):537–541. PMID:25665694

  2. Lucid Dreaming: A State of Consciousness with Features of Both Waking and Non-Lucid Dreaming

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Ursula; Holzmann, Romain; Tuin, Inka; Hobson, J. Allan

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: The goal of the study was to seek physiological correlates of lucid dreaming. Lucid dreaming is a dissociated state with aspects of waking and dreaming combined in a way so as to suggest a specific alteration in brain physiology for which we now present preliminary but intriguing evidence. We show that the unusual combination of hallucinatory dream activity and wake-like reflective awareness and agentive control experienced in lucid dreams is paralleled by significant changes in electrophysiology. Design: 19-channel EEG was recorded on up to 5 nights for each participant. Lucid episodes occurred as a result of pre-sleep autosuggestion. Setting: Sleep laboratory of the Neurological Clinic, Frankfurt University. Participants: Six student volunteers who had been trained to become lucid and to signal lucidity through a pattern of horizontal eye movements. Measurements and Results: Results show lucid dreaming to have REM-like power in frequency bands δ and θ, and higher-than-REM activity in the γ band, the between-states-difference peaking around 40 Hz. Power in the 40 Hz band is strongest in the frontal and frontolateral region. Overall coherence levels are similar in waking and lucid dreaming and significantly higher than in REM sleep, throughout the entire frequency spectrum analyzed. Regarding specific frequency bands, waking is characterized by high coherence in α, and lucid dreaming by increased δ and θ band coherence. In lucid dreaming, coherence is largest in frontolateral and frontal areas. Conclusions: Our data show that lucid dreaming constitutes a hybrid state of consciousness with definable and measurable differences from waking and from REM sleep, particularly in frontal areas. Citation: Voss U; Holzmann R; Tuin I; Hobson A. Lucid dreaming: a state of consciousness with features of both waking and non-lucid dreaming. SLEEP 2009;32(9):1191-1200. PMID:19750924

  3. Dreams and Nightmares in Personality Disorders.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Although the relationship between dreaming and psychopathology has been studied quite extensively, research on dreaming in patients with personality disorders has been very scarce. In patients with borderline personality disorder, negatively toned dreams and heightened nightmare frequency have been found-characteristics not determined by co-morbid depression or posttraumatic stress disorder. The review includes suggestions for future studies as the existing results clearly indicate that this line of research is most interesting. Lastly, clinical recommendations especially regarding the treatment of the often found co-morbid nightmare disorder will be given.

  4. Dreams for the second half of life.

    PubMed

    Moody, Harry R

    2005-01-01

    Dreams in midlife and old age can reveal a process of spiritual growth described by Tornstam as gerotranscencence. This same process of inner growth has also been described in theoretical terms as self-actualization (Maslow), ego-integrity (Erikson), and individuation (Jung). The process is illustrated through dream symbols of transpersonal development, displaying the duality of self-fulfillment and self- transcendence. In lifespan development terms this process can be studied in detail in the autobiography of Helen Luke. The interpretation of dreams has importance for what has recently come to be known as Conscious Aging. PMID:16172075

  5. Dream telling: a means of spiritual awareness.

    PubMed

    Dombeck, M T

    1995-01-01

    The article describes how a dream-sharing group facilitated by a nurse therapist can become the means by which the participants gain spiritual awareness. First, the characteristics of spiritual awareness are identified and discussed. Second, the practice, structure, and process of a dream-sharing group are described, with dream narratives and interactions from a particular group being used as illustrations. Finally, the attributes of a sensitive and caring listener and the leadership qualities of a nurse facilitator of such a group are outlined in the hope that nurses in different settings will be enabled and encouraged to provide this important aspect of nursing care.

  6. Dreams and Nightmares in Personality Disorders.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Although the relationship between dreaming and psychopathology has been studied quite extensively, research on dreaming in patients with personality disorders has been very scarce. In patients with borderline personality disorder, negatively toned dreams and heightened nightmare frequency have been found-characteristics not determined by co-morbid depression or posttraumatic stress disorder. The review includes suggestions for future studies as the existing results clearly indicate that this line of research is most interesting. Lastly, clinical recommendations especially regarding the treatment of the often found co-morbid nightmare disorder will be given. PMID:26781553

  7. Multiple-try Metropolis Hastings for modeling extreme PM10 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Nor Azrita Mohd; Adam, Mohd Bakri; Ibrahim, Noor Akma

    2014-07-01

    Awareness of catastrophic events brings the attention to work out the relationship of these events by using statistical analysis of Extreme Value Theory (EVT). This study focused on extreme PM10 data using a Gumbel distribution which is one of the Extreme Value distributions. The parameters were estimated using the new Bayesian approach in extreme called Multiple Try Metropolis-Hastings algorithms. We compared this approach with another Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach which is the classical Metropolis-Hastings algorithm and the frequentist approach, Maximum Likelihood Estimation. It appears that these three approaches provide comparable results. Data are taken for Pasir Gudang station for year 1996 to 2010.

  8. 'Reverberation time', dreaming and the capacity to dream.

    PubMed

    Birksted-Breen, Dana

    2009-02-01

    In this paper the author suggests that understanding the roots of the subjective sense of time can throw light on the disturbances in psychic time which are found in particular in the more severe pathologies. She introduces the argument that the roots of the development of the sense of time rest on a primitive sense of time she calls 'reverberation time'. By this notion she refers to the particular quality of the earliest 'back and forth' internalized exchange with the mother in which the auditory dimension plays a significant part. Referring to a wide range of literature and clinical examples, the author thus suggests that the subjective sense of time is created by the reverberation between mother and infant. Disturbances in this area will be reflected in the pathological 'arresting' of time which is observed in the different pathologies and, in particular, around the negotiation of the depressive position and the oedipal situation.Extending this argument, the author goes on to suggest that it is the internalization of this experience of 'reverberation' which lies at the heart of the experience of dreaming; she considers that dreaming understood as an internal dialogue points both to its roots in the relationship to the maternal object and to its fundamental role in psychic life. The author concludes that 'reverberation time' is also the building block of a psychoanalysis, leading to 'unfreezing' psychic time and enabling the reconnection of 'here and now' with 'there and then' in a flexible way which promotes open possibilities, and that this takes place via the analyst's reverie, or time of reverberation.

  9. NASA Administrator Flies Dream Chaser Simulator

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Administrator Charlie Bolden had the opportunity to fly a simulated landing of the Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) Dream Chaser while touring the agency's Dryden Flight Research Center in Cali...

  10. [The Sante De Sanctis' psychophysiology of dreams].

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Giovanni Pietro; Foschi, Renato

    2009-01-01

    Sante De Sanctis (1862-1935), a pioneer of psychology in Rome at the end of the 19th century, applied methods from the expanding field of experimental psychology to the study of dreams, which was considered one of the leading ways to gain an understanding of normal and pathological psychic life. The multi-faceted methodology that he adopted for the study of an, until then, marginal phenomenon of the 'new' psychology, represented an element of originality that also included the elaboration of a psychophysiological theory of dreams. Although the Italian psychologist's work on dreams was characterized by these important methodological changes, it disappeared from the references of those who contributed to the foundation of modern dreaming psychology after the Second World War.

  11. The underlying emotion and the dream relating dream imagery to the dreamer's underlying emotion can help elucidate the nature of dreaming.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Ernest

    2010-01-01

    There is a widespread consensus that emotion is important in dreams, deriving from both biological and psychological studies. However, the emphasis on examining emotions explicitly mentioned in dreams is misplaced. The dream is basically made of imagery. The focus of our group has been on relating the dream imagery to the dreamer's underlying emotion. What is most important is the underlying emotion--the emotion of the dreamer, not the emotion in the dream. This chapter discusses many studies relating the dream-especially the central image of the dream--to the dreamer's underlying emotion. Focusing on the underlying emotion leads to a coherent and testable view of the nature of dreaming. It also helps to clarify some important puzzling features of the literature on dreams, such as why the clinical literature is different in so many ways from the experimental literature, especially the laboratory-based experimental literature. Based on central image intensity and the associated underlying emotion, we can identify a hierarchy of dreams, from the highest-intensity, "big dreams," to the lowest-intensity dreams from laboratory awakenings.

  12. The dream as space, time and emotion

    PubMed Central

    Totlis, Athanasios

    2011-01-01

    Human beings, like all living organisms, use energy ceaselessly with whatever they do. Nothing at all happens without spending some energy, not even a glance or a dream. The Author proposes that dreams happen automatically in sleep to help us release unresolved frustration energy and emotional dilemmas left over from the day before. Energy administration is the common denominator behind the manifold workings of dreams, as it is behind all operations of our consciousness in daytime, and this is far more important than one might at first suspect. In summary, if in waking reality the day prior to a dream, a specific sensory composition (a perception or picture) frustrates our mind such that the mind is unable or unwilling to accept this sensory composition, it forms and traps within us an emotional energy charge that lingers inside till that same night when the dream uses it in order to energize from memory analogous sensory components that form a spatiotemporally similar overall representational composition of the daytime waking event. This ends up as the dream we may remember the next day. For example, if in a real event yesterday a red apple between two green apples were in front of us and for some reason we were unable or unwilling to see and accept this perception, in a dream the next time we sleep, we may see promptly a red peach between two green peaches, which will be energized temporarily from our memory to serve the need of our psyche to represent the unprocessed emotion(s) and balance the tensions inside us. The dream always produces more acceptable symbolic perceptions for us to see or sense, and in doing so uses and releases at the same time the unacknowledged emotional energy inside us pending since yesterday's event. PMID:22540104

  13. Relativistic rocket: Dream and reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semyonov, Oleg G.

    2014-06-01

    The dream of interstellar flights persists since the first pioneers in astronautics and has never died. Many concepts of thruster capable to propel a rocket to the stars have been proposed and the most suitable among them are thought to be photon propulsion and propulsion by the products of proton-antiproton annihilation in magnetic nozzle. This article addresses both concepts allowing for cross-section of annihilation among other issues in order to show their vulnerability and to indicate the problems. The concept of relativistic matter propulsion is substantiated and discussed. The latter is argued to be the most straightforward way to build-up a relativistic rocket firstly because it is based on the existing technology of ion generators and accelerators and secondly because it can be stepped up in efflux power starting from interplanetary spacecrafts powered by nuclear reactors to interstellar starships powered by annihilation reactors. The problems imposed by thermodynamics and heat disposal are accentuated.

  14. Allergy vaccines: dreams and reality.

    PubMed

    Crameri, Reto

    2007-12-01

    Allergy, extrinsic asthma and atopic eczema derive from deregulated immune responses against innocuous antigens. The incidence of atopic diseases is actually affecting approximately 30% of the population in industrialized countries. Although much progress has been achieved in the development of efficient symptomatic treatments for allergic diseases, the only curative treatment remains allergen-specific immunotherapy. In contrast to classical vaccines, which elicit strong host immune responses after one or a few injections, allergen-specific immunotherapy might require a long treatment time of 3-5 years with up to 80 injections to confer some protection. The reality is that 'allergy vaccines' achieve beneficial effects through immunomodulation, which takes a long time to establish. The dream would be to develop highly efficient allergy vaccines able to cure the disease with a few injections.

  15. [Modernity in dreams and myths].

    PubMed

    Scopelliti, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The very presence of myths in psychoanalysis raises questions about their scientific status: that leads to reconsider the whole issue of Freudian mythology in a non-medical manner, by envisaging it in the more general context of modern myths, both political and artistic. Special attention is then paid to Surrealism, as the only avant-garde movement at the same time focused on psychoanalysis and politics: the role played by dreams in foundering myths is examined in both Surrealism and psychoanalysis. Surrealistic myths, such as Dalí's Grand Paranoïaque Comestible, finally prove to be so non-oedipian as the Nazi Ubermensch myth; nevertheless, their comparison with Freudian mythology points out their common origin, as they all fulfilled the need of the mass society for a modern myth, able to express his deeply renewed self-awareness. PMID:20695408

  16. Oneiric activity in schizophrenia: textual analysis of dream reports.

    PubMed

    Zanasi, Marco; Calisti, Fabrizio; Di Lorenzo, Giorgio; Valerio, Giulia; Siracusano, Alberto

    2011-06-01

    This work evaluated the structure of dreams in people affected by schizophrenia. The verbal reports of 123 schizophrenic patients were compared with 123 dream reports from a control group. In accordance with the Jungian conceptualization of, dreams as texts, dream reports were assessed using textual analysis processing techniques. Significant differences were found in textual parameters, showing that the dreams reports of schizophrenic patients differ from those of the control group. It is thus possible that schizophrenia probably underlies changes in the oneiric production and dream reports. This work confirms the value of textual analysis in the study of oneiric material. PMID:20472473

  17. Deliberate presleep control of dream content: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Griffin, M L; Folkes, D

    1977-10-01

    29 subjects attempted, over a period of 10 nights, to influence their dream using techniques described in Garfield's book, Creative Dreaming (1974). A target suggestion was selected from a list of six suggestions compiled by, or for, each subject. Subjects kept daily records during the experiment both of their efforts at dream influence and of the dreams they recalled. Four judges attempted to identify from the dream material the target suggestion on each subject's suggestion list. The results indicated that the judges were unable to do so at better than chance levels. Thus analysis indicated no reliable evidence that conscious presleep suggestions become incorporated into dream content.

  18. Dream Work: Demystifying Dreams Using a Small Group for Personal Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berube, Lionel

    1999-01-01

    Small group dream work facilitates group cohesion and is fun, stimulating, and powerful in assisting with the development of personal insight. Group process protocols, necessary leadership skills, preparation of members, and stages of group dream work are outlined. (Author/GCP)

  19. Psychodynamic Interpretations of the Immigrant's Dream: Comments on Adler's (1993) "Refugee Dreams and Attachment Theory."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munteanu, Mircea A.

    1994-01-01

    Immigrants and refugees often experience difficulty adjusting to a strange new environment. This article considers Adler's (1993) article, "Refugee Dreams and Attachment Theory" but recommends a depth psychology approach, including both Freudian and Jungian perspectives, to incorporating dream analysis as a technique in cross-cultural counseling.…

  20. Dreams, reality and memory: confabulations in lucid dreamers implicate reality-monitoring dysfunction in dream consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Corlett, P.R.; Canavan, S.V.; Nahum, L.; Appah, F.; Morgan, P.T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Dreams might represent a window on altered states of consciousness with relevance to psychotic experiences, where reality monitoring is impaired. We examined reality monitoring in healthy, non-psychotic individuals with varying degrees of dream awareness using a task designed to assess confabulatory memory errors – a confusion regarding reality whereby information from the past feels falsely familiar and does not constrain current perception appropriately. Confabulatory errors are common following damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Ventromedial function has previously been implicated in dreaming and dream awareness. Methods. In a hospital research setting, physically and mentally healthy individuals with high (n = 18) and low (n = 13) self-reported dream awareness completed a computerised cognitive task that involved reality monitoring based on familiarity across a series of task runs. Results. Signal detection theory analysis revealed a more liberal acceptance bias in those with high dream awareness, consistent with the notion of overlap in the perception of dreams, imagination and reality. Conclusions. We discuss the implications of these results for models of reality monitoring and psychosis with a particular focus on the role of vmPFC in default-mode brain function, model-based reinforcement learning and the phenomenology of dreaming and waking consciousness. PMID:25028078

  1. THE UNCOMMON COLLEGE, THE COLLEGE OF CONTINUING EDUCATION AT METROPOLIS UNIVERSITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LIVERIGHT, A.A.

    HERE IS DESCRIBED HYPOTHETICAL METROPOLIS UNIVERSITY OF 1980 WITH AN UNDERGRADUATE CURRICULUM DESIGNED TO PROVIDE A CLIMATE FOR LIFELONG LEARNING AND WITH A COLLEGE OF CONTINUING EDUCATION DEVELOPED ALONG LINES OF THE FOUR PRIMARY ROLES OF ADULTS--WORKER, FAMILY MEMBER, CITIZEN, AND SELF-REALIZING INDIVIDUAL. FOUR INSTITUTES SERVE THE FOUR ROLES.…

  2. Using the Metropolis Algorithm to Calculate Thermodynamic Quantities: An Undergraduate Computational Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beddard, Godfrey S.

    2011-01-01

    Thermodynamic quantities such as the average energy, heat capacity, and entropy are calculated using a Monte Carlo method based on the Metropolis algorithm. This method is illustrated with reference to the harmonic oscillator but is particularly useful when the partition function cannot be evaluated; an example using a one-dimensional spin system…

  3. Environmental Awareness and School Sanitation in Calabar Metropolis of Cross Rivers State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anijaobi-Idem, F. N.; Ukata, B. N.; Bisong, N. N

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive survey designed study explored the influence of environmental awareness on secondary school sanitation in Calabar Metropolis. 1 hypothesis was formulated to direct the investigation. 300 subjects made up of 30 principals and 270 teachers constituted the sample drawn from the population of principals and teachers in secondary…

  4. Employee Motivation on the Organisational Growth of Printing Industry in the Kumasi Metropolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enninful, Ebenezer Kofi; Boakye-Amponsah, Abraham; Osei-Poku, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The printing industry is supposed to be a major contributor to Ghana's development through employment creation and the enhancement of information to the general public. The main purpose of the study was to assess employee motivation on the printing industry within Kumasi Metropolis. The study employed both the quantitative and qualitative surveys…

  5. "Metropolis," The Lights Fantastic: Semiotic Analysis of Lighting Codes in Relation to Character and Theme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Lane

    Fritz Lang's "Metropolis" (1927) is a seminal film because of its concern, now generic, with the profound impact technological progress has on mankind's social and spiritual progress. As in many later science fiction films, the ascendancy of artifact over nature is depicted not as liberating human beings, but as subjecting and corrupting them.…

  6. Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro Algorithm for Confirmatory Item Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Li

    2010-01-01

    Item factor analysis (IFA), already well established in educational measurement, is increasingly applied to psychological measurement in research settings. However, high-dimensional confirmatory IFA remains a numerical challenge. The current research extends the Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro (MH-RM) algorithm, initially proposed for…

  7. High-Dimensional Exploratory Item Factor Analysis by a Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Li

    2010-01-01

    A Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro (MH-RM) algorithm for high-dimensional maximum marginal likelihood exploratory item factor analysis is proposed. The sequence of estimates from the MH-RM algorithm converges with probability one to the maximum likelihood solution. Details on the computer implementation of this algorithm are provided. The…

  8. Analysis of Errors Committed by Physics Students in Secondary Schools in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omosewo, Esther Ore; Akanbi, Abdulrasaq Oladimeji

    2013-01-01

    The study attempt to find out the types of error committed and influence of gender on the type of error committed by senior secondary school physics students in metropolis. Six (6) schools were purposively chosen for the study. One hundred and fifty five students' scripts were randomly sampled for the study. Joint Mock physics essay questions…

  9. Examining Work and Family Conflict among Female Bankers in Accra Metropolis, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissi-Abrokwah, Bernard; Andoh-Robertson, Theophilus; Tutu-Danquah, Cecilia; Agbesi, Catherine Selorm

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects and solutions of work and family conflict among female bankers in Accra Metropolis. Using triangulatory mixed method design, a structured questionnaire was randomly administered to 300 female bankers and 15 female Bankers who were interviewed were also sampled by using convenient sampling technique. The…

  10. Expectancy Beliefs and English Language Performance of Secondary Schools Students in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K. J.; Nwachukwu, Kelechukwu I.; Ali, Domiya Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    The study determined Relationship between Students' Expectancy Beliefs and English Language Performance of Students in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria. Correlation design was adopted for the study. Four hypotheses which determined the relationships between the components of expectancy beliefs: ability, tasks difficulty, and past…

  11. Dream self-reflectiveness as a learned cognitive skill.

    PubMed

    Purcell, S; Mullington, J; Moffitt, A; Hoffmann, R; Pigeau, R

    1986-01-01

    This research was directed toward the contradiction sustained by cognitive dream psychology, which on the one hand regards dreaming as higher symbolic activity and, on the other, sees its organizational and functional characteristics as derivative and/or inferior to those of waking consciousness. Study 1 evaluates the degree of self-reflective meta-cognition in dreams from different sleep stages. Subjects were 24 college students selected such that half were self-reported high-frequency dream recallers and half were low-frequency recallers. Both groups were composed equally of men and women. Greater self-reflectiveness (SR) was found in REM dreams as compared with those from stages 2 and 4, which did not differ. High-frequency recallers showed more dream SR than did low-frequency recallers. Study 2 assessed the extent to which self-reflective and lucid dreaming can be learned as a cognitive skill by varying levels of intention and attention paid to dreaming. After 3 weeks of home dream collection, results showed that four experimental groups had greater dream SR than did a baseline group. The most effective treatment was the mnemonic, wherein attention patterning schemas learned in waking resulted in more self-reflective and lucid dreaming than did either baseline or attention-control conditions. These results provide evidence that dreaming is not single-minded but variable along a self-reflective process continuum, and suggest functional and organizational levels that are consistent with the conception of dreaming as higher order cognitive activity.

  12. The multiplicity of dreams: cognitive-affective correlates of lucid, archetypal, and nightmare dreaming.

    PubMed

    Spadafora, A; Hunt, H T

    1990-10-01

    This preliminary research is the first to compare lucid, nightmare, and archetypal-mythological dreams on dimensions important in previous research on each. A first study of 100 subjects showed all three forms significantly correlated with each other and with estimates of dream recall. In a second study, 41 subjects were selected from the above on the basis of relative specialization in each dream form, with a control group equally high on dream recall. Here, the lucid and archetypal dreamers tended to separate themselves from nightmare sufferers on the basis of high imaginativeness, proclivity to waking mystical experience, spatial/analytic skills, and physical balance. It appears that the intensification of dreaming is expressed positively or negatively, depending on variations in these cognitive dimensions. PMID:2251094

  13. [Does repression explain the forgetting of dreams? An experimental approach to Freud's theory of dreams].

    PubMed

    Köhler, Thomas; Peretzki, Jörg

    2009-05-01

    An experiment was carried out to test whether forgetting of dream material is due to repression. Under this assumption one would expect that free associations starting from forgotten elements encounter successively growing resistance. Subjects brought along notes of dreams and were later tested for recognition of short sequences of their dreams. In addition, they produced free associations to 5 elements they had remembered and to 5 elements not identified in the recognition test. Skin conductance responses (SCR) and perceived unpleasantness were recorded. The main results were: In comparison to recognized dream material, unrecognized elements elicited associations accompanied by greater psychophysiologic activation. During associations to the latter stimuli, increase of SCR was more frequent. Our findings are in line with Freud's assumption that forgetting of dreams is an effect of repression.

  14. The multiplicity of dreams: cognitive-affective correlates of lucid, archetypal, and nightmare dreaming.

    PubMed

    Spadafora, A; Hunt, H T

    1990-10-01

    This preliminary research is the first to compare lucid, nightmare, and archetypal-mythological dreams on dimensions important in previous research on each. A first study of 100 subjects showed all three forms significantly correlated with each other and with estimates of dream recall. In a second study, 41 subjects were selected from the above on the basis of relative specialization in each dream form, with a control group equally high on dream recall. Here, the lucid and archetypal dreamers tended to separate themselves from nightmare sufferers on the basis of high imaginativeness, proclivity to waking mystical experience, spatial/analytic skills, and physical balance. It appears that the intensification of dreaming is expressed positively or negatively, depending on variations in these cognitive dimensions.

  15. [Dream sequences. On the psychodynamic aspects of the dramaturgy of dreams].

    PubMed

    Mentzos, S

    1995-07-01

    Unlike Freud with his emphasis on the defensive function of dreams, the author concentrates on the creative aspect and compares the sequencing of dreams with a quasi-dramaturgical "scenic" organization of experience displaying notable analogies to a theatrical "production". Mentzos proceeds from two working hypotheses: dream sequences are not random but organized, in the sense that they reflect the succession of different life-stages or the presence of conflicting tendencies within the dreamer's mind; hence the order of the various sequence mirrors the "staging" of the various conflicts and the various attempts made to resolve them. The author attempts to substantiate this hypothesis with reference to a number of dreams and dream sequences. PMID:7644672

  16. Dreaming scientists and scientific dreamers: Freud as a reader of French dream literature.

    PubMed

    Carroy, Jacqueline

    2006-03-01

    The argument of this paper is to situate The Interpretation of Dreams within an historical context. It is, therefore, impossible to believe Freud entirely when he staged himself in his letters to Fliess as a mere discoverer. In reality Freud also felt he belonged to a learned community of dream specialists, whom I call "dreaming scientists" and "scientific dreamers." Instead of speaking, as Ellenberger does, in terms of influence, I will be offering as an example a portrait of Freud as a reader of two French authors, Maury, and indirectly, Hervey de Saint-Denys. I will analyze how Freud staged himself as replacing Maury and dreaming sometimes like Hervey de Saint-Denys. My premise in this work is that we must forget Freud, in order to adventure into a learned dream culture peculiar to the nineteenth century. Only afterwards can we come back to Freud and place him in this context as a creative heir.

  17. Dream characteristics in a Brazilian sample: an online survey focusing on lucid dreaming.

    PubMed

    Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A; Targino, Zé H; Souza, Bryan C; Blanco, Wilfredo; Araujo, John F; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2013-01-01

    During sleep, humans experience the offline images and sensations that we call dreams, which are typically emotional and lacking in rational judgment of their bizarreness. However, during lucid dreaming (LD), subjects know that they are dreaming, and may control oneiric content. Dreaming and LD features have been studied in North Americans, Europeans and Asians, but not among Brazilians, the largest population in Latin America. Here we investigated dreams and LD characteristics in a Brazilian sample (n = 3,427; median age = 25 years) through an online survey. The subjects reported recalling dreams at least once a week (76%), and that dreams typically depicted actions (93%), known people (92%), sounds/voices (78%), and colored images (76%). The oneiric content was associated with plans for the upcoming days (37%), memories of the previous day (13%), or unrelated to the dreamer (30%). Nightmares usually depicted anxiety/fear (65%), being stalked (48%), or other unpleasant sensations (47%). These data corroborate Freudian notion of day residue in dreams, and suggest that dreams and nightmares are simulations of life situations that are related to our psychobiological integrity. Regarding LD, we observed that 77% of the subjects experienced LD at least once in life (44% up to 10 episodes ever), and for 48% LD subjectively lasted less than 1 min. LD frequency correlated weakly with dream recall frequency (r = 0.20, p < 0.01), and LD control was rare (29%). LD occurrence was facilitated when subjects did not need to wake up early (38%), a situation that increases rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) duration, or when subjects were under stress (30%), which increases REMS transitions into waking. These results indicate that LD is relatively ubiquitous but rare, unstable, difficult to control, and facilitated by increases in REMS duration and transitions to wake state. Together with LD incidence in USA, Europe and Asia, our data from Latin America strengthen the notion that LD

  18. Dream characteristics in a Brazilian sample: an online survey focusing on lucid dreaming

    PubMed Central

    Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A.; Targino, Zé H.; Souza, Bryan C.; Blanco, Wilfredo; Araujo, John F.; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2013-01-01

    During sleep, humans experience the offline images and sensations that we call dreams, which are typically emotional and lacking in rational judgment of their bizarreness. However, during lucid dreaming (LD), subjects know that they are dreaming, and may control oneiric content. Dreaming and LD features have been studied in North Americans, Europeans and Asians, but not among Brazilians, the largest population in Latin America. Here we investigated dreams and LD characteristics in a Brazilian sample (n = 3,427; median age = 25 years) through an online survey. The subjects reported recalling dreams at least once a week (76%), and that dreams typically depicted actions (93%), known people (92%), sounds/voices (78%), and colored images (76%). The oneiric content was associated with plans for the upcoming days (37%), memories of the previous day (13%), or unrelated to the dreamer (30%). Nightmares usually depicted anxiety/fear (65%), being stalked (48%), or other unpleasant sensations (47%). These data corroborate Freudian notion of day residue in dreams, and suggest that dreams and nightmares are simulations of life situations that are related to our psychobiological integrity. Regarding LD, we observed that 77% of the subjects experienced LD at least once in life (44% up to 10 episodes ever), and for 48% LD subjectively lasted less than 1 min. LD frequency correlated weakly with dream recall frequency (r = 0.20, p < 0.01), and LD control was rare (29%). LD occurrence was facilitated when subjects did not need to wake up early (38%), a situation that increases rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) duration, or when subjects were under stress (30%), which increases REMS transitions into waking. These results indicate that LD is relatively ubiquitous but rare, unstable, difficult to control, and facilitated by increases in REMS duration and transitions to wake state. Together with LD incidence in USA, Europe and Asia, our data from Latin America strengthen the notion that LD

  19. Dream characteristics in a Brazilian sample: an online survey focusing on lucid dreaming.

    PubMed

    Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A; Targino, Zé H; Souza, Bryan C; Blanco, Wilfredo; Araujo, John F; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2013-01-01

    During sleep, humans experience the offline images and sensations that we call dreams, which are typically emotional and lacking in rational judgment of their bizarreness. However, during lucid dreaming (LD), subjects know that they are dreaming, and may control oneiric content. Dreaming and LD features have been studied in North Americans, Europeans and Asians, but not among Brazilians, the largest population in Latin America. Here we investigated dreams and LD characteristics in a Brazilian sample (n = 3,427; median age = 25 years) through an online survey. The subjects reported recalling dreams at least once a week (76%), and that dreams typically depicted actions (93%), known people (92%), sounds/voices (78%), and colored images (76%). The oneiric content was associated with plans for the upcoming days (37%), memories of the previous day (13%), or unrelated to the dreamer (30%). Nightmares usually depicted anxiety/fear (65%), being stalked (48%), or other unpleasant sensations (47%). These data corroborate Freudian notion of day residue in dreams, and suggest that dreams and nightmares are simulations of life situations that are related to our psychobiological integrity. Regarding LD, we observed that 77% of the subjects experienced LD at least once in life (44% up to 10 episodes ever), and for 48% LD subjectively lasted less than 1 min. LD frequency correlated weakly with dream recall frequency (r = 0.20, p < 0.01), and LD control was rare (29%). LD occurrence was facilitated when subjects did not need to wake up early (38%), a situation that increases rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) duration, or when subjects were under stress (30%), which increases REMS transitions into waking. These results indicate that LD is relatively ubiquitous but rare, unstable, difficult to control, and facilitated by increases in REMS duration and transitions to wake state. Together with LD incidence in USA, Europe and Asia, our data from Latin America strengthen the notion that LD

  20. Neural correlates of insight in dreaming and psychosis.

    PubMed

    Dresler, Martin; Wehrle, Renate; Spoormaker, Victor I; Steiger, Axel; Holsboer, Florian; Czisch, Michael; Hobson, J Allan

    2015-04-01

    The idea that dreaming can serve as a model for psychosis has a long and honourable tradition, however it is notoriously speculative. Here we demonstrate that recent research on the phenomenon of lucid dreaming sheds new light on the debate. Lucid dreaming is a rare state of sleep in which the dreamer gains insight into his state of mind during dreaming. Recent electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data for the first time allow very specific hypotheses about the dream-psychosis relationship: if dreaming is a reasonable model for psychosis, then insight into the dreaming state and insight into the psychotic state should share similar neural correlates. This indeed seems to be the case: cortical areas activated during lucid dreaming show striking overlap with brain regions that are impaired in psychotic patients who lack insight into their pathological state. This parallel allows for new therapeutic approaches and ways to test antipsychotic medication. PMID:25092021

  1. Recurrent Dreams and Psychosocial Adjustment in Preteenaged Children.

    PubMed

    Gauchat, Aline; Zadra, Antonio; Tremblay, Richard E; Zelazo, Philip David; Séguin, Jean R

    2009-06-01

    Research indicates that recurrent dreams in adults are associated with impoverished psychological well-being. Whether similar associations exist in children remains unknown. The authors hypothesized that children reporting recurrent dreams would show poorer psychosocial adjustment than children without recurrent dreams. One hundred sixty-eight 11-year-old children self-reported on their recurrent dreams and on measures of psychosocial adjustment. Although 35% of children reported having experienced a recurrent dream during the past year, our hypothesis was only partially supported. Multivariate analyses revealed a marginally significant interaction between gender and recurrent dream presence and a significant main effect of gender. Univariate analyses revealed that boys reporting recurrent dreams reported significantly higher scores on reactive aggression than those who did not (d = 0.58). This suggests that by age 11 years, the presence of recurrent dreams may already reflect underlying emotional difficulties in boys but not necessarily in girls. Challenges in addressing this developmental question are discussed.

  2. [Tertullianus and Agostinus. Approaches to dreams in ancient Christianity].

    PubMed

    Genovese, Armando

    2009-01-01

    The author analyzes the nature and typologies of dreams in Tertullianus' De anima and, briefly, in the work of Agostinus, two centuries later. What are made dreams of? Are they autonomous productions of psyché or phantasia, or rather messages sent by demons or God, according to dreams' bad or good intimate nature? Is there a relation between time of the night and nature of the dreams? Moreover, is there a relation between seasons and dreams? Does a specific relationship between food, regimen and dreams exist? Which is the soul's faculty able to generate dreams? Is phantasia moved by some other deep and mysterious principle? Which are the connections linking human physiology and dreams?

  3. Cognitive and emotional processes during dreaming: a neuroimaging view.

    PubMed

    Desseilles, Martin; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Sterpenich, Virginie; Schwartz, Sophie

    2011-12-01

    Dream is a state of consciousness characterized by internally-generated sensory, cognitive and emotional experiences occurring during sleep. Dream reports tend to be particularly abundant, with complex, emotional, and perceptually vivid experiences after awakenings from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. This is why our current knowledge of the cerebral correlates of dreaming, mainly derives from studies of REM sleep. Neuroimaging results show that REM sleep is characterized by a specific pattern of regional brain activity. We demonstrate that this heterogeneous distribution of brain activity during sleep explains many typical features in dreams. Reciprocally, specific dream characteristics suggest the activation of selective brain regions during sleep. Such an integration of neuroimaging data of human sleep, mental imagery, and the content of dreams is critical for current models of dreaming; it also provides neurobiological support for an implication of sleep and dreaming in some important functions such as emotional regulation.

  4. Dreaming and cognition in patients with frontotemporal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Teresa; Bugalho, Paulo; Bentes, Carla

    2011-12-01

    Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have hallucinations and mild cognitive dysfunction. The objective of this work was to study dreams in PD and TLE patients using a common functional model of dream production involving the limbic and paralimbic structures. Dreams were characterised in early-stage PD (19 males) and TLE patients (52) with dream diaries classified by the Hall van de Castle system and were compared with matched controls. In PD, there were significant differences between patients' dreams and those of controls: animals, physical aggression, and a befriender were more common in patients, and aggressor and bodily misfortunes were less common. The dreams of patients with frontal dysfunction showed more aggressive features. TLE patients had lower recall than PD patients and a higher proportion of dreams involving family and familiar settings, lower proportions involving success, and a higher incidence of frontal dysfunction. The dreams of PD and TLE patients share important features.

  5. Neural correlates of insight in dreaming and psychosis.

    PubMed

    Dresler, Martin; Wehrle, Renate; Spoormaker, Victor I; Steiger, Axel; Holsboer, Florian; Czisch, Michael; Hobson, J Allan

    2015-04-01

    The idea that dreaming can serve as a model for psychosis has a long and honourable tradition, however it is notoriously speculative. Here we demonstrate that recent research on the phenomenon of lucid dreaming sheds new light on the debate. Lucid dreaming is a rare state of sleep in which the dreamer gains insight into his state of mind during dreaming. Recent electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data for the first time allow very specific hypotheses about the dream-psychosis relationship: if dreaming is a reasonable model for psychosis, then insight into the dreaming state and insight into the psychotic state should share similar neural correlates. This indeed seems to be the case: cortical areas activated during lucid dreaming show striking overlap with brain regions that are impaired in psychotic patients who lack insight into their pathological state. This parallel allows for new therapeutic approaches and ways to test antipsychotic medication.

  6. Incorporation of pain in dreams of hospitalized burn victims.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Isabelle; Nielsen, Tore A; Lavigne, Gilles; Choinière, Manon

    2002-11-01

    It has been shown that realistic, localized painful sensations can be experienced in dreams either through direct incorporation or from past memories of pain. Nevertheless, the frequency of pain dreams in healthy subjects is low. This prospective study was designed to evaluate the occurrence and frequency of pain in the dreams of patients suffering from burn pain. Twenty-eight nonventilated burn victims were interviewed for 5 consecutive mornings during the first week of hospitalization. A structured-interview protocol was used to collect information on dream content, quality of sleep, and pain intensity and location. Patients were also administered the Impact of Event Scale to assess posttraumatic symptoms. Thirty-nine percent of patients reported 19 pain dreams on a total of 63 dreams (30%). Patients with pain dreams showed evidence of worse sleep, more nightmares, higher intake of anxiolytic medication, and higher scores on the Impact of Event Scale than did patents reporting dreams with no pain content. Moreover, patients with pain dreams also had a tendency to report more intense pain during therapeutic procedures. Although more than half of our sample did not report pain dreams, these results suggest that pain dreams do occur at a greater frequency in suffering populations than in normal volunteers. More importantly, dreaming about pain may be an added stress for burn patents and may contribute to both poor sleep and higher pain intensity, which could evolve into a cycle of pain-anxiety-sleeplessness.

  7. A Dream Focus for Short-Term Growth Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provost, Judith A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a dream work focus for six-week growth groups. Procedures for working with members' dreams are examined in relation to group process and group development. Ethical considerations, cautions, and potential use of dream work as an intervention in other kinds of groups are discussed. (Author/GCP)

  8. A Complementary Approach to Freudian and Jungian Dream Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollub, Dan

    1986-01-01

    Presents the original theory that dreams are consecutive emotions of love, desire, nondesire, and hatred showing Freudian and Jungian concepts about dream interpretation to be partly compatible with this pattern. Wish fulfillment (love, desire), "anti-wishes" (nondesire), symbolism, compensation in dreams (hatred), and the individuation process…

  9. Development of Beliefs about the Origins and Controllability of Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolley, Jacqueline D.; Boerger, Elizabeth A.

    2002-01-01

    Three studies investigated development of beliefs about dreams among preschoolers, elementary school children, and adults. Results revealed significant changes between 3- and 5-years about the role of behavioral experiences and mental processes in generation of dream content. There was significant development in beliefs that dreams are not subject…

  10. Truthful Fictions: How Dreams Can Help You Write

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakil, Ardashir

    2013-01-01

    This article makes a case for recording and using dreams in the teaching of writing. Calling on some well-known statements of Freud and on some recent research, I attempt to show how dreams can provide writers with a route to their unconscious. I also illustrate the role of dreams in furnishing writers with inspiration and source material. I…

  11. Dreams of the Dying Patient: An Exploration of Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Pamela N.; Hoffmann, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Examined 25 dream reports of individuals in Palliative Care Unit. Content analysis of dream reports supports hypothesis that continuity exists between dreaming and waking experience. Results did not indicate that themes of death and aggression, negative emotion, or infant and child characters were more prevalent among the dying. (Author/NB)

  12. Toward a Phenomenology of Dream Imagery and Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Elmer S., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The author partially describes a few of the immanent qualities of dreaming imagery and metaphor. The concept of the ineluctable modality is introduced to illustrate the spontaneous synthesizing of cognitive and noncognitive elements. A short dream excerpt is shared to clarify the pervasive contrapuntallike depth of dreaming imagery. (Author/SJL)

  13. After Analysis: A Study of Transference Dreams Following Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Rae

    1986-01-01

    Examined posttreatment consolidation of experience with a script-theoretic analysis of transference dreams. A content-analytic scheme applied to three during-treatment and three posttreatment dreams showed in posttreatment dreams a significant increase in positive affects, a decrease in negative affects, and more effective initatives by the…

  14. Digital Resource Exchange About Music (DREAM): Phase 2 Usability Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upitis, Rena; Boese, Karen; Abrami, Philip C.; Anwar, Zaeem

    2015-01-01

    The Digital Resource Exchange About Music (DREAM) is a virtual space for exchanging information about digital learning tools. The purpose of the present study was to determine how users responded to DREAM in the first four months after its public release. This study is the second phase of usability research on DREAM, and was conducted to guide…

  15. Two Dream Machines: Television and the Human Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deming, Caren J.

    Research into brain physiology and dream psychology have helped to illuminate the biological purposes and processes of dreaming. Physical and functional characteristics shared by dreaming and television include the perception of visual and auditory images, operation in a binary mode, and the encoding of visual information. Research is needed in…

  16. Neurobiology and clinical implications of lucid dreaming.

    PubMed

    Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A; Araujo, John F

    2013-11-01

    Several lines of evidence converge to the idea that rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is a good model to foster our understanding of psychosis. Both REMS and psychosis course with internally generated perceptions and lack of rational judgment, which is attributed to a hyperlimbic activity along with hypofrontality. Interestingly, some individuals can become aware of dreaming during REMS, a particular experience known as lucid dreaming (LD), whose neurobiological basis is still controversial. Since the frontal lobe plays a role in self-consciousness, working memory and attention, here we hypothesize that LD is associated with increased frontal activity during REMS. A possible way to test this hypothesis is to check whether transcranial magnetic or electric stimulation of the frontal region during REMS triggers LD. We further suggest that psychosis and LD are opposite phenomena: LD as a physiological awakening while dreaming due to frontal activity, and psychosis as a pathological intrusion of dream features during wake state due to hypofrontality. We further suggest that LD research may have three main clinical implications. First, LD could be important to the study of consciousness, including its pathologies and other altered states. Second, LD could be used as a therapy for recurrent nightmares, a common symptom of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Finally, LD may allow for motor imagery during dreaming with possible improvement of physical rehabilitation. In all, we believe that LD research may clarify multiple aspects of brain functioning in its physiological, altered and pathological states. PMID:23838126

  17. Emotional state and dreams in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Alfredo; De Vivo, Antonio; Fanara, Giusi; Settineri, Salvatore; Giacobbe, Annamaria; Pizzo, Alfonsa

    2008-09-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of recall and the content of dreams during pregnancy, as well as their correlation with socio-demographic, obstetric and physician-patients relationship variables, emotional state and duration of labour. A questionnaire, designed to analyse background characteristics, was given to 290 women in the third trimester of gestation. The psychiatric analysis of anxiety and depression was performed using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, while dreams were divided into masochistic and pleasant according to Beck's criteria. Oneiric activity was found to be associated with age >or= 35 years, higher family income, higher educational level, and a "satisfactory" physician-patient relationship. Masochistic content was associated with age<35 years, quality of information and frequent thoughts of delivery. Concerning the emotional state, depression levels were higher in women reporting masochistic dreams, while no difference in anxiety levels was found. Labour duration was shorter in the dreamer group and in patients with masochistic dream content. These findings may indicate that, also in pregnancy, the number and the content of dreams are influenced by women's mood and that the evaluation of the oneiric activity might represent a useful tool for clinicians either to investigate the women's emotional state or to predict its repercussions on the course of labour.

  18. Neurobiology and clinical implications of lucid dreaming.

    PubMed

    Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A; Araujo, John F

    2013-11-01

    Several lines of evidence converge to the idea that rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is a good model to foster our understanding of psychosis. Both REMS and psychosis course with internally generated perceptions and lack of rational judgment, which is attributed to a hyperlimbic activity along with hypofrontality. Interestingly, some individuals can become aware of dreaming during REMS, a particular experience known as lucid dreaming (LD), whose neurobiological basis is still controversial. Since the frontal lobe plays a role in self-consciousness, working memory and attention, here we hypothesize that LD is associated with increased frontal activity during REMS. A possible way to test this hypothesis is to check whether transcranial magnetic or electric stimulation of the frontal region during REMS triggers LD. We further suggest that psychosis and LD are opposite phenomena: LD as a physiological awakening while dreaming due to frontal activity, and psychosis as a pathological intrusion of dream features during wake state due to hypofrontality. We further suggest that LD research may have three main clinical implications. First, LD could be important to the study of consciousness, including its pathologies and other altered states. Second, LD could be used as a therapy for recurrent nightmares, a common symptom of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Finally, LD may allow for motor imagery during dreaming with possible improvement of physical rehabilitation. In all, we believe that LD research may clarify multiple aspects of brain functioning in its physiological, altered and pathological states.

  19. Nightmare after trauma as paradigm for all dreams: a new approach to the nature and functions of dreaming.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, E

    1998-01-01

    Nightmares, far from being unsuccessful dreams or exceptions to rules about dreams, can be considered paradigms for all dreaming. They allow us to follow exactly how a disturbance or perturbation is handled by the processing systems in our minds. The data considered here consists of dream series in the weeks and months immediately following trauma in adults--in other words, nightmares and dreams occurring as the trauma resolves. It appears the traumatized person may dream first about the actual trauma (though not always), then, very quickly, the dreams appear to deal with the dominant emotion. Dreams of being overwhelmed by a tidal wave or being swept up by a whirlwind are common after almost any trauma. Clearly, such dreams are not about the sensory input from the actual trauma. Rather, the dreams are about the dominant emotion. The dreams contextualize (find a picture context for) the emotional concern. After trauma, the dominant emotion is usually first terror and fear, then often followed by guilt (such as survivor guilt). This too is pictured in the dream series. The same pattern of contextualizing an emotional concern can be seen in stressful situations, in pregnancy, or in patients whose lives are dominated by one emotion. This pattern is paradigmatic for all dreams, but it may be difficult to detect in "ordinary" dreams, because there may be a number of other relatively smaller emotional concerns present, as opposed to the one clear-cut dominant one (as after trauma). A theory of dreaming is sketched out based on these data which suggests that overall dreaming makes connections more broadly than waking in the nets of the mind, and that the connections are not made randomly but guided by the dreamer's emotional concerns. It is also suggested that the making of connections may be functional for the organism in the sense of "weaving in," or integrating, new material.

  20. Dream Recall Frequencies and Dream Content in Wilson's Disease with and without REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder: A Neurooneirologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Trindade, Mateus C.; Schredl, Michael; Pires, Joana; Reinhard, Iris; Bittencourt, Thais; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Alves, Rosana Cardoso; de Andrade, Daniel Ciampi; Fonoff, Erich T.; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson; Machado, Alexandre A.; Teixeira, Manoel J.; Barbosa, Egberto R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Violent dream content and its acting out during rapid eye movement sleep are considered distinctive for rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD). This study reports first quantitative data on dreaming in a cohort of patients with treated Wilson's disease (WD) and in patients with WD with RBD. Methods. Retrospective questionnaires on different dimensions of dreaming and a prospective two-week home dream diary with self-rating of emotions and blinded, categorical rating of content by an external judge. Results. WD patients showed a significantly lower dream word count and very few other differences in dream characteristics compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Compared to WD patients without RBD, patients with WD and RBD reported significantly higher nightmare frequencies and more dreams with violent or aggressive content retrospectively; their prospectively collected dream reports contained significantly more negative emotions and aggression. Conclusions. The reduction in dream length might reflect specific cognitive deficits in WD. The lack of differences regarding dream content might be explained by the established successful WD treatment. RBD in WD had a strong impact on dreaming. In accordance with the current definition of RBD, violent, aggressive dream content seems to be a characteristic of RBD also in WD. PMID:27051076

  1. Dream Recall Frequencies and Dream Content in Wilson's Disease with and without REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder: A Neurooneirologic Study.

    PubMed

    Tribl, Gotthard G; Trindade, Mateus C; Schredl, Michael; Pires, Joana; Reinhard, Iris; Bittencourt, Thais; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Alves, Rosana Cardoso; de Andrade, Daniel Ciampi; Fonoff, Erich T; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson; Machado, Alexandre A; Teixeira, Manoel J; Barbosa, Egberto R

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Violent dream content and its acting out during rapid eye movement sleep are considered distinctive for rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD). This study reports first quantitative data on dreaming in a cohort of patients with treated Wilson's disease (WD) and in patients with WD with RBD. Methods. Retrospective questionnaires on different dimensions of dreaming and a prospective two-week home dream diary with self-rating of emotions and blinded, categorical rating of content by an external judge. Results. WD patients showed a significantly lower dream word count and very few other differences in dream characteristics compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Compared to WD patients without RBD, patients with WD and RBD reported significantly higher nightmare frequencies and more dreams with violent or aggressive content retrospectively; their prospectively collected dream reports contained significantly more negative emotions and aggression. Conclusions. The reduction in dream length might reflect specific cognitive deficits in WD. The lack of differences regarding dream content might be explained by the established successful WD treatment. RBD in WD had a strong impact on dreaming. In accordance with the current definition of RBD, violent, aggressive dream content seems to be a characteristic of RBD also in WD. PMID:27051076

  2. Dream Recall Frequencies and Dream Content in Wilson's Disease with and without REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder: A Neurooneirologic Study.

    PubMed

    Tribl, Gotthard G; Trindade, Mateus C; Schredl, Michael; Pires, Joana; Reinhard, Iris; Bittencourt, Thais; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Alves, Rosana Cardoso; de Andrade, Daniel Ciampi; Fonoff, Erich T; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson; Machado, Alexandre A; Teixeira, Manoel J; Barbosa, Egberto R

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Violent dream content and its acting out during rapid eye movement sleep are considered distinctive for rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD). This study reports first quantitative data on dreaming in a cohort of patients with treated Wilson's disease (WD) and in patients with WD with RBD. Methods. Retrospective questionnaires on different dimensions of dreaming and a prospective two-week home dream diary with self-rating of emotions and blinded, categorical rating of content by an external judge. Results. WD patients showed a significantly lower dream word count and very few other differences in dream characteristics compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Compared to WD patients without RBD, patients with WD and RBD reported significantly higher nightmare frequencies and more dreams with violent or aggressive content retrospectively; their prospectively collected dream reports contained significantly more negative emotions and aggression. Conclusions. The reduction in dream length might reflect specific cognitive deficits in WD. The lack of differences regarding dream content might be explained by the established successful WD treatment. RBD in WD had a strong impact on dreaming. In accordance with the current definition of RBD, violent, aggressive dream content seems to be a characteristic of RBD also in WD.

  3. The dream screen: phenomenon and noumenon.

    PubMed

    Abse, D W

    1977-01-01

    The dream screen as described by Lewin may have been confused at times with the phenomenon of functional symbolism portraying heightened repressive resistance, and at other times with a negative hallucination in secondary revision. In some dreams, when the sleep-guarding function of the preconscious is heavily threatened and requires reinforcement, a screen certainly appears. Its essential shielding function has evolved from oral fantasies of gratification at the breast, and this origin places it in the context of other phenomena, including the Isakower phenomenon. It is contended that Lewin's assumption that reported dreamless sleep indicates the presence of the screen without projections on its surface transcends development from the perceptual to the conceptual, to the noumenal. The manifest screen is shown to be part of the dream work to achieve pleasurable repose conducive to continued sleep; disturbing traumatic narcissistic injuries revisited under its shield are sometimes reworked in extravagant megalomanic efforts at repair.

  4. Ontogeny of dreaming: a review of empirical studies.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Piroska; Szakadát, Sára; Bódizs, Róbert

    2014-10-01

    The examination of children's sleep-related mental experiences presents many significant challenges for researchers investigating the developmental trajectories of human dreaming. In contrast to the well-explored developmental patterns of human sleep, data from dream research are strikingly divergent with highly ambiguous results and conclusions, even though there is plenty of indirect evidence suggesting parallel patterns of development between neural maturation and dreaming. Thus results from studies of children's dreaming are of essential importance not only to enlighten us on the nature and role of dreaming but to also add to our knowledge of consciousness and cognitive and emotional development. This review summarizes research results related to the ontogeny of dreaming: we critically reconsider the field, systematically compare the findings based on different methodologies, and highlight the advantages and disadvantages of methods, arguing in favor of methodological pluralism. Since most contradictory results emerge in connection with descriptive as well as content related characteristics of young children's dreams, we emphasize the importance of carefully selected dream collection methods. In contrast nightmare-related studies yield surprisingly convergent results, thus providing strong basis for inferences about the connections between dreaming and cognitive emotional functioning. Potential directions for dream research are discussed, aiming to explore the as yet unraveled correlations between the maturation of neural organization, sleep architecture and dreaming patterns.

  5. Thematic and Content Analysis of Idiopathic Nightmares and Bad Dreams

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Geneviève; Zadra, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To conduct a comprehensive and comparative study of prospectively collected bad dream and nightmare reports using a broad range of dream content variables. Design: Correlational and descriptive. Setting: Participants' homes. Participants: Three hundred thirty-one adult volunteers (55 men, 275 women, 1 not specified; mean age = 32.4 ± 14.8 y). Interventions: N/A. Measurement and Results: Five hundred seventy-two participants kept a written record of all of their remembered dreams in a log for 2 to 5 consecutive weeks. A total of 9,796 dream reports were collected and the content of 253 nightmares and 431 bad dreams reported by 331 participants was investigated. Physical aggression was the most frequently reported theme in nightmares, whereas interpersonal conflicts predominated in bad dreams. Nightmares were rated by participants as being substantially more emotionally intense than were bad dreams. Thirty-five percent of nightmares and 55% of bad dreams contained primary emotions other than fear. When compared to bad dreams, nightmares were more bizarre and contained substantially more aggressions, failures, and unfortunate endings. Conclusions: The results have important implications on how nightmares are conceptualized and defined and support the view that when compared to bad dreams, nightmares represent a somewhat rarer—and more severe—expression of the same basic phenomenon. Citation: Robert G; Zadra A. Thematic and content analysis of idiopathic nightmares and bad dreams. SLEEP 2014;37(2):409-417. PMID:24497669

  6. Induction of lucid dreams: a systematic review of evidence.

    PubMed

    Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel; Schädlich, Melanie; Schredl, Michael

    2012-09-01

    In lucid dreams the dreamer is aware of dreaming and often able to influence the ongoing dream content. Lucid dreaming is a learnable skill and a variety of techniques is suggested for lucid dreaming induction. This systematic review evaluated the evidence for the effectiveness of induction techniques. A comprehensive literature search was carried out in biomedical databases and specific resources. Thirty-five studies were included in the analysis (11 sleep laboratory and 24 field studies), of which 26 employed cognitive techniques, 11 external stimulation and one drug application. The methodological quality of the included studies was relatively low. None of the induction techniques were verified to induce lucid dreams reliably and consistently, although some of them look promising. On the basis of the reviewed studies, a taxonomy of lucid dream induction methods is presented. Several methodological issues are discussed and further directions for future studies are proposed. PMID:22841958

  7. The content of recurrent dreams in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gauchat, Aline; Séguin, Jean R; McSween-Cadieux, Esther; Zadra, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Studies on children's recurrent dreams have been largely anecdotal and based on adults' recollections of dreams experienced during childhood. We collected 102 reports of recurrent dreams from a sample of young adolescents aged between 11 and 15years and scored the narratives using a range of content measures, including in relation to the threat simulation theory (TST) of dreaming. The most frequently reported themes involved confrontations with monsters or animals, followed by physical aggressions, falling and being chased. Recurrent dreams were more likely to include negative content elements than positive elements. Only half of the recurrent dreams contained threatening elements and their analysis provided mixed support for the TST. Differences between the content of recurrent dreams reported by young adolescent versus adults are discussed as are possible sex effects and key issues that remain to be addressed by future research. PMID:26366465

  8. The content of recurrent dreams in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gauchat, Aline; Séguin, Jean R; McSween-Cadieux, Esther; Zadra, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Studies on children's recurrent dreams have been largely anecdotal and based on adults' recollections of dreams experienced during childhood. We collected 102 reports of recurrent dreams from a sample of young adolescents aged between 11 and 15years and scored the narratives using a range of content measures, including in relation to the threat simulation theory (TST) of dreaming. The most frequently reported themes involved confrontations with monsters or animals, followed by physical aggressions, falling and being chased. Recurrent dreams were more likely to include negative content elements than positive elements. Only half of the recurrent dreams contained threatening elements and their analysis provided mixed support for the TST. Differences between the content of recurrent dreams reported by young adolescent versus adults are discussed as are possible sex effects and key issues that remain to be addressed by future research.

  9. Induction of lucid dreams: a systematic review of evidence.

    PubMed

    Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel; Schädlich, Melanie; Schredl, Michael

    2012-09-01

    In lucid dreams the dreamer is aware of dreaming and often able to influence the ongoing dream content. Lucid dreaming is a learnable skill and a variety of techniques is suggested for lucid dreaming induction. This systematic review evaluated the evidence for the effectiveness of induction techniques. A comprehensive literature search was carried out in biomedical databases and specific resources. Thirty-five studies were included in the analysis (11 sleep laboratory and 24 field studies), of which 26 employed cognitive techniques, 11 external stimulation and one drug application. The methodological quality of the included studies was relatively low. None of the induction techniques were verified to induce lucid dreams reliably and consistently, although some of them look promising. On the basis of the reviewed studies, a taxonomy of lucid dream induction methods is presented. Several methodological issues are discussed and further directions for future studies are proposed.

  10. The content of recurrent dreams in young adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gauchat, Aline; Séguin, Jean R.; McSween-Cadieux, Esther; Zadra, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Studies on children’s recurrent dreams have been largely anecdotal and based on adults’ recollections of dreams experienced during childhood. We collected 102 reports of recurrent dreams from a sample of young adolescents aged between 11 and 15 years and scored the narratives using a range of content measures, including in relation to the threat simulation theory (TST) of dreaming. The most frequently reported themes involved confrontations with monsters or animals, followed by physical aggressions, falling and being chased. Recurrent dreams were more likely to include negative content elements than positive elements. Only half of the recurrent dreams contained threatening elements and their analysis provided mixed support for the TST. Differences between the content of recurrent dreams reported by young adolescent versus adults are discussed as are possible sex effects and key issues that remain to be addressed by future research. PMID:26366465

  11. Sleep and dreaming in Greek and Roman philosophy.

    PubMed

    Barbera, Joseph

    2008-12-01

    Theories as to the function of sleep and dreaming have been with us since the beginning of recorded history. In Ancient Greece and Rome the predominant view of dreams was that they were divine in origin. This view was held not only in theory but also in practice with the establishment of various dream-oracles and dream interpretation manuals (Oneirocritica). However, it is also in the Greek and Roman writings, paralleling advances in philosophy and natural science, that we begin to see the first rationalistic accounts of dreaming. This paper reviews the evolution of such rational accounts focusing on the influence of Democritus, who provides us with the first rationalistic account of dreaming in history, and Aristotle, who provides us with the most explicit account of sleep and dreaming in the ancient world.

  12. How early adolescents describe their dreams: a quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Azzone, P; Freni, S; Maggiolini, A; Provantini, K; Viganó, D

    1998-01-01

    Most empirical research on dreams has focused on content and structure, while linguistic features have received far less attention. The present study investigated dream language in a critical developmental stage: early adolescence. Narratives of the dreams of 145 early adolescents were tape-recorded and transcribed, and the frequencies of various grammar forms and common words were calculated. The most common nouns for the entire sample were house and mother. The most frequent verbs were go and do. Males' dream narratives contained a greater number of such words as animal, long, enter, and kill. Females more often used intransitive verbs and such words as teacher, horse, and put. Several features differentiated older from younger early adolescents' dreams. The results indicate that linguistic features of dream narratives are affected by age and sex, displaying interesting parallels with clinical theories on dreams and early adolescence. PMID:9583674

  13. Risk factors for traffic accidents in Bangkok Metropolis: a case-reference study.

    PubMed

    Na Ayuthya, R S; Böhning, D

    1997-12-01

    It was aimed to study injures from road traffic accidents in Bangkok Metropolis and identify patients' characteristics as well as to search for risk factors for traffic accidents leading to hospitalization. The study included 346 in-patient cases suffering injuries from road traffic accidents in Bangkok Metropolis. The patients were recruited during a period of 4 months of the year 1992 from five hospitals in various areas of Bangkok which were judged to be representative for Bangkok Metropolis. Using the method of case-reference, relative risk could be estimated for various exposure factors. Most of the patients drove a motorcycle, had their license for only a short period, and drove more than 5 hours a day. About one third of the patients were under the influence of alcohol. The traffic accident characteristics were that they occurred mainly at night time with the peak between 21.00 and 24.00 hours. About 90% of all traffic accidents occurred during the rainy season and most of them occurred near to road junctions. Reference data was available for some variables and the following risk group could be identified: RR (male-age 20-24) = 17.06 (8.8-33.9), RR (single-marital status) = 2.25 (1.7-3.1), RR (primary-education) = 6.2 (2.9-12.6), RR (unskilled labourer-occupation) = 3.91 (2.7-5.9), RR (salesperson-occupation) = 3.34 (2.2-5.0). PMID:9656420

  14. General Metropolis-Hastings jump diffusions for automatic target recognition in infrared scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanterman, Aaron D.; Miller, Michael I.; Snyder, Donald L.

    1997-04-01

    To locate and recognize ground-based targets in forward- looking IR (FLIR) images, 3D faceted models with associated pose parameters are formulated to accommodate the variability found in FLIR imagery. Taking a Bayesian approach, scenes are simulated from the emissive characteristics of the CAD models and compared with the collected data by a likelihood function based on sensor statistics. This likelihood is combined with a prior distribution defined over the set of possible scenes to form a posterior distribution. To accommodate scenes with variable numbers of targets, the posterior distribution is defined over parameter vectors of varying dimension. An inference algorithm based on Metropolis-Hastings jump- diffusion processes empirically samples from the posterior distribution, generating configurations of templates and transformations that match the collected sensor data with high probability. The jumps accommodate the addition and deletion of targets and the estimation of target identities; diffusions refine the hypotheses by drifting along the gradient of the posterior distribution with respect to the orientation and position parameters. Previous results on jumps strategies analogous to the Metropolis acceptance/rejection algorithm, with proposals drawn from the prior and accepted based on the likelihood, are extended to encompass general Metropolis-Hastings proposal densities. In particular, the algorithm proposes moves by drawing from the posterior distribution over computationally tractible subsets of the parameter space. The algorithm is illustrated by an implementation on a Silicon Graphics Onyx/Reality Engine.

  15. Volitional components of consciousness vary across wakefulness, dreaming and lucid dreaming

    PubMed Central

    Dresler, Martin; Eibl, Leandra; Fischer, Christian F. J.; Wehrle, Renate; Spoormaker, Victor I.; Steiger, Axel; Czisch, Michael; Pawlowski, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Consciousness is a multifaceted concept; its different aspects vary across species, vigilance states, or health conditions. While basal aspects of consciousness like perceptions and emotions are present in many states and species, higher-order aspects like reflective or volitional capabilities seem to be most pronounced in awake humans. Here we assess the experience of volition across different states of consciousness: 10 frequent lucid dreamers rated different aspects of volition according to the Volitional Components Questionnaire for phases of normal dreaming, lucid dreaming, and wakefulness. Overall, experienced volition was comparable for lucid dreaming and wakefulness, and rated significantly higher for both states compared to non-lucid dreaming. However, three subscales showed specific differences across states of consciousness: planning ability was most pronounced during wakefulness, intention enactment most pronounced during lucid dreaming, and self-determination most pronounced during both wakefulness and lucid dreaming. Our data confirm the multifaceted nature of consciousness: different higher-order aspects of consciousness are differentially expressed across different conscious states. PMID:24427149

  16. Volitional components of consciousness vary across wakefulness, dreaming and lucid dreaming.

    PubMed

    Dresler, Martin; Eibl, Leandra; Fischer, Christian F J; Wehrle, Renate; Spoormaker, Victor I; Steiger, Axel; Czisch, Michael; Pawlowski, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Consciousness is a multifaceted concept; its different aspects vary across species, vigilance states, or health conditions. While basal aspects of consciousness like perceptions and emotions are present in many states and species, higher-order aspects like reflective or volitional capabilities seem to be most pronounced in awake humans. Here we assess the experience of volition across different states of consciousness: 10 frequent lucid dreamers rated different aspects of volition according to the Volitional Components Questionnaire for phases of normal dreaming, lucid dreaming, and wakefulness. Overall, experienced volition was comparable for lucid dreaming and wakefulness, and rated significantly higher for both states compared to non-lucid dreaming. However, three subscales showed specific differences across states of consciousness: planning ability was most pronounced during wakefulness, intention enactment most pronounced during lucid dreaming, and self-determination most pronounced during both wakefulness and lucid dreaming. Our data confirm the multifaceted nature of consciousness: different higher-order aspects of consciousness are differentially expressed across different conscious states.

  17. Virtual reality and consciousness inference in dreaming.

    PubMed

    Hobson, J Allan; Hong, Charles C-H; Friston, Karl J

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the notion that the brain is genetically endowed with an innate virtual reality generator that - through experience-dependent plasticity - becomes a generative or predictive model of the world. This model, which is most clearly revealed in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep dreaming, may provide the theater for conscious experience. Functional neuroimaging evidence for brain activations that are time-locked to rapid eye movements (REMs) endorses the view that waking consciousness emerges from REM sleep - and dreaming lays the foundations for waking perception. In this view, the brain is equipped with a virtual model of the world that generates predictions of its sensations. This model is continually updated and entrained by sensory prediction errors in wakefulness to ensure veridical perception, but not in dreaming. In contrast, dreaming plays an essential role in maintaining and enhancing the capacity to model the world by minimizing model complexity and thereby maximizing both statistical and thermodynamic efficiency. This perspective suggests that consciousness corresponds to the embodied process of inference, realized through the generation of virtual realities (in both sleep and wakefulness). In short, our premise or hypothesis is that the waking brain engages with the world to predict the causes of sensations, while in sleep the brain's generative model is actively refined so that it generates more efficient predictions during waking. We review the evidence in support of this hypothesis - evidence that grounds consciousness in biophysical computations whose neuronal and neurochemical infrastructure has been disclosed by sleep research.

  18. Technical Studies Lead to Dream Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suraci, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Like many young men, Ty Kropp had no idea what he wanted to do when he graduated from high school. Courses he took as a computer design/manufacturing (CDM) technology student at the Ulster County Career and Technical Education center in Port Ewen, NY, gave him valuable skills that opened the door to his dream job at Orange County Choppers (OCC), a…

  19. Chinese Learning Journeys: Chasing the Dream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Feng, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Eight students from mainland China chart their learning journeys across national and continental boundaries and socio-cultural contexts. The five women and three men structure their experiences of studying in China and the West around the turning points and life changing choices they made in chasing their dreams. They embody its emergent…

  20. What Has Happened to the American Dream?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegley, Charles W.

    1983-01-01

    Until very recently, the American dream, and most people's perception of it, was realizable--e.g., owning a home, obtaining a job, and old-age security. Reasons for many citizens' disillusionment include the nuclear threat, high costs of a college education, and the high divorce rate. (RM)

  1. A Dream Experiment in Development Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Prakarsh; Russo, Alexa

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a unique project carried out by 13 teams of four students each in the undergraduate Development Economics class during the 2012 spring semester at a private liberal arts college. The goal of the "Dream Experiment" was to think of an idea that promotes development, employs concepts from development…

  2. [Interdependance between somatic symptoms, sleep and dreams].

    PubMed

    Todorov, Assya

    2014-03-19

    Even in an established illness, somatic complains can hide other emotional inquiries. The therapist, always with a kind attitude, can ask more about patient's sexual life. This can be use of having a better idea of patient's life and problems. Talking about dreams can also be useful: it gives new and surprising elements about patient's personality and helps to progress on healing's way.

  3. Dreams, mnemonics, and tuning for criticality.

    PubMed

    Pearlmutter, Barak A; Houghton, Conor J

    2013-12-01

    According to the tuning-for-criticality theory, the essential role of sleep is to protect the brain from super-critical behaviour. Here we argue that this protective role determines the content of dreams and any apparent relationship to the art of memory is secondary to this.

  4. How to Make Their Dreams Come True

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easley, Dauna

    2005-01-01

    The beginning of January--a fresh start. This presents a brand new opportunity to help students plan a bright future. This article provides a step-by-step guide to ensure a student's dreams come true. Each new year gives students another chance to get it right. The author provides the following 12 steps to ensure students' success in achieving…

  5. Current Research on Sleep and Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    This monograph summarizes an extensive body of sleep and dream research in order to indicate the major trends of work in this area. Although a mosaic of disciplines are represented, a spirit of cooperation has made it possible to knit together data which might have remained unrelated. The research reported here provides knowledge about: (1) the…

  6. Brooklyn Dreams: My Life in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    In "Brooklyn Dreams," Sonia Nieto--one of the leading authors and teachers in the field of multicultural education--looks back on her formative experiences as a student, activist, and educator, and shows how they reflect and illuminate the themes of her life's work. Nieto offers a poignant account of her childhood and the complexities of…

  7. Sacred Dreams: Women and the Superintendency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, C. Cryss, Ed.

    This book pulls together leading scholars who focus on the topic of women as superintendents. The four parts include 13 chapters. Part 1, "Crawling Through the Window of a Dream--Surveying the Terrain," includes (1) "'Turning Out the Ladies': Elected Women Superintendents and the Push for the Appointive System, 1900-1935" (Jackie M. Blount) and…

  8. Virtual reality and consciousness inference in dreaming

    PubMed Central

    Hobson, J. Allan; Hong, Charles C.-H.; Friston, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the notion that the brain is genetically endowed with an innate virtual reality generator that – through experience-dependent plasticity – becomes a generative or predictive model of the world. This model, which is most clearly revealed in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep dreaming, may provide the theater for conscious experience. Functional neuroimaging evidence for brain activations that are time-locked to rapid eye movements (REMs) endorses the view that waking consciousness emerges from REM sleep – and dreaming lays the foundations for waking perception. In this view, the brain is equipped with a virtual model of the world that generates predictions of its sensations. This model is continually updated and entrained by sensory prediction errors in wakefulness to ensure veridical perception, but not in dreaming. In contrast, dreaming plays an essential role in maintaining and enhancing the capacity to model the world by minimizing model complexity and thereby maximizing both statistical and thermodynamic efficiency. This perspective suggests that consciousness corresponds to the embodied process of inference, realized through the generation of virtual realities (in both sleep and wakefulness). In short, our premise or hypothesis is that the waking brain engages with the world to predict the causes of sensations, while in sleep the brain’s generative model is actively refined so that it generates more efficient predictions during waking. We review the evidence in support of this hypothesis – evidence that grounds consciousness in biophysical computations whose neuronal and neurochemical infrastructure has been disclosed by sleep research. PMID:25346710

  9. Virtual reality and consciousness inference in dreaming.

    PubMed

    Hobson, J Allan; Hong, Charles C-H; Friston, Karl J

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the notion that the brain is genetically endowed with an innate virtual reality generator that - through experience-dependent plasticity - becomes a generative or predictive model of the world. This model, which is most clearly revealed in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep dreaming, may provide the theater for conscious experience. Functional neuroimaging evidence for brain activations that are time-locked to rapid eye movements (REMs) endorses the view that waking consciousness emerges from REM sleep - and dreaming lays the foundations for waking perception. In this view, the brain is equipped with a virtual model of the world that generates predictions of its sensations. This model is continually updated and entrained by sensory prediction errors in wakefulness to ensure veridical perception, but not in dreaming. In contrast, dreaming plays an essential role in maintaining and enhancing the capacity to model the world by minimizing model complexity and thereby maximizing both statistical and thermodynamic efficiency. This perspective suggests that consciousness corresponds to the embodied process of inference, realized through the generation of virtual realities (in both sleep and wakefulness). In short, our premise or hypothesis is that the waking brain engages with the world to predict the causes of sensations, while in sleep the brain's generative model is actively refined so that it generates more efficient predictions during waking. We review the evidence in support of this hypothesis - evidence that grounds consciousness in biophysical computations whose neuronal and neurochemical infrastructure has been disclosed by sleep research. PMID:25346710

  10. Education and Social Mobility: Dreams of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Kate; Barker, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    "Education and Social Mobility" examines Government plans to improve upward mobility in England and considers the chances of success in the light of qualitative interviews with 88 school students. The 15- to 19-year-olds in two state secondary schools were invited to reflect on their lives, education and dreams of the future. Their…

  11. My Galaxy of Memories, Feelings, and Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomek, George; Tomek, Marilee

    Young people are encouraged to use this writing journal for kids as a means to think, write, and be creative. The journal helps children to explore their worlds, learn about their families, and record their memories, feelings, and dreams. Following explanatory sections for parents, teachers, and the writer, the journal contains these sections:…

  12. [Analytic therapy by the wake-dream].

    PubMed

    Rocca, R E

    1985-12-01

    The author goes through process of treatment by Robert Desoille's Wake-Dream analysis in an effort to expose the psychodynamics involved. In the first place, he approaches the problem of commencement of therapy up to the constitution of the framework inherent to the Wake-Dream. This presupposes a peculiar dissociation into several "me"; and a work method that may be thought of as progressive set up of a "personal mythology", through the various method stages, which in turn entails the task of binding and integrating every temporal and spatial dimension of psychism. The technique's therapeutic mechanics are based essentially in this work method. He also deals with the problem of transference and resistance and with the segregation of process phases just as they arise in medicine. On the basis of a text by Freud and of the aforementioned criteria, he supports the "analytical" nature of the Wake-Dream (in a sense similar to the term in psychoanalysis), in spite of the fact that the latter is not derived from psychoanalysis and is completely different from it as regards technique. Wake-Dream and psychoanalysis are bradly coincident as far as theorical hypotheses supporting them are concerned.

  13. Catching the Dream Annual Report, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavers, Dean, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    In 2002, Catching the Dream (CTD) provided college scholarships to 208 American Indian students as well as grants to improve education in schools that serve Native students. This annual report describes CTD's programs and activities in 2002. Contents include short descriptions of CTD's scholarship, fellowship, and internship programs; describe…

  14. Psychosis and the Control of Lucid Dreaming.

    PubMed

    Mota, Natália B; Resende, Adara; Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A; Copelli, Mauro; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2016-01-01

    Dreaming and psychosis share important features, such as intrinsic sense perceptions independent of external stimulation, and a general lack of criticism that is associated with reduced frontal cerebral activity. Awareness of dreaming while a dream is happening defines lucid dreaming (LD), a state in which the prefrontal cortex is more active than during regular dreaming. For this reason, LD has been proposed to be potentially therapeutic for psychotic patients. According to this view, psychotic patients would be expected to report LD less frequently, and with lower control ability, than healthy subjects. Furthermore, psychotic patients able to experience LD should present milder psychiatric symptoms, in comparison with psychotic patients unable to experience LD. To test these hypotheses, we investigated LD features (occurrence, control abilities, frequency, and affective valence) and psychiatric symptoms (measure by PANSS, BPRS, and automated speech analysis) in 45 subjects with psychotic symptoms [25 with Schizophrenia (S) and 20 with Bipolar Disorder (B) diagnosis] versus 28 non-psychotic control (C) subjects. Psychotic lucid dreamers reported control of their dreams more frequently (67% of S and 73% of B) than non-psychotic lucid dreamers (only 23% of C; S > C with p = 0.0283, B > C with p = 0.0150). Importantly, there was no clinical advantage for lucid dreamers among psychotic patients, even for the diagnostic question specifically related to lack of judgment and insight. Despite some limitations (e.g., transversal design, large variation of medications), these preliminary results support the notion that LD is associated with psychosis, but falsify the hypotheses that we set out to test. A possible explanation is that psychosis enhances the experience of internal reality in detriment of external reality, and therefore lucid dreamers with psychotic symptoms would be more able to control their internal reality than non-psychotic lucid dreamers. Training dream

  15. Psychosis and the Control of Lucid Dreaming.

    PubMed

    Mota, Natália B; Resende, Adara; Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A; Copelli, Mauro; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2016-01-01

    Dreaming and psychosis share important features, such as intrinsic sense perceptions independent of external stimulation, and a general lack of criticism that is associated with reduced frontal cerebral activity. Awareness of dreaming while a dream is happening defines lucid dreaming (LD), a state in which the prefrontal cortex is more active than during regular dreaming. For this reason, LD has been proposed to be potentially therapeutic for psychotic patients. According to this view, psychotic patients would be expected to report LD less frequently, and with lower control ability, than healthy subjects. Furthermore, psychotic patients able to experience LD should present milder psychiatric symptoms, in comparison with psychotic patients unable to experience LD. To test these hypotheses, we investigated LD features (occurrence, control abilities, frequency, and affective valence) and psychiatric symptoms (measure by PANSS, BPRS, and automated speech analysis) in 45 subjects with psychotic symptoms [25 with Schizophrenia (S) and 20 with Bipolar Disorder (B) diagnosis] versus 28 non-psychotic control (C) subjects. Psychotic lucid dreamers reported control of their dreams more frequently (67% of S and 73% of B) than non-psychotic lucid dreamers (only 23% of C; S > C with p = 0.0283, B > C with p = 0.0150). Importantly, there was no clinical advantage for lucid dreamers among psychotic patients, even for the diagnostic question specifically related to lack of judgment and insight. Despite some limitations (e.g., transversal design, large variation of medications), these preliminary results support the notion that LD is associated with psychosis, but falsify the hypotheses that we set out to test. A possible explanation is that psychosis enhances the experience of internal reality in detriment of external reality, and therefore lucid dreamers with psychotic symptoms would be more able to control their internal reality than non-psychotic lucid dreamers. Training dream

  16. Psychosis and the Control of Lucid Dreaming

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Natália B.; Resende, Adara; Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A.; Copelli, Mauro; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2016-01-01

    Dreaming and psychosis share important features, such as intrinsic sense perceptions independent of external stimulation, and a general lack of criticism that is associated with reduced frontal cerebral activity. Awareness of dreaming while a dream is happening defines lucid dreaming (LD), a state in which the prefrontal cortex is more active than during regular dreaming. For this reason, LD has been proposed to be potentially therapeutic for psychotic patients. According to this view, psychotic patients would be expected to report LD less frequently, and with lower control ability, than healthy subjects. Furthermore, psychotic patients able to experience LD should present milder psychiatric symptoms, in comparison with psychotic patients unable to experience LD. To test these hypotheses, we investigated LD features (occurrence, control abilities, frequency, and affective valence) and psychiatric symptoms (measure by PANSS, BPRS, and automated speech analysis) in 45 subjects with psychotic symptoms [25 with Schizophrenia (S) and 20 with Bipolar Disorder (B) diagnosis] versus 28 non-psychotic control (C) subjects. Psychotic lucid dreamers reported control of their dreams more frequently (67% of S and 73% of B) than non-psychotic lucid dreamers (only 23% of C; S > C with p = 0.0283, B > C with p = 0.0150). Importantly, there was no clinical advantage for lucid dreamers among psychotic patients, even for the diagnostic question specifically related to lack of judgment and insight. Despite some limitations (e.g., transversal design, large variation of medications), these preliminary results support the notion that LD is associated with psychosis, but falsify the hypotheses that we set out to test. A possible explanation is that psychosis enhances the experience of internal reality in detriment of external reality, and therefore lucid dreamers with psychotic symptoms would be more able to control their internal reality than non-psychotic lucid dreamers. Training dream

  17. Dreamed movement elicits activation in the sensorimotor cortex.

    PubMed

    Dresler, Martin; Koch, Stefan P; Wehrle, Renate; Spoormaker, Victor I; Holsboer, Florian; Steiger, Axel; Sämann, Philipp G; Obrig, Hellmuth; Czisch, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Since the discovery of the close association between rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and dreaming, much effort has been devoted to link physiological signatures of REM sleep to the contents of associated dreams [1-4]. Due to the impossibility of experimentally controlling spontaneous dream activity, however, a direct demonstration of dream contents by neuroimaging methods is lacking. By combining brain imaging with polysomnography and exploiting the state of "lucid dreaming," we show here that a predefined motor task performed during dreaming elicits neuronal activation in the sensorimotor cortex. In lucid dreams, the subject is aware of the dreaming state and capable of performing predefined actions while all standard polysomnographic criteria of REM sleep are fulfilled [5, 6]. Using eye signals as temporal markers, neural activity measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was related to dreamed hand movements during lucid REM sleep. Though preliminary, we provide first evidence that specific contents of REM-associated dreaming can be visualized by neuroimaging. PMID:22036177

  18. Dreaming during anaesthesia in children: incidence, nature and associations.

    PubMed

    Huang, G H; Davidson, A J; Stargatt, R

    2005-09-01

    In previous studies, the incidence of dreaming during anaesthesia in children was reported to be between 9.7% and 19%. These limited studies were performed over 15 years ago using outmoded anaesthetic techniques. No recent studies have examined the nature of dreaming or its impact on children. In this prospective cohort study of 864 children, we determined the incidence, nature, predictors and behavioural consequences of children who reported dreaming during anaesthesia. Children aged 5-12 years who had undergone general anaesthesia were interviewed for dreaming on three occasions. Dreaming was reported by 10.4% of children. The content of the dreams was mostly pleasant and unrelated to their hospital experiences. Dreaming was more common in younger children and in children who had also experienced awareness during anaesthesia. No association was found between dreaming and the anaesthetic drugs used. Dreaming was not associated with an increased risk of behavioural disturbances postoperatively. Anaesthetists should be reassured that dreaming is a common occurrence that does not appear to distress children.

  19. Dreamed movement elicits activation in the sensorimotor cortex.

    PubMed

    Dresler, Martin; Koch, Stefan P; Wehrle, Renate; Spoormaker, Victor I; Holsboer, Florian; Steiger, Axel; Sämann, Philipp G; Obrig, Hellmuth; Czisch, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Since the discovery of the close association between rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and dreaming, much effort has been devoted to link physiological signatures of REM sleep to the contents of associated dreams [1-4]. Due to the impossibility of experimentally controlling spontaneous dream activity, however, a direct demonstration of dream contents by neuroimaging methods is lacking. By combining brain imaging with polysomnography and exploiting the state of "lucid dreaming," we show here that a predefined motor task performed during dreaming elicits neuronal activation in the sensorimotor cortex. In lucid dreams, the subject is aware of the dreaming state and capable of performing predefined actions while all standard polysomnographic criteria of REM sleep are fulfilled [5, 6]. Using eye signals as temporal markers, neural activity measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was related to dreamed hand movements during lucid REM sleep. Though preliminary, we provide first evidence that specific contents of REM-associated dreaming can be visualized by neuroimaging.

  20. An association between geomagnetic activity and dream bizarreness.

    PubMed

    Lipnicki, Darren M

    2009-07-01

    Daily disturbances of the earth's magnetic field produce variations in geomagnetic activity (GMA) that are reportedly associated with widespread effects on human health and behaviour. Some of these effects could be mediated by an established influence of GMA on the secretion of melatonin. There is evidence from unrelated research that melatonin influences dream bizarreness, and it is hypothesised here that there is an association between GMA and dream bizarreness. Also reported is a preliminary test of this hypothesis, a case study in which the dreams recorded over 6.5 years by a young adult male were analysed. Reports of dreams from the second of two consecutive days of either low or high GMA (K index sum < or =6 or > or = 28) were self-rated for bizarreness on a 1-5 scale. Dreams from low GMA periods (n=69, median bizarreness=4) were found to be significantly more bizarre than dreams from high GMA periods (n=85, median bizarreness=3; p=0.006), supporting the hypothesised association between GMA and dream bizarreness. Studies with larger samples are needed to verify this association, and to determine the extent to which melatonin may be involved. Establishing that there is an association between GMA and dream bizarreness would have relevance for neurophysiological theories of dreaming, and for models of psychotic symptoms resembling bizarre dream events.

  1. Amygdala and hippocampus volumetry and diffusivity in relation to dreaming.

    PubMed

    De Gennaro, Luigi; Cipolli, Carlo; Cherubini, Andrea; Assogna, Francesca; Cacciari, Claudia; Marzano, Cristina; Curcio, Giuseppe; Ferrara, Michele; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2011-09-01

    Microstructural analyses by MRI brain scans and by DTI analysis of MR images were used to investigate the possible relationship between deep gray matter structures (amygdala and hippocampus) and dreaming in healthy subjects. Thirty-four subjects ranging in age 20s to 70s underwent to a MRI protocol for the assessment of volume and mean diffusivity (MD) in the amygdala and hippocampus and were asked to fill out a dream diary via audiotape recording upon morning awakening for two weeks. Multiple regression analyses evaluated the relationships between anatomical measures and quantitative and qualitative measures of the reported dreams. The main result points to a dissociation between some quantitative and qualitative aspects of dream reports. While the mean number of dreams recalled per day did not show any significant relationship with the neuroanatomical measures, significant associations with some qualitative features of the recalled dreams (emotional load, bizarreness, and vividness) and, to some extent, with the length of dream reports were observed. Particularly, a higher MD of the left amygdala, reflecting a decreased microstructural integrity, was associated with shorter dream reports and lower scores on emotional load. Bizarreness of dream reports was negatively correlated with the left amygdala volume and positively correlated with the right amygdala MD. Some specific, although weaker, relationships were also found between bizarreness and hippocampal measures. These findings indicate some direct relationships between volumetric and ultrastructural measures of the hippocampus-amygdala complex and specific qualitative features of dreaming.

  2. Dream self-reflectiveness as a learned cognitive skill.

    PubMed

    Purcell, S; Mullington, J; Moffitt, A; Hoffmann, R; Pigeau, R

    1986-01-01

    This research was directed toward the contradiction sustained by cognitive dream psychology, which on the one hand regards dreaming as higher symbolic activity and, on the other, sees its organizational and functional characteristics as derivative and/or inferior to those of waking consciousness. Study 1 evaluates the degree of self-reflective meta-cognition in dreams from different sleep stages. Subjects were 24 college students selected such that half were self-reported high-frequency dream recallers and half were low-frequency recallers. Both groups were composed equally of men and women. Greater self-reflectiveness (SR) was found in REM dreams as compared with those from stages 2 and 4, which did not differ. High-frequency recallers showed more dream SR than did low-frequency recallers. Study 2 assessed the extent to which self-reflective and lucid dreaming can be learned as a cognitive skill by varying levels of intention and attention paid to dreaming. After 3 weeks of home dream collection, results showed that four experimental groups had greater dream SR than did a baseline group. The most effective treatment was the mnemonic, wherein attention patterning schemas learned in waking resulted in more self-reflective and lucid dreaming than did either baseline or attention-control conditions. These results provide evidence that dreaming is not single-minded but variable along a self-reflective process continuum, and suggest functional and organizational levels that are consistent with the conception of dreaming as higher order cognitive activity. PMID:3764289

  3. Testing and ground calibration of DREAMS-H relative humidity device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genzer, Maria; Hieta, Maria; Nikkanen, Timo; Schmidt, Walter; Kemppinen, Osku; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri

    2015-04-01

    DREAMS (Dust Characterization, Risk Assessment and Environmental Analyzer on the Martian Surface) instrument suite is to be launched as part of the ESA ExoMars 2016/Schiaparelli lander. DREAMS consists of an environmental package for monitoring temperature, pressure, relative humidity, winds and dust opacity, as well as atmospheric electricity of Martian atmosphere. The DREAMS instruments and scientific goals are described in [1]. Here we describe testing and ground calibration of the relative humidity device, DREAMS-H, provided to the DREAMS payload by the Finnish Meteorological Institute and based on proprietary technology of Vaisala, Inc. The same kind of device is part of the REMS instrument package onboard MSL Curiosity Rover [2][3]. DREAMS-H is based on Vaisala Humicap® technology adapted for use in Martian environment by the Finnish Meteorological Institute. The device is very small and lightweighed, with total mass less than 20 g and consuming only 15 mW of power. The Humicap® sensor heads contain an active polymer film that changes its capacitance as function of relative humidity, with 0% to 100% RH measurement range. The dynamic range of the device gets smaller with sensor temperature, being in -70°C approximately 30% of the dynamic range in 0°C [3]. Good-quality relative humidity measurements require knowing the temperature of the environment in which relative humidity is measured. An important part of DREAMS-H calibration was temperature calibration of Vaisala Thermocap® temperature sensors used for housekeeping temperature measurements of the DREAMS-H device. For this, several temperature points in the desired operational range were measured with 0.1°C accuracy traceable to national standards. The main part of humidity calibration of DREAMS-H flight models was done in subzero temperatures in a humidity generator of the Finnish Center of Metrology and Accreditation (MIKES). Several relative humidity points ranging from almost dry to almost wet

  4. Beware of being captured by an analogy: dreams are like many things.

    PubMed

    Erdelyi, Matthew Hugh

    2013-12-01

    Classic traditions have linked dreams to memory (e.g., "dreaming is another kind of remembering" [Freud 1918/1955]) and modern notions like implicit memory subsume dreaming by definition. Llewellyn develops the more specific thesis that rapid eye movement (REM) dreams, because of their similarities to mnemonic techniques, have the function of elaboratively encoding episodic memories. This proposal is premature, requiring exigent testing. Other analogs of dreams, for example, jokes, do not invoke function but do contribute to dream science.

  5. Lucid dreaming and ventromedial versus dorsolateral prefrontal task performance.

    PubMed

    Neider, Michelle; Pace-Schott, Edward F; Forselius, Erica; Pittman, Brian; Morgan, Peter T

    2011-06-01

    Activity in the prefrontal cortex may distinguish the meta-awareness experienced during lucid dreams from its absence in normal dreams. To examine a possible relationship between dream lucidity and prefrontal task performance, we carried out a prospective study in 28 high school students. Participants performed the Wisconsin Card Sort and Iowa Gambling tasks, then for 1 week kept dream journals and reported sleep quality and lucidity-related dream characteristics. Participants who exhibited a greater degree of lucidity performed significantly better on the task that engages the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (the Iowa Gambling Task), but degree of lucidity achieved did not distinguish performance on the task that engages the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (the Wisconsin Card Sort Task), nor did it distinguish self-reported sleep quality or baseline characteristics. The association between performance on the Iowa Gambling Task and lucidity suggests a connection between lucid dreaming and ventromedial prefrontal function. PMID:20829072

  6. Nightmares in crisis: clinical applications of lucid dreaming techniques.

    PubMed

    Brylowski, A

    1990-06-01

    A patient in crisis was offered treatment with a major focus on alleviating nightmares using lucid dreaming (dreaming while knowing that one is dreaming). Of sixty-eight non-psychotic patients seen consecutively in a psychiatry emergency room, she was one of 16 (23.5%) found to have a concurrent complaint of nightmares (dream anxiety disorder). The benefits of the skills developed with lucid dreaming extended into areas other than nightmares as the patient entered psychotherapy. The techniques appeared to play a role in the reduction of nightmare frequency, intensity, and distress, and to enhance ego growth and personal development. Further research in lucid dreaming as an adjunctive treatment for patients with nightmares and as a useful technique in psychotherapy is suggested. PMID:2374792

  7. Red balloon: approaching dreams as self-narratives.

    PubMed

    Androutsopoulou, Athena

    2011-10-01

    In this article, dreams are seen as stories within a self-narrative. Dream stories, like all other stories, are told in an effort to make sense of experiences. Here, dream content is linked to current concerns, some aspects of which are not given voice in waking. Dreams depict restricting themes but also openings in self-narratives. Several examples are provided of how dreams can be linked to early, middle, and late therapy phases associated with recognizing, challenging, revising, and maintaining a revising stance. It is further suggested that dream stories can be used to trace, facilitate, and evaluate the process of reconstructing self-narratives. Finally, a number of therapeutic interventions are briefly presented to facilitate the work of narrative-informed family therapists working with individuals, families, and groups.

  8. Nightmares in crisis: clinical applications of lucid dreaming techniques.

    PubMed

    Brylowski, A

    1990-06-01

    A patient in crisis was offered treatment with a major focus on alleviating nightmares using lucid dreaming (dreaming while knowing that one is dreaming). Of sixty-eight non-psychotic patients seen consecutively in a psychiatry emergency room, she was one of 16 (23.5%) found to have a concurrent complaint of nightmares (dream anxiety disorder). The benefits of the skills developed with lucid dreaming extended into areas other than nightmares as the patient entered psychotherapy. The techniques appeared to play a role in the reduction of nightmare frequency, intensity, and distress, and to enhance ego growth and personal development. Further research in lucid dreaming as an adjunctive treatment for patients with nightmares and as a useful technique in psychotherapy is suggested.

  9. Lucid Dreaming and Ventromedial versus Dorsolateral Prefrontal Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    Neider, Michelle; Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Forselius, Erica; Pittman, Brian; Morgan, Peter T.

    2010-01-01

    Activity in the prefrontal cortex may distinguish the meta-awareness experienced during lucid dreams from its absence in normal dreams. To examine a possible relationship between dream lucidity and prefrontal task performance, we carried out a prospective study in 28 high school students. Participants performed the Wisconsin Card Sort and Iowa Gambling tasks, then for one week kept dream journals and reported sleep quality and lucidity-related dream characteristics. Participants who exhibited a greater degree of lucidity performed significantly better on the task that engages the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (the Iowa Gambling Task), but degree of lucidity achieved did not distinguish performance on the task that engages the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (the Wisconsin Card Sort Task), nor did it distinguish self-reported sleep quality or baseline characteristics. The association between performance on the Iowa Gambling Task and lucidity suggests a connection between lucid dreaming and ventromedial prefrontal function. PMID:20829072

  10. Lucid dreaming and ventromedial versus dorsolateral prefrontal task performance.

    PubMed

    Neider, Michelle; Pace-Schott, Edward F; Forselius, Erica; Pittman, Brian; Morgan, Peter T

    2011-06-01

    Activity in the prefrontal cortex may distinguish the meta-awareness experienced during lucid dreams from its absence in normal dreams. To examine a possible relationship between dream lucidity and prefrontal task performance, we carried out a prospective study in 28 high school students. Participants performed the Wisconsin Card Sort and Iowa Gambling tasks, then for 1 week kept dream journals and reported sleep quality and lucidity-related dream characteristics. Participants who exhibited a greater degree of lucidity performed significantly better on the task that engages the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (the Iowa Gambling Task), but degree of lucidity achieved did not distinguish performance on the task that engages the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (the Wisconsin Card Sort Task), nor did it distinguish self-reported sleep quality or baseline characteristics. The association between performance on the Iowa Gambling Task and lucidity suggests a connection between lucid dreaming and ventromedial prefrontal function.

  11. The psychotomimetic nature of dreams: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Mason, Oliver; Wakerley, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    Several theories promote the similarities between dreaming and psychosis, but this has rarely been tested empirically. We assessed dreaming and waking reality using the Psychotomimetic States Inventory, a measure of psychotic-like experience originally designed for drug studies. Twenty participants completed the measure in each of two dream conditions and one waking condition. Dreams were assessed upon waking naturally and also using a movement-activated (actigraph) alarm during the night. Overall, participants reported more quasipsychotic characteristics during dreams (in both conditions) than when awake. This was most marked for paranoia and delusional thinking, but differences were also seen for perceptual abnormalities, mania, and anhedonia. The quality of dream experience seems particularly similar to psychosis in sometimes being highly self-referential and having a paranoid content. Subjective changes to cognition and affect are consistent with alterations in prefrontal cortical activity during REM sleep that mirror those of schizophrenia.

  12. The use of dreams in psychotherapy: practical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Werman, D S

    1978-04-01

    Although there is a large literature pertaining to the use of the dream in psychoanalysis, there is no systematic approach to working with dreams in psychotherapy. This communication seeks to present some guidelines for the use of the dream in psychotherapy. Reference is made to the significant difference in the "dimensions" of psychoanalysis as compared to psychotherapy. A distinction is drawn between the use of the dream in supportive psychotherapy as contrasted with insight-oriented psychotherapy. In the former, the dream--if used at all--serves supportive functions; in the latter, the goals are to develop better awareness by the patient of himself. Understanding of the dream is reached by inserting it into the context of the patient's psychological life; however, what is actually communicated to the patient will be keyed to the psychologic surface that the patient presents.

  13. The sense of the body in the dream: Diagnostic capacity in the meanings of dreams.

    PubMed

    Giordo, Gianfranco

    2016-04-01

    The author investigates the oneiric representation of somatic states and the diagnostic capacity of dreams. He draws on Freud's hypotheses on the procedures by which somatic stimuli insert themselves in oneiric elaboration and restructures them according to the recent neurobiological discoveries and to analytical experiences. In the representations of certain dreams, with a psychic interpretation agreed upon by the patients, somatic alterations unknown to the analytical couple were discriminated and confirmed by radiological investigations. These representations were linked to the manifestation of one aspect of the bodily Self, neglected in the precocious maternal relation, that entered the organization of the Self consolidated in the relation with the paternal figure. This conjunction gave origin to the double meaning (somatic and psychic) of the dream. The entering of the somatic representation in the oneiric one did not appear to be the figurative effect, but of a condensation of diagnostic capacity into the meaning of the dream. This characteristic manifested itself in the particular styles of the dreamers, interpretable by an analyst countertransferentially oriented. The perception or scotomization of the condensation in the interpretation of the dream and of the moment had an effect on the evolution of the analysis.

  14. Dreams are made of memories, but maybe not for memory.

    PubMed

    Blagrove, Mark; Ruby, Perrine; Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-12-01

    Llewellyn's claim that rapid eye movement (REM) dream imagery may be related to the processes involved in memory consolidation during sleep is plausible. However, whereas there is voluntary and deliberate intention behind the construction of images in the ancient art of memory (AAOM) method, there is a lack of intentionality in producing dream images. The memory for dreams is also fragile, and dependent on encoding once awake.

  15. 78 FR 46410 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel IMPOSSIBLE DREAM; Invitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... DREAM; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation... the applicant the intended service of the vessel IMPOSSIBLE DREAM is: Intended Commercial Use...

  16. Lucid dreaming: an age-dependent brain dissociation.

    PubMed

    Voss, Ursula; Frenzel, Clemens; Koppehele-Gossel, Judith; Hobson, Allan

    2012-12-01

    The current study focused on the distribution of lucid dreams in school children and young adults. The survey was conducted on a large sample of students aged 6-19 years. Questions distinguished between past and current experience with lucid dreams. Results suggest that lucid dreaming is quite pronounced in young children, its incidence rate drops at about age 16 years. Increased lucidity was found in those attending higher level compared with lower level schools. Taking methodological issues into account, we feel confident to propose a link between the natural occurrence of lucid dreaming and brain maturation. PMID:22639960

  17. Hypnotic dreams as a lens into hypnotic dynamics.

    PubMed

    Raz, Amir; Schweizer, Heather R; Zhu, Hongtu; Bowles, Elizabeth Nellie

    2010-01-01

    The hypnotic relationship is an important parameter for both experimental and therapeutic contexts. Hypnotic dreams may serve as a lens to examine the hypnotic relationship. By answering 5 questions per item, 70 judges rated 12 accounts of brief hypnotic dreams conducted as part of the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C. The data show that the judges were able to correctly discern highly from less hypnotizable individuals. Interestingly, highly hypnotizable females coached by a male hypnotic operator had more sexually charged dreams than either less hypnotizable females or males regardless of hypnotizability. These findings contextualize for further research and therapy transference issues related to the hypnotic relationship and the use of hypnotic dreams.

  18. Automatic gender detection of dream reports: A promising approach.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christina; Amini, Reza; De Koninck, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    A computer program was developed in an attempt to differentiate the dreams of males from females. Hypothesized gender predictors were based on previous literature concerning both dream content and written language features. Dream reports from home-collected dream diaries of 100 male (144 dreams) and 100 female (144 dreams) adolescent Anglophones were matched for equal length. They were first scored with the Hall and Van de Castle (HVDC) scales and quantified using DreamSAT. Two male and two female undergraduate students were asked to read all dreams and predict the dreamer's gender. They averaged a pairwise percent correct gender prediction of 75.8% (κ=0.516), while the Automatic Analysis showed that the computer program's accuracy was 74.5% (κ=0.492), both of which were higher than chance of 50% (κ=0.00). The prediction levels were maintained when dreams containing obvious gender identifiers were eliminated and integration of HVDC scales did not improve prediction. PMID:27344136

  19. Lucid dreaming: an age-dependent brain dissociation.

    PubMed

    Voss, Ursula; Frenzel, Clemens; Koppehele-Gossel, Judith; Hobson, Allan

    2012-12-01

    The current study focused on the distribution of lucid dreams in school children and young adults. The survey was conducted on a large sample of students aged 6-19 years. Questions distinguished between past and current experience with lucid dreams. Results suggest that lucid dreaming is quite pronounced in young children, its incidence rate drops at about age 16 years. Increased lucidity was found in those attending higher level compared with lower level schools. Taking methodological issues into account, we feel confident to propose a link between the natural occurrence of lucid dreaming and brain maturation.

  20. Dream content and intrusive thoughts in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Cavallotti, Simone; Casetta, Cecilia; Fanti, Valentina; Gambini, Orsola; Ostinelli, Edoardo G; Ranieri, Rebecca; Vanelli, Irene; D'Agostino, Armando

    2016-10-30

    Although central to any exhaustive theory of human subjectivity, the relationship between dream and waking consciousness remains uncertain. Some findings suggest that dream consciousness can be influenced by severe disorders of thought content. The suppression of unwanted thoughts has been shown to influence dream content in healthy individuals. In order to better define this phenomenon, we evaluated the persistence of obsessive/compulsive themes across the dream and waking cognition of OCD patients and in a control group of healthy subjects. Participants were administered a shortened version of the Thematic Apperception Test to produce a waking fantasy narration, and were trained to keep a dream diary. Dream and waking narrative contents were analyzed in order to recognize obsessive/compulsive themes, and to calculate Mean Dream Obsession/Compulsion (MDO, MDC) and Mean TAT Obsession/Compulsion (MTO, MTC) parameters. No differences were found between the two populations in terms of MDO, MDC, MTO, nor MTC. Density of obsessive and compulsive themes were significantly higher in dream reports than in waking narratives for both groups. No correlation was observed between MDO/MDC scores and Y-BOCS obsession/compulsion scores in the OCD group. These findings strengthen the discontinuity hypothesis, suggesting that ruminative aspects of cognition are somehow interrupted during dream activity.

  1. Dream content and intrusive thoughts in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Cavallotti, Simone; Casetta, Cecilia; Fanti, Valentina; Gambini, Orsola; Ostinelli, Edoardo G; Ranieri, Rebecca; Vanelli, Irene; D'Agostino, Armando

    2016-10-30

    Although central to any exhaustive theory of human subjectivity, the relationship between dream and waking consciousness remains uncertain. Some findings suggest that dream consciousness can be influenced by severe disorders of thought content. The suppression of unwanted thoughts has been shown to influence dream content in healthy individuals. In order to better define this phenomenon, we evaluated the persistence of obsessive/compulsive themes across the dream and waking cognition of OCD patients and in a control group of healthy subjects. Participants were administered a shortened version of the Thematic Apperception Test to produce a waking fantasy narration, and were trained to keep a dream diary. Dream and waking narrative contents were analyzed in order to recognize obsessive/compulsive themes, and to calculate Mean Dream Obsession/Compulsion (MDO, MDC) and Mean TAT Obsession/Compulsion (MTO, MTC) parameters. No differences were found between the two populations in terms of MDO, MDC, MTO, nor MTC. Density of obsessive and compulsive themes were significantly higher in dream reports than in waking narratives for both groups. No correlation was observed between MDO/MDC scores and Y-BOCS obsession/compulsion scores in the OCD group. These findings strengthen the discontinuity hypothesis, suggesting that ruminative aspects of cognition are somehow interrupted during dream activity. PMID:27525832

  2. The dreaming mind-brain: a Jungian perspective.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Margaret

    2006-02-01

    In this paper I discuss the nature and role of dream and the dreaming process in Jungian clinical practice in the light of neuroscience. Insights from contemporary neuroscience support rather than contest Jung's view that emotional truth, not censorship or disguise, underpins the dreaming process. I use clinical material to illustrate how work with dreams within the total interactive experience of the analytic dyad enables the development of the emotional scaffolding necessary for the development of 'mind'. Large scale evidence-based research reveals that dreaming is caused by brain activity during sleep that is both biochemically and regionally different from that of waking states. Recent imaging studies confirm that dreams are the mind's vehicle for the processing of emotional states of being, particularly the fear, anxiety, anger or elation that often figure prominently. Dream sleep is understood as also being the guardian of memory, playing a part in forgetting, encoding and affective organization of memory. In the clinical section of the paper I let a series of dreams speak for themselves, revealing the emotionally salient concerns of the dreamer, weaving past and present, transference and reality together in a way that demonstrates the healthy attempt of the brain-mind to come to terms with difficult emotional experience from the past. The dreams become dreamable as part of the meaning-making process of analysis. PMID:16451317

  3. Phenomenological features of dreams: Results from dream log studies using the Subjective Experiences Rating Scale (SERS).

    PubMed

    Kahan, Tracey L; Claudatos, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Self-ratings of dream experiences were obtained from 144 college women for 788 dreams, using the Subjective Experiences Rating Scale (SERS). Consistent with past studies, dreams were characterized by a greater prevalence of vision, audition, and movement than smell, touch, or taste, by both positive and negative emotion, and by a range of cognitive processes. A Principal Components Analysis of SERS ratings revealed ten subscales: four sensory, three affective, one cognitive, and two structural (events/actions, locations). Correlations (Pearson r) among subscale means showed a stronger relationship among the process-oriented features (sensory, cognitive, affective) than between the process-oriented and content-centered (structural) features--a pattern predicted from past research (e.g., Bulkeley & Kahan, 2008). Notably, cognition and positive emotion were associated with a greater number of other phenomenal features than was negative emotion; these findings are consistent with studies of the qualitative features of waking autobiographical memory (e.g., Fredrickson, 2001). PMID:26945159

  4. [The natural dream: physiology of dreaming in the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Tavera, M

    2000-01-01

    To give back dreaming to reason, to remove from it "that which is marvellous, supernatural and often terrible for the common man who studies it seriously", that is the intention of Jérôme Richard and Samuel Formey, who were both contemporaries of the philosophers of the Age of the Enlightenment. Relying on the medical theories of the time as well as on the explanatory models of physiology and psychology, they try to demonstrate "the true cause of dreaming" and the natural character of the oneiric phenomenon. The transmission of sensations, the working of memory and the association of ideas, the nature and power of imagination, the predetermined or random character of dreams constitute the framework of the questions from which the explanation of "all this apparent confusion" is developed. PMID:10986794

  5. Phenomenological features of dreams: Results from dream log studies using the Subjective Experiences Rating Scale (SERS).

    PubMed

    Kahan, Tracey L; Claudatos, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Self-ratings of dream experiences were obtained from 144 college women for 788 dreams, using the Subjective Experiences Rating Scale (SERS). Consistent with past studies, dreams were characterized by a greater prevalence of vision, audition, and movement than smell, touch, or taste, by both positive and negative emotion, and by a range of cognitive processes. A Principal Components Analysis of SERS ratings revealed ten subscales: four sensory, three affective, one cognitive, and two structural (events/actions, locations). Correlations (Pearson r) among subscale means showed a stronger relationship among the process-oriented features (sensory, cognitive, affective) than between the process-oriented and content-centered (structural) features--a pattern predicted from past research (e.g., Bulkeley & Kahan, 2008). Notably, cognition and positive emotion were associated with a greater number of other phenomenal features than was negative emotion; these findings are consistent with studies of the qualitative features of waking autobiographical memory (e.g., Fredrickson, 2001).

  6. [Dreaming and schizophrenia: a common neurobiological background?].

    PubMed

    Gottesmann, Claude

    2006-02-01

    Normal waking mentation is the outcome of the combined action of both electrophysiological and neurochemical antagonistic and complementary activating and inhibitory influences occurring mainly in the cerebral cortex. The chemical ones are supported principally by acetylcholine, and noradrenaline and serotonin, respectively. During rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, the monoaminergic silence - except dopaminergic ongoing activity - disrupts this equilibrium and seems to be responsible for disturbances of mental activity characteristic of dreaming. This imbalance could cause disconnectivity of cortical areas, failure of latent inhibition and possibly the concomitant prefrontal dorsolateral deactivation. Moreover, the decrease of prefrontal dopaminergic functioning could explain the loss of reflectiveness in this sleep stage. All these phenomena are also encountered in schizophrenia. The psychotic-like mentation of dreaming (hallucinations, delusions, bizarre thought processes) could result from the disinhibition of dopamine influence in the nucleus accumbens by the noradrenergic and serotonergic local silence and/or the lifting of glutamate influence from the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. We hypothesize that, during REM sleep, the increase of dopamine and the decrease of glutamate release observed in nucleus accumbens reach the threshold values at which psychotic disturbances arise during wakefulness. Whatever the precise mechanism, it seems that the functional state of the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens is the same during dreaming sleep stage and in schizophrenia. The convergent psychological, electrophysiological, tomographic, pharmacological and neurochemical criteria of REM sleep and schizophrenia suggest that this sleep stage could become a good neurobiological model of this psychiatric disease.

  7. A threaded Java concurrent implementation of the Monte-Carlo Metropolis Ising model

    PubMed Central

    Castañeda-Marroquín, Carlos; de la Puente, Alfonso Ortega; Alfonseca, Manuel; Glazier, James A.; Swat, Maciej

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a concurrent Java implementation of the Metropolis Monte-Carlo algorithm that is used in 2D Ising model simulations. The presented method uses threads, monitors, shared variables and high level concurrent constructs that hide the low level details. In our algorithm we assign one thread to handle one spin flip attempt at a time. We use special lattice site selection algorithm to avoid two or more threads working concurently in the region of the lattice that “belongs” to two or more different spins undergoing spin-flip transformation. Our approach does not depend on the current platform and maximizes concurrent use of the available resources. PMID:21814633

  8. Resting brain activity varies with dream recall frequency between subjects.

    PubMed

    Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Nicolas, Alain; Daltrozzo, Jérôme; Redouté, Jérôme; Costes, Nicolas; Ruby, Perrine

    2014-06-01

    Dreaming is still poorly understood. Notably, its cerebral underpinning remains unclear. Neuropsychological studies have shown that lesions in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and/or the white matter of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) lead to the global cessation of dream reports, suggesting that these regions of the default mode network have key roles in the dreaming process (forebrain 'dream-on' hypothesis). To test this hypothesis, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using [(15)O]H2O positron emission tomography in healthy subjects with high and low dream recall frequencies (DRFs) during wakefulness (rest) and sleep (rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, N2, and N3). Compared with Low recallers (0.5 ± 0.3 dream recall per week in average), High recallers (5.2 ± 1.4) showed higher rCBF in the TPJ during REM sleep, N3, and wakefulness, and in the MPFC during REM sleep and wakefulness. We demonstrate that the resting states of High recallers and Low recallers differ during sleep and wakefulness. It coheres with previous ERP results and confirms that a high/low DRF is associated with a specific functional organization of the brain. These results support the forebrain 'dream-on' hypothesis and suggest that TPJ and MPFC are not only involved in dream recall during wakefulness but also have a role in dreaming during sleep (production and/or encoding). Increased activity in the TPJ and MPFC might promote the mental imagery and/or memory encoding of dreams. Notably, increased activity in TPJ might facilitate attention orienting toward external stimuli and promote intrasleep wakefulness, facilitating the encoding of the dreams in memory.

  9. Dreams as a source of supernatural agent concepts

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Patrick; Bulkeley, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    We present a theory of the creativity of dreams as well as psychopathology of religious delusions with respect to production of fundamental forms of religious cognition—specifically supernatural agent (SA) cognitions. We suggest that dream cognitions are particularly efficient at producing highly memorable and impactful experiences with SAs because dreams involve three processes that are prerequisites for the generation of god concepts: (1) mental simulations of alternative realities, (2) theory of mind attributions to the extra-natural dream characters and divine beings, and (3) attribution of ultimate value (exemplified by ‘good spirit beings’), and dis-value (exemplified by demonic monsters) to the supernatural dream characters. Because prefrontal cortex is deactivated during rapid eye movements (REM) sleep agentic impulses and internally generated ideas are not reliably attributed to Self or dreamer. Instead an exaggerated degree of agency is attributed to these supernatural dream characters who are then embedded in stories in dreams and in myths of waking life which explain their supernatural abilities. These dream-based SAs are salient characters that are processed in sleep-related memory systems according to rules of Lleweelyn’s ancient art of memory model and therefore more easily remembered and reflected upon during waking life. When REM sleep intrudes into waking consciousness, as is the case with some forms of schizophrenia, religious delusions are more likely to emerge. PMID:25852602

  10. Loss of the Mammalian DREAM Complex Deregulates Chondrocyte Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Forristal, Chantal; Henley, Shauna A.; MacDonald, James I.; Bush, Jason R.; Ort, Carley; Passos, Daniel T.; Talluri, Srikanth; Ishak, Charles A.; Thwaites, Michael J.; Norley, Chris J.; Litovchick, Larisa; DeCaprio, James A.; DiMattia, Gabriel; Holdsworth, David W.; Beier, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian DREAM is a conserved protein complex that functions in cellular quiescence. DREAM contains an E2F, a retinoblastoma (RB)-family protein, and the MuvB core (LIN9, LIN37, LIN52, LIN54, and RBBP4). In mammals, MuvB can alternatively bind to BMYB to form a complex that promotes mitotic gene expression. Because BMYB-MuvB is essential for proliferation, loss-of-function approaches to study MuvB have generated limited insight into DREAM function. Here, we report a gene-targeted mouse model that is uniquely deficient for DREAM complex assembly. We have targeted p107 (Rbl1) to prevent MuvB binding and combined it with deficiency for p130 (Rbl2). Our data demonstrate that cells from these mice preferentially assemble BMYB-MuvB complexes and fail to repress transcription. DREAM-deficient mice show defects in endochondral bone formation and die shortly after birth. Micro-computed tomography and histology demonstrate that in the absence of DREAM, chondrocytes fail to arrest proliferation. Since DREAM requires DYRK1A (dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated protein kinase 1A) phosphorylation of LIN52 for assembly, we utilized an embryonic bone culture system and pharmacologic inhibition of (DYRK) kinase to demonstrate a similar defect in endochondral bone growth. This reveals that assembly of mammalian DREAM is required to induce cell cycle exit in chondrocytes. PMID:24710275

  11. The Virtual Dream: Rewriting Stories of Loss and Grief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neimeyer, Robert A.; Torres, Carlos; Smith, Douglas C.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors introduce the "virtual dream", a technique that entails writing a brief, spontaneous dreamlike story on themes of loss, using a flexible set of assigned elements of setting and characterization to scaffold the writing. After providing several examples of virtual dreams written by workshop participants, the authors…

  12. Dream-Makers: A National Exhibition of Children's Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Susan

    1984-01-01

    The Crayola Dream-Makers exhibition, which consists of 100 two- and three-dimensional works of art in which second, third, and fourth graders from all over the United States depict their dreams for themselves and their world is described. Samples of the children's art are included. (RM)

  13. Graph analysis of dream reports is especially informative about psychosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mota, Natália B.; Furtado, Raimundo; Maia, Pedro P. C.; Copelli, Mauro; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2014-01-01

    Early psychiatry investigated dreams to understand psychopathologies. Contemporary psychiatry, which neglects dreams, has been criticized for lack of objectivity. In search of quantitative insight into the structure of psychotic speech, we investigated speech graph attributes (SGA) in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder type I, and non-psychotic controls as they reported waking and dream contents. Schizophrenic subjects spoke with reduced connectivity, in tight correlation with negative and cognitive symptoms measured by standard psychometric scales. Bipolar and control subjects were undistinguishable by waking reports, but in dream reports bipolar subjects showed significantly less connectivity. Dream-related SGA outperformed psychometric scores or waking-related data for group sorting. Altogether, the results indicate that online and offline processing, the two most fundamental modes of brain operation, produce nearly opposite effects on recollections: While dreaming exposes differences in the mnemonic records across individuals, waking dampens distinctions. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of the differential diagnosis of psychosis based on the analysis of dream graphs, pointing to a fast, low-cost and language-invariant tool for psychiatric diagnosis and the objective search for biomarkers. The Freudian notion that ``dreams are the royal road to the unconscious'' is clinically useful, after all.

  14. Graph analysis of dream reports is especially informative about psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Natália B.; Furtado, Raimundo; Maia, Pedro P. C.; Copelli, Mauro; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2014-01-01

    Early psychiatry investigated dreams to understand psychopathologies. Contemporary psychiatry, which neglects dreams, has been criticized for lack of objectivity. In search of quantitative insight into the structure of psychotic speech, we investigated speech graph attributes (SGA) in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder type I, and non-psychotic controls as they reported waking and dream contents. Schizophrenic subjects spoke with reduced connectivity, in tight correlation with negative and cognitive symptoms measured by standard psychometric scales. Bipolar and control subjects were undistinguishable by waking reports, but in dream reports bipolar subjects showed significantly less connectivity. Dream-related SGA outperformed psychometric scores or waking-related data for group sorting. Altogether, the results indicate that online and offline processing, the two most fundamental modes of brain operation, produce nearly opposite effects on recollections: While dreaming exposes differences in the mnemonic records across individuals, waking dampens distinctions. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of the differential diagnosis of psychosis based on the analysis of dream graphs, pointing to a fast, low-cost and language-invariant tool for psychiatric diagnosis and the objective search for biomarkers. The Freudian notion that “dreams are the royal road to the unconscious” is clinically useful, after all. PMID:24424108

  15. Graph analysis of dream reports is especially informative about psychosis.

    PubMed

    Mota, Natália B; Furtado, Raimundo; Maia, Pedro P C; Copelli, Mauro; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2014-01-01

    Early psychiatry investigated dreams to understand psychopathologies. Contemporary psychiatry, which neglects dreams, has been criticized for lack of objectivity. In search of quantitative insight into the structure of psychotic speech, we investigated speech graph attributes (SGA) in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder type I, and non-psychotic controls as they reported waking and dream contents. Schizophrenic subjects spoke with reduced connectivity, in tight correlation with negative and cognitive symptoms measured by standard psychometric scales. Bipolar and control subjects were undistinguishable by waking reports, but in dream reports bipolar subjects showed significantly less connectivity. Dream-related SGA outperformed psychometric scores or waking-related data for group sorting. Altogether, the results indicate that online and offline processing, the two most fundamental modes of brain operation, produce nearly opposite effects on recollections: While dreaming exposes differences in the mnemonic records across individuals, waking dampens distinctions. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of the differential diagnosis of psychosis based on the analysis of dream graphs, pointing to a fast, low-cost and language-invariant tool for psychiatric diagnosis and the objective search for biomarkers. The Freudian notion that "dreams are the royal road to the unconscious" is clinically useful, after all.

  16. Loss of the mammalian DREAM complex deregulates chondrocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Forristal, Chantal; Henley, Shauna A; MacDonald, James I; Bush, Jason R; Ort, Carley; Passos, Daniel T; Talluri, Srikanth; Ishak, Charles A; Thwaites, Michael J; Norley, Chris J; Litovchick, Larisa; DeCaprio, James A; DiMattia, Gabriel; Holdsworth, David W; Beier, Frank; Dick, Frederick A

    2014-06-01

    Mammalian DREAM is a conserved protein complex that functions in cellular quiescence. DREAM contains an E2F, a retinoblastoma (RB)-family protein, and the MuvB core (LIN9, LIN37, LIN52, LIN54, and RBBP4). In mammals, MuvB can alternatively bind to BMYB to form a complex that promotes mitotic gene expression. Because BMYB-MuvB is essential for proliferation, loss-of-function approaches to study MuvB have generated limited insight into DREAM function. Here, we report a gene-targeted mouse model that is uniquely deficient for DREAM complex assembly. We have targeted p107 (Rbl1) to prevent MuvB binding and combined it with deficiency for p130 (Rbl2). Our data demonstrate that cells from these mice preferentially assemble BMYB-MuvB complexes and fail to repress transcription. DREAM-deficient mice show defects in endochondral bone formation and die shortly after birth. Micro-computed tomography and histology demonstrate that in the absence of DREAM, chondrocytes fail to arrest proliferation. Since DREAM requires DYRK1A (dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated protein kinase 1A) phosphorylation of LIN52 for assembly, we utilized an embryonic bone culture system and pharmacologic inhibition of (DYRK) kinase to demonstrate a similar defect in endochondral bone growth. This reveals that assembly of mammalian DREAM is required to induce cell cycle exit in chondrocytes. PMID:24710275

  17. Is the "American Dream" of Homeownership an Equal Opportunity Goal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viator, Martha Graham; Halper, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Teaching empathy can be a means to teach multiple perspectives in the social studies classroom. Examining U.S. history through the lens of the pursuit of the "American Dream" will resonate with many high school students. This article suggests a framework using the theme of the "American Dream" of homeownership for a high school…

  18. Demonstrating DREAM: A Digital Resource Exchange about Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upitis, Rena; Boese, Karen; Abrami, Philip C.

    2015-01-01

    The Digital Resource Exchange About Music (DREAM) is an online tool for exchanging information about digital learning tools for music education. DREAM was designed by our team to encourage music teachers to learn about digital resources related to learning to play a musical instrument, both in classroom and independent music studio settings. In…

  19. Dreams as a source of supernatural agent concepts.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Patrick; Bulkeley, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    We present a theory of the creativity of dreams as well as psychopathology of religious delusions with respect to production of fundamental forms of religious cognition-specifically supernatural agent (SA) cognitions. We suggest that dream cognitions are particularly efficient at producing highly memorable and impactful experiences with SAs because dreams involve three processes that are prerequisites for the generation of god concepts: (1) mental simulations of alternative realities, (2) theory of mind attributions to the extra-natural dream characters and divine beings, and (3) attribution of ultimate value (exemplified by 'good spirit beings'), and dis-value (exemplified by demonic monsters) to the supernatural dream characters. Because prefrontal cortex is deactivated during rapid eye movements (REM) sleep agentic impulses and internally generated ideas are not reliably attributed to Self or dreamer. Instead an exaggerated degree of agency is attributed to these supernatural dream characters who are then embedded in stories in dreams and in myths of waking life which explain their supernatural abilities. These dream-based SAs are salient characters that are processed in sleep-related memory systems according to rules of Lleweelyn's ancient art of memory model and therefore more easily remembered and reflected upon during waking life. When REM sleep intrudes into waking consciousness, as is the case with some forms of schizophrenia, religious delusions are more likely to emerge. PMID:25852602

  20. The transcriptional repressor DREAM is involved in thyroid gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    D'Andrea, Barbara; Di Palma, Tina; Mascia, Anna; Motti, Maria Letizia; Viglietto, Giuseppe; Nitsch, Lucio; Zannini, Mariastella . E-mail: stella@szn.it

    2005-04-15

    Downstream regulatory element antagonistic modulator (DREAM) was originally identified in neuroendocrine cells as a calcium-binding protein that specifically binds to downstream regulatory elements (DRE) on DNA, and represses transcription of its target genes. To explore the possibility that DREAM may regulate the endocrine activity of the thyroid gland, we analyzed its mRNA expression in undifferentiated and differentiated thyroid cells. We demonstrated that DREAM is expressed in the normal thyroid tissue as well as in differentiated thyroid cells in culture while it is absent in FRT poorly differentiated cells. In the present work, we also show that DREAM specifically binds to DRE sites identified in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the thyroid-specific transcription factors Pax8 and TTF-2/FoxE1 in a calcium-dependent manner. By gel retardation assays we demonstrated that thapsigargin treatment increases the binding of DREAM to the DRE sequences present in Pax8 and TTF-2/Foxe1 5' UTRs, and this correlates with a significant reduction of the expression of these genes. Interestingly, in poorly differentiated thyroid cells overexpression of exogenous DREAM strongly inhibits Pax8 expression. Moreover, we provide evidence that a mutated form of DREAM unable to bind Ca{sup 2+} interferes with thyroid cell proliferation. Therefore, we propose that in thyroid cells DREAM is a mediator of the calcium-signaling pathway and it is involved in the regulation of thyroid cell function.

  1. Dream Content Analysis in Persons with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daoust, Anne-Marie; Lusignan, Felix-Antoine; Braun, Claude M. J.; Mottron, Laurent; Godbout, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Dream questionnaires were completed by 28 young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) participants. Seventy-nine typically developed individual served as the control group. In a subset of 17 persons with ASD and 11 controls matched for verbal IQ, dream narratives were obtained following REM sleep awakenings in a sleep laboratory.…

  2. Dreams as a source of supernatural agent concepts.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Patrick; Bulkeley, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    We present a theory of the creativity of dreams as well as psychopathology of religious delusions with respect to production of fundamental forms of religious cognition-specifically supernatural agent (SA) cognitions. We suggest that dream cognitions are particularly efficient at producing highly memorable and impactful experiences with SAs because dreams involve three processes that are prerequisites for the generation of god concepts: (1) mental simulations of alternative realities, (2) theory of mind attributions to the extra-natural dream characters and divine beings, and (3) attribution of ultimate value (exemplified by 'good spirit beings'), and dis-value (exemplified by demonic monsters) to the supernatural dream characters. Because prefrontal cortex is deactivated during rapid eye movements (REM) sleep agentic impulses and internally generated ideas are not reliably attributed to Self or dreamer. Instead an exaggerated degree of agency is attributed to these supernatural dream characters who are then embedded in stories in dreams and in myths of waking life which explain their supernatural abilities. These dream-based SAs are salient characters that are processed in sleep-related memory systems according to rules of Lleweelyn's ancient art of memory model and therefore more easily remembered and reflected upon during waking life. When REM sleep intrudes into waking consciousness, as is the case with some forms of schizophrenia, religious delusions are more likely to emerge.

  3. Generalized Metropolis acceptance criterion for hybrid non-equilibrium molecular dynamics—Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yunjie; Roux, Benoît

    2015-01-14

    A family of hybrid simulation methods that combines the advantages of Monte Carlo (MC) with the strengths of classical molecular dynamics (MD) consists in carrying out short non-equilibrium MD (neMD) trajectories to generate new configurations that are subsequently accepted or rejected via an MC process. In the simplest case where a deterministic dynamic propagator is used to generate the neMD trajectories, the familiar Metropolis acceptance criterion based on the change in the total energy ΔE, min[1,  exp( − βΔE)], guarantees that the hybrid algorithm will yield the equilibrium Boltzmann distribution. However, the functional form of the acceptance probability is more complex when the non-equilibrium switching process is generated via a non-deterministic stochastic dissipative propagator coupled to a heat bath. Here, we clarify the conditions under which the Metropolis criterion remains valid to rigorously yield a proper equilibrium Boltzmann distribution within hybrid neMD-MC algorithm.

  4. Infant mortality in the Indian slums: case studies of Calcutta metropolis and Raipur city.

    PubMed

    Gupta, H S; Baghel, A

    1999-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the levels of infant mortality, its causes and determinants, and its differentials in selected slums of Calcutta Metropolis and Raipur in India. Data were gathered through interview of 2142 mothers who had experienced a live birth and/or death of an infant within the year prior to the survey. The study found that although the infant mortality rate (IMR) in the slums was quite high, it was lower compared to rural India. The study¿s finding underlines the importance of "urban residence" as a primary controlling factor of infant mortality. IMR was 1.5 times higher in the slums of Calcutta than in Raipur, indicating that infant death is far worse in the metropolis than in smaller cities. Although a number of individual-, household-, and slum-level factors played an explanatory role in infant mortality, differences in neighborhood environment contributed most significantly to the infant mortality differentials in the two slums. This study also found that mere literacy or low level of education is not an effective depressant of infant mortality. PMID:12349427

  5. Ocular Health and Safety Assessment among Mechanics of the Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Abu, Emmanuel Kwasi; Boadi-Kusi, Samuel Bert; Opuni, Prince Quarcoo; Kyei, Samuel; Owusu-Ansah, Andrew; Darko-Takyi, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct an ocular health and safety assessment among mechanics in the Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study included 500 mechanics using multistage sampling. All participants filled a structured questionnaire on demographic data, occupational history and ocular health history. Study participants underwent determination of visual acuity (VA) using LogMAR chart, external eye examination with a handheld slit lamp biomicroscope, dilated fundus examination, applanation tonometry and refraction. Results: Out of 500 mechanics, 433 were examined (response rate, 87%) comprised of 408 (94.2%) male and 25 (5.8%) female subjects. The prevalence of visual impairment (i.e. presenting VA < 6/18) among the respondents was 2.1%. Eye injuries were reported in 171 (39.5%) mechanics probably due to the large number of workers, 314 (72.5%), who did not use eye protective devices. Mechanics in the auto welding category were at the highest risk of sustaining an eye injury (odds ratio [OR], 13.4; P < 0.001). Anterior segment ocular disorders were mostly pterygia while posterior segment eye disorders included glaucoma suspects and retinochoroidal lesions. The development of pterygia was associated with the number of years a mechanic stayed on the job. Eye care seeking behavior among the participants was poor. Conclusion: Eye injuries were prevalent among the mechanics as the use of eye protection was low. Eye safety should be made an integral part of the public health agenda in the Cape Coast Metropolis. PMID:27195090

  6. Contraceptive Characteristics of Women Living with HIV in the Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Gyimah, Akosua A.; Nakua, Emmanuel K.; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Otupiri, Easmon

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Contraceptive use among women living with HIV is important to prevent the transmission of the infection to their partners, prevent unintended pregnancies and prevent the mother-to-child transmission of the infection. The study sought to determine the contraceptive characteristics of women living with HIV in the Kumasi metropolis. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from July to August 2012 at two HIV/AIDS clinics in the Kumasi Metropolis in the Ashanti Region, Ghana. Interviewer- administered questionnaires were used to collect data from two hundred and ninety five women. Data from one hundred and eighty three women living with HIV and who were sexually active were analyzed. Factors associated with contraceptive use were examined using logistic regression. Results: The overall contraceptive use was high; 84.7% were using a modern contraceptive method. The male condom was the commonest contraceptive method (77.0%) used and this was the main contraceptive method promoted at the HIV/AIDS clinic. Dual method usage was low (4.4%). Multivariate analysis showed that the significant predictor of contraceptive use was HIV status disclosure to partner (AOR = 0.25; 95% CI = 0.07-0.87; p = 0.03). Conclusions and Public Health Implications: The integration of family planning and HIV/AIDS services could stress dual method use and encourage HIV status disclosure to partner.

  7. Characteristics, determinants, and spatial variations of ambient fungal levels in the subtropical Taipei metropolis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yi-Hua; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Rao, Carol Y.; Lee, Chung-Te; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Chao, H. Jasmine

    This study was conducted to investigate the temporal and spatial distributions, compositions, and determinants of ambient aeroallergens in Taipei, Taiwan, a subtropical metropolis. We monitored ambient culturable fungi in Shin-Jhuang City, an urban area, and Shi-Men Township, a rural area, in Taipei metropolis from 2003 to 2004. We collected ambient fungi in the last week of every month during the study period, using duplicate Burkard portable samplers and Malt Extract Agar. The median concentration of total fungi was 1339 colony-forming units m -3 of air over the study period. The most prevalent fungi were non-sporulating fungi, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Curvularia and Aspergillus at both sites. Airborne fungal concentrations and diversity of fungal species were generally higher in urban than in rural areas. Most fungal taxa had significant seasonal variations, with higher levels in summer. Multivariate analyses showed that the levels of ambient fungi were associated positively with temperature, but negatively with ozone and several other air pollutants. Relative humidity also had a significant non-linear relationship with ambient fungal levels. We concluded that the concentrations and the compositions of ambient fungi are diverse in urban and rural areas in the subtropical region. High ambient fungal levels were related to an urban environment and environmental conditions of high temperature and low ozone levels.

  8. Exposure to media content and sexual health behaviour among adolescents in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Wusu, Onipede

    2013-06-01

    The influence of adolescents' exposure to sexual health content of mass media in their sexual health behaviour in Nigeria is still not clear. Data were gathered through a survey conducted among adolescents aged 12-19 years in Lagos metropolis between November 2009 and February 2010. A multistage sampling strategy was adopted in selecting respondents. Logistic regression technique was utilised in the analysis. The results indicate that the respondents were most frequently exposed to TV (male = 92.2; female = 94.9) and radio (male = 88.2; female = 91.7) media. The odds ratios indicate that sexual health content of mass media significantly predicted condom use, multiple sexual relationship, sexual intercourse and self reported occurrence of abortion in the study sample. The findings imply that positive media sexual health content is likely to promote sexual health among adolescents but negative contents can put adolescents' sexual health in danger. In addition, safe sex can be advanced among adolescents if the media provide accurate information on sexuality, emphasising the dangers of risky sexual practices. Finally, this study posits that accurate portrayal of sexuality in the media would contribute immensely to improving public health in the metropolis.

  9. Microbial Content of "Bowl Water" Used for Communal Handwashing in Preschools within Accra Metropolis, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Tetteh-Quarcoo, Patience B; Anim-Baidoo, Isaac; Attah, Simon Kwaku; Abdul-Latif Baako, Bawa; Opintan, Japheth A; Minamor, Andrew A; Abdul-Rahman, Mubarak; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed at determining the microbial content of "bowl water" used for communal handwashing in preschools within the Accra Metropolis. Method. Six (6) preschools in the Accra Metropolis were involved in the study. Water samples and swabs from the hands of the preschool children were collected. The samples were analysed and tested for bacteria, fungi, parasites, and rotavirus. Results. Eight different bacteria, two different parasites, and a fungus were isolated while no rotavirus was detected. Unlike the rest of the microbes, bacterial isolates were found among samples from all the schools, with Staphylococcus species being the most prevalent (40.9%). Out of the three schools that had parasites in their water, two of them had Cryptosporidium parvum. The fungus isolated from two out of the six schools was Aspergillus niger. All bacteria isolated were found to be resistant to cotrimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin and susceptible to amikacin and levofloxacin. Conclusion. Although handwashing has the ability to get rid of microbes, communal handwashing practices using water in bowls could be considered a possible transmission route and may be of public concern. PMID:27555872

  10. Psychology of Dreams: A Creative Course in Dream Interpretation for Students and Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Mark S.; Vogel, Joanne

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the essential aspects of a creative, experiential course in dream interpretation for psychology and counseling students. Such a course offers counselor educators an opportunity to develop basic interviewing and advanced processing techniques in their students while facilitating greater self-exploration and improved…

  11. Big Dreams, Serious Implications: How the DREAM Act can Help America Meet its Workforce Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermes, James

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how the Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) Act will help undocumented students by: (1) establishing a path to legal status and eventually earn legal residency through two years of higher education or military service; and (2) repealing a provision of federal law that bars states from granting in-state…

  12. Ontogenetic patterns in the dreams of women across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Dale, Allyson; Lortie-Lussier, Monique; De Koninck, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    The present study supports and extends previous research on the developmental differences in women's dreams across the lifespan. The participants included 75 Canadian women in each of 5 age groups from adolescence to old age including 12-17, 18-24, 25-39, 40-64, and 65-85, totaling 375 women. One dream per participant was scored by two independent judges using the method of content analysis. Trend analysis was used to determine the ontogenetic pattern of the dream content categories. Results demonstrated significant ontogenetic decreases (linear trends) for female and familiar characters, activities, aggression, and friendliness. These patterns of dream imagery reflect the waking developmental patterns as proposed by social theories and recognized features of aging as postulated by the continuity hypothesis. Limitations and suggestions for future research including the examining of developmental patterns in the dreams of males are discussed.

  13. Dreaming and the brain: from phenomenology to neurophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Nir, Yuval; Tononi, Giulio

    2009-01-01

    Dreams are a most remarkable experiment in psychology and neuroscience, conducted every night in every sleeping person. They show that our brain, disconnected from the environment, can generate by itself an entire world of conscious experiences. Content analysis and developmental studies have furthered our understanding of dream phenomenology. In parallel, brain lesion studies, functional imaging, and neurophysiology have advanced our knowledge of the neural basis of dreaming. It is now possible to start integrating these two strands of research in order to address some fundamental questions that dreams pose for cognitive neuroscience: how conscious experiences in sleep relate to underlying brain activity; why the dreamer is largely disconnected from the environment; and whether dreaming is more closely related to mental imagery or to perception. PMID:20079677

  14. Dream recall frequency: impact of prospective measures and motivational factors.

    PubMed

    Zadra, Antonio; Robert, Geneviève

    2012-12-01

    Significant individual differences exist in dream recall frequency (DRF) but some variance is likely attributable to instrument choice in measuring DRF. Three hundred and fifty eight participants estimated their weekly DRF and recorded their dreams in either a narrative log (n = 165) or checklist log (n = 193) for 2-5 weeks. There was an early peak in DRF within the first week of both types of prospective logs after which DRF remained relatively stable. Although the two groups did not differ in their estimated DRF, significantly fewer dreams were reported per week on the narrative logs and only checklist logs yielded significantly higher DRF than participants' questionnaire estimates. The interactions between DRF measures did not vary across groups with low, medium or high baseline levels of DRF. Keeping a dream log does not necessarily increase DRF and narrative logs' time consuming nature can impact subjects' motivation to report all of their dreams over time.

  15. Screening wish theories: dream psychologies and early cinema.

    PubMed

    Marinelli, Lydia

    2006-03-01

    The analogy between dream and film represents a central thread in the psychoanalytic discussion of cinema. Using examples taken from films created between 1900 and 1906, this paper develops a typology of dream scenes in early film. The basis for the proposed typology is provided by the dream knowledge in circulation toward the end of the nineteenth century. This knowledge was fed by a great variety of sources, some of them in the proximity of scientific research and some of them far from it, including wish-fulfilling prognostic models and those based on the reservoir of memory or on bodily stimuli. By setting cinema in a context of contemporary dream psychologies, it is possible to trace the specific conditions under which the analogy between dream and cinema could become effective.

  16. Ontogenetic patterns in the dreams of women across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Dale, Allyson; Lortie-Lussier, Monique; De Koninck, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    The present study supports and extends previous research on the developmental differences in women's dreams across the lifespan. The participants included 75 Canadian women in each of 5 age groups from adolescence to old age including 12-17, 18-24, 25-39, 40-64, and 65-85, totaling 375 women. One dream per participant was scored by two independent judges using the method of content analysis. Trend analysis was used to determine the ontogenetic pattern of the dream content categories. Results demonstrated significant ontogenetic decreases (linear trends) for female and familiar characters, activities, aggression, and friendliness. These patterns of dream imagery reflect the waking developmental patterns as proposed by social theories and recognized features of aging as postulated by the continuity hypothesis. Limitations and suggestions for future research including the examining of developmental patterns in the dreams of males are discussed. PMID:26433930

  17. Effects of the Sex of Both Interviewer and Subject on Reported Manifest Dream Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremsdorf, Ross B.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Examined the effects of the sex of both interviewer and subject on the reported content of dreams. No sex differences in sexual content of dreams were found, although dreams of males were more vivid, active, and aggressive. Opposite-sex pairing mobilized reports of conflict within dreams. Same-sex pairing increased sexual content. (Author/BEF)

  18. Modern Ratio: The Ultimate Arbiter in 17th Century Native Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomedli, Michael

    Seventeenth century Jesuit analysis of Indian attitudes toward dreams was largely negative. While Indians looked on their dreams as ordinances and oracles, the Jesuits criticized reliance on such irrational messages. Jesuit critiques fell into three categories: the dream as a sign of diabolical possession, the dream as illusion purporting to be…

  19. Getting in Touch: Dreaming, the Emotions and the Work of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.; Bullough, Dawn Ann Mortensen; Mayes, Pamela Blackwell

    2006-01-01

    Despite growing interest in the emotional lives of teachers, teacher dreaming has received remarkably little researcher interest or attention. Drawing on recent studies of dreaming that demonstrate a strong connection between dream content and the life conditions of the dreamer, in this study the authors explored teacher dreaming as an avenue for…

  20. Dreaming of Justice: Critical Service-Learning and the Need to Wake Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butin, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Dan Butin exmines and questions whether the goal, or dream, of service-learning has been actualized in practice. He raises the possibility that what educators dream of-a critical service-learning able to ameliorate persistent real-world inequities-may be a case of their dreaming being fulfilled, rather than their dreams. More specifically, he…

  1. The Athletic Dream--But What Are the Career Dreams of Other African American Urban High School Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmer, Twinet

    1993-01-01

    Data from 446 African-American eleventh and twelfth graders (two-thirds in vocational schools) showed (1) most wanted marriage and 2 children, had specific career dreams, and were optimistic about success; (2) intramural athletes and some nonathletes aspired to professional sports careers; and (3) dream occupation clarity was greater for…

  2. Structured Brief Therapy with a Focus on Dreams or Loss for Clients with Troubling Dreams and Recent Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Clara E.; Zack, Jason S.; Wonnell, Teresa L.; Hoffman, Mary Ann; Rochlen, Aaron B.; Goldberg, Julie L.; Nakayama, Emilie Y.; Heaton, Kristin J.; Kelley, Frances A.; Eiche, Keith; Tomlinson, Meredith J.; Hess, Shirley

    2000-01-01

    States that after therapy focusing on dreams or loss, clients in both conditions reported being satisfied with therapy. Clients in dream condition rated the process of therapy higher, became involved in therapy more, and kept fewer secrets from their therapist. Clients in loss condition gained more insight about the effects of their past and liked…

  3. A National Initiative of Teaching, Researching, and Dreaming: Community College Faculty Research in "Achieving the Dream" Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagedorn, Linda Serra

    2015-01-01

    Dating back to 2004, the Achieving the Dream initiative was established to promote evidence-based programs and interventions to produce and sustain student success. Achieving the Dream has created a new environment and new forms of thinking among the faculty that have spurred some to action research within their classrooms and beyond. Using three…

  4. Dreams In Jungian Psychology: The use of Dreams as an Instrument For Research, Diagnosis and Treatment of Social Phobia

    PubMed Central

    Khodarahimi, Siamak

    2009-01-01

    Background: The significance of dreams has been explained in psychoanalysis, depth psychology and gestalt therapy. There are many guidelines in analytic psychology for dream interpretation and integration in clinical practice. The present study, based on the Jungian analytic model, incorporated dreams as an instrument for assessment of aetiology, the psychotherapy process and the outcome of treatment for social phobia within a clinical case study. Method: This case study describes the use of dream analysis in treating a female youth with social phobia. Results: The present findings supported the three stage paradigm efficiency in the Jungian model for dream working within a clinical setting, i.e. written details, reassembly with amplification and assimilation. It was indicated that childhood and infantile traumatic events, psychosexual development malfunctions, and inefficient coping skills for solving current life events were expressed in the patient’s dreams. Conclusion: Dreams can reflect a patient’s aetiology, needs, illness prognosis and psychotherapy outcome. Dreams are an instrument for the diagnosis, research and treatment of mental disturbances in a clinical setting. PMID:22135511

  5. Intelligent Membranes: Dream or Reality?

    PubMed

    Gugliuzza, Annarosa

    2013-01-01

    Intelligent materials are claimed to overcome current drawbacks associated with the attainment of high standards of life, health, security and defense. Membrane-based sensors represent a category of smart systems capable of providing a large number of benefits to different markets of textiles, biomedicine, environment, chemistry, agriculture, architecture, transport and energy. Intelligent membranes can be characterized by superior sensitivity, broader dynamic range and highly sophisticated mechanisms of autorecovery. These prerogatives are regarded as the result of multi-compartment arrays, where complementary functions can be accommodated and well-integrated. Based on the mechanism of "sense to act", stimuli-responsive membranes adapt themselves to surrounding environments, producing desired effects such as smart regulation of transport, wetting, transcription, hydrodynamics, separation, and chemical or energy conversion. Hopefully, the design of new smart devices easier to manufacture and assemble can be realized through the integration of sensing membranes with wireless networks, looking at the ambitious challenge to establish long-distance communications. Thus, the transfer of signals to collecting systems could allow continuous and real-time monitoring of data, events and/or processes. PMID:26791465

  6. [Reconsidering children's dreams. A critical review of methods and results in developmental dream research from Freud to contemporary works].

    PubMed

    Sándor, Piroska; Bódizs, Róbert

    2014-01-01

    Examining children's dream development is a significant challenge for researchers. Results from studies on children's dreaming may enlighten us on the nature and role of dreaming as well as broaden our knowledge of consciousness and cognitive development. This review summarizes the main questions and historical progress in developmental dream research, with the aim of shedding light on the advantages, disadvantages and effects of different settings and methods on research outcomes. A typical example would be the dreams of 3 to 5 year-olds: they are simple and static, with a relative absence of emotions and active self participation according to laboratory studies; studies using different methodology however found them to be vivid, rich in emotions, with the self as an active participant. Questions about the validity of different methods arise, and are considered within this review. Given that methodological differences can result in highly divergent outcomes, it is strongly recommended for future research to select methodology and treat results more carefully.

  7. Efficient implementation of the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, with application to the Cormack-Jolly-Seber model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Barker, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Judicious choice of candidate generating distributions improves efficiency of the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. In Bayesian applications, it is sometimes possible to identify an approximation to the target posterior distribution; this approximate posterior distribution is a good choice for candidate generation. These observations are applied to analysis of the Cormack-Jolly-Seber model and its extensions. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  8. Efficient implementation of the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, with application to the Cormack?Jolly?Seber model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Barker, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Judicious choice of candidate generating distributions improves efficiency of the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. In Bayesian applications, it is sometimes possible to identify an approximation to the target posterior distribution; this approximate posterior distribution is a good choice for candidate generation. These observations are applied to analysis of the Cormack?Jolly?Seber model and its extensions.

  9. Estimation of Contextual Effects through Nonlinear Multilevel Latent Variable Modeling with a Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Ji Seung; Cai, Li

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to improve estimation efficiency in obtaining maximum marginal likelihood estimates of contextual effects in the framework of nonlinear multilevel latent variable model by adopting the Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro algorithm (MH-RM). Results indicate that the MH-RM algorithm can produce estimates and standard…

  10. Adolescents' Perception of the Psychological Security of School Environment, Emotional Development and Academic Performance in Secondary Schools in Gombe Metropolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K. J.; Meshak, Bibi; Sagir, Jummai Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine adolescents' perceptions of the psychological security of their schools environments and their relationship with their emotional development and academic performance in secondary schools in Gombe Metropolis. A sample of 239 (107 males and 133 females) secondary school students selected via stratified…

  11. Family Background, Sexual Behaviour, and HIV/AIDS Vulnerability of Female Street Hawkers in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyefara, John Lekan

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the sexual behaviour and the HIV/AIDS knowledge and vulnerability of female street hawkers in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria. A total of 126 female street hawkers under 18 were sampled in a cross-sectional survey and six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were conducted to generate data from respondents. Data on sexual behaviour…

  12. Simulated tempering based on global balance or detailed balance conditions: Suwa-Todo, heat bath, and Metropolis algorithms.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yoshiharu; Okumura, Hisashi

    2015-12-01

    Simulated tempering (ST) is a useful method to enhance sampling of molecular simulations. When ST is used, the Metropolis algorithm, which satisfies the detailed balance condition, is usually applied to calculate the transition probability. Recently, an alternative method that satisfies the global balance condition instead of the detailed balance condition has been proposed by Suwa and Todo. In this study, ST method with the Suwa-Todo algorithm is proposed. Molecular dynamics simulations with ST are performed with three algorithms (the Metropolis, heat bath, and Suwa-Todo algorithms) to calculate the transition probability. Among the three algorithms, the Suwa-Todo algorithm yields the highest acceptance ratio and the shortest autocorrelation time. These suggest that sampling by a ST simulation with the Suwa-Todo algorithm is most efficient. In addition, because the acceptance ratio of the Suwa-Todo algorithm is higher than that of the Metropolis algorithm, the number of temperature states can be reduced by 25% for the Suwa-Todo algorithm when compared with the Metropolis algorithm.

  13. A Study on the Use of the Internet in Senior High Schools in the Cape Coast Metropolis of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayebi-Arthur, Kofi; Aidoo, Dora Baaba; Wilson, Kofi Bentum

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the utilization of the Internet in senior high schools in the Cape Coast Metropolis in the Central Region of Ghana. The sample consisted of 100 students and 25 teachers in three Senior High Schools. The stratified random sampling technique was used to select the three schools to represent the school…

  14. Challenges Pre-School Teachers Face in the Implementation of the Early Childhood Curriculum in the Cape Coast Metropolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntumi, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the challenges that pre-school teachers encounter in the implementation of the early childhood curriculum; exploring teaching methods employed by pre-schools teachers in the Cape Coast Metropolis. The study employed descriptive survey as the research design. A convenient sample of 62 pre-school teachers were selected from a…

  15. A Survey of Vocational Training Needs of 15-25 Years Old Out-of-School Youths in Bauchi Metropolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bello, M. I.; Danjuma, I. M.; Adamu, A. Y.

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to explore and describe the vocational training needs of 15-25 years old out-of-school youths in Bauchi Metropolis of Bauchi State, Nigeria. Specifically, the researchers sought to; describe their demographic characteristics, examine their vocational training needs, the influence of gender on the vocational needs,…

  16. The erotic transference: dream or delusion?

    PubMed

    De Masi, Franco

    2012-12-01

    The erotic transference can be seen as the Janus face of clinical work in psychoanalysis: it may either arise out of the positive emotions necessary for the building of new shared realities, or be fueled by falsified and distorted constructions. In the former case, the erotic transference expresses the capacity to anticipate, or "dream," the emotional relationship with the object-which is why Freud valued its transformative aspect as one of the "forces impelling [the patient] to . . . make changes"-whereas in the latter it is equivalent to a flight from psychic reality and may be imperceptibly transformed into an actual delusion. PMID:23104932

  17. Learning within bounds and dream sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geszti, T.; Pazmandi, F.

    1987-12-01

    In a bounded-synapses version of Hopfield's model (1984) for neural networks the quasienergy of a given memory, which is approximately equal to the depth of the corresponding energy well is calculated exactly by treating the change of a synaptic strength on learning as a random walk within bounds. Attractors corresponding to stored memories are found to be considerably flattened before serious retrieval errors arise. This allows dream sleep to be interpreted as random recall and relearning of fresh strong memories, in order to stack them on top of weak incidental memory imprints of a day.

  18. Testosterone not associated with violent dreams or REM sleep behavior disorder in men with Parkinson's.

    PubMed

    Chou, Kelvin L; Moro-De-Casillas, Maria L; Amick, Melissa M; Borek, Leora L; Friedman, Joseph H

    2007-02-15

    We examined the relationship between testosterone levels, violent dreams, and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in 31 men with Parkinson's disease (PD): 12 with clinical RBD and 19 without. All PD patients with clinical RBD experienced violent dreams, but none of the 19 non-RBD patients reported violent dreams. While dream content appears to be more aggressive in PD patients with clinical RBD, the presence of violent dreams or clinical RBD is not associated with testosterone levels in men with PD.

  19. Strengths and weaknesses of McNamara's evolutionary psychological model of dreaming.

    PubMed

    Olliges, Sandra

    2010-10-07

    This article includes a brief overview of McNamara's (2004) evolutionary model of dreaming. The strengths and weaknesses of this model are then evaluated in terms of its consonance with measurable neurological and biological properties of dreaming, its fit within the tenets of evolutionary theories of dreams, and its alignment with evolutionary concepts of cooperation and spirituality. McNamara's model focuses primarily on dreaming that occurs during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep; therefore this article also focuses on REM dreaming.

  20. [Communicative function of dreams in the therapeutic process].

    PubMed

    Koptagel Ilal, Günsel

    2006-01-01

    Sleep is not a loss of consciousness, but an altered state of consciousness. What appears in the dream is preconscious and ready to move into consciousness. This material may be manifested also during free association. The difference between free association and REM dreaming is that the preconscious material is presented in response to internal and/or external stimuli in a more coherent form during free associations, whereas during a REM dream, the material of daily experiences and perceptions that are fragmented in the preconscious are recombined in a less coherent form. The material that cannot be easily expressed during free association in the wakeful state, due to inner or external inhibition, appear in dreams and thus, find an easier way of expression. The dreams of patients who have difficulty directly expressing their thoughts, feelings, and experiences serve as a useful means of communication during the initial stage of therapy and provide valuable analytic material to help the progress of the psychoanalytic treatment. This phenomenon is described with a case presentation. The very inhibited patient who could not openly express her life experiences, emotions, and conflicts found it easier to report her dreams at the beginning of the therapeutic process. Through the material presented from these dreams, it became possible to open the path to direct verbal communication, to work through her problems, and to monitor the progress of the therapeutic process.

  1. Is the brain of migraineurs "different" even in dreams?

    PubMed

    Lovati, C; DeAngeli, F; D'Amico, D; Giani, L; D'Alessandro, C M; Zardoni, M; Scaglione, V; Castoldi, D; Capiluppi, E; Curone, M; Bussone, G; Mariani, C

    2014-05-01

    Migraineurs brain is hyper-excitable and hypo-metabolic. Dreaming is a mental state characterized by hallucinatory features in which imagery, emotion, motor skills and memory are created de novo. To evaluate dreams in different kinds of headache. We included 219 controls; 148 migraineurs (66 with aura-MA, 82 without aura-MO); 45 tension type headache (TTH) patients. ICHD-II diagnostic criteria were used. Ad hoc questionnaire was used to evaluate oneiric activity. The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire, and the Patient Health Questionnaire were administered to evaluate anxiety and mood. The prevalence of dreamers was similar in different groups. Frequency of visual and auditory dreams was not different between groups. Migraineurs, particularly MA, had an increased frequency of taste dreams (present in 19.6 % of controls, 40.9 % of MA, 23.2 % of MO, 11.1 % of TTH, p < 0.01), and of olfactory dreams (present in 20 % of controls, 36 % of MA, 35 % of MO and 20 % of TTH, p < 0.01). Anxiety and mood did not influence these results. The increased frequency of taste and olfactory dreams among migraineurs seems to be specific, possibly reflecting a particular sensitivity of gustative and olfactory brain structures, as suggested by osmofobia and nausea, typical of migraine. This may suggest the role of some cerebral structures, such as amygdala and hypothalamus, which are known to be involved in migraine mechanisms as well in the biology of sleep and dreaming.

  2. Manifest dream content as a possible predictor of suicidality.

    PubMed

    Glucksman, Myron L

    2014-12-01

    The prediction of suicidal intent remains a clinical problem. This presentation illustrates that a distinction may be made between the manifest dream reports of patients who are potentially or acutely suicidal and those who are not. A review of the literature reveals that the manifest dream reports of clinically depressed, non-suicidal individuals differ from those who are depressed and acutely suicidal. The former contain themes of loss, disappointment, rejection, helplessness, hopelessness, failure, and death. The latter contain themes of dying, death, destruction, and violence directed toward the dreamer or others, as well as hopelessness and helplessness. The author collected manifest dream reports from three clinically depressed, non-suicidal patients and three clinically depressed, potentially or acutely suicidal patients. There are apparent differences between the themes of manifest dream reports in the clinically depressed, non-suicidal patients and the clinically depressed, potentially or acutely suicidal patients. The former contain themes of death, loss, rejection, vulnerability, hopelessness, and helplessness. The latter contain themes of active harm or violence (specifically toward the dreamer), dying or being dead, aloneness, vulnerability, hopelessness, and helplessness. Clinical cases and corresponding manifest dream reports are presented. Although this is a preliminary study, it is possible that manifest dream content may be used as one of the predictors of suicidality, in conjunction with latent dream content, diagnosis, life circumstance, and clinical status. PMID:25494585

  3. Hallucinations, sleep fragmentation, and altered dream phenomena in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pappert, E J; Goetz, C G; Niederman, F G; Raman, R; Leurgans, S

    1999-01-01

    In a series of consecutively randomized outpatients who had Parkinson's disease (PD), we examined the association of three behaviors: sleep fragmentation, altered dream phenomena, and hallucinations/illusions. Using a log-linear model methodology, we tested the independence of each behavior. Sixty-two percent of the subjects had sleep fragmentation, 48% had altered dream phenomena, and 26% had hallucinations/illusions. Eighty-two percent of the patients with hallucinations/illusions experienced some form of sleep disorder. The three phenomena were not independent. The interaction between sleep fragmentation and altered dream phenomena was strongly statistically significant. Likewise, a significant interaction existed between altered dream phenomena and hallucinations/illusions. No interaction occurred between sleep fragmentation and hallucinations/illusions. Sleep fragmentation, altered dream phenomena, and hallucinations/illusions in PD should be considered distinct but often overlapping behaviors. The close association between altered dream phenomena and hallucinations suggests that therapeutic interventions aimed at diminishing dream-related activities may have a specific positive impact on hallucinatory behavior.

  4. Waking dreams and other metachoric experiences.

    PubMed

    Green, C

    1990-06-01

    This paper summarizes the development of the concept of metachoric experiences from 1961 onwards. The name of metachoric experience was given to one in which the whole of the environment was replaced by a hallucinatory one, although this may provide a precise replica of the physical world and appear to be completely continuous with normal experience. Prior to 1968 three types of metachoric experiences had been recognized; lucid dreams, out-of-the-body experiences (OBEs) and false awakenings, all of which showed interrelationships. The Institute's 1968 appeal for apparitional experiences led to a recognition that many of these were probably metachoric. This was suggested among other things by certain cases in which the lighting of the whole field of view changes, thus indicating that the experience was completely hallucinatory. The study of apparitions led also to the concept of waking dreams, i.e. completely hallucinatory experiences which may be initiated and terminated without any awareness of discontinuity on the part of the subject. These experiences seem to be capable of considerable apparent extension in time, thus providing a possible explanation of some reports of UFO sightings and of some of the more anomalous experiences of psychical research. In this connection the paper discusses the well-known Versailles experience of Miss Moberly and Miss Jourdain, and a published case of C.G. Jung. In conclusion some of the most obvious similarities and differences between the different types of metachoric experiences are discussed. PMID:2374788

  5. Sleep and dreaming are for important matters.

    PubMed

    Perogamvros, L; Dang-Vu, T T; Desseilles, M; Schwartz, S

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies in sleep and dreaming have described an activation of emotional and reward systems, as well as the processing of internal information during these states. Specifically, increased activity in the amygdala and across mesolimbic dopaminergic regions during REM sleep is likely to promote the consolidation of memory traces with high emotional/motivational value. Moreover, coordinated hippocampal-striatal replay during NREM sleep may contribute to the selective strengthening of memories for important events. In this review, we suggest that, via the activation of emotional/motivational circuits, sleep and dreaming may offer a neurobehavioral substrate for the offline reprocessing of emotions, associative learning, and exploratory behaviors, resulting in improved memory organization, waking emotion regulation, social skills, and creativity. Dysregulation of such motivational/emotional processes due to sleep disturbances (e.g., insomnia, sleep deprivation) would predispose to reward-related disorders, such as mood disorders, increased risk-taking and compulsive behaviors, and may have major health implications, especially in vulnerable populations.

  6. Waking dreams and other metachoric experiences.

    PubMed

    Green, C

    1990-06-01

    This paper summarizes the development of the concept of metachoric experiences from 1961 onwards. The name of metachoric experience was given to one in which the whole of the environment was replaced by a hallucinatory one, although this may provide a precise replica of the physical world and appear to be completely continuous with normal experience. Prior to 1968 three types of metachoric experiences had been recognized; lucid dreams, out-of-the-body experiences (OBEs) and false awakenings, all of which showed interrelationships. The Institute's 1968 appeal for apparitional experiences led to a recognition that many of these were probably metachoric. This was suggested among other things by certain cases in which the lighting of the whole field of view changes, thus indicating that the experience was completely hallucinatory. The study of apparitions led also to the concept of waking dreams, i.e. completely hallucinatory experiences which may be initiated and terminated without any awareness of discontinuity on the part of the subject. These experiences seem to be capable of considerable apparent extension in time, thus providing a possible explanation of some reports of UFO sightings and of some of the more anomalous experiences of psychical research. In this connection the paper discusses the well-known Versailles experience of Miss Moberly and Miss Jourdain, and a published case of C.G. Jung. In conclusion some of the most obvious similarities and differences between the different types of metachoric experiences are discussed.

  7. Memory failures, dream illusions and mental malfunction.

    PubMed

    Kavanau, J L

    2001-01-01

    Dreams are widely believed to be produced as the brain's memory circuits are reinforced during sleep by self-generated brain waves. Reinforcement maintains synaptic strengths in the 'dedicated' ranges that support circuit functions. Without these activations, turnover of molecules essential for synaptic function would lead to deleterious alterations in, and eventual loss of, memories. The pathological processes underlying many mental disorders appear to exert their deleterious influences by inducing abnormalities in brain waves, largely in slow waves of less than about 14 cycles/s. The pathologically altered slow waves, in turn, cause long-lasting weakening or dysfunction of synapses of affected circuits, frequently resulting in mental disorders and deviant sleep. These abnormalities can be remediated for varying periods by therapies that restore normal brain waves. With many trillions of synapses between billions of neurons in enormously complex circuits needing reinforcement during sleep, the process is susceptible to failures. As a result, some synapses 'normally' weaken or become dysfunctional, accumulating to the greatest extent in old memory circuits. Activation of resulting incompetent circuits during waking may lead to hallucinations and delusions; activation during sleep may lead to dreams with bizarre, incoherent or impossible contents.

  8. Sleep and dreaming are for important matters

    PubMed Central

    Perogamvros, L.; Dang-Vu, T. T.; Desseilles, M.; Schwartz, S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies in sleep and dreaming have described an activation of emotional and reward systems, as well as the processing of internal information during these states. Specifically, increased activity in the amygdala and across mesolimbic dopaminergic regions during REM sleep is likely to promote the consolidation of memory traces with high emotional/motivational value. Moreover, coordinated hippocampal-striatal replay during NREM sleep may contribute to the selective strengthening of memories for important events. In this review, we suggest that, via the activation of emotional/motivational circuits, sleep and dreaming may offer a neurobehavioral substrate for the offline reprocessing of emotions, associative learning, and exploratory behaviors, resulting in improved memory organization, waking emotion regulation, social skills, and creativity. Dysregulation of such motivational/emotional processes due to sleep disturbances (e.g., insomnia, sleep deprivation) would predispose to reward-related disorders, such as mood disorders, increased risk-taking and compulsive behaviors, and may have major health implications, especially in vulnerable populations. PMID:23898315

  9. Investigating on the Methodology Effect When Evaluating Lucid Dream.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Nicolas; Gounden, Yannick; Quaglino, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Lucid dreaming (LD) is a state of consciousness in which the dreamer is aware that he or she is dreaming and can possibly control the content of his or her dream. To investigate the LD prevalence among different samples, researchers have used different types of methodologies. With regard to retrospective self-report questionnaire, two ways of proceeding seem to emerge. In one case, a definition of LD is given to participants ("During LD, one is-while dreaming-aware of the fact that one is dreaming. It is possible to deliberately wake up, to control the dream action, or to observe passively the course of the dream with this awareness"), while in the other instances, participants are presented separate questions targeting specific LD indicators (dream awareness and dream control). In the present study, we measured LD frequency in a sample of French student in order to investigate for possible disparities in LD frequency depending on the type of questionnaire as outlined above. Moreover, we also study links between the prevalence of LD as assessed, respectively, by each questionnaire with various factors such as Vividness of Mental Imagery and Parasomnia. Results revealed no significant difference between LD frequencies across questionnaires. For the questionnaire with definition (DefQuest), 81.05% of participants reported experience of LD once or more. Concerning the questionnaire based on LD indicators (AwarContQuest), 73.38% of participants reported having experienced LD once or more. However, with regard to the correlations analysis, links between LD prevalence and factors such as Vividness of Mental Imagery and Parasomnia, varied across questionnaires. This result is an argument suggesting that researchers should be careful when investigating links between LD and other factors. The type of methodology may influence findings on LD research. Further studies are needed to investigate on the methodology effect in LD research namely on the respective weight of

  10. Investigating on the Methodology Effect When Evaluating Lucid Dream.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Nicolas; Gounden, Yannick; Quaglino, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Lucid dreaming (LD) is a state of consciousness in which the dreamer is aware that he or she is dreaming and can possibly control the content of his or her dream. To investigate the LD prevalence among different samples, researchers have used different types of methodologies. With regard to retrospective self-report questionnaire, two ways of proceeding seem to emerge. In one case, a definition of LD is given to participants ("During LD, one is-while dreaming-aware of the fact that one is dreaming. It is possible to deliberately wake up, to control the dream action, or to observe passively the course of the dream with this awareness"), while in the other instances, participants are presented separate questions targeting specific LD indicators (dream awareness and dream control). In the present study, we measured LD frequency in a sample of French student in order to investigate for possible disparities in LD frequency depending on the type of questionnaire as outlined above. Moreover, we also study links between the prevalence of LD as assessed, respectively, by each questionnaire with various factors such as Vividness of Mental Imagery and Parasomnia. Results revealed no significant difference between LD frequencies across questionnaires. For the questionnaire with definition (DefQuest), 81.05% of participants reported experience of LD once or more. Concerning the questionnaire based on LD indicators (AwarContQuest), 73.38% of participants reported having experienced LD once or more. However, with regard to the correlations analysis, links between LD prevalence and factors such as Vividness of Mental Imagery and Parasomnia, varied across questionnaires. This result is an argument suggesting that researchers should be careful when investigating links between LD and other factors. The type of methodology may influence findings on LD research. Further studies are needed to investigate on the methodology effect in LD research namely on the respective weight of

  11. Who Cares? Pre and Post Abortion Experiences among Young Females in Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Esia-Donkoh, Kobina; Darteh, Eugene K M; Blemano, Harriet; Asare, Hagar

    2015-06-01

    Issues of abortion are critical in Ghana largely due to its consequences on sexual and reproductive health. The negative perception society attaches to it makes it difficult for young females to access services and share their experiences. This paper examines the pre and post abortion experiences of young females; a subject scarcely researched in the country. Twenty-one clients of Planned Parenthood Association of Ghana (PPAG) clinic at Cape Coast were interviewed. Guided by the biopsychosocial model, the study revealed that fear of societal stigma, shame, and rejection by partners, as well as self-imposed stigma constituted some of the pre and post abortion experiences the respondents. Other experiences reported were bleeding, severe abdominal pain and psychological pain. The Ghana Health Services (GHS) and other service providers should partner the PPAG clinic to integrate psychosocial treatment in its abortion services while intensifying behaviour change communication and community-based stigma-reduction education in the Metropolis. PMID:26506657

  12. Note: A pure-sampling quantum Monte Carlo algorithm with independent Metropolis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrbik, Jan; Ospadov, Egor; Rothstein, Stuart M.

    2016-07-01

    Recently, Ospadov and Rothstein published a pure-sampling quantum Monte Carlo algorithm (PSQMC) that features an auxiliary Path Z that connects the midpoints of the current and proposed Paths X and Y, respectively. When sufficiently long, Path Z provides statistical independence of Paths X and Y. Under those conditions, the Metropolis decision used in PSQMC is done without any approximation, i.e., not requiring microscopic reversibility and without having to introduce any G(x → x'; τ) factors into its decision function. This is a unique feature that contrasts with all competing reptation algorithms in the literature. An example illustrates that dependence of Paths X and Y has adverse consequences for pure sampling.

  13. Time required for motor activity in lucid dreams.

    PubMed

    Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2004-12-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between the time required for specific tasks (counting and performing squats) in lucid dreams and in the waking state. Five proficient lucid dreamers (26-34 yr. old, M=29.8, SD=3.0; one woman and four men) participated. Analysis showed that the time needed for counting in a lucid dream is comparable to the time needed for counting in wakefulness, but motor activities required more time in lucid dreams than in the waking state. PMID:15739850

  14. Concreteness, dreams, and metaphor: their import in a somatizing patient.

    PubMed

    Kohutis, Eileen A

    2008-01-01

    One of the most challenging types of patients that psychoanalysts encounter in clinical practice are those who are concrete and who also suffer from somatic or somatoform disorders. These patients come for treatment, appear motivated to change, yet they do not change in expectable ways. This paper presents the case of a woman who was concrete and had numerous somatic symptoms. Although she had little interest in talking about her feelings, she expressed herself and her ailments through dreams and it was through her use of dreams that she changed. Dreams were a type of metaphor where the concrete and the symbolic functioned to promote growth.

  15. Time required for motor activity in lucid dreams.

    PubMed

    Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2004-12-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between the time required for specific tasks (counting and performing squats) in lucid dreams and in the waking state. Five proficient lucid dreamers (26-34 yr. old, M=29.8, SD=3.0; one woman and four men) participated. Analysis showed that the time needed for counting in a lucid dream is comparable to the time needed for counting in wakefulness, but motor activities required more time in lucid dreams than in the waking state.

  16. Health: a dream from reality to the future.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chunsong; Wu, Qinghua

    2016-06-01

    This paper argues that health is a realistic productive force that may enhance the index of happiness. As the basis of all developments and the source of a person's and his/her family's happiness, health requires not only primary and secondary prevention, but also policy prevention, that is to say, grade-zero prevention. Therefore, people should pay more attention to Health in All Policies. As a new preventive strategy, the policy prevention will help improve people's health significantly and promote the concepts of "Healthy China" and "the Chinese Dream" or "the World Dream" to realize a dream from reality to the future. PMID:27090912

  17. To dream or not to dream? Relevant data from new neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies.

    PubMed

    Hobson, J A; Pace-Schott, E F; Stickgold, R; Kahn, D

    1998-04-01

    The study of sleep and dreams has enjoyed a major breakthrough with recent findings from brain imaging studies in humans. Several independent groups have shown global deactivation of the brain during non rapid eye movement sleep and a regionally selective reactivation during rapid eye movement sleep. These results are complemented by new brain lesion and electrophysiological recording data to give a detailed picture of the brain dynamics of changes in conscious state. PMID:9635208

  18. Variations in Dream Recall Frequency and Dream Theme Diversity by Age and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Tore

    2012-01-01

    We assessed dream recall frequency (DRF) and dream theme diversity (DTD) with an internet questionnaire among a cohort of 28,888 male and female participants aged 10–79 years in a cross-sectional design. DRF increased from adolescence (ages 10–19) to early adulthood (20–29) and then decreased again for the next 20 years. The nature of this decrease differed for males and females. For males, it began earlier (30–39), proceeded more gradually, and reached a nadir earlier (40–49) than it did for females. For females, it began later (40–49), dropped more abruptly, and reached nadir later (50–59). Marked sex differences were observed for age strata 10–19 through 40–49 and year-by-year analyses estimated the window for these differences to be more precisely from 14 to 44 years. DTD decreased linearly with age for both sexes up to 50–59 and then dropped even more sharply for 60–79. There was a sex difference favoring males on this measure but only for ages 10–19. Findings replicate, in a single sample, those from several previous studies showing an increase in DRF from adolescence to early adulthood, a subsequent decrease primarily in early and middle adulthood, and different patterns of age-related decrease in the two sexes. Age-related changes in sleep structure, such as decreasing %REM sleep which parallel the observed dream recall changes, might help explain these findings, but these sleep changes are much smaller and more gradual in nature. Changes in the phase and amplitude of circadian rhythms of REM propensity and generational differences in life experiences may also account for some part of the findings. That decreases in DTD parallel known age-related decreases in episodic and autobiographical memory may signify that this new diversity measure indexes an aspect of autobiographical memory that also influences dream recall. PMID:22783222

  19. "In Dreams Begins Responsibility": A Self-Study about How Insights from Dreams May Be Brought into the Sphere of Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balogh, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that material from dreams offers a resource within the social sphere that has potential for the practice of action research. The modern approach to dream interpretation, following Freud, has almost exclusively been situated at the level of the therapeutic dyad where the significance of dream material is circumscribed within…

  20. SLEEP PATTERN OF TOOTH-GRINDING: ITS RELATIONSHIP TO DREAMING.

    PubMed

    REDING, G R; RUBRIGHT, W C; RECHTSCHAFFEN, A; DANIELS, R S

    1964-08-14

    Simultaneous recordings of brain waves, eye movements, and masticatory muscle potentials throughout the night demonstrate a temporal relationship between episodes of bruxism (nocturnal grinding of the teeth) and periods of rapid eye movements indicative of dreaming.

  1. Autoscopic phenomena and one's own body representation in dreams.

    PubMed

    Occhionero, Miranda; Cicogna, Piera Carla

    2011-12-01

    Autoscopic phenomena (AP) are complex experiences that include the visual illusory reduplication of one's own body. From a phenomenological point of view, we can distinguish three conditions: autoscopic hallucinations, heautoscopy, and out-of-body experiences. The dysfunctional pattern involves multisensory disintegration of personal and extrapersonal space perception. The etiology, generally either neurological or psychiatric, is different. Also, the hallucination of Self and own body image is present during dreams and differs according to sleep stage. Specifically, the representation of the Self in REM dreams is frequently similar to the perception of Self in wakefulness, whereas in NREM dreams, a greater polymorphism of Self and own body representation is observed. The parallels between autoscopic phenomena in pathological cases and the Self-hallucination in dreams will be discussed to further the understanding of the particular states of self awareness, especially the complex integration of different memory sources in Self and body representation. PMID:21316265

  2. NASA Dryden Welcomes SNC's Dream Chaser for Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    Sierra Nevada Corp. (SNC) Space Systems' Dream Chaser test flight craft, also known as an engineering test article, arrived at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in Edwards, Calif., May 15 to beg...

  3. A Most Rare Vision: Improvisations on "A Midsummer Night's Dream."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakaim, Charles J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Describes one teacher's methods for introducing to secondary English students the concepts of improvisation, experimentation, and innovation. Discusses numerous techniques for fostering such skills when working with William Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's Dream." (HB)

  4. Autoscopic phenomena and one's own body representation in dreams.

    PubMed

    Occhionero, Miranda; Cicogna, Piera Carla

    2011-12-01

    Autoscopic phenomena (AP) are complex experiences that include the visual illusory reduplication of one's own body. From a phenomenological point of view, we can distinguish three conditions: autoscopic hallucinations, heautoscopy, and out-of-body experiences. The dysfunctional pattern involves multisensory disintegration of personal and extrapersonal space perception. The etiology, generally either neurological or psychiatric, is different. Also, the hallucination of Self and own body image is present during dreams and differs according to sleep stage. Specifically, the representation of the Self in REM dreams is frequently similar to the perception of Self in wakefulness, whereas in NREM dreams, a greater polymorphism of Self and own body representation is observed. The parallels between autoscopic phenomena in pathological cases and the Self-hallucination in dreams will be discussed to further the understanding of the particular states of self awareness, especially the complex integration of different memory sources in Self and body representation.

  5. NASA Astronauts Fly Dream Chaser Simulations May 15-17

    NASA Video Gallery

    Jack Fischer was one of four NASA astronauts to fly approach and landing simulations of Sierra Nevada Corporation's Dream Chaser spacecraft at the agency's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Va. T...

  6. Lucid dreaming and alpha activity: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, R D; Hunt, H T; Tyson, P D; Lucescu, M L; Jeakins, D B

    1982-12-01

    10 good dream recallers spent 2 nights in the sleep lab during which they were awakened 4 times per night from REM sleep, twice during their highest alpha activity in REM, and twice during low REM alpha. 5 were given alpha feedback training prior to sleep onset. Arousals from high alpha REM sleep yielded significantly higher lucidity ratings. Alpha feedback had no effect upon lucidity or REM alpha levels. Similarities between lucid dreams and meditative phenomena are discussed. PMID:7162915

  7. Point of View--NCLB: Dreams and Nightmares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Paul D.

    2005-01-01

    The idea of leaving no child behind may sound like a noble dream. But the federal law intended to fulfill that dream is in Houston's opinion so flawed that it has become a nightmare for educators. Sadly, the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act is a nightmare in which everyone is naked while being pushed off a cliff because of poor test performance.…

  8. Accuracy of a semiquantitative method for Dermal Exposure Assessment (DREAM)

    PubMed Central

    van Wendel, de Joo... B; Vermeulen, R; van Hemmen, J J; Fransman, W; Kromhout, H

    2005-01-01

    Background: The authors recently developed a Dermal Exposure Assessment Method (DREAM), an observational semiquantitative method to assess dermal exposures by systematically evaluating exposure determinants using pre-assigned default values. Aim: To explore the accuracy of the DREAM method by comparing its estimates with quantitative dermal exposure measurements in several occupational settings. Methods: Occupational hygienists observed workers performing a certain task, whose exposure to chemical agents on skin or clothing was measured quantitatively simultaneously, and filled in the DREAM questionnaire. DREAM estimates were compared with measurement data by estimating Spearman correlation coefficients for each task and for individual observations. In addition, mixed linear regression models were used to study the effect of DREAM estimates on the variability in measured exposures between tasks, between workers, and from day to day. Results: For skin exposures, spearman correlation coefficients for individual observations ranged from 0.19 to 0.82. DREAM estimates for exposure levels on hands and forearms showed a fixed effect between and within surveys, explaining mainly between-task variance. In general, exposure levels on clothing layer were only predicted in a meaningful way by detailed DREAM estimates, which comprised detailed information on the concentration of the agent in the formulation to which exposure occurred. Conclusions: The authors expect that the DREAM method can be successfully applied for semiquantitative dermal exposure assessment in epidemiological and occupational hygiene surveys of groups of workers with considerable contrast in dermal exposure levels (variability between groups >1.0). For surveys with less contrasting exposure levels, quantitative dermal exposure measurements are preferable. PMID:16109819

  9. Lucid dreaming and alpha activity: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, R D; Hunt, H T; Tyson, P D; Lucescu, M L; Jeakins, D B

    1982-12-01

    10 good dream recallers spent 2 nights in the sleep lab during which they were awakened 4 times per night from REM sleep, twice during their highest alpha activity in REM, and twice during low REM alpha. 5 were given alpha feedback training prior to sleep onset. Arousals from high alpha REM sleep yielded significantly higher lucidity ratings. Alpha feedback had no effect upon lucidity or REM alpha levels. Similarities between lucid dreams and meditative phenomena are discussed.

  10. Investigating on the Methodology Effect When Evaluating Lucid Dream

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Nicolas; Gounden, Yannick; Quaglino, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Lucid dreaming (LD) is a state of consciousness in which the dreamer is aware that he or she is dreaming and can possibly control the content of his or her dream. To investigate the LD prevalence among different samples, researchers have used different types of methodologies. With regard to retrospective self-report questionnaire, two ways of proceeding seem to emerge. In one case, a definition of LD is given to participants (“During LD, one is–while dreaming–aware of the fact that one is dreaming. It is possible to deliberately wake up, to control the dream action, or to observe passively the course of the dream with this awareness”), while in the other instances, participants are presented separate questions targeting specific LD indicators (dream awareness and dream control). In the present study, we measured LD frequency in a sample of French student in order to investigate for possible disparities in LD frequency depending on the type of questionnaire as outlined above. Moreover, we also study links between the prevalence of LD as assessed, respectively, by each questionnaire with various factors such as Vividness of Mental Imagery and Parasomnia. Results revealed no significant difference between LD frequencies across questionnaires. For the questionnaire with definition (DefQuest), 81.05% of participants reported experience of LD once or more. Concerning the questionnaire based on LD indicators (AwarContQuest), 73.38% of participants reported having experienced LD once or more. However, with regard to the correlations analysis, links between LD prevalence and factors such as Vividness of Mental Imagery and Parasomnia, varied across questionnaires. This result is an argument suggesting that researchers should be careful when investigating links between LD and other factors. The type of methodology may influence findings on LD research. Further studies are needed to investigate on the methodology effect in LD research namely on the respective weight of

  11. Investigating on the Methodology Effect When Evaluating Lucid Dream

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Nicolas; Gounden, Yannick; Quaglino, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Lucid dreaming (LD) is a state of consciousness in which the dreamer is aware that he or she is dreaming and can possibly control the content of his or her dream. To investigate the LD prevalence among different samples, researchers have used different types of methodologies. With regard to retrospective self-report questionnaire, two ways of proceeding seem to emerge. In one case, a definition of LD is given to participants (“During LD, one is–while dreaming–aware of the fact that one is dreaming. It is possible to deliberately wake up, to control the dream action, or to observe passively the course of the dream with this awareness”), while in the other instances, participants are presented separate questions targeting specific LD indicators (dream awareness and dream control). In the present study, we measured LD frequency in a sample of French student in order to investigate for possible disparities in LD frequency depending on the type of questionnaire as outlined above. Moreover, we also study links between the prevalence of LD as assessed, respectively, by each questionnaire with various factors such as Vividness of Mental Imagery and Parasomnia. Results revealed no significant difference between LD frequencies across questionnaires. For the questionnaire with definition (DefQuest), 81.05% of participants reported experience of LD once or more. Concerning the questionnaire based on LD indicators (AwarContQuest), 73.38% of participants reported having experienced LD once or more. However, with regard to the correlations analysis, links between LD prevalence and factors such as Vividness of Mental Imagery and Parasomnia, varied across questionnaires. This result is an argument suggesting that researchers should be careful when investigating links between LD and other factors. The type of methodology may influence findings on LD research. Further studies are needed to investigate on the methodology effect in LD research namely on the respective weight of

  12. [Bibliotherapeutic dream work after acute psychotic decompensation].

    PubMed

    Klosinski, G

    1996-01-01

    The paper reports about a follow-up treatment of a 15,5 year old female youth, who had suffered a polymorph psychotic disturbance with schizophrenic symptomatology. The symptoms began after a sexual encounter with a friend. During her illness the patient considered herself as "Jesus". By means of intensive dream work and bibliotherapy the psychotic events could be identified and understood subjectively. Three months after the onset of the illness the psychotic anxieties could be addressed by reading the Grimm fairy tale "The robber's bride" and could thus be better understood and classified. The patient's anxieties referred to physical and emotional disintegration (to be incorporated, to be Christ himself, and to give away his body). The patient could recall these anxieties as having actually occurred to her at the beginning of her illness.

  13. DREAM Assay for Studying Microbial Electron Transfer.

    PubMed

    Vishwanathan, A S; Devkota, Ranjan; Siva Sankara Sai, S; Rao, Govind

    2015-12-01

    Methylene blue undergoes reduction with an accompanying colour change reaction, from blue to colourless, enabling its use as a metric for estimating reducing power. A dye reduction-based electron-transfer activity monitoring (DREAM) assay is demonstrated as a tool to study and understand the process of microbes sourcing electrons from organic substrates and transferring them to an electron acceptor. The rate at which electrons can be transferred to the thermodynamically most feasible electron acceptor directly depends on the activity of microbes. Nature of available substrate determines the quantum of electrons available. Dissolved oxygen intercepts electrons from the microbes before they can be taken up by the dye. Sodium sulfite can be used to offset the detrimental effects of the presence of dissolved oxygen. This easy-to-perform assay has been demonstrated as a proof-of-concept having potential to be extended to other practical applications. PMID:26386586

  14. NewSpace—delivering on the dream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salt, David

    2013-12-01

    After more than half a century of spaceflight, our activities in space are still limited to a relatively small set of markets whose growth is driven mainly by government funding. Worse still, human access to space is restricted to a few people flying very infrequently to a single destination in low Earth orbit (LEO). Contrasting today's reality with the high expectations of the 1960s - as epitomised in Stanley Kubrick's film "2001: A Space Odyssey" - begs two questions: what went wrong and can we fix it? The objective of this paper is to address these questions and, in doing so, indicate how the nascent NewSpace industry may help us realise past dreams by enabling a paradigm shift in our space-based activities.

  15. DREAM Assay for Studying Microbial Electron Transfer.

    PubMed

    Vishwanathan, A S; Devkota, Ranjan; Siva Sankara Sai, S; Rao, Govind

    2015-12-01

    Methylene blue undergoes reduction with an accompanying colour change reaction, from blue to colourless, enabling its use as a metric for estimating reducing power. A dye reduction-based electron-transfer activity monitoring (DREAM) assay is demonstrated as a tool to study and understand the process of microbes sourcing electrons from organic substrates and transferring them to an electron acceptor. The rate at which electrons can be transferred to the thermodynamically most feasible electron acceptor directly depends on the activity of microbes. Nature of available substrate determines the quantum of electrons available. Dissolved oxygen intercepts electrons from the microbes before they can be taken up by the dye. Sodium sulfite can be used to offset the detrimental effects of the presence of dissolved oxygen. This easy-to-perform assay has been demonstrated as a proof-of-concept having potential to be extended to other practical applications.

  16. The nightmare of returning home: a case of acute onset nightmare disorder treated by lucid dreaming.

    PubMed

    Abramovitch, H

    1995-01-01

    Nightmare disorder with acute onset involves the sudden appearance of frightening and disruptive dreams. In severe cases it may involve high levels of anxiety, fear of falling asleep, cognitive deficits secondary to sleep deprivation and so may pose a psychiatric emergency. Standard techniques of dream interpretation appear limited in dealing with such a crisis. Lucid dreaming, the experience of dreaming and simultaneously being aware that one is dreaming is an easily learned technique that may provide effective and dramatic relief. The usefulness of lucid dreaming is illustrated by a case history. PMID:7558759

  17. The nightmare of returning home: a case of acute onset nightmare disorder treated by lucid dreaming.

    PubMed

    Abramovitch, H

    1995-01-01

    Nightmare disorder with acute onset involves the sudden appearance of frightening and disruptive dreams. In severe cases it may involve high levels of anxiety, fear of falling asleep, cognitive deficits secondary to sleep deprivation and so may pose a psychiatric emergency. Standard techniques of dream interpretation appear limited in dealing with such a crisis. Lucid dreaming, the experience of dreaming and simultaneously being aware that one is dreaming is an easily learned technique that may provide effective and dramatic relief. The usefulness of lucid dreaming is illustrated by a case history.

  18. Participatory dreaming: a conceptual exploration from a unitary appreciative inquiry perspective.

    PubMed

    Repede, Elizabeth J

    2009-10-01

    Dreaming is a universal phenomenon in human experience and one that carries multiple meanings in the narrative discourse across disciplines. Dreams can be collective, communal, and emancipatory, as well as individual. While individual dreaming has been extensively studied in the literature, the participatory nature of dreaming as a unitary phenomenon is limited. The concept of participatory dreaming within a unitary appreciative framework for healing is explored from perspectives in anthropology, psychology, and nursing. A participatory model of dreaming is proposed from a synthesis of the literature for use in future research using unitary appreciative inquiry.

  19. Women's dreaming: women, sexuality and development.

    PubMed

    Reid, E

    1996-01-01

    This essay opens by invoking the dreams of women that arise from their life experiences and lead women, despite their powerlessness, to desire to create a different kind of society. The essay continues by exploring the relationship between analysis and practice and the contention that analysis of a problem shapes development practice, social policy, research priorities, and activism. Poverty provides an example of a complex, chaotic phenomenon that is often reduced to simplistic, measurable variables such as income or consumption deprivation. Attention is then paid to the population debate where linkages between the analytical framework and program development are clear. These simplified linkages led to macro analysis of events played out on the micro level and to the choice of women rather than men as the most effective change agents. The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, however, gave rise to a new analytical framework emphasizing women's empowerment, women's health, women's rights, and men's participation and responsibility. This approach embraces the complexity of the situation and, thus, provides a road map for effective programs and policies. The next section of the essay considers gender analysis and how this concept leads to a demand on the part of women for access to men's privileges and a climate of confrontation arising from this demand. The inadequacies of using a woman-centered gender analysis as a framework for understanding male behavior are also discussed. Alternative concepts from the feminist movement are explored for their usefulness in generating social change, and the efforts of the Bangladesh Rural Achievement Committee to improve female literacy are used as an example of the value of cooperative, consciousness-raising groups. It is concluded that radical changes will be required to realize women's dreams of social changes.

  20. DREAM: a method for semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Van-Wendel-de-Joode, Berna; Brouwer, Derk H; Vermeulen, Roel; Van Hemmen, Joop J; Heederik, Dick; Kromhout, Hans

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new method (DREAM) for structured, semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment for chemical or biological agents that can be used in occupational hygiene or epidemiology. It is anticipated that DREAM could serve as an initial assessment of dermal exposure, amongst others, resulting in a ranking of tasks and subsequently jobs. DREAM consists of an inventory and evaluation part. Two examples of dermal exposure of workers of a car-construction company show that DREAM characterizes tasks and gives insight into exposure mechanisms, forming a basis for systematic exposure reduction. DREAM supplies estimates for exposure levels on the outside clothing layer as well as on skin, and provides insight into the distribution of dermal exposure over the body. Together with the ranking of tasks and people, this provides information for measurement strategies and helps to determine who, where and what to measure. In addition to dermal exposure assessment, the systematic description of dermal exposure pathways helps to prioritize and determine most adequate measurement strategies and methods. DREAM could be a promising approach for structured, semi-quantitative, dermal exposure assessment. PMID:12505908

  1. Dreams and fantasies in psychodynamic group psychotherapy of psychotic patients.

    PubMed

    Restek-Petrović, Branka; Orešković-Krezler, Nataša; Grah, Majda; Mayer, Nina; Bogović, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate

    2013-09-01

    Work with dreams in the group analysis represents an important part of the analytical work, with insight into unconscious experiences of the individual dreamer, and his transferrential relations with the therapist, other members of the group, and with the group as a whole. The way dreams are addressed varies from one therapist to another, and in line with that, members of the group have varying frequency of dreams. In groups of psychotic patients dreams are generally rarely discussed and interpreted by the group, with analysis mainly resting on the manifested content. This paper describes a long-term group of psychotic patients which, after sharing the dreams of several members and daydreams of one female patient, their interpretation and reception in the group achieved better cohesion and improved communication and interaction, i.e. created a group matrix. Furthermore, through the content of dreams in the group, traumatic war experiences of several of the group members were opened and discussed, which brought with it recollections of the traumatic life situations of other group members. In expressing a daydream, a female member of the group revealed the background for her behaviour which was earlier interpreted as a negative symptom of the illness.

  2. The effect of transdermal nicotine patches on sleep and dreams.

    PubMed

    Page, F; Coleman, G; Conduit, R

    2006-07-30

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of 24-h transdermal nicotine patches on sleep and dream mentation in 15 smokers aged 20 to 33. Utilising a repeated measures design, it was found that more time awake and more ASDA micro-arousals occurred while wearing the nicotine patch compared to placebo. Also, the percentage of REM sleep decreased, but REM latency and the proportion of time spent in NREM sleep stages did not change significantly. Dream reports containing visual imagery, visual imagery ratings and the number of visualizable nouns were significantly greater from REM compared to Stage 2 awakenings, regardless of patch condition. However, a general interaction effect was observed. Stage 2 dream variables remained equivalent across nicotine and placebo conditions. Within REM sleep, more dream reports containing visual imagery occurred while wearing the nicotine patch, and these were rated as more vivid. The greater frequency of visual imagery reports and higher imagery ratings specifically from REM sleep suggests that previously reported dreaming side effects from 24-h nicotine patches may be specific to REM sleep. Combined with previous animal studies showing that transdermally delivered nicotine blocks PGO activity in REM sleep, the current results do no appear consistent with PGO-based hypotheses of dreaming, such as the Activation-Synthesis (AS) or Activation, Input and Modulation (AIM) models.

  3. Dreaming and waking consciousness: a character recognition study.

    PubMed

    Kahn, D; Stickgold, R; Pace-Schott, E F; Hobson, J A

    2000-12-01

    The formal features of dream characters were studied in a sample of 320 dream reports submitted by 33 adult subjects (13 male, 20 female) of varying ages in a university extension course. Subjects were queried by questionnaire about dream characters immediately after recording their dreams upon awakening in their normal home setting. It was found that 48% of characters represented a named personage known to the dreamer, 35% were generically identified by their social role (e.g., policeman) or abstract relation to the dreamer (e.g., a friend) while only 16% were wholly novel. Seventy-seven percent of characters were pseudosensorily present in the dream whereas 23% were present only by mention or thought. Subjects were allowed to endorse one or more of four bases of recognition and, among named characters, 32% were identified by 'appearance', 21% by 'behavior', 45% by 'face', and 44% by 'just knowing' (with the respective percentages for generic characters being 39%, 38%, 9% and 40%). Fourteen percent of named and generic characters had associated some element of bizarreness most frequently consisting of an incongruous feature. Comparing the 25 longest and 25 shortest reports, named subjects were significantly more common in the shortest reports whereas generic and unknown characters were more common in the longest reports. Results are interpreted in neurocognitive terms as possibly reflecting a decrease during dreaming relative to waking in the exchange of information between inferotemporal face identification areas and prefrontal areas subserving logic and working memory.

  4. Delusional Confusion of Dreaming and Reality in Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Wamsley, Erin; Donjacour, Claire E.H.M.; Scammell, Thomas E.; Lammers, Gert Jan; Stickgold, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: We investigated a generally unappreciated feature of the sleep disorder narcolepsy, in which patients mistake the memory of a dream for a real experience and form sustained delusions about significant events. Design: We interviewed patients with narcolepsy and healthy controls to establish the prevalence of this complaint and identify its predictors. Setting: Academic medical centers in Boston, Massachusetts and Leiden, The Netherlands. Participants: Patients (n = 46) with a diagnosis of narcolepsy with cataplexy, and age-matched healthy healthy controls (n = 41). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: “Dream delusions” were surprisingly common in narcolepsy and were often striking in their severity. As opposed to fleeting hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations of the sleep/wake transition, dream delusions were false memories induced by the experience of a vivid dream, which led to false beliefs that could persist for days or weeks. Conclusions: The delusional confusion of dreamed events with reality is a prominent feature of narcolepsy, and suggests the possibility of source memory deficits in this disorder that have not yet been fully characterized. Citation: Wamsley E; Donjacour CE; Scammell TE; Lammers GJ; Stickgold R. Delusional confusion of dreaming and reality in narcolepsy. SLEEP 2014;37(2):419-422. PMID:24501437

  5. Tickle me, I think I might be dreaming! Sensory attenuation, self-other distinction, and predictive processing in lucid dreams.

    PubMed

    Windt, Jennifer M; Harkness, Dominic L; Lenggenhager, Bigna

    2014-01-01

    The contrast between self- and other-produced tickles, as a special case of sensory attenuation for self-produced actions, has long been a target of empirical research. While in standard wake states it is nearly impossible to tickle oneself, there are interesting exceptions. Notably, participants awakened from REM (rapid eye movement-) sleep dreams are able to tickle themselves. So far, however, the question of whether it is possible to tickle oneself and be tickled by another in the dream state has not been investigated empirically or addressed from a theoretical perspective. Here, we report the results of an explorative web-based study in which participants were asked to rate their sensations during self-tickling and being tickled during wakefulness, imagination, and lucid dreaming. Our results, though highly preliminary, indicate that in the special case of lucid control dreams, the difference between self-tickling and being tickled by another is obliterated, with both self- and other produced tickles receiving similar ratings as self-tickling during wakefulness. This leads us to the speculative conclusion that in lucid control dreams, sensory attenuation for self-produced tickles spreads to those produced by non-self dream characters. These preliminary results provide the backdrop for a more general theoretical and metatheoretical discussion of tickling in lucid dreams in a predictive processing framework. We argue that the primary value of our study lies not so much in our results, which are subject to important limitations, but rather in the fact that they enable a new theoretical perspective on the relationship between sensory attenuation, the self-other distinction and agency, as well as suggest new questions for future research. In particular, the example of tickling during lucid dreaming raises the question of whether sensory attenuation and the self-other distinction can be simulated largely independently of external sensory input. PMID:25278861

  6. Tickle me, I think I might be dreaming! Sensory attenuation, self-other distinction, and predictive processing in lucid dreams.

    PubMed

    Windt, Jennifer M; Harkness, Dominic L; Lenggenhager, Bigna

    2014-01-01

    The contrast between self- and other-produced tickles, as a special case of sensory attenuation for self-produced actions, has long been a target of empirical research. While in standard wake states it is nearly impossible to tickle oneself, there are interesting exceptions. Notably, participants awakened from REM (rapid eye movement-) sleep dreams are able to tickle themselves. So far, however, the question of whether it is possible to tickle oneself and be tickled by another in the dream state has not been investigated empirically or addressed from a theoretical perspective. Here, we report the results of an explorative web-based study in which participants were asked to rate their sensations during self-tickling and being tickled during wakefulness, imagination, and lucid dreaming. Our results, though highly preliminary, indicate that in the special case of lucid control dreams, the difference between self-tickling and being tickled by another is obliterated, with both self- and other produced tickles receiving similar ratings as self-tickling during wakefulness. This leads us to the speculative conclusion that in lucid control dreams, sensory attenuation for self-produced tickles spreads to those produced by non-self dream characters. These preliminary results provide the backdrop for a more general theoretical and metatheoretical discussion of tickling in lucid dreams in a predictive processing framework. We argue that the primary value of our study lies not so much in our results, which are subject to important limitations, but rather in the fact that they enable a new theoretical perspective on the relationship between sensory attenuation, the self-other distinction and agency, as well as suggest new questions for future research. In particular, the example of tickling during lucid dreaming raises the question of whether sensory attenuation and the self-other distinction can be simulated largely independently of external sensory input.

  7. Tickle me, I think I might be dreaming! Sensory attenuation, self-other distinction, and predictive processing in lucid dreams

    PubMed Central

    Windt, Jennifer M.; Harkness, Dominic L.; Lenggenhager, Bigna

    2014-01-01

    The contrast between self- and other-produced tickles, as a special case of sensory attenuation for self-produced actions, has long been a target of empirical research. While in standard wake states it is nearly impossible to tickle oneself, there are interesting exceptions. Notably, participants awakened from REM (rapid eye movement-) sleep dreams are able to tickle themselves. So far, however, the question of whether it is possible to tickle oneself and be tickled by another in the dream state has not been investigated empirically or addressed from a theoretical perspective. Here, we report the results of an explorative web-based study in which participants were asked to rate their sensations during self-tickling and being tickled during wakefulness, imagination, and lucid dreaming. Our results, though highly preliminary, indicate that in the special case of lucid control dreams, the difference between self-tickling and being tickled by another is obliterated, with both self- and other produced tickles receiving similar ratings as self-tickling during wakefulness. This leads us to the speculative conclusion that in lucid control dreams, sensory attenuation for self-produced tickles spreads to those produced by non-self dream characters. These preliminary results provide the backdrop for a more general theoretical and metatheoretical discussion of tickling in lucid dreams in a predictive processing framework. We argue that the primary value of our study lies not so much in our results, which are subject to important limitations, but rather in the fact that they enable a new theoretical perspective on the relationship between sensory attenuation, the self-other distinction and agency, as well as suggest new questions for future research. In particular, the example of tickling during lucid dreaming raises the question of whether sensory attenuation and the self-other distinction can be simulated largely independently of external sensory input. PMID:25278861

  8. Goal Commitments and the content of thoughts and dreams: basic principles

    PubMed Central

    Klinger, Eric

    2013-01-01

    A few empirically supported principles can account for much of the thematic content of waking thought, including rumination, and dreams. (1) An individual’s commitments to particular goals sensitize the individual to respond to cues associated with those goals. The cues may be external or internal in the person’s own mental activity. The responses may take the form of noticing the cues, storing them in memory, having thoughts or dream segments related to them, and/or taking action. Noticing may be conscious or not. Goals may be any desired endpoint of a behavioral sequence, including finding out more about something, i.e., exploring possible goals, such as job possibilities or personal relationships. (2) Such responses are accompanied and perhaps preceded by protoemotional activity or full emotional arousal, the amplitude of which determines the likelihood of response and is related to the value placed on the goal. (3) When the individual is in a situation conducive to making progress toward attaining the goal, the response to goal cues takes the form of actions or operant mental acts that advance the goal pursuit. (4) When circumstances are unfavorable for goal-directed operant behavior, the response remains purely mental, as in mind-wandering and dreaming, but still reflects the content of the goal pursuit or associated content. (5) Respondent responses such as mind-wandering are more likely when the individual is mentally unoccupied with ongoing tasks and less likely the more that is at stake in the ongoing task. The probability of respondent thought is highest during relaxed periods, when the brain’s default-mode network dominates, or during sleep. The article briefly summarizes neurocognitive findings that relate to mind-wandering and evidence regarding adverse effects of mind-wandering on task performance as well as evidence suggesting adaptive functions in regard to creative problem-solving, planning, resisting delay discounting, and memory

  9. Self-reported effects of dreams on waking-life creativity: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael; Erlacher, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The authors studied the self-rated effect of dreams on creativity in participants who were not selected for creative abilities. Students (N = 444) and online respondents (N = 636) answered a questionnaire about dreams and creative dreams. In addition, the students completed several personality measures and creativity scales. Results indicated that dreams that stimulated waking-life creativity played a considerable role in the lives of ordinary people (about 8% of all dreams). Examples reported by the online participants fell into 4 categories: (a) dream images used for art, work, or similar areas; (b) dreams that solved a problem; (c) dreams that provided the impetus to do something that the dreamer otherwise had difficulty doing; and (d) dreams containing emotional insights. The main factors influencing frequency of creative dreams were dream recall frequency and the thin boundaries personality dimension. Future researchers should use diary techniques to study the effects of dreams on waking life and should develop techniques to increase the frequency of creative dreams that might be valuable as aids for people in creative jobs.

  10. 76 FR 79764 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel DREAM CATCHER; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel DREAM CATCHER... the vessel DREAM CATCHER is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``Passenger charter.''...

  11. Lucid dreaming incidence: A quality effects meta-analysis of 50years of research.

    PubMed

    Saunders, David T; Roe, Chris A; Smith, Graham; Clegg, Helen

    2016-07-01

    We report a quality effects meta-analysis on studies from the period 1966-2016 measuring either (a) lucid dreaming prevalence (one or more lucid dreams in a lifetime); (b) frequent lucid dreaming (one or more lucid dreams in a month) or both. A quality effects meta-analysis allows for the minimisation of the influence of study methodological quality on overall model estimates. Following sensitivity analysis, a heterogeneous lucid dreaming prevalence data set of 34 studies yielded a mean estimate of 55%, 95% C. I. [49%, 62%] for which moderator analysis showed no systematic bias for suspected sources of variability. A heterogeneous lucid dreaming frequency data set of 25 studies yielded a mean estimate of 23%, 95% C. I. [20%, 25%], moderator analysis revealed no suspected sources of variability. These findings are consistent with earlier estimates of lucid dreaming prevalence and frequent lucid dreaming in the population but are based on more robust evidence. PMID:27337287

  12. Lucid dreaming incidence: A quality effects meta-analysis of 50years of research.

    PubMed

    Saunders, David T; Roe, Chris A; Smith, Graham; Clegg, Helen

    2016-07-01

    We report a quality effects meta-analysis on studies from the period 1966-2016 measuring either (a) lucid dreaming prevalence (one or more lucid dreams in a lifetime); (b) frequent lucid dreaming (one or more lucid dreams in a month) or both. A quality effects meta-analysis allows for the minimisation of the influence of study methodological quality on overall model estimates. Following sensitivity analysis, a heterogeneous lucid dreaming prevalence data set of 34 studies yielded a mean estimate of 55%, 95% C. I. [49%, 62%] for which moderator analysis showed no systematic bias for suspected sources of variability. A heterogeneous lucid dreaming frequency data set of 25 studies yielded a mean estimate of 23%, 95% C. I. [20%, 25%], moderator analysis revealed no suspected sources of variability. These findings are consistent with earlier estimates of lucid dreaming prevalence and frequent lucid dreaming in the population but are based on more robust evidence.

  13. Dreaming and waking experiences in schizophrenia: how should the (dis)continuity hypotheses be approached empirically?

    PubMed

    Noreika, Valdas

    2011-06-01

    A number of differences between the dreams of schizophrenia patients and those of healthy participants have been linked to changes in waking life that schizophrenia may cause. This way, the "continuity hypothesis" has become a standard way to relate dreaming and waking experiences in schizophrenia. Nevertheless, some of the findings in dream literature are not compatible with the continuity hypothesis and suggest some other ways how dream content and waking experiences could interact. Conceptually, the continuity hypothesis could be sharpened into the "waking-to-dreaming" and the "dreaming-to-waking" hypotheses, whereas a less explored type of "discontinuity" could embrace the "compensated waking" and the "compensated dreaming" hypotheses. A careful consideration and empirical testing of each of those hypotheses may reveal a multiplicity of the ways how dreaming and waking life interact in schizophrenia.

  14. Will students pass a competitive exam that they failed in their dreams?

    PubMed

    Arnulf, Isabelle; Grosliere, Laure; Le Corvec, Thibault; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Lascols, Olivier; Duguet, Alexandre

    2014-10-01

    We tested whether dreams can anticipate a stressful exam and how failure/success in dreams affect next-day performance. We collected information on students' dreams during the night preceding the medical school entrance exam. Demographic, academic, sleep and dream characteristics were compared to the students' grades on the exam. Of the 719 respondents to the questionnaire (of 2324 total students), 60.4% dreamt of the exam during the night preceding it. Problems with the exam appeared in 78% of dreams and primarily involved being late and forgetting answers. Reporting a dream about the exam on the pre-exam night was associated with better performance on the exam (p=.01). The frequency of dreams concerning the exam during the first term predicted proportionally higher performance on the exam (R=0.1, p=.01). These results suggest that the negative anticipation of a stressful event in dreams is common and that this episodic simulation provides a cognitive gain.

  15. Lucid dreaming and resilience in the face of exposure to terrorism.

    PubMed

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Wertheim, Reut; Shahar, Golan

    2011-02-01

    The relationship between resilience and lucid dreams, which involves awareness of the experience of dreaming, was examined in 79 Israeli young adults. Psychological distress and lucid dreams 3 years prior to exposure to terrorism, and exposure levels and psychological distress 1 week following exposure, were assessed. Both indirect exposure through media and perceived stress predicted an increase in distress during the 3-year interval under low, but not high, levels of lucid dreams. Possible mechanisms are discussed. PMID:21351172

  16. Swapnaushadhi: the embedded logic of dreams and medical innovation in Bengal.

    PubMed

    Mukharji, Projit Bihari

    2014-09-01

    Numerous medicines in South Asia have their origins in dreams. Deities, saints and other supernatural beings frequently appear in dreams to instruct dreamers about specific remedies, therapeutic techniques, modes of care etc. These therapies challenge available models of historicising dreams. Once we overcome these challenges and unearth the embedded logic of these dreams, we begin to discern in them a dynamic institution that enabled and sustained therapeutic change within a 'traditional' medical milieu.

  17. Lucid dreaming and resilience in the face of exposure to terrorism.

    PubMed

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Wertheim, Reut; Shahar, Golan

    2011-02-01

    The relationship between resilience and lucid dreams, which involves awareness of the experience of dreaming, was examined in 79 Israeli young adults. Psychological distress and lucid dreams 3 years prior to exposure to terrorism, and exposure levels and psychological distress 1 week following exposure, were assessed. Both indirect exposure through media and perceived stress predicted an increase in distress during the 3-year interval under low, but not high, levels of lucid dreams. Possible mechanisms are discussed.

  18. Studying the relationship between dreaming and sleep-dependent memory processes: methodological challenges.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael

    2013-12-01

    The hypothesis that dreaming is involved in off-line memory processing is difficult to test because major methodological issues have to be addressed, such as dream recall and the effect of remembered dreams on memory. It would be fruitful--in addition to studying the ancient art of memory (AAOM) in a scanner--to study the dreams of persons who use AAOM regularly.

  19. Swapnaushadhi: the embedded logic of dreams and medical innovation in Bengal.

    PubMed

    Mukharji, Projit Bihari

    2014-09-01

    Numerous medicines in South Asia have their origins in dreams. Deities, saints and other supernatural beings frequently appear in dreams to instruct dreamers about specific remedies, therapeutic techniques, modes of care etc. These therapies challenge available models of historicising dreams. Once we overcome these challenges and unearth the embedded logic of these dreams, we begin to discern in them a dynamic institution that enabled and sustained therapeutic change within a 'traditional' medical milieu. PMID:24990459

  20. Making a place in the metropolis: locational attainment in cities and suburbs.

    PubMed

    Logan, J R; Alba, R D; McNulty, T; Fisher, B

    1996-11-01

    What accounts for the differences in the kinds of communities within the metropolis in which members of different racial and ethnic groups live? Do socioeconomic advancement and acculturation provide greater integration with whites or access to more desirable locations for minority-group members? Are these effects the same for Asians or Hispanics as for blacks? Does suburbanization offer a step toward greater equality in the housing market, or do minorities find greater discrimination in the suburban housing market? Data from 1980 for five large metropolitan regions are used to estimate "locational-attainment models," which evaluate the effects of group members' individual attributes on two measures of the character of their living environment: the socioeconomic standing (median household income) and racial composition (proportion non-Hispanic white) of the census tract where they reside. Separate models predict these outcomes for whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Asians. Net of the effects of individuals' background characteristics, whites live in census tracts with the highest average proportion of white residents and the highest median household income. They are followed by Asians and Hispanics, and-at substantially lower levels-blacks. Large overall differences exist between city and suburban locations; yet the gap between whites and others is consistently lower in the suburbs than in the cities of these five metropolitan regions.

  1. Metropolis revisited: the evolving role of librarians in informatics education for the health professions

    PubMed Central

    King, Samuel B.; Lapidus, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The authors' goal was to assess changes in the role of librarians in informatics education from 2004 to 2013. This is a follow-up to “Metropolis Redux: The Unique Importance of Library Skills in Informatics,” a 2004 survey of informatics programs. Methods: An electronic survey was conducted in January 2013 and sent to librarians via the MEDLIB-L email discussion list, the library section of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, the Medical Informatics Section of the Medical Library Association, the Information Technology Interest Group of the Association of College and Research Libraries/New England Region, and various library directors across the country. Results: Librarians from fifty-five institutions responded to the survey. Of these respondents, thirty-four included librarians in nonlibrary aspects of informatics training. Fifteen institutions have librarians participating in leadership positions in their informatics programs. Compared to the earlier survey, the role of librarians has evolved. Conclusions: Librarians possess skills that enable them to participate in informatics programs beyond a narrow library focus. Librarians currently perform significant leadership roles in informatics education. There are opportunities for librarian interdisciplinary collaboration in informatics programs. Implications: Informatics is much more than the study of technology. The information skills that librarians bring to the table enrich and broaden the study of informatics in addition to adding value to the library profession itself. PMID:25552939

  2. The Metropolis Monte Carlo method with CUDA enabled Graphic Processing Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Clifford; Ji, Weixiao; Blaisten-Barojas, Estela

    2014-02-01

    We present a CPU-GPU system for runtime acceleration of large molecular simulations using GPU computation and memory swaps. The memory architecture of the GPU can be used both as container for simulation data stored on the graphics card and as floating-point code target, providing an effective means for the manipulation of atomistic or molecular data on the GPU. To fully take advantage of this mechanism, efficient GPU realizations of algorithms used to perform atomistic and molecular simulations are essential. Our system implements a versatile molecular engine, including inter-molecule interactions and orientational variables for performing the Metropolis Monte Carlo (MMC) algorithm, which is one type of Markov chain Monte Carlo. By combining memory objects with floating-point code fragments we have implemented an MMC parallel engine that entirely avoids the communication time of molecular data at runtime. Our runtime acceleration system is a forerunner of a new class of CPU-GPU algorithms exploiting memory concepts combined with threading for avoiding bus bandwidth and communication. The testbed molecular system used here is a condensed phase system of oligopyrrole chains. A benchmark shows a size scaling speedup of 60 for systems with 210,000 pyrrole monomers. Our implementation can easily be combined with MPI to connect in parallel several CPU-GPU duets.

  3. The occurrence of Mansonella perstans among residents of Calabar metropolis in Cross River State of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akpan, Samuel S; Mbah, Maurice; Achi, Ernestine

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of Mansonella perstans was studied among people who had resided in Calabar metropolis for at least one year prior to the time of this study, which lasted from February to August, 2011. One thousand residents, comprising 530 males and 470 females, with an age range of 4 to 59 years, participated in the study, after an informed consent. Two millilitres of venous blood were collected at day time into EDTA bottles. The blood samples were processed by diluting 1ml of blood in 9 mls of 1% formalin and centrifuging the preparation at 3,000 revolutions per minute for 5 minutes. Deposits were left as blood smears on clean slides and after air-drying, were stained with 3% Giemsa solution for microscopy. Overall, the prevalence of Mansonella perstans was 2% (20 vs 1,000). The prevalence of the parasite among the females was 2.1% (10 vs 470) and males 1.9% (10 vs 530). Microfilaraemia only occurred among subjects aged between 25 and 45 years. The results of this study suggest that loiasis, which earned Calabar an unenviable mention in early medical literature, is no longer very prevalent in the area. Instead, a low prevalence of mansonelliasis occurs, in tandem with the existence of sparse farmlands of banana and plantain. Old stems of these crops provide suitable habitats for Culicoides species, which transmit Mansonella perstans. PMID:25911033

  4. The impact of dreams of the deceased on bereavement: a survey of hospice caregivers.

    PubMed

    Wright, Scott T; Kerr, Christopher W; Doroszczuk, Nicole M; Kuszczak, Sarah M; Hang, Pei C; Luczkiewicz, Debra L

    2014-03-01

    Many recently bereaved persons experience vivid and deeply meaningful dreams featuring the presence of the deceased that may reflect and impact the process of mourning. The present study surveyed 278 bereaved persons regarding their own perspective of the relationship between dreams and the mourning process. Fifty eight percent of respondents reported dreams of their deceased loved ones, with varying levels of frequency. Most participants reported that their dreams were either pleasant or both pleasant and disturbing, and few reported purely disturbing dreams. Prevalent dream themes included pleasant past memories or experiences, the deceased free of illness, memories of the deceased's illness or time of death, the deceased in the afterlife appearing comfortable and at peace, and the deceased communicating a message. These themes overlap significantly with previous models of bereavement dream content. Sixty percent of participants felt that their dreams impacted their bereavement process. Specific effects of the dreams on bereavement processes included increased acceptance of the loved one's death, comfort, spirituality, sadness, and quality of life, among others. These results support the theory that dreams of the deceased are highly prevalent among and often deeply meaningful for the bereaved. While many counselors are uncomfortable working with dreams in psychotherapy, the present study demonstrates their therapeutic relevance to the bereaved population and emphasizes the importance for grief counselors to increase their awareness, knowledge, and skills with regards to working with dreams. PMID:23449603

  5. The Consciousness of Surrender and the Surrendered Consciousness: Ecstatic Dreams of Lord Krishna

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Graham

    2004-01-01

    This article is based on research at Bhaktivedanta Manor, the main UK centre of the Hare Krishna movement, and it examines ecstatic dreams of Lord Krishna which devotees at the Manor claim to experience. With a focus on one key informant's account of such dreams, the article explores the role the dreams play in spiritual and devotional life.…

  6. Helpful Components Involved in the Cognitive-Experiential Model of Dream Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tien, Hsiu-Lan Shelley; Chen, Shuh-Chi; Lin, Chia-Huei

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the helpful components involved in the Hill's cognitive-experiential dream work model. Participants were 27 volunteer clients from colleges and universities in northern and central parts of Taiwan. Each of the clients received 1-2 sessions of dream interpretations. The cognitive-experiential dream work model…

  7. The impact of dreams of the deceased on bereavement: a survey of hospice caregivers.

    PubMed

    Wright, Scott T; Kerr, Christopher W; Doroszczuk, Nicole M; Kuszczak, Sarah M; Hang, Pei C; Luczkiewicz, Debra L

    2014-03-01

    Many recently bereaved persons experience vivid and deeply meaningful dreams featuring the presence of the deceased that may reflect and impact the process of mourning. The present study surveyed 278 bereaved persons regarding their own perspective of the relationship between dreams and the mourning process. Fifty eight percent of respondents reported dreams of their deceased loved ones, with varying levels of frequency. Most participants reported that their dreams were either pleasant or both pleasant and disturbing, and few reported purely disturbing dreams. Prevalent dream themes included pleasant past memories or experiences, the deceased free of illness, memories of the deceased's illness or time of death, the deceased in the afterlife appearing comfortable and at peace, and the deceased communicating a message. These themes overlap significantly with previous models of bereavement dream content. Sixty percent of participants felt that their dreams impacted their bereavement process. Specific effects of the dreams on bereavement processes included increased acceptance of the loved one's death, comfort, spirituality, sadness, and quality of life, among others. These results support the theory that dreams of the deceased are highly prevalent among and often deeply meaningful for the bereaved. While many counselors are uncomfortable working with dreams in psychotherapy, the present study demonstrates their therapeutic relevance to the bereaved population and emphasizes the importance for grief counselors to increase their awareness, knowledge, and skills with regards to working with dreams.

  8. Has the Dream Been Fulfilled? Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. & President Barack Hussein Obama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Nichelle Boyd; Moore, Virginia J.; Williams-Black, Thea H.

    2015-01-01

    Equality for all was the dream of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and he knowingly laid the foundation for and inspired the first African-American President of the United States of America, Barack Hussein Obama, who also had the dream of "Change" for America. These men exhibited how working together can make dreams become reality. For the…

  9. Darkness into Light: The Dream Journal of an Addicted Trauma Survivor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    This article applies dream work to the case of an addicted survivor of sexual abuse trauma using models of C. G. Jung (1974) and L. S. Leonard (1989). It then relates the dreams of the fictional client to St. Teresa of Avila's (1577/1989) classic model for spiritual growth, The Interior Castle. The goal of working with dreams in the context of…

  10. Primary Process Thinking in Dream Reports as Related to Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domino, George

    1976-01-01

    Dream reports of highly creative male high school students were rated by clinical psychologists as exhibiting greater primary process thinking than the dream reports of matched controls; their dream protocols also included a significantly greater proportion of symbolism, condensations, and unusual combinations but a smaller proportion of…

  11. The Impact of the Dream on Mental Health Functioning in the Male Midlife Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drebing, Charles E.; Gooden, Winston E.

    1991-01-01

    Examined whether midlife men (n=64) had personal Dream as defined by Levinson and whether they experienced success of Dream. Findings support conclusion that whether man has Dream and degree to which he experiences success in achieving it are significantly related to mental health status during midlife transition. (Author/NB)

  12. Comparison of Dream Interpretation, Event Interpretation, and Unstructured Sessions in Brief Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diemer, Roberta A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-five distressed adult clients received 2 sessions each of dream and event interpretation using the Hill model during 12 sessions of successful therapy. No differences were found in depth, insight, and working alliance among dream interpretation, event interpretation, and unstructured sessions, suggesting that dream interpretation is as…

  13. Comparing personal insight gains due to consideration of a recent dream and consideration of a recent event using the Ullman and Schredl dream group methods.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Christopher L; Malinowski, Josie E; McGee, Shauna L; Bennett, Paul D; Ruby, Perrine M; Blagrove, Mark T

    2015-01-01

    There have been reports and claims in the psychotherapeutic literature that the consideration of recent dreams can result in personal realizations and insight. There is theoretical support for these claims from work on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep having a function of the consolidation of emotional memories and the creative formation of connections between new and older memories. To investigate these claims, 11 participants (10 females, one male) reported and considered a recent home dream in a dream discussion group that following the "Appreciating dreams" method of Montague Ullman. The group ran 11 times, each participant attending and participating once. A further nine participants (seven females, two males) reported and considered a recent home dream in a group that followed the "Listening to the dreamer" method of Michael Schredl. The two studies each had a control condition where the participant also reported a recent event, the consideration of which followed the same technique as was followed for the dream report. Outcomes of the discussions were assessed by the participants on the Gains from Dream Interpretation (GDI) scale, and on its counterpart, the Gains from Event Interpretation scale. High ratings on the GDI experiential-insight subscale were reported for both methods, when applied to dreams, and for the Ullman method Exploration-Insight ratings for the dream condition were significantly higher than for the control event condition. In the Ullman method, self-assessment of personal insight due to consideration of dream content was also significantly higher than for the event consideration condition. The findings support the view that benefits can be obtained from the consideration of dream content, in terms of identifying the waking life sources of dream content, and because personal insight may also occur. To investigate the mechanisms for the findings, the studies should be repeated with REM and non-REM dream reports, hypothesizing greater insight

  14. Economic dream in Peril. [Newsweek special report

    SciTech Connect

    Pauly, D.; Rogal, K.; Monroe, S.; Abramson, P.

    1980-09-08

    The American dream of an ever-expanding economy in which each succeeding generation can anticipate a better life is dying and lowering American expections in the process. A number of explanations are offered by economists, government officials, businessmen, and laborers. The Carter administration is prescribing a range of remedies that resembles the Reagan proposals by addressing tax laws and cutting taxes $27.6 billion, but differs by promoting Federal programs that are patterned after the Japanese business-government partnership rather than reducing the Federal role. The reforms are aimed at lowering inflation rates and revitalizing industry. Reagan is critical of what he sees as unnecessary complexity of government participation in comparison to his plan for extensive tax cuts and reduced government. The debate is expected to extend beyond election day. The US productivity crisis is discussed in detail in one section, and at the end of the article, two Nobel laureates - Milton Friedman and Paul A. Samuelson - give their views on the problem. Another special section is entitled, Lessons From Japan, Inc.

  15. Dream Interpretation Sessions: Who Volunteers, Who Benefits, and What Volunteer Clients View as Most and Least Helpful.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Clara E.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of college students participating in a dream interpretation session found that compared to nonvolunteers, students who volunteered had more positive attitudes towards dreams, recalled dreams more frequently, were more open, were higher in absorption, and were more often female. Helpful aspects of dream interpretations included insights…

  16. Another look at dreaming: disentangling Freud's primary and secondary process theories.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The Interpretation of Dreams contains Freud's first and most complete articulation of the primary and secondary mental processes that serve as a framework for the workings of mind, conscious and unconscious. While it is generally believed that Freud proposed a single theory of dreaming, based on the primary process, a number of ambiguities, inconsistencies, and contradictions reflect an incomplete differentiation of the parts played by the two mental processes in dreaming. It is proposed that two radically different hypotheses about dreaming are embedded in Freud's work. The one implicit in classical dream interpretation is based on the assumption that dreams, like waking language, are representational, and are made up of symbols connected to latent unconscious thoughts. Whereas the symbols that constitute waking language are largely verbal and only partly unconscious, those that constitute dreams are presumably more thoroughly disguised and represented as arcane hallucinated hieroglyphs. From this perspective, both the language of the dream and that of waking life are secondary process manifestations. Interpretation of the dream using the secondary process model involves the assumption of a linear two-way "road" connecting manifest and latent aspects, which in one direction involves the work of dream construction and in the other permits the associative process of decoding and interpretation. Freud's more revolutionary hypothesis, whose implications he did not fully elaborate, is that dreams are the expression of a primary mental process that differs qualitatively from waking thought and hence are incomprehensible through a secondary process model. This seems more adequately to account for what is now known about dreaming, and is more consistent with the way dream interpretation is ordinarily conducted in clinical practice. Recognition that dreams are qualitatively distinctive expressions of mind may help to restore dreaming to its privileged position as a unique

  17. [Reconsidering children's dreams. A critical review of methods and results in developmental dream research from Freud to contemporary works].

    PubMed

    Sándor, Piroska; Bódizs, Róbert

    2014-01-01

    Examining children's dream development is a significant challenge for researchers. Results from studies on children's dreaming may enlighten us on the nature and role of dreaming as well as broaden our knowledge of consciousness and cognitive development. This review summarizes the main questions and historical progress in developmental dream research, with the aim of shedding light on the advantages, disadvantages and effects of different settings and methods on research outcomes. A typical example would be the dreams of 3 to 5 year-olds: they are simple and static, with a relative absence of emotions and active self participation according to laboratory studies; studies using different methodology however found them to be vivid, rich in emotions, with the self as an active participant. Questions about the validity of different methods arise, and are considered within this review. Given that methodological differences can result in highly divergent outcomes, it is strongly recommended for future research to select methodology and treat results more carefully. PMID:25411223

  18. The dreaming brain/mind, consciousness and psychosis.

    PubMed

    Limosani, Ivan; D'Agostino, Armando; Manzone, Maria Laura; Scarone, Silvio

    2011-12-01

    Several independent lines of research in neurobiology seem to support the phenomenologically-grounded view of the dreaming brain/mind as a useful model for psychosis. Hallucinatory phenomena and thought disorders found in psychosis share several peculiarities with dreaming, where internally generated, vivid sensorimotor imagery along with often heightened and incongruous emotion are paired with a decrease in ego functions which ultimately leads to a severe impairment in reality testing. Contemporary conceptualizations of severe mental disorders view psychosis as one psychopathological dimension that may be found across several diagnostic categories. Some experimental data have shown cognitive bizarreness to be equally elevated in dreams and in the waking cognition of acutely psychotic subjects and in patients treated with pro-dopaminergic drugs, independent of the underlying disorder. Further studies into the neurofunctional underpinnings of both conditions will help to clarify the use and validity of this model.

  19. Neuroimaging of dreaming: state of the art and limitations.

    PubMed

    Kussé, Caroline; Muto, Vincenzo; Mascetti, Laura; Matarazzo, Luca; Foret, Ariane; Bourdiec, Anahita Shaffii-Le; Maquet, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    During the last two decades, functional neuroimaging has been used to characterize the regional brain function during sleep in humans, at the macroscopic systems level. In addition, the topography of brain activity, especially during rapid eye movement sleep, was thought to be compatible with the general features of dreams. In contrast, the neural correlates of dreams remain largely unexplored. This review examines the difficulties associated with the characterization of dream correlates. ἓν οἶδα ὅτι οὐδὲν οἶδα Σωκράτης (The only thing I know is that I know nothing) Socrates.

  20. Freud's private mini-monograph on his own dreams. A contribution to the celebration of the centenary of The interpretation of dreams.

    PubMed

    Blum, H P

    2001-10-01

    A virtually unknown brief commentary by Freud on the characteristics of his own dreams is described and discussed. Freud's mini-monograph, discovered after some 80 years, has autobiographical, theoretical and organisational significance in the enigmatic context of the early development of psychoanalysis. Found among papers of Alfred Adler, this extraordinary document adds to our knowledge of psychoanalytic history, including the significance of dreams in the evolution of psychoanalytic thought. Freud's commentary permitted the identification of a particular dream as his own. This dream had been presented in anonymity to the fledgling Vienna Psychoanalytic Society for interpretation. The dream was later inserted, again anonymously, into The Interpretation of Dreams with Freud's own remarkable pre-oedipal interpretation. Freud's conflicted relationships with Adler and Jung are considered in historical context.

  1. Spoken and written dream communication: differences and methodological aspects.

    PubMed

    Casagrande, Maria; Cortini, Paolo

    2008-03-01

    Based on structural differences between spoken and written language, the purpose of this paper was to investigate whether spoken and written communication imply a different representation in reporting an experienced dream. In fact, the clausal-dynamic quality of the former and nominal-synoptic quality of the latter, with the consequent differences in length, cohesion and density, could enhance/reduce the perceptual character and narrative structure of report features often considered in order to assess sleep mentation. In particular, we wondered whether, after eliminating all the elements responsible for the more conspicuous quantitative differences across the two forms (false starts, repetitions, digressions, redundancies), we would obtain two equivalent ways of reporting dreams. Three hundred and two (101 males and 201 females) subjects, raging in age from 18 to 40 years, participated as volunteers in the study and were asked to complete a dream diary daily for 14 days, by tape-recording their own dreams and putting them down in writing. The reports were analyzed by a psycholinguistic system. Results indicated that the report modality is able to affect the dream experience representation, conditioning the figurative (re)translation carried out by the tester: written forms show a loss of hallucinatory information and a non-complete correspondence also of the bizarreness features with respect to the spoken texts. Partialling out for length eliminated any difference between spoken and written dream reports on bizarreness; on the other hand, controlling the sequence effect of the report did not introduce changes. Methodological and theoretical implications were discussed.

  2. Dissociative states in dreams and brain chaos: implications for creative awareness

    PubMed Central

    Bob, Petr; Louchakova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent findings indicating some common brain processes during dissociative states and dreaming with the aim to outline a perspective that neural chaotic states during dreaming can be closely related to dissociative states that may manifest in dreams scenery. These data are in agreement with various clinical findings that dissociated states can be projected into the “dream scenery” in REM sleep periods and dreams may represent their specific interactions that may uncover unusual psychological potential of creativity in psychotherapy, art, and scientific discoveries. PMID:26441729

  3. Dissociative states in dreams and brain chaos: implications for creative awareness.

    PubMed

    Bob, Petr; Louchakova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent findings indicating some common brain processes during dissociative states and dreaming with the aim to outline a perspective that neural chaotic states during dreaming can be closely related to dissociative states that may manifest in dreams scenery. These data are in agreement with various clinical findings that dissociated states can be projected into the "dream scenery" in REM sleep periods and dreams may represent their specific interactions that may uncover unusual psychological potential of creativity in psychotherapy, art, and scientific discoveries. PMID:26441729

  4. Dissociative states in dreams and brain chaos: implications for creative awareness.

    PubMed

    Bob, Petr; Louchakova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent findings indicating some common brain processes during dissociative states and dreaming with the aim to outline a perspective that neural chaotic states during dreaming can be closely related to dissociative states that may manifest in dreams scenery. These data are in agreement with various clinical findings that dissociated states can be projected into the "dream scenery" in REM sleep periods and dreams may represent their specific interactions that may uncover unusual psychological potential of creativity in psychotherapy, art, and scientific discoveries.

  5. I know how you felt last night, or do I? Self- and external ratings of emotions in REM sleep dreams.

    PubMed

    Sikka, Pilleriin; Valli, Katja; Virta, Tiina; Revonsuo, Antti

    2014-04-01

    We investigated whether inconsistencies in previous studies regarding emotional experiences in dreams derive from whether dream emotions are self-rated or externally evaluated. Seventeen subjects were monitored with polysomnography in the sleep laboratory and awakened from every rapid eye movement (REM) sleep stage 5 min after the onset of the stage. Upon awakening, participants gave an oral dream report and rated their dream emotions using the modified Differential Emotions Scale, whereas external judges rated the participants' emotions expressed in the dream reports, using the same scale. The two approaches produced diverging results. Self-ratings, as compared to external ratings, resulted in greater estimates of (a) emotional dreams; (b) positively valenced dreams; (c) positive and negative emotions per dream; and (d) various discrete emotions represented in dreams. The results suggest that this is mostly due to the underrepresentation of positive emotions in dream reports. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  6. C. G. Jung's Dream of Siegfried: A Psychobiographical Study.

    PubMed

    Kovary, Zoltan

    2015-08-01

    During the past decades, besides Sigmund Freud, C.G. Jung has been a subject of modern psychobiographical investigations. The revealed documents of Jung and Sabina Speielrein's relationship remarkably changed the narratives of this outstanding story, and it also bears important theoretical consequences. This article focuses on Jung's Siegfried-dream found in his autobiography, since it is closely related to the Freud-Jung-Spielrein triangle, and can be associated with some significant aspects of intellectual history. The text of the dream is treated as an Allportian "first-person document" that can be a starting point of a psychobiographical investigation. PMID:26290943

  7. [Sexual hallucinations and dreams under anesthesia and sedation : medicolegal aspects].

    PubMed

    Schneemilch, C; Schiltz, K; Meinshausen, E; Hachenberg, T

    2012-03-01

    Dreams and hallucinations under sedation or anesthesia have been well known phenomena since the introduction of anesthesia. Sexual hallucinations may lead to allegations of sexual molestation or assault by medical doctors or professional nursing staff. Hallucinations under the influence of sedative or hypnotic drugs may be very vivid and as misinterpreted as being real and it is therefore often difficult to disprove the resulting false allegations. In this report the terms drug-induced dreams and hallucinations are defined and the probable mechanism described. By a historical review and case reports the medicolegal consequences are demonstrated and procedures recommended to avoid allegations of sexual assault.

  8. [Female erotic dreams and female seed in ancient Greek medicine].

    PubMed

    Andò, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses passages of the Hippocratic Corpus, of Aristotle and Galen about oneirogmòs, spermatic emission during sleep, referring specifically to women. Into the Hippocratic texts there is only one gynaecological case among many cases about males: for them this nocturnal emission is symptom of dangerous illness and De genitura gives a causal explanation of such phaenomenon. Instead, in Aristotle and Galen erotic dream is evidence for or against emission of female seed and female contribution to generation. As the argument ofHistoria animalium book X shows clear theoretical differences from that of De generatione animalium, the topic of erotic dream also concerns issues of authenticity.

  9. Comparing personal insight gains due to consideration of a recent dream and consideration of a recent event using the Ullman and Schredl dream group methods

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Christopher L.; Malinowski, Josie E.; McGee, Shauna L.; Bennett, Paul D.; Ruby, Perrine M.; Blagrove, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    There have been reports and claims in the psychotherapeutic literature that the consideration of recent dreams can result in personal realizations and insight. There is theoretical support for these claims from work on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep having a function of the consolidation of emotional memories and the creative formation of connections between new and older memories. To investigate these claims, 11 participants (10 females, one male) reported and considered a recent home dream in a dream discussion group that following the “Appreciating dreams” method of Montague Ullman. The group ran 11 times, each participant attending and participating once. A further nine participants (seven females, two males) reported and considered a recent home dream in a group that followed the “Listening to the dreamer” method of Michael Schredl. The two studies each had a control condition where the participant also reported a recent event, the consideration of which followed the same technique as was followed for the dream report. Outcomes of the discussions were assessed by the participants on the Gains from Dream Interpretation (GDI) scale, and on its counterpart, the Gains from Event Interpretation scale. High ratings on the GDI experiential-insight subscale were reported for both methods, when applied to dreams, and for the Ullman method Exploration-Insight ratings for the dream condition were significantly higher than for the control event condition. In the Ullman method, self-assessment of personal insight due to consideration of dream content was also significantly higher than for the event consideration condition. The findings support the view that benefits can be obtained from the consideration of dream content, in terms of identifying the waking life sources of dream content, and because personal insight may also occur. To investigate the mechanisms for the findings, the studies should be repeated with REM and non-REM dream reports, hypothesizing greater

  10. Grandfathers, Google, and dreams: medical pluralism, globalization, and new healing encounters in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Hampshire, Kate R; Owusu, Samuel Asiedu

    2013-01-01

    Across contemporary Africa, pluralistic medical fields are becoming increasingly complex, giving rise to newly emerging constellations of healing practices and a vast array of therapeutic possibilities. We present portraits of four 'traditional' healers in southern Ghana who selectively adapt, adopt, and modify elements of biomedical, 'local,' and 'exotic' healing practices in eclectic and creative ways, positioning themselves strategically in a highly pluralistic, contested, and globalized medical arena. Their practices are informed by 'traditional' knowledge, passed down through families and acquired through spiritually directed dreams, but also from medical textbooks, Google searches, 'scientific' experimentation, and interactions with the biomedical sector. The healers make use of modern information and communication technologies to increase their geographical reach, and respond to the opportunities and risks of an increasingly global but strongly differentiated therapeutic market. However, while apparently transgressing therapeutic boundaries, they are simultaneously drawing on a discourse of stabilizing and straddling those boundaries to legitimize their practices. PMID:23557008

  11. The Dream as a Model for Psychosis: An Experimental Approach Using Bizarreness as a Cognitive Marker

    PubMed Central

    Scarone, Silvio; Manzone, Maria Laura; Gambini, Orsola; Kantzas, Ilde; Limosani, Ivan; D'Agostino, Armando; Hobson, J. Allan

    2008-01-01

    Many previous observers have reported some qualitative similarities between the normal mental state of dreaming and the abnormal mental state of psychosis. Recent psychological, tomographic, electrophysiological, and neurochemical data appear to confirm the functional similarities between these 2 states. In this study, the hypothesis of the dreaming brain as a neurobiological model for psychosis was tested by focusing on cognitive bizarreness, a distinctive property of the dreaming mental state defined by discontinuities and incongruities in the dream plot, thoughts, and feelings. Cognitive bizarreness was measured in written reports of dreams and in verbal reports of waking fantasies in 30 schizophrenics and 30 normal controls. Seven pictures of the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) were administered as a stimulus to elicit waking fantasies, and all participating subjects were asked to record their dreams upon awakening. A total of 420 waking fantasies plus 244 dream reports were collected to quantify the bizarreness features in the dream and waking state of both subject groups. Two-way analysis of covariance for repeated measures showed that cognitive bizarreness was significantly lower in the TAT stories of normal subjects than in those of schizophrenics and in the dream reports of both groups. The differences between the 2 groups indicated that, under experimental conditions, the waking cognition of schizophrenic subjects shares a common degree of formal cognitive bizarreness with the dream reports of both normal controls and schizophrenics. Though very preliminary, these results support the hypothesis that the dreaming brain could be a useful experimental model for psychosis. PMID:17942480

  12. Lucid dreams: their advantage and disadvantage in the frame of search activity concept.

    PubMed

    Rotenberg, Vadim S

    2015-01-01

    Search activity (SA) is the behavioral and mental activity that is oriented to changes of the environment or of the subject's view and approach to the environment according to personal needs without the definite probability forecast of the outcomes of such activity, but with a regular consideration of the outcomes in the process of active behavior. Dream's lucidity (the subject's realization that he/she is dreaming) protects dreamer from awakenings during emotionally disturbing or frustrating dreams, because lucid dreams allow subject to feel separated from the dream events that may cause a feeling of helplessness. Due to such a protection from awakenings that can bring subject back to the frustration in wakefulness, subject can turn in the further sleep to normal non-lucid dreams that are restoring subject's SA in the subsequent wakefulness (activity in the uncertain situation with the feedback between behavior and its outcome). It is the advantage of lucid dreams. Their disadvantage is that due to the separation from the dream events that are in lucid dreams accepted as rationalized dreams, not as real stories where the dreamer acts like in wakefulness, their ability to restore SA is decreased until they are not displaced by the normal non-lucid dreams accepted as real stories. PMID:26483727

  13. Lucid dreams: their advantage and disadvantage in the frame of search activity concept.

    PubMed

    Rotenberg, Vadim S

    2015-01-01

    Search activity (SA) is the behavioral and mental activity that is oriented to changes of the environment or of the subject's view and approach to the environment according to personal needs without the definite probability forecast of the outcomes of such activity, but with a regular consideration of the outcomes in the process of active behavior. Dream's lucidity (the subject's realization that he/she is dreaming) protects dreamer from awakenings during emotionally disturbing or frustrating dreams, because lucid dreams allow subject to feel separated from the dream events that may cause a feeling of helplessness. Due to such a protection from awakenings that can bring subject back to the frustration in wakefulness, subject can turn in the further sleep to normal non-lucid dreams that are restoring subject's SA in the subsequent wakefulness (activity in the uncertain situation with the feedback between behavior and its outcome). It is the advantage of lucid dreams. Their disadvantage is that due to the separation from the dream events that are in lucid dreams accepted as rationalized dreams, not as real stories where the dreamer acts like in wakefulness, their ability to restore SA is decreased until they are not displaced by the normal non-lucid dreams accepted as real stories.

  14. Metaphor and hyperassociativity: the imagination mechanisms behind emotion assimilation in sleep and dreaming.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Josie E; Horton, Caroline L

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose an emotion assimilation function of sleep and dreaming. We offer explanations both for the mechanisms by which waking-life memories are initially selected for processing during sleep, and for the mechanisms by which those memories are subsequently transformed during sleep. We propose that emotions act as a marker for information to be selectively processed during sleep, including consolidation into long term memory structures and integration into pre-existing memory networks; that dreaming reflects these emotion assimilation processes; and that the associations between memory fragments activated during sleep give rise to measureable elements of dream metaphor and hyperassociativity. The latter are a direct reflection, and the phenomenological experience, of emotional memory assimilation processes occurring during sleep. While many theories previously have posited a role for emotion processing and/or emotional memory consolidation during sleep and dreaming, sleep theories often do not take enough account of important dream science data, yet dream research, when conducted systematically and under ideal conditions, can greatly enhance theorizing around the functions of sleep. Similarly, dream theories often fail to consider the implications of sleep-dependent memory research, which can augment our understanding of dream functioning. Here, we offer a synthesized view, taking detailed account of both sleep and dream data and theories. We draw on extensive literature from sleep and dream experiments and theories, including often-overlooked data from dream science which we believe reflects sleep phenomenology, to bring together important ideas and findings from both domains. PMID:26347669

  15. Metaphor and hyperassociativity: the imagination mechanisms behind emotion assimilation in sleep and dreaming.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Josie E; Horton, Caroline L

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose an emotion assimilation function of sleep and dreaming. We offer explanations both for the mechanisms by which waking-life memories are initially selected for processing during sleep, and for the mechanisms by which those memories are subsequently transformed during sleep. We propose that emotions act as a marker for information to be selectively processed during sleep, including consolidation into long term memory structures and integration into pre-existing memory networks; that dreaming reflects these emotion assimilation processes; and that the associations between memory fragments activated during sleep give rise to measureable elements of dream metaphor and hyperassociativity. The latter are a direct reflection, and the phenomenological experience, of emotional memory assimilation processes occurring during sleep. While many theories previously have posited a role for emotion processing and/or emotional memory consolidation during sleep and dreaming, sleep theories often do not take enough account of important dream science data, yet dream research, when conducted systematically and under ideal conditions, can greatly enhance theorizing around the functions of sleep. Similarly, dream theories often fail to consider the implications of sleep-dependent memory research, which can augment our understanding of dream functioning. Here, we offer a synthesized view, taking detailed account of both sleep and dream data and theories. We draw on extensive literature from sleep and dream experiments and theories, including often-overlooked data from dream science which we believe reflects sleep phenomenology, to bring together important ideas and findings from both domains.

  16. The dream as a model for psychosis: an experimental approach using bizarreness as a cognitive marker.

    PubMed

    Scarone, Silvio; Manzone, Maria Laura; Gambini, Orsola; Kantzas, Ilde; Limosani, Ivan; D'Agostino, Armando; Hobson, J Allan

    2008-05-01

    Many previous observers have reported some qualitative similarities between the normal mental state of dreaming and the abnormal mental state of psychosis. Recent psychological, tomographic, electrophysiological, and neurochemical data appear to confirm the functional similarities between these 2 states. In this study, the hypothesis of the dreaming brain as a neurobiological model for psychosis was tested by focusing on cognitive bizarreness, a distinctive property of the dreaming mental state defined by discontinuities and incongruities in the dream plot, thoughts, and feelings. Cognitive bizarreness was measured in written reports of dreams and in verbal reports of waking fantasies in 30 schizophrenics and 30 normal controls. Seven pictures of the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) were administered as a stimulus to elicit waking fantasies, and all participating subjects were asked to record their dreams upon awakening. A total of 420 waking fantasies plus 244 dream reports were collected to quantify the bizarreness features in the dream and waking state of both subject groups. Two-way analysis of covariance for repeated measures showed that cognitive bizarreness was significantly lower in the TAT stories of normal subjects than in those of schizophrenics and in the dream reports of both groups. The differences between the 2 groups indicated that, under experimental conditions, the waking cognition of schizophrenic subjects shares a common degree of formal cognitive bizarreness with the dream reports of both normal controls and schizophrenics. Though very preliminary, these results support the hypothesis that the dreaming brain could be a useful experimental model for psychosis.

  17. Lucid dreams: their advantage and disadvantage in the frame of search activity concept

    PubMed Central

    Rotenberg, Vadim S.

    2015-01-01

    Search activity (SA) is the behavioral and mental activity that is oriented to changes of the environment or of the subject's view and approach to the environment according to personal needs without the definite probability forecast of the outcomes of such activity, but with a regular consideration of the outcomes in the process of active behavior. Dream's lucidity (the subject's realization that he/she is dreaming) protects dreamer from awakenings during emotionally disturbing or frustrating dreams, because lucid dreams allow subject to feel separated from the dream events that may cause a feeling of helplessness. Due to such a protection from awakenings that can bring subject back to the frustration in wakefulness, subject can turn in the further sleep to normal non-lucid dreams that are restoring subject's SA in the subsequent wakefulness (activity in the uncertain situation with the feedback between behavior and its outcome). It is the advantage of lucid dreams. Their disadvantage is that due to the separation from the dream events that are in lucid dreams accepted as rationalized dreams, not as real stories where the dreamer acts like in wakefulness, their ability to restore SA is decreased until they are not displaced by the normal non-lucid dreams accepted as real stories. PMID:26483727

  18. Metaphor and hyperassociativity: the imagination mechanisms behind emotion assimilation in sleep and dreaming

    PubMed Central

    Malinowski, Josie E.; Horton, Caroline L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose an emotion assimilation function of sleep and dreaming. We offer explanations both for the mechanisms by which waking-life memories are initially selected for processing during sleep, and for the mechanisms by which those memories are subsequently transformed during sleep. We propose that emotions act as a marker for information to be selectively processed during sleep, including consolidation into long term memory structures and integration into pre-existing memory networks; that dreaming reflects these emotion assimilation processes; and that the associations between memory fragments activated during sleep give rise to measureable elements of dream metaphor and hyperassociativity. The latter are a direct reflection, and the phenomenological experience, of emotional memory assimilation processes occurring during sleep. While many theories previously have posited a role for emotion processing and/or emotional memory consolidation during sleep and dreaming, sleep theories often do not take enough account of important dream science data, yet dream research, when conducted systematically and under ideal conditions, can greatly enhance theorizing around the functions of sleep. Similarly, dream theories often fail to consider the implications of sleep-dependent memory research, which can augment our understanding of dream functioning. Here, we offer a synthesized view, taking detailed account of both sleep and dream data and theories. We draw on extensive literature from sleep and dream experiments and theories, including often-overlooked data from dream science which we believe reflects sleep phenomenology, to bring together important ideas and findings from both domains. PMID:26347669

  19. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in street soil dust in Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Essumang, D K; Dodoo, D K; Obiri, S; Oduro, A K

    2006-10-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street soil dust from streets in Kumasi Metropolis in the Ashanti Region of the Republic of Ghana have been measured in this study. The concentrations of the various types of PAHs identified in this study are as follows: Naphthalene (m/e 128) - 41,700 microg/kg, Acenaphthylene (m/e 152) - 99,300 microg/kg, Acenaphthene (m/e 154) - 111,200 microg/kg, Fluorene (m/e 166) - 8,900 microg/kg, Carbazole (m/e 167) - 3,500 microg/kg, phenathrene (m/e 178) - 12,900 microg/kg, Anthracene (m/e 178) - 5,400 microg/kg, Fluoranthene (m/e 202) - 16,200 microg/kg, Pyrene (m/e 202) - 15,000 microg/kg, Benzo[a]anthracene (m/e 228) - 13,800 microg/kg, Chrysene (m/e 228) - 33,600 microg/kg, Benzo[k]fluoranthene (m/e 252) - 45,700 microg/kg, Benzo[a]pyrene (m/e 252) - 27,900 microg/kg, Perylene (m/e 252) - 57,200 microg/kg and Benzo[g, h, i]perylene (m/e 276) - 47,000 microg/kg. The results of the study shows that road users, like resident living in buildings within these areas, those engaged in commercial activities like hawking, and the general public are at risk of exposure to the toxic effects of the various types of PAHs from the exhaust of vehicles into the environment. According to these results, there is the potential for exposure to high levels of PAHs for road users and those living in urban environments or along highways.

  20. Relativistic Feynman-Metropolis-Teller theory for white dwarfs in general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Rotondo, Michael; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo; Xue Shesheng

    2011-10-15

    The recent formulation of the relativistic Thomas-Fermi model within the Feynman-Metropolis-Teller theory for compressed atoms is applied to the study of general relativistic white dwarf equilibrium configurations. The equation of state, which takes into account the {beta}-equilibrium, the nuclear and the Coulomb interactions between the nuclei and the surrounding electrons, is obtained as a function of the compression by considering each atom constrained in a Wigner-Seitz cell. The contribution of quantum statistics, weak, nuclear, and electromagnetic interactions is obtained by the determination of the chemical potential of the Wigner-Seitz cell. The further contribution of the general relativistic equilibrium of white dwarf matter is expressed by the simple formula {radical}(g{sub 00}){mu}{sub ws}=constant, which links the chemical potential of the Wigner-Seitz cell {mu}{sub ws} with the general relativistic gravitational potential g{sub 00} at each point of the configuration. The configuration outside each Wigner-Seitz cell is strictly neutral and therefore no global electric field is necessary to warranty the equilibrium of the white dwarf. These equations modify the ones used by Chandrasekhar by taking into due account the Coulomb interaction between the nuclei and the electrons as well as inverse {beta} decay. They also generalize the work of Salpeter by considering a unified self-consistent approach to the Coulomb interaction in each Wigner-Seitz cell. The consequences on the numerical value of the Chandrasekhar-Landau mass limit as well as on the mass-radius relation of {sup 4}He, {sup 12}C, {sup 16}O and {sup 56}Fe white dwarfs are presented. All these effects should be taken into account in processes requiring a precision knowledge of the white dwarf parameters.