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Sample records for adaptive metropolis dream

  1. Uncertainty based modeling of rainfall-runoff: Combined differential evolution adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) and K-means clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahmatkesh, Zahra; Karamouz, Mohammad; Nazif, Sara

    2015-09-01

    Simulation of rainfall-runoff process in urban areas is of great importance considering the consequences and damages of extreme runoff events and floods. The first issue in flood hazard analysis is rainfall simulation. Large scale climate signals have been proved to be effective in rainfall simulation and prediction. In this study, an integrated scheme is developed for rainfall-runoff modeling considering different sources of uncertainty. This scheme includes three main steps of rainfall forecasting, rainfall-runoff simulation and future runoff prediction. In the first step, data driven models are developed and used to forecast rainfall using large scale climate signals as rainfall predictors. Due to high effect of different sources of uncertainty on the output of hydrologic models, in the second step uncertainty associated with input data, model parameters and model structure is incorporated in rainfall-runoff modeling and simulation. Three rainfall-runoff simulation models are developed for consideration of model conceptual (structural) uncertainty in real time runoff forecasting. To analyze the uncertainty of the model structure, streamflows generated by alternative rainfall-runoff models are combined, through developing a weighting method based on K-means clustering. Model parameters and input uncertainty are investigated using an adaptive Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. Finally, calibrated rainfall-runoff models are driven using the forecasted rainfall to predict future runoff for the watershed. The proposed scheme is employed in the case study of the Bronx River watershed, New York City. Results of uncertainty analysis of rainfall-runoff modeling reveal that simultaneous estimation of model parameters and input uncertainty significantly changes the probability distribution of the model parameters. It is also observed that by combining the outputs of the hydrological models using the proposed clustering scheme, the accuracy of runoff simulation in the

  2. DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis with Sampling From Past States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrugt, J. A.; Laloy, E.; Ter Braak, C.

    2010-12-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods have found widespread use in many fields of study to estimate the average properties of complex systems, and for posterior inference in a Bayesian framework. Existing theory and experiments prove convergence of well constructed MCMC schemes to the appropriate limiting distribution under a variety of different conditions. In practice, however this convergence is often observed to be disturbingly slow. This is frequently caused by an inappropriate selection of the proposal distribution used to generate trial moves in the Markov Chain. In a previous paper te{vrugt_1} we have presented the {D}iffe{R}ential {E}volution {A}daptive {M}etropolis (DREAM) MCMC scheme that automatically tunes the scale and orientation of the proposal distribution during evolution to the posterior target distribution. In the same paper, detailed balance and ergodicity of DREAM have been proved, and various examples involving nonlinearity, high-dimensionality, and multimodality have shown that DREAM is generally superior to other adaptive MCMC sampling approaches. Standard DREAM requires at least N = d chains to be run in parallel, where d is the dimensionality of the posterior. Unfortunately, running many parallel chains is a potential source of inefficiency, as each individual chain must travel to high density region of the posterior. The lower the number of parallel chains required, the greater the practical applicability of DREAM for computationally demanding problems. This paper extends DREAM with a snooker updater and shows by simulation and real examples that DREAM can work for d up to 50-100 with far fewer parallel chains (e.g. N = 3) by generating jumps using differences of pairs of past states

  3. Waking and Dreaming Need Profiles: An Exploratory Study of Adaptive Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Robert Linton, II

    Research has defined the various adaptive, compensatory and complementary functions of dreams. To investigate the evidence of adaptive functioning in the dream state, 30 medical students (21 males, 9 females) from St. George's University, Grenada, completed personal surveys, a waking psychological profile, and a dreaming psychological profile…

  4. Dream Content and Adaptation to a Stressful Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Koninck, Joseph M.; Koulack, David

    1975-01-01

    The present study considered whether it is better to dream about a stressful presleep experience and have anxious dreams, or is it better to dream about something else and have pleasant dreams. (Author/RK)

  5. Inflatable technologies: Adaptability from dream to reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häuplik-Meusburger, Sandra; Sommer, Bernhard; Aguzzi, Manuela

    2009-09-01

    With the increasing investment in a sustained human presence beyond low-earth orbit, the interest in the development of lightweight structures once again comes to the fore. In general, lightweight structural concepts can include inflatable, erectable or deployable parts utilizing membranes, composites or hybrid concepts. These structures clearly offer great advantages, not only for structures on Earth, but especially for space stations and also for the building of habitats and associated infrastructure on the Moon and Mars. By applying intelligent, constructive and packaging concepts, they are particularly interesting because they combine maximum load capacity and minimum use of material with an increase in operational and habitable volume. In addition to the structural advantages, lightweight and adaptable structural concepts can be one of the most important strategies in assisting sustainable space exploration development. With the term "adaptable structural concepts" we refer to the ability to adapt to changing requirements e.g. mission objectives, crew condition and technological developments. This paper presents a selection of innovative developments, both past and present, in lightweight and adaptable architectural concepts—that, focussing beyond deployability, allow the development of innovative building structures with features thoroughly enhanced through detailed discussion and examples.

  6. Bayesian adaptive clinical trials: a dream for statisticians only?

    PubMed

    Chevret, Sylvie

    2012-05-20

    Adaptive or 'flexible' designs have emerged, mostly within frequentist frameworks, as an effective way to speed up the therapeutic evaluation process. Because of their flexibility, Bayesian methods have also been proposed for Phase I through Phase III adaptive trials; however, it has been reported that they are poorly used in practice. We aim to describe the international scientific production of Bayesian clinical trials by investigating the actual development and use of Bayesian 'adaptive' methods in the setting of clinical trials. A bibliometric study was conducted using the PubMed and Science Citation Index-Expanded databases. Most of the references found were biostatistical papers from various teams around the world. Most of the authors were from the US, and a large proportion was from the MD Anderson Cancer Center (University of Texas, Houston, TX). The spread and use of these articles depended heavily on their topic, with 3.1% of the biostatistical articles accumulating at least 25 citations within 5 years of their publication compared with 15% of the reviews and 32% of the clinical articles. We also examined the reasons for the limited use of Bayesian adaptive design methods in clinical trials and the areas of current and future research to address these challenges. Efforts to promote Bayesian approaches among statisticians and clinicians appear necessary. PMID:21905067

  7. Dream controller

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L; Wang, Qiang; Chow, Andrew J

    2013-11-26

    A method and apparatus for intelligently controlling continuous process variables. A Dream Controller comprises an Intelligent Engine mechanism and a number of Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controllers, each of which is suitable to control a process with specific behaviors. The Intelligent Engine can automatically select the appropriate MFA controller and its parameters so that the Dream Controller can be easily used by people with limited control experience and those who do not have the time to commission, tune, and maintain automatic controllers.

  8. Dream Symbol or Dream Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himelstein, Philip

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of the symbolic content of dreams to the theory of the dream in psychoanalysis and Gestalt therapy. Points out that the utility of the dream depends upon the techniques of the therapist and not on the validity of the underlying theory of the dream. (LLL)

  9. Content Analysis of the Dreams of Dying Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth-Marnat, Gary

    1987-01-01

    Investigated dream content of 104 dreams from nine terminally ill patients with estimated life expectancy of one year or less. Found differences between dreams of terminally ill and dreams of physically healthy individuals, suggesting an adaptive withdrawal and process of social and emotional disengagement by terminally ill individuals. (Author/NB)

  10. Content Analysis of the Dreams of Dying Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth-Marnat, Gary

    1988-01-01

    Used Hall and Van de Castle dream content scales to score 104 dreams from 9 terminally ill patients. Found subjects had significantly fewer characters, activities, interactions, color descriptions, and less emotional content in their dreams than physically healthy subjects. Dream content suggests adaptive withdrawal and process of social and…

  11. Approximate Bayesian Computation using Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation: DREAM(ABC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadegh, Mojtaba; Vrugt, Jasper A.

    2014-08-01

    The quest for a more powerful method for model evaluation has inspired Vrugt and Sadegh (2013) to introduce "likelihood-free" inference as vehicle for diagnostic model evaluation. This class of methods is also referred to as Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) and relaxes the need for a residual-based likelihood function in favor of one or multiple different summary statistics that exhibit superior diagnostic power. Here we propose several methodological improvements over commonly used ABC sampling methods to permit inference of complex system models. Our methodology entitled DREAM(ABC) uses the DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis algorithm as its main building block and takes advantage of a continuous fitness function to efficiently explore the behavioral model space. Three case studies demonstrate that DREAM(ABC) is at least an order of magnitude more efficient than commonly used ABC sampling methods for more complex models. DREAM(ABC) is also more amenable to distributed, multi-processor, implementation, a prerequisite to diagnostic inference of CPU-intensive system models.

  12. Big Dreams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The Keen Johnson Building is symbolic of Eastern Kentucky University's historic role as a School of Opportunity. It is a place that has inspired generations of students, many from disadvantaged backgrounds, to dream big dreams. The construction of the Keen Johnson Building was inspired by a desire to create a student union facility that would not…

  13. The Dream

    PubMed Central

    Glucksman, Myron L.

    2001-01-01

    The dream is a unique psychodynamically informative instrument for evaluating the subjective correlates of brain activity during REM sleep. These include feelings, percepts, memories, wishes, fantasies, impulses, conflicts, and defenses, as well as images of self and others. Dream analysis can be used in a variety of clinical settings to assist in diagnostic assessment, psychodynamic formulation, evaluation of clinical change, and the management of medically ill patients. Dreams may serve as the initial indicators of transference, resistance, impending crisis, acting-out, conflict resolution, and decision-making. A clinically functional categorization of dreams can facilitate an understanding of psychopathology, psychodynamics, personality structure, and various components of the psychotherapeutic process. Examples of different types of dreams are provided to illustrate their relevance and use in various clinical situations. PMID:11696648

  14. The phantom limb in dreams.

    PubMed

    Brugger, Peter

    2008-12-01

    Mulder and colleagues [Mulder, T., Hochstenbach, J., Dijkstra, P. U., Geertzen, J. H. B. (2008). Born to adapt, but not in your dreams. Consciousness and Cognition, 17, 1266-1271.] report that a majority of amputees continue to experience a normally-limbed body during their night dreams. They interprete this observation as a failure of the body schema to adapt to the new body shape. The present note does not question this interpretation, but points to the already existing literature on the phenomenology of the phantom limb in dreams. A summary of published investigations is complemented by a note on phantom phenomena in the dreams of paraplegic patients and persons born without a limb. Integration of the available data allows the recommendation for prospective studies to consider dream content in more detail. For instance, "adaptation" to the loss of a limb can also manifest itself by seeing oneself surrounded by amputees. Such projective types of anosognosia ("transitivism") in nocturnal dreams should also be experimentally induced in normally-limbed individuals, and some relevant techniques are mentioned. PMID:18313942

  15. Dreams of the Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statman, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the author, when teaching dream poems and poem writing to older kids, uses Margaret Atwood's "Dreams of the Animals" to extend the discussion about dreaming and have the children think about dreams that have little to do with their own. Includes examples of students' poems about animal dreams. (SR)

  16. Dreams of Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Deirdre

    1989-01-01

    Examined frequency and characteristics of overt dreams of dying among healthy young adults. Dreams of dying were found to be rare but distinctive content category, representing overwhelmingly pleasant dreams. Over one-half of death dreams involved lengthy afterlife sequence, remainder focused on process of death. Death dreams of these healthy…

  17. California Dreaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2011-01-01

    After getting her master's degree from UCLA, Nancy Wills dreamed of starting a school-based guitar program so she could teach students to make music on the instrument she'd loved since she was a kid growing up outside of Yosemite, California. She had a strong belief that guitar was perfect for schools, ideal for individualized playing but also…

  18. Dream Weavers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Maria Eugenia

    2010-01-01

    This article shares the success story of Hamissou Samari, an immigrant from Togo, who realized his dream through the help of the Kaplan Foundation scholarship and leadership program for nontraditional students enrolled in community colleges. Designed for underserved community college students in New York, the comprehensive, first-of-its-kind…

  19. Just Dreaming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamon, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Many of the nation's colleges and universities are not sure what the proposed DREAM Act would mean for their institutions--and a number of them are operating amid confusion in trying to serve undocumented students legally in light of the defeat of the measure in the Senate last year to pass the legislation. It would have allowed some immigrants…

  20. Equifinality of formal (DREAM) and informal (GLUE) bayesian approaches in hydrologic modeling?

    SciTech Connect

    Vrugt, Jasper A; Robinson, Bruce A; Ter Braak, Cajo J F; Gupta, Hoshin V

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, a strong debate has emerged in the hydrologic literature regarding what constitutes an appropriate framework for uncertainty estimation. Particularly, there is strong disagreement whether an uncertainty framework should have its roots within a proper statistical (Bayesian) context, or whether such a framework should be based on a different philosophy and implement informal measures and weaker inference to summarize parameter and predictive distributions. In this paper, we compare a formal Bayesian approach using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) with generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) for assessing uncertainty in conceptual watershed modeling. Our formal Bayesian approach is implemented using the recently developed differential evolution adaptive metropolis (DREAM) MCMC scheme with a likelihood function that explicitly considers model structural, input and parameter uncertainty. Our results demonstrate that DREAM and GLUE can generate very similar estimates of total streamflow uncertainty. This suggests that formal and informal Bayesian approaches have more common ground than the hydrologic literature and ongoing debate might suggest. The main advantage of formal approaches is, however, that they attempt to disentangle the effect of forcing, parameter and model structural error on total predictive uncertainty. This is key to improving hydrologic theory and to better understand and predict the flow of water through catchments.

  1. [Unusual dreams in epileptics].

    PubMed

    Boldyrev, A I

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses bizarre dreams characteristic of epileptics and never occurring in normal subjects which have an important practical implication especially for early detection of epilepsy and the prevention of severe forms of the disease. This group of dreams includes vivid nightmares with vital fear, dreams not infrequently transforming into pro-dream states; persistently repeated stereotyped dreams and dreams with invariably the same unpleasant sensations representing an isolated aura of subsequent epileptic attacks. Diagnostically important may also be dreams with the symptoms of derealization and depersonalization, vague dream images and the deja vu phenomenon. PMID:6464602

  2. Descartes' dreams.

    PubMed

    Withers, Robert

    2008-11-01

    René Descartes is often regarded as the 'father of modern philosophy'. He was a key figure in instigating the scientific revolution that has been so influential in shaping our modern world. He has been revered and reviled in almost equal measure for this role; on the one hand seen as liberating science from religion, on the other as splitting soul from body and man from nature. He dates the founding of his philosophical methods to the night of 10(th) November 1619 and in particular to three powerful dreams he had that night. This article utilizes Descartes' own interpretations of the dreams, supported by biographical material, as well as contemporary neuroscientific and psychoanalytic theory, to reach a new understanding of them. It is argued that the dreams can be understood as depicting Descartes' personal journey from a state of mind-body dissociation to one of mind-body deintegration. This personal journey may have implications for a parallel journey from Renaissance to modern culture and from modernity to post-modern culture. PMID:19012586

  3. Affect integration in dreams and dreaming.

    PubMed

    Grenell, Gary

    2008-03-01

    The processes by which dreaming aids in the ongoing integration of affects into the mind are approached here from complementary psychoanalytic and nonpsychoanalytic perspectives. One relevant notion is that the dream provides a psychological space wherein overwhelming, contradictory, or highly complex affects that under waking conditions are subject to dissociation, splitting, or disavowal may be brought together for observation by the dreaming ego. This process serves the need for psychological balance and equilibrium. A brief discussion of how the mind processes information during dreaming is followed by a consideration of four component aspects of the integrative process: the nature and use of the dream-space, the oscillating "me / not me" quality of the dream, the apparent reality of the dream, and the use of nonpathological projective identification in dreaming. Three clinical illustrations are offered and discussed. PMID:18430709

  4. The Dream of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulf, Christoph

    2003-01-01

    Due to the indeterminacy inherent to anthropology and the necessity of human self-design, the dream of education is as necessary as education itself. The dream swirls about the realities of life and education; the dream supplements reality, corrects it, satisfies its unfulfilled desires; the dream penetrates reality, evades it, transcends it; it…

  5. Dreaming and Schizophrenia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickney, Jeffrey L.

    Parallels between dream states and schizophrenia suggest that the study of dreams may offer some information about schizophrenia. A major theoretical assumption of the research on dreaming and schizophrenia is that, in schizophrenics, the dream state intrudes on the awake state creating a dreamlike symptomatology. This theory, called the REM…

  6. DREAM DIAGNOSTICS: FRITZ MORGENTHALER'S WORK ON DREAMS.

    PubMed

    Binswanger, Ralf

    2016-07-01

    The unique approach to dreams of Swiss psychoanalyst Fritz Morgenthaler (1919-1984) is presented and discussed. Although rarely discussed in the English-speaking psychoanalytic world, this approach is very alive in German-speaking countries. Focusing on the distinction between the remembered hallucinatory experience of dreamers and the event of telling dreams within psychoanalytic sessions, Morgenthaler made two major innovations: first, he proposed a new understanding and handling of associations to dreams, and second, he offered what he called dream diagnostics as an instrument with which to integrate both resistance and transference into clinical work with dreams. PMID:27428586

  7. Einsteins dream

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, B.

    1986-01-01

    This book discusses the following topics: the search for meaning; Einstein's dream; curved space; Einstein and warped space-time and extreme wraping; early unified field theories; star death; beyond the white dwarf; the early universe; the hadron, Lepton, and Radiation eras; the redshift controversy; other universes; the final fate of the universe; the missing mass; bounce; fate of the open universe; the world of particles and fields; Dirac's equation; Yukawa; gauge theory; quantum chromodynamics; supergravity and superstrings; twistors and heaven; and the new Einstein.

  8. Relation of dreams to waking concerns.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Rosalind; Agargun, Mehmet Y; Kirkby, Jennifer; Friedman, Julie Kabat

    2006-03-30

    To test that dreams are influenced by the pre-sleep waking emotional concerns of the sleeper and have an effect on waking adaptation, 20 depressed and 10 control subjects, who were all going through a divorce, were enrolled in a repeated measures study lasting 5 months. A Current Concerns test was administered on three occasions before nights when every REM period was interrupted to record recalled mental content. The degree of waking concern about the ex-spouse correlated significantly with the number of dreams in which the former partner appeared as a dream character. Those who were in remission at the follow-up evaluation had a higher percentage of well-developed dreams than those who remained depressed. Dreams of the former spouse reported by those in remission differed from those who remained depressed in the expression of dream affect and in the within-dream linkage among units of associated memory material. Dreams of the former spouse that are reported by those who are not in remission lack affect and connection to other memories. PMID:16497389

  9. The dream of Irma's injection: a structural analysis.

    PubMed

    Kuper, A; Stone, A A

    1982-10-01

    Lévi-Strauss developed a radically new, structural approach to the analysis of myth that may be adapted for use in the analysis of dreams. The method provides an alternative to psychoanalytic dream interpretation, focusing particularly on the internal dialectic of the dream--the movement from the initial premise to the resolution. This emphasis on the internal coherence and structured development of the dream contrasts strongly with the Freudian piecemeal decoding of dreams. The method is exemplified by analysis of Freud's classic Irma dream; it reveals a structure and message that have hitherto remained obscure. The interpretation connects the dream to Freud's theoretical ideas rather than to his supposed psychosexual fixations. PMID:6751099

  10. Accelerating Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation by differential evolution with self-adaptive randomized subspace sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Vrugt, Jasper A; Hyman, James M; Robinson, Bruce A; Higdon, Dave; Ter Braak, Cajo J F; Diks, Cees G H

    2008-01-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods have found widespread use in many fields of study to estimate the average properties of complex systems, and for posterior inference in a Bayesian framework. Existing theory and experiments prove convergence of well constructed MCMC schemes to the appropriate limiting distribution under a variety of different conditions. In practice, however this convergence is often observed to be disturbingly slow. This is frequently caused by an inappropriate selection of the proposal distribution used to generate trial moves in the Markov Chain. Here we show that significant improvements to the efficiency of MCMC simulation can be made by using a self-adaptive Differential Evolution learning strategy within a population-based evolutionary framework. This scheme, entitled DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis or DREAM, runs multiple different chains simultaneously for global exploration, and automatically tunes the scale and orientation of the proposal distribution in randomized subspaces during the search. Ergodicity of the algorithm is proved, and various examples involving nonlinearity, high-dimensionality, and multimodality show that DREAM is generally superior to other adaptive MCMC sampling approaches. The DREAM scheme significantly enhances the applicability of MCMC simulation to complex, multi-modal search problems.

  11. The Dream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peach, D.

    2010-12-01

    Models have become a routine research output over the past decade. They are used by many scientific disciplines in order to understand and analyses the processes and conditions within their domain of interest. This has resulted in a significant increase in scientific understanding and in a multitude of discipline specific models, modelling system software and workflows. There is now a growing realisation that to address the most pertinent questions of the age, such as climate change and the sustainable use of natural resources, we need to bringing together climate, ecological, hydrological, hydrogeological, geological and socio-economic models in order to provide the necessary framework to make truly informed decisions. At the British Geological Survey our vision is to provide scientists with the data, tools, techniques and support to address trans-disciplinary environmental questions impacting on human society. We hope to achieve this by being a leading member of an open community that will share data, applications and environmental models thus enabling collaboration and achieving sustainable solutions. The British Geological Survey has recently completed a scoping study with the aim of planning the implementation of the vision and preparing the organisation for the changes that are required to enable it to engage more effectively in trans-disciplinary modelling. This has resulted in the launch of a cross-cutting project call Data and Research for Environmental Applications and Models: The DREAM. The scoping study recognised that the investment and knowledge captured within the many existing scientific models represent a significant resource and not one that could be easily replicated in more centralised environmental modelling software. The only viable option in a ‘linked models’ approach which enables models to pass parameters between each other at runtime. This is perceived to be a pragmatic, achievable and cost-effective solution. This solution brings

  12. [Dreams and interhemispheric asymmetry].

    PubMed

    Korabel'nikova, E A; Golubev, V L

    2001-01-01

    The dreams of 103 children and adolescents, aged 10-17 years, have been studied. The test group included 78 patients with neurotic disorders; control one consisted of 25 healthy subjects. Dream features, which were common for those with preferentially left asymmetry profile both in patients as well as in healthy subjects, were: less expressed novelty factor and frequent appearance of rare phenomena, such as "déjà vu in wakefulness", reality, "mixed" (overlapped) dreams, prolonged dreams in repeat sleep, frequent changes of personages and scenes of action. Left-hander dream peculiarities, being detected only in neurotic patients but not in healthy subjects, emerged as lucid phenomena deficit, "dream in dreams" and "dream reminiscence in dream" syndrome, which have been found only in left-handers. Right and left hemispheres seem to contribute in different ways to a dream formation. In authors believe that the left hemisphere seems to provide dream origin while the right hemisphere provides dream vividness, figurativeness and affective activation level. PMID:11811128

  13. Creativity and Dream Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schredl, Michael

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between creative interests and dream recall frequency (DRF) by having 44 adults complete dream recall journals as well as a verbal creativity test. Results indicate that persons with both visual and verbal creative skills remember their dreams more. Visual memory may be a mediating variable between…

  14. Dreams and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Reami, D O; Silva, D F; Albuquerque, M; Campos, C J

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between dreams and epilepsy is illustrated by two patients whose awake epileptic seizures and recurrent dreams during night sleep had similar content. In both of our cases the EEG showed right anterior temporal spike discharge, suggesting a role for the temporal lobe in the association between dreams and seizures. PMID:1985830

  15. Ethnic Groups and the American Dream(s).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Carlos E.

    1982-01-01

    Examines what the American dream means to ethnic Americans. Specifically discussed are: (1) how official documents of the dream have dealt with ethnicity; (2) how ethnic groups have interpreted the dream; (3) how the 1960s redefined the dream; and (4) the future of the dream in terms of changing American ethnicity. (RM)

  16. Dream Box Learning. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "DreamBox Learning" is a supplemental online mathematics program that provides adaptive instruction for students in grades K-5 and focuses on number and operations, place value, and number sense. The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) identified one study of "DreamBox Learning" that both falls within the scope of the Elementary…

  17. DreamBox Learning. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "DreamBox Learning" is a supplemental online mathematics program that provides adaptive instruction for students in grades K-5 and focuses on number and operations, place value, and number sense. The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) identified one study of "DreamBox Learning" that both falls within the scope of the Elementary…

  18. [Neurological interpretation of dreams] .

    PubMed

    Pareja, J A; Gil-Nagel, A

    2000-10-01

    Cerebral cortical activity is constant throughout the entire human life, but substantially changes during the different phases of the sleep-wake cycle (wakefulness, non-REM sleep and REM sleep), as well as in relation to available information. In particular, perception of the environment is closely linked to the wake-state, while during sleep perception turns to the internal domain or endogenous cerebral activity. External and internal information are mutually exclusive. During wakefulness a neuronal mechanism allows attention to focus on the environment whereas endogenous cortical activity is ignored. The opposite process is provided during sleep. The function external attention-internal attention is coupled with the two modes of brain function during wakefulness and during sleep, providing two possible cortical status: thinking and dreaming. Several neurological processes may influence the declaration of the three states of being or may modify their orderly oscillation through the sleep-wake cycle. In addition, endogenous information and its perception (dreams) may be modified. Disturbances of dreaming may configurate in different general clinical scenarios: lack of dreaming, excess of dreaming (epic dreaming), paroxysmal dreaming (epileptic), nightmares, violent dreaming, daytime-dreaming (hallucinations), and lucid dreaming. Sensorial deprivation, as well as the emergence of internal perception may be the underlying mechanism of hallucinations. The probable isomorphism between hallucinations and dreaming is postulated, analyzed and discussed. PMID:11143502

  19. Music in dreams.

    PubMed

    Uga, Valeria; Lemut, Maria Chiara; Zampi, Chiara; Zilli, Iole; Salzarulo, Piero

    2006-06-01

    Music in dreams is rarely reported in scientific literature, while the presence of musical themes in dreams of famous musicians is anecdotally reported. We did a systematic investigation to evaluate whether the occurrence of musical dreams could be related to musical competence and practice, and to explore specific features of dreamt pieces. Thirty-five professional musicians and thirty non-musicians filled out a questionnaire about the characteristics of their musical activity and a structured dream log on the awakening for 30 consecutive days. Musicians dream of music more than twice with respect to non-musicians; musical dreams frequency is related to the age of commencement of musical instruction, but not to the daily load of musical activity. Nearly half of the recalled music was non-standard, suggesting that original music can be created in dreams. PMID:16243543

  20. Effects of Training in Dream Recall and Dream Interpretation Skills on Dream Recall, Attitudes, and Dream Interpretation Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochlen, Aaron B.; Ligiero, Daniela P.; Hill, Clara E.; Heaton, Kristin J.

    1999-01-01

    Volunteer clients (N=44) with below-average dream recall and attitudes toward dreams participated in training sessions focusing on either improving dream recall and attitudes toward dreams, building dream-interpretation skills, or educating about counseling. No significant differences were found within the three groups. Results suggest that…

  1. Consciousness in dreams.

    PubMed

    Kahn, David; Gover, Tzivia

    2010-01-01

    This chapter argues that dreaming is an important state of consciousness and that it has many features that complement consciousness in the wake state. The chapter discusses consciousness in dreams and how it comes about. It discusses the changes that occur in the neuromodulatory environment and in the neuronal connectivity of the brain as we fall asleep and begin our night journeys. Dreams evolve from internal sources though the dream may look different than any one of these since something entirely new may emerge through self-organizing processes. The chapter also explores characteristics of dreaming consciousness such as acceptance of implausibility and how that might lead to creative insight. Examples of studies, which have shown creativity in dream sleep, are provided to illustrate important characteristics of dreaming consciousness. The chapter also discusses the dream body and how it relates to our consciousness while dreaming. Differences and similarities between wake, lucid, non-lucid and day dreaming are explored and the chapter concludes with a discussion on what we can learn from each of these expressions of consciousness. PMID:20870068

  2. Dreaming and insight

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Christopher L.; Ruby, Perrine M.; Malinowski, Josie E.; Bennett, Paul D.; Blagrove, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses claims that dreams can be a source of personal insight. Whereas there has been anecdotal backing for such claims, there is now tangential support from findings of the facilitative effect of sleep on cognitive insight, and of REM sleep in particular on emotional memory consolidation. Furthermore, the presence in dreams of metaphorical representations of waking life indicates the possibility of novel insight as an emergent feature of such metaphorical mappings. In order to assess whether personal insight can occur as a result of the consideration of dream content, 11 dream group discussion sessions were conducted which followed the Ullman Dream Appreciation technique, one session for each of 11 participants (10 females, 1 male; mean age = 19.2 years). Self-ratings of deepened self-perception and personal gains from participation in the group sessions showed that the Ullman technique is an effective procedure for establishing connections between dream content and recent waking life experiences, although wake life sources were found for only 14% of dream report text. The mean Exploration-Insight score on the Gains from Dream Interpretation questionnaire was very high and comparable to outcomes from the well-established Hill (1996) therapist-led dream interpretation method. This score was associated between-subjects with pre-group positive Attitude Toward Dreams (ATD). The need to distinguish “aha” experiences as a result of discovering a waking life source for part of a dream, from “aha” experiences of personal insight as a result of considering dream content, is discussed. Difficulties are described in designing a control condition to which the dream report condition can be compared. PMID:24550849

  3. Dreaming and insight.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Christopher L; Ruby, Perrine M; Malinowski, Josie E; Bennett, Paul D; Blagrove, Mark T

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses claims that dreams can be a source of personal insight. Whereas there has been anecdotal backing for such claims, there is now tangential support from findings of the facilitative effect of sleep on cognitive insight, and of REM sleep in particular on emotional memory consolidation. Furthermore, the presence in dreams of metaphorical representations of waking life indicates the possibility of novel insight as an emergent feature of such metaphorical mappings. In order to assess whether personal insight can occur as a result of the consideration of dream content, 11 dream group discussion sessions were conducted which followed the Ullman Dream Appreciation technique, one session for each of 11 participants (10 females, 1 male; mean age = 19.2 years). Self-ratings of deepened self-perception and personal gains from participation in the group sessions showed that the Ullman technique is an effective procedure for establishing connections between dream content and recent waking life experiences, although wake life sources were found for only 14% of dream report text. The mean Exploration-Insight score on the Gains from Dream Interpretation questionnaire was very high and comparable to outcomes from the well-established Hill (1996) therapist-led dream interpretation method. This score was associated between-subjects with pre-group positive Attitude Toward Dreams (ATD). The need to distinguish "aha" experiences as a result of discovering a waking life source for part of a dream, from "aha" experiences of personal insight as a result of considering dream content, is discussed. Difficulties are described in designing a control condition to which the dream report condition can be compared. PMID:24550849

  4. Dream Work in Grief Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Noronha, Konrad Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Working with dreams is useful with grief and loss clients who present with dreams. Adlerian dream analysis is one-way of exploring dreams. It incorporates the life-style of the client. This case report demonstrates how Adlerian dream analysis was used with a client. Progress was noted in improved life-style once the client began to talk about her dream. PMID:25035561

  5. [Phenomenology of dreams].

    PubMed

    Pringuey, Dominique

    2011-10-01

    A phenomenology of dreams searches for meaning, with the aim not only of explaining but also of understanding the experience. What and who is it for? And what about the nearly forgotten dream among the moderns, the banal returning to the nightmare, sleepiness, or dreamlike reverie. Nostalgia for the dream, where we saw a very early state of light, not a ordinaire qu duel. Regret for the dreamlike splendor exceeded by the modeling power of modern aesthetics--film and the explosion of virtual imaging technologies. Disappointment at the discovery of a cognitive permanence throughout sleep and a unique fit with the real upon awaking? An excess of methodological rigor where we validate the logic of the dream, correlating the clinical improvement in psychotherapy and the ability to interpret one's own dreams. The dangerous psychological access when the dream primarily is mine, viewed as a veiled expression of an unspoken desire, or when the dream reveals to me, in an existential conception of man, through time and space, my daily life, my freedom beyond my needs. Might its ultimate sense also mean its abolition? From the story of a famous forgotten dream, based on unexpected scientific data emerges the question: do we dream to forget? The main thing would not be consciousness but confidence, when " the sleeping man, his regard extinguished, dead to himself seizes the light in the night " (Heraclitus). PMID:22812163

  6. Marshall Rosenbluth and the Metropolis algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Gubernatis, J.E.

    2005-05-15

    The 1953 publication, 'Equation of State Calculations by Very Fast Computing Machines' by N. Metropolis, A. W. Rosenbluth and M. N. Rosenbluth, and M. Teller and E. Teller [J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1087 (1953)] marked the beginning of the use of the Monte Carlo method for solving problems in the physical sciences. The method described in this publication subsequently became known as the Metropolis algorithm, undoubtedly the most famous and most widely used Monte Carlo algorithm ever published. As none of the authors made subsequent use of the algorithm, they became unknown to the large simulation physics community that grew from this publication and their roles in its development became the subject of mystery and legend. At a conference marking the 50th anniversary of the 1953 publication, Marshall Rosenbluth gave his recollections of the algorithm's development. The present paper describes the algorithm, reconstructs the historical context in which it was developed, and summarizes Marshall's recollections.

  7. REM sleep and dreaming functions beyond reductionism.

    PubMed

    Kirov, Roumen

    2013-12-01

    Brain activation patterns and mental, electrophysiological, and neurobiological features of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep suggest more functions than only elaborative encoding. Hence, the periodic occurrence of REM sleep episodes and dreaming may be regarded as a recurrent adaptive interference, which incorporates recent memories into a broader vital context comprising emotions, basic needs and individual genetic traits. PMID:24304763

  8. Adolph Gottlieb: "Forgotten Dream."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols-Dietrich, Penny

    1987-01-01

    This lesson uses a full-color reproduction of Adolph Gottlieb's 1946 painting, "Forgotten Dream," to introduce students to the ideas of symbolic imagery in abstract expressionist art, and to help students discover reasons and ways artists communicate their memories, dreams, and fantasies. (JDH)

  9. Dreams, Daydreams and Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R. A.; Luckcock, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    It has been discovered that dreams and daydreams can be productive states in the process of scientific innovation. An attempt is made to provide some typical examples of insights which have come to scientists during dream-like states and in sleep. (Author/MA)

  10. [Dreams and schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Tögel, C

    1983-08-01

    This paper deals with the internal relationship between dream and schizophrenia, which has been a subject of discussion in philosophy and medicine since Kant and Griesinger, and shows that it can be supported by Marxist epistemology. A psychological theory of dream and schizophrenia would therefore have an integrative function with regard to psychotherapy and psychiatry. PMID:6635036

  11. The Reality of Dreams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Samantha

    2008-01-01

    As the author and her colleagues were working on this issue of "Teaching Tolerance" magazine, they were brainstorming connections between Congressman John Lewis's essay, "Reflections on a Dream Deferred" and the legacy of Dr. King's dream. The author commented that while the six of them (three white and three black) were a realization of the…

  12. Consciousness and abilities of dream characters observed during lucid dreaming.

    PubMed

    Tholey, P

    1989-04-01

    A description of several phenomenological experiments is given. These were done to investigate of which cognitive accomplishments dream characters are capable in lucid dreams. Nine male experienced lucid dreamers participated as subjects. They were directed to set different tasks to dream characters they met while lucid dreaming. Dream characters were asked to draw or write, to name unknown words, to find rhyme words, to make verses, and to solve arithmetic problems. Part of the dream characters actually agreed to perform the tasks and were successful, although the arithmetic accomplishments were poor. From the phenomenological findings, nothing contradicts the assumption that dream characters have consciousness in a specific sense. Herefrom the conclusion was drawn, that in lucid dream therapy communication with dream characters should be handled as if they were rational beings. Finally, several possibilities of assessing the question, whether dream characters possess consciousness, can be examined with the aid of psychophysiological experiments. PMID:2717365

  13. Dream recall and visual memory.

    PubMed

    Schredl, M; Frauscher, S; Shendi, A

    1995-08-01

    The present study estimated correlations for 50 subjects among frequency of dream recall, length of dream report, and visual memory. Whereas the results confirmed the previously found relationship between frequency of dream recall and visual memory, influence of visual memory on length of dream report was not found. PMID:8532466

  14. Dreams: Traditional or Contemporary Technology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacEachren, Zabe

    2003-01-01

    The Anishinabe use of dreams to guide raiding parties and of dream catchers to catch bad dreams guides a discussion of whether dreams are technology. The larger question is how the technology we use places us in relation to the land. Does technology immerse us in nature, or does it separate us from nature so we can measure and control it? (TD)

  15. Using Dreams in Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Connie M.

    1997-01-01

    States that current literature suggests that dreams are seldom used by marriage and family therapists, yet dreams can be powerful tools in therapeutic treatment. Includes clinical examples that demonstrate the effective use of dreams in marriage and family therapy. Discusses the interface between dream interpretation and systems therapy. (MKA)

  16. Dreaming in the Classroom: Practices, Methods, and Resources in Dream Education. SUNY Series in Dream Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Philip; Bulkeley, Kelly; Welt, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    "Dreaming in the Classroom" provides teachers from virtually all fields with a uniquely informative guidebook for introducing their students to the universal human phenomenon of dreaming. Although dreaming may not be held in high esteem in mainstream Western society, students at all education levels consistently enjoy learning about dreams and…

  17. Consciousness during dreams.

    PubMed

    Cicogna, P C; Bosinelli, M

    2001-03-01

    Two aspects of consciousness are first considered: consciousness as awareness (phenomenological meaning) and consciousness as strategic control (functional meaning). As to awareness, three types can be distinguished: first, awareness as the phenomenal experiences of objects and events; second, awareness as meta-awareness, i.e., the awareness of mental life itself; third, awareness as self-awareness, i.e., the awareness of being oneself. While phenomenal experience and self-awareness are usually present during dreaming (even if many modifications are possible), meta-awareness is usually absent (apart from some particular experiences of self-reflectiveness) with the major exception of lucid dreaming. Consciousness as strategic control may also be present in dreams. The functioning of consciousness is then analyzed, following a cognitive model of dream production. In such a model, the dream is supposed to be the product of the interaction of three components: (a) the bottom-up activation of mnemonic elements coming from LTM systems, (b) interpretative and elaborative top-down processes, and (c) monitoring of phenomenal experience. A feedback circulation is activated among the components, where the top-down interpretative organization and the conscious monitoring of the oneiric scene elicitates other mnemonic contents, according to the requirements of the dream plot. This dream productive activity is submitted to unconscious and conscious processes. PMID:11273624

  18. When dreaming is believing: the (motivated) interpretation of dreams.

    PubMed

    Morewedge, Carey K; Norton, Michael I

    2009-02-01

    This research investigated laypeople's interpretation of their dreams. Participants from both Eastern and Western cultures believed that dreams contain hidden truths (Study 1) and considered dreams to provide more meaningful information about the world than similar waking thoughts (Studies 2 and 3). The meaningfulness attributed to specific dreams, however, was moderated by the extent to which the content of those dreams accorded with participants' preexisting beliefs--from the theories they endorsed to attitudes toward acquaintances, relationships with friends, and faith in God (Studies 3-6). Finally, dream content influenced judgment: Participants reported greater affection for a friend after considering a dream in which a friend protected rather than betrayed them (Study 5) and were equally reluctant to fly after dreaming or learning of a plane crash (Studies 2 and 3). Together, these results suggest that people engage in motivated interpretation of their dreams and that these interpretations impact their everyday lives. PMID:19159131

  19. Chicago's Black Metropolis: Understanding History through a Historic Place.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danzer, Gerald A.

    This lesson focuses on specific places in Chicago's Black Metropolis and analyzes the process by which buildings in that district become historic structures. The lesson is based on the National Register of Historic Places registration file "Black Metropolis Thematic Nomination" and other primary and secondary sources. The unit could be used when…

  20. Chicago's Black Metropolis: Understanding History through a Historic Place.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danzer, Gerald A.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a lesson that focuses on specific places in Chicago's Black Metropolis and examines the process by which buildings become historic structures. Explains that the lesson is based on the National Register of Historic Places registration file, "Black Metropolis Thematic Nomination," and could be used in a unit on 20th-century urban history.…

  1. Dreams, katharsis and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Kilborne, Benjamin

    2013-06-01

    Over the centuries, the importance and the nature of the relationship of "inside" and "outside" in human experience have shifted, with consequences for notions of mind and body. This paper begins with dreams and healing in the Asklepian tradition. It continues with Aristotle's notions of psuche and how these influenced his conception of katharsis and tragedy. Jumping then to the 17th century, we will consider Descartes' focus on dreams in his theories of thinking. Finally, we will turn explicitly to Freud's use of dreams in relation to his theories of anxiety, of psychic processes and of the Oedipus Complex. PMID:23722398

  2. Dreaming and Neuroesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Barcaro, Umberto; Paoli, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper, which is limited to the art of painting, aims to support the idea that a substantial insertion of concepts and methods drawn on dream psychology and dream neuroscience can contribute to the advancements of Neuroesthetics. The historical and scientific reasons are discussed that have determined the so far poor role played by the dream phenomenon in the developments of Neuroesthetics. In the light of recent advancements in psychophysiological research, a method of analyzing artistic products is proposed that is based on the recognition of precise features proper of the dreaming experience. Four examples are given for application of this method, regarding works by Giorgione, Leonardo da Vinci, Vermeer, and Millais, respectively. PMID:26157373

  3. Enhancing Dream Pleasure with Senoi Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Marie C.

    1984-01-01

    Implemented a thought-control strategy to increase pleasure and reduce displeasure in dreaming and dream-related behaviors in college students (N=63). Results indicated that dreaming and behaviors associated with dreaming were significantly more pleasurable 12 weeks after the dream interventions and maintenance of a daily dream record. (LLL)

  4. The Polya Tree Sampler: Towards Efficient and Automatic Independent Metropolis-Hastings Proposals

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Timothy E.; Monteiro, João V. D.; Jara, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple, efficient, and computationally cheap sampling method for exploring an un-normalized multivariate density on ℝd, such as a posterior density, called the Polya tree sampler. The algorithm constructs an independent proposal based on an approximation of the target density. The approximation is built from a set of (initial) support points – data that act as parameters for the approximation – and the predictive density of a finite multivariate Polya tree. In an initial “warming-up” phase, the support points are iteratively relocated to regions of higher support under the target distribution to minimize the distance between the target distribution and the Polya tree predictive distribution. In the “sampling” phase, samples from the final approximating mixture of finite Polya trees are used as candidates which are accepted with a standard Metropolis-Hastings acceptance probability. Several illustrations are presented, including comparisons of the proposed approach to Metropolis-within-Gibbs and delayed rejection adaptive Metropolis algorithm. PMID:22135487

  5. Lucid Dreaming in Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Dodet, Pauline; Chavez, Mario; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the frequency, determinants and sleep characteristics of lucid dreaming in narcolepsy Settings: University hospital sleep disorder unit Design: Case-control study Participants: Consecutive patients with narcolepsy and healthy controls Methods: Participants were interviewed regarding the frequency and determinants of lucid dreaming. Twelve narcolepsy patients and 5 controls who self-identified as frequent lucid dreamers underwent nighttime and daytime sleep monitoring after being given instructions regarding how to give an eye signal when lucid. Results: Compared to 53 healthy controls, the 53 narcolepsy patients reported more frequent dream recall, nightmares and recurrent dreams. Lucid dreaming was achieved by 77.4% of narcoleptic patients and 49.1% of controls (P < 0.05), with an average of 7.6 ± 11 vs. 0.3 ± 0.8 lucid dreams/month (P < 0.0001). The frequency of cataplexy, hallucinations, sleep paralysis, dyssomnia, HLA positivity, and the severity of sleepiness were similar in narcolepsy with and without lucid dreaming. Seven of 12 narcoleptic (and 0 non-narcoleptic) lucid dreamers achieved lucid REM sleep across a total of 33 naps, including 14 episodes with eye signal. The delta power in the electrode average, in delta, theta, and alpha powers in C4, and coherences between frontal electrodes were lower in lucid than non-lucid REM sleep in spectral EEG analysis. The duration of REM sleep was longer, the REM sleep onset latency tended to be shorter, and the percentage of atonia tended to be higher in lucid vs. non-lucid REM sleep; the arousal index and REM density and amplitude were unchanged. Conclusion: Narcoleptics have a high propensity for lucid dreaming without differing in REM sleep characteristics from people without narcolepsy. This suggests narcolepsy patients may provide useful information in future studies on the nature of lucid dreaming. Citation: Dodet P, Chavez M, Leu-Semenescu S, Golmard JL, Arnulf I. Lucid dreaming in

  6. The Dreaming Child: Dreams, Religion and Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Dreaming is an integral part of human life. Whilst psychology has generated extensive knowledge and understanding about dreams, it was in religious contexts that they were originally understood. This relationship between dreams and religion is still evident in contemporary society in the scriptures of the Abrahamic faiths, which narrate dreams…

  7. Social dreaming: competition or complementation to individual dreaming?

    PubMed

    Noack, Amélie

    2010-11-01

    Social dreaming is presented as a method to explore the unconscious dimension of the social world. The theoretical position of social dreaming and its historical development is described. Two examples are given for the practical application of social dreaming, a professional meeting of psychotherapists and an experiential workshop dealing with the aftermath of trauma. It is suggested that social dreaming is complementary to individual dreaming and offers insights and explanations, as well as guidance on various levels for applications in clinical, organizational, institutional and social settings. PMID:20961320

  8. The use of dreams in modern psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hill, Clara E; Knox, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    We review theories of dream work. We also review the empirical research about how dreams are used in psychotherapy, as well as the process and outcome of different models of dream work. Finally, we review how dream content can be used to understand client, the role of culture in dream work, client and therapist dreams about each other, and training therapists to do dream work. PMID:20870072

  9. Dreaming without REM sleep.

    PubMed

    Oudiette, Delphine; Dealberto, Marie-José; Uguccioni, Ginevra; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Merino-Andreu, Milagros; Tafti, Mehdi; Garma, Lucile; Schwartz, Sophie; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2012-09-01

    To test whether mental activities collected from non-REM sleep are influenced by REM sleep, we suppressed REM sleep using clomipramine 50mg (an antidepressant) or placebo in the evening, in a double blind cross-over design, in 11 healthy young men. Subjects were awakened every hour and asked about their mental activity. The marked (81%, range 39-98%) REM-sleep suppression induced by clomipramine did not substantially affect any aspects of dream recall (report length, complexity, bizarreness, pleasantness and self-perception of dream or thought-like mentation). Since long, complex and bizarre dreams persist even after suppressing REM sleep either partially or totally, it suggests that the generation of mental activity during sleep is independent of sleep stage. PMID:22647346

  10. Capturing Darwin's dream.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Travis C; Faircloth, Brant C

    2016-09-01

    Evolutionary biologists from Darwin forward have dreamed of having data that would elucidate our understanding of evolutionary history and the diversity of life. Sequence capture is a relatively old DNA technology, but its use is growing rapidly due to advances in (i) massively parallel DNA sequencing approaches and instruments, (ii) massively parallel bait construction, (iii) methods to identify target regions and (iv) sample preparation. We give a little historical context to these developments, summarize some of the important advances reported in this special issue and point to further advances that can be made to help fulfill Darwin's dream. PMID:27454358

  11. Metacognitive mechanisms underlying lucid dreaming.

    PubMed

    Filevich, Elisa; Dresler, Martin; Brick, Timothy R; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-21

    Lucid dreaming is a state of awareness that one is dreaming, without leaving the sleep state. Dream reports show that self-reflection and volitional control are more pronounced in lucid compared with nonlucid dreams. Mostly on these grounds, lucid dreaming has been associated with metacognition. However, the link to lucid dreaming at the neural level has not yet been explored. We sought for relationships between the neural correlates of lucid dreaming and thought monitoring. Human participants completed a questionnaire assessing lucid dreaming ability, and underwent structural and functional MRI. We split participants based on their reported dream lucidity. Participants in the high-lucidity group showed greater gray matter volume in the frontopolar cortex (BA9/10) compared with those in the low-lucidity group. Further, differences in brain structure were mirrored by differences in brain function. The BA9/10 regions identified through structural analyses showed increases in blood oxygen level-dependent signal during thought monitoring in both groups, and more strongly in the high-lucidity group. Our results reveal shared neural systems between lucid dreaming and metacognitive function, in particular in the domain of thought monitoring. This finding contributes to our understanding of the mechanisms enabling higher-order consciousness in dreams. PMID:25609624

  12. Chronobiological features of dream production.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Tore A

    2004-10-01

    A review of the scientific literature clarifies several chronobiological features of dreaming. The literature supports the conclusions that dreaming 'intensity' and, to a lesser extent dream-like quality, is modulated by (1) a sinusoidal, 90-min ultradian oscillation, (2) a 'switch-like' circadian oscillation, (3) a 12-h circasemidian rhythm, and (4) a 28-day circatrigintan rhythm (for women). Further, access to dream memory sources appears to be modulated by (5) a 7-day circaseptan rhythm. Further study of these rhythmic influences on dreaming may help to explain diverse and often contradictory findings in the dream research literature, to clarify relationships between dreaming and waking cognitive processes, to explain relationships between disturbed phase relationships and dream disturbances and to shed new light on the problems of dreaming's functions and biological markers. Further chronobiological studies of dreaming will likely enable the development of theoretical models that explain how interactions between and within major levels of oscillation determine the variable characteristics of dreaming. PMID:15336239

  13. DREAM: An R2O Success Story?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, G. D.; Henderson, M. G.; Koller, J.; Chen, Y.; Friedel, R. H.; Zaharia, S. G.; Thomsen, D.

    2009-12-01

    The Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM) is a data-assimilative model of the Earth’s radiation belts that has, until recently, been used primarily as a research tool to understand radiation belt dynamics and to develop of Kalman filter techniques for application to magnetospheric modeling. More recently, the emphasis of the DREAM program has shifted toward implementation of an operational prototype for testing and validation at the Air Force Research Laboratory’s (AFRL) Space Weather Forecast Laboratory (SWFL). The transition has required significant effort, funding, and shifting of priorities that serve as a recent example of the opportunities and challenges of transitioning a model from research to operations (R2O). Two recent technical developments will be discussed: (1) implementation of real-time data-assimilation in DREAM and the associated user interfaces and data products and (2) adapting DREAM for service oriented architectures that enable distributed computation and “easy” integration of services that couple codes without those services even having to be aware of each other. (Google Earth is one example of a highly-developed service oriented architecture.) We will briefly illustrate some of these capabilities but we will also discuss requirements for 24/7 operation, self restarting, direct application of outputs, etc. Of equal importance, we will discuss some of the logistical aspects of our experience with R2O. Those include: How do you fund it? How do you identify a feasible subset of user needs? How do you (or should you) support activities at multiple R2O facilities such as SWFL, SWPT, and CCMC? What inter-agency coordination is required? The transition of DREAM from research to operations has been ongoing for just over one year and is not yet complete. So, it can not yet be called a success - but, it hasn’t failed and it continues to provide an interesting, contemporary test case as it crosses the R2O “valley of death”.

  14. The Possible Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, James C.; And Others

    The "Possible Dream Scholarship Program" was developed at San Juan College (SJC) in New Mexico to encourage students to complete high school and attend college. Every 8th grader in San Juan County, regardless of their academic performance, receives a scholarship certificate of $125 to attend San Juan College and an invitation to enroll in the…

  15. Television: Stuff of Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggaley, Jon

    The fluctuating effects of media can be observed by a data collection technique which reveals patterns of audience response similar to those which C.G. Jung observed in his analyses on word association and dreaming. The technique is known as Continuous Response Movement (CRM). A typical CRM training session automates the audience feedback process…

  16. A Dream Realized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierpont, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    This article features the Center for Inquiry, a school where the teachers are making their dreams come true. As a school designed wholly by teachers, the Center for Inquiry (CFI) in Indianapolis, Indiana, is teaching kids how to take ownership of learning. Originally designed to be a school within a school for exchange and preservice teachers, the…

  17. Sabotaging the California Dream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piland, William E.

    2004-01-01

    Higher education, the California dream for well over 2 million undergraduate students, is turning into a nightmare. The Golden State's promise of unparalleled access to community colleges and universities is fast becoming a tarnished relic of the past. And this state of affairs is occurring at a time when the demand for higher education has never…

  18. Dreams Memories & Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Photography students spend a considerable amount of time working on technical issues in shooting, composing, editing, and processing prints. Another aspect of their learning should include the conception and communication of their ideas. A student's memories and dreams can serve as motivation to create images in visual art. Some artists claim that…

  19. Delaware's Dream Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2007-01-01

    To librarians at the Delaware Division of Libraries, Governor Ruth Ann Minner, Secretary of State Harriet Smith Windsor, and Assistant Secretary of State Rick Geisenberger are "the Delaware Dream Team." The governor and her team supported funding for the 2004 statewide effort that resulted in the Delaware Master Plan for Library Services and…

  20. Retrospective dream components and musical preferences.

    PubMed

    Kroth, Jerry; Lamas, Jasmin; Pisca, Nicholas; Bourret, Kristy; Kollath, Miranda

    2008-08-01

    Retrospective dream components endorsed on the KJP Dream Inventory were correlated with those on the Short Test of Musical Preference for 68 graduate students in counseling psychology (11 men). Among 40 correlations, 6 were significant between preferences for Heavy Metal and Dissociative avoidance dreams (.32), Dreaming that you are dreaming (.40), Dreaming that you have fallen unconscious or asleep (.41), Recurring pleasantness (.31), and Awakening abruptly from a dream (-.31); between preferences for Rap/Hip-Hop and Sexual dreams (.27); and between preferences for Jazz and Recurring pleasantness in dreams (.33). Subjects preferring Classical music reported a higher incidence of Dreams of flying (.33) and rated higher Discontentedness in dreams (-.26). The meaning of these low values awaits research based on personality inventories and full dream reports. PMID:18982941

  1. The function of dream sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crick, Francis; Mitchison, Graeme

    1983-07-01

    We propose that the function of dream sleep (more properly rapid-eye movement or REM sleep) is to remove certain undesirable modes of interaction in networks of cells in the cerebral cortex. We postulate that this is done in REM sleep by a reverse learning mechanism (see also p. 158), so that the trace in the brain of the unconscious dream is weakened, rather than strengthened, by the dream.

  2. Modeling Dream and Sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geszti, T.; Pazmandi, F.

    1989-01-01

    Modifying a proposal of Crick and Mitchison, a possible use of dream sleep is suggested to be the refreshment of a bounded short-term memory through the elimination of accidental weak memories, by reinforcing randomly retrieved strong ones. The extreme sensitivity of random retrieval to the pattern amplitude is explained by an infinite-slope change of the attraction basin size. External fields, representing pulse trains of external origin, cause a proliferation of fixed points, helping or disturbing computation.

  3. 76 FR 39918 - Honeywell International, Inc., Metropolis Works; License Amendment Request and Request for a Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires participants to submit and serve all... COMMISSION Honeywell International, Inc., Metropolis Works; License Amendment Request and Request for a... Metropolis Works Facility site located in Metropolis, Illinois. License No. SUB-526 authorizes the...

  4. From the dreams of a generation to the theory of dreams: Freud's Roman dreams.

    PubMed

    Meghnagi, David

    2011-06-01

    In The Interpretation of Dreams, Freud's interpretation of oedipal desires does not occur at the expense of historical and personal desires, which are always there as a backdrop. In the relentless examination of his own dreams that Freud makes in order to show the mechanisms inherent in all oneiric deformation, we are also led to another, specifically historical, aspect of the issue of Jewish emancipation, which he experiences at first hand. By analysing his own dreams, Freud not only shows us the mechanisms governing dream formation, but also develops a pointed critique of his contemporary society and its prejudices. PMID:21702751

  5. Trait and neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content.

    PubMed

    Blagrove, Mark; Pace-Schott, Edward F

    2010-01-01

    Individuals differ greatly in their dream recall frequency, in their incidence of recalling types of dreams, such as nightmares, and in the content of their dreams. This chapter reviews work on the waking life correlates of these differences between people in their experience of dreaming and reviews some of the neurobiological correlates of these individual differences. The chapter concludes that despite there being trait-like aspects of general dream recall and of dream content, very few psychometrically assessed correlates for dream recall frequency and dream content have been found. More successful has been the investigation of correlates of frequency of particular types of dreams, such as nightmares and lucid dreams, and also of how waking-life experience is associated with dream content. There is also potential in establishing neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content, and recent work on this is reviewed. PMID:20870067

  6. Dr. King's Dream. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    This lesson plan teaches students about the life and work of Martin Luther King, Jr. Students listen to a brief biography, view photographs of the March on Washington, hear a portion of King's "I Have a Dream" speech, and discuss what King's words mean to them. Finally, they will create picture books about their own dreams of freedom for Americans…

  7. The Case for Dreaming Big

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domina, Thurston; Conley, AnneMarie; Farkas, George

    2011-01-01

    The American educational system is no fairy tale. Students who think that it takes nothing more than a wish upon a star to make their educational dreams come true are sure to be disappointed. The authors agree with Professor Rosenbaum: In order to realize their educational dreams, students must invest considerable effort. Rather than encouraging…

  8. Beyond DreamWeaving: Honoring Our Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Martha M.

    DreamWeavers listen for the dreams within themselves and within others. The process of career counseling, career management coaching and career/life planning invites practitioners to consistently listen for the dreams, understand that dreams are visions and that visions guide us to action. This paper highlights how career practitioners are called…

  9. What Do Young Children Dream about?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Nealis, Arlene L.

    2012-01-01

    Young children's dreams can be a way for teachers and caregivers to share with children and an opportunity for children to describe and even draw dreams. In two different preschool settings, in two different geographical locales, 94 children, aged 3-5 years, shared 266 dreams with a trusted, familiar teacher. Dreams were coded anonymously. The…

  10. Estimating a Noncompensatory IRT Model Using Metropolis within Gibbs Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Relatively little research has been conducted with the noncompensatory class of multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) models. A Monte Carlo simulation study was conducted exploring the estimation of a two-parameter noncompensatory item response theory (IRT) model. The estimation method used was a Metropolis-Hastings within Gibbs algorithm…

  11. Daydreams and nap dreams: Content comparisons.

    PubMed

    Carr, Michelle; Nielsen, Tore

    2015-11-01

    Differences between nighttime REM and NREM dreams are well-established but only rarely are daytime REM and NREM nap dreams compared with each other or with daydreams. Fifty-one participants took daytime naps (with REM or NREM awakenings) and provided both waking daydream and nap dream reports. They also provided ratings of their bizarreness, sensory experience, and emotion intensity. Recall rates for REM (96%) and NREM (89%) naps were elevated compared to typical recall rates for nighttime dreams (80% and 43% respectively), suggesting an enhanced circadian influence. All attribute ratings were higher for REM than for NREM dreams, replicating findings for nighttime dreams. Compared with daydreams, NREM dreams had lower ratings for emotional intensity and sensory experience while REM dreams had higher ratings for bizarreness and sensory experience. Results support using daytime naps in dream research and suggest that there occurs selective enhancement and inhibition of specific dream attributes by REM, NREM and waking state mechanisms. PMID:26164253

  12. The use of dreams in spiritual care.

    PubMed

    Stranahan, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of dreams in the context of pastoral care. Although many people dream and consider their dreams to hold some significant spiritual meaning, spiritual care providers have been reluctant to incorporate patients' dreams into the therapeutic conversation. Not every dream can be considered insightful, but probing the meaning of some dreams can enhance spiritual care practice. Hill's Cognitive-Experimental Dream Interpretation Model is applied in the current article as a useful framework for exploring dreams, gaining insight about spiritual problems, and developing a therapeutic plan of action. Bulkeley's criteria for dream interpretation were used to furnish safeguards against inappropriate application of dream interpretation to spiritual assessment and interventions. PMID:21534069

  13. The american dental dream.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The American Dental Dream-the cultural desire for straight, white teeth-is difficult, if not impossible, for poor and working-class people to achieve. Using ethnographic fiction, autoethnography, poetry, and qualitative interviewing, I brush away the taken-for-granted assumptions about teeth. I explore the personal, relational, and structural consequences of this cultural desire, and show how social class writes itself on our bodies. I write these culture-centered teeth tales to show how one might cope with their teeth. PMID:25257392

  14. An assessment of DREAM, appendix E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddle, W. E.

    1980-01-01

    The design realization, evaluation and modelling (DREAM) system is evaluated. A short history of the DREAM research project is given as well as the significant characteristics of DREAM as a development environment. The design notation which is the basis for the DREAM system is reviewed, and the development tools envisioned as part of DREAM are discussed. Insights into development environments and their production are presented and used to make suggestions for future work in the area of development environments.

  15. Converging Paradigms: A Reflection on Parallel Theoretical Developments in Psychoanalytic Metapsychology and Empirical Dream Research.

    PubMed

    Schmelowszky, Ágoston

    2016-08-01

    In the last decades one can perceive a striking parallelism between the shifting perspective of leading representatives of empirical dream research concerning their conceptualization of dreaming and the paradigm shift within clinically based psychoanalytic metapsychology with respect to its theory on the significance of dreaming. In metapsychology, dreaming becomes more and more a central metaphor of mental functioning in general. The theories of Klein, Bion, and Matte-Blanco can be considered as milestones of this paradigm shift. In empirical dream research, the competing theories of Hobson and of Solms respectively argued for and against the meaningfulness of the dream-work in the functioning of the mind. In the meantime, empirical data coming from various sources seemed to prove the significance of dream consciousness for the development and maintenance of adaptive waking consciousness. Metapsychological speculations and hypotheses based on empirical research data seem to point in the same direction, promising for contemporary psychoanalytic practice a more secure theoretical base. In this paper the author brings together these diverse theoretical developments and presents conclusions regarding psychoanalytic theory and technique, as well as proposing an outline of an empirical research plan for testing the specificity of psychoanalysis in developing dream formation. PMID:27500705

  16. Japanese dreams: culture and cosmology.

    PubMed

    Koyama, S

    1995-05-01

    Attitudes to dream evaluation vary depending on culture. Dreams are considered important, real, and public in some cultures, but absurd, irrational and personal in others. Japan has its own history of dreaming, which can be well reconstructed due to rich sources of archeological and documentary material. In this paper dream evolution in Japan is described. Phase 1 is the prehistoric Jomon period, where people believed dreams were part of reality. From Phase 2, the sophisticated philosophies of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism were introduced and changed the social and mental system of Japan in phase 3. At phase 4, the amalgamation of local and alien cultures occurred and supernatural beliefs prevailed. In this society dreams played a very important role. Phase 5 is the period when the Samurai class ruled Japan. The pragmatic thinking of the Samurai succeeded in fostering good preconditions for the receipt of scientific Western culture in phase 6. The importance of dreams in Japan evolved in such a way. However, the elements of each phase continued and accumulated similar layers. Thus, a majority of the phases seemed to retain animism from the Jomon period. PMID:8726122

  17. Drug dreams: a neuropsychoanalytic hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the ventral tegmental pathway stimulates both dreaming and drug craving. To investigate a possible clinical link between these two psychic phenomena, psychotherapy notes from the first six months of an addicted patient's treatment were reviewed, together with verbatim notes from the four years of psychoanalysis that followed. Of 240 dreams reported by the patient,58 had manifest content involving the seeking or using of drugs. There was no particular temporal or emotional thematic pattern to these "drug dreams,"which persisted through four and a half years of sobriety. Drug dreams are observable phenomena that reflect both the innate structure of the brain and neural changes produced by exposure to addictive drugs. In some addicted persons, exposure to drugs produces a fixed change in neurological functioning with which they must contend for years, possibly the rest of their lives. Drug craving meets Freud's defining characteristics for a drive: it is a constant pressure, originating from within the organism, to do work, and it constantly demands satisfaction. Because ego and libidinal drives share a common neural pathway, they should not be separated conceptually. Solms's finding (in press) that the activating systems for dreaming and for craving are identical, a finding based on observations of tumor- or stroke-provoked brain lesions, is confirmed by observation of the dreams of a patient whose brain changes were created by drug exposure. This study provides further evidence that the origin of the dream is a wish. PMID:11379730

  18. The uncanny in a dream.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Eugene J

    2012-07-01

    In previous publications, the author has focused on particular types of inclusions in dreams (Mahon 2002a, 2002b, 2005a, 2007). In this paper, the author explores an instance of the uncanny in a dream and speculates on the particular function such an inclusion might have served. A patient dreamed about the name of an author, Thomas B. Costain, which he believed at first to be a fictitious dream concoction. In fact, all his initial associations dealt with this dream inclusion as if it had no connection to reality. When he later Googled the name, he was surprised to uncannily discover that the "fictitious" name was in fact the real name of a moderately well-known author. His subsequent discovery-that one of the author's books, The Silver Chalice, "re-minded" him of silver paper chalices that his father used to make for him as a child-jolted him further. This revived repression of not only the author's name, but also of its significant connection to repressed genetic memories, filled him with a sense of awe, as though he had suddenly been awakened from a hypnotic spell. If dream experience in general can be considered uncanny, the dream work deployed this particular inclusion of an uncanny, "fictitious" representation of reality for complex dynamic reasons, the author maintains. PMID:23038905

  19. Dr. Barnett's dream

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A.

    1990-04-01

    In 1986, AstroPower was a tiny R D company located at the University of Delaware. Like many other entrepreneurs in the field at that time, the company's president, Dr. Allen Barnett, had a good idea, a good research staff, and the dream of becoming a successful manufacturer of photovoltaic (PV) cells. If the Newark, Del. company's projections remain on track, Barnett plans to become the third largest PV manufacturer in the United States by the end of next year. Were it not for the company's performance to date, such a claim might well be dismissed as idle dreaming. AstroPower Inc. is pursuing a two-pronged strategy: to rapidly bring a new thin-crystal silicon PV cell to commercialization; and, in the meantime, to gain experience in manufacturing and distributing conventional single-crystal and polycrystal silicon cells. The company sold approximately 200 kilowatts (kWp) of cells last year (about half single-crystal and half polycrystal). Its current production capacity is 360 kWp. The company and its products are described.

  20. Reporting dream experience: Why (not) to be skeptical about dream reports

    PubMed Central

    Windt, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Are dreams subjective experiences during sleep? Is it like something to dream, or is it only like something to remember dreams after awakening? Specifically, can dream reports be trusted to reveal what it is like to dream, and should they count as evidence for saying that dreams are conscious experiences at all? The goal of this article is to investigate the relationship between dreaming, dream reporting and subjective experience during sleep. I discuss different variants of philosophical skepticism about dream reporting and argue that they all fail. Consequently, skeptical doubts about the trustworthiness of dream reports are misguided, and for systematic reasons. I suggest an alternative, anti-skeptical account of the trustworthiness of dream reports. On this view, dream reports, when gathered under ideal reporting conditions and according to the principle of temporal proximity, are trustworthy (or transparent) with respect to conscious experience during sleep. The transparency assumption has the status of a methodologically necessary default assumption and is theoretically justified because it provides the best explanation of dream reporting. At the same time, it inherits important insights from the discussed variants of skepticism about dream reporting, suggesting that the careful consideration of these skeptical arguments ultimately leads to a positive account of why and under which conditions dream reports can and should be trusted. In this way, moderate distrust can be fruitfully combined with anti-skepticism about dream reporting. Several perspectives for future dream research and for the comparative study of dreaming and waking experience are suggested. PMID:24223542

  1. From Freud's dream-work to Bion's work of dreaming: the changing conception of dreaming in psychoanalytic theory.

    PubMed

    Schneider, John A

    2010-06-01

    Bion moved psychoanalytic theory from Freud's theory of dream-work to a concept of dreaming in which dreaming is the central aspect of all emotional functioning. In this paper, I first review historical, theoretical, and clinical aspects of dreaming as seen by Freud and Bion. I then propose two interconnected ideas that I believe reflect Bion's split from Freud regarding the understanding of dreaming. Bion believed that all dreams are psychological works in progress and at one point suggested that all dreams contain elements that are akin to visual hallucinations. I explore and elaborate Bion's ideas that all dreams contain aspects of emotional experience that are too disturbing to be dreamt, and that, in analysis, the patient brings a dream with the hope of receiving the analyst's help in completing the unconscious work that was entirely or partially too disturbing for the patient to dream on his own. Freud views dreams as mental phenomena with which to understand how the mind functions, but believes that dreams are solely the 'guardians of sleep,' and not, in themselves, vehicles for unconscious psychological work and growth until they are interpreted by the analyst. Bion extends Freud's ideas, but also departs from Freud and re-conceives of dreaming as synonymous with unconscious emotional thinking - a process that continues both while we are awake and while we are asleep. From another somewhat puzzling perspective, he views dreams solely as manifestations of what the dreamer is unable to think. PMID:20590926

  2. Recurrent dreams: Recurring threat simulations?

    PubMed

    Valli, K; Revonsuo, A

    2006-06-01

    Zadra, Desjardins, and Marcotte (2006) have made a valuable contribution to the empirical testing of the Threat Simulation Theory (TST) (Revonsuo, 2000a) in recurrent dreams. For the most part, their results are in accordance with the theory, while some findings seem to conflict with the predictions of TST. In our commentary, we consider some alternative ways to interpret the results, and we conclude that many prominent features of most recurrent dreams seem to be manifestations of a threat simulation function, leading to repeated rehearsal of threat perception and avoidance, but a minority of recurrent dreams seem to have origins unrelated to threat simulation. PMID:16019227

  3. Theoretical trajectories: Dreams and dreaming from Freud to Bion.

    PubMed

    Vinocur Fischbein, Susana; Miramón, Beatriz

    2015-08-01

    This paper aims at comparing Freud's and Bion's conceptual models on dreams and dreaming. Beyond both authors' shared disposition vis-à-vis problems posed by knowledge, a critical gap opens regarding their differing clinical practices. It is hypothesized that their ideas do not belong to irreconcilable paradigms, but that there are continuities besides discontinuities more frequently highlighted between Freudian statements on psychic functioning--described in his theory on dreams--and Bion's findings in his development of both the original theory and the connections between dreaming and thinking. Firstly, Freud's and Bion's epistemological sources are examined as well as their creative use and historical environment. Then certain general theoretical and clinical issues are considered concerning their theories on dreams, the evolution of their ideas and corresponding clinical contexts. In a third section, their confluences and dissimilarities are dealt with, including clinical vignettes belonging to the authors to illustrate their interpretative modes of working. This is meant to show both an implicit theoretical-clinical complementarity and the fact that, though their routes bifurcate about the function of dreams, there remain connecting paths. Lastly, the final remarks review certain issues that have frequently been controversial between these lines of thought. PMID:25885119

  4. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams.

    PubMed

    Klein, Barrett A

    2011-01-01

    A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans' dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream's significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives. PMID:26467945

  5. Studying dream content using the archive and search engine on DreamBank.net.

    PubMed

    Domhoff, G William; Schneider, Adam

    2008-12-01

    This paper shows how the dream archive and search engine on DreamBank.net, a Web site containing over 22,000 dream reports, can be used to generate new findings on dream content, some of which raise interesting questions about the relationship between dreaming and various forms of waking thought. It begins with studies that draw dream reports from DreamBank.net for studies of social networks in dreams, and then demonstrates the usefulness of the search engine by employing word strings relating to religious and sexual elements. Examples from two lengthy individual dream series are used to show how the dreams of one person can be studied for characters, activities, and emotions. A final example shows that accurate inferences about a person's religious beliefs can be made on the basis of reading through dreams retrieved with a few keywords. The overall findings are similar to those in studies using traditional forms of content analysis. PMID:18682331

  6. ISS Update: Dream Chaser Spacecraft

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Michael Curie talks with Cheryl McPhillips, Commercial Crew Program Partner Manager for the Sierra Nevada Corporation, the company developing the Dream Chaser spacecraft...

  7. The artifice of literary dreams.

    PubMed

    Raper, Julius R

    2005-01-01

    When it comes to interpreting dreams, literary critics have a distinct advantage, it would appear, over practicing analysts. Readers would assume that storytellers have crafted dreams in fictions to illuminate their characters and have provided the elements that analysts must struggle to collect and select: especially the day residue, the larger contextual associations, and an overarching narrative. The dream of a 23-year old woman from Ellen Glasgow's 1925 novel, Barren Ground, should illustrate the critic's advantage. Consideration, however, of the larger context, shrouded associations, and multiple master narratives (formulated by Freud, Jung, and Kohut) that the critic can profitably employ in understanding the young woman's dream raises fundamental questions about the critic's presumed advantage. PMID:15953786

  8. Dreams, Perception, and Creative Realization.

    PubMed

    Glaskin, Katie

    2015-10-01

    This article draws on the ethnography of Aboriginal Australia to argue that perceptual openness, extending from waking life into dreaming experience, provides an important cognitive framework for the apprehension of dreamt experience in these contexts. I argue that this perceptual openness is analogous to the "openness to experience" described as a personality trait that had been linked with dream recall frequency (among other things). An implication of identifying perceptual openness at a cultural rather than at an individual level is two-fold. It provides an example of the ways in which cultural differences affect perception, indicative of cognitive diversity; and, given the relationship between dreams and creativity suggested anecdotally and through research, a cultural orientation toward perceptual openness is also likely to have implications for the realization of creativity that occurs through dreams. Such creativity though cannot be separated from the relational context in which such dreamt material is elaborated and understood. PMID:26399220

  9. The Dreams of Heroin Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Maryanne

    1972-01-01

    Few heroin addicts get high'' in their dreams. An exploration of the reasons for this failure provides some clues to the conflicts and other problems that retard an addict's progress in therapy. (Author)

  10. Dreams, teachers, and legislation.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F

    2010-11-01

    When I accepted the James D. Mills Award from The American College of Emergency Physicians, I had three goals in mind, which I wanted to share with those attending the commemorative dinner meeting. My first goal was to remind those in attendance that each of us must make our academic dreams come true. My next goal was to acknowledge two of my empowering teachers at the dinner, Dr. Peter Rosen and Dr. William Sacco, who have made revolutionary advances in health care; and finally, I wished to remind the membership of the need to work with Congressional leaders to pass the Access to Emergency Medical Services Act of 2009. I warned the leaders in emergency medicine of the necessity to pass the Access to Emergency Medical Services Act of 2009 to ensure that our emergency medical patients receive prompt and responsible care. This has been our quest. PMID:20466505

  11. Dream Recall and Dream Content in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schredl, Michael; Sartorius, Heiko

    2010-01-01

    Although sleep is widely investigated in children with ADHD, dream studies in this group are completely lacking. The continuity hypothesis of dreaming stating that waking life is reflected in dreams would predict that waking-life symptoms are reflected in the dreams of such children. 103 children with ADHD and 100 controls completed a dream…

  12. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Barrett A.

    2011-01-01

    A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans’ dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream’s significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives. PMID:26467945

  13. Dream Deprivation and Facilitation with Hypnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Ira B.; Boone, Donald

    1975-01-01

    The present study attempted to deprive human subjects of dreaming through the administration of a posthypnotic suggestion and to increase or facilitate dreaming through a second suggestion that was used with another group of subjects. (Author/RK)

  14. Sierra Nevada's Dream Chaser Model Assembly

    NASA Video Gallery

    This time lapse video shows the assembly of a scale model of Sierra Nevada Space Systems' Dream Chaser vehicle. The Dream Chaser model is undergoing final preparations for buffet tests at the Trans...

  15. The impact of September 11 on dreaming.

    PubMed

    Bulkeley, Kelly; Kahan, Tracey L

    2008-12-01

    This study focuses on a set of dreams related to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks and their aftermath, using content analysis and cognitive psychology to explore the interweaving of external public catastrophe and internal psychological processes. The study tests several recent claims in contemporary dream research, including the central image theory of Hartmann [Hartmann, E., & Basile, R. (2003). Dream imagery becomes more intense after 9/11/01. Dreaming, 13(2), 61-66; Hartmann, E., & Brezler, T. (2008). A systematic change in dreams after 9/11/01. Sleep, 31(2), 213-218], the media exposure factor postulated by Propper [Propper, R. E., Stickgold, R., Keeley, R., & Christman, S. D. (2007). Is television traumatic? Dreams, stress, and media exposure in the aftermath of September 11, 2001. Psychological Science, 18(4), 334-340], the continuity hypothesis of Domhoff [Domhoff, W. G. (1996). Finding meaning in dreams: A quantitative approach. New York: Plenum], the cognitive and metacognitive approach of Kahan [Kahan, T. L. (2001). Consciousness in dreaming: A metacognitive approach. In K. Bulkeley (Ed.), Dreams: A reader on the religious, cultural, and psychological dimensions of dreaming (pp. 333-360). New York: Palgrave], and the threat simulation theory of Revonsuo [Revonsuo, A. (2000). The reinterpretation of dreams: An evolutionary hypothesis of the function of dreaming. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23(6), 877-901]. Our findings suggest the terrorist attacks had a tangible impact on the content of many people's dreams, but did not fundamentally alter the cognitive processing features of their dreaming. The 9/11 attacks affected what they dreamed about, but not the way they dreamed. PMID:18801664

  16. Minding the dream self: perspectives from the analysis of self-experience in dreams.

    PubMed

    Windt, Jennifer Michelle

    2013-12-01

    Can ancient art of memory (AAOM) principles explain the function of dreaming? The analysis of self-experience in dreams suggests that the answer is no: The phenomenal dream self lacks certain dimensions that are crucial for the efficacy of AAOM in wakefulness. However, the comparison between dreams and AAOM may be fruitful by suggesting new perspectives for the study of lucid dreaming as well an altered perspective on the efficacy of AAOM itself. PMID:24304774

  17. Children's Dreams during the Grief Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Catherine A.

    1999-01-01

    Examines whether grieving children tend to recall dreaming more frequently than nongrieving children. Results reveal that grieving children do tend to recall dreams more frequently and appear to be more aware of their dream worlds. Suggests that counselors interested in creatively assisting clients through the grieving process might utilize this…

  18. [Dreams in normal and pathological aging].

    PubMed

    Guénolé, Fabian; Marcaggi, Geoffrey; Baleyte, Jean-Marc; Garma, Lucile

    2010-06-01

    Although most of scientific knowledge in dream research is based on young adult studies, this article provides a review of the effects of normal and pathological aging on dream psychology. It starts with preliminary comments about epistemological and methodological principles of dream research, its singularities in aged persons, and the modifications of sleep physiology with age. The whole literature agrees that dream recall progressively decreases from the beginning of adulthood - not in old age - and that dream reports become less intense, perceptually and emotionally. This evolution occurs faster in men than women, with gender differences in the content of dreams. The chronological modifications could be explained partly by changes in lifestyle and attitude towards dreams in early adulthood, but mainly by modifications of sleep physiology, particularly the decrease and qualitative changes of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Dreams have usually little subjective importance in the mental life of aged persons. However, working with dreams can be a valuable tool for psychotherapy in the aged. According to the few existing data, patients suffering degenerative dementia dream much less than healthy aged persons. In Alzheimer's disease, this could be linked to the decrease of REM sleep, and atrophy of associative sensory areas of the cerebral cortex. Most studied aspects of dreaming in degenerative cognitive disorders are REM sleep behavior disorders, and nightmares induced by cholinesterase inhibitors. More studies are needed to better characterize the evolution of dreams with age, particularly studies performed in sleep laboratory. PMID:20525540

  19. Children's Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulkes, David

    Noting that scientific observation of children's dreaming offers unparalleled opportunities to study experience of conscious mental states, this book presents findings from two studies on children's dreaming. Following an argument outlining the problems in equating dreaming with perception, the book explains the use of sleep laboratories and…

  20. The Visionary Director: Going for Bigger Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Maggie

    1998-01-01

    Notes that child-care-center directors feel trapped by financial limitations, and encourages administrators to dream of changes to their programs and then to creatively achieve their dreams. Presents strategies for securing positive changes: assessing current situation; representing pieces of dream with blocks; reinventing idea of quilting bees;…

  1. Dream to Predict? REM Dreaming as Prospective Coding

    PubMed Central

    Llewellyn, Sue

    2016-01-01

    The dream as prediction seems inherently improbable. The bizarre occurrences in dreams never characterize everyday life. Dreams do not come true! But assuming that bizarreness negates expectations may rest on a misunderstanding of how the predictive brain works. In evolutionary terms, the ability to rapidly predict what sensory input implies—through expectations derived from discerning patterns in associated past experiences—would have enhanced fitness and survival. For example, food and water are essential for survival, associating past experiences (to identify location patterns) predicts where they can be found. Similarly, prediction may enable predator identification from what would have been only a fleeting and ambiguous stimulus—without prior expectations. To confront the many challenges associated with natural settings, visual perception is vital for humans (and most mammals) and often responses must be rapid. Predictive coding during wake may, therefore, be based on unconscious imagery so that visual perception is maintained and appropriate motor actions triggered quickly. Speed may also dictate the form of the imagery. Bizarreness, during REM dreaming, may result from a prospective code fusing phenomena with the same meaning—within a particular context. For example, if the context is possible predation, from the perspective of the prey two different predators can both mean the same (i.e., immediate danger) and require the same response (e.g., flight). Prospective coding may also prune redundancy from memories, to focus the image on the contextually-relevant elements only, thus, rendering the non-relevant phenomena indeterminate—another aspect of bizarreness. In sum, this paper offers an evolutionary take on REM dreaming as a form of prospective coding which identifies a probabilistic pattern in past events. This pattern is portrayed in an unconscious, associative, sensorimotor image which may support cognition in wake through being mobilized as a

  2. Dream to Predict? REM Dreaming as Prospective Coding.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, Sue

    2015-01-01

    The dream as prediction seems inherently improbable. The bizarre occurrences in dreams never characterize everyday life. Dreams do not come true! But assuming that bizarreness negates expectations may rest on a misunderstanding of how the predictive brain works. In evolutionary terms, the ability to rapidly predict what sensory input implies-through expectations derived from discerning patterns in associated past experiences-would have enhanced fitness and survival. For example, food and water are essential for survival, associating past experiences (to identify location patterns) predicts where they can be found. Similarly, prediction may enable predator identification from what would have been only a fleeting and ambiguous stimulus-without prior expectations. To confront the many challenges associated with natural settings, visual perception is vital for humans (and most mammals) and often responses must be rapid. Predictive coding during wake may, therefore, be based on unconscious imagery so that visual perception is maintained and appropriate motor actions triggered quickly. Speed may also dictate the form of the imagery. Bizarreness, during REM dreaming, may result from a prospective code fusing phenomena with the same meaning-within a particular context. For example, if the context is possible predation, from the perspective of the prey two different predators can both mean the same (i.e., immediate danger) and require the same response (e.g., flight). Prospective coding may also prune redundancy from memories, to focus the image on the contextually-relevant elements only, thus, rendering the non-relevant phenomena indeterminate-another aspect of bizarreness. In sum, this paper offers an evolutionary take on REM dreaming as a form of prospective coding which identifies a probabilistic pattern in past events. This pattern is portrayed in an unconscious, associative, sensorimotor image which may support cognition in wake through being mobilized as a predictive

  3. The Metropolis Monte Carlo method with CUDA enabled Graphic Processing Units

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Clifford; Ji, Weixiao; Blaisten-Barojas, Estela

    2014-02-01

    We present a CPU–GPU system for runtime acceleration of large molecular simulations using GPU computation and memory swaps. The memory architecture of the GPU can be used both as container for simulation data stored on the graphics card and as floating-point code target, providing an effective means for the manipulation of atomistic or molecular data on the GPU. To fully take advantage of this mechanism, efficient GPU realizations of algorithms used to perform atomistic and molecular simulations are essential. Our system implements a versatile molecular engine, including inter-molecule interactions and orientational variables for performing the Metropolis Monte Carlo (MMC) algorithm, which is one type of Markov chain Monte Carlo. By combining memory objects with floating-point code fragments we have implemented an MMC parallel engine that entirely avoids the communication time of molecular data at runtime. Our runtime acceleration system is a forerunner of a new class of CPU–GPU algorithms exploiting memory concepts combined with threading for avoiding bus bandwidth and communication. The testbed molecular system used here is a condensed phase system of oligopyrrole chains. A benchmark shows a size scaling speedup of 60 for systems with 210,000 pyrrole monomers. Our implementation can easily be combined with MPI to connect in parallel several CPU–GPU duets. -- Highlights: •We parallelize the Metropolis Monte Carlo (MMC) algorithm on one CPU—GPU duet. •The Adaptive Tempering Monte Carlo employs MMC and profits from this CPU—GPU implementation. •Our benchmark shows a size scaling-up speedup of 62 for systems with 225,000 particles. •The testbed involves a polymeric system of oligopyrroles in the condensed phase. •The CPU—GPU parallelization includes dipole—dipole and Mie—Jones classic potentials.

  4. Dreams of the Rarebit Fiend: food and diet as instigators of bizarre and disturbing dreams.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Tore; Powell, Russell A

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1900s, the Dream of the Rarebit Fiend comic strip conveyed how the spicy cheese dish Welsh rarebit leads to bizarre and disturbing dreams. Today, the perception that foods disturb dreaming persists. But apart from case studies, some exploratory surveys, and a few lab studies on how hunger affects dreaming, there is little empirical evidence addressing this topic. The present study examines three aspects of the food/dreaming relationship; it attempts to: (1) assess the prevalence of the perception of food-dependent dreaming and the types of foods most commonly blamed; (2) determine if perceived food-dependent dreaming is associated with dietary, sleep or motivational factors; and (3) explore whether these factors, independent of food/dreaming perceptions, are associated with reports of vivid and disturbing dreams. Three hundred and ninety six students completed questionnaires evaluating sleep, dreams, and dietary habits and motivations. Items queried whether they had noticed if foods produced bizarre or disturbing dreams and if eating late at night influenced their dreams. The perception of food-dependent dreaming had a prevalence of 17.8%; with dairy products being the most frequently blamed food category (39-44%). Those who perceived food-dependent dreaming differed from others by reporting more frequent and disturbing dreams, poorer sleep, higher coffee intake, and lower Intuitive Eating Scale scores. Reports of disturbing dreams were associated with a pathological constellation of measures that includes poorer sleep, binge-eating, and eating for emotional reasons. Reports of vivid dreams were associated with measures indicative of wellness: better sleep, a healthier diet, and longer times between meals (fasting). Results clarify the relationship between food and dreaming and suggest four explanations for the perception of food-dependent dreaming: (1) food specific effects; (2) food-induced distress; (3) folklore influences, and (4) causal

  5. Dreams of the Rarebit Fiend: food and diet as instigators of bizarre and disturbing dreams

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Tore; Powell, Russell A.

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1900s, the Dream of the Rarebit Fiend comic strip conveyed how the spicy cheese dish Welsh rarebit leads to bizarre and disturbing dreams. Today, the perception that foods disturb dreaming persists. But apart from case studies, some exploratory surveys, and a few lab studies on how hunger affects dreaming, there is little empirical evidence addressing this topic. The present study examines three aspects of the food/dreaming relationship; it attempts to: (1) assess the prevalence of the perception of food-dependent dreaming and the types of foods most commonly blamed; (2) determine if perceived food-dependent dreaming is associated with dietary, sleep or motivational factors; and (3) explore whether these factors, independent of food/dreaming perceptions, are associated with reports of vivid and disturbing dreams. Three hundred and ninety six students completed questionnaires evaluating sleep, dreams, and dietary habits and motivations. Items queried whether they had noticed if foods produced bizarre or disturbing dreams and if eating late at night influenced their dreams. The perception of food-dependent dreaming had a prevalence of 17.8%; with dairy products being the most frequently blamed food category (39–44%). Those who perceived food-dependent dreaming differed from others by reporting more frequent and disturbing dreams, poorer sleep, higher coffee intake, and lower Intuitive Eating Scale scores. Reports of disturbing dreams were associated with a pathological constellation of measures that includes poorer sleep, binge-eating, and eating for emotional reasons. Reports of vivid dreams were associated with measures indicative of wellness: better sleep, a healthier diet, and longer times between meals (fasting). Results clarify the relationship between food and dreaming and suggest four explanations for the perception of food-dependent dreaming: (1) food specific effects; (2) food-induced distress; (3) folklore influences, and (4) causal

  6. Nightmares and disorders of dreaming.

    PubMed

    Pagel, J F

    2000-04-01

    Dreams occur during all stages of sleep. Nightmares are common. They can be associated with poor sleep and diminished daytime performance. Frequent nightmares are not related to underlying psychopathology in most children and in some "creative" adults. However, recurrent nightmares are the most defining symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder and may be associated with other psychiatric illnesses. Night terrors are arousal disorders that occur most often in children and usually occur early in the sleep period. Patients with rapid-eye-movement behavior disorder often present with nocturnal injury resulting from the acting out of dreams. Dream disorders may respond to medication, but behavioral treatment approaches have shown excellent results, particularly in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder and recurrent nightmares. PMID:10779247

  7. DREAM: Research to Operations Beta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedel, Reiner; Reeves, Geoffrey; Zaharia, Sorin; Koller, Josef; Chen, Yue; Henderson, Mike; Thomsen, Davis

    The Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM) is a dataassimilative model of the Earth's radiation belts that has, until recently, been used primarily as a re-search tool to understand radiation belt dynamics and to develop Kalman filter techniques for application to magnetospheric modeling. More recently, the emphasis of the DREAM program has shifted toward implementation of an operational prototype for testing and validation at the Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL) Space Weather Forecast Laboratory (SWFL) and NASA's Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC). The transition has required significant effort, funding, and shifting of priorities that serve as a recent example of the oppor-tunities and challenges of transitioning a model from research to operations (R2O). DREAM is still in the early stages of transition to operations but we do not see any significant obstacles to success. We present here the BETA version of this model, operating in real-time, using GOES energetic particle data as input.

  8. Dreaming and Offline Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Wamsley, Erin J.

    2015-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that dreaming is influenced by the consolidation of memory during sleep. Following encoding, recently formed memory traces are gradually stabilized and reorganized into a more permanent form of long-term storage. Sleep provides an optimal neurophysiological state to facilitate this process, allowing memory networks to be repeatedly reactivated in the absence of new sensory input. The process of memory reactivation and consolidation in the sleeping brain appears to influence conscious experience during sleep, contributing to dream content recalled on awakening. This article outlines several lines of evidence in support of this hypothesis, and responds to some common objections. PMID:24477388

  9. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  10. Dreams and the temporality of consciousness.

    PubMed

    MacDuffie, Katherine; Mashour, George A

    2010-01-01

    Understanding dreams has long been considered fundamental to the development of a theory of consciousness. Evidence from neurobiology and neuroimaging research has paved the way for new theories of dreaming that are empirically supported. In this article we argue that dreaming is a unique state of consciousness that incorporates 3 temporal dimensions: experience of the present, processing of the past, and preparation for the future. The temporal complexity of dreams is made possible in part by the unique neurobiological environment of sleep, in which stimuli are internally generated and many of the restrictions associated with waking thought are absent. Because dream consciousness is not determined by sensory stimuli, a flexible integration of past experiences and the forging of novel connections are possible. We argue that disparate dream theories may not be mutually exclusive but rather relate to different temporal domains of the dream state. PMID:20518435

  11. The Five Star Method: A Relational Dream Work Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, Gregory Scott; Thurston, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a systematic method of dream work called the Five Star Method. Based on cocreative dream theory, which views the dream as the product of the interaction between dreamer and dream, this creative intervention shifts the principal focus in dream analysis from the interpretation of static imagery to the analysis of the dreamer's…

  12. Art Competition Encourages Student Dreams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartel, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    In 1971, members of the Naples Art Association (NAA) in Naples, Florida, initiated a scholarship program designed to encourage local young artists to realize their dreams of becoming professionals in the visual arts. Since then, awards have been given annually by the NAA to Collier County high-school students in conjunction with an exhibition of…

  13. Dreaming the Future of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetterley, Judith

    1999-01-01

    Articulates "romantic intellectualism" of what graduate work in English might mean and be. Avoids giving a detailed description of a doctoral program. Intends to convey something that might best be called visioning or dreamwork, and offers it in the hope that it may be helpful to others in their individual and collective visioning and dreaming.…

  14. Personality Correlates of Dream Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, A. B.

    1974-01-01

    The study investigated the capacity of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) to discriminate between those who frequently recall dreams and those who do not. The results are interpreted as indicating that the frequent recaller experiences less and the infrequent recaller experiences more intrapsychic conflict. (Author)

  15. Immigration Law & the American Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrini, Michelle, Ed.; Parins, Claire, Ed.; Kittlaus, Jennifer, Ed.; Bliss, Pam, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This magazine is designed to help high school teachers of civics, government, history, law, and law-related education program developers educate students about legal issues. This issue focuses on immigration law and the American Dream. It includes 11 articles: (1) "U.S. Immigration Policy and Globalization" (P. Martin; S. Martin) explains how the…

  16. Educational Dreams and Political Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses key themes in a new book of posthumously published writings by Paulo Freire, "Daring to Dream: Toward a Pedagogy of the Unfinished" (Paradigm Publishers, 2007). The paper comments on the structure and content of the book and places it in the context of Freire's wider corpus of published works. Particular attention is paid to…

  17. Dreaming and personality: Wake-dream continuity, thought suppression, and the Big Five Inventory.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Josie E

    2015-12-15

    Studies have found relationships between dream content and personality traits, but there are still many traits that have been underexplored or have had questionable conclusions drawn about them. Experimental work has found a 'rebound' effect in dreams when thoughts are suppressed prior to sleep, but the effect of trait thought suppression on dream content has not yet been researched. In the present study participants (N=106) reported their Most Recent Dream, answered questions about the content of the dream, and completed questionnaires measuring trait thought suppression and the 'Big Five' personality traits. Of these, 83 were suitably recent for analyses. A significant positive correlation was found between trait thought suppression and participants' ratings of dreaming of waking-life emotions, and high suppressors reported dreaming more of their waking-life emotions than low suppressors did. The results may lend support to the compensation theory of dreams, and/or the ironic process theory of mental control. PMID:26496477

  18. Mindfulness and dream quality: the inverse relationship between mindfulness and negative dream affect.

    PubMed

    Simor, Péter; Köteles, Ferenc; Sándor, Piroska; Petke, Zsolt; Bódizs, Róbert

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship of mindfulness to the emotional quality of dreaming. In our questionnaire-based study, comprising the data of 587 undergraduate students we examined the association between trait anxiety, perceived stress, trait mindfulness, negative dream affect and dream anxiety. Our results indicate that mindfulness is inversely related to disturbed dreaming and predicts less severe dream disturbances after controlling for trait anxiety. Moreover, the results of the applied hierarchical regression analysis suggest that mindfulness is associated with reduced dream anxiety by moderating the extent of waking anxiety. Our findings extend previous research relating mindfulness, emotional regulation and sleep quality to the domain of dream research. We suggest that mindfulness is a possible protective factor against dream disturbances. PMID:21504431

  19. Frequency of lucid dreaming in a representative German sample.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael; Erlacher, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Lucid dreams occur when a person is aware that he is dreaming while he is dreaming. In a representative sample of German adults (N = 919), 51% of the participants reported that they had experienced a lucid dream at least once. Lucid dream recall was significantly higher in women and negatively correlated with age. However, these effects might be explained by the frequency of dream recall, as there was a correlation of .57 between frequency of dream recall and frequency of lucid dreams. Other sociodemographic variables like education, marital status, or monthly income were not related to lucid dream frequency. Given the relatively high prevalence of lucid dreaming reported in the present study, research on lucid dreams might be pursued in the sleep laboratory to expand the knowledge about sleep, dreaming, and consciousness processes in general. PMID:21466083

  20. A Test of Two Theories of Dream Forgetting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segall, Seth Robert

    1980-01-01

    Subjects undergoing assertion training experienced a decrease in dream recall and dream pleasantness. The measures of repression did not account significantly for dream recall or pleasantness variance. Findings are more supportive of interference theory than repression theory. (Author)

  1. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  2. The reinterpretation of dreams: an evolutionary hypothesis of the function of dreaming.

    PubMed

    Revonsuo, A

    2000-12-01

    Several theories claim that dreaming is a random by-product of REM sleep physiology and that it does not serve any natural function. Phenomenal dream content, however, is not as disorganized as such views imply. The form and content of dreams is not random but organized and selective: during dreaming, the brain constructs a complex model of the world in which certain types of elements, when compared to waking life, are underrepresented whereas others are over represented. Furthermore, dream content is consistently and powerfully modulated by certain types of waking experiences. On the basis of this evidence, I put forward the hypothesis that the biological function of dreaming is to simulate threatening events, and to rehearse threat perception and threat avoidance. To evaluate this hypothesis, we need to consider the original evolutionary context of dreaming and the possible traces it has left in the dream content of the present human population. In the ancestral environment human life was short and full of threats. Any behavioral advantage in dealing with highly dangerous events would have increased the probability of reproductive success. A dream-production mechanism that tends to select threatening waking events and simulate them over and over again in various combinations would have been valuable for the development and maintenance of threat-avoidance skills. Empirical evidence from normative dream content, children's dreams, recurrent dreams, nightmares, post traumatic dreams, and the dreams of hunter-gatherers indicates that our dream-production mechanisms are in fact specialized in the simulation of threatening events, and thus provides support to the threat simulation hypothesis of the function of dreaming. PMID:11515147

  3. Midsummer's Dream Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-08-01

    How does the Galaxy in which we live look like? It is almost certain that we will never be able to send a probe out of our Milky Way to take a snapshot, in the same way as the first satellites could do to give us striking images of planet Earth. But astronomers do not need this to imagine what our bigger home resembles. And they have a pretty good idea of it. The Milky Way with its several hundreds of billion stars is thought to be a relatively flat disc - 100,000 light-year across [1] - with a central bulge lying in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius (The Archer) and six spiral arms. The Milky Way has most probably also a central bar made of young, bright stars. If we can't take pictures of the Milky Way, we may photograph others galaxies which astronomers think look similar to it. The two galaxies presented here are just two magnificient examples of barred spiral galaxies. One - Messier 83 - is seen face-on, and the other - NGC 4565 - appears edge-on. Together, they give us a nice idea of how the Milky Way may appear from outer space. These images are based on data obtained with the twin FORS1 and FORS2 (FOcal Reducer and Spectrograph) instruments attached to two ESO's 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of the Very Large Telescope Array located on Cerro Paranal. The data were extracted from the ESO Science Archive Facility, which contains approximately 50 Terabytes [2] of scientific data and is, since April 1, 2005, open to the worldwide community. These invaluable data have already led to the publication of more than 1000 scientific papers. They also contains many nice examples of beautiful astronomical objects which could be the theme of as many midsummer's dreams. NGC 4565 The first galaxy pictured here is NGC 4565 [3], which for obvious reasons is also called the Needle Galaxy. First spotted in 1785 by Uranus' discoverer, Sir William Herschel (1738-1822), this is one of the most famous example of an edge-on spiral galaxy and is located some 30 million light

  4. Relation between dream content and eye movements tested by lucid dreams.

    PubMed

    Tholey, P

    1983-06-01

    This experiment illustrates that systematic observations in lucid dreams can be used to test hypotheses concerning the relation between dream content and eye movements. The observations were carried out by 5 students who had learned to induce lucid dreams by using the reflection technique developed by the author. Several hypotheses concerning the relation in question could be rejected. PMID:6877973

  5. Lucid dreaming: correspondence between dreamed and actual events in one subject during REM sleep.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, P; Schatzman, M; Worsley, A; Adams, J; Stone, S; Baker, A

    1984-06-01

    During lucid dreaming, a subject willed movements of his fingers, toes and feet, remembered tasks, and counted sensory stimuli. Dreamed speech was related to respiration. EMG activity corresponding to dreamed actions was greater in flexor than in extensor limb muscles and was never present in axial muscles. PMID:6743729

  6. Dream Logs: Dreams as a Creative Force in Freshman Composition and the Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalpin, Lila

    The keeping of a dream log can spark the imagination in freshman composition courses, giving students opportunities to be both creative artists and critics. With the emphasis more on using dreams than on interpreting them, students are free to explore the symbols and relevance of their dreams when creating written or musical compositions, films,…

  7. Increased Lucid Dreaming Frequency in Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Rak, Michael; Beitinger, Pierre; Steiger, Axel; Schredl, Michael; Dresler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: Nightmares are a frequent symptom in narcolepsy. Lucid dreaming, i.e., the phenomenon of becoming aware of the dreaming state during dreaming, has been demonstrated to be of therapeutic value for recurrent nightmares. Data on lucid dreaming in narcolepsy patients, however, is sparse. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of recalled dreams (DF), nightmares (NF), and lucid dreams (LDF) in narcolepsy patients compared to healthy controls. In addition, we explored if dream lucidity provides relief during nightmares in narcolepsy patients. Design: We interviewed patients with narcolepsy and healthy controls. Setting: Telephone interview. Patients: 60 patients diagnosed with narcolepsy (23–82 years, 35 females) and 919 control subjects (14–93 years, 497 females) Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Logistic regression revealed significant (P < 0.001) differences in DF, NF, and LDF between narcolepsy patients and controls after controlling for age and gender, with effect sizes lying in the large range (Cohen's d > 0.8). The differences in NF and LDF between patients and controls stayed significant after controlling for DF. Comparison of 35 narcolepsy patients currently under medication with their former drug-free period revealed significant differences in DF and NF (z < 0.05, signed-rank test) but not LDF (z = 0.8). Irrespective of medication, 70% of narcolepsy patients with experience in lucid dreaming indicated that dream lucidity provides relief during nightmares. Conclusion: Narcolepsy patients experience a markedly higher lucid dreaming frequency compared to controls, and many patients report a positive impact of dream lucidity on the distress experienced from nightmares. Citation: Rak M, Beitinger P, Steiger A, Schredl M, Dresler M. Increased lucid dreaming frequency in narcolepsy. SLEEP 2015;38(5):787–792. PMID:25325481

  8. The dream of home ownership.

    PubMed

    Loxterkamp, David

    2009-01-01

    Part of the American Dream involves home ownership and its claim to a stronger investment in one's family, neighborhood, and community. The medical version of that dream is called private practice. Almost overnight, it seems, we have awakened to the reality that most primary care physicians are now employed by large corporations or hospital networks. What does this mean for our patients and the practice of medicine? Did patients lose a sense of ownership when insurance companies began to speak on their behalf? Have boutique practices, Internet sales, and online information banks restored their control? This essay explores the fundamental question, "Does ownership matter?" and suggests what we all can do to retrieve paradise lost. PMID:19433846

  9. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  10. Dreams in Patients Remitted from Reactive Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauri, Peter

    1976-01-01

    The goal of the study described here was to learn more about dream content in patients who had recovered from serious depression. The question was asked whether these formerly depressed patients still showed depressive traits in their nocturnal dreams, even though their daytime behavior and mood now approached entirely normal levels. (Author)

  11. Mom, Apple Pie, and the American Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grambs, Jean Dresden

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how the mom-and-apple-pie facet of the American dream no longer seems to be working. Ways to redefine that dream so that women, men, children, and families are comfortable with each other and are able to develop a mutual dependence which also allows for mutual independence are examined. (RM)

  12. Dreams and Mediation in Music Video.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Gary

    The most extensive use of dream imagery in popular culture occurs in the visual arts, and in the past five years it has become evident that music video (a semi-narrative hybrid of film and television) is the most dreamlike media product of all. The rampant depiction and implication of dreams and media fantasies in music video are often strongly…

  13. Students' Knowledge of Sleep and Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palladino, Joseph J.; Carducci, Bernardo J.

    1984-01-01

    A 34-item sleep and dream information questionnaire was administered to 232 introductory psychology students to introduce them to the topics of sleep and dreams and to evaluate their knowledge of these areas. A majority of the items were answered correctly by students. Serious misconceptions by students are discussed. (RM)

  14. Spatiotemporal analysis of the spread of meningococcal meningitis in kaduna metropolis, 2007 - 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umaru, E. T.; Ludin, A. M. N.; Sabri, S.

    2014-02-01

    Meningococcal meningitis is an airborne disease that has been a threat to human life for over a century now. This study aims to describe the spatiotemporal spread of Meningococcal meningitis in the population residing in Kaduna metropolis. All the reported cases (suspected and confirmed) within the Kaduna metropolis from 2007 to 2011 were collected from files of the patients. Only patients who are resident in Kaduna metropolis were considered. For each year, the directional distribution, standard distance and the spatiotemporal pattern were explored. The analysis of the directional distribution shows the direction and the angle that the spread is more biased to at the different years. Standard distance shows the different areas of coverage for the spread of the disease for those five years which points to those areas that need more attention. The spatiotemporal results revealed that some specific neighbourhoods within the metropolis had the cases reoccurring within the five year period especially at the western and central parts of the metropolis. This indicates that much more attention is needed in those areas as regards preventive strategies by the policy makers and the stake holders. The spread of Meningococcal meningitis disease in Kaduna metropolis is much more dominant in some specific neighbourhood.

  15. The dynamic radiation environment assimilation model (DREAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, Geoffrey D; Koller, Josef; Tokar, Robert L; Chen, Yue; Henderson, Michael G; Friedel, Reiner H

    2010-01-01

    The Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM) is a 3-year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy to provide global, retrospective, or real-time specification of the natural and potential nuclear radiation environments. The DREAM model uses Kalman filtering techniques that combine the strengths of new physical models of the radiation belts with electron observations from long-term satellite systems such as GPS and geosynchronous systems. DREAM includes a physics model for the production and long-term evolution of artificial radiation belts from high altitude nuclear explosions. DREAM has been validated against satellites in arbitrary orbits and consistently produces more accurate results than existing models. Tools for user-specific applications and graphical displays are in beta testing and a real-time version of DREAM has been in continuous operation since November 2009.

  16. Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream? Print A A A Text Size Can I stop myself from having a wet dream? – Tom* You really can't stop wet dreams, ...

  17. Children's Reactions to Dreams Conveyed in Mass Media Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Barbara J.

    1991-01-01

    Explores children's ability to understand formal features of television and film by investigating their reactions to a televised dream. Indicates that children are able to recognize dreams in mass media programing and that prior knowledge of an upcoming dream can influence children's interpretations of and emotional reactions to dreamed events in…

  18. Age Differences in Dreams. II: Distortion and Other Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepelin, Harold

    1981-01-01

    Age-related change in manifest dream content was assessed in dreams recalled from REM sleep by (N=58) men aged (27-64), and in dreams recalled from sleep at home. Evidence indicated a small age-related decline in dream distortion and family-related content. (Author)

  19. Measuring consciousness in dreams: the lucidity and consciousness in dreams scale.

    PubMed

    Voss, Ursula; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Windt, Jennifer; Frenzel, Clemens; Hobson, Allan

    2013-03-01

    In this article, we present results from an interdisciplinary research project aimed at assessing consciousness in dreams. For this purpose, we compared lucid dreams with normal non-lucid dreams from REM sleep. Both lucid and non-lucid dreams are an important contrast condition for theories of waking consciousness, giving valuable insights into the structure of conscious experience and its neural correlates during sleep. However, the precise differences between lucid and non-lucid dreams remain poorly understood. The construction of the Lucidity and Consciousness in Dreams scale (LuCiD) was based on theoretical considerations and empirical observations. Exploratory factor analysis of the data from the first survey identified eight factors that were validated in a second survey using confirmatory factor analysis: INSIGHT, CONTROL, THOUGHT, REALISM, MEMORY, DISSOCIATION, NEGATIVE EMOTION, and POSITIVE EMOTION. While all factors are involved in dream consciousness, realism and negative emotion do not differentiate between lucid and non-lucid dreams, suggesting that lucid insight is separable from both bizarreness in dreams and a change in the subjectively experienced realism of the dream. PMID:23220345

  20. Lee Acculturation Dream Scale for Korean-American college students.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Bok

    2005-04-01

    This study examined acculturation as represented in dream narratives of 165 Korean immigrant college students living in the USA. A total of 165 dreams were collected and evaluated using the Lee Acculturation Dream Scale, for which locations of dream contents were coded. 39% of the dreams took place in South Korea, while 38% were in the USA. Also, 16% of the dreams included both locations, whereas 7% had no specific dream location. The dreams contained overlapping dream messages, images, scenes, and interactions in both South Korea and the USA. A two-sample t test on the mean scores of the Lee Acculturation Dream Scale indicated no significant difference between men and women. PMID:15941123

  1. [Sleep and dreams in pictures].

    PubMed

    Stoll, R T

    1995-04-11

    Human life is divided into two thirds wakefulness and one third sleep. A newborn child sleeps to strengthen, the adult for regeneration. At the end of life man sinks down into the sleep of death: Hypnos and Thanatos are twin sons of the Queen of Night. Myths from different cultures are influenced by the experience of sleep and its inner world of pictures, the dreams. Artists, painters and sculptors let their visions float steadily into new pictures, and creatures of sleep formed out of diverse materials. Devine sleep, sleep for new life, sleep of health, creative sleep, prophetic sleep, sleep for revelation and for decisions. PMID:7732243

  2. Fear of fat and the dream process: a correlational investigation.

    PubMed

    Kroth, J; Yoneda, D; Hammond, A

    1998-12-01

    Dream characteristics of 27 women from a graduate counseling program were correlated with the Goldfarb Fear of Fat Scale. Significant positive correlations were obtained for scores with recurrent nightmares (.38) and dreaming one is dreaming (.40). An inverse relationship was noted between sexual content of dreams and scores for fear of fat (-.41). Results were discussed in terms of associations among dissociation, body image, and the dream process. PMID:10079715

  3. The phenomenology of lucid dreaming: an online survey.

    PubMed

    Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel; Johnson, Miriam; Schredl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In lucid dreams the dreamer is aware that he or she is dreaming. Although such dreams are not that uncommon, many aspects of lucid dream phenomenology are still unclear. An online survey was conducted to gather data about lucid dream origination, duration, active or passive participation in the dream, planned actions for lucid dreams, and other phenomenological aspects. Among the 684 respondents who filled out the questionnaire, there were 571 lucid dreamers (83.5%). According to their reports, lucid dreams most often originate spontaneously in adolescence. The average lucid dream duration is about 14 minutes. Lucid dreamers are likely to be active in their lucid dreams and plan to accomplish different actions (e.g., flying, talking with dream characters, or having sex), yet they are not always able to remember or successfully execute their intentions (most often because of awakening or hindrances in the dream environment). The frequency of lucid dream experience was the strongest predictor of lucid dream phenomenology, but some differences were also observed in relation to age, gender, or whether the person is a natural or self-trained lucid dreamer. The findings are discussed in light of lucid dream research, and suggestions for future studies are provided. PMID:24934010

  4. Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model: DREAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, G. D.; Chen, Y.; Cunningham, G. S.; Friedel, R. W. H.; Henderson, M. G.; Jordanova, V. K.; Koller, J.; Morley, S. K.; Thomsen, M. F.; Zaharia, S.

    2012-03-01

    The Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM) was developed to provide accurate, global specification of the Earth's radiation belts and to better understand the physical processes that control radiation belt structure and dynamics. DREAM is designed using a modular software approach in order to provide a computational framework that makes it easy to change components such as the global magnetic field model, radiation belt dynamics model, boundary conditions, etc. This paper provides a broad overview of the DREAM model and a summary of some of the principal results to date. We describe the structure of the DREAM model, describe the five major components, and illustrate the various options that are available for each component. We discuss how the data assimilation is performed and the data preprocessing and postprocessing that are required for producing the final DREAM outputs. We describe how we apply global magnetic field models for conversion between flux and phase space density and, in particular, the benefits of using a self-consistent, coupled ring current-magnetic field model. We discuss some of the results from DREAM including testing of boundary condition assumptions and effects of adding a source term to radial diffusion models. We also describe some of the testing and validation of DREAM and prospects for future development.

  5. Walking dreams in congenital and acquired paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Saurat, Marie-Thérèse; Agbakou, Maité; Attigui, Patricia; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2011-12-01

    To test if dreams contain remote or never-experienced motor skills, we collected during 6 weeks dream reports from 15 paraplegics and 15 healthy subjects. In 9/10 subjects with spinal cord injury and in 5/5 with congenital paraplegia, voluntary leg movements were reported during dream, including feelings of walking (46%), running (8.6%), dancing (8%), standing up (6.3%), bicycling (6.3%), and practicing sports (skiing, playing basketball, swimming). Paraplegia patients experienced walking dreams (38.2%) just as often as controls (28.7%). There was no correlation between the frequency of walking dreams and the duration of paraplegia. In contrast, patients were rarely paraplegic in dreams. Subjects who had never walked or stopped walking 4-64 years prior to this study still experience walking in their dreams, suggesting that a cerebral walking program, either genetic or more probably developed via mirror neurons (activated when observing others performing an action) is reactivated during sleep. PMID:21704532

  6. Evolutionary function of dreams: A test of the threat simulation theory in recurrent dreams.

    PubMed

    Zadra, Antonio; Desjardins, Sophie; Marcotte, Eric

    2006-06-01

    proposed an intriguing and detailed evolutionary theory of dreams which stipulates that the biological function of dreaming is to simulate threatening events and to rehearse threat avoidance behaviors. The goal of the present study was to test this theory using a sample of 212 recurrent dreams that was scored using a slightly expanded version of the DreamThreat rating scale. Six of the eight hypotheses tested were supported. Among the positive findings, 66% of the recurrent dream reports contained one or more threats, the threats tended to be dangerous and aimed at the dreamer, and when facing a threat, the dreamer tended to take defensive or evasive actions that were possible and reasonable. However, less than 15% of the recurrent dreams depicted realistic and probable situations critical for one's physical survival or reproductive success and the dreamer rarely succeeded in fleeing the threat despite important and appropriate efforts. The findings thus provide mixed support for the threat simulation theory. PMID:16720254

  7. Biological treatments of textile industrial effluents in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ugoji, E O; Aboaba, O O

    2004-10-01

    The assessment of the effluents from two textile industries in Ilupeju in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria showed that they were high in conductivity, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS) and contained traces of heavy metals like Ca, Zn but high concentrations of Cr and Pb. These wastewaters are normally discharged into neighbouring water bodies. Five bacterial groups, namely Micrococcus sp., Enterobacter sp., Alcaligens sp., Bacillus sp. and Acinetobacter sp. were isolated from these effluents. They were used individually for biotreatment and found to be able to utilize the components of the wastewaters for growth, Bacillus sp. and Acinetobacter sp. being the most efficient utilizers as they were able to reduce BOD to zero. The total viable count (TVC) increased significantly depicting growth of the bacterial population. The pH was regulated from 3.4-6.80 for NSF effluent and 12.2-10.29 for STI effluent. The work emphasises the level of industrial pollution in our environment as wastes are indiscrimately dumped into surrounding water bodies in urban areas, the textile industry being a case study. The treatment of any form of waste before disposal into the environment is important and ensures safety of the populace. PMID:15907081

  8. Spatial patterns monitoring of road traffic injuries in Karachi metropolis.

    PubMed

    Lateef, Muhammad U

    2011-06-01

    This article aims to assess the pattern of road traffic injuries (RTIs) and fatalities in Karachi metropolis. Assessing the pattern of RTIs in Karachi at this juncture is important for many reasons. The rapid motorisation in the recent years due to the availability of credit has significantly increased the traffic volume of the city. Since then, the roads of Karachi have continuously developed at a rapid pace. This development has come with a high human loss, because the construction of multilevel flyovers, signal-free corridors and the resulting high-speed traffic ultimately increase the severity of injuries. The reasons for this high proportion are inadequate infrastructure, poor enforcement of safety regulations, high crash severity index and greater population of vulnerable road user groups (riders and pedestrians). This research is the first of its kind in the country to have a geocoded database of fatalities and injuries in a geographical information system for the entire city of Karachi. In fact, road crashes are both predictable and preventable. Developing countries should learn from the experience of highly motorised nations to avoid the high burden of RTIs by adopting road safety and prevention measures. PMID:20589551

  9. Motorcycling freedom: a paraplegics dream.

    PubMed

    Lomman, D; Kirk, B

    2006-03-01

    People with disabilities have the same rights as other members of society in directing and implementing the decisions which affect their lives, although it is not always afforded them due to physical limitations. A chance encounter by the author, a University of Western Australia mechanical engineering student, with a paraplegic man who expressed his dream of being able to ride a motorcycle again led to the design and build of a specially modified motorcycle that could be ridden safely and comfortably by a person without the use of their legs. The prototype involved several modifications which allow it to be ridden by a paraplegic person. They included, a thumb controlled pneumatic gear shifter, an integrated front and rear brake actuated with a single hand lever, ergonomic supports to hold the riders legs in place and an automatic stabilising system to balance the motorcycle at low speeds. The benefits that result from the inclusion of people with disabilities into regular leisure activities include normalisation as well as a sense of independence and freedom for the individual. It also allowed one man the chance to reach for his dreams. PMID:16623223

  10. [Ketamine--dreams and realities].

    PubMed

    Arditti, J; Spadari, M; de Haro, L; Brun, A; Bourdon, J H; Valli, M

    2002-01-01

    Ketamine is an anaesthetic used in human medicine and veterinary practice, synthesised on 1962 and marketed on 1970 in France. Recreational uses were described during 1992 in the medical community and in 1996 in the dance settings. The chemical name of ketamine is 2--(2chlorophenyl)2-(methylamine)-cyclohexanone, an aryl cyclohexylamine, structurally related to phencyclidine. Ketamine is known under the following street names: Keta K, Kate, Special K, Vitamin K, la Golden, la Vétérinaire. Ketamine is used intranasally, orally and intramusculary in recreational use. Ketamine is manufactured by the chemical industry. Due to the complicated synthesis, it is sold illicitly for recreational use. Ketamine is a dissociative drug, and the user enters in a psychedelic dream with hallucinations, floating sensation, feeling of dissociation of the mind from the body. The dream is forgotten, the user full in reality with loss of self control, risk of acute intoxication. In long-term exposure, tolerance, dependence, withdrawal signs and flash back are described. Ketamine trademarks are subject to control in France through medicine legislation Ketamine and its salts are subject to control under the national legislation on narcotics and psychotropics substance. From September 2001, the theft of medical and veterinary trademarks have to be declared to police, care health authority Pharmacy control authority and French Health Products Safety Agency. PMID:11974440

  11. REM Sleep Behavioral Events and Dreaming

    PubMed Central

    Muntean, Maria-Lucia; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Walters, Arthur S.; Mollenhauer, Brit; Sixel-Döring, Friederike

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To clarify whether motor behaviors and/ or vocalizations during REM sleep, which do not yet fulfill diagnostic criteria for REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and were defined as REM sleep behavioral events (RBEs), correspond to dream enactments. Methods: 13 subjects (10 patients with Parkinson disease [PD] and 3 healthy controls) originally identified with RBE in a prospective study (DeNoPa cohort) were reinvestigated 2 years later with 2 nights of video-supported polysomnography (vPSG). The first night was used for sleep parameter analysis. During the 2nd night, subjects were awakened and questioned for dream recall and dream content when purposeful motor behaviors and/or vocalizations became evident during REM sleep. REM sleep without atonia (RWA) was analyzed on chin EMG and the cutoff set at 18.2% as specific for RBD. Results: At the time of this investigation 9 of 13 subjects with previous RBE were identified with RBD based upon clinical and EMG criteria. All recalled vivid dreams, and 7 subjects were able to describe dream content in detail. Four of 13 subjects with RBE showed RWA values below cutoff values for RBD. Three of these 4 subjects recalled having non-threatening dreams, and 2 (of these 3) were able to describe these dreams in detail. Conclusion: RBE with RWA below the RBD defining criteria correlate to dreaming in this selected cohort. There is evidence that RBEs are a precursor to RBD. Citation: Muntean ML, Trenkwalder C, Walters AS, Mollenhauer B, Sixel-Döring F. REM sleep behavioral events and dreaming. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(5):537–541. PMID:25665694

  12. Lucid Dreaming: A State of Consciousness with Features of Both Waking and Non-Lucid Dreaming

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Ursula; Holzmann, Romain; Tuin, Inka; Hobson, J. Allan

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: The goal of the study was to seek physiological correlates of lucid dreaming. Lucid dreaming is a dissociated state with aspects of waking and dreaming combined in a way so as to suggest a specific alteration in brain physiology for which we now present preliminary but intriguing evidence. We show that the unusual combination of hallucinatory dream activity and wake-like reflective awareness and agentive control experienced in lucid dreams is paralleled by significant changes in electrophysiology. Design: 19-channel EEG was recorded on up to 5 nights for each participant. Lucid episodes occurred as a result of pre-sleep autosuggestion. Setting: Sleep laboratory of the Neurological Clinic, Frankfurt University. Participants: Six student volunteers who had been trained to become lucid and to signal lucidity through a pattern of horizontal eye movements. Measurements and Results: Results show lucid dreaming to have REM-like power in frequency bands δ and θ, and higher-than-REM activity in the γ band, the between-states-difference peaking around 40 Hz. Power in the 40 Hz band is strongest in the frontal and frontolateral region. Overall coherence levels are similar in waking and lucid dreaming and significantly higher than in REM sleep, throughout the entire frequency spectrum analyzed. Regarding specific frequency bands, waking is characterized by high coherence in α, and lucid dreaming by increased δ and θ band coherence. In lucid dreaming, coherence is largest in frontolateral and frontal areas. Conclusions: Our data show that lucid dreaming constitutes a hybrid state of consciousness with definable and measurable differences from waking and from REM sleep, particularly in frontal areas. Citation: Voss U; Holzmann R; Tuin I; Hobson A. Lucid dreaming: a state of consciousness with features of both waking and non-lucid dreaming. SLEEP 2009;32(9):1191-1200. PMID:19750924

  13. [Dreams in neuroses in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Korabel'nikova, E A; Golubev, V L

    1996-01-01

    46 children and adolescents with different forms of neuroses at the age of 10-18 years were observed. It is shown that the dreams in neurotic individuals are characterised by both cognitive and affective activation as well as by widening of the limits of time and space, by frequent incompletion and by some imperative tendencies (the "channelization" of colour perception, repeated dreams' rise). There was a dependence of dream's character upon the neurosis form. The data obtained are important for adequate diagnosis and therapy of borderline conditions. PMID:8992831

  14. Dreams for the second half of life.

    PubMed

    Moody, Harry R

    2005-01-01

    Dreams in midlife and old age can reveal a process of spiritual growth described by Tornstam as gerotranscencence. This same process of inner growth has also been described in theoretical terms as self-actualization (Maslow), ego-integrity (Erikson), and individuation (Jung). The process is illustrated through dream symbols of transpersonal development, displaying the duality of self-fulfillment and self- transcendence. In lifespan development terms this process can be studied in detail in the autobiography of Helen Luke. The interpretation of dreams has importance for what has recently come to be known as Conscious Aging. PMID:16172075

  15. Dreams and Nightmares in Personality Disorders.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Although the relationship between dreaming and psychopathology has been studied quite extensively, research on dreaming in patients with personality disorders has been very scarce. In patients with borderline personality disorder, negatively toned dreams and heightened nightmare frequency have been found-characteristics not determined by co-morbid depression or posttraumatic stress disorder. The review includes suggestions for future studies as the existing results clearly indicate that this line of research is most interesting. Lastly, clinical recommendations especially regarding the treatment of the often found co-morbid nightmare disorder will be given. PMID:26781553

  16. Hypnotic change in combat dreams of two veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Eichelman, B

    1985-01-01

    The recurrent nocturnal traumatic dreams of two veterans were dispelled with hypnosis. Dream substitutions were rehearsed in hypnotic trance and subsequently dreamed at night, and afterward the original traumatic dreams ceased. PMID:3966569

  17. 'Reverberation time', dreaming and the capacity to dream.

    PubMed

    Birksted-Breen, Dana

    2009-02-01

    In this paper the author suggests that understanding the roots of the subjective sense of time can throw light on the disturbances in psychic time which are found in particular in the more severe pathologies. She introduces the argument that the roots of the development of the sense of time rest on a primitive sense of time she calls 'reverberation time'. By this notion she refers to the particular quality of the earliest 'back and forth' internalized exchange with the mother in which the auditory dimension plays a significant part. Referring to a wide range of literature and clinical examples, the author thus suggests that the subjective sense of time is created by the reverberation between mother and infant. Disturbances in this area will be reflected in the pathological 'arresting' of time which is observed in the different pathologies and, in particular, around the negotiation of the depressive position and the oedipal situation.Extending this argument, the author goes on to suggest that it is the internalization of this experience of 'reverberation' which lies at the heart of the experience of dreaming; she considers that dreaming understood as an internal dialogue points both to its roots in the relationship to the maternal object and to its fundamental role in psychic life. The author concludes that 'reverberation time' is also the building block of a psychoanalysis, leading to 'unfreezing' psychic time and enabling the reconnection of 'here and now' with 'there and then' in a flexible way which promotes open possibilities, and that this takes place via the analyst's reverie, or time of reverberation. PMID:19245569

  18. Variety and intensity of emotions in nightmares and bad dreams.

    PubMed

    Zadra, Antonio; Pilon, Mathieu; Donderi, Don C

    2006-04-01

    Nightmares are usually defined as frightening dreams that awaken the sleeper. This study uses the waking criterion to distinguish between nightmares and bad dreams and investigated the variety and intensity of emotions reported in each form of disturbing dream. Ninety participants recorded their dreams for 4 consecutive weeks and, for each dream recalled, noted the emotions present and their intensities on a 9-point scale. Thirty-six participants reported at least one nightmare and one bad dream over the 4 weeks covered by the log, while 29 reported having had at least one bad dream but no nightmares. Nightmares were rated as being significantly (p < 0.001) more intense than bad dreams. Thirty percent of nightmares and 51% of bad dreams contained primary emotions other than fear. The findings support the claim that awakening can serve as an indirect measure of nightmare intensity and raise important implications for the operational definition of nightmares. PMID:16614545

  19. NASA Administrator Flies Dream Chaser Simulator

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Administrator Charlie Bolden had the opportunity to fly a simulated landing of the Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) Dream Chaser while touring the agency's Dryden Flight Research Center in Cali...

  20. Amphiphilic Residues 29-44 of DREAM N-Termini Mediate Calmodulin:DREAM Complex Formation.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Walter G; Arango, Andres S; Miksovska, Jaroslava

    2015-07-21

    DREAM (downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator) is a neuronal calcium sensor that has been shown to modulate gene expression as well as to be involved in numerous neuronal processes. In this report, we show that association of calcium-bound calmodulin (CaM) with DREAM is mediated by a short amphipathic amino acid sequence located between residues 29 and 44 on DREAM. The association of CaM with a peptide analogous to DREAM(29-44) or to full-length DREAM protein is calcium-dependent with a dissociation constant of 136 nM or 3.4 μM, respectively. Thermodynamic and kinetic studies show that the observed decrease in affinity for the native protein is due to electrostatic interactions between the basic N-terminus and an electronegative surface on DREAM. These results are further supported by circular dichroism, binding studies, and molecular dynamics simulations. Additionally, fluorescence anisotropy decay measurements show a rotational correlation time of 10.8 ns for a complex of CaM with a DREAM(29-44) peptide, supporting a wraparound semispherical model with 1:1 stoichiometry. Furthermore, the interaction between an IEDANS-labeled CaM construct with DREAM is best modeled as a heterotetramer that adopts an elongated conformation with a correlation time of 45 ns in the presence of Ca(2+). We also demonstrate that association of CaM with DREAM eliminates the nonspecific interaction of DREAM with the DRE double-stranded DNA sequence of the human prodynorphin gene. This work provides molecular insight into the CaM:DREAM complex and its potential role in modulation of gene expression. PMID:26108881

  1. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Topsoil around Beijing Metropolis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ranhao; Chen, Liding

    2016-01-01

    The topsoil around Beijing metropolis, China, is experiencing impacts of rapid urbanization, intensive farming, and extensive industrial emissions. We analyzed the concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr from 87 topsoil samples in the pre-rainy season and 115 samples in the post-rainy season. These samples were attributed to nine land use types: forest, grass, shrub, orchard, wheat, cotton, spring maize, summer maize, and mixed farmland. The pollution index (PI) of heavy metals was calculated from the measured and background concentrations. The ecological risk index (RI) was assessed based on the PI values and toxic-response parameters. The results showed that the mean PI values of Pb, Cr, and Cd were > 1 while those of Cu, Ni, and Zn were < 1. All the samples had low ecological risk for Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cr while only 15.35% of samples had low ecological risk for Cd. Atmospheric transport rather than land use factors best explained the seasonal variations in heavy metal concentrations and the impact of atmospheric transport on heavy metal concentrations varied according to the heavy metal types. The concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Cr decreased from the pre- to post-rainy season, while those of Ni, Pb, and Zn increased during this period. Future research should be focused on the underlying atmospheric processes that lead to these spatial and seasonal variations in heavy metals. The policymaking on environmental management should pay close attention to potential ecological risks of Cd as well as identifying the transport pathways of different heavy metals. PMID:27159454

  2. The dream as space, time and emotion

    PubMed Central

    Totlis, Athanasios

    2011-01-01

    Human beings, like all living organisms, use energy ceaselessly with whatever they do. Nothing at all happens without spending some energy, not even a glance or a dream. The Author proposes that dreams happen automatically in sleep to help us release unresolved frustration energy and emotional dilemmas left over from the day before. Energy administration is the common denominator behind the manifold workings of dreams, as it is behind all operations of our consciousness in daytime, and this is far more important than one might at first suspect. In summary, if in waking reality the day prior to a dream, a specific sensory composition (a perception or picture) frustrates our mind such that the mind is unable or unwilling to accept this sensory composition, it forms and traps within us an emotional energy charge that lingers inside till that same night when the dream uses it in order to energize from memory analogous sensory components that form a spatiotemporally similar overall representational composition of the daytime waking event. This ends up as the dream we may remember the next day. For example, if in a real event yesterday a red apple between two green apples were in front of us and for some reason we were unable or unwilling to see and accept this perception, in a dream the next time we sleep, we may see promptly a red peach between two green peaches, which will be energized temporarily from our memory to serve the need of our psyche to represent the unprocessed emotion(s) and balance the tensions inside us. The dream always produces more acceptable symbolic perceptions for us to see or sense, and in doing so uses and releases at the same time the unacknowledged emotional energy inside us pending since yesterday's event. PMID:22540104

  3. [Recurrent dreams as migraine aura symptoms].

    PubMed

    Podoll, K; Töpper, R; Robinson, D; Sass, H

    2000-04-01

    Elementary geometric imagery seen in the visual aura of migraine can be experienced as incorporated into the content of a dream which precedes the awakening with a migraine headache. Furthermore, recurrent dreams featuring complex visual imagery, often terrifying nightmares, can occur as migraine aura symptoms. The said phenomena are illustrated by two original case reports and discussed against the background of a review of the literature. PMID:10803382

  4. [Modernity in dreams and myths].

    PubMed

    Scopelliti, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The very presence of myths in psychoanalysis raises questions about their scientific status: that leads to reconsider the whole issue of Freudian mythology in a non-medical manner, by envisaging it in the more general context of modern myths, both political and artistic. Special attention is then paid to Surrealism, as the only avant-garde movement at the same time focused on psychoanalysis and politics: the role played by dreams in foundering myths is examined in both Surrealism and psychoanalysis. Surrealistic myths, such as Dalí's Grand Paranoïaque Comestible, finally prove to be so non-oedipian as the Nazi Ubermensch myth; nevertheless, their comparison with Freudian mythology points out their common origin, as they all fulfilled the need of the mass society for a modern myth, able to express his deeply renewed self-awareness. PMID:20695408

  5. Relativistic rocket: Dream and reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semyonov, Oleg G.

    2014-06-01

    The dream of interstellar flights persists since the first pioneers in astronautics and has never died. Many concepts of thruster capable to propel a rocket to the stars have been proposed and the most suitable among them are thought to be photon propulsion and propulsion by the products of proton-antiproton annihilation in magnetic nozzle. This article addresses both concepts allowing for cross-section of annihilation among other issues in order to show their vulnerability and to indicate the problems. The concept of relativistic matter propulsion is substantiated and discussed. The latter is argued to be the most straightforward way to build-up a relativistic rocket firstly because it is based on the existing technology of ion generators and accelerators and secondly because it can be stepped up in efflux power starting from interplanetary spacecrafts powered by nuclear reactors to interstellar starships powered by annihilation reactors. The problems imposed by thermodynamics and heat disposal are accentuated.

  6. Ecotoxicological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban soil of Isfahan metropolis, Iran.

    PubMed

    Moore, F; Akhbarizadeh, R; Keshavarzi, B; Khabazi, S; Lahijanzadeh, A; Kermani, M

    2015-04-01

    Concentration, distribution, probable sources, and health risks of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in 52 soil samples collected within a radius 50 km from Isfahan metropolis center. Total concentration of PAHs ranged from 57.70 to 11,730.08 μg/kg averaging 2,000.56 μg/kg. Spatial PAH profiles were site-specific and higher concentration of PAHs was observed in the vicinity of industrial zones within Isfahan metropolis. The molecular indices, ring classes, and principal component analysis indicated that the sources of PAHs were both geogenic and pyrogenic. The incremental lifetime cancer risks of exposure to soil PAHs for adults and children living in the study area were 2.3×10(-2) and 2.2×10(-3), respectively. The results suggest that current PAHs levels in Isfahan metropolis soil are highly carcinogenic and may hold a serious health risk for local resident. PMID:25805371

  7. The effects of suppressing intrusive thoughts on dream content, dream distress and psychological parameters.

    PubMed

    Kröner-Borowik, Tana; Gosch, Stefanie; Hansen, Kathrin; Borowik, Benjamin; Schredl, Michael; Steil, Regina

    2013-10-01

    Suppressing unwanted thoughts can lead to an increased occurrence of the suppressed thought in dreams. This is explainable by the ironic control theory, which theorizes why the suppression of thoughts might make them more persistent. The present study examined the influence of thought suppression on dream rebound, dream distress, general psychiatric symptomatology, depression, sleep quality and perceived stress. Thirty healthy participants (good sleepers) were investigated over a period of 1 week. Half were instructed to suppress an unwanted thought 5 min prior to sleep, whereas the other half were allowed to think of anything at all. Dream content was assessed through a dream diary. Independent raters assessed whether or not the dreams were related to the suppressed target thought. The results demonstrated increased target-related dreams and a tendency to have more distressing dreams in the suppression condition. Moreover, the data imply that thought suppression may lead to significantly increased general psychiatric symptomatology. No significant effects were found for the other secondary outcomes. PMID:23679926

  8. Psychodynamic Interpretations of the Immigrant's Dream: Comments on Adler's (1993) "Refugee Dreams and Attachment Theory."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munteanu, Mircea A.

    1994-01-01

    Immigrants and refugees often experience difficulty adjusting to a strange new environment. This article considers Adler's (1993) article, "Refugee Dreams and Attachment Theory" but recommends a depth psychology approach, including both Freudian and Jungian perspectives, to incorporating dream analysis as a technique in cross-cultural counseling.…

  9. Dreams, reality and memory: confabulations in lucid dreamers implicate reality-monitoring dysfunction in dream consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Corlett, P.R.; Canavan, S.V.; Nahum, L.; Appah, F.; Morgan, P.T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Dreams might represent a window on altered states of consciousness with relevance to psychotic experiences, where reality monitoring is impaired. We examined reality monitoring in healthy, non-psychotic individuals with varying degrees of dream awareness using a task designed to assess confabulatory memory errors – a confusion regarding reality whereby information from the past feels falsely familiar and does not constrain current perception appropriately. Confabulatory errors are common following damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Ventromedial function has previously been implicated in dreaming and dream awareness. Methods. In a hospital research setting, physically and mentally healthy individuals with high (n = 18) and low (n = 13) self-reported dream awareness completed a computerised cognitive task that involved reality monitoring based on familiarity across a series of task runs. Results. Signal detection theory analysis revealed a more liberal acceptance bias in those with high dream awareness, consistent with the notion of overlap in the perception of dreams, imagination and reality. Conclusions. We discuss the implications of these results for models of reality monitoring and psychosis with a particular focus on the role of vmPFC in default-mode brain function, model-based reinforcement learning and the phenomenology of dreaming and waking consciousness. PMID:25028078

  10. Multiple-try Metropolis Hastings for modeling extreme PM10 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Nor Azrita Mohd; Adam, Mohd Bakri; Ibrahim, Noor Akma

    2014-07-01

    Awareness of catastrophic events brings the attention to work out the relationship of these events by using statistical analysis of Extreme Value Theory (EVT). This study focused on extreme PM10 data using a Gumbel distribution which is one of the Extreme Value distributions. The parameters were estimated using the new Bayesian approach in extreme called Multiple Try Metropolis-Hastings algorithms. We compared this approach with another Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach which is the classical Metropolis-Hastings algorithm and the frequentist approach, Maximum Likelihood Estimation. It appears that these three approaches provide comparable results. Data are taken for Pasir Gudang station for year 1996 to 2010.

  11. The multiplicity of dreams: cognitive-affective correlates of lucid, archetypal, and nightmare dreaming.

    PubMed

    Spadafora, A; Hunt, H T

    1990-10-01

    This preliminary research is the first to compare lucid, nightmare, and archetypal-mythological dreams on dimensions important in previous research on each. A first study of 100 subjects showed all three forms significantly correlated with each other and with estimates of dream recall. In a second study, 41 subjects were selected from the above on the basis of relative specialization in each dream form, with a control group equally high on dream recall. Here, the lucid and archetypal dreamers tended to separate themselves from nightmare sufferers on the basis of high imaginativeness, proclivity to waking mystical experience, spatial/analytic skills, and physical balance. It appears that the intensification of dreaming is expressed positively or negatively, depending on variations in these cognitive dimensions. PMID:2251094

  12. [Dream sequences. On the psychodynamic aspects of the dramaturgy of dreams].

    PubMed

    Mentzos, S

    1995-07-01

    Unlike Freud with his emphasis on the defensive function of dreams, the author concentrates on the creative aspect and compares the sequencing of dreams with a quasi-dramaturgical "scenic" organization of experience displaying notable analogies to a theatrical "production". Mentzos proceeds from two working hypotheses: dream sequences are not random but organized, in the sense that they reflect the succession of different life-stages or the presence of conflicting tendencies within the dreamer's mind; hence the order of the various sequence mirrors the "staging" of the various conflicts and the various attempts made to resolve them. The author attempts to substantiate this hypothesis with reference to a number of dreams and dream sequences. PMID:7644672

  13. Dream characteristics in a Brazilian sample: an online survey focusing on lucid dreaming.

    PubMed

    Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A; Targino, Zé H; Souza, Bryan C; Blanco, Wilfredo; Araujo, John F; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2013-01-01

    During sleep, humans experience the offline images and sensations that we call dreams, which are typically emotional and lacking in rational judgment of their bizarreness. However, during lucid dreaming (LD), subjects know that they are dreaming, and may control oneiric content. Dreaming and LD features have been studied in North Americans, Europeans and Asians, but not among Brazilians, the largest population in Latin America. Here we investigated dreams and LD characteristics in a Brazilian sample (n = 3,427; median age = 25 years) through an online survey. The subjects reported recalling dreams at least once a week (76%), and that dreams typically depicted actions (93%), known people (92%), sounds/voices (78%), and colored images (76%). The oneiric content was associated with plans for the upcoming days (37%), memories of the previous day (13%), or unrelated to the dreamer (30%). Nightmares usually depicted anxiety/fear (65%), being stalked (48%), or other unpleasant sensations (47%). These data corroborate Freudian notion of day residue in dreams, and suggest that dreams and nightmares are simulations of life situations that are related to our psychobiological integrity. Regarding LD, we observed that 77% of the subjects experienced LD at least once in life (44% up to 10 episodes ever), and for 48% LD subjectively lasted less than 1 min. LD frequency correlated weakly with dream recall frequency (r = 0.20, p < 0.01), and LD control was rare (29%). LD occurrence was facilitated when subjects did not need to wake up early (38%), a situation that increases rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) duration, or when subjects were under stress (30%), which increases REMS transitions into waking. These results indicate that LD is relatively ubiquitous but rare, unstable, difficult to control, and facilitated by increases in REMS duration and transitions to wake state. Together with LD incidence in USA, Europe and Asia, our data from Latin America strengthen the notion that LD

  14. Dream characteristics in a Brazilian sample: an online survey focusing on lucid dreaming

    PubMed Central

    Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A.; Targino, Zé H.; Souza, Bryan C.; Blanco, Wilfredo; Araujo, John F.; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2013-01-01

    During sleep, humans experience the offline images and sensations that we call dreams, which are typically emotional and lacking in rational judgment of their bizarreness. However, during lucid dreaming (LD), subjects know that they are dreaming, and may control oneiric content. Dreaming and LD features have been studied in North Americans, Europeans and Asians, but not among Brazilians, the largest population in Latin America. Here we investigated dreams and LD characteristics in a Brazilian sample (n = 3,427; median age = 25 years) through an online survey. The subjects reported recalling dreams at least once a week (76%), and that dreams typically depicted actions (93%), known people (92%), sounds/voices (78%), and colored images (76%). The oneiric content was associated with plans for the upcoming days (37%), memories of the previous day (13%), or unrelated to the dreamer (30%). Nightmares usually depicted anxiety/fear (65%), being stalked (48%), or other unpleasant sensations (47%). These data corroborate Freudian notion of day residue in dreams, and suggest that dreams and nightmares are simulations of life situations that are related to our psychobiological integrity. Regarding LD, we observed that 77% of the subjects experienced LD at least once in life (44% up to 10 episodes ever), and for 48% LD subjectively lasted less than 1 min. LD frequency correlated weakly with dream recall frequency (r = 0.20, p < 0.01), and LD control was rare (29%). LD occurrence was facilitated when subjects did not need to wake up early (38%), a situation that increases rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) duration, or when subjects were under stress (30%), which increases REMS transitions into waking. These results indicate that LD is relatively ubiquitous but rare, unstable, difficult to control, and facilitated by increases in REMS duration and transitions to wake state. Together with LD incidence in USA, Europe and Asia, our data from Latin America strengthen the notion that LD

  15. Neural correlates of insight in dreaming and psychosis.

    PubMed

    Dresler, Martin; Wehrle, Renate; Spoormaker, Victor I; Steiger, Axel; Holsboer, Florian; Czisch, Michael; Hobson, J Allan

    2015-04-01

    The idea that dreaming can serve as a model for psychosis has a long and honourable tradition, however it is notoriously speculative. Here we demonstrate that recent research on the phenomenon of lucid dreaming sheds new light on the debate. Lucid dreaming is a rare state of sleep in which the dreamer gains insight into his state of mind during dreaming. Recent electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data for the first time allow very specific hypotheses about the dream-psychosis relationship: if dreaming is a reasonable model for psychosis, then insight into the dreaming state and insight into the psychotic state should share similar neural correlates. This indeed seems to be the case: cortical areas activated during lucid dreaming show striking overlap with brain regions that are impaired in psychotic patients who lack insight into their pathological state. This parallel allows for new therapeutic approaches and ways to test antipsychotic medication. PMID:25092021

  16. Recurrent Dreams and Psychosocial Adjustment in Preteenaged Children.

    PubMed

    Gauchat, Aline; Zadra, Antonio; Tremblay, Richard E; Zelazo, Philip David; Séguin, Jean R

    2009-06-01

    Research indicates that recurrent dreams in adults are associated with impoverished psychological well-being. Whether similar associations exist in children remains unknown. The authors hypothesized that children reporting recurrent dreams would show poorer psychosocial adjustment than children without recurrent dreams. One hundred sixty-eight 11-year-old children self-reported on their recurrent dreams and on measures of psychosocial adjustment. Although 35% of children reported having experienced a recurrent dream during the past year, our hypothesis was only partially supported. Multivariate analyses revealed a marginally significant interaction between gender and recurrent dream presence and a significant main effect of gender. Univariate analyses revealed that boys reporting recurrent dreams reported significantly higher scores on reactive aggression than those who did not (d = 0.58). This suggests that by age 11 years, the presence of recurrent dreams may already reflect underlying emotional difficulties in boys but not necessarily in girls. Challenges in addressing this developmental question are discussed. PMID:24976740

  17. Digital Resource Exchange About Music (DREAM): Phase 2 Usability Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upitis, Rena; Boese, Karen; Abrami, Philip C.; Anwar, Zaeem

    2015-01-01

    The Digital Resource Exchange About Music (DREAM) is a virtual space for exchanging information about digital learning tools. The purpose of the present study was to determine how users responded to DREAM in the first four months after its public release. This study is the second phase of usability research on DREAM, and was conducted to guide…

  18. Two Dream Machines: Television and the Human Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deming, Caren J.

    Research into brain physiology and dream psychology have helped to illuminate the biological purposes and processes of dreaming. Physical and functional characteristics shared by dreaming and television include the perception of visual and auditory images, operation in a binary mode, and the encoding of visual information. Research is needed in…

  19. Truthful Fictions: How Dreams Can Help You Write

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakil, Ardashir

    2013-01-01

    This article makes a case for recording and using dreams in the teaching of writing. Calling on some well-known statements of Freud and on some recent research, I attempt to show how dreams can provide writers with a route to their unconscious. I also illustrate the role of dreams in furnishing writers with inspiration and source material. I…

  20. Dreams of the Dying Patient: An Exploration of Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Pamela N.; Hoffmann, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Examined 25 dream reports of individuals in Palliative Care Unit. Content analysis of dream reports supports hypothesis that continuity exists between dreaming and waking experience. Results did not indicate that themes of death and aggression, negative emotion, or infant and child characters were more prevalent among the dying. (Author/NB)

  1. A Complementary Approach to Freudian and Jungian Dream Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollub, Dan

    1986-01-01

    Presents the original theory that dreams are consecutive emotions of love, desire, nondesire, and hatred showing Freudian and Jungian concepts about dream interpretation to be partly compatible with this pattern. Wish fulfillment (love, desire), "anti-wishes" (nondesire), symbolism, compensation in dreams (hatred), and the individuation process…

  2. Toward a Phenomenology of Dream Imagery and Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Elmer S., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The author partially describes a few of the immanent qualities of dreaming imagery and metaphor. The concept of the ineluctable modality is introduced to illustrate the spontaneous synthesizing of cognitive and noncognitive elements. A short dream excerpt is shared to clarify the pervasive contrapuntallike depth of dreaming imagery. (Author/SJL)

  3. Neurobiology and clinical implications of lucid dreaming.

    PubMed

    Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A; Araujo, John F

    2013-11-01

    Several lines of evidence converge to the idea that rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is a good model to foster our understanding of psychosis. Both REMS and psychosis course with internally generated perceptions and lack of rational judgment, which is attributed to a hyperlimbic activity along with hypofrontality. Interestingly, some individuals can become aware of dreaming during REMS, a particular experience known as lucid dreaming (LD), whose neurobiological basis is still controversial. Since the frontal lobe plays a role in self-consciousness, working memory and attention, here we hypothesize that LD is associated with increased frontal activity during REMS. A possible way to test this hypothesis is to check whether transcranial magnetic or electric stimulation of the frontal region during REMS triggers LD. We further suggest that psychosis and LD are opposite phenomena: LD as a physiological awakening while dreaming due to frontal activity, and psychosis as a pathological intrusion of dream features during wake state due to hypofrontality. We further suggest that LD research may have three main clinical implications. First, LD could be important to the study of consciousness, including its pathologies and other altered states. Second, LD could be used as a therapy for recurrent nightmares, a common symptom of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Finally, LD may allow for motor imagery during dreaming with possible improvement of physical rehabilitation. In all, we believe that LD research may clarify multiple aspects of brain functioning in its physiological, altered and pathological states. PMID:23838126

  4. The dream's navel between chaos and thought.

    PubMed

    Scalzone, F; Zontini, G

    2001-04-01

    The authors begin by drawing attention to the problem of the transition from the biological to the psychic, noting that Freud himself, with his background in the neurosciences, grappled with it throughout his career. Certain recent paradigms more commonly applied to the natural sciences, such as in particular chaos and complexity theory, can in their view prove fruitful in psychoanalysis too, and it is shown how these notions are inherent in some of Freud's conceptions. The unconscious is stated to operate like a neural network, performing the kind of parallel processing used in the computing of highly complex situations, whereas the conscious mind is sequential. Dreams, in the authors' opinion, are organisers of the mind, imparting order to the turbulence of the underlying wishes and unconscious fantasies and structuring them through the dream work. Through dreams, the structured linearity of conscious thought can emerge out of the non-linear chaos of the drives. The dream's navel can be seen as the chaotic link, or interface, between the unconscious wish, which constitutes an attractor, and the conscious thought. The attractor may be visualised as having an hourglass or clepsydra shape, the narrow section being the dream's navel, and, being the same at any scale of observation, has the property of fractality. PMID:11341062

  5. Environmental Awareness and School Sanitation in Calabar Metropolis of Cross Rivers State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anijaobi-Idem, F. N.; Ukata, B. N.; Bisong, N. N

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive survey designed study explored the influence of environmental awareness on secondary school sanitation in Calabar Metropolis. 1 hypothesis was formulated to direct the investigation. 300 subjects made up of 30 principals and 270 teachers constituted the sample drawn from the population of principals and teachers in secondary…

  6. 77 FR 64831 - Confirmatory Order; In the Matter of Honeywell International Inc.; Metropolis, Illinois

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires participants to submit... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Confirmatory Order; In the Matter of Honeywell International Inc.; Metropolis, Illinois...

  7. Analysis of Errors Committed by Physics Students in Secondary Schools in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omosewo, Esther Ore; Akanbi, Abdulrasaq Oladimeji

    2013-01-01

    The study attempt to find out the types of error committed and influence of gender on the type of error committed by senior secondary school physics students in metropolis. Six (6) schools were purposively chosen for the study. One hundred and fifty five students' scripts were randomly sampled for the study. Joint Mock physics essay questions…

  8. Examining Work and Family Conflict among Female Bankers in Accra Metropolis, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissi-Abrokwah, Bernard; Andoh-Robertson, Theophilus; Tutu-Danquah, Cecilia; Agbesi, Catherine Selorm

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects and solutions of work and family conflict among female bankers in Accra Metropolis. Using triangulatory mixed method design, a structured questionnaire was randomly administered to 300 female bankers and 15 female Bankers who were interviewed were also sampled by using convenient sampling technique. The…

  9. Using the Metropolis Algorithm to Calculate Thermodynamic Quantities: An Undergraduate Computational Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beddard, Godfrey S.

    2011-01-01

    Thermodynamic quantities such as the average energy, heat capacity, and entropy are calculated using a Monte Carlo method based on the Metropolis algorithm. This method is illustrated with reference to the harmonic oscillator but is particularly useful when the partition function cannot be evaluated; an example using a one-dimensional spin system…

  10. 76 FR 58049 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; Honeywell International, Inc.; Metropolis Works Uranium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... COMMISSION Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; Honeywell International, Inc.; Metropolis Works Uranium..., 2011 in the Atomic and Safety Licensing Board Panel's Hearing Room, located on the third floor of Two... ordered. For the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board. Dated: September 13, 2011 in Rockville, Maryland....

  11. Employee Motivation on the Organisational Growth of Printing Industry in the Kumasi Metropolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enninful, Ebenezer Kofi; Boakye-Amponsah, Abraham; Osei-Poku, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The printing industry is supposed to be a major contributor to Ghana's development through employment creation and the enhancement of information to the general public. The main purpose of the study was to assess employee motivation on the printing industry within Kumasi Metropolis. The study employed both the quantitative and qualitative surveys…

  12. Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro Algorithm for Confirmatory Item Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Li

    2010-01-01

    Item factor analysis (IFA), already well established in educational measurement, is increasingly applied to psychological measurement in research settings. However, high-dimensional confirmatory IFA remains a numerical challenge. The current research extends the Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro (MH-RM) algorithm, initially proposed for…

  13. High-Dimensional Exploratory Item Factor Analysis by a Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Li

    2010-01-01

    A Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro (MH-RM) algorithm for high-dimensional maximum marginal likelihood exploratory item factor analysis is proposed. The sequence of estimates from the MH-RM algorithm converges with probability one to the maximum likelihood solution. Details on the computer implementation of this algorithm are provided. The…

  14. Dream Recall Frequencies and Dream Content in Wilson's Disease with and without REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder: A Neurooneirologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Trindade, Mateus C.; Schredl, Michael; Pires, Joana; Reinhard, Iris; Bittencourt, Thais; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Alves, Rosana Cardoso; de Andrade, Daniel Ciampi; Fonoff, Erich T.; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson; Machado, Alexandre A.; Teixeira, Manoel J.; Barbosa, Egberto R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Violent dream content and its acting out during rapid eye movement sleep are considered distinctive for rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD). This study reports first quantitative data on dreaming in a cohort of patients with treated Wilson's disease (WD) and in patients with WD with RBD. Methods. Retrospective questionnaires on different dimensions of dreaming and a prospective two-week home dream diary with self-rating of emotions and blinded, categorical rating of content by an external judge. Results. WD patients showed a significantly lower dream word count and very few other differences in dream characteristics compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Compared to WD patients without RBD, patients with WD and RBD reported significantly higher nightmare frequencies and more dreams with violent or aggressive content retrospectively; their prospectively collected dream reports contained significantly more negative emotions and aggression. Conclusions. The reduction in dream length might reflect specific cognitive deficits in WD. The lack of differences regarding dream content might be explained by the established successful WD treatment. RBD in WD had a strong impact on dreaming. In accordance with the current definition of RBD, violent, aggressive dream content seems to be a characteristic of RBD also in WD. PMID:27051076

  15. Dream Recall Frequencies and Dream Content in Wilson's Disease with and without REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder: A Neurooneirologic Study.

    PubMed

    Tribl, Gotthard G; Trindade, Mateus C; Schredl, Michael; Pires, Joana; Reinhard, Iris; Bittencourt, Thais; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Alves, Rosana Cardoso; de Andrade, Daniel Ciampi; Fonoff, Erich T; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson; Machado, Alexandre A; Teixeira, Manoel J; Barbosa, Egberto R

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Violent dream content and its acting out during rapid eye movement sleep are considered distinctive for rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD). This study reports first quantitative data on dreaming in a cohort of patients with treated Wilson's disease (WD) and in patients with WD with RBD. Methods. Retrospective questionnaires on different dimensions of dreaming and a prospective two-week home dream diary with self-rating of emotions and blinded, categorical rating of content by an external judge. Results. WD patients showed a significantly lower dream word count and very few other differences in dream characteristics compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Compared to WD patients without RBD, patients with WD and RBD reported significantly higher nightmare frequencies and more dreams with violent or aggressive content retrospectively; their prospectively collected dream reports contained significantly more negative emotions and aggression. Conclusions. The reduction in dream length might reflect specific cognitive deficits in WD. The lack of differences regarding dream content might be explained by the established successful WD treatment. RBD in WD had a strong impact on dreaming. In accordance with the current definition of RBD, violent, aggressive dream content seems to be a characteristic of RBD also in WD. PMID:27051076

  16. The DREAM Project—Results and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wigmans, Richard

    2007-03-01

    High-precision jet spectroscopy will be increasingly important in future high-energy accelerator experiments, particularly at a Linear e+e- Collider. DREAM, a novel type of calorimeter, appears to be well suited for this task. The key aspect of this detector is the simultaneous measurement of the scintillation light and the Cherenkov light generated in the shower development process. By comparing these two signals (which are provided by different types of optical fibers), the electromagnetic shower fraction can be measured event by event, both for single hadrons and for jets, and the effects of fluctuations in this fraction can be eliminated. As a result, the DREAM calorimeter has impressive performance characteristics. The application of the DREAM principles in homogeneous calorimeters, which has the potential of providing ultimate calorimeter performance, is also discussed.

  17. [Dreams and sensoperception in epicurean theory].

    PubMed

    Pangas, Julio César

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we analyse the epicurean vision on sensoperception and dreams. This epicurean vision is known to us, specially, from the wrintings of his roman divulger, Titus Lucretius Caro in his work "On the nature of things" ("De rerum natura"), IV Chant. The epicureans adopted the materialistic conception of nature, based upon Democritus of Abdera atomistic theory and, in this way, they distinguished their theories on dreams from the general principles prevailing in the popular greco-roman litterature, as well as from the divinatory perception of oneirocritics like Artemidorus and also from the first steps of the physiological conception of dreams from philosophers as the presocratics and Aristotle. We end this article with some of the more interesting paragraphs from Chant IV of the work by Lucretius, regarding this subjet. PMID:18219404

  18. Dream recall frequency by socioeconomic status of Chinese students.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael

    2007-10-01

    Whereas the effect of sex and age on dream recall have been studied widely, socioeconomic status has rarely been investigated. However, two studies reported that higher socioeconomic status was related to greater frequency of dream recall. In the present sample of 612 Chinese students from three different schools, one elite (high socioeconomic status), one rural (low socioeconomic status) and one intermediate, analysis of variance indicated no significant association between frequency of dream recall and socioeconomic status. Researchers could investigate whether "dream socialization," e.g., encouragement of a child to remember his dreams, depends on socioeconomic background, whether these processes are mediated by culture. PMID:18065085

  19. Effect of certain cerebral hemispheric diseases on dreaming.

    PubMed

    Epstein, A W

    1979-02-01

    Dreaming may be altered by cerebral hemispheric disease. A woman who sustained a probable left posterior cerebral artery thrombosis, with right homonymous hemianopsia and alexia, had virtual cessation of dreaming for at least 9 months. Four individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy experienced recurrent painful (frightening) dreams, which in two patients showed features identical to seizures. Sleep recordings showed abnormalities in all four, including rhythmic temporal epileptiform activity during REM sleep. Lesions in parieto-occipital loci may interfere with production of the visual imagery required for dreaming (negative symptom in the Jacksonian sense) while epileptic activity in temporal loci may produce painful repetitive dream imagery (positive symptom). PMID:217457

  20. Thematic and Content Analysis of Idiopathic Nightmares and Bad Dreams

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Geneviève; Zadra, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To conduct a comprehensive and comparative study of prospectively collected bad dream and nightmare reports using a broad range of dream content variables. Design: Correlational and descriptive. Setting: Participants' homes. Participants: Three hundred thirty-one adult volunteers (55 men, 275 women, 1 not specified; mean age = 32.4 ± 14.8 y). Interventions: N/A. Measurement and Results: Five hundred seventy-two participants kept a written record of all of their remembered dreams in a log for 2 to 5 consecutive weeks. A total of 9,796 dream reports were collected and the content of 253 nightmares and 431 bad dreams reported by 331 participants was investigated. Physical aggression was the most frequently reported theme in nightmares, whereas interpersonal conflicts predominated in bad dreams. Nightmares were rated by participants as being substantially more emotionally intense than were bad dreams. Thirty-five percent of nightmares and 55% of bad dreams contained primary emotions other than fear. When compared to bad dreams, nightmares were more bizarre and contained substantially more aggressions, failures, and unfortunate endings. Conclusions: The results have important implications on how nightmares are conceptualized and defined and support the view that when compared to bad dreams, nightmares represent a somewhat rarer—and more severe—expression of the same basic phenomenon. Citation: Robert G; Zadra A. Thematic and content analysis of idiopathic nightmares and bad dreams. SLEEP 2014;37(2):409-417. PMID:24497669

  1. Induction of lucid dreams: a systematic review of evidence.

    PubMed

    Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel; Schädlich, Melanie; Schredl, Michael

    2012-09-01

    In lucid dreams the dreamer is aware of dreaming and often able to influence the ongoing dream content. Lucid dreaming is a learnable skill and a variety of techniques is suggested for lucid dreaming induction. This systematic review evaluated the evidence for the effectiveness of induction techniques. A comprehensive literature search was carried out in biomedical databases and specific resources. Thirty-five studies were included in the analysis (11 sleep laboratory and 24 field studies), of which 26 employed cognitive techniques, 11 external stimulation and one drug application. The methodological quality of the included studies was relatively low. None of the induction techniques were verified to induce lucid dreams reliably and consistently, although some of them look promising. On the basis of the reviewed studies, a taxonomy of lucid dream induction methods is presented. Several methodological issues are discussed and further directions for future studies are proposed. PMID:22841958

  2. The content of recurrent dreams in young adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gauchat, Aline; Séguin, Jean R.; McSween-Cadieux, Esther; Zadra, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Studies on children’s recurrent dreams have been largely anecdotal and based on adults’ recollections of dreams experienced during childhood. We collected 102 reports of recurrent dreams from a sample of young adolescents aged between 11 and 15 years and scored the narratives using a range of content measures, including in relation to the threat simulation theory (TST) of dreaming. The most frequently reported themes involved confrontations with monsters or animals, followed by physical aggressions, falling and being chased. Recurrent dreams were more likely to include negative content elements than positive elements. Only half of the recurrent dreams contained threatening elements and their analysis provided mixed support for the TST. Differences between the content of recurrent dreams reported by young adolescent versus adults are discussed as are possible sex effects and key issues that remain to be addressed by future research. PMID:26366465

  3. The content of recurrent dreams in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gauchat, Aline; Séguin, Jean R; McSween-Cadieux, Esther; Zadra, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Studies on children's recurrent dreams have been largely anecdotal and based on adults' recollections of dreams experienced during childhood. We collected 102 reports of recurrent dreams from a sample of young adolescents aged between 11 and 15years and scored the narratives using a range of content measures, including in relation to the threat simulation theory (TST) of dreaming. The most frequently reported themes involved confrontations with monsters or animals, followed by physical aggressions, falling and being chased. Recurrent dreams were more likely to include negative content elements than positive elements. Only half of the recurrent dreams contained threatening elements and their analysis provided mixed support for the TST. Differences between the content of recurrent dreams reported by young adolescent versus adults are discussed as are possible sex effects and key issues that remain to be addressed by future research. PMID:26366465

  4. Dream research in schizophrenia: methodological issues and a dimensional approach.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Dreaming in patients with schizophrenia was and is of particular interest to researchers and clinicians due to the phenomenological similarities between the dreaming state and schizophrenic daytime symptomatology such as bizarre thoughts or hallucinations. Extensive literature reviews have shown that dream studies in the field of psychopathology often do not fulfill common scientific criteria. The present paper focuses on the methodological issues like sampling methods, the dream collection method, and dream content analysis that are crucial with regard to the validity of the findings. It is also suggested that the so-called dimensional approach (linking severity of daytime symptoms directly to specific dream characteristics) will be very helpful for identifying which psychopathological symptoms of schizophrenia are most closely linked to dream content. PMID:20537924

  5. How early adolescents describe their dreams: a quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Azzone, P; Freni, S; Maggiolini, A; Provantini, K; Viganó, D

    1998-01-01

    Most empirical research on dreams has focused on content and structure, while linguistic features have received far less attention. The present study investigated dream language in a critical developmental stage: early adolescence. Narratives of the dreams of 145 early adolescents were tape-recorded and transcribed, and the frequencies of various grammar forms and common words were calculated. The most common nouns for the entire sample were house and mother. The most frequent verbs were go and do. Males' dream narratives contained a greater number of such words as animal, long, enter, and kill. Females more often used intransitive verbs and such words as teacher, horse, and put. Several features differentiated older from younger early adolescents' dreams. The results indicate that linguistic features of dream narratives are affected by age and sex, displaying interesting parallels with clinical theories on dreams and early adolescence. PMID:9583674

  6. Volitional components of consciousness vary across wakefulness, dreaming and lucid dreaming

    PubMed Central

    Dresler, Martin; Eibl, Leandra; Fischer, Christian F. J.; Wehrle, Renate; Spoormaker, Victor I.; Steiger, Axel; Czisch, Michael; Pawlowski, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Consciousness is a multifaceted concept; its different aspects vary across species, vigilance states, or health conditions. While basal aspects of consciousness like perceptions and emotions are present in many states and species, higher-order aspects like reflective or volitional capabilities seem to be most pronounced in awake humans. Here we assess the experience of volition across different states of consciousness: 10 frequent lucid dreamers rated different aspects of volition according to the Volitional Components Questionnaire for phases of normal dreaming, lucid dreaming, and wakefulness. Overall, experienced volition was comparable for lucid dreaming and wakefulness, and rated significantly higher for both states compared to non-lucid dreaming. However, three subscales showed specific differences across states of consciousness: planning ability was most pronounced during wakefulness, intention enactment most pronounced during lucid dreaming, and self-determination most pronounced during both wakefulness and lucid dreaming. Our data confirm the multifaceted nature of consciousness: different higher-order aspects of consciousness are differentially expressed across different conscious states. PMID:24427149

  7. Volitional components of consciousness vary across wakefulness, dreaming and lucid dreaming.

    PubMed

    Dresler, Martin; Eibl, Leandra; Fischer, Christian F J; Wehrle, Renate; Spoormaker, Victor I; Steiger, Axel; Czisch, Michael; Pawlowski, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Consciousness is a multifaceted concept; its different aspects vary across species, vigilance states, or health conditions. While basal aspects of consciousness like perceptions and emotions are present in many states and species, higher-order aspects like reflective or volitional capabilities seem to be most pronounced in awake humans. Here we assess the experience of volition across different states of consciousness: 10 frequent lucid dreamers rated different aspects of volition according to the Volitional Components Questionnaire for phases of normal dreaming, lucid dreaming, and wakefulness. Overall, experienced volition was comparable for lucid dreaming and wakefulness, and rated significantly higher for both states compared to non-lucid dreaming. However, three subscales showed specific differences across states of consciousness: planning ability was most pronounced during wakefulness, intention enactment most pronounced during lucid dreaming, and self-determination most pronounced during both wakefulness and lucid dreaming. Our data confirm the multifaceted nature of consciousness: different higher-order aspects of consciousness are differentially expressed across different conscious states. PMID:24427149

  8. Waking and dreaming: related but structurally independent. Dream reports of congenitally paraplegic and deaf-mute persons.

    PubMed

    Voss, Ursula; Tuin, Inka; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Hobson, Allan

    2011-09-01

    Models of dream analysis either assume a continuum of waking and dreaming or the existence of two dissociated realities. Both approaches rely on different methodology. Whereas continuity models are based on content analysis, discontinuity models use a structural approach. In our study, we applied both methods to test specific hypotheses about continuity or discontinuity. We contrasted dream reports of congenitally deaf-mute and congenitally paraplegic individuals with those of non-handicapped controls. Continuity theory would predict that either the deficit itself or compensatory experiences would surface in the dream narrative. We found that dream form and content of sensorially limited persons was indifferent from those of non-handicapped controls. Surprisingly, perceptual representations, even of modalities not experienced during waking, were quite common in the dream reports of our handicapped subjects. Results are discussed with respect to feedforward mechanisms and protoconsciousness theory of dreaming. PMID:21147002

  9. Life, Love, and Dreams from the Nineties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Natalie K.; And Others

    Literature reveals few if any studies made of 90-year-olds, much less those who are alert, analytical, and possible introspective. Through the use of in-depth interviews, this study attempted to add to what little is known about 90-year-olds today, particularly information about the life and thoughts and the love and dreams of a generation which…

  10. Marriage: The Dream and the Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    L'Abate, Luciano; L'Abate, Bess L.

    1981-01-01

    One of the major polarizations in marriages of workaholic husbands is their pursuit of the "Great American Dream" while their wives are left to pursue the "Petty Realities of Life." Couples must learn to negotiate realistic and functional objectives for themselves, without avoiding the issues. (JAC)

  11. Education and Social Mobility: Dreams of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Kate; Barker, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    "Education and Social Mobility" examines Government plans to improve upward mobility in England and considers the chances of success in the light of qualitative interviews with 88 school students. The 15- to 19-year-olds in two state secondary schools were invited to reflect on their lives, education and dreams of the future. Their…

  12. Current Research on Sleep and Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    This monograph summarizes an extensive body of sleep and dream research in order to indicate the major trends of work in this area. Although a mosaic of disciplines are represented, a spirit of cooperation has made it possible to knit together data which might have remained unrelated. The research reported here provides knowledge about: (1) the…

  13. Technical Studies Lead to Dream Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suraci, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Like many young men, Ty Kropp had no idea what he wanted to do when he graduated from high school. Courses he took as a computer design/manufacturing (CDM) technology student at the Ulster County Career and Technical Education center in Port Ewen, NY, gave him valuable skills that opened the door to his dream job at Orange County Choppers (OCC), a…

  14. A Dream Experiment in Development Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Prakarsh; Russo, Alexa

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a unique project carried out by 13 teams of four students each in the undergraduate Development Economics class during the 2012 spring semester at a private liberal arts college. The goal of the "Dream Experiment" was to think of an idea that promotes development, employs concepts from development…

  15. My Galaxy of Memories, Feelings, and Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomek, George; Tomek, Marilee

    Young people are encouraged to use this writing journal for kids as a means to think, write, and be creative. The journal helps children to explore their worlds, learn about their families, and record their memories, feelings, and dreams. Following explanatory sections for parents, teachers, and the writer, the journal contains these sections:…

  16. Virtual reality and consciousness inference in dreaming.

    PubMed

    Hobson, J Allan; Hong, Charles C-H; Friston, Karl J

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the notion that the brain is genetically endowed with an innate virtual reality generator that - through experience-dependent plasticity - becomes a generative or predictive model of the world. This model, which is most clearly revealed in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep dreaming, may provide the theater for conscious experience. Functional neuroimaging evidence for brain activations that are time-locked to rapid eye movements (REMs) endorses the view that waking consciousness emerges from REM sleep - and dreaming lays the foundations for waking perception. In this view, the brain is equipped with a virtual model of the world that generates predictions of its sensations. This model is continually updated and entrained by sensory prediction errors in wakefulness to ensure veridical perception, but not in dreaming. In contrast, dreaming plays an essential role in maintaining and enhancing the capacity to model the world by minimizing model complexity and thereby maximizing both statistical and thermodynamic efficiency. This perspective suggests that consciousness corresponds to the embodied process of inference, realized through the generation of virtual realities (in both sleep and wakefulness). In short, our premise or hypothesis is that the waking brain engages with the world to predict the causes of sensations, while in sleep the brain's generative model is actively refined so that it generates more efficient predictions during waking. We review the evidence in support of this hypothesis - evidence that grounds consciousness in biophysical computations whose neuronal and neurochemical infrastructure has been disclosed by sleep research. PMID:25346710

  17. Chinese Learning Journeys: Chasing the Dream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Feng, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Eight students from mainland China chart their learning journeys across national and continental boundaries and socio-cultural contexts. The five women and three men structure their experiences of studying in China and the West around the turning points and life changing choices they made in chasing their dreams. They embody its emergent…

  18. How to Make Their Dreams Come True

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easley, Dauna

    2005-01-01

    The beginning of January--a fresh start. This presents a brand new opportunity to help students plan a bright future. This article provides a step-by-step guide to ensure a student's dreams come true. Each new year gives students another chance to get it right. The author provides the following 12 steps to ensure students' success in achieving…

  19. What Has Happened to the American Dream?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegley, Charles W.

    1983-01-01

    Until very recently, the American dream, and most people's perception of it, was realizable--e.g., owning a home, obtaining a job, and old-age security. Reasons for many citizens' disillusionment include the nuclear threat, high costs of a college education, and the high divorce rate. (RM)

  20. Dialoguing with Dreams in Existential Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Bruce L.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a theoretical and methodological framework for interactive dialogue and analysis of dream images in existential art therapy. In this phenomenological-existential approach, the client and art therapist are regarded as equal partners with respect to sharing in the process of creation and discovery of meaning (Frankl, 1955,…

  1. Eurodisney, French Politics, and the American Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Bill

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes the past, present, and future of Eurodisney in France from cultural awareness and cultural business ethics viewpoints, suggesting that although the French have not bought into the American dream that is Disney, they are so heavily involved in Eurodisney from a financial angle that they can do naught but continue to provide…

  2. Virtual reality and consciousness inference in dreaming

    PubMed Central

    Hobson, J. Allan; Hong, Charles C.-H.; Friston, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the notion that the brain is genetically endowed with an innate virtual reality generator that – through experience-dependent plasticity – becomes a generative or predictive model of the world. This model, which is most clearly revealed in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep dreaming, may provide the theater for conscious experience. Functional neuroimaging evidence for brain activations that are time-locked to rapid eye movements (REMs) endorses the view that waking consciousness emerges from REM sleep – and dreaming lays the foundations for waking perception. In this view, the brain is equipped with a virtual model of the world that generates predictions of its sensations. This model is continually updated and entrained by sensory prediction errors in wakefulness to ensure veridical perception, but not in dreaming. In contrast, dreaming plays an essential role in maintaining and enhancing the capacity to model the world by minimizing model complexity and thereby maximizing both statistical and thermodynamic efficiency. This perspective suggests that consciousness corresponds to the embodied process of inference, realized through the generation of virtual realities (in both sleep and wakefulness). In short, our premise or hypothesis is that the waking brain engages with the world to predict the causes of sensations, while in sleep the brain’s generative model is actively refined so that it generates more efficient predictions during waking. We review the evidence in support of this hypothesis – evidence that grounds consciousness in biophysical computations whose neuronal and neurochemical infrastructure has been disclosed by sleep research. PMID:25346710

  3. Psychosis and the Control of Lucid Dreaming.

    PubMed

    Mota, Natália B; Resende, Adara; Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A; Copelli, Mauro; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2016-01-01

    Dreaming and psychosis share important features, such as intrinsic sense perceptions independent of external stimulation, and a general lack of criticism that is associated with reduced frontal cerebral activity. Awareness of dreaming while a dream is happening defines lucid dreaming (LD), a state in which the prefrontal cortex is more active than during regular dreaming. For this reason, LD has been proposed to be potentially therapeutic for psychotic patients. According to this view, psychotic patients would be expected to report LD less frequently, and with lower control ability, than healthy subjects. Furthermore, psychotic patients able to experience LD should present milder psychiatric symptoms, in comparison with psychotic patients unable to experience LD. To test these hypotheses, we investigated LD features (occurrence, control abilities, frequency, and affective valence) and psychiatric symptoms (measure by PANSS, BPRS, and automated speech analysis) in 45 subjects with psychotic symptoms [25 with Schizophrenia (S) and 20 with Bipolar Disorder (B) diagnosis] versus 28 non-psychotic control (C) subjects. Psychotic lucid dreamers reported control of their dreams more frequently (67% of S and 73% of B) than non-psychotic lucid dreamers (only 23% of C; S > C with p = 0.0283, B > C with p = 0.0150). Importantly, there was no clinical advantage for lucid dreamers among psychotic patients, even for the diagnostic question specifically related to lack of judgment and insight. Despite some limitations (e.g., transversal design, large variation of medications), these preliminary results support the notion that LD is associated with psychosis, but falsify the hypotheses that we set out to test. A possible explanation is that psychosis enhances the experience of internal reality in detriment of external reality, and therefore lucid dreamers with psychotic symptoms would be more able to control their internal reality than non-psychotic lucid dreamers. Training dream

  4. Psychosis and the Control of Lucid Dreaming

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Natália B.; Resende, Adara; Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A.; Copelli, Mauro; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2016-01-01

    Dreaming and psychosis share important features, such as intrinsic sense perceptions independent of external stimulation, and a general lack of criticism that is associated with reduced frontal cerebral activity. Awareness of dreaming while a dream is happening defines lucid dreaming (LD), a state in which the prefrontal cortex is more active than during regular dreaming. For this reason, LD has been proposed to be potentially therapeutic for psychotic patients. According to this view, psychotic patients would be expected to report LD less frequently, and with lower control ability, than healthy subjects. Furthermore, psychotic patients able to experience LD should present milder psychiatric symptoms, in comparison with psychotic patients unable to experience LD. To test these hypotheses, we investigated LD features (occurrence, control abilities, frequency, and affective valence) and psychiatric symptoms (measure by PANSS, BPRS, and automated speech analysis) in 45 subjects with psychotic symptoms [25 with Schizophrenia (S) and 20 with Bipolar Disorder (B) diagnosis] versus 28 non-psychotic control (C) subjects. Psychotic lucid dreamers reported control of their dreams more frequently (67% of S and 73% of B) than non-psychotic lucid dreamers (only 23% of C; S > C with p = 0.0283, B > C with p = 0.0150). Importantly, there was no clinical advantage for lucid dreamers among psychotic patients, even for the diagnostic question specifically related to lack of judgment and insight. Despite some limitations (e.g., transversal design, large variation of medications), these preliminary results support the notion that LD is associated with psychosis, but falsify the hypotheses that we set out to test. A possible explanation is that psychosis enhances the experience of internal reality in detriment of external reality, and therefore lucid dreamers with psychotic symptoms would be more able to control their internal reality than non-psychotic lucid dreamers. Training dream

  5. Dreamed movement elicits activation in the sensorimotor cortex.

    PubMed

    Dresler, Martin; Koch, Stefan P; Wehrle, Renate; Spoormaker, Victor I; Holsboer, Florian; Steiger, Axel; Sämann, Philipp G; Obrig, Hellmuth; Czisch, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Since the discovery of the close association between rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and dreaming, much effort has been devoted to link physiological signatures of REM sleep to the contents of associated dreams [1-4]. Due to the impossibility of experimentally controlling spontaneous dream activity, however, a direct demonstration of dream contents by neuroimaging methods is lacking. By combining brain imaging with polysomnography and exploiting the state of "lucid dreaming," we show here that a predefined motor task performed during dreaming elicits neuronal activation in the sensorimotor cortex. In lucid dreams, the subject is aware of the dreaming state and capable of performing predefined actions while all standard polysomnographic criteria of REM sleep are fulfilled [5, 6]. Using eye signals as temporal markers, neural activity measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was related to dreamed hand movements during lucid REM sleep. Though preliminary, we provide first evidence that specific contents of REM-associated dreaming can be visualized by neuroimaging. PMID:22036177

  6. The pattern of dreams of a sample of Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Ohaeri, J U; Sunmola, A M

    1994-07-01

    In order to highlight the pattern of dreams, the psychosocial factors associated with it, and the meaning attributed to dream contents, 431 Nigerians were interviewed, consisting of undergraduates and government workers. While 6.9% could not recall ever having had a dream experience, over one-third of subjects had had at least three dream experiences in the previous three months. The most important factors associated with increase in frequency of dreams were conditions involving a high degree of expectation, emotional disturbance and happiness. About one-half of subjects claimed their dreams were predictive of what would happen in real life, while 61% claimed that their dreams related to what they were thinking about. The more highly educated and younger subjects dreamt significantly more frequently. Although life events and GHQ-12 scores were not significantly associated with frequency of dreams, those who reported recurrent disturbing dreams had significantly higher GHQ-12 scores. Relating the dream reports to life experiences, we were able to discern the following themes: expectation of positive material rewards; sexual themes; religious themes; sickness and death themes; disappointment and general guilt themes; and abstract manifest contents. Guilt themes were the least frequent. The social and clinical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:7928656

  7. Dream self-reflectiveness as a learned cognitive skill.

    PubMed

    Purcell, S; Mullington, J; Moffitt, A; Hoffmann, R; Pigeau, R

    1986-01-01

    This research was directed toward the contradiction sustained by cognitive dream psychology, which on the one hand regards dreaming as higher symbolic activity and, on the other, sees its organizational and functional characteristics as derivative and/or inferior to those of waking consciousness. Study 1 evaluates the degree of self-reflective meta-cognition in dreams from different sleep stages. Subjects were 24 college students selected such that half were self-reported high-frequency dream recallers and half were low-frequency recallers. Both groups were composed equally of men and women. Greater self-reflectiveness (SR) was found in REM dreams as compared with those from stages 2 and 4, which did not differ. High-frequency recallers showed more dream SR than did low-frequency recallers. Study 2 assessed the extent to which self-reflective and lucid dreaming can be learned as a cognitive skill by varying levels of intention and attention paid to dreaming. After 3 weeks of home dream collection, results showed that four experimental groups had greater dream SR than did a baseline group. The most effective treatment was the mnemonic, wherein attention patterning schemas learned in waking resulted in more self-reflective and lucid dreaming than did either baseline or attention-control conditions. These results provide evidence that dreaming is not single-minded but variable along a self-reflective process continuum, and suggest functional and organizational levels that are consistent with the conception of dreaming as higher order cognitive activity. PMID:3764289

  8. Testing and ground calibration of DREAMS-H relative humidity device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genzer, Maria; Hieta, Maria; Nikkanen, Timo; Schmidt, Walter; Kemppinen, Osku; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri

    2015-04-01

    DREAMS (Dust Characterization, Risk Assessment and Environmental Analyzer on the Martian Surface) instrument suite is to be launched as part of the ESA ExoMars 2016/Schiaparelli lander. DREAMS consists of an environmental package for monitoring temperature, pressure, relative humidity, winds and dust opacity, as well as atmospheric electricity of Martian atmosphere. The DREAMS instruments and scientific goals are described in [1]. Here we describe testing and ground calibration of the relative humidity device, DREAMS-H, provided to the DREAMS payload by the Finnish Meteorological Institute and based on proprietary technology of Vaisala, Inc. The same kind of device is part of the REMS instrument package onboard MSL Curiosity Rover [2][3]. DREAMS-H is based on Vaisala Humicap® technology adapted for use in Martian environment by the Finnish Meteorological Institute. The device is very small and lightweighed, with total mass less than 20 g and consuming only 15 mW of power. The Humicap® sensor heads contain an active polymer film that changes its capacitance as function of relative humidity, with 0% to 100% RH measurement range. The dynamic range of the device gets smaller with sensor temperature, being in -70°C approximately 30% of the dynamic range in 0°C [3]. Good-quality relative humidity measurements require knowing the temperature of the environment in which relative humidity is measured. An important part of DREAMS-H calibration was temperature calibration of Vaisala Thermocap® temperature sensors used for housekeeping temperature measurements of the DREAMS-H device. For this, several temperature points in the desired operational range were measured with 0.1°C accuracy traceable to national standards. The main part of humidity calibration of DREAMS-H flight models was done in subzero temperatures in a humidity generator of the Finnish Center of Metrology and Accreditation (MIKES). Several relative humidity points ranging from almost dry to almost wet

  9. General Metropolis-Hastings jump diffusions for automatic target recognition in infrared scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanterman, Aaron D.; Miller, Michael I.; Snyder, Donald L.

    1997-04-01

    To locate and recognize ground-based targets in forward- looking IR (FLIR) images, 3D faceted models with associated pose parameters are formulated to accommodate the variability found in FLIR imagery. Taking a Bayesian approach, scenes are simulated from the emissive characteristics of the CAD models and compared with the collected data by a likelihood function based on sensor statistics. This likelihood is combined with a prior distribution defined over the set of possible scenes to form a posterior distribution. To accommodate scenes with variable numbers of targets, the posterior distribution is defined over parameter vectors of varying dimension. An inference algorithm based on Metropolis-Hastings jump- diffusion processes empirically samples from the posterior distribution, generating configurations of templates and transformations that match the collected sensor data with high probability. The jumps accommodate the addition and deletion of targets and the estimation of target identities; diffusions refine the hypotheses by drifting along the gradient of the posterior distribution with respect to the orientation and position parameters. Previous results on jumps strategies analogous to the Metropolis acceptance/rejection algorithm, with proposals drawn from the prior and accepted based on the likelihood, are extended to encompass general Metropolis-Hastings proposal densities. In particular, the algorithm proposes moves by drawing from the posterior distribution over computationally tractible subsets of the parameter space. The algorithm is illustrated by an implementation on a Silicon Graphics Onyx/Reality Engine.

  10. Risk factors for traffic accidents in Bangkok Metropolis: a case-reference study.

    PubMed

    Na Ayuthya, R S; Böhning, D

    1997-12-01

    It was aimed to study injures from road traffic accidents in Bangkok Metropolis and identify patients' characteristics as well as to search for risk factors for traffic accidents leading to hospitalization. The study included 346 in-patient cases suffering injuries from road traffic accidents in Bangkok Metropolis. The patients were recruited during a period of 4 months of the year 1992 from five hospitals in various areas of Bangkok which were judged to be representative for Bangkok Metropolis. Using the method of case-reference, relative risk could be estimated for various exposure factors. Most of the patients drove a motorcycle, had their license for only a short period, and drove more than 5 hours a day. About one third of the patients were under the influence of alcohol. The traffic accident characteristics were that they occurred mainly at night time with the peak between 21.00 and 24.00 hours. About 90% of all traffic accidents occurred during the rainy season and most of them occurred near to road junctions. Reference data was available for some variables and the following risk group could be identified: RR (male-age 20-24) = 17.06 (8.8-33.9), RR (single-marital status) = 2.25 (1.7-3.1), RR (primary-education) = 6.2 (2.9-12.6), RR (unskilled labourer-occupation) = 3.91 (2.7-5.9), RR (salesperson-occupation) = 3.34 (2.2-5.0). PMID:9656420

  11. Nightmares in crisis: clinical applications of lucid dreaming techniques.

    PubMed

    Brylowski, A

    1990-06-01

    A patient in crisis was offered treatment with a major focus on alleviating nightmares using lucid dreaming (dreaming while knowing that one is dreaming). Of sixty-eight non-psychotic patients seen consecutively in a psychiatry emergency room, she was one of 16 (23.5%) found to have a concurrent complaint of nightmares (dream anxiety disorder). The benefits of the skills developed with lucid dreaming extended into areas other than nightmares as the patient entered psychotherapy. The techniques appeared to play a role in the reduction of nightmare frequency, intensity, and distress, and to enhance ego growth and personal development. Further research in lucid dreaming as an adjunctive treatment for patients with nightmares and as a useful technique in psychotherapy is suggested. PMID:2374792

  12. Lucid dreaming and ventromedial versus dorsolateral prefrontal task performance.

    PubMed

    Neider, Michelle; Pace-Schott, Edward F; Forselius, Erica; Pittman, Brian; Morgan, Peter T

    2011-06-01

    Activity in the prefrontal cortex may distinguish the meta-awareness experienced during lucid dreams from its absence in normal dreams. To examine a possible relationship between dream lucidity and prefrontal task performance, we carried out a prospective study in 28 high school students. Participants performed the Wisconsin Card Sort and Iowa Gambling tasks, then for 1 week kept dream journals and reported sleep quality and lucidity-related dream characteristics. Participants who exhibited a greater degree of lucidity performed significantly better on the task that engages the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (the Iowa Gambling Task), but degree of lucidity achieved did not distinguish performance on the task that engages the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (the Wisconsin Card Sort Task), nor did it distinguish self-reported sleep quality or baseline characteristics. The association between performance on the Iowa Gambling Task and lucidity suggests a connection between lucid dreaming and ventromedial prefrontal function. PMID:20829072

  13. Lucid Dreaming and Ventromedial versus Dorsolateral Prefrontal Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    Neider, Michelle; Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Forselius, Erica; Pittman, Brian; Morgan, Peter T.

    2010-01-01

    Activity in the prefrontal cortex may distinguish the meta-awareness experienced during lucid dreams from its absence in normal dreams. To examine a possible relationship between dream lucidity and prefrontal task performance, we carried out a prospective study in 28 high school students. Participants performed the Wisconsin Card Sort and Iowa Gambling tasks, then for one week kept dream journals and reported sleep quality and lucidity-related dream characteristics. Participants who exhibited a greater degree of lucidity performed significantly better on the task that engages the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (the Iowa Gambling Task), but degree of lucidity achieved did not distinguish performance on the task that engages the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (the Wisconsin Card Sort Task), nor did it distinguish self-reported sleep quality or baseline characteristics. The association between performance on the Iowa Gambling Task and lucidity suggests a connection between lucid dreaming and ventromedial prefrontal function. PMID:20829072

  14. Additional developments regarding manifest dream structure and function.

    PubMed

    Wolowitz, H

    1998-06-01

    Detailed observation of manifest dream sequences indicated self-advocating occurrences facilitating the dreamer's self interests, opposed by self-adversarial interferences. Further examination of manifest dream syntactical structure additionally suggested a recurrent, four-step, algorithm for personal problem-solving within an interpersonal matrix consisting of the following cycle: (1) an opening scene setting the stage, (2) for the emergence of a self-concern, (3) which evokes a strategy to deal with dreamer's self-concern, (4) that eventuates in a consequence of the strategy. These steps repeat until the dream ends. Observing these manifest dream structural features, attributable to broadening past theorizing with "bottom-up" approaches, clarifies the dream's problem-solving process by providing an empirical, observable framework for dream interpretation and by contributing to their consensual validation. PMID:9656284

  15. Dream-disturbed sleep in insomnia and narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Bliwise, D L; Lebret-Bories, E; Guilleminault, C; Dement, W C

    1993-05-01

    Both patients with narcolepsy and insomnia frequently present clinically with nocturnal sleep disrupted by disturbing dreams. Polysomnographic correlates of these reports are unclear. In this study, 24 patients with psychophysiological insomnia and 16 patients with narcolepsy were compared on selected polysomnographic and self-reported typical dream characteristics. As a group, patients with narcolepsy showed more frightening, recurrent dreams and shorter rapid eye movement (REM) segments when compared with patients with insomnia. However, within the narcolepsy group, there were few correlations between typical dream characteristics and any measure of REM segment length or REM density. In the insomnia group, shorter REM segments and higher REM density were related to typically more vivid, frightening, and disrupted dreaming. We speculate that the mechanisms of disturbed dream recall may be different in insomnia and narcolepsy. PMID:8501449

  16. Treatment of recurrent nightmares by the dream reorganization approach.

    PubMed

    Palace, E M; Johnston, C

    1989-09-01

    Dream reorganization is introduced as a new theoretical and treatment approach to the alleviation of recurrent nightmares, derived from the principles of the Seligman and Yellen (1987) theory of dream construction. The cognitive-behavioral dream reorganization treatment package consists of two treatment components. Systematic desensitization with coping self-statements is employed to alter the emotional episode by counterconditioning a relaxation response to anxiety-evoking nightmare content. Guided rehearsal of mastery endings to dream content hierarchy items is added to modify the secondary visual stimuli associated with recurrent nightmares. The dream reorganization approach is presented in the case of a 10-year-old male with a fear of sleeping alone due to recurrent nightmares. Following treatment, the client reported 100% reduction in nightmares and demonstrated 100% reduction in night time arrival in the parents' room. The present report provides a theoretical rationale for dream reorganization, and future directions for research in the treatment of recurrent nightmares. PMID:2576657

  17. The Psychotomimetic Nature of Dreams: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Oliver; Wakerley, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    Several theories promote the similarities between dreaming and psychosis, but this has rarely been tested empirically. We assessed dreaming and waking reality using the Psychotomimetic States Inventory, a measure of psychotic-like experience originally designed for drug studies. Twenty participants completed the measure in each of two dream conditions and one waking condition. Dreams were assessed upon waking naturally and also using a movement-activated (actigraph) alarm during the night. Overall, participants reported more quasipsychotic characteristics during dreams (in both conditions) than when awake. This was most marked for paranoia and delusional thinking, but differences were also seen for perceptual abnormalities, mania, and anhedonia. The quality of dream experience seems particularly similar to psychosis in sometimes being highly self-referential and having a paranoid content. Subjective changes to cognition and affect are consistent with alterations in prefrontal cortical activity during REM sleep that mirror those of schizophrenia. PMID:22966450

  18. Patterns of hemispheric lateralization in dream recallers and non-dream recallers.

    PubMed

    Doricchi, F; Milana, I; Violani, C

    1993-01-01

    Eighteen right handed females reporting 6 or more dreams per week on a home dream and sleep diary (Dream Recallers: DR), and 11 reporting 1 or 0 dreams per week (Non Dream Recallers: NDR) drawn from a sample of 233 college students, were individually tested on two tasks assessing the hemispheric lateralization of visuo-constructive and verbal-semantic functions. NDR showed a significant degree of hemispheric asymmetry of both visuo-constructive (right asymmetry of both visuo-constructive (right hemisphere advantage) and semantic (left hemisphere advantage) functions. DR showed no hemispheric advantage on both tasks. The two groups of subjects did not differ in mean daily amount of sleep time. In keeping with previous studies showing that NDR have an imbalance of interhemispheric activation upon REM awakenings, results from the present research suggest that DR and NDR can be characterized by a different pattern of hemispheric lateralization of cognitive skills. This finding may stimulate further research aimed at evaluating both the possible existence of differences in the lateralization of functions not considered in this study and the concomitance of REM sleep dependent differences in balance of hemispheric functioning. PMID:8082996

  19. The sense of the body in the dream: Diagnostic capacity in the meanings of dreams.

    PubMed

    Giordo, Gianfranco

    2016-04-01

    The author investigates the oneiric representation of somatic states and the diagnostic capacity of dreams. He draws on Freud's hypotheses on the procedures by which somatic stimuli insert themselves in oneiric elaboration and restructures them according to the recent neurobiological discoveries and to analytical experiences. In the representations of certain dreams, with a psychic interpretation agreed upon by the patients, somatic alterations unknown to the analytical couple were discriminated and confirmed by radiological investigations. These representations were linked to the manifestation of one aspect of the bodily Self, neglected in the precocious maternal relation, that entered the organization of the Self consolidated in the relation with the paternal figure. This conjunction gave origin to the double meaning (somatic and psychic) of the dream. The entering of the somatic representation in the oneiric one did not appear to be the figurative effect, but of a condensation of diagnostic capacity into the meaning of the dream. This characteristic manifested itself in the particular styles of the dreamers, interpretable by an analyst countertransferentially oriented. The perception or scotomization of the condensation in the interpretation of the dream and of the moment had an effect on the evolution of the analysis. PMID:26538286

  20. Correlations of splitting and phobic anxiety with dreaming.

    PubMed

    Kroth, J; Jensen, L; Haraldsson, M

    1997-08-01

    Dream characteristics of 28 women from a graduate counseling program were correlated with measures of phobic anxiety, splitting, and sleepiness. Significant correlations between splitting and recurrent nightmares (.68), agoraphobia and dreams about death (.44), and global phobia and recurrent nightmares (.56) were obtained. Results are discussed in terms of how phobic anxieties and splitting may relate to traumatic content and the dream process. PMID:9293596

  1. 78 FR 46410 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel IMPOSSIBLE DREAM; Invitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... DREAM; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation... the applicant the intended service of the vessel IMPOSSIBLE DREAM is: Intended Commercial Use...

  2. Lucid dreaming: an age-dependent brain dissociation.

    PubMed

    Voss, Ursula; Frenzel, Clemens; Koppehele-Gossel, Judith; Hobson, Allan

    2012-12-01

    The current study focused on the distribution of lucid dreams in school children and young adults. The survey was conducted on a large sample of students aged 6-19 years. Questions distinguished between past and current experience with lucid dreams. Results suggest that lucid dreaming is quite pronounced in young children, its incidence rate drops at about age 16 years. Increased lucidity was found in those attending higher level compared with lower level schools. Taking methodological issues into account, we feel confident to propose a link between the natural occurrence of lucid dreaming and brain maturation. PMID:22639960

  3. Psychoanalysis and the neurosciences: a topical debate on dreams.

    PubMed

    Mancia, M

    1999-12-01

    The author begins by pointing out that, whereas Freud first turned his attention to dreams in 1895, they became an object of neuroscientific interest only in the 1950s, after the discovery of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and the observation that a subject woken in an REM phase could remember and narrate them. He discusses the various brain structures found by the neuroscientists to be implicated in dreaming and the associated hypotheses about their involvement in the processes of remembering dreams, their spatial construction and semantic organisation, and the dreamer's emotional participation in and narration of dreams. Attention is drawn to recent psychophysiological research findings indicating that dreaming occurs in all sleep phases and not only in REM episodes. The cognitivist contribution is also discussed. The author goes on to demonstrate the difference between the neuroscientific and psychoanalytic approaches to dreams. Whereas the neuroscientists are interested in the structures involved in dream production and in dream organisation and narratability, psychoanalysis concentrates on the meaning of dreams and on placing them in the context of the analytic relationship in accordance with the affective history of the dreamer and the transference. The brain structures and functions of interest to the neurosciences, while constituting the physical and biological substrate of these aspects, are stated to be irrelevant to their psychoanalytic understanding. PMID:10669969

  4. The dreaming mind-brain: a Jungian perspective.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Margaret

    2006-02-01

    In this paper I discuss the nature and role of dream and the dreaming process in Jungian clinical practice in the light of neuroscience. Insights from contemporary neuroscience support rather than contest Jung's view that emotional truth, not censorship or disguise, underpins the dreaming process. I use clinical material to illustrate how work with dreams within the total interactive experience of the analytic dyad enables the development of the emotional scaffolding necessary for the development of 'mind'. Large scale evidence-based research reveals that dreaming is caused by brain activity during sleep that is both biochemically and regionally different from that of waking states. Recent imaging studies confirm that dreams are the mind's vehicle for the processing of emotional states of being, particularly the fear, anxiety, anger or elation that often figure prominently. Dream sleep is understood as also being the guardian of memory, playing a part in forgetting, encoding and affective organization of memory. In the clinical section of the paper I let a series of dreams speak for themselves, revealing the emotionally salient concerns of the dreamer, weaving past and present, transference and reality together in a way that demonstrates the healthy attempt of the brain-mind to come to terms with difficult emotional experience from the past. The dreams become dreamable as part of the meaning-making process of analysis. PMID:16451317

  5. Recent results from the DREAM project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wigmans, Richard

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the DREAM project is to develop calorimeters that are able to measure the four-vectors of all fundamental constituents of matter, including fragmenting quarks, with a precision of 1% or better. To achieve this, the factors that limit the performance of the present generation of calorimeters are eliminated one by one, in the order at which these factors dominate. In this talk, I give an overview of the results achieved so far, and outline our plans for the future.

  6. Phenomenological features of dreams: Results from dream log studies using the Subjective Experiences Rating Scale (SERS).

    PubMed

    Kahan, Tracey L; Claudatos, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Self-ratings of dream experiences were obtained from 144 college women for 788 dreams, using the Subjective Experiences Rating Scale (SERS). Consistent with past studies, dreams were characterized by a greater prevalence of vision, audition, and movement than smell, touch, or taste, by both positive and negative emotion, and by a range of cognitive processes. A Principal Components Analysis of SERS ratings revealed ten subscales: four sensory, three affective, one cognitive, and two structural (events/actions, locations). Correlations (Pearson r) among subscale means showed a stronger relationship among the process-oriented features (sensory, cognitive, affective) than between the process-oriented and content-centered (structural) features--a pattern predicted from past research (e.g., Bulkeley & Kahan, 2008). Notably, cognition and positive emotion were associated with a greater number of other phenomenal features than was negative emotion; these findings are consistent with studies of the qualitative features of waking autobiographical memory (e.g., Fredrickson, 2001). PMID:26945159

  7. [The natural dream: physiology of dreaming in the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Tavera, M

    2000-01-01

    To give back dreaming to reason, to remove from it "that which is marvellous, supernatural and often terrible for the common man who studies it seriously", that is the intention of Jérôme Richard and Samuel Formey, who were both contemporaries of the philosophers of the Age of the Enlightenment. Relying on the medical theories of the time as well as on the explanatory models of physiology and psychology, they try to demonstrate "the true cause of dreaming" and the natural character of the oneiric phenomenon. The transmission of sensations, the working of memory and the association of ideas, the nature and power of imagination, the predetermined or random character of dreams constitute the framework of the questions from which the explanation of "all this apparent confusion" is developed. PMID:10986794

  8. Dream content in chronically-treated persons with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lusignan, Félix-Antoine; Zadra, Antonio; Dubuc, Marie-Josée; Daoust, Anne-Marie; Mottard, Jean-Pierre; Godbout, Roger

    2009-07-01

    Many clinical, laboratory and non-laboratory studies have examined dream content reported by patients with schizophrenia but findings have been variable and inconsistent. Using both questionnaire-based measures and laboratory REM sleep awakenings, we investigated dream content in 14 patients with schizophrenia (mean age=25.5+/-3.2 years) under atypical antipsychotic medication and 15 healthy controls (mean age=22.3+/-4.2 years). The relationship between eye movement density during REM sleep and dream content was also explored. Questionnaire data revealed that when compared to controls, patients with schizophrenia report experiencing a greater number of nightmares but no significant differences were found on other measures including overall dream recall, presence of recurrent dreams, and frequency of specific emotions. 39 dream reports were collected from each group following awakenings from REM sleep. Laboratory dream narratives from the patients were shorter and, after controlling for report length, most significant differences in dream content between the two groups disappeared with the exception of a greater proportion of unknown characters in the participant group. Patients with schizophrenia spontaneously rated their dream reports as being less bizarre than did controls, despite a similar density of bizarre elements as scored by external judges. Finally, both groups had a comparable density of rapid eye movements during REM sleep but a significant positive correlation between eye-movement density and dream content variables was only found in controls. Taken together, the findings suggest that dream content characteristics in schizophrenia may reflect neurocognitive processes, including emotional processing, specific to this disorder. PMID:19409757

  9. The transcriptional repressor DREAM is involved in thyroid gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    D'Andrea, Barbara; Di Palma, Tina; Mascia, Anna; Motti, Maria Letizia; Viglietto, Giuseppe; Nitsch, Lucio; Zannini, Mariastella . E-mail: stella@szn.it

    2005-04-15

    Downstream regulatory element antagonistic modulator (DREAM) was originally identified in neuroendocrine cells as a calcium-binding protein that specifically binds to downstream regulatory elements (DRE) on DNA, and represses transcription of its target genes. To explore the possibility that DREAM may regulate the endocrine activity of the thyroid gland, we analyzed its mRNA expression in undifferentiated and differentiated thyroid cells. We demonstrated that DREAM is expressed in the normal thyroid tissue as well as in differentiated thyroid cells in culture while it is absent in FRT poorly differentiated cells. In the present work, we also show that DREAM specifically binds to DRE sites identified in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the thyroid-specific transcription factors Pax8 and TTF-2/FoxE1 in a calcium-dependent manner. By gel retardation assays we demonstrated that thapsigargin treatment increases the binding of DREAM to the DRE sequences present in Pax8 and TTF-2/Foxe1 5' UTRs, and this correlates with a significant reduction of the expression of these genes. Interestingly, in poorly differentiated thyroid cells overexpression of exogenous DREAM strongly inhibits Pax8 expression. Moreover, we provide evidence that a mutated form of DREAM unable to bind Ca{sup 2+} interferes with thyroid cell proliferation. Therefore, we propose that in thyroid cells DREAM is a mediator of the calcium-signaling pathway and it is involved in the regulation of thyroid cell function.

  10. Graph analysis of dream reports is especially informative about psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Natália B.; Furtado, Raimundo; Maia, Pedro P. C.; Copelli, Mauro; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2014-01-01

    Early psychiatry investigated dreams to understand psychopathologies. Contemporary psychiatry, which neglects dreams, has been criticized for lack of objectivity. In search of quantitative insight into the structure of psychotic speech, we investigated speech graph attributes (SGA) in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder type I, and non-psychotic controls as they reported waking and dream contents. Schizophrenic subjects spoke with reduced connectivity, in tight correlation with negative and cognitive symptoms measured by standard psychometric scales. Bipolar and control subjects were undistinguishable by waking reports, but in dream reports bipolar subjects showed significantly less connectivity. Dream-related SGA outperformed psychometric scores or waking-related data for group sorting. Altogether, the results indicate that online and offline processing, the two most fundamental modes of brain operation, produce nearly opposite effects on recollections: While dreaming exposes differences in the mnemonic records across individuals, waking dampens distinctions. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of the differential diagnosis of psychosis based on the analysis of dream graphs, pointing to a fast, low-cost and language-invariant tool for psychiatric diagnosis and the objective search for biomarkers. The Freudian notion that “dreams are the royal road to the unconscious” is clinically useful, after all. PMID:24424108

  11. States and Civil Rights: Is the American Dream Still Deferred?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Roger

    1988-01-01

    States must ensure that all citizens, regardless of race, have real opportunities to gain the education and skills needed to achieve the American Dream. If state policies, especially economic policies, fail to acknowledge the growing numbers of poor Black undereducated and unskilled urban youth, that dream of equal opportunity will continue to be…

  12. How Early Adolescents Describe Their Dreams: A Quantitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzone, Paolo; Freni, Salvatore; Maggiolini, Alfio; Provantini, Katia; Vigano, Daniele

    1998-01-01

    Narratives of the dreams of 145 early adolescents were tape-recorded and transcribed, and the frequencies of various grammar forms and common words were calculated. The most common nouns were "house" and "mother;" the most common verbs were "go" and "do." Results indicate that linguistic features of dream narrative are affected by age and sex.…

  13. Loss of the mammalian DREAM complex deregulates chondrocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Forristal, Chantal; Henley, Shauna A; MacDonald, James I; Bush, Jason R; Ort, Carley; Passos, Daniel T; Talluri, Srikanth; Ishak, Charles A; Thwaites, Michael J; Norley, Chris J; Litovchick, Larisa; DeCaprio, James A; DiMattia, Gabriel; Holdsworth, David W; Beier, Frank; Dick, Frederick A

    2014-06-01

    Mammalian DREAM is a conserved protein complex that functions in cellular quiescence. DREAM contains an E2F, a retinoblastoma (RB)-family protein, and the MuvB core (LIN9, LIN37, LIN52, LIN54, and RBBP4). In mammals, MuvB can alternatively bind to BMYB to form a complex that promotes mitotic gene expression. Because BMYB-MuvB is essential for proliferation, loss-of-function approaches to study MuvB have generated limited insight into DREAM function. Here, we report a gene-targeted mouse model that is uniquely deficient for DREAM complex assembly. We have targeted p107 (Rbl1) to prevent MuvB binding and combined it with deficiency for p130 (Rbl2). Our data demonstrate that cells from these mice preferentially assemble BMYB-MuvB complexes and fail to repress transcription. DREAM-deficient mice show defects in endochondral bone formation and die shortly after birth. Micro-computed tomography and histology demonstrate that in the absence of DREAM, chondrocytes fail to arrest proliferation. Since DREAM requires DYRK1A (dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated protein kinase 1A) phosphorylation of LIN52 for assembly, we utilized an embryonic bone culture system and pharmacologic inhibition of (DYRK) kinase to demonstrate a similar defect in endochondral bone growth. This reveals that assembly of mammalian DREAM is required to induce cell cycle exit in chondrocytes. PMID:24710275

  14. Demonstrating DREAM: A Digital Resource Exchange about Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upitis, Rena; Boese, Karen; Abrami, Philip C.

    2015-01-01

    The Digital Resource Exchange About Music (DREAM) is an online tool for exchanging information about digital learning tools for music education. DREAM was designed by our team to encourage music teachers to learn about digital resources related to learning to play a musical instrument, both in classroom and independent music studio settings. In…

  15. Graph analysis of dream reports is especially informative about psychosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mota, Natália B.; Furtado, Raimundo; Maia, Pedro P. C.; Copelli, Mauro; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2014-01-01

    Early psychiatry investigated dreams to understand psychopathologies. Contemporary psychiatry, which neglects dreams, has been criticized for lack of objectivity. In search of quantitative insight into the structure of psychotic speech, we investigated speech graph attributes (SGA) in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder type I, and non-psychotic controls as they reported waking and dream contents. Schizophrenic subjects spoke with reduced connectivity, in tight correlation with negative and cognitive symptoms measured by standard psychometric scales. Bipolar and control subjects were undistinguishable by waking reports, but in dream reports bipolar subjects showed significantly less connectivity. Dream-related SGA outperformed psychometric scores or waking-related data for group sorting. Altogether, the results indicate that online and offline processing, the two most fundamental modes of brain operation, produce nearly opposite effects on recollections: While dreaming exposes differences in the mnemonic records across individuals, waking dampens distinctions. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of the differential diagnosis of psychosis based on the analysis of dream graphs, pointing to a fast, low-cost and language-invariant tool for psychiatric diagnosis and the objective search for biomarkers. The Freudian notion that ``dreams are the royal road to the unconscious'' is clinically useful, after all.

  16. Loss of the Mammalian DREAM Complex Deregulates Chondrocyte Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Forristal, Chantal; Henley, Shauna A.; MacDonald, James I.; Bush, Jason R.; Ort, Carley; Passos, Daniel T.; Talluri, Srikanth; Ishak, Charles A.; Thwaites, Michael J.; Norley, Chris J.; Litovchick, Larisa; DeCaprio, James A.; DiMattia, Gabriel; Holdsworth, David W.; Beier, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian DREAM is a conserved protein complex that functions in cellular quiescence. DREAM contains an E2F, a retinoblastoma (RB)-family protein, and the MuvB core (LIN9, LIN37, LIN52, LIN54, and RBBP4). In mammals, MuvB can alternatively bind to BMYB to form a complex that promotes mitotic gene expression. Because BMYB-MuvB is essential for proliferation, loss-of-function approaches to study MuvB have generated limited insight into DREAM function. Here, we report a gene-targeted mouse model that is uniquely deficient for DREAM complex assembly. We have targeted p107 (Rbl1) to prevent MuvB binding and combined it with deficiency for p130 (Rbl2). Our data demonstrate that cells from these mice preferentially assemble BMYB-MuvB complexes and fail to repress transcription. DREAM-deficient mice show defects in endochondral bone formation and die shortly after birth. Micro-computed tomography and histology demonstrate that in the absence of DREAM, chondrocytes fail to arrest proliferation. Since DREAM requires DYRK1A (dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated protein kinase 1A) phosphorylation of LIN52 for assembly, we utilized an embryonic bone culture system and pharmacologic inhibition of (DYRK) kinase to demonstrate a similar defect in endochondral bone growth. This reveals that assembly of mammalian DREAM is required to induce cell cycle exit in chondrocytes. PMID:24710275

  17. The Virtual Dream: Rewriting Stories of Loss and Grief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neimeyer, Robert A.; Torres, Carlos; Smith, Douglas C.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors introduce the "virtual dream", a technique that entails writing a brief, spontaneous dreamlike story on themes of loss, using a flexible set of assigned elements of setting and characterization to scaffold the writing. After providing several examples of virtual dreams written by workshop participants, the authors…

  18. Dream Content Analysis in Persons with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daoust, Anne-Marie; Lusignan, Felix-Antoine; Braun, Claude M. J.; Mottron, Laurent; Godbout, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Dream questionnaires were completed by 28 young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) participants. Seventy-nine typically developed individual served as the control group. In a subset of 17 persons with ASD and 11 controls matched for verbal IQ, dream narratives were obtained following REM sleep awakenings in a sleep laboratory.…

  19. The Use of Dreams in Couples' Group Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nell, Renee

    1975-01-01

    Describes the use of Jung's subjective approach to dream interpretation in couples' group therapy to bring unconscious material quickly to the surface. Dreams show the connection between the manifest behavior and the underlying dynamics. They clarify the characteristic behavior of the psychological types. Finally, they aid the therapeutic process.…

  20. Dream Incubation: A Reconstruction of Ritual in Contemporary Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Henry

    1976-01-01

    Dream incubation is the ritual of going to sleep in a sacred place in anticipation of receiving a helpful dream from a divine benefactor. Drawing upon a variety of contemporary psychotherapeutic principles and procedures, author constructed an experimental ritual of incubation. (Editor)

  1. Dreams as a source of supernatural agent concepts

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Patrick; Bulkeley, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    We present a theory of the creativity of dreams as well as psychopathology of religious delusions with respect to production of fundamental forms of religious cognition—specifically supernatural agent (SA) cognitions. We suggest that dream cognitions are particularly efficient at producing highly memorable and impactful experiences with SAs because dreams involve three processes that are prerequisites for the generation of god concepts: (1) mental simulations of alternative realities, (2) theory of mind attributions to the extra-natural dream characters and divine beings, and (3) attribution of ultimate value (exemplified by ‘good spirit beings’), and dis-value (exemplified by demonic monsters) to the supernatural dream characters. Because prefrontal cortex is deactivated during rapid eye movements (REM) sleep agentic impulses and internally generated ideas are not reliably attributed to Self or dreamer. Instead an exaggerated degree of agency is attributed to these supernatural dream characters who are then embedded in stories in dreams and in myths of waking life which explain their supernatural abilities. These dream-based SAs are salient characters that are processed in sleep-related memory systems according to rules of Lleweelyn’s ancient art of memory model and therefore more easily remembered and reflected upon during waking life. When REM sleep intrudes into waking consciousness, as is the case with some forms of schizophrenia, religious delusions are more likely to emerge. PMID:25852602

  2. Dreams as a source of supernatural agent concepts.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Patrick; Bulkeley, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    We present a theory of the creativity of dreams as well as psychopathology of religious delusions with respect to production of fundamental forms of religious cognition-specifically supernatural agent (SA) cognitions. We suggest that dream cognitions are particularly efficient at producing highly memorable and impactful experiences with SAs because dreams involve three processes that are prerequisites for the generation of god concepts: (1) mental simulations of alternative realities, (2) theory of mind attributions to the extra-natural dream characters and divine beings, and (3) attribution of ultimate value (exemplified by 'good spirit beings'), and dis-value (exemplified by demonic monsters) to the supernatural dream characters. Because prefrontal cortex is deactivated during rapid eye movements (REM) sleep agentic impulses and internally generated ideas are not reliably attributed to Self or dreamer. Instead an exaggerated degree of agency is attributed to these supernatural dream characters who are then embedded in stories in dreams and in myths of waking life which explain their supernatural abilities. These dream-based SAs are salient characters that are processed in sleep-related memory systems according to rules of Lleweelyn's ancient art of memory model and therefore more easily remembered and reflected upon during waking life. When REM sleep intrudes into waking consciousness, as is the case with some forms of schizophrenia, religious delusions are more likely to emerge. PMID:25852602

  3. Is the "American Dream" of Homeownership an Equal Opportunity Goal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viator, Martha Graham; Halper, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Teaching empathy can be a means to teach multiple perspectives in the social studies classroom. Examining U.S. history through the lens of the pursuit of the "American Dream" will resonate with many high school students. This article suggests a framework using the theme of the "American Dream" of homeownership for a high school…

  4. Big Dreams, Serious Implications: How the DREAM Act can Help America Meet its Workforce Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermes, James

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how the Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) Act will help undocumented students by: (1) establishing a path to legal status and eventually earn legal residency through two years of higher education or military service; and (2) repealing a provision of federal law that bars states from granting in-state…

  5. Psychology of Dreams: A Creative Course in Dream Interpretation for Students and Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Mark S.; Vogel, Joanne

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the essential aspects of a creative, experiential course in dream interpretation for psychology and counseling students. Such a course offers counselor educators an opportunity to develop basic interviewing and advanced processing techniques in their students while facilitating greater self-exploration and improved…

  6. The tendency to suppress, inhibiting thoughts, and dream rebound.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Fiona; Bryant, Richard A

    2007-01-01

    Ironic control theory proposes that suppressing thoughts leads to increased occurrence of the suppressed thought because monitoring for the unwanted thought leads to intrusions. This study investigated the influence of suppressing unwanted thoughts on dream content. One hundred participants who had high or low levels of tendency to suppress unwanted thoughts nominated an intrusive thought, and half of the participants were instructed to suppress that thought for 5 min prior to sleeping. Participants completed a dream diary upon waking, which was subsequently rated by independent raters for dream content. In terms of the 79 participants who reported dreaming, more high suppressors who were instructed to suppress dreamt about the intrusive thought than high suppressors in the control condition. There was no difference between low suppressors in the suppression and control conditions. These results suggest that dream content can be influenced by attempted suppression prior to sleep, and this is particularly apparent in people with a tendency to suppress unwanted thoughts. PMID:16516140

  7. [Dream, memory and Freud's reconciliation with the brain].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2003-12-01

    What is the function of dreaming? The vast contribution on dreams made by Freud and Jung has been largely ignored by science, which harshly criticized their approach for the lack of a quantitative method and of testable hypotheses. Here I review a series of experimental results that corroborate two important psychoanalytical insights regarding dreams: 1) that dreams often contain a "day residue" of the preceding waking experience, and 2) that such "residue" includes cognitive and mnemonic activities, therefore leading to a facilitation of learning. In particular, recent data suggests that dreams may play an essential role in memory consolidation, allowing recently-acquired memories to exit the hippocampus and settle in the neocortex. Taken together, these results call for a comprehensive scientific reassessment of the psychoanalytical legacy. PMID:14978589

  8. Dreaming and the brain: from phenomenology to neurophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Nir, Yuval; Tononi, Giulio

    2009-01-01

    Dreams are a most remarkable experiment in psychology and neuroscience, conducted every night in every sleeping person. They show that our brain, disconnected from the environment, can generate by itself an entire world of conscious experiences. Content analysis and developmental studies have furthered our understanding of dream phenomenology. In parallel, brain lesion studies, functional imaging, and neurophysiology have advanced our knowledge of the neural basis of dreaming. It is now possible to start integrating these two strands of research in order to address some fundamental questions that dreams pose for cognitive neuroscience: how conscious experiences in sleep relate to underlying brain activity; why the dreamer is largely disconnected from the environment; and whether dreaming is more closely related to mental imagery or to perception. PMID:20079677

  9. Ontogenetic patterns in the dreams of women across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Dale, Allyson; Lortie-Lussier, Monique; De Koninck, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    The present study supports and extends previous research on the developmental differences in women's dreams across the lifespan. The participants included 75 Canadian women in each of 5 age groups from adolescence to old age including 12-17, 18-24, 25-39, 40-64, and 65-85, totaling 375 women. One dream per participant was scored by two independent judges using the method of content analysis. Trend analysis was used to determine the ontogenetic pattern of the dream content categories. Results demonstrated significant ontogenetic decreases (linear trends) for female and familiar characters, activities, aggression, and friendliness. These patterns of dream imagery reflect the waking developmental patterns as proposed by social theories and recognized features of aging as postulated by the continuity hypothesis. Limitations and suggestions for future research including the examining of developmental patterns in the dreams of males are discussed. PMID:26433930

  10. Dreaming as inspiration evidence from religion, philosophy, literature, and film.

    PubMed

    Bulkeley, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents evidence from the history of religion, philosophy, literature, and film to suggest that dreaming is a primal wellspring of creative inspiration. Powerful, reality-bending dreams have motivated the cultural creativity of people all over the world and throughout history. Examples include the dream revelations of Egyptian Pharaohs, the philosophical insights of Socrates, the dark literary themes of Fyodor Dostoevsky, and the cinematic artistry of Akira Kurusawa. Although the conclusions that can be drawn from these sources are limited by several methodological factors, the evidence gives contemporary researchers good reasons to explore the creative potentials of dreaming and the impact on waking life behavior of certain types of extraordinary dream experience. PMID:20870061

  11. Modern Ratio: The Ultimate Arbiter in 17th Century Native Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomedli, Michael

    Seventeenth century Jesuit analysis of Indian attitudes toward dreams was largely negative. While Indians looked on their dreams as ordinances and oracles, the Jesuits criticized reliance on such irrational messages. Jesuit critiques fell into three categories: the dream as a sign of diabolical possession, the dream as illusion purporting to be…

  12. Dreaming of Justice: Critical Service-Learning and the Need to Wake Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butin, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Dan Butin exmines and questions whether the goal, or dream, of service-learning has been actualized in practice. He raises the possibility that what educators dream of-a critical service-learning able to ameliorate persistent real-world inequities-may be a case of their dreaming being fulfilled, rather than their dreams. More specifically, he…

  13. Getting in Touch: Dreaming, the Emotions and the Work of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.; Bullough, Dawn Ann Mortensen; Mayes, Pamela Blackwell

    2006-01-01

    Despite growing interest in the emotional lives of teachers, teacher dreaming has received remarkably little researcher interest or attention. Drawing on recent studies of dreaming that demonstrate a strong connection between dream content and the life conditions of the dreamer, in this study the authors explored teacher dreaming as an avenue for…

  14. Effects of the Sex of Both Interviewer and Subject on Reported Manifest Dream Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremsdorf, Ross B.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Examined the effects of the sex of both interviewer and subject on the reported content of dreams. No sex differences in sexual content of dreams were found, although dreams of males were more vivid, active, and aggressive. Opposite-sex pairing mobilized reports of conflict within dreams. Same-sex pairing increased sexual content. (Author/BEF)

  15. A National Initiative of Teaching, Researching, and Dreaming: Community College Faculty Research in "Achieving the Dream" Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagedorn, Linda Serra

    2015-01-01

    Dating back to 2004, the Achieving the Dream initiative was established to promote evidence-based programs and interventions to produce and sustain student success. Achieving the Dream has created a new environment and new forms of thinking among the faculty that have spurred some to action research within their classrooms and beyond. Using three…

  16. Dreams In Jungian Psychology: The use of Dreams as an Instrument For Research, Diagnosis and Treatment of Social Phobia

    PubMed Central

    Khodarahimi, Siamak

    2009-01-01

    Background: The significance of dreams has been explained in psychoanalysis, depth psychology and gestalt therapy. There are many guidelines in analytic psychology for dream interpretation and integration in clinical practice. The present study, based on the Jungian analytic model, incorporated dreams as an instrument for assessment of aetiology, the psychotherapy process and the outcome of treatment for social phobia within a clinical case study. Method: This case study describes the use of dream analysis in treating a female youth with social phobia. Results: The present findings supported the three stage paradigm efficiency in the Jungian model for dream working within a clinical setting, i.e. written details, reassembly with amplification and assimilation. It was indicated that childhood and infantile traumatic events, psychosexual development malfunctions, and inefficient coping skills for solving current life events were expressed in the patient’s dreams. Conclusion: Dreams can reflect a patient’s aetiology, needs, illness prognosis and psychotherapy outcome. Dreams are an instrument for the diagnosis, research and treatment of mental disturbances in a clinical setting. PMID:22135511

  17. Intelligent Membranes: Dream or Reality?

    PubMed

    Gugliuzza, Annarosa

    2013-01-01

    Intelligent materials are claimed to overcome current drawbacks associated with the attainment of high standards of life, health, security and defense. Membrane-based sensors represent a category of smart systems capable of providing a large number of benefits to different markets of textiles, biomedicine, environment, chemistry, agriculture, architecture, transport and energy. Intelligent membranes can be characterized by superior sensitivity, broader dynamic range and highly sophisticated mechanisms of autorecovery. These prerogatives are regarded as the result of multi-compartment arrays, where complementary functions can be accommodated and well-integrated. Based on the mechanism of "sense to act", stimuli-responsive membranes adapt themselves to surrounding environments, producing desired effects such as smart regulation of transport, wetting, transcription, hydrodynamics, separation, and chemical or energy conversion. Hopefully, the design of new smart devices easier to manufacture and assemble can be realized through the integration of sensing membranes with wireless networks, looking at the ambitious challenge to establish long-distance communications. Thus, the transfer of signals to collecting systems could allow continuous and real-time monitoring of data, events and/or processes. PMID:26791465

  18. Learning within bounds and dream sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geszti, T.; Pazmandi, F.

    1987-12-01

    In a bounded-synapses version of Hopfield's model (1984) for neural networks the quasienergy of a given memory, which is approximately equal to the depth of the corresponding energy well is calculated exactly by treating the change of a synaptic strength on learning as a random walk within bounds. Attractors corresponding to stored memories are found to be considerably flattened before serious retrieval errors arise. This allows dream sleep to be interpreted as random recall and relearning of fresh strong memories, in order to stack them on top of weak incidental memory imprints of a day.

  19. The erotic transference: dream or delusion?

    PubMed

    De Masi, Franco

    2012-12-01

    The erotic transference can be seen as the Janus face of clinical work in psychoanalysis: it may either arise out of the positive emotions necessary for the building of new shared realities, or be fueled by falsified and distorted constructions. In the former case, the erotic transference expresses the capacity to anticipate, or "dream," the emotional relationship with the object-which is why Freud valued its transformative aspect as one of the "forces impelling [the patient] to . . . make changes"-whereas in the latter it is equivalent to a flight from psychic reality and may be imperceptibly transformed into an actual delusion. PMID:23104932

  20. A general method for spatially coarse-graining Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations onto a lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao; Seider, Warren D.; Sinno, Talid

    2013-03-01

    A recently introduced method for coarse-graining standard continuous Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations of atomic or molecular fluids onto a rigid lattice of variable scale [X. Liu, W. D. Seider, and T. Sinno, Phys. Rev. E 86, 026708 (2012)], 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.026708 is further analyzed and extended. The coarse-grained Metropolis Monte Carlo technique is demonstrated to be highly consistent with the underlying full-resolution problem using a series of detailed comparisons, including vapor-liquid equilibrium phase envelopes and spatial density distributions for the Lennard-Jones argon and simple point charge water models. In addition, the principal computational bottleneck associated with computing a coarse-grained interaction function for evolving particle positions on the discretized domain is addressed by the introduction of new closure approximations. In particular, it is shown that the coarse-grained potential, which is generally a function of temperature and coarse-graining level, can be computed at multiple temperatures and scales using a single set of free energy calculations. The computational performance of the method relative to standard Monte Carlo simulation is also discussed.

  1. Generalized Metropolis acceptance criterion for hybrid non-equilibrium molecular dynamics—Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yunjie; Roux, Benoît

    2015-01-14

    A family of hybrid simulation methods that combines the advantages of Monte Carlo (MC) with the strengths of classical molecular dynamics (MD) consists in carrying out short non-equilibrium MD (neMD) trajectories to generate new configurations that are subsequently accepted or rejected via an MC process. In the simplest case where a deterministic dynamic propagator is used to generate the neMD trajectories, the familiar Metropolis acceptance criterion based on the change in the total energy ΔE, min[1,  exp( − βΔE)], guarantees that the hybrid algorithm will yield the equilibrium Boltzmann distribution. However, the functional form of the acceptance probability is more complex when the non-equilibrium switching process is generated via a non-deterministic stochastic dissipative propagator coupled to a heat bath. Here, we clarify the conditions under which the Metropolis criterion remains valid to rigorously yield a proper equilibrium Boltzmann distribution within hybrid neMD-MC algorithm.

  2. The Blame Game: Stigma and HIV/AIDS in an African Metropolis

    PubMed Central

    Akande, WA; Tserere, MM; Adewuyi, MF; Akande, E Titilola; Adetoun, BE

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present study was to explore further the cross-cultural validity, consistency, and replicability of FAIDSS among students when assessing HIV/AIDS-related stigma and fear of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Lagos metropolis. Methods: Using a purposive method, participants in Lagos Metropolis were surveyed using a questionnaire and conceptualization derived from the work of Ross and Hunter (1992) to measure a variety of HIV-related attitudinal and behavioural items. Quantitative data analyzed employing factor analysis using maximum-likelihood extraction followed by oblique rotation (direct oblimin, delta= 0). Results: On the factor scale measuring having fear of sex with a particular person, younger respondents especially females significantly more likely to report greater fear than for any other groups. Our findings further suggest that levels of fear of outsiders are high among males and need urgent action and intervention at both individual and societal levels. Conclusion: It is argued that messages and interventions must be targeted to promote a positive social environment for those living with or affected by HIV/AIDS, and to be useful in understanding stigma, fear and prejudice more fully and in reducing them. A crosscurrent behavioral change that can transform AIDS from an inevitably fatal pandemic to a chronic and manageable disease is the answer. PMID:23113052

  3. Characteristics, determinants, and spatial variations of ambient fungal levels in the subtropical Taipei metropolis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yi-Hua; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Rao, Carol Y.; Lee, Chung-Te; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Chao, H. Jasmine

    This study was conducted to investigate the temporal and spatial distributions, compositions, and determinants of ambient aeroallergens in Taipei, Taiwan, a subtropical metropolis. We monitored ambient culturable fungi in Shin-Jhuang City, an urban area, and Shi-Men Township, a rural area, in Taipei metropolis from 2003 to 2004. We collected ambient fungi in the last week of every month during the study period, using duplicate Burkard portable samplers and Malt Extract Agar. The median concentration of total fungi was 1339 colony-forming units m -3 of air over the study period. The most prevalent fungi were non-sporulating fungi, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Curvularia and Aspergillus at both sites. Airborne fungal concentrations and diversity of fungal species were generally higher in urban than in rural areas. Most fungal taxa had significant seasonal variations, with higher levels in summer. Multivariate analyses showed that the levels of ambient fungi were associated positively with temperature, but negatively with ozone and several other air pollutants. Relative humidity also had a significant non-linear relationship with ambient fungal levels. We concluded that the concentrations and the compositions of ambient fungi are diverse in urban and rural areas in the subtropical region. High ambient fungal levels were related to an urban environment and environmental conditions of high temperature and low ozone levels.

  4. Infant mortality in the Indian slums: case studies of Calcutta metropolis and Raipur city.

    PubMed

    Gupta, H S; Baghel, A

    1999-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the levels of infant mortality, its causes and determinants, and its differentials in selected slums of Calcutta Metropolis and Raipur in India. Data were gathered through interview of 2142 mothers who had experienced a live birth and/or death of an infant within the year prior to the survey. The study found that although the infant mortality rate (IMR) in the slums was quite high, it was lower compared to rural India. The study¿s finding underlines the importance of "urban residence" as a primary controlling factor of infant mortality. IMR was 1.5 times higher in the slums of Calcutta than in Raipur, indicating that infant death is far worse in the metropolis than in smaller cities. Although a number of individual-, household-, and slum-level factors played an explanatory role in infant mortality, differences in neighborhood environment contributed most significantly to the infant mortality differentials in the two slums. This study also found that mere literacy or low level of education is not an effective depressant of infant mortality. PMID:12349427

  5. Microbial Content of "Bowl Water" Used for Communal Handwashing in Preschools within Accra Metropolis, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Tetteh-Quarcoo, Patience B; Anim-Baidoo, Isaac; Attah, Simon Kwaku; Abdul-Latif Baako, Bawa; Opintan, Japheth A; Minamor, Andrew A; Abdul-Rahman, Mubarak; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed at determining the microbial content of "bowl water" used for communal handwashing in preschools within the Accra Metropolis. Method. Six (6) preschools in the Accra Metropolis were involved in the study. Water samples and swabs from the hands of the preschool children were collected. The samples were analysed and tested for bacteria, fungi, parasites, and rotavirus. Results. Eight different bacteria, two different parasites, and a fungus were isolated while no rotavirus was detected. Unlike the rest of the microbes, bacterial isolates were found among samples from all the schools, with Staphylococcus species being the most prevalent (40.9%). Out of the three schools that had parasites in their water, two of them had Cryptosporidium parvum. The fungus isolated from two out of the six schools was Aspergillus niger. All bacteria isolated were found to be resistant to cotrimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin and susceptible to amikacin and levofloxacin. Conclusion. Although handwashing has the ability to get rid of microbes, communal handwashing practices using water in bowls could be considered a possible transmission route and may be of public concern. PMID:27555872

  6. Pathologic Analysis of Control Plans for Air Pollution Management in Tehran Metropolis: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Shahrabi, Narges Salehi; Pourezzat, Aliasghar; Fayaz-Bakhsh, Ahmad; Mafimoradi, Shiva; Poursafa, Parinaz

    2013-01-01

    Background: Regarding the importance of air pollution issue for large cities, as Tehran metropolis, many plans, programs, projects and regulations have been developed to manage urban air pollution. However, most of them failed to decline the pollution. The purpose of this study is to pathologically analyze air-pollution control plans in order to offer effective solutions for Tehran metropolis. Methods: A qualitative content analysis and a semi-structured interview with 14 practicing professionals were used to identify key causes and sources of Tehran's air pollution, to recognize challenges and obstacles towards effective performance of air-pollution control plans in this metropolitan area, and to suggest the most effective controlling solutions. Results: Challenges related to air-pollution control plans can be divided into two major categories: Firstly lack of integrated and organized stewardship and secondly those related to political, economical, social and technical environmental abbreviated as PEST, challenges. For effective control of the Tehran air pollution, the following eight controlling alternatives were identified: Systematization of plan preparation process, organizing the stewardship, standardization and utilization of new technologies and professional experts, cultural and infrastructural development, realization of social justice, developing coordination and controlling mechanisms, improving citizen's participatory capacity, and focusing on effective management of fuel and energy. Conclusions: Controlling air pollution in Tehran should be considered as a priority for policymakers to make enforcements through applying a systemic cycle of preparation effective and comprehensive plans. Further, implement the enforcements and evaluate the environmental impact of the plans through involving all stakeholders. PMID:24130939

  7. Contraceptive Characteristics of Women Living with HIV in the Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Gyimah, Akosua A.; Nakua, Emmanuel K.; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Otupiri, Easmon

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Contraceptive use among women living with HIV is important to prevent the transmission of the infection to their partners, prevent unintended pregnancies and prevent the mother-to-child transmission of the infection. The study sought to determine the contraceptive characteristics of women living with HIV in the Kumasi metropolis. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from July to August 2012 at two HIV/AIDS clinics in the Kumasi Metropolis in the Ashanti Region, Ghana. Interviewer- administered questionnaires were used to collect data from two hundred and ninety five women. Data from one hundred and eighty three women living with HIV and who were sexually active were analyzed. Factors associated with contraceptive use were examined using logistic regression. Results: The overall contraceptive use was high; 84.7% were using a modern contraceptive method. The male condom was the commonest contraceptive method (77.0%) used and this was the main contraceptive method promoted at the HIV/AIDS clinic. Dual method usage was low (4.4%). Multivariate analysis showed that the significant predictor of contraceptive use was HIV status disclosure to partner (AOR = 0.25; 95% CI = 0.07-0.87; p = 0.03). Conclusions and Public Health Implications: The integration of family planning and HIV/AIDS services could stress dual method use and encourage HIV status disclosure to partner.

  8. Ocular Health and Safety Assessment among Mechanics of the Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Abu, Emmanuel Kwasi; Boadi-Kusi, Samuel Bert; Opuni, Prince Quarcoo; Kyei, Samuel; Owusu-Ansah, Andrew; Darko-Takyi, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct an ocular health and safety assessment among mechanics in the Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study included 500 mechanics using multistage sampling. All participants filled a structured questionnaire on demographic data, occupational history and ocular health history. Study participants underwent determination of visual acuity (VA) using LogMAR chart, external eye examination with a handheld slit lamp biomicroscope, dilated fundus examination, applanation tonometry and refraction. Results: Out of 500 mechanics, 433 were examined (response rate, 87%) comprised of 408 (94.2%) male and 25 (5.8%) female subjects. The prevalence of visual impairment (i.e. presenting VA < 6/18) among the respondents was 2.1%. Eye injuries were reported in 171 (39.5%) mechanics probably due to the large number of workers, 314 (72.5%), who did not use eye protective devices. Mechanics in the auto welding category were at the highest risk of sustaining an eye injury (odds ratio [OR], 13.4; P < 0.001). Anterior segment ocular disorders were mostly pterygia while posterior segment eye disorders included glaucoma suspects and retinochoroidal lesions. The development of pterygia was associated with the number of years a mechanic stayed on the job. Eye care seeking behavior among the participants was poor. Conclusion: Eye injuries were prevalent among the mechanics as the use of eye protection was low. Eye safety should be made an integral part of the public health agenda in the Cape Coast Metropolis. PMID:27195090

  9. Exposure to media content and sexual health behaviour among adolescents in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Wusu, Onipede

    2013-06-01

    The influence of adolescents' exposure to sexual health content of mass media in their sexual health behaviour in Nigeria is still not clear. Data were gathered through a survey conducted among adolescents aged 12-19 years in Lagos metropolis between November 2009 and February 2010. A multistage sampling strategy was adopted in selecting respondents. Logistic regression technique was utilised in the analysis. The results indicate that the respondents were most frequently exposed to TV (male = 92.2; female = 94.9) and radio (male = 88.2; female = 91.7) media. The odds ratios indicate that sexual health content of mass media significantly predicted condom use, multiple sexual relationship, sexual intercourse and self reported occurrence of abortion in the study sample. The findings imply that positive media sexual health content is likely to promote sexual health among adolescents but negative contents can put adolescents' sexual health in danger. In addition, safe sex can be advanced among adolescents if the media provide accurate information on sexuality, emphasising the dangers of risky sexual practices. Finally, this study posits that accurate portrayal of sexuality in the media would contribute immensely to improving public health in the metropolis. PMID:24069761

  10. Manifest dream content as a possible predictor of suicidality.

    PubMed

    Glucksman, Myron L

    2014-12-01

    The prediction of suicidal intent remains a clinical problem. This presentation illustrates that a distinction may be made between the manifest dream reports of patients who are potentially or acutely suicidal and those who are not. A review of the literature reveals that the manifest dream reports of clinically depressed, non-suicidal individuals differ from those who are depressed and acutely suicidal. The former contain themes of loss, disappointment, rejection, helplessness, hopelessness, failure, and death. The latter contain themes of dying, death, destruction, and violence directed toward the dreamer or others, as well as hopelessness and helplessness. The author collected manifest dream reports from three clinically depressed, non-suicidal patients and three clinically depressed, potentially or acutely suicidal patients. There are apparent differences between the themes of manifest dream reports in the clinically depressed, non-suicidal patients and the clinically depressed, potentially or acutely suicidal patients. The former contain themes of death, loss, rejection, vulnerability, hopelessness, and helplessness. The latter contain themes of active harm or violence (specifically toward the dreamer), dying or being dead, aloneness, vulnerability, hopelessness, and helplessness. Clinical cases and corresponding manifest dream reports are presented. Although this is a preliminary study, it is possible that manifest dream content may be used as one of the predictors of suicidality, in conjunction with latent dream content, diagnosis, life circumstance, and clinical status. PMID:25494585

  11. Sleep and dreaming are for important matters

    PubMed Central

    Perogamvros, L.; Dang-Vu, T. T.; Desseilles, M.; Schwartz, S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies in sleep and dreaming have described an activation of emotional and reward systems, as well as the processing of internal information during these states. Specifically, increased activity in the amygdala and across mesolimbic dopaminergic regions during REM sleep is likely to promote the consolidation of memory traces with high emotional/motivational value. Moreover, coordinated hippocampal-striatal replay during NREM sleep may contribute to the selective strengthening of memories for important events. In this review, we suggest that, via the activation of emotional/motivational circuits, sleep and dreaming may offer a neurobehavioral substrate for the offline reprocessing of emotions, associative learning, and exploratory behaviors, resulting in improved memory organization, waking emotion regulation, social skills, and creativity. Dysregulation of such motivational/emotional processes due to sleep disturbances (e.g., insomnia, sleep deprivation) would predispose to reward-related disorders, such as mood disorders, increased risk-taking and compulsive behaviors, and may have major health implications, especially in vulnerable populations. PMID:23898315

  12. Waking dreams and other metachoric experiences.

    PubMed

    Green, C

    1990-06-01

    This paper summarizes the development of the concept of metachoric experiences from 1961 onwards. The name of metachoric experience was given to one in which the whole of the environment was replaced by a hallucinatory one, although this may provide a precise replica of the physical world and appear to be completely continuous with normal experience. Prior to 1968 three types of metachoric experiences had been recognized; lucid dreams, out-of-the-body experiences (OBEs) and false awakenings, all of which showed interrelationships. The Institute's 1968 appeal for apparitional experiences led to a recognition that many of these were probably metachoric. This was suggested among other things by certain cases in which the lighting of the whole field of view changes, thus indicating that the experience was completely hallucinatory. The study of apparitions led also to the concept of waking dreams, i.e. completely hallucinatory experiences which may be initiated and terminated without any awareness of discontinuity on the part of the subject. These experiences seem to be capable of considerable apparent extension in time, thus providing a possible explanation of some reports of UFO sightings and of some of the more anomalous experiences of psychical research. In this connection the paper discusses the well-known Versailles experience of Miss Moberly and Miss Jourdain, and a published case of C.G. Jung. In conclusion some of the most obvious similarities and differences between the different types of metachoric experiences are discussed. PMID:2374788

  13. Memory failures, dream illusions and mental malfunction.

    PubMed

    Kavanau, J L

    2001-01-01

    Dreams are widely believed to be produced as the brain's memory circuits are reinforced during sleep by self-generated brain waves. Reinforcement maintains synaptic strengths in the 'dedicated' ranges that support circuit functions. Without these activations, turnover of molecules essential for synaptic function would lead to deleterious alterations in, and eventual loss of, memories. The pathological processes underlying many mental disorders appear to exert their deleterious influences by inducing abnormalities in brain waves, largely in slow waves of less than about 14 cycles/s. The pathologically altered slow waves, in turn, cause long-lasting weakening or dysfunction of synapses of affected circuits, frequently resulting in mental disorders and deviant sleep. These abnormalities can be remediated for varying periods by therapies that restore normal brain waves. With many trillions of synapses between billions of neurons in enormously complex circuits needing reinforcement during sleep, the process is susceptible to failures. As a result, some synapses 'normally' weaken or become dysfunctional, accumulating to the greatest extent in old memory circuits. Activation of resulting incompetent circuits during waking may lead to hallucinations and delusions; activation during sleep may lead to dreams with bizarre, incoherent or impossible contents. PMID:11702021

  14. Associative dreaming: reverie and active imagination.

    PubMed

    Cwik, August J

    2011-02-01

    The idea of countertransference has expanded beyond its original meaning of a neurotic reaction to include all reactions of the therapist: affective, bodily, and imaginal. Additionally, Jung's fundamental insight in 'The psychology of the transference' was that a 'third thing' is created in the analysis, but he failed to demonstrate how this third is experienced and utilized in analysis. This 'analytic third', as Ogden names it, is co-created by analyst and analysand in depth work and becomes the object of analysis. Reverie, as developed by Bion and clinically utilized by Ogden, provides a means of access to the unconscious nature of this third. Reverie will be placed on a continuum of contents of mind, ranging from indirect to direct associative forms described as associative dreaming. Active imagination, as developed by Jung, provides the paradigm for a mode of interaction with these contents within the analytic encounter itself. Whether the analyst speaks from or about these contents depends on the capacity of the patient to dream. Classical amplification can be understood as an instance of speaking about inner contents. As the ego of the analyst, the conscious component, relates to unconscious contents emerging from the analytic third, micro-activations of the transcendent function constellate creating an analytic compass. PMID:21241292

  15. Investigating on the Methodology Effect When Evaluating Lucid Dream.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Nicolas; Gounden, Yannick; Quaglino, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Lucid dreaming (LD) is a state of consciousness in which the dreamer is aware that he or she is dreaming and can possibly control the content of his or her dream. To investigate the LD prevalence among different samples, researchers have used different types of methodologies. With regard to retrospective self-report questionnaire, two ways of proceeding seem to emerge. In one case, a definition of LD is given to participants ("During LD, one is-while dreaming-aware of the fact that one is dreaming. It is possible to deliberately wake up, to control the dream action, or to observe passively the course of the dream with this awareness"), while in the other instances, participants are presented separate questions targeting specific LD indicators (dream awareness and dream control). In the present study, we measured LD frequency in a sample of French student in order to investigate for possible disparities in LD frequency depending on the type of questionnaire as outlined above. Moreover, we also study links between the prevalence of LD as assessed, respectively, by each questionnaire with various factors such as Vividness of Mental Imagery and Parasomnia. Results revealed no significant difference between LD frequencies across questionnaires. For the questionnaire with definition (DefQuest), 81.05% of participants reported experience of LD once or more. Concerning the questionnaire based on LD indicators (AwarContQuest), 73.38% of participants reported having experienced LD once or more. However, with regard to the correlations analysis, links between LD prevalence and factors such as Vividness of Mental Imagery and Parasomnia, varied across questionnaires. This result is an argument suggesting that researchers should be careful when investigating links between LD and other factors. The type of methodology may influence findings on LD research. Further studies are needed to investigate on the methodology effect in LD research namely on the respective weight of

  16. Decreased Expression of DREAM Promotes the Degeneration of Retinal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chintala, Shravan; Cheng, Mei; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsic mechanisms that promote the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) following the activation of N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) are unclear. In this study, we have investigated the role of downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM) in NMDA-mediated degeneration of the retina. NMDA, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and MK801 were injected into the vitreous humor of C57BL/6 mice. At 12, 24, and 48 hours after injection, expression of DREAM in the retina was determined by immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis, and electrophoretic mobility-shift assay (EMSA). Apoptotic death of cells in the retina was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferace dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays. Degeneration of RGCs in cross sections and in whole mount retinas was determined by using antibodies against Tuj1 and Brn3a respectively. Degeneration of amacrine cells and bipolar cells was determined by using antibodies against calretinin and protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha respectively. DREAM was expressed constitutively in RGCs, amacrine cells, bipolar cells, as well as in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). NMDA promoted a progressive decrease in DREAM levels in all three cell types over time, and at 48 h after NMDA-treatment very low DREAM levels were evident in the IPL only. DREAM expression in retinal nuclear proteins was decreased progressively after NMDA-treatment, and correlated with its decreased binding to the c-fos-DRE oligonucleotides. A decrease in DREAM expression correlated significantly with apoptotic death of RGCs, amacrine cells and bipolar cells. Treatment of eyes with NMDA antagonist MK801, restored DREAM expression to almost normal levels in the retina, and significantly decreased NMDA-mediated apoptotic death of RGCs, amacrine cells, and bipolar cells. Results presented in this study show for the first time that down-regulation of DREAM promotes the degeneration of RGCs, amacrine cells, and

  17. Time required for motor activity in lucid dreams.

    PubMed

    Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2004-12-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between the time required for specific tasks (counting and performing squats) in lucid dreams and in the waking state. Five proficient lucid dreamers (26-34 yr. old, M=29.8, SD=3.0; one woman and four men) participated. Analysis showed that the time needed for counting in a lucid dream is comparable to the time needed for counting in wakefulness, but motor activities required more time in lucid dreams than in the waking state. PMID:15739850

  18. Health: a dream from reality to the future.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chunsong; Wu, Qinghua

    2016-06-01

    This paper argues that health is a realistic productive force that may enhance the index of happiness. As the basis of all developments and the source of a person's and his/her family's happiness, health requires not only primary and secondary prevention, but also policy prevention, that is to say, grade-zero prevention. Therefore, people should pay more attention to Health in All Policies. As a new preventive strategy, the policy prevention will help improve people's health significantly and promote the concepts of "Healthy China" and "the Chinese Dream" or "the World Dream" to realize a dream from reality to the future. PMID:27090912

  19. Challenges Pre-School Teachers Face in the Implementation of the Early Childhood Curriculum in the Cape Coast Metropolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntumi, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the challenges that pre-school teachers encounter in the implementation of the early childhood curriculum; exploring teaching methods employed by pre-schools teachers in the Cape Coast Metropolis. The study employed descriptive survey as the research design. A convenient sample of 62 pre-school teachers were selected from a…

  20. A Study on the Use of the Internet in Senior High Schools in the Cape Coast Metropolis of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayebi-Arthur, Kofi; Aidoo, Dora Baaba; Wilson, Kofi Bentum

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the utilization of the Internet in senior high schools in the Cape Coast Metropolis in the Central Region of Ghana. The sample consisted of 100 students and 25 teachers in three Senior High Schools. The stratified random sampling technique was used to select the three schools to represent the school…

  1. Estimation of Contextual Effects through Nonlinear Multilevel Latent Variable Modeling with a Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Ji Seung; Cai, Li

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to improve estimation efficiency in obtaining maximum marginal likelihood estimates of contextual effects in the framework of nonlinear multilevel latent variable model by adopting the Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro algorithm (MH-RM). Results indicate that the MH-RM algorithm can produce estimates and standard…

  2. Family Background, Sexual Behaviour, and HIV/AIDS Vulnerability of Female Street Hawkers in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyefara, John Lekan

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the sexual behaviour and the HIV/AIDS knowledge and vulnerability of female street hawkers in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria. A total of 126 female street hawkers under 18 were sampled in a cross-sectional survey and six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were conducted to generate data from respondents. Data on sexual behaviour…

  3. Adolescents' Perception of the Psychological Security of School Environment, Emotional Development and Academic Performance in Secondary Schools in Gombe Metropolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K. J.; Meshak, Bibi; Sagir, Jummai Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine adolescents' perceptions of the psychological security of their schools environments and their relationship with their emotional development and academic performance in secondary schools in Gombe Metropolis. A sample of 239 (107 males and 133 females) secondary school students selected via stratified…

  4. A Survey of Vocational Training Needs of 15-25 Years Old Out-of-School Youths in Bauchi Metropolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bello, M. I.; Danjuma, I. M.; Adamu, A. Y.

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to explore and describe the vocational training needs of 15-25 years old out-of-school youths in Bauchi Metropolis of Bauchi State, Nigeria. Specifically, the researchers sought to; describe their demographic characteristics, examine their vocational training needs, the influence of gender on the vocational needs,…

  5. Efficient implementation of the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, with application to the Cormack-Jolly-Seber model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Barker, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Judicious choice of candidate generating distributions improves efficiency of the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. In Bayesian applications, it is sometimes possible to identify an approximation to the target posterior distribution; this approximate posterior distribution is a good choice for candidate generation. These observations are applied to analysis of the Cormack-Jolly-Seber model and its extensions. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  6. Efficient implementation of the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, with application to the Cormack?Jolly?Seber model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Barker, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Judicious choice of candidate generating distributions improves efficiency of the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. In Bayesian applications, it is sometimes possible to identify an approximation to the target posterior distribution; this approximate posterior distribution is a good choice for candidate generation. These observations are applied to analysis of the Cormack?Jolly?Seber model and its extensions.

  7. Variations in Dream Recall Frequency and Dream Theme Diversity by Age and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Tore

    2012-01-01

    We assessed dream recall frequency (DRF) and dream theme diversity (DTD) with an internet questionnaire among a cohort of 28,888 male and female participants aged 10–79 years in a cross-sectional design. DRF increased from adolescence (ages 10–19) to early adulthood (20–29) and then decreased again for the next 20 years. The nature of this decrease differed for males and females. For males, it began earlier (30–39), proceeded more gradually, and reached a nadir earlier (40–49) than it did for females. For females, it began later (40–49), dropped more abruptly, and reached nadir later (50–59). Marked sex differences were observed for age strata 10–19 through 40–49 and year-by-year analyses estimated the window for these differences to be more precisely from 14 to 44 years. DTD decreased linearly with age for both sexes up to 50–59 and then dropped even more sharply for 60–79. There was a sex difference favoring males on this measure but only for ages 10–19. Findings replicate, in a single sample, those from several previous studies showing an increase in DRF from adolescence to early adulthood, a subsequent decrease primarily in early and middle adulthood, and different patterns of age-related decrease in the two sexes. Age-related changes in sleep structure, such as decreasing %REM sleep which parallel the observed dream recall changes, might help explain these findings, but these sleep changes are much smaller and more gradual in nature. Changes in the phase and amplitude of circadian rhythms of REM propensity and generational differences in life experiences may also account for some part of the findings. That decreases in DTD parallel known age-related decreases in episodic and autobiographical memory may signify that this new diversity measure indexes an aspect of autobiographical memory that also influences dream recall. PMID:22783222

  8. "In Dreams Begins Responsibility": A Self-Study about How Insights from Dreams May Be Brought into the Sphere of Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balogh, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that material from dreams offers a resource within the social sphere that has potential for the practice of action research. The modern approach to dream interpretation, following Freud, has almost exclusively been situated at the level of the therapeutic dyad where the significance of dream material is circumscribed within…

  9. Autoscopic phenomena and one's own body representation in dreams.

    PubMed

    Occhionero, Miranda; Cicogna, Piera Carla

    2011-12-01

    Autoscopic phenomena (AP) are complex experiences that include the visual illusory reduplication of one's own body. From a phenomenological point of view, we can distinguish three conditions: autoscopic hallucinations, heautoscopy, and out-of-body experiences. The dysfunctional pattern involves multisensory disintegration of personal and extrapersonal space perception. The etiology, generally either neurological or psychiatric, is different. Also, the hallucination of Self and own body image is present during dreams and differs according to sleep stage. Specifically, the representation of the Self in REM dreams is frequently similar to the perception of Self in wakefulness, whereas in NREM dreams, a greater polymorphism of Self and own body representation is observed. The parallels between autoscopic phenomena in pathological cases and the Self-hallucination in dreams will be discussed to further the understanding of the particular states of self awareness, especially the complex integration of different memory sources in Self and body representation. PMID:21316265

  10. A Most Rare Vision: Improvisations on "A Midsummer Night's Dream."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakaim, Charles J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Describes one teacher's methods for introducing to secondary English students the concepts of improvisation, experimentation, and innovation. Discusses numerous techniques for fostering such skills when working with William Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's Dream." (HB)

  11. Biographies of Sports Heroes and the American Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stott, Jon C.

    1979-01-01

    Examines relationships among children's fairy tales, the North American dream of going from rags to riches, the role of sports in North American society, and the uses and misuses of biographies written for young readers. (HOD)

  12. Isolated sleep paralysis, vivid dreams and geomagnetic influences: II.

    PubMed

    Conesa, J

    1997-10-01

    This report describes a test of the hypothesis that significant changes in the ambient geomagnetic field are associated with altered normal nighttime dream patterns. Specifically, it was predicted that there would be a greater incidence of isolated sleep, paralysis or vivid dreams with abrupt rises and falls of geomagnetic activity. The author's (JC) and a second subject's (KC) daily reports of dream-recall were analyzed in the context of daily fluctuations of geomagnetic activity (K indices). Two analyses of variance indicated (i) significantly higher geomagnetic activity three days before a recorded isolated sleep paralysis event and (ii) significantly lower geomagnetic activity three days before an unusually vivid dream took place. Conversely, geomagnetic activity did not fluctuate significantly for randomly selected days. Testing a large sample over time is required for confirmation and extension of this work. PMID:9347546

  13. NASA Dryden Welcomes SNC's Dream Chaser for Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    Sierra Nevada Corp. (SNC) Space Systems' Dream Chaser test flight craft, also known as an engineering test article, arrived at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in Edwards, Calif., May 15 to beg...

  14. Dream analysis in the psychodynamic psychotherapy of borderline patients.

    PubMed

    Stone, Michael H

    2012-06-01

    Despite Freud's dictum that dreams are the royal road to the unconscious, the use of dream analysis by therapists working with Borderline Personality Disorder and other severe psychiatric conditions has in the past two decades has fallen into a state of decline, if not outright neglect. The reasons why are not altogether clear, though some have said that the growing popularity of ego psychology and other movements in the domain of psychoanalysis have perhaps pushed dream analysis to one side. To me this marginalization seems unjustified. I hope to demonstrate in this article the enduring utility of dream analysis in working with the more severely disordered patients, with the aim of revivifying its application--and its efficacy--in our work with such patients. PMID:23006120

  15. Lucid dreaming and alpha activity: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, R D; Hunt, H T; Tyson, P D; Lucescu, M L; Jeakins, D B

    1982-12-01

    10 good dream recallers spent 2 nights in the sleep lab during which they were awakened 4 times per night from REM sleep, twice during their highest alpha activity in REM, and twice during low REM alpha. 5 were given alpha feedback training prior to sleep onset. Arousals from high alpha REM sleep yielded significantly higher lucidity ratings. Alpha feedback had no effect upon lucidity or REM alpha levels. Similarities between lucid dreams and meditative phenomena are discussed. PMID:7162915

  16. Point of View--NCLB: Dreams and Nightmares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Paul D.

    2005-01-01

    The idea of leaving no child behind may sound like a noble dream. But the federal law intended to fulfill that dream is in Houston's opinion so flawed that it has become a nightmare for educators. Sadly, the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act is a nightmare in which everyone is naked while being pushed off a cliff because of poor test performance.…

  17. Investigating on the Methodology Effect When Evaluating Lucid Dream

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Nicolas; Gounden, Yannick; Quaglino, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Lucid dreaming (LD) is a state of consciousness in which the dreamer is aware that he or she is dreaming and can possibly control the content of his or her dream. To investigate the LD prevalence among different samples, researchers have used different types of methodologies. With regard to retrospective self-report questionnaire, two ways of proceeding seem to emerge. In one case, a definition of LD is given to participants (“During LD, one is–while dreaming–aware of the fact that one is dreaming. It is possible to deliberately wake up, to control the dream action, or to observe passively the course of the dream with this awareness”), while in the other instances, participants are presented separate questions targeting specific LD indicators (dream awareness and dream control). In the present study, we measured LD frequency in a sample of French student in order to investigate for possible disparities in LD frequency depending on the type of questionnaire as outlined above. Moreover, we also study links between the prevalence of LD as assessed, respectively, by each questionnaire with various factors such as Vividness of Mental Imagery and Parasomnia. Results revealed no significant difference between LD frequencies across questionnaires. For the questionnaire with definition (DefQuest), 81.05% of participants reported experience of LD once or more. Concerning the questionnaire based on LD indicators (AwarContQuest), 73.38% of participants reported having experienced LD once or more. However, with regard to the correlations analysis, links between LD prevalence and factors such as Vividness of Mental Imagery and Parasomnia, varied across questionnaires. This result is an argument suggesting that researchers should be careful when investigating links between LD and other factors. The type of methodology may influence findings on LD research. Further studies are needed to investigate on the methodology effect in LD research namely on the respective weight of

  18. Accuracy of a semiquantitative method for Dermal Exposure Assessment (DREAM)

    PubMed Central

    van Wendel, de Joo... B; Vermeulen, R; van Hemmen, J J; Fransman, W; Kromhout, H

    2005-01-01

    Background: The authors recently developed a Dermal Exposure Assessment Method (DREAM), an observational semiquantitative method to assess dermal exposures by systematically evaluating exposure determinants using pre-assigned default values. Aim: To explore the accuracy of the DREAM method by comparing its estimates with quantitative dermal exposure measurements in several occupational settings. Methods: Occupational hygienists observed workers performing a certain task, whose exposure to chemical agents on skin or clothing was measured quantitatively simultaneously, and filled in the DREAM questionnaire. DREAM estimates were compared with measurement data by estimating Spearman correlation coefficients for each task and for individual observations. In addition, mixed linear regression models were used to study the effect of DREAM estimates on the variability in measured exposures between tasks, between workers, and from day to day. Results: For skin exposures, spearman correlation coefficients for individual observations ranged from 0.19 to 0.82. DREAM estimates for exposure levels on hands and forearms showed a fixed effect between and within surveys, explaining mainly between-task variance. In general, exposure levels on clothing layer were only predicted in a meaningful way by detailed DREAM estimates, which comprised detailed information on the concentration of the agent in the formulation to which exposure occurred. Conclusions: The authors expect that the DREAM method can be successfully applied for semiquantitative dermal exposure assessment in epidemiological and occupational hygiene surveys of groups of workers with considerable contrast in dermal exposure levels (variability between groups >1.0). For surveys with less contrasting exposure levels, quantitative dermal exposure measurements are preferable. PMID:16109819

  19. NewSpace—delivering on the dream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salt, David

    2013-12-01

    After more than half a century of spaceflight, our activities in space are still limited to a relatively small set of markets whose growth is driven mainly by government funding. Worse still, human access to space is restricted to a few people flying very infrequently to a single destination in low Earth orbit (LEO). Contrasting today's reality with the high expectations of the 1960s - as epitomised in Stanley Kubrick's film "2001: A Space Odyssey" - begs two questions: what went wrong and can we fix it? The objective of this paper is to address these questions and, in doing so, indicate how the nascent NewSpace industry may help us realise past dreams by enabling a paradigm shift in our space-based activities.

  20. Who Cares? Pre and Post Abortion Experiences among Young Females in Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Esia-Donkoh, Kobina; Darteh, Eugene K M; Blemano, Harriet; Asare, Hagar

    2015-06-01

    Issues of abortion are critical in Ghana largely due to its consequences on sexual and reproductive health. The negative perception society attaches to it makes it difficult for young females to access services and share their experiences. This paper examines the pre and post abortion experiences of young females; a subject scarcely researched in the country. Twenty-one clients of Planned Parenthood Association of Ghana (PPAG) clinic at Cape Coast were interviewed. Guided by the biopsychosocial model, the study revealed that fear of societal stigma, shame, and rejection by partners, as well as self-imposed stigma constituted some of the pre and post abortion experiences the respondents. Other experiences reported were bleeding, severe abdominal pain and psychological pain. The Ghana Health Services (GHS) and other service providers should partner the PPAG clinic to integrate psychosocial treatment in its abortion services while intensifying behaviour change communication and community-based stigma-reduction education in the Metropolis. PMID:26506657

  1. Note: A pure-sampling quantum Monte Carlo algorithm with independent Metropolis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrbik, Jan; Ospadov, Egor; Rothstein, Stuart M.

    2016-07-01

    Recently, Ospadov and Rothstein published a pure-sampling quantum Monte Carlo algorithm (PSQMC) that features an auxiliary Path Z that connects the midpoints of the current and proposed Paths X and Y, respectively. When sufficiently long, Path Z provides statistical independence of Paths X and Y. Under those conditions, the Metropolis decision used in PSQMC is done without any approximation, i.e., not requiring microscopic reversibility and without having to introduce any G(x → x'; τ) factors into its decision function. This is a unique feature that contrasts with all competing reptation algorithms in the literature. An example illustrates that dependence of Paths X and Y has adverse consequences for pure sampling.

  2. A constrained Metropolis Hastings search for EMRIs in the Mock LISA Data Challenge 1B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gair, Jonathan R.; Porter, Edward; Babak, Stanislav; Barack, Leor

    2008-09-01

    We describe a search for the extreme-mass-ratio inspiral sources in the Round 1B Mock LISA Data Challenge data sets. The search algorithm is a Monte Carlo search based on the Metropolis Hastings algorithm, but also incorporates simulated, thermostated and time annealing, plus a harmonic identification stage designed to reduce the chance of the chain locking onto secondary maxima. In this paper, we focus on describing the algorithm that we have been developing. We give the results of the search of the Round 1B data, although parameter recovery has improved since that deadline. Finally, we describe several modifications to the search pipeline that we are currently investigating for incorporation in future searches.

  3. The nightmare of returning home: a case of acute onset nightmare disorder treated by lucid dreaming.

    PubMed

    Abramovitch, H

    1995-01-01

    Nightmare disorder with acute onset involves the sudden appearance of frightening and disruptive dreams. In severe cases it may involve high levels of anxiety, fear of falling asleep, cognitive deficits secondary to sleep deprivation and so may pose a psychiatric emergency. Standard techniques of dream interpretation appear limited in dealing with such a crisis. Lucid dreaming, the experience of dreaming and simultaneously being aware that one is dreaming is an easily learned technique that may provide effective and dramatic relief. The usefulness of lucid dreaming is illustrated by a case history. PMID:7558759

  4. DREAM: diabetic retinopathy analysis using machine learning.

    PubMed

    Roychowdhury, Sohini; Koozekanani, Dara D; Parhi, Keshab K

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a computer-aided screening system (DREAM) that analyzes fundus images with varying illumination and fields of view, and generates a severity grade for diabetic retinopathy (DR) using machine learning. Classifiers such as the Gaussian Mixture model (GMM), k-nearest neighbor (kNN), support vector machine (SVM), and AdaBoost are analyzed for classifying retinopathy lesions from nonlesions. GMM and kNN classifiers are found to be the best classifiers for bright and red lesion classification, respectively. A main contribution of this paper is the reduction in the number of features used for lesion classification by feature ranking using Adaboost where 30 top features are selected out of 78. A novel two-step hierarchical classification approach is proposed where the nonlesions or false positives are rejected in the first step. In the second step, the bright lesions are classified as hard exudates and cotton wool spots, and the red lesions are classified as hemorrhages and micro-aneurysms. This lesion classification problem deals with unbalanced datasets and SVM or combination classifiers derived from SVM using the Dempster-Shafer theory are found to incur more classification error than the GMM and kNN classifiers due to the data imbalance. The DR severity grading system is tested on 1200 images from the publicly available MESSIDOR dataset. The DREAM system achieves 100% sensitivity, 53.16% specificity, and 0.904 AUC, compared to the best reported 96% sensitivity, 51% specificity, and 0.875 AUC, for classifying images as with or without DR. The feature reduction further reduces the average computation time for DR severity per image from 59.54 to 3.46 s. PMID:25192577

  5. Women's dreaming: women, sexuality and development.

    PubMed

    Reid, E

    1996-01-01

    This essay opens by invoking the dreams of women that arise from their life experiences and lead women, despite their powerlessness, to desire to create a different kind of society. The essay continues by exploring the relationship between analysis and practice and the contention that analysis of a problem shapes development practice, social policy, research priorities, and activism. Poverty provides an example of a complex, chaotic phenomenon that is often reduced to simplistic, measurable variables such as income or consumption deprivation. Attention is then paid to the population debate where linkages between the analytical framework and program development are clear. These simplified linkages led to macro analysis of events played out on the micro level and to the choice of women rather than men as the most effective change agents. The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, however, gave rise to a new analytical framework emphasizing women's empowerment, women's health, women's rights, and men's participation and responsibility. This approach embraces the complexity of the situation and, thus, provides a road map for effective programs and policies. The next section of the essay considers gender analysis and how this concept leads to a demand on the part of women for access to men's privileges and a climate of confrontation arising from this demand. The inadequacies of using a woman-centered gender analysis as a framework for understanding male behavior are also discussed. Alternative concepts from the feminist movement are explored for their usefulness in generating social change, and the efforts of the Bangladesh Rural Achievement Committee to improve female literacy are used as an example of the value of cooperative, consciousness-raising groups. It is concluded that radical changes will be required to realize women's dreams of social changes. PMID:12291294

  6. The effect of transdermal nicotine patches on sleep and dreams.

    PubMed

    Page, F; Coleman, G; Conduit, R

    2006-07-30

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of 24-h transdermal nicotine patches on sleep and dream mentation in 15 smokers aged 20 to 33. Utilising a repeated measures design, it was found that more time awake and more ASDA micro-arousals occurred while wearing the nicotine patch compared to placebo. Also, the percentage of REM sleep decreased, but REM latency and the proportion of time spent in NREM sleep stages did not change significantly. Dream reports containing visual imagery, visual imagery ratings and the number of visualizable nouns were significantly greater from REM compared to Stage 2 awakenings, regardless of patch condition. However, a general interaction effect was observed. Stage 2 dream variables remained equivalent across nicotine and placebo conditions. Within REM sleep, more dream reports containing visual imagery occurred while wearing the nicotine patch, and these were rated as more vivid. The greater frequency of visual imagery reports and higher imagery ratings specifically from REM sleep suggests that previously reported dreaming side effects from 24-h nicotine patches may be specific to REM sleep. Combined with previous animal studies showing that transdermally delivered nicotine blocks PGO activity in REM sleep, the current results do no appear consistent with PGO-based hypotheses of dreaming, such as the Activation-Synthesis (AS) or Activation, Input and Modulation (AIM) models. PMID:16782142

  7. DREAM: a method for semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Van-Wendel-de-Joode, Berna; Brouwer, Derk H; Vermeulen, Roel; Van Hemmen, Joop J; Heederik, Dick; Kromhout, Hans

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new method (DREAM) for structured, semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment for chemical or biological agents that can be used in occupational hygiene or epidemiology. It is anticipated that DREAM could serve as an initial assessment of dermal exposure, amongst others, resulting in a ranking of tasks and subsequently jobs. DREAM consists of an inventory and evaluation part. Two examples of dermal exposure of workers of a car-construction company show that DREAM characterizes tasks and gives insight into exposure mechanisms, forming a basis for systematic exposure reduction. DREAM supplies estimates for exposure levels on the outside clothing layer as well as on skin, and provides insight into the distribution of dermal exposure over the body. Together with the ranking of tasks and people, this provides information for measurement strategies and helps to determine who, where and what to measure. In addition to dermal exposure assessment, the systematic description of dermal exposure pathways helps to prioritize and determine most adequate measurement strategies and methods. DREAM could be a promising approach for structured, semi-quantitative, dermal exposure assessment. PMID:12505908

  8. Dreams and fantasies in psychodynamic group psychotherapy of psychotic patients.

    PubMed

    Restek-Petrović, Branka; Orešković-Krezler, Nataša; Grah, Majda; Mayer, Nina; Bogović, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate

    2013-09-01

    Work with dreams in the group analysis represents an important part of the analytical work, with insight into unconscious experiences of the individual dreamer, and his transferrential relations with the therapist, other members of the group, and with the group as a whole. The way dreams are addressed varies from one therapist to another, and in line with that, members of the group have varying frequency of dreams. In groups of psychotic patients dreams are generally rarely discussed and interpreted by the group, with analysis mainly resting on the manifested content. This paper describes a long-term group of psychotic patients which, after sharing the dreams of several members and daydreams of one female patient, their interpretation and reception in the group achieved better cohesion and improved communication and interaction, i.e. created a group matrix. Furthermore, through the content of dreams in the group, traumatic war experiences of several of the group members were opened and discussed, which brought with it recollections of the traumatic life situations of other group members. In expressing a daydream, a female member of the group revealed the background for her behaviour which was earlier interpreted as a negative symptom of the illness. PMID:23995198

  9. Delusional Confusion of Dreaming and Reality in Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Wamsley, Erin; Donjacour, Claire E.H.M.; Scammell, Thomas E.; Lammers, Gert Jan; Stickgold, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: We investigated a generally unappreciated feature of the sleep disorder narcolepsy, in which patients mistake the memory of a dream for a real experience and form sustained delusions about significant events. Design: We interviewed patients with narcolepsy and healthy controls to establish the prevalence of this complaint and identify its predictors. Setting: Academic medical centers in Boston, Massachusetts and Leiden, The Netherlands. Participants: Patients (n = 46) with a diagnosis of narcolepsy with cataplexy, and age-matched healthy healthy controls (n = 41). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: “Dream delusions” were surprisingly common in narcolepsy and were often striking in their severity. As opposed to fleeting hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations of the sleep/wake transition, dream delusions were false memories induced by the experience of a vivid dream, which led to false beliefs that could persist for days or weeks. Conclusions: The delusional confusion of dreamed events with reality is a prominent feature of narcolepsy, and suggests the possibility of source memory deficits in this disorder that have not yet been fully characterized. Citation: Wamsley E; Donjacour CE; Scammell TE; Lammers GJ; Stickgold R. Delusional confusion of dreaming and reality in narcolepsy. SLEEP 2014;37(2):419-422. PMID:24501437

  10. Carcinogenic potential of soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Xiamen metropolis, China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chao; Zhang, Youchi; Reid, Brian J; Nunes, Luis M

    2012-12-01

    Xiamen is one of China's most rapidly developing metropolises. The objectives of the present study were: (1) to establish the levels and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil across the Xiamen metropolis, (2) to evaluate the extent to which PAH concentrations were elevated in the high urbanization area (HUA) of the island and how these compared with those in the low urbanization area (LUA) of the mainland, and (3) to evaluate the PAH hazard based upon their Carcinogenic Potential (CP), defined as toxicity equivalence of ∑PAHs. Twenty two alternative relative carcinogenic potency schemes were used and compared. Results demonstrated PAH concentrations to be greatly elevated across the entire metropolis. Significantly, the most enriched compounds represented the greatest concern with respect to carcinogenicity. The CP of more than 25% of the industrial samples from the island surpassed the Canadian guidance threshold value (600 μg kg⁻¹) for an excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) of 1 in 10⁻⁶. While soil samples from the remaining land uses on the island were all below this threshold, PAH levels in soil were nonetheless elevated (enrichment factors of between 4.1 ± 1.9 and 16.3 ± 12.4 in the HUA, and between 1.3 ± 0.7 and 10.8 ± 4.4 in the LUA). Results relating to agricultural locations on the island indicated 75% of the samples in HUA and 28% of the samples in LUA to be above the USEPA guidance value for BaP (15 μg kg⁻¹). Given the exceptionally high population density on the island there is a need for further research to evaluate multiple pathway PAH exposure risks. PMID:23092998

  11. Tickle me, I think I might be dreaming! Sensory attenuation, self-other distinction, and predictive processing in lucid dreams.

    PubMed

    Windt, Jennifer M; Harkness, Dominic L; Lenggenhager, Bigna

    2014-01-01

    The contrast between self- and other-produced tickles, as a special case of sensory attenuation for self-produced actions, has long been a target of empirical research. While in standard wake states it is nearly impossible to tickle oneself, there are interesting exceptions. Notably, participants awakened from REM (rapid eye movement-) sleep dreams are able to tickle themselves. So far, however, the question of whether it is possible to tickle oneself and be tickled by another in the dream state has not been investigated empirically or addressed from a theoretical perspective. Here, we report the results of an explorative web-based study in which participants were asked to rate their sensations during self-tickling and being tickled during wakefulness, imagination, and lucid dreaming. Our results, though highly preliminary, indicate that in the special case of lucid control dreams, the difference between self-tickling and being tickled by another is obliterated, with both self- and other produced tickles receiving similar ratings as self-tickling during wakefulness. This leads us to the speculative conclusion that in lucid control dreams, sensory attenuation for self-produced tickles spreads to those produced by non-self dream characters. These preliminary results provide the backdrop for a more general theoretical and metatheoretical discussion of tickling in lucid dreams in a predictive processing framework. We argue that the primary value of our study lies not so much in our results, which are subject to important limitations, but rather in the fact that they enable a new theoretical perspective on the relationship between sensory attenuation, the self-other distinction and agency, as well as suggest new questions for future research. In particular, the example of tickling during lucid dreaming raises the question of whether sensory attenuation and the self-other distinction can be simulated largely independently of external sensory input. PMID:25278861

  12. Tickle me, I think I might be dreaming! Sensory attenuation, self-other distinction, and predictive processing in lucid dreams

    PubMed Central

    Windt, Jennifer M.; Harkness, Dominic L.; Lenggenhager, Bigna

    2014-01-01

    The contrast between self- and other-produced tickles, as a special case of sensory attenuation for self-produced actions, has long been a target of empirical research. While in standard wake states it is nearly impossible to tickle oneself, there are interesting exceptions. Notably, participants awakened from REM (rapid eye movement-) sleep dreams are able to tickle themselves. So far, however, the question of whether it is possible to tickle oneself and be tickled by another in the dream state has not been investigated empirically or addressed from a theoretical perspective. Here, we report the results of an explorative web-based study in which participants were asked to rate their sensations during self-tickling and being tickled during wakefulness, imagination, and lucid dreaming. Our results, though highly preliminary, indicate that in the special case of lucid control dreams, the difference between self-tickling and being tickled by another is obliterated, with both self- and other produced tickles receiving similar ratings as self-tickling during wakefulness. This leads us to the speculative conclusion that in lucid control dreams, sensory attenuation for self-produced tickles spreads to those produced by non-self dream characters. These preliminary results provide the backdrop for a more general theoretical and metatheoretical discussion of tickling in lucid dreams in a predictive processing framework. We argue that the primary value of our study lies not so much in our results, which are subject to important limitations, but rather in the fact that they enable a new theoretical perspective on the relationship between sensory attenuation, the self-other distinction and agency, as well as suggest new questions for future research. In particular, the example of tickling during lucid dreaming raises the question of whether sensory attenuation and the self-other distinction can be simulated largely independently of external sensory input. PMID:25278861

  13. Goal Commitments and the content of thoughts and dreams: basic principles

    PubMed Central

    Klinger, Eric

    2013-01-01

    A few empirically supported principles can account for much of the thematic content of waking thought, including rumination, and dreams. (1) An individual’s commitments to particular goals sensitize the individual to respond to cues associated with those goals. The cues may be external or internal in the person’s own mental activity. The responses may take the form of noticing the cues, storing them in memory, having thoughts or dream segments related to them, and/or taking action. Noticing may be conscious or not. Goals may be any desired endpoint of a behavioral sequence, including finding out more about something, i.e., exploring possible goals, such as job possibilities or personal relationships. (2) Such responses are accompanied and perhaps preceded by protoemotional activity or full emotional arousal, the amplitude of which determines the likelihood of response and is related to the value placed on the goal. (3) When the individual is in a situation conducive to making progress toward attaining the goal, the response to goal cues takes the form of actions or operant mental acts that advance the goal pursuit. (4) When circumstances are unfavorable for goal-directed operant behavior, the response remains purely mental, as in mind-wandering and dreaming, but still reflects the content of the goal pursuit or associated content. (5) Respondent responses such as mind-wandering are more likely when the individual is mentally unoccupied with ongoing tasks and less likely the more that is at stake in the ongoing task. The probability of respondent thought is highest during relaxed periods, when the brain’s default-mode network dominates, or during sleep. The article briefly summarizes neurocognitive findings that relate to mind-wandering and evidence regarding adverse effects of mind-wandering on task performance as well as evidence suggesting adaptive functions in regard to creative problem-solving, planning, resisting delay discounting, and memory

  14. Lucid dreaming incidence: A quality effects meta-analysis of 50years of research.

    PubMed

    Saunders, David T; Roe, Chris A; Smith, Graham; Clegg, Helen

    2016-07-01

    We report a quality effects meta-analysis on studies from the period 1966-2016 measuring either (a) lucid dreaming prevalence (one or more lucid dreams in a lifetime); (b) frequent lucid dreaming (one or more lucid dreams in a month) or both. A quality effects meta-analysis allows for the minimisation of the influence of study methodological quality on overall model estimates. Following sensitivity analysis, a heterogeneous lucid dreaming prevalence data set of 34 studies yielded a mean estimate of 55%, 95% C. I. [49%, 62%] for which moderator analysis showed no systematic bias for suspected sources of variability. A heterogeneous lucid dreaming frequency data set of 25 studies yielded a mean estimate of 23%, 95% C. I. [20%, 25%], moderator analysis revealed no suspected sources of variability. These findings are consistent with earlier estimates of lucid dreaming prevalence and frequent lucid dreaming in the population but are based on more robust evidence. PMID:27337287

  15. 76 FR 79764 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel DREAM CATCHER; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel DREAM CATCHER... the vessel DREAM CATCHER is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``Passenger charter.''...

  16. Lucid dreaming and resilience in the face of exposure to terrorism.

    PubMed

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Wertheim, Reut; Shahar, Golan

    2011-02-01

    The relationship between resilience and lucid dreams, which involves awareness of the experience of dreaming, was examined in 79 Israeli young adults. Psychological distress and lucid dreams 3 years prior to exposure to terrorism, and exposure levels and psychological distress 1 week following exposure, were assessed. Both indirect exposure through media and perceived stress predicted an increase in distress during the 3-year interval under low, but not high, levels of lucid dreams. Possible mechanisms are discussed. PMID:21351172

  17. Swapnaushadhi: the embedded logic of dreams and medical innovation in Bengal.

    PubMed

    Mukharji, Projit Bihari

    2014-09-01

    Numerous medicines in South Asia have their origins in dreams. Deities, saints and other supernatural beings frequently appear in dreams to instruct dreamers about specific remedies, therapeutic techniques, modes of care etc. These therapies challenge available models of historicising dreams. Once we overcome these challenges and unearth the embedded logic of these dreams, we begin to discern in them a dynamic institution that enabled and sustained therapeutic change within a 'traditional' medical milieu. PMID:24990459

  18. Helpful Components Involved in the Cognitive-Experiential Model of Dream Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tien, Hsiu-Lan Shelley; Chen, Shuh-Chi; Lin, Chia-Huei

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the helpful components involved in the Hill's cognitive-experiential dream work model. Participants were 27 volunteer clients from colleges and universities in northern and central parts of Taiwan. Each of the clients received 1-2 sessions of dream interpretations. The cognitive-experiential dream work model…

  19. Of Wonders Wild and New: Dreams from Zinacantan. Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology, No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, Robert M.

    This collection of 260 dream texts from Zinacantan, Chiapas, Mexico, is an English translation of the original texts recorded in the Tzotzil (Mayan) language. The introduction discusses dreams as a centrally important, but much neglected aspect of Middle American cultures. The dreams of eleven Zinacantecs, two of whom were shamans, are included.…

  20. Comparison of Dream Interpretation, Event Interpretation, and Unstructured Sessions in Brief Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diemer, Roberta A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-five distressed adult clients received 2 sessions each of dream and event interpretation using the Hill model during 12 sessions of successful therapy. No differences were found in depth, insight, and working alliance among dream interpretation, event interpretation, and unstructured sessions, suggesting that dream interpretation is as…

  1. The Consciousness of Surrender and the Surrendered Consciousness: Ecstatic Dreams of Lord Krishna

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Graham

    2004-01-01

    This article is based on research at Bhaktivedanta Manor, the main UK centre of the Hare Krishna movement, and it examines ecstatic dreams of Lord Krishna which devotees at the Manor claim to experience. With a focus on one key informant's account of such dreams, the article explores the role the dreams play in spiritual and devotional life.…

  2. Further Comparisons of Cultures with Respect to Content of Recalled Dreams and Actual Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, T. M.

    1978-01-01

    A study of similarities and differences between cultures based on analyses of the contents of children's dreams. The objective system developed by Rychlak is used to compare groups of children from different cultures. Data suggest that dream themes in literary sagas are characteristic of dream recall of secular societies. (AMH)

  3. Darkness into Light: The Dream Journal of an Addicted Trauma Survivor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    This article applies dream work to the case of an addicted survivor of sexual abuse trauma using models of C. G. Jung (1974) and L. S. Leonard (1989). It then relates the dreams of the fictional client to St. Teresa of Avila's (1577/1989) classic model for spiritual growth, The Interior Castle. The goal of working with dreams in the context of…

  4. Has the Dream Been Fulfilled? Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. & President Barack Hussein Obama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Nichelle Boyd; Moore, Virginia J.; Williams-Black, Thea H.

    2015-01-01

    Equality for all was the dream of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and he knowingly laid the foundation for and inspired the first African-American President of the United States of America, Barack Hussein Obama, who also had the dream of "Change" for America. These men exhibited how working together can make dreams become reality. For the…

  5. Comparing personal insight gains due to consideration of a recent dream and consideration of a recent event using the Ullman and Schredl dream group methods.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Christopher L; Malinowski, Josie E; McGee, Shauna L; Bennett, Paul D; Ruby, Perrine M; Blagrove, Mark T

    2015-01-01

    There have been reports and claims in the psychotherapeutic literature that the consideration of recent dreams can result in personal realizations and insight. There is theoretical support for these claims from work on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep having a function of the consolidation of emotional memories and the creative formation of connections between new and older memories. To investigate these claims, 11 participants (10 females, one male) reported and considered a recent home dream in a dream discussion group that following the "Appreciating dreams" method of Montague Ullman. The group ran 11 times, each participant attending and participating once. A further nine participants (seven females, two males) reported and considered a recent home dream in a group that followed the "Listening to the dreamer" method of Michael Schredl. The two studies each had a control condition where the participant also reported a recent event, the consideration of which followed the same technique as was followed for the dream report. Outcomes of the discussions were assessed by the participants on the Gains from Dream Interpretation (GDI) scale, and on its counterpart, the Gains from Event Interpretation scale. High ratings on the GDI experiential-insight subscale were reported for both methods, when applied to dreams, and for the Ullman method Exploration-Insight ratings for the dream condition were significantly higher than for the control event condition. In the Ullman method, self-assessment of personal insight due to consideration of dream content was also significantly higher than for the event consideration condition. The findings support the view that benefits can be obtained from the consideration of dream content, in terms of identifying the waking life sources of dream content, and because personal insight may also occur. To investigate the mechanisms for the findings, the studies should be repeated with REM and non-REM dream reports, hypothesizing greater insight

  6. [Tooth regeneration--dream to reality].

    PubMed

    Wang, Song-Ling; Wang, Xue-Jiu

    2008-04-01

    Tooth or dentition missing compromises human health physically and psychiatrically. Although several prosthesis methods are used to restore tooth loss, these restorations are still non-biological methods. It is a dream for human being to regenerate a real tooth for hundreds years. There are two ways to regenerate the tooth. One is application of conventional tissue engineering techniques including seed cells and scaffold. The other is regeneration tooth using dental epithelium and dental mesenchymal cells based on the knowledge of tooth initiation and development. Marked progress has been achieved in these two ways, while there is still a long way to go. Recently a new concept has been proposed for regeneration of a biological tooth root based on tooth-related stem cells and tissue engineering technique. A biological tooth root has been regenerated in swine. It may be a valuable method for restoration of tooth loss before successful whole tooth regeneration. A latest research showed that a subpopulation in bone marrow cells can give rise to ameloblast-like cells when mixed with embryonic epithelium and reassociation with integrated mesenchyme, which may provide a new seed cell source for tooth regeneration. PMID:18605442

  7. Economic dream in Peril. [Newsweek special report

    SciTech Connect

    Pauly, D.; Rogal, K.; Monroe, S.; Abramson, P.

    1980-09-08

    The American dream of an ever-expanding economy in which each succeeding generation can anticipate a better life is dying and lowering American expections in the process. A number of explanations are offered by economists, government officials, businessmen, and laborers. The Carter administration is prescribing a range of remedies that resembles the Reagan proposals by addressing tax laws and cutting taxes $27.6 billion, but differs by promoting Federal programs that are patterned after the Japanese business-government partnership rather than reducing the Federal role. The reforms are aimed at lowering inflation rates and revitalizing industry. Reagan is critical of what he sees as unnecessary complexity of government participation in comparison to his plan for extensive tax cuts and reduced government. The debate is expected to extend beyond election day. The US productivity crisis is discussed in detail in one section, and at the end of the article, two Nobel laureates - Milton Friedman and Paul A. Samuelson - give their views on the problem. Another special section is entitled, Lessons From Japan, Inc.

  8. Dream Interpretation Sessions: Who Volunteers, Who Benefits, and What Volunteer Clients View as Most and Least Helpful.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Clara E.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of college students participating in a dream interpretation session found that compared to nonvolunteers, students who volunteered had more positive attitudes towards dreams, recalled dreams more frequently, were more open, were higher in absorption, and were more often female. Helpful aspects of dream interpretations included insights…

  9. [Reconsidering children's dreams. A critical review of methods and results in developmental dream research from Freud to contemporary works].

    PubMed

    Sándor, Piroska; Bódizs, Róbert

    2014-01-01

    Examining children's dream development is a significant challenge for researchers. Results from studies on children's dreaming may enlighten us on the nature and role of dreaming as well as broaden our knowledge of consciousness and cognitive development. This review summarizes the main questions and historical progress in developmental dream research, with the aim of shedding light on the advantages, disadvantages and effects of different settings and methods on research outcomes. A typical example would be the dreams of 3 to 5 year-olds: they are simple and static, with a relative absence of emotions and active self participation according to laboratory studies; studies using different methodology however found them to be vivid, rich in emotions, with the self as an active participant. Questions about the validity of different methods arise, and are considered within this review. Given that methodological differences can result in highly divergent outcomes, it is strongly recommended for future research to select methodology and treat results more carefully. PMID:25411223

  10. The virtual dream: rewriting stories of loss and grief.

    PubMed

    Neimeyer, Robert A; Torres, Carlos; Smith, Douglas C

    2011-08-01

    In this article, the authors introduce the virtual dream, a technique that entails writing a brief spontaneous dreamlike story on themes of loss, using a flexible set of assigned elements of setting and characterization to scaffold the writing. After providing several examples of virtual dreams written by workshop participants, the authors analyze the frequency of important narrative features in a diverse sample of 143 stories to demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of coding such accounts for clinical or research purposes. Finally, we conclude with some remarks on the therapeutic use of the virtual dream, whether as a prompt for personal reflection on themes of loss, as an exercise in the context of grief workshops or support groups, or as a homework assignment in grief counseling or therapy. PMID:24501842

  11. Dreaming: The functional state-shift hypothesis. A neuropsychophysiological model.

    PubMed

    Koukkou, M; Lehmann, D

    1983-03-01

    The different brain functional states during sleep and wakefulness are associated with differences in processing strategies, memory stores, and EEG patterns. Shifts of functional state occur spontaneously or as orienting reactions to processed information, and cause the formal characteristics of dreams. Forgetting of dreams is a function of the magnitude of the difference between states during storage and recall. Based on EEG similarities between sleep stages and developmental stages, brain states during sleep in adults are proposed to correspond functionally with waking states during childhood. Repeated functional regressions occur during sleep, with access to earlier memory material and cognitive strategies unavailable during waking life, so that earlier experiences can be used for current problems. This dream work constitutes the biological significance of sleep. PMID:6860875

  12. Systematic desensitization to reduce dream-induced anxiety.

    PubMed

    Cavior, N; Deutsch, A M

    1975-12-01

    A modified version of systematic desensitization was used to reduce the anxiety and negative interpersonal consequences produced by a recurrent aversive dream resulting from events in the real world. The subject, a 16-year-old incarcerated male, was first taught a standard relaxation technique. The subject's dream was divided into 12 hierarchical imaginal scenes. Following initial relaxation, each scene was sequentially introduced and followed by the therapist's suggestion that the subject was still very relaxed. After three sessions with the therapists and several practice sessions by himself, the subject reported no further anxiety to the dream (which continued to occur) and improved relations with the institutional staff. Six months of follow-up showed no recurrence of the anxiety or the subsequent irritability which the subject had initially reported as leading to negative interpersonal relations with the staff. PMID:468

  13. Dreams of Reading: Tender Is the Night.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geraghty, Christine; Simpson, Philip

    Noting that little theoretical work has been done on the processes of adapting novels for television viewing, and that what discussion there is tends to concentrate on judgments about "faithfulness" to the original, this paper suggests that more can be gained from approaching television adaptations in a less literal way, and shows how the…

  14. Freud's private mini-monograph on his own dreams. A contribution to the celebration of the centenary of The interpretation of dreams.

    PubMed

    Blum, H P

    2001-10-01

    A virtually unknown brief commentary by Freud on the characteristics of his own dreams is described and discussed. Freud's mini-monograph, discovered after some 80 years, has autobiographical, theoretical and organisational significance in the enigmatic context of the early development of psychoanalysis. Found among papers of Alfred Adler, this extraordinary document adds to our knowledge of psychoanalytic history, including the significance of dreams in the evolution of psychoanalytic thought. Freud's commentary permitted the identification of a particular dream as his own. This dream had been presented in anonymity to the fledgling Vienna Psychoanalytic Society for interpretation. The dream was later inserted, again anonymously, into The Interpretation of Dreams with Freud's own remarkable pre-oedipal interpretation. Freud's conflicted relationships with Adler and Jung are considered in historical context. PMID:11723960

  15. Dissociative states in dreams and brain chaos: implications for creative awareness.

    PubMed

    Bob, Petr; Louchakova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent findings indicating some common brain processes during dissociative states and dreaming with the aim to outline a perspective that neural chaotic states during dreaming can be closely related to dissociative states that may manifest in dreams scenery. These data are in agreement with various clinical findings that dissociated states can be projected into the "dream scenery" in REM sleep periods and dreams may represent their specific interactions that may uncover unusual psychological potential of creativity in psychotherapy, art, and scientific discoveries. PMID:26441729

  16. Dissociative states in dreams and brain chaos: implications for creative awareness

    PubMed Central

    Bob, Petr; Louchakova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent findings indicating some common brain processes during dissociative states and dreaming with the aim to outline a perspective that neural chaotic states during dreaming can be closely related to dissociative states that may manifest in dreams scenery. These data are in agreement with various clinical findings that dissociated states can be projected into the “dream scenery” in REM sleep periods and dreams may represent their specific interactions that may uncover unusual psychological potential of creativity in psychotherapy, art, and scientific discoveries. PMID:26441729

  17. The Metropolis Monte Carlo method with CUDA enabled Graphic Processing Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Clifford; Ji, Weixiao; Blaisten-Barojas, Estela

    2014-02-01

    We present a CPU-GPU system for runtime acceleration of large molecular simulations using GPU computation and memory swaps. The memory architecture of the GPU can be used both as container for simulation data stored on the graphics card and as floating-point code target, providing an effective means for the manipulation of atomistic or molecular data on the GPU. To fully take advantage of this mechanism, efficient GPU realizations of algorithms used to perform atomistic and molecular simulations are essential. Our system implements a versatile molecular engine, including inter-molecule interactions and orientational variables for performing the Metropolis Monte Carlo (MMC) algorithm, which is one type of Markov chain Monte Carlo. By combining memory objects with floating-point code fragments we have implemented an MMC parallel engine that entirely avoids the communication time of molecular data at runtime. Our runtime acceleration system is a forerunner of a new class of CPU-GPU algorithms exploiting memory concepts combined with threading for avoiding bus bandwidth and communication. The testbed molecular system used here is a condensed phase system of oligopyrrole chains. A benchmark shows a size scaling speedup of 60 for systems with 210,000 pyrrole monomers. Our implementation can easily be combined with MPI to connect in parallel several CPU-GPU duets.

  18. The occurrence of Mansonella perstans among residents of Calabar metropolis in Cross River State of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akpan, Samuel S; Mbah, Maurice; Achi, Ernestine

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of Mansonella perstans was studied among people who had resided in Calabar metropolis for at least one year prior to the time of this study, which lasted from February to August, 2011. One thousand residents, comprising 530 males and 470 females, with an age range of 4 to 59 years, participated in the study, after an informed consent. Two millilitres of venous blood were collected at day time into EDTA bottles. The blood samples were processed by diluting 1ml of blood in 9 mls of 1% formalin and centrifuging the preparation at 3,000 revolutions per minute for 5 minutes. Deposits were left as blood smears on clean slides and after air-drying, were stained with 3% Giemsa solution for microscopy. Overall, the prevalence of Mansonella perstans was 2% (20 vs 1,000). The prevalence of the parasite among the females was 2.1% (10 vs 470) and males 1.9% (10 vs 530). Microfilaraemia only occurred among subjects aged between 25 and 45 years. The results of this study suggest that loiasis, which earned Calabar an unenviable mention in early medical literature, is no longer very prevalent in the area. Instead, a low prevalence of mansonelliasis occurs, in tandem with the existence of sparse farmlands of banana and plantain. Old stems of these crops provide suitable habitats for Culicoides species, which transmit Mansonella perstans. PMID:25911033

  19. Metropolis revisited: the evolving role of librarians in informatics education for the health professions

    PubMed Central

    King, Samuel B.; Lapidus, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The authors' goal was to assess changes in the role of librarians in informatics education from 2004 to 2013. This is a follow-up to “Metropolis Redux: The Unique Importance of Library Skills in Informatics,” a 2004 survey of informatics programs. Methods: An electronic survey was conducted in January 2013 and sent to librarians via the MEDLIB-L email discussion list, the library section of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, the Medical Informatics Section of the Medical Library Association, the Information Technology Interest Group of the Association of College and Research Libraries/New England Region, and various library directors across the country. Results: Librarians from fifty-five institutions responded to the survey. Of these respondents, thirty-four included librarians in nonlibrary aspects of informatics training. Fifteen institutions have librarians participating in leadership positions in their informatics programs. Compared to the earlier survey, the role of librarians has evolved. Conclusions: Librarians possess skills that enable them to participate in informatics programs beyond a narrow library focus. Librarians currently perform significant leadership roles in informatics education. There are opportunities for librarian interdisciplinary collaboration in informatics programs. Implications: Informatics is much more than the study of technology. The information skills that librarians bring to the table enrich and broaden the study of informatics in addition to adding value to the library profession itself. PMID:25552939

  20. Sources and formation pathways of organic aerosol in a subtropical metropolis during summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, I.-Chun; Chen, Jen-Ping; Lung, Candice Shi-Chun; Li, Nan; Chen, Wei-Nai; Fu, Tzung-May; Chang, Chih-Chung; Hwang, Gong-Do

    2015-09-01

    A field campaign combined with numerical simulations was designed to better understand the emission sources and formation processes of organic aerosols (OA) in a subtropical environment. The field campaign measured total and water soluble organic carbon (OC) in aerosol, as well as its precursor gases in the Taipei metropolis and a nearby rural forest during the summer of 2011. A regional air-quality model modified with an additional secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation pathway was used to decipher the observed variations in OA, with focus on various formation pathways and the relative contributions from anthropogenic and biogenic sources. According to the simulations, biogenic sources contributed to 60% and 72% of total OA production at the NTU (urban) and HL (rural) sites. The simulated fractions of SOA in total OA were 67% and 79% near the surface of NTU and HL, respectively, and these fractions increased with height and reach over 90% at the 1-km altitude. Estimated from the simulation results, aqueous-phase dicarbonyl uptake was responsible of 51% of OA production in the urban area, while the primary emissions, reversible partitioning of semi-volatile oxidation products, oligomerization of semi-volatile SOA in the particulate phase and acid-enhanced oxidation contributed to 33%, 10%, 5% and 1% respectively; in the rural area, the percentages were 59%, 21%, 13%, 7% and 1%, respectively. Meteorological factors, including large-scale wind direction, local circulation and planetary boundary layer height, all have strong influences on the source contributions and diurnal variations of OA concentration.

  1. Memory as resistance, and the telling of a dream.

    PubMed

    Gray, P

    1992-01-01

    Traditional analytic orientation to memory as subject to repression has overshadowed examination of some of the ego's other activities bearing on memory. The author examines the defensive use of memory with the analytic goal of maximum autonomous access for the patient to the ego's previously unconscious management of intrapsychic conflict. A close scrutiny of an example of this in the form of the telling of a dream explores this resistance process and illustrates a technical approach. Some aspects of this perspective are considered in relation to traditional approaches to dream material. Certain technical priorities for differing clinical settings are discussed. PMID:1593074

  2. Does Arabidopsis thaliana DREAM of cell cycle control?

    PubMed

    Fischer, Martin; DeCaprio, James A

    2015-08-01

    Strict temporal control of cell cycle gene expression is essential for all eukaryotes including animals and plants. DREAM complexes have been identified in worm, fly, and mammals, linking several distinct transcription factors to coordinate gene expression throughout the cell cycle. In this issue of The EMBO Journal, Kobayashi et al (2015) identify distinct activator and repressor complexes for genes expressed during the G2 and M phases in Arabidopsis that can be temporarily separated during proliferating and post‐mitotic stages of development. The complexes incorporate specific activator and repressor MYB and E2F transcription factors and indicate the possibility of the existence of multiple DREAM complexes in plants. PMID:26089020

  3. C. G. Jung's Dream of Siegfried: A Psychobiographical Study.

    PubMed

    Kovary, Zoltan

    2015-08-01

    During the past decades, besides Sigmund Freud, C.G. Jung has been a subject of modern psychobiographical investigations. The revealed documents of Jung and Sabina Speielrein's relationship remarkably changed the narratives of this outstanding story, and it also bears important theoretical consequences. This article focuses on Jung's Siegfried-dream found in his autobiography, since it is closely related to the Freud-Jung-Spielrein triangle, and can be associated with some significant aspects of intellectual history. The text of the dream is treated as an Allportian "first-person document" that can be a starting point of a psychobiographical investigation. PMID:26290943

  4. [Female erotic dreams and female seed in ancient Greek medicine].

    PubMed

    Andò, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses passages of the Hippocratic Corpus, of Aristotle and Galen about oneirogmòs, spermatic emission during sleep, referring specifically to women. Into the Hippocratic texts there is only one gynaecological case among many cases about males: for them this nocturnal emission is symptom of dangerous illness and De genitura gives a causal explanation of such phaenomenon. Instead, in Aristotle and Galen erotic dream is evidence for or against emission of female seed and female contribution to generation. As the argument ofHistoria animalium book X shows clear theoretical differences from that of De generatione animalium, the topic of erotic dream also concerns issues of authenticity. PMID:20695404

  5. Comparing personal insight gains due to consideration of a recent dream and consideration of a recent event using the Ullman and Schredl dream group methods

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Christopher L.; Malinowski, Josie E.; McGee, Shauna L.; Bennett, Paul D.; Ruby, Perrine M.; Blagrove, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    There have been reports and claims in the psychotherapeutic literature that the consideration of recent dreams can result in personal realizations and insight. There is theoretical support for these claims from work on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep having a function of the consolidation of emotional memories and the creative formation of connections between new and older memories. To investigate these claims, 11 participants (10 females, one male) reported and considered a recent home dream in a dream discussion group that following the “Appreciating dreams” method of Montague Ullman. The group ran 11 times, each participant attending and participating once. A further nine participants (seven females, two males) reported and considered a recent home dream in a group that followed the “Listening to the dreamer” method of Michael Schredl. The two studies each had a control condition where the participant also reported a recent event, the consideration of which followed the same technique as was followed for the dream report. Outcomes of the discussions were assessed by the participants on the Gains from Dream Interpretation (GDI) scale, and on its counterpart, the Gains from Event Interpretation scale. High ratings on the GDI experiential-insight subscale were reported for both methods, when applied to dreams, and for the Ullman method Exploration-Insight ratings for the dream condition were significantly higher than for the control event condition. In the Ullman method, self-assessment of personal insight due to consideration of dream content was also significantly higher than for the event consideration condition. The findings support the view that benefits can be obtained from the consideration of dream content, in terms of identifying the waking life sources of dream content, and because personal insight may also occur. To investigate the mechanisms for the findings, the studies should be repeated with REM and non-REM dream reports, hypothesizing greater

  6. Adult recollections of earliest childhood dreams: a cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Fiske, Kate E; Pillemer, David B

    2006-01-01

    In two studies, Caucasian and Asian college students recalled their earliest memory of a dream, and they provided information about behaviours and beliefs associated with dreaming. Consistent with previous research on childhood amnesia, participants rarely recounted dreams that occurred before age 3. In Study 1, the mean age of the earliest dream memory was 14 months earlier for Caucasians than for Asians. In Study 2, more Asians than Caucasians were unable to remember a childhood dream. Dream-related behaviours and beliefs also differed markedly across cultures. Compared to Asians, Caucasians reported talking more frequently with parents about their dreams in childhood, receiving stronger parental encouragement to share dreams, and feeling more comfortable doing so. Caucasians also reported sharing their dreams with others more frequently in adulthood and they assigned greater value to their dreams. Most Caucasians but few Asians consented to the researchers' request to send parents a questionnaire concerning the participant's childhood dreams. The results support the social interaction explanation for autobiographical memory development, in which parent-child conversations about the personal past contribute to memory accessibility. PMID:16423742

  7. Lucid dreams: their advantage and disadvantage in the frame of search activity concept.

    PubMed

    Rotenberg, Vadim S

    2015-01-01

    Search activity (SA) is the behavioral and mental activity that is oriented to changes of the environment or of the subject's view and approach to the environment according to personal needs without the definite probability forecast of the outcomes of such activity, but with a regular consideration of the outcomes in the process of active behavior. Dream's lucidity (the subject's realization that he/she is dreaming) protects dreamer from awakenings during emotionally disturbing or frustrating dreams, because lucid dreams allow subject to feel separated from the dream events that may cause a feeling of helplessness. Due to such a protection from awakenings that can bring subject back to the frustration in wakefulness, subject can turn in the further sleep to normal non-lucid dreams that are restoring subject's SA in the subsequent wakefulness (activity in the uncertain situation with the feedback between behavior and its outcome). It is the advantage of lucid dreams. Their disadvantage is that due to the separation from the dream events that are in lucid dreams accepted as rationalized dreams, not as real stories where the dreamer acts like in wakefulness, their ability to restore SA is decreased until they are not displaced by the normal non-lucid dreams accepted as real stories. PMID:26483727

  8. Lucid dreams: their advantage and disadvantage in the frame of search activity concept

    PubMed Central

    Rotenberg, Vadim S.

    2015-01-01

    Search activity (SA) is the behavioral and mental activity that is oriented to changes of the environment or of the subject's view and approach to the environment according to personal needs without the definite probability forecast of the outcomes of such activity, but with a regular consideration of the outcomes in the process of active behavior. Dream's lucidity (the subject's realization that he/she is dreaming) protects dreamer from awakenings during emotionally disturbing or frustrating dreams, because lucid dreams allow subject to feel separated from the dream events that may cause a feeling of helplessness. Due to such a protection from awakenings that can bring subject back to the frustration in wakefulness, subject can turn in the further sleep to normal non-lucid dreams that are restoring subject's SA in the subsequent wakefulness (activity in the uncertain situation with the feedback between behavior and its outcome). It is the advantage of lucid dreams. Their disadvantage is that due to the separation from the dream events that are in lucid dreams accepted as rationalized dreams, not as real stories where the dreamer acts like in wakefulness, their ability to restore SA is decreased until they are not displaced by the normal non-lucid dreams accepted as real stories. PMID:26483727

  9. DREAM (Downstream Regulatory Element Antagonist Modulator) contributes to synaptic depression and contextual fear memory

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), a multifunctional Ca2+-binding protein, binds specifically to DNA and several nucleoproteins regulating gene expression and with proteins outside the nucleus to regulate membrane excitability or calcium homeostasis. DREAM is highly expressed in the central nervous system including the hippocampus and cortex; however, the roles of DREAM in hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity have not been investigated. Taking advantage of transgenic mice overexpressing a Ca2+-insensitive DREAM mutant (TgDREAM), we used integrative methods including electrophysiology, biochemistry, immunostaining, and behavior tests to study the function of DREAM in synaptic transmission, long-term plasticity and fear memory in hippocampal CA1 region. We found that NMDA receptor but not AMPA receptor-mediated current was decreased in TgDREAM mice. Moreover, synaptic plasticity, such as long-term depression (LTD) but not long-term potentiation (LTP), was impaired in TgDREAM mice. Biochemical experiments found that DREAM interacts with PSD-95 and may inhibit NMDA receptor function through this interaction. Contextual fear memory was significantly impaired in TgDREAM mice. By contrast, sensory responses to noxious stimuli were not affected. Our results demonstrate that DREAM plays a novel role in postsynaptic modulation of the NMDA receptor, and contributes to synaptic plasticity and behavioral memory. PMID:20205763

  10. DREAM (downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator) contributes to synaptic depression and contextual fear memory.

    PubMed

    Wu, Long-Jun; Mellström, Britt; Wang, Hansen; Ren, Ming; Domingo, Sofia; Kim, Susan S; Li, Xiang-Yao; Chen, Tao; Naranjo, Jose R; Zhuo, Min

    2010-01-01

    The downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), a multifunctional Ca2+-binding protein, binds specifically to DNA and several nucleoproteins regulating gene expression and with proteins outside the nucleus to regulate membrane excitability or calcium homeostasis. DREAM is highly expressed in the central nervous system including the hippocampus and cortex; however, the roles of DREAM in hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity have not been investigated. Taking advantage of transgenic mice overexpressing a Ca2+-insensitive DREAM mutant (TgDREAM), we used integrative methods including electrophysiology, biochemistry, immunostaining, and behavior tests to study the function of DREAM in synaptic transmission, long-term plasticity and fear memory in hippocampal CA1 region. We found that NMDA receptor but not AMPA receptor-mediated current was decreased in TgDREAM mice. Moreover, synaptic plasticity, such as long-term depression (LTD) but not long-term potentiation (LTP), was impaired in TgDREAM mice. Biochemical experiments found that DREAM interacts with PSD-95 and may inhibit NMDA receptor function through this interaction. Contextual fear memory was significantly impaired in TgDREAM mice. By contrast, sensory responses to noxious stimuli were not affected. Our results demonstrate that DREAM plays a novel role in postsynaptic modulation of the NMDA receptor, and contributes to synaptic plasticity and behavioral memory. PMID:20205763

  11. The dream as a model for psychosis: an experimental approach using bizarreness as a cognitive marker.

    PubMed

    Scarone, Silvio; Manzone, Maria Laura; Gambini, Orsola; Kantzas, Ilde; Limosani, Ivan; D'Agostino, Armando; Hobson, J Allan

    2008-05-01

    Many previous observers have reported some qualitative similarities between the normal mental state of dreaming and the abnormal mental state of psychosis. Recent psychological, tomographic, electrophysiological, and neurochemical data appear to confirm the functional similarities between these 2 states. In this study, the hypothesis of the dreaming brain as a neurobiological model for psychosis was tested by focusing on cognitive bizarreness, a distinctive property of the dreaming mental state defined by discontinuities and incongruities in the dream plot, thoughts, and feelings. Cognitive bizarreness was measured in written reports of dreams and in verbal reports of waking fantasies in 30 schizophrenics and 30 normal controls. Seven pictures of the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) were administered as a stimulus to elicit waking fantasies, and all participating subjects were asked to record their dreams upon awakening. A total of 420 waking fantasies plus 244 dream reports were collected to quantify the bizarreness features in the dream and waking state of both subject groups. Two-way analysis of covariance for repeated measures showed that cognitive bizarreness was significantly lower in the TAT stories of normal subjects than in those of schizophrenics and in the dream reports of both groups. The differences between the 2 groups indicated that, under experimental conditions, the waking cognition of schizophrenic subjects shares a common degree of formal cognitive bizarreness with the dream reports of both normal controls and schizophrenics. Though very preliminary, these results support the hypothesis that the dreaming brain could be a useful experimental model for psychosis. PMID:17942480

  12. Metaphor and hyperassociativity: the imagination mechanisms behind emotion assimilation in sleep and dreaming.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Josie E; Horton, Caroline L

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose an emotion assimilation function of sleep and dreaming. We offer explanations both for the mechanisms by which waking-life memories are initially selected for processing during sleep, and for the mechanisms by which those memories are subsequently transformed during sleep. We propose that emotions act as a marker for information to be selectively processed during sleep, including consolidation into long term memory structures and integration into pre-existing memory networks; that dreaming reflects these emotion assimilation processes; and that the associations between memory fragments activated during sleep give rise to measureable elements of dream metaphor and hyperassociativity. The latter are a direct reflection, and the phenomenological experience, of emotional memory assimilation processes occurring during sleep. While many theories previously have posited a role for emotion processing and/or emotional memory consolidation during sleep and dreaming, sleep theories often do not take enough account of important dream science data, yet dream research, when conducted systematically and under ideal conditions, can greatly enhance theorizing around the functions of sleep. Similarly, dream theories often fail to consider the implications of sleep-dependent memory research, which can augment our understanding of dream functioning. Here, we offer a synthesized view, taking detailed account of both sleep and dream data and theories. We draw on extensive literature from sleep and dream experiments and theories, including often-overlooked data from dream science which we believe reflects sleep phenomenology, to bring together important ideas and findings from both domains. PMID:26347669

  13. The Dream as a Model for Psychosis: An Experimental Approach Using Bizarreness as a Cognitive Marker

    PubMed Central

    Scarone, Silvio; Manzone, Maria Laura; Gambini, Orsola; Kantzas, Ilde; Limosani, Ivan; D'Agostino, Armando; Hobson, J. Allan

    2008-01-01

    Many previous observers have reported some qualitative similarities between the normal mental state of dreaming and the abnormal mental state of psychosis. Recent psychological, tomographic, electrophysiological, and neurochemical data appear to confirm the functional similarities between these 2 states. In this study, the hypothesis of the dreaming brain as a neurobiological model for psychosis was tested by focusing on cognitive bizarreness, a distinctive property of the dreaming mental state defined by discontinuities and incongruities in the dream plot, thoughts, and feelings. Cognitive bizarreness was measured in written reports of dreams and in verbal reports of waking fantasies in 30 schizophrenics and 30 normal controls. Seven pictures of the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) were administered as a stimulus to elicit waking fantasies, and all participating subjects were asked to record their dreams upon awakening. A total of 420 waking fantasies plus 244 dream reports were collected to quantify the bizarreness features in the dream and waking state of both subject groups. Two-way analysis of covariance for repeated measures showed that cognitive bizarreness was significantly lower in the TAT stories of normal subjects than in those of schizophrenics and in the dream reports of both groups. The differences between the 2 groups indicated that, under experimental conditions, the waking cognition of schizophrenic subjects shares a common degree of formal cognitive bizarreness with the dream reports of both normal controls and schizophrenics. Though very preliminary, these results support the hypothesis that the dreaming brain could be a useful experimental model for psychosis. PMID:17942480

  14. Metaphor and hyperassociativity: the imagination mechanisms behind emotion assimilation in sleep and dreaming

    PubMed Central

    Malinowski, Josie E.; Horton, Caroline L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose an emotion assimilation function of sleep and dreaming. We offer explanations both for the mechanisms by which waking-life memories are initially selected for processing during sleep, and for the mechanisms by which those memories are subsequently transformed during sleep. We propose that emotions act as a marker for information to be selectively processed during sleep, including consolidation into long term memory structures and integration into pre-existing memory networks; that dreaming reflects these emotion assimilation processes; and that the associations between memory fragments activated during sleep give rise to measureable elements of dream metaphor and hyperassociativity. The latter are a direct reflection, and the phenomenological experience, of emotional memory assimilation processes occurring during sleep. While many theories previously have posited a role for emotion processing and/or emotional memory consolidation during sleep and dreaming, sleep theories often do not take enough account of important dream science data, yet dream research, when conducted systematically and under ideal conditions, can greatly enhance theorizing around the functions of sleep. Similarly, dream theories often fail to consider the implications of sleep-dependent memory research, which can augment our understanding of dream functioning. Here, we offer a synthesized view, taking detailed account of both sleep and dream data and theories. We draw on extensive literature from sleep and dream experiments and theories, including often-overlooked data from dream science which we believe reflects sleep phenomenology, to bring together important ideas and findings from both domains. PMID:26347669

  15. Dream rebound of suppressed emotional thoughts: the influence of cognitive load.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Richard A; Wyzenbeek, Miriam; Weinstein, Julia

    2011-09-01

    Initial evidence suggests that suppressing a thought prior to sleep results in subsequent dreaming of that thought. The present research examined the influence of cognitive load on dreaming following suppression. In Experiment 1, 100 participants received either a suppression instruction or no instruction for an intrusive thought prior to sleep, and subsequently completed a dream diary. Participants instructed to suppress reported dreaming about the target thought more than controls; dream rebound was predicted by poorer performance on a working memory task. In Experiment 2, 126 participants received either a suppression instruction or no instruction for an intrusive thought prior to sleep, and half of participants also had cognitive load of learning a 9-digit number. Participants receiving the suppression instruction under cognitive load reported greater dream rebound than other participants. These findings indicate that thought suppression prior to sleep leads to dream rebound, and this effect is enhanced by cognitive load. PMID:21115260

  16. Hypnotically enhanced dreaming to achieve symptom reduction: a case study of 11 children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Linden, Julie H; Bhardwaj, Anuj; Anbar, Ran D

    2006-04-01

    Theories about dreams have shaped our thinking about mind-body unity and the influence of thought on the body. In this article, the authors review the sparse literature regarding the use of hypnosis with children's dreams and nightmares, summarize how hypnotically induced dreams have been used to resolve psychological symptoms, and note five themes in the literature worthy of further investigation. Building on the value of both dreams and hypnosis for working through conflicts, the authors united mind-body medicine and hypnotically induced dreaming in a pediatric pulmonary practice. A case series is presented of 11 patients who were offered an opportunity to review their reported nightmares through hypnosis in order to uncover their potential meaning. The recurrent nightmares among these patients decreased greatly in frequency or resolved following the hypnosis enhanced dream review. Thus, we demonstrate that hypnotically induced dream review may be useful in a pediatric population. PMID:16696559

  17. ["For me, painting is a continuation of dreaming by different means" (Neo Rauch 2006). Contributions of art to psychoanalytic dream interpretation].

    PubMed

    Danckwardt, Joachim F

    2008-01-01

    This paper maintains that pictorial and scenic thinking (represented in dreams, daydreams, paintings, pictorial language) is not a regressive phenomenon usurping ego energy. It is rather a kind of thinking with eyes, hands and feet resp. with formative means such as point, line, plane, space, movement, color, and contrast which constitute consciousness from the ocean of the inner and outer unconscious. This is shown by discussing the painting "Vater [Father]" (2007) of Neo Rauch as well as the views of, among others, Kandinsky, Klee, and Rothko. Rauch's notion of painting as a continuation of dreaming is confirmed by a re-analysis of Freud's dream of the "castle by the sea". Here dream-work is similar to picture and film work. The choice of formative means determines whether pictures will be born or something else: a dream, fantasy, idea or interpretation, and by the same token it determines the kind of picture, dream, fantasy etc. Freud's dream of the "castle by the sea" is a "specimen dream" for interpretation via retranslation of picture/dream-work. PMID:19230327

  18. Lucid dreaming and the mind-body relationship: a model for the cognitive and physiological variations in rapid eye movement sleep.

    PubMed

    Lequerica, A

    1996-08-01

    The psychophysiological properties of the lucid dream state were examined to evaluate the relationship between lucid and nonlucid dreaming, emphasizing the fact that the components of self-reflectiveness and other cognitive features commonly associated with lucid dreams occur in all dreams to various extents. Although lucid dreams are clearly toward one end of the continuum, they still share many of the characteristics present in most dreams. In this respect, exploration of lucid dreams may not necessarily be a misguided path toward the understanding of dreaming in general. A simple model was described to illustrate the mind-body relationship in various forms of REM dreaming. PMID:8873210

  19. Impossible Dreams, Impossible Choices, and Thoughts about Depolarizing the Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Susan L.; Beckstead, A. Lee; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Haldeman, Douglas C.

    2004-01-01

    The titles of the reactions to this major contribution alone set the stage for further exploration of the issues regarding the hopes and dreams of same-sex attracted (SSA) clients in religious conflict and their therapists, issues of choice, and whether or not it is possible - or even appropriate - to depolarize the current debate (Gonsiorek,…

  20. Blue Hills Regional Grad Fulfills Dream, Becomes Astronaut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Judy

    2012-01-01

    This article features Scott D. Tingle, a former career and technical education (CTE) student who always aimed high. November 4, 2011 marked the official culmination of a cherished, virtually lifelong dream of his--becoming an astronaut. It was a goal he had in mind even when he was a high school student in the 1980s at Blue Hills Regional…

  1. NGOMA: Celebrate the Dream with African-American Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinson, Sabrina A.

    2008-01-01

    How can everyone celebrate the most powerful dream (Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s) in America's history, which paved the way for civil rights, equality, and social justice? How can everyone heighten students' awareness of these civil and social issues? An increased use of African-American literature is one effective way. In this article,…

  2. Holding Memories, Shaping Dreams: Chinese Children's Writers' Notebooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Maureen

    1998-01-01

    Describes how the author used writers' notebooks with her students (grades 6-8), all Chinese immigrants, to find and express their memories and dreams, to find meaning in their experiences of change and loss; develop voice and a sense of audience; develop fluency in English; and find a growing sense of control over their new language and their new…

  3. Dreams of Possibilities: Linking Poetry to Our Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Ruth McKoy

    2003-01-01

    Notes how as a teacher educator, the author incorporates poems of Langston Hughes in hopes of preparing pre-service teachers to teach diverse students. Shares pre-service teachers' reflections to Hughes' poem "Dreams" in one literature class. Begins with an overview of poetry in children's lives, describes the setting and presents how the…

  4. Dreaming and the University as a Way of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Dolores M.

    2009-01-01

    Those who are in higher education dream of a world of changed values where the inchoate, contested, but urgent constellation of things that they collectively believe in, work for, and seek on college campuses has spread well beyond any specific "quad" and has instead become something of a global norm. Imagine that higher education is no longer…

  5. Stories, Dreams, and Ceremonies--Anishinaabe Ways of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Leanne

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on four of the methods used by aboriginal peoples to transmit knowledge and to teach younger people. Describes the Anishinaabe ways of: learning by doing, story telling, dreaming, and ceremonies. The conclusion discusses the benefits and limitations of using such "ways of knowing" in academic endeavors. (Contains 26 references.) (VWC)

  6. Berkeley Lab Scientist Co-Leads Breast Cancer Dream Team

    ScienceCinema

    Gray, Joe

    2013-05-29

    An $16.5 million, three-year grant to develop new and more effective therapies to fight breast cancer was awarded today to a multi-institutional Dream Team of scientists and clinicians that is co-led by Joe Gray, a renowned cancer researcher with the U.S. Department of Energys Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/

  7. AAFCS Accreditation: From Dream to Reality at Jacksonville State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Debra K.; Roberts, W. Tim; Boggs, Robbie; Townsel, Kim; Frazier, Jeannie; Marsh, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Accreditation by the American Association of Family and Consumer Sciences (AAFCS) was a long-held dream of the Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS) Unit at Jacksonville State University in Alabama. After more than 6 decades of preparing FCS students for life and the workplace, the FCS Unit resolutely began the journey to the coveted and honored…

  8. A Dream Denied: The Black Family in the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, James D.

    The extremely conservative political climate and the record-breaking recession have effectively destroyed the hopes and dreams of poor black families, and they seriously threaten the existence of an emerging, still fragile, black middle class. Prior to 1960, no more than 10-12 percent of black families could be counted as members of the middle…

  9. Professional Expectations and Shattered Dreams: A Proficiency Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author asserts that learning is about personal growth and enrichment, and at its core it is not about career determinations. Good teachers nurture their students; they encourage them to pursue their dreams, and they find ways to stimulate curiosity and dedication to lifelong learning. They do not become teachers because of…

  10. Hidden Dreams, Hidden Lives. New Hispanic Immigrants in Minnesota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcon, Adrienne; Rode, Peter

    This report examines the contributions, work experiences, dreams, living conditions, and fears of Hispanic immigrants living in Minnesota and shows how the state of Minnesota can be more welcoming and supportive of new immigrants through changes in laws, public policies, and attitudes. Information is presented based on interviews with 222 adults…

  11. Scholarships and School Improvement: Annual Report of Catching the Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavers, Dean, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "The Native Scholar" is comprised entirely of the annual report of Catching the Dream (CTD), an organization that awards scholarships to Native American students and grants for improving Native American schools. CTD scholarship programs are described, as are scholarships in general and how to find them. Fourteen scholarship websites…

  12. Portraits of Partnership: The Hopes and Dreams Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giovacco-Johnson, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an innovative practice in family involvement developed by one early care and education center engaged in professional development. The Hopes and Dreams Project documented family involvement in children's lives and education through the pairing of pictures and narratives about their lives, histories, priorities, goals, and…

  13. I Have A Dream. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "I Have A Dream" is a program that encourages students in low-income communities to complete high school and go on to college. The program guarantees that tuition for higher education will be covered after high school graduation. In addition, it provides participants with tutoring and counseling from elementary school through high school. Each "I…

  14. Using Process Drama to Deconstruct a Midsummer Night's Dream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltsek, Gustave

    2005-01-01

    Gustave Weltsek, a high school English teacher, has turned to process "A Midsummer Night's Dream" to avoid passing on traditional views and interpretations of the play. He has helped the students to see relevance in William Shakespeare's text by using improvisations to get them talking about issues that are important to them.

  15. Reaching for the Dream: Quality Education for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greyling, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Quality and equality in education is the dream of many. In South Africa hope was pinned onto the transformation that was to follow the major political changes of the 1990s. The promotion of inclusive education is rooted in a philosophical and principled position that all children should have educational rights and opportunities as encased in the…

  16. Revisiting the American Dream in Fiction: Developing a Thematic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Gerald

    This paper describes how two "American Dream" courses were created--one was a senior seminar in Fall 2001 that developed after the tragic events of that September and the other, its offspring, was a Fall 2002 class in the American Novel, which was planned deliberately. The paper first looks at how 9/11 changed the senior seminar by reversing the…

  17. Adaptation, Commissioning, and Evaluation of a 3D Treatment Planning System for High-Resolution Small-Animal Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jeho; Chen, Qing; Febo, Robert; Yang, Jie; Pham, Hai; Xiong, Jian-Ping; Zanzonico, Pat B; Deasy, Joseph O; Humm, John L; Mageras, Gig S

    2016-06-01

    Although spatially precise systems are now available for small-animal irradiations, there are currently limited software tools available for treatment planning for such irradiations. We report on the adaptation, commissioning, and evaluation of a 3-dimensional treatment planning system for use with a small-animal irradiation system. The 225-kV X-ray beam of the X-RAD 225Cx microirradiator (Precision X-Ray) was commissioned using both ion-chamber and radiochromic film for 10 different collimators ranging in field size from 1 mm in diameter to 40 × 40 mm(2) A clinical 3-dimensional treatment planning system (Metropolis) developed at our institution was adapted to small-animal irradiation by making it compatible with the dimensions of mice and rats, modeling the microirradiator beam orientations and collimators, and incorporating the measured beam data for dose calculation. Dose calculations in Metropolis were verified by comparison with measurements in phantoms. Treatment plans for irradiation of a tumor-bearing mouse were generated with both the Metropolis and the vendor-supplied software. The calculated beam-on times and the plan evaluation tools were compared. The dose rate at the central axis ranges from 74 to 365 cGy/min depending on the collimator size. Doses calculated with Metropolis agreed with phantom measurements within 3% for all collimators. The beam-on times calculated by Metropolis and the vendor-supplied software agreed within 1% at the isocenter. The modified 3-dimensional treatment planning system provides better visualization of the relationship between the X-ray beams and the small-animal anatomy as well as more complete dosimetric information on target tissues and organs at risk. It thereby enhances the potential of image-guided microirradiator systems for evaluation of dose-response relationships and for preclinical experimentation generally. PMID:25948321

  18. What I make up when I wake up: anti-experience views and narrative fabrication of dreams.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Melanie G

    2013-01-01

    I propose a narrative fabrication thesis of dream reports, according to which dream reports are often not accurate representations of experiences that occur during sleep. I begin with an overview of anti-experience theses of Norman Malcolm and Daniel Dennett who reject the received view of dreams, that dreams are experiences we have during sleep which are reported upon waking. Although rejection of the first claim of the received view, that dreams are experiences that occur during sleep, is implausible, I evaluate in more detail the second assumption of the received view, that dream reports are generally accurate. I then propose a "narrative fabrication" view of dreams as an alternative to the received view. Dream reports are often confabulated or fabricated because of poor memory, bizarre dream content, and cognitive deficits. It is well documented that narratives can be altered between initial rapid eye movement sleep awakenings and subsequent reports. I argue that we have reason to suspect that initial reports are prone to inaccuracy. Experiments demonstrate that subjects rationalize strange elements in narratives, leaving out supernatural or bizarre components when reporting waking memories of stories. Inaccuracies in dream reports are exacerbated by rapid memory loss and bizarre dream content. Waking memory is a process of reconstruction and blending of elements, but unlike waking memory, we cannot reality-test for dream memories. Dream experiences involve imaginative elements, and dream content cannot be verified with external evidence. Some dreams may involve wake-like higher cognitive functions, such as lucid dreams. Such dreams are more likely to elicit accurate reports than cognitively deficient dreams. However, dream reports are generally less accurate than waking reports. I then propose methods which could verify the narrative fabrication view, and argue that although the theory cannot be tested with current methods, new techniques and technologies may

  19. What I make up when I wake up: anti-experience views and narrative fabrication of dreams

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Melanie G.

    2013-01-01

    I propose a narrative fabrication thesis of dream reports, according to which dream reports are often not accurate representations of experiences that occur during sleep. I begin with an overview of anti-experience theses of Norman Malcolm and Daniel Dennett who reject the received view of dreams, that dreams are experiences we have during sleep which are reported upon waking. Although rejection of the first claim of the received view, that dreams are experiences that occur during sleep, is implausible, I evaluate in more detail the second assumption of the received view, that dream reports are generally accurate. I then propose a “narrative fabrication” view of dreams as an alternative to the received view. Dream reports are often confabulated or fabricated because of poor memory, bizarre dream content, and cognitive deficits. It is well documented that narratives can be altered between initial rapid eye movement sleep awakenings and subsequent reports. I argue that we have reason to suspect that initial reports are prone to inaccuracy. Experiments demonstrate that subjects rationalize strange elements in narratives, leaving out supernatural or bizarre components when reporting waking memories of stories. Inaccuracies in dream reports are exacerbated by rapid memory loss and bizarre dream content. Waking memory is a process of reconstruction and blending of elements, but unlike waking memory, we cannot reality-test for dream memories. Dream experiences involve imaginative elements, and dream content cannot be verified with external evidence. Some dreams may involve wake-like higher cognitive functions, such as lucid dreams. Such dreams are more likely to elicit accurate reports than cognitively deficient dreams. However, dream reports are generally less accurate than waking reports. I then propose methods which could verify the narrative fabrication view, and argue that although the theory cannot be tested with current methods, new techniques and technologies

  20. Relativistic Feynman-Metropolis-Teller theory for white dwarfs in general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Rotondo, Michael; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo; Xue Shesheng

    2011-10-15

    The recent formulation of the relativistic Thomas-Fermi model within the Feynman-Metropolis-Teller theory for compressed atoms is applied to the study of general relativistic white dwarf equilibrium configurations. The equation of state, which takes into account the {beta}-equilibrium, the nuclear and the Coulomb interactions between the nuclei and the surrounding electrons, is obtained as a function of the compression by considering each atom constrained in a Wigner-Seitz cell. The contribution of quantum statistics, weak, nuclear, and electromagnetic interactions is obtained by the determination of the chemical potential of the Wigner-Seitz cell. The further contribution of the general relativistic equilibrium of white dwarf matter is expressed by the simple formula {radical}(g{sub 00}){mu}{sub ws}=constant, which links the chemical potential of the Wigner-Seitz cell {mu}{sub ws} with the general relativistic gravitational potential g{sub 00} at each point of the configuration. The configuration outside each Wigner-Seitz cell is strictly neutral and therefore no global electric field is necessary to warranty the equilibrium of the white dwarf. These equations modify the ones used by Chandrasekhar by taking into due account the Coulomb interaction between the nuclei and the electrons as well as inverse {beta} decay. They also generalize the work of Salpeter by considering a unified self-consistent approach to the Coulomb interaction in each Wigner-Seitz cell. The consequences on the numerical value of the Chandrasekhar-Landau mass limit as well as on the mass-radius relation of {sup 4}He, {sup 12}C, {sup 16}O and {sup 56}Fe white dwarfs are presented. All these effects should be taken into account in processes requiring a precision knowledge of the white dwarf parameters.

  1. Lack of DREAM protein enhances learning and memory and slows brain aging.

    PubMed

    Fontán-Lozano, Angela; Romero-Granados, Rocío; del-Pozo-Martín, Yaiza; Suárez-Pereira, Irene; Delgado-García, José María; Penninger, Josef M; Carrión, Angel Manuel

    2009-01-13

    Memory deficits in aging affect millions of people and are often disturbing to those concerned. Dissection of the molecular control of learning and memory is paramount to understand and possibly enhance cognitive functions. Old-age memory loss also has been recently linked to altered Ca(2+) homeostasis. We have previously identified DREAM (downstream regulatory element antagonistic modulator), a member of the neuronal Ca(2+) sensor superfamily of EF-hand proteins, with specific roles in different cell compartments. In the nucleus, DREAM is a Ca(2+)-dependent transcriptional repressor, binding to specific DNA signatures, or interacting with nucleoproteins regulating their transcriptional properties. Also, we and others have shown that dream mutant (dream(-/-)) mice exhibit marked analgesia. Here we report that dream(-/-) mice exhibit markedly enhanced learning and synaptic plasticity related to improved cognition. Mechanistically, DREAM functions as a negative regulator of the key memory factor CREB in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, and loss of DREAM facilitates CREB-dependent transcription during learning. Intriguingly, 18-month-old dream(-/-) mice display learning and memory capacities similar to young mice. Moreover, loss of DREAM protects from brain degeneration in aging. These data identify the Ca(2+)-regulated "pain gene" DREAM as a novel key regulator of memory and brain aging. PMID:19110430

  2. Reading dream literature: frequency, influencing factors, and self-rated benefit.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Dream books have a very long history, but systematic research on how many people have read magazine articles or books on dreams and whether reading such literature is beneficial to the dreamer is scarce. In the present sample of 444 people (mostly psychology students), about 75% of the participants stated that they had read at least one magazine article on dreams, and more than 40% had read at least one book about dreams. The main factor associated with the frequency of reading dream literature was a positive attitude toward dreaming, whereas personality factors play a minor role in explaining interindividual differences in this variable. The self-rated benefit of reading dream literature varied greatly, from not helpful at all to very helpful, and was associated with dream recall frequency and positive attitude toward dreaming. Using this approach in a more sophisticated way, eliciting details about the kinds of information participants have read would help researchers learn more about what techniques of dream work are effective and thus complement the research carried out in therapist-guided sessions. PMID:21834407

  3. Dreaming during sevoflurane or propofol short-term sedation: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Xu, G H; Liu, X S; Yu, F Q; Gu, E W; Zhang, J; Royse, A G; Wang, K

    2012-05-01

    Prior reports suggest that dreaming during anaesthesia is dependent on recovery time. Dreaming during sedation may impact patient satisfaction. The current study explores the incidence and content of dreaming during short-term sedation with sevoflurane or propofol and investigates whether dreaming is affected by recovery time. A total of 200 women undergoing first trimester abortion (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I) participated in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either sevoflurane or propofol for short-term sedation. Patients were interviewed upon emergence with the modified Brice questionnaire. The results showed the incidence of dreaming was significantly different between anaesthesia groups with 60% (60/100) of the sevoflurane group and 33% (33/100) of the propofol group (P=0.000). However, recovery time did not significantly differ between groups. In the sevoflurane group, a greater number of dreamers could not recall what they had dreamed about (P=0.02) and more patients reported dreams that had no sound (P=0.03) or movement (P=0.001) compared with dreamers in the propofol group. Most participants reported dreams with positive emotional content and this did not significantly differ between groups. Anaesthesia administered had no effect on patient satisfaction. The results suggest that the incidence of dreaming was not affected by recovery time. Patient satisfaction was not influenced by choice of sedative and/or by the occurrence of dreaming during sevoflurane or propofol short-term sedation. PMID:22577917

  4. "Dreams Are Born on Places Like This": The Process of Interpretive Community Formation at the "Field of Dreams" Site.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aden, Roger C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes the narratives of 113 visitors to the site of the film "Field of Dreams." Develops a theory that explains how interpretive communities are formed despite theoretical writings that argue for individualized interpretations of text. Demonstrates that individuals can at once converge and diverge symbolically within the confines of an…

  5. Content analysis of 4 to 8 year-old children's dream reports

    PubMed Central

    Sándor, Piroska; Szakadát, Sára; Kertész, Katinka; Bódizs, Róbert

    2015-01-01

    The role of dreaming in childhood and in adulthood are still equally enigmatic fields yet to be fully explored. However, while there is a consensus at least about the typical content and formal characteristics of adult dream reports, these features are still a matter of debate in the case of young children. Longitudinal developmental laboratory studies concluded that preschoolers' dreams usually depict static images about mostly animals and body states of the dreamer but they basically lack the active representation of the self, human characters, social interactions, dream emotions and motion imagery. Due to methodological arguments these results became the reference points in the literature of developmental dream research, in spite of the significantly different results of numerous recent and relevant studies using extra-laboratory settings. This study aims to establish a methodologically well-controlled and valid way to collect children's dreams for a representative period of time in a familiar home setting to serve as a comparison to the laboratory method. Pre trained parents acted as interviewers in the course of a 6 week-period of dream collection upon morning awakenings. Our results suggest that even preschoolers are likely to represent their own self in an active role (70%) in their mostly kinematic (82%) dream narratives. Their dream reports contain more human, than animal characters (70 and 7% of all dream characters respectively), and social interactions, self-initiated actions, and emotions are usual part of these dreams. These results are rather similar to those of recent extra-laboratory studies, suggesting that methodological issues may strongly interfere with research outcomes especially in the case of preschoolers' dream narratives. We suggest that nighttime awakenings in the laboratory setting could be crucial in understanding the contradictory results of dream studies in case of young children. PMID:25983708

  6. Content analysis of 4 to 8 year-old children's dream reports.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Piroska; Szakadát, Sára; Kertész, Katinka; Bódizs, Róbert

    2015-01-01

    The role of dreaming in childhood and in adulthood are still equally enigmatic fields yet to be fully explored. However, while there is a consensus at least about the typical content and formal characteristics of adult dream reports, these features are still a matter of debate in the case of young children. Longitudinal developmental laboratory studies concluded that preschoolers' dreams usually depict static images about mostly animals and body states of the dreamer but they basically lack the active representation of the self, human characters, social interactions, dream emotions and motion imagery. Due to methodological arguments these results became the reference points in the literature of developmental dream research, in spite of the significantly different results of numerous recent and relevant studies using extra-laboratory settings. This study aims to establish a methodologically well-controlled and valid way to collect children's dreams for a representative period of time in a familiar home setting to serve as a comparison to the laboratory method. Pre trained parents acted as interviewers in the course of a 6 week-period of dream collection upon morning awakenings. Our results suggest that even preschoolers are likely to represent their own self in an active role (70%) in their mostly kinematic (82%) dream narratives. Their dream reports contain more human, than animal characters (70 and 7% of all dream characters respectively), and social interactions, self-initiated actions, and emotions are usual part of these dreams. These results are rather similar to those of recent extra-laboratory studies, suggesting that methodological issues may strongly interfere with research outcomes especially in the case of preschoolers' dream narratives. We suggest that nighttime awakenings in the laboratory setting could be crucial in understanding the contradictory results of dream studies in case of young children. PMID:25983708

  7. Observed disparity on schistosome infection rates in field Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss) between two areas of the Jos Metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akufongwe, P F; Dondji, B; Okwuosa, V N; Dakul, D A; Ntonifor, H N

    1995-03-01

    Two regions of the Jos Metropolis in Plateau State, Nigeria, with contrasting topographic features and harbouring many snails infested water bodies were surveyed for the presence of cercariae shedding Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss) for a period of 12 months. A significantly marked (P < 0.01) fluctuation in infection rates in field B. pfeifferi was observed between the two areas. The factors contributing to the disparity in shedding capacities are linked to human behavioural pattern, and the drying up of water bodies. Their importance with respect to the control of intestinal schistosomiasis in the region are discussed. PMID:9137649

  8. Testing the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in lucid dreaming: a tDCS study.

    PubMed

    Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that lucid dreaming (awareness of dreaming while dreaming) might be associated with increased brain activity over frontal regions during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. By applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), we aimed to manipulate the activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during REM sleep to increase dream lucidity. Nineteen participants spent three consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory. On the second and third nights they randomly received either 1 mA tDCS for 10 min or sham stimulation during each REM period starting with the second one. According to the participants' self-ratings, tDCS over the DLPFC during REM sleep increased lucidity in dreams. The effects, however, were not strong and found only in frequent lucid dreamers. While this indicates some preliminary support for the involvement of the DLPFC in lucid dreaming, further research, controlling for indirect effects of stimulation and including other brain regions, is needed. PMID:24021850

  9. Hypnosis and the dream hidden observer: primary process and demand characteristics.

    PubMed

    Maré, C; Lynn, S J; Kvaal, S; Segal, D; Sivec, H

    1994-05-01

    In Study 1, virtuoso (n = 13; passed more than 10 suggestions on the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A [HGSHS:A] and Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C), high hypnotizable (n = 14; passed more than 8 suggestions on the HGSHS:A), and medium hypnotizable (n = 17; passed 4-8 suggestions on the HGSHS:A) Ss were administered a hypnotic dream suggestion followed by a "dream hidden observer" suggestion (i.e., access hidden part; have new thoughts and images pertinent to dream). The majority of Ss reported dreams (81.8%) and hidden observers (80%), with hidden reports being characterized by more personal content, less primary processes, and poorer recall than dream reports. Study 2 replicated major findings. Although hypnotized (n = 18) and low hypnotizable simulating Ss (n = 17) responded comparably on most measures, hypnotizable Ss' dreams contained more primary process than did simulating Ss, providing support for M. R. Nash's (1991) psychoanalytic model. PMID:8040501

  10. Molecular insight of DREAM and presenilin 1 C-terminal fragment interactions.

    PubMed

    Pham, Khoa; Miksovska, Jaroslava

    2016-04-01

    Interactions between downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM) and presenilin 1 (PS1) are related to numerous neuronal processes. We demonstrate that association of PS1 carboxyl peptide (residues 445-467, HL9) with DREAM is calcium dependent and stabilized by a cluster of three aromatic residues: F462 and F465 from PS1 and F252 from DREAM. Additional stabilization is provided by residues in a loop connecting α helices 7 and 8 in DREAM and residues of PS1, namely cation-π interactions between R200 in DREAM and F465 in PS1 and the salt bridges formed by R207 in DREAM and D450 and D458 in PS1. PMID:27009418

  11. Awareness and knowledge of National School Health Policy and School Health Programme among public secondary school teachers in Ibadan metropolis

    PubMed Central

    Obembe, Taiwo A.; Osungbade, Kayode O.; Ademokun, Oluwakemi M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The awareness, knowledge, and involvement of teachers in the implementation of School Health Programme (SHP) in secondary schools are essential in ensuring the effectiveness and overall success of the School Health Policy. This study assessed the awareness and knowledge of teachers on SHP in Ibadan metropolis. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out using a two-stage sampling technique to select 426 secondary school teachers across all the five Urban Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Ibadan metropolis by balloting. Pretested semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 426 teachers. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square, and logistics regression tests at 5% level of significance. Results: About one-third of the respondents had heard of National School Health Policy (NSHP); however, few had seen the document. About half of the respondents were aware of the SHP in their schools. Many of the respondents had a good knowledge of SHP. Age and level of education of participants significantly influenced the knowledge of SHP. Above 50 years of age and postgraduate qualification were the significant predictors for the good knowledge of SHP. Conclusions: Awareness of the NSHP was low despite the good knowledge of SHP. This could be due to the tertiary education that most of the respondents had. Concerted efforts of stakeholders are required to intensify the health education awareness campaign to improve teachers’ knowledge based on NSHP.

  12. Fault zone structure and inferences on past activities of the active Shanchiao Fault in the Taipei metropolis, northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Lee, J.; Chan, Y.; Lu, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Taipei Metropolis, home to around 10 million people, is subject to seismic hazard originated from not only distant faults or sources scattered throughout the Taiwan region, but also active fault lain directly underneath. Northern Taiwan including the Taipei region is currently affected by post-orogenic (Penglai arc-continent collision) processes related to backarc extension of the Ryukyu subduction system. The Shanchiao Fault, an active normal fault outcropping along the western boundary of the Taipei Basin and dipping to the east, is investigated here for its subsurface structure and activities. Boreholes records in the central portion of the fault were analyzed to document the stacking of post- Last Glacial Maximum growth sediments, and a tulip flower structure is illuminated with averaged vertical slip rate of about 3 mm/yr. Similar fault zone architecture and post-LGM tectonic subsidence rate is also found in the northern portion of the fault. A correlation between geomorphology and structural geology in the Shanchiao Fault zone demonstrates an array of subtle geomorphic scarps corresponds to the branch fault while the surface trace of the main fault seems to be completely erased by erosion and sedimentation. Such constraints and knowledge are crucial in earthquake hazard evaluation and mitigation in the Taipei Metropolis, and in understanding the kinematics of transtensional tectonics in northern Taiwan. Schematic 3D diagram of the fault zone in the central portion of the Shanchiao Fault, displaying regional subsurface geology and its relation to topographic features.

  13. Implementation challenges of maternal health care in Ghana: the case of health care providers in the Tamale Metropolis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of improving maternal health has become a focus in recent times for the majority of countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Ghana’s maternal mortality is still high indicating that there are challenges in the provision of quality maternal health care at the facility level. This study examined the implementation challenges of maternal health care services in the Tamale Metropolis of Ghana. Methods Purposive sampling was used to select study participants and qualitative strategies, including in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and review of documents employed for data collection. The study participants included midwives (24) and health managers (4) at the facility level. Results The study revealed inadequate in-service training, limited knowledge of health policies by midwives, increased workload, risks of infection, low motivation, inadequate labour wards, problems with transportation, and difficulties in following the procurement act, among others as some of the challenges confronting the successful implementation of the MDGs targeting maternal and child health in the Tamale Metropolis. Conclusions Implementation of maternal health interventions should take into consideration the environment or the context under which the interventions are implemented by health care providers to ensure they are successful. The study recommends involving midwives in the health policy development process to secure their support and commitment towards successful implementation of maternal health interventions. PMID:24393358

  14. Pathologic Analysis of Control Plans for Air Pollution Management in Tehran Metropolis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Salehi Shahrabi, Narges; Pourezzat, Aliasghar; Mobaraki, Hossein; Mafimoradi, Shiva

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The centralization of human activities is associated with different pollutants which enter into environment easily and cause the urban environment more vulnerable. Regarding the importance of air pollution issue for Tehran metropolis, many plans and regulations have been developed. However, most of them failed to decline the pollution. The purpose of this study was to pathologically analyze air-pollution control plans to offer effective solutions for Tehran metropolis. Methods A Qualitative content analysis in addition to a semi-structured interview with 14 practicing professional were used to identify 1) key sources of Tehran’s air pollution, 2) recognize challenges towards effective performance of pertinent plans and 3), offer effective solutions. Results Related challenges to air-pollution control plans can be divided into two major categories including lack of integrated and organized stewardship and PEST challenges. Conclusion For controlling the air pollution of Tehran effectively, various controlling alternatives were identified as systematization of plan preparation process, standardization and utilization of new technologies & experts, infrastructural development, realization of social justice, developing coordination mechanisms, improving citizens’ participatory capacity and focusing on effective management of fuel and energy. Controlling air pollution in Tehran needs a serious attention of policymakers to make enforcements through applying a systemic cycle of preparation comprehensive plans. Further, implement the enforcements and evaluate the environmental impact of the plans through involving all stakeholders. PMID:26171340

  15. Exhaustive Metropolis Monte Carlo sampling and analysis of polyalanine conformations adopted under the influence of hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Podtelezhnikov, Alexei A; Wild, David L

    2005-10-01

    We propose a novel Metropolis Monte Carlo procedure for protein modeling and analyze the influence of hydrogen bonding on the distribution of polyalanine conformations. We use an atomistic model of the polyalanine chain with rigid and planar polypeptide bonds, and elastic alpha carbon valence geometry. We adopt a simplified energy function in which only hard-sphere repulsion and hydrogen bonding interactions between the atoms are considered. Our Metropolis Monte Carlo procedure utilizes local crankshaft moves and is combined with parallel tempering to exhaustively sample the conformations of 16-mer polyalanine. We confirm that Flory's isolated-pair hypothesis (the steric independence between the dihedral angles of individual amino acids) does not hold true in long polypeptide chains. In addition to 3(10)- and alpha-helices, we identify a kink stabilized by 2 hydrogen bonds with a shared acceptor as a common structural motif. Varying the strength of hydrogen bonds, we induce the helix-coil transition in the model polypeptide chain. We compare the propensities for various hydrogen bonding patterns and determine the degree of cooperativity of hydrogen bond formation in terms of the Hill coefficient. The observed helix-coil transition is also quantified according to Zimm-Bragg theory. PMID:16049911

  16. Microbial Content of “Bowl Water” Used for Communal Handwashing in Preschools within Accra Metropolis, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Anim-Baidoo, Isaac; Attah, Simon Kwaku; Abdul-Latif Baako, Bawa; Opintan, Japheth A.; Minamor, Andrew A.; Abdul-Rahman, Mubarak; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed at determining the microbial content of “bowl water” used for communal handwashing in preschools within the Accra Metropolis. Method. Six (6) preschools in the Accra Metropolis were involved in the study. Water samples and swabs from the hands of the preschool children were collected. The samples were analysed and tested for bacteria, fungi, parasites, and rotavirus. Results. Eight different bacteria, two different parasites, and a fungus were isolated while no rotavirus was detected. Unlike the rest of the microbes, bacterial isolates were found among samples from all the schools, with Staphylococcus species being the most prevalent (40.9%). Out of the three schools that had parasites in their water, two of them had Cryptosporidium parvum. The fungus isolated from two out of the six schools was Aspergillus niger. All bacteria isolated were found to be resistant to cotrimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin and susceptible to amikacin and levofloxacin. Conclusion. Although handwashing has the ability to get rid of microbes, communal handwashing practices using water in bowls could be considered a possible transmission route and may be of public concern. PMID:27555872

  17. Experimental Research on Dreaming: State of the Art and Neuropsychoanalytic Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ruby, Perrine M.

    2011-01-01

    Dreaming is still a mystery of human cognition, although it has been studied experimentally for more than a century. Experimental psychology first investigated dream content and frequency. The neuroscientific approach to dreaming arose at the end of the 1950s and soon proposed a physiological substrate of dreaming: rapid eye movement sleep. Fifty years later, this hypothesis was challenged because it could not explain all of the characteristics of dream reports. Therefore, the neurophysiological correlates of dreaming are still unclear, and many questions remain unresolved. Do the representations that constitute the dream emerge randomly from the brain, or do they surface according to certain parameters? Is the organization of the dream’s representations chaotic or is it determined by rules? Does dreaming have a meaning? What is/are the function(s) of dreaming? Psychoanalysis provides hypotheses to address these questions. Until now, these hypotheses have received minimal attention in cognitive neuroscience, but the recent development of neuropsychoanalysis brings new hopes of interaction between the two fields. Considering the psychoanalytical perspective in cognitive neuroscience would provide new directions and leads for dream research and would help to achieve a comprehensive understanding of dreaming. Notably, several subjective issues at the core of the psychoanalytic approach, such as the concept of personal meaning, the concept of unconscious episodic memory and the subject’s history, are not addressed or considered in cognitive neuroscience. This paper argues that the focus on singularity and personal meaning in psychoanalysis is needed to successfully address these issues in cognitive neuroscience and to progress in the understanding of dreaming and the psyche. PMID:22121353

  18. Evidence that non-dreamers do dream: a REM sleep behaviour disorder model.

    PubMed

    Herlin, Bastien; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Chaumereuil, Charlotte; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether non-dreamers do not produce dreams or do not recall them, subjects were identified with no dream recall with dreamlike behaviours during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, which is typically characterised by dream-enacting behaviours congruent with sleep mentation. All consecutive patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder or rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder associated with Parkinson's disease who underwent a video-polysomnography were interviewed regarding the presence or absence of dream recall, retrospectively or upon spontaneous arousals. The patients with no dream recall for at least 10 years, and never-ever recallers were compared with dream recallers with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder regarding their clinical, cognitive and sleep features. Of the 289 patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, eight (2.8%) patients had no dream recall, including four (1.4%) patients who had never ever recalled dreams, and four patients who had no dream recall for 10-56 years. All non-recallers exhibited, daily or almost nightly, several complex, scenic and dreamlike behaviours and speeches, which were also observed during rapid eye movement sleep on video-polysomnography (arguing, fighting and speaking). They did not recall a dream following sudden awakenings from rapid eye movement sleep. These eight non-recallers with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder did not differ in terms of cognition, clinical, treatment or sleep measures from the 17 dreamers with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder matched for age, sex and disease. The scenic dreamlike behaviours reported and observed during rapid eye movement sleep in the rare non-recallers with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (even in the never-ever recallers) provide strong evidence that non-recallers produce dreams, but do not recall them. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder provides a new model to

  19. Effect of mass media and Internet on sexual behavior of undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Asekun-Olarinmoye, Olusesan S; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther O; Adebimpe, Wasiu O; Omisore, Akin G

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The influence of media portrayals of sexual attitudes and normative expectations of young people at a critical developmental stage is of public health concern. Objectives To examine the role of mass media and Internet utilization in shaping the sexual health attitudes and behaviors of young undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis, Osun State, Nigeria. Materials and methods In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 400 undergraduates were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Four hundred and fifty pretested, semistructured questionnaires were distributed; of these, 400 were returned properly filled. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 16. Results Mean age of respondents ± standard deviation was 23.6±2.99 years. Most were aware of the various forms of mass media (>95%). Most (64.0%) respondents spent 1–5 hours watching television, daily, and most used the Internet often. About 38.3% and 24.2% of respondents used the Internet and radio/television, respectively, as sources of information on sexual issues. Most respondents used the Internet for school assignments (83.0%, n=332), electronic mail (89.0%, n=356), and for accessing sexually explicit materials (74.5%, n=298). Most of the respondents (73.5%) opined that the Internet has a bad influence on youths’ sexual behavior, although accessing the Internet for sexual material or movies was acceptable to 25.3% of them. Of the 226 respondents who had ever had sex, 226 (100%), 37 (16.4%), 31 (13.7%), and 10 (4.4%) practiced coitus, oral sex, masturbation, and anal sex, respectively; 122 (54.0%) always used condoms, whereas 90 (40.0%) never used condoms during sexual activity; 33 (14.6%) had had sex with commercial sex workers. Further analysis showed that those who were yet to marry (single) were less likely to be sexually experienced than those who were married (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.075, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.008–0.679), and those who said accessing

  20. Water quality assessment of the Asata River catchment area in Enugu Metropolis, Southeast Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinowo, Olawale Olakunle

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogeochemical mapping of the Asata River Catchment area in the Enugu metropolis, southeast Nigeria was carried out in order to assess the quality of the surface and groundwater and based on the analyses of the hydrogeochemical data, establish the level of chemical contaminations which inhibit the availability of potable water in the area. Forty (40) water samples comprising five (5) springs, nineteen (19) surface (streams/rivers) and sixteen (16) groundwater (well/borehole) samples were collected and analysed for the presence and degree of contamination of nine (9) major chemical contaminants. Hydrochemical analyses indicate that Electrical Conductivity (EC) which has a linear relationship with Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) ranges between 015 and 887 μS/cm, pH between 4.4 and 8.3, nitrate (NO3-) ranges between 40 and 130 mg/l and chloride (Cl-) between 7 and 130 mg/l. The concentrations of the dissolved chemical constituents defined the pollution trend and the rate of dispersion of contaminants. The degree of contaminants followed a simple trend, where the level of contamination of the dissolved chemical constituents is least in sampled spring water, with measured chemical constituents of EC, pH, NO3- and Cl- range from 15 to 354 μS/cm; 6.4-6.5; 4.0-70 mg/l and 8-36 mg/l, respectively. However, the value of the measured chemical constituent of EC, pH, NO3- and Cl- gradually increases down the stream in both the surface (63-354 μS/cm; 4.5-7.7; 7.1-110 mg/l; 8-41 mg/l) and groundwater (56-531 μS/cm; 4.5-7.5; 40-130 mg/l; 7-130 mg/l), respectively. Noticeable peaks in contamination levels characterised sections of the study area where human population or their activities is highest. The result of the hydrogeochemical mapping indicate that Enugu coal mine operation, the industrial activities, fertilizer applied to plants cultivated on river banks and domestic human wastes which are indiscriminately dumped along river channels are the major sources of chemical

  1. The meaning of dreams in the psychotic state. Theoretical considerations and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, P; de Masi, F

    2001-10-01

    The authors consider that the Freudian theory of dreams is not directly applicable to psychotic and borderline patients with their constantly varying states of mental integration. Because these patients' dreams lack associations, the usual psychoanalytic approach cannot be used to ascertain their meaning. After reviewing the literature on the specific quality of dreams in the psychotic state, the authors point out that such dreams have nothing to do with the metaphorical language of the dream work but instead express the concreteness of the hallucinatory construction. For this reason, a dream's meaning may fail to be understood by the patient even if it seems clear to an observer. Yet the analyst's reception of a 'psychotic dream' is a unique and essential source of valuable information on the manner of construction of the delusional system, allowing analytic work on the psychotic nucleus. In the authors' view, such dreams may help the analyst and the patient--while still lucid--to acquire insight, thus affording a stable foundation for emergence from psychosis. The paper includes some case histories, in one of which a psychotic female patient is enabled by work on dreams to reconstruct a psychotic episode and thereby to ward off an imminent fresh lapse into psychosis. PMID:11723959

  2. Frequency of nightmares and gender significantly predict distressing dreams of German athletes before competitions or games.

    PubMed

    Erlacher, Daniel; Ehrlenspiel, Felix; Schredl, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Important sports events are highlights and stressful situations in every athlete's career. This stress might alter the dream content of athletes and consequently evoke disturbed dreaming. In this study, the authors asked 840 German athletes from various sports about distressing dreams on the nights before an important competition or game. About 15% of the athletes stated that they experienced at least 1 distressing dream before an important competition or game during the preceding 12 months. An almost equal number of athletes reported at least 1 distressing dream in their sports career. With respect to the base rate, in about 3% of the events a distressing dream occurred. Reported dream content referred mainly to athletic failure. The main risk factor for an athlete experiencing a distressing dream before a competition appears to be the frequency of experienced nightmares in general. Future research should use diary techniques to study the impact of distressing dreams on the next-day athletic performance in a competition or game. PMID:21834325

  3. DREAM Controls the On/Off Switch of Specific Activity-Dependent Transcription Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mellström, Britt; Sahún, Ignasi; Ruiz-Nuño, Ana; Murtra, Patricia; Gomez-Villafuertes, Rosa; Savignac, Magali; Oliveros, Juan C.; Gonzalez, Paz; Kastanauskaite, Asta; Knafo, Shira; Zhuo, Min; Higuera-Matas, Alejandro; Errington, Michael L.; Maldonado, Rafael; DeFelipe, Javier; Jefferys, John G. R.; Bliss, Tim V. P.; Dierssen, Mara

    2014-01-01

    Changes in nuclear Ca2+ homeostasis activate specific gene expression programs and are central to the acquisition and storage of information in the brain. DREAM (downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator), also known as calsenilin/KChIP-3 (K+ channel interacting protein 3), is a Ca2+-binding protein that binds DNA and represses transcription in a Ca2+-dependent manner. To study the function of DREAM in the brain, we used transgenic mice expressing a Ca2+-insensitive/CREB-independent dominant active mutant DREAM (daDREAM). Using genome-wide analysis, we show that DREAM regulates the expression of specific activity-dependent transcription factors in the hippocampus, including Npas4, Nr4a1, Mef2c, JunB, and c-Fos. Furthermore, DREAM regulates its own expression, establishing an autoinhibitory feedback loop to terminate activity-dependent transcription. Ablation of DREAM does not modify activity-dependent transcription because of gene compensation by the other KChIP family members. The expression of daDREAM in the forebrain resulted in a complex phenotype characterized by loss of recurrent inhibition and enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus and impaired learning and memory. Our results indicate that DREAM is a major master switch transcription factor that regulates the on/off status of specific activity-dependent gene expression programs that control synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. PMID:24366545

  4. Does Arabidopsis thaliana DREAM of cell cycle control?

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Martin; DeCaprio, James A

    2015-01-01

    Strict temporal control of cell cycle gene expression is essential for all eukaryotes including animals and plants. DREAM complexes have been identified in worm, fly, and mammals, linking several distinct transcription factors to coordinate gene expression throughout the cell cycle. In this issue of The EMBO Journal, Kobayashi et al (2015) identify distinct activator and repressor complexes for genes expressed during the G2 and M phases in Arabidopsis that can be temporarily separated during proliferating and post-mitotic stages of development. The complexes incorporate specific activator and repressor MYB and E2F transcription factors and indicate the possibility of the existence of multiple DREAM complexes in plants. PMID:26089020

  5. Cerebral blood flow in normal and abnormal sleep and dreaming

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Hata, T.; Karacan, I.

    1987-07-01

    Measurements of regional or local cerebral blood flow (CBF) by the xenon-133 inhalation method and stable xenon computerized tomography CBF (CTCBF) method were made during relaxed wakefulness and different stages of REM and non-REM sleep in normal age-matched volunteers, narcoleptics, and sleep apneics. In the awake state, CBF values were reduced in both narcoleptics and sleep apneics in the brainstem and cerebellar regions. During sleep onset, whether REM or stage I-II, CBF values were paradoxically increased in narcoleptics but decreased severely in sleep apneics, while in normal volunteers they became diffusely but more moderately decreased. In REM sleep and dreaming CBF values greatly increased, particularly in right temporo-parietal regions in subjects experiencing both visual and auditory dreaming.

  6. The 'mad scientists': psychoanalysis, dream and virtual reality.

    PubMed

    Leclaire, Marie

    2003-04-01

    The author explores the concept of reality-testing as a means of assessing the relationship with reality that prevails in dream and in virtual reality. Based on a model developed by Jean Laplanche, she compares these activities in detail in order to determine their respective independence from the function of reality-testing. By carefully examining the concept of hallucination in the writings of Freud and Daniel Dennett, the author seeks to pinpoint the specific modalities of interaction between perceptions, ideas, wishes and actions that converge in the 'belief' and in the 'sense of reality'. The paper's main thesis consists of the distinction that it draws between immediacy-testing and reality-testing, with the further argument that this distinction not only dissipates the conceptual vagueness that generally surrounds the latter of the two concepts but also that it promotes a more precise analysis of the function of reality in dream and in virtual reality. PMID:12856355

  7. Critique and cure: a dream of uniting psychoanalysis and philosophy.

    PubMed

    Webster, Jamieson

    2013-06-01

    Critical theory, whose aim was to historicize philosophy through integrating it with the social sciences, turned to psychoanalysis to find its way through an accounting of philosophy after the Second World War. Over 50 years after this initial project, the rift between philosophy and psychoanalysis has never been greater. If Jacques Lacan could be considered one of the few psychoanalysts to maintain and foster links to philosophical thought in the latter half of the 20th century, his work has sadly remained marginal in the clinical field throughout America and Europe. Both critical theory and Lacan remain skeptical of the direction taken by psychoanalysis after Freud. Reflecting on the history of these two disciplines, as well as through an examination of Theodor Adorno's posthumously published dream journal, critique and cure emerge as two dialectically intertwined themes that gain momentum in the dream of the unification of the philosophical and psychoanalytic projects. PMID:23722399

  8. Metaliteral dreaming: a right hemisphere dominant linguistic activity.

    PubMed

    Arenson, K

    1990-06-01

    Many dream reports, which take the form of propositional speech, are more meaningful if understood as metaliteral speech. To achieve this understanding the speech sounds must be decoded according to different linguistic rules than govern propositional speech. The basic rules for metaliteral speech were outlined in a recent paper. Those rules came from empirical observation. This paper proposes that the right hemisphere is dominant for the linguistic activity of metaliteral speech because, in one way or another, the rules all seem to depend on the cognitive use of right hemisphere functions, or sometimes, on the absence of left hemisphere functions. The proposed theory rejects an exclusive role for the right hemisphere in metaliteral behavior. By recognizing the subordinate role of the left, the puzzles are solved of the story-like quality to dream reports and the central role of prosody in decoding metaliteral speech. PMID:2197651

  9. [Dreams, their disorders and their therapeutic function in ancient Mesopotamia].

    PubMed

    Pangas, Julio César

    2006-12-01

    In this article, the author analyzes the concept of dreams in ancient Mesopotamia, as well as the interpretation of their therapeutic function by this civilisation. Also discussed are sleep disorders, as described on cuneiform tablets, written on clay at least four thousand years ago. These tablets had a magic role but also functioned as medical texts, detailing therapies used in dealing with the problems of sleep. PMID:17575818

  10. The new 6 MV AMS-facility DREAMS at Dresden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Heller, René; Hanf, Daniel; Rugel, Georg; Merchel, Silke

    2013-01-01

    A new 6 MV electrostatic tandem accelerator has been put into operation at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR). The system is equipped for accelerator mass spectrometry and opens a new research field at HZDR and the Helmholtz Association. It will be also used for ion beam analysis as well as for material modification via high-energy ion implantation. The research activity at the DREsden Accelerator Mass Spectrometry facility (DREAMS) based on a 6 MV Tandetron is primarily dedicated to the long-lived radioisotopes of 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, and 129I. DREAMS background levels have been found to be at 4.5 × 10-16 for 10Be/9Be, 8 × 10-16 for 26Al/27Al, 3 × 10-15 for 36Cl/35Cl and 8 × 10-15 for 41Ca/40Ca, respectively. The observed background of 2 × 10-13 for 129I/127I originates from intrinsic 129I from AgI produced from commercial KI. The introduction of quality assurance approaches for AMS, such as the use of traceable calibration materials and taking part in interlaboratory comparisons, guarantees high accuracy data for future DREAMS users. During first experiments an energy calibration of the accelerator has been carried out using the nuclear reaction 1H(15N,γα)12C yielding an energy correction factor of 1.019.

  11. Sickness, dreams and moral selfhood among migrant Pakistani Muslims.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Kaveri

    2010-12-01

    This paper draws from two years of fieldwork investigating the social course of illness among Pakistani Muslims in East London, exploring how chronic illness is communicated and negotiated in local worlds disrupted by migrancy. It examines episodic short stories about dreams, premonitions and uncanny coincidences that were prominent within the illness narratives of migrant Pakistani Muslims, recalling and throwing light on complex questions concerning subjective constructions of misfortune, the personal and social meanings of illness and the relationships between narrative and selfhood. The ethnography identifies a strong normative context of communication about ill health and bad news, within which revelation through the mode of the supernatural takes on added significance. Recurrent motifs in the dreams emphasize the connectedness between family members scattered across migratory contexts, and the reawakening of moral obligations in families. Whilst medical anthropology has understood descriptions of dreams and other uncanny experiences as 'subjunctivising tactics' serving to maintain alternative plots about the source and outcome of illness, in the Islamic context the narrating of supernatural encounters can have transformative effects, re-organising praxis and conferring legitimacy to certain forms of moral selfhood. The paper therefore argues that the notion of the 'subjunctive mode' imposes the analysts' own system of logic and that there is a need to understand the interpretive frameworks present in the illness narratives in their own terms. PMID:21153962

  12. Assessing Teaching Effectiveness of the English Grammar Teacher in Public Senior High Schools within the Cape Coast Metropolis Using the Quality Teaching Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atta-Asamoah, Obed; Emefa Doe, Jennifer; Narh Tekpetey, Victor; Hepzibah Amprofi Boham, Eunice

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this study was to assess the teaching effectiveness of English Grammar teachers in public Senior High Schools within the Cape Coast Metropolis using the Quality Teaching Model. It sought to ascertain how appropriately the three dimensions of the Quality Teaching Model are addressed in the teaching and assessment practices of the…

  13. Estimation of Contextual Effects through Nonlinear Multilevel Latent Variable Modeling with a Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro Algorithm. CRESST Report 833

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Ji Seung; Cai, Li

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to improve estimation efficiency in obtaining full-information maximum likelihood (FIML) estimates of contextual effects in the framework of a nonlinear multilevel latent variable model by adopting the Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro algorithm (MH-RM; Cai, 2008, 2010a, 2010b). Results indicate that the MH-RM…

  14. The passions and perils of interpretation (of dreams and texts): an appreciation of Erik Erikson's Dream specimen paper.

    PubMed

    Coen, S J

    1996-06-01

    The author reconsiders Erikson's 'Dream specimen' paper as a forerunner of subsequent reader-response criticism, constructive writings on the exploration of countertransference and our contemporary debates about the constructions of meaning in the analytic and literary situations. He regards Erikson as deconstructing our interpretive efforts with texts and with patients; we are to move away from an interpretive process in which we pin down meanings towards opening up the ongoing exploration of multiple meanings. By emphasising self-reflexive questioning and joyful play between texts and readers and analysands and analysts, Erikson contributed to opening up the pleasures of both psychoanalysis and literary criticism. Although he wonders whether Erikson may have wished to move his own creativity beyond conflict, the author heartily endorses his encouraging us to enjoy playing with our materials--texts, dreams and analyses. PMID:8818769

  15. Complement to "ratio of male and female characters in a dream series".

    PubMed

    Houran, J

    1998-06-01

    This note relates recent research on dream content to other findings on imaginal experiences which suggest that state or situational factors frequently define the content of experiences related to altered states of consciousness. As with hallucinatory, dissociative, and autohypnotic phenomena, dream content reflects a continuity between waking and imaginal experience. PMID:9700827

  16. REM Dreaming and Cognitive Skills at Ages 5-8: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulkes, David; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes laboratory research on REM (rapid eye movement) sleep in children ages five to eight. Image quality, self-representation, and narrative complexity of dreams all develop as age progresses. Children's representational intelligence predicts their rate of dream production, but language skills do not. (GH)

  17. Wittgenstein, Freud, Dreaming and Education: Psychoanalytic Explanation as "Une Facon de Parler"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, James D.

    2008-01-01

    Freud saw the dream as occupying a very important position in his theoretical model. If there were to be problems with his theoretical account of the dream then this would impinge upon proposed therapy and, of course, education as the right balance between the instincts and the institution of culture. Wittgenstein, whilst stating that Freud was…

  18. Sleep, Dreams, and Memory Consolidation: The Role of the Stress Hormone Cortisol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Jessica D.; Nadel, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the relationship between sleep, dreams, and memory, proposing that the content of dreams reflects aspects of memory consolidation taking place during the different stages of sleep. Although we acknowledge the likely involvement of various neuromodulators in these phenomena, we focus on the hormone cortisol, which is known to exert…

  19. The traumatic element in the typical dream of feeling embarrassed at being naked.

    PubMed

    Myers, W A

    1989-01-01

    Material is presented from three cases, where analysis of repetitive dreams of feeling embarrassment at being partially or totally naked was an important feature of the treatment. The indifference by the other people in the dream to the dreamer's nakedness was initially linked to perceived transference slights at the hands of the analyst, and later to repeated episodes of actually being treated indifferently at the hands of the parents. This indifference was related to latency or adolescent attempts by the patients to gain love or attention from the parents by exhibitionistic means. The stereotypical presentation of the manifest content of these dreams is seen as evidence for their underlying traumatic roots. Such dreams are likened to the typical examination dreams described by Freud, which have also been noted by others to have traumatic roots. This finding is consistent with my own work with certain repetitive manifest dream configurations and with Freud's (1920) reevaluation of his theory of dreams in Beyond the Pleasure Principle, wherein he noted that dreams of patients suffering from traumatic neurosis often manifestly repeated the traumatic situation in an attempt to master it retrospectively. PMID:2708770

  20. Dream Content in Complicated Grief: A Window into Loss-Related Cognitive Schemas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Anne; Shear, Katherine M.; Walsh, Colleen; Buysse, Daniel J.; Monk, Timothy H.; Reynolds, Charles F., III; Frank, Ellen; Silowash, Russell

    2013-01-01

    Bereavement and its accompanying psychological response (grief) constitute potent experiences that necessitate the reorganization of cognitive-affective representations of lost significant attachment figures during both wakefulness and dreaming. The goals of this preliminary study were to explore whether the dream content of 77 adults with…

  1. Trauma-Related Nightmares among American Indian Veterans: Views from the Dream Catcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Jay H.; Orton, Heather; Manson, Spero M.

    2009-01-01

    Dreams hold particular relevance in mental health work with American Indians (AIs). Nightmares are a common sequelae of trauma and a frequent defining feature of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Despite mounting evidence of the prevalence of trauma and PTSD among AIs and the important cultural role of dreams, no work to date has directly…

  2. The Los Alamos dynamic radiation environment assimilation model (DREAM) for space weather specification and forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, Geoffrey D; Friedel, Reiner H W; Chen, Yue; Koller, Josef; Henderson, Michael G

    2008-01-01

    The Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM) was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to assess, quantify, and predict the hazards from the natural space environment and the anthropogenic environment produced by high altitude nuclear explosions (HANE). DREAM was initially developed as a basic research activity to understand and predict the dynamics of the Earth's Van Allen radiation belts. It uses Kalman filter techniques to assimilate data from space environment instruments with a physics-based model of the radiation belts. DREAM can assimilate data from a variety of types of instruments and data with various levels of resolution and fidelity by assigning appropriate uncertainties to the observations. Data from any spacecraft orbit can be assimilated but DREAM was designed to function with as few as two spacecraft inputs: one from geosynchronous orbit and one from GPS orbit. With those inputs, DREAM can be used to predict the environment at any satellite in any orbit whether space environment data are available in those orbits or not. Even with very limited data input and relatively simple physics models, DREAM specifies the space environment in the radiation belts to a high level of accuracy. DREAM has been extensively tested and evaluated as we transition from research to operations. We report here on one set of test results in which we predict the environment in a highly-elliptical polar orbit. We also discuss long-duration reanalysis for spacecraft design, using DREAM for real-time operations, and prospects for 1-week forecasts of the radiation belt environment.

  3. 77 FR 53959 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Dancing Into Dreams, Maya...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Dancing Into Dreams, Maya Vases From..., 2003), I hereby determine that the object to be included in the exhibition ``Dancing Into Dreams,...

  4. Using Achieving the Dream to Meet Accreditation Requirements. Principles and Practices of Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Terri Mulkins

    2009-01-01

    The fundamental concepts of Achieving the Dream--using evidence to develop and evaluate strategies for improving student learning and success--are also important to successful efforts to meet accreditation requirements. Following the Achieving the Dream approach can help community colleges organize and document improvement efforts in ways that are…

  5. The Divine Dreams of a Sample of South African Children: The Gateway to Their Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potgieter, Ferdinand J.; van der Walt, Johannes L.; Wolhuter, Charl C.

    2009-01-01

    As part of a research project on religion, spirituality and education, the authors attended to the role that children's divine dreams could play in religious education (RE). They contend that such dreams can indeed be used by RE teachers as the gateway to understanding the spirituality of their learners. They defend their claim by firstly…

  6. Loving Them as They Are: Helping Parents Break the Cycle of Hand-Me-Down Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Mary H.

    Parents encourage their children to follow paths they themselves find vicariously satisfying, perpetuating a family cycle of deferred dreams. What parents must do to free their children from the cycle of hand-me-down dreams is first to free themselves. To do so, they have to examine how happy they are with their own career decisions. Understanding…

  7. Jung on the nature and interpretation of dreams: a developmental delineation with cognitive neuroscientific responses.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Caifang

    2013-12-01

    Post-Jungians tend to identify Jung's dream theory with the concept of compensation; they tend to believe that Jung's radically open stand constitutes his dream theory in its entirety. However, Jung's theory regarding dreams was a product of an evolving process throughout his whole intellectual and professional life. Unfortunately, the theory has not been understood in such a developmental light. Based on a historical and textual study of all dream articles found throughout The Collected Works of C.G. Jung, this paper maps a concise three-phase trajectory of Jung's changing views on dreams and interpretation. The paper posits that Jung's last essay, "Symbols and the Interpretation of Dreams" (1961), epitomizes his final stand, although such a stand is also reflected in a less explicit and less emphatic way during the latter period of the second phase. The paper also briefly addresses where Jung and Jungians have been enigmatic or negligent. For example, it has not been explicated fully why compensation as slight modifications and compensation as parallels to waking life situations are rare in Jung's cases In addition, contemporary cognitive and neuroscientific approaches to the study of dreams, as represented by Harry Hunt, William Domhoff, and Allan Hobson, among others, are presented in connection with Jung. The juxtaposition of Jungian, cognitive, and neuroscientific approaches showcases how cognitive and scientific findings challenge, enrich, and in some ways confirm Jung's dream theory and praxis. PMID:25379263

  8. The 2002 Leona Tyler Award Address. Working with Dreams: A Road to Self-Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Clara E.

    2003-01-01

    The author reviews the Hill cognitive-experiential model for working with dreams. This model involves three stages: exploration, insight, and action. She then reviews the empirical studies that have been conducted on this model. Results indicate that dream work is effective, particularly in terms of session evaluation and increased insight into…

  9. Dream Content of Schizophrenic, Nonschizophrenic Mentally Ill, and Community Control Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjez, Jack; Stein, Daniel; Gabbay, Uri; Bruckner, Judith; Meged, Sorin; Barak, Yoram; Elizur, Avner; Weizman, Abraham; Rotenberg, Vadim S.

    2003-01-01

    Study compared dream content of schizophrenic adolescent inpatients, adolescent inpatient s with other mental disorders, and community controls. Results suggest that psychopathology per se, rather than the specific psychiatric disturbance, may be associated with impoverishment of dream content; and that negative, rather than positive,…

  10. Symbolic Representation of Psychological States in the Dreams of Women with Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Susan M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Compares the dream content of 12 eating-disordered and 11 non-eating-disordered women. Results showed significant links in the dreams of the eating-disordered group to a sense of ineffectiveness, self-hate, a sense of being controlled or judged by others, an inability to self-nourish, and negative emotions. There were no significant pairings in…

  11. Seeing Possible Futures: Khmer Youth and the Discourse of the American Dream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinnis, Theresa A.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I add to the critique of the myth of the American Dream by examining ethnographically the ways its dominant discourse is circulated to Khmer American middle school children of migratory agricultural workers. Drawing on social theories of discourse, I juxtapose the ideology embedded in the American Dream Discourse with the…

  12. Navigating the Waves of Social and Political Capriciousness: Inspiring Perspectives from DREAM-Eligible Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Amanda; Herrera, Socorro; Murry, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the psychological and sociological impacts of the proposed Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) Act and in-state tuition legislation on DREAM-eligible students in the Midwestern United States. The researchers sought to capture the lived experiences of undocumented immigrant students through their rich…

  13. Higher Education and the "American Dream": Why the Status Quo Won't Get Us There

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keene, Sara E.

    2008-01-01

    The community college represents the only form of universal access to education, and is thus purported to be the gateway to low-income and minority students' realization of the "American Dream." That dream is growing more and more elusive for a substantial number of people. Instead of breaking down ethnic and class barriers to economic and social…

  14. [DREAM/Calsenilin/KChIP3: a new multifunctional protein in nervous system].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yun

    2005-07-01

    A newly found transcription factor-DREAM can bind specifically with downstream regulatory element of genes, such as PPD, Hrk and c-Fos, and repress gene expression. It represents the first known Ca2+ binding protein to function as a DNA-binding transcription regulator. This provides a new mechanism of Ca2+ dependent regulation of gene expression in addition to protein kinase/phosphatase signaling pathway. In fact, DREAM, calsenilin and KChIP3, which are identified by different laboratories, are the same protein. So DREAM is a multifunctional protein, including PS interacting protein, Kv4 regulatory protein and transcription factor. The distribution, function and regulation of DREAM, as well as relationship between DREAM and pain, are reviewed in the present article. PMID:16270816

  15. Properties of the organization of memory for people: evidence from dream reports.

    PubMed

    Schweickert, Richard

    2007-04-01

    Steyvers and Tenenbaum (2005) showed that semantic networks for words have three organizational properties: short average path lengths, high clustering, and power law degree distribution. If these are general properties of memory organization, they would apply to memory for other complex material, including people and relations between them. In addition, if during dreaming, characters are generated via knowledge in the dreamer's memory, the three properties would be found in a relational network of characters in dreams. In dream reports from three individuals, two characters in the same dream were considered affiliated. Resulting social networks have the three properties, with the power law holding when low degrees are omitted. One network with a tree-like outline is different from the other two. Results suggest associative memory has the three properties, and demonstrate that dream reports are a potentially valuable source for information about social networks. PMID:17694912

  16. Day residue and screen memory in Freud's dream of the botanical monograph.

    PubMed

    Palombo, S R

    1988-01-01

    Freud's theory of dream construction allowed the censorship to intervene only when a repressed infantile wish emerged from the unconscious. In his (1899) paper on screen memories, however, he proposed a mechanism for the defensive displacement of current events as they are sorted for introduction into permanent memory. I suggest that Freud was actually describing the conflictual process through which the day residue of the dream is formed. Day residue and screen memory are closely related as elements of the dreamer's present and past experience displaced from his more central instinctual concerns. Freud's dream of the botanical monograph clearly illustrates this relation. Substituted day residues were matched in the dream with relatively innocuous memories of past events of similar cognitive and affective significance. By retracing the substitutions, one can see how a current conflict over Fliess's role in the writing of the dream book recapitulated a series of Freud's earlier conflicts concerning his father and the power of books. PMID:3235760

  17. Forgotten Dreams: Recalling the Patient in British Psychotherapy, 1945–60

    PubMed Central

    Poskett, James

    2015-01-01

    The forgotten dream proved central to the early development of Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic technique in The Interpretation of Dreams (1900). However, little attention has been paid to the shifting uses of forgotten dreams within psychotherapeutic practice over the course of the twentieth century. This paper argues that post-war psychotherapists in London, both Jungian and Freudian, developed a range of subtly different approaches to dealing with their patients’ forgotten dreams. Theoretical commitments and institutional cultures shaped the work of practitioners including Donald Winnicott, Melanie Klein, Anna Freud, and Edward Griffith. By drawing on diaries and case notes, this paper also identifies the active role played by patients in negotiating the mechanics of therapy, and the appropriate response to a forgotten dream. This suggests a broader need for a detailed social history of post-Freudian psychotherapeutic technique, one that recognises the demands of both patients and practitioners. PMID:25766542

  18. Forgotten dreams: recalling the patient in British psychotherapy, 1945-60.

    PubMed

    Poskett, James

    2015-04-01

    The forgotten dream proved central to the early development of Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic technique in The Interpretation of Dreams (1900). However, little attention has been paid to the shifting uses of forgotten dreams within psychotherapeutic practice over the course of the twentieth century. This paper argues that post-war psychotherapists in London, both Jungian and Freudian, developed a range of subtly different approaches to dealing with their patients' forgotten dreams. Theoretical commitments and institutional cultures shaped the work of practitioners including Donald Winnicott, Melanie Klein, Anna Freud, and Edward Griffith. By drawing on diaries and case notes, this paper also identifies the active role played by patients in negotiating the mechanics of therapy, and the appropriate response to a forgotten dream. This suggests a broader need for a detailed social history of post-Freudian psychotherapeutic technique, one that recognises the demands of both patients and practitioners. PMID:25766542

  19. Time for actions in lucid dreams: effects of task modality, length, and complexity.

    PubMed

    Erlacher, Daniel; Schädlich, Melanie; Stumbrys, Tadas; Schredl, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between time in dreams and real time has intrigued scientists for centuries. The question if actions in dreams take the same time as in wakefulness can be tested by using lucid dreams where the dreamer is able to mark time intervals with prearranged eye movements that can be objectively identified in EOG recordings. Previous research showed an equivalence of time for counting in lucid dreams and in wakefulness (LaBerge, 1985; Erlacher and Schredl, 2004), but Erlacher and Schredl (2004) found that performing squats required about 40% more time in lucid dreams than in the waking state. To find out if the task modality, the task length, or the task complexity results in prolonged times in lucid dreams, an experiment with three different conditions was conducted. In the first condition, five proficient lucid dreamers spent one to three non-consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory. Participants counted to 10, 20, and 30 in wakefulness and in their lucid dreams. Lucidity and task intervals were time stamped with left-right-left-right eye movements. The same procedure was used for the second condition where eight lucid dreamers had to walk 10, 20, or 30 steps. In the third condition, eight lucid dreamers performed a gymnastics routine, which in the waking state lasted the same time as walking 10 steps. Again, we found that performing a motor task in a lucid dream requires more time than in wakefulness. Longer durations in the dream state were present for all three tasks, but significant differences were found only for the tasks with motor activity (walking and gymnastics). However, no difference was found for relative times (no disproportional time effects) and a more complex motor task did not result in more prolonged times. Longer durations in lucid dreams might be related to the lack of muscular feedback or slower neural processing during REM sleep. Future studies should explore factors that might be associated with prolonged durations. PMID:24474942

  20. Time for actions in lucid dreams: effects of task modality, length, and complexity

    PubMed Central

    Erlacher, Daniel; Schädlich, Melanie; Stumbrys, Tadas; Schredl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between time in dreams and real time has intrigued scientists for centuries. The question if actions in dreams take the same time as in wakefulness can be tested by using lucid dreams where the dreamer is able to mark time intervals with prearranged eye movements that can be objectively identified in EOG recordings. Previous research showed an equivalence of time for counting in lucid dreams and in wakefulness (LaBerge, 1985; Erlacher and Schredl, 2004), but Erlacher and Schredl (2004) found that performing squats required about 40% more time in lucid dreams than in the waking state. To find out if the task modality, the task length, or the task complexity results in prolonged times in lucid dreams, an experiment with three different conditions was conducted. In the first condition, five proficient lucid dreamers spent one to three non-consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory. Participants counted to 10, 20, and 30 in wakefulness and in their lucid dreams. Lucidity and task intervals were time stamped with left-right-left-right eye movements. The same procedure was used for the second condition where eight lucid dreamers had to walk 10, 20, or 30 steps. In the third condition, eight lucid dreamers performed a gymnastics routine, which in the waking state lasted the same time as walking 10 steps. Again, we found that performing a motor task in a lucid dream requires more time than in wakefulness. Longer durations in the dream state were present for all three tasks, but significant differences were found only for the tasks with motor activity (walking and gymnastics). However, no difference was found for relative times (no disproportional time effects) and a more complex motor task did not result in more prolonged times. Longer durations in lucid dreams might be related to the lack of muscular feedback or slower neural processing during REM sleep. Future studies should explore factors that might be associated with prolonged durations. PMID:24474942

  1. Dreams of the dead among Cambodian refugees: frequency, phenomenology, and relationship to complicated grief and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Devon E; Field, Nigel P; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A; Simon, Naomi

    2013-09-01

    The authors investigated the importance of dreams of the deceased in the experiencing of prolonged grief (PG) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Cambodian refugees who survived the Pol Pot genocide (1975-1979). Such dreams were frequent in the last month (52% of those surveyed), and most often involved a relative who died in the Pol Pot period. Past month frequency was correlated with PG severity (r = .59) and PTSD severity (r = .52). The dreams were almost always deeply upsetting because the dreams indicated the deceased to be in a difficult spiritual state. Dreams of the deceased as a central component of PG and PTSD among Cambodian refugees is discussed. PMID:24521031

  2. Impact of transient down-regulation of DREAM in human embryonic stem cell pluripotency: The role of DREAM in the maintenance of hESCs.

    PubMed

    Fontán-Lozano, A; Capilla-Gonzalez, V; Aguilera, Y; Mellado, N; Carrión, A M; Soria, B; Hmadcha, A

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the functions of downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM) in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, DREAM interacts with cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, preventing CREB binding protein (CBP) recruitment. Furthermore, CREB and CBP are involved in maintaining ESC self-renewal and pluripotency. However, a previous knockout study revealed the protective function of DREAM depletion in brain aging degeneration and that aging is accompanied by a progressive decline in stem cells (SCs) function. Interestingly, we found that DREAM is expressed in different cell types, including human ESCs (hESCs), human adipose-derived stromal cells (hASCs), human bone marrow-derived stromal cells (hBMSCs), and human newborn foreskin fibroblasts (hFFs), and that transitory inhibition of DREAM in hESCs reduces their pluripotency, increasing differentiation. We stipulate that these changes are partly mediated by increased CREB transcriptional activity. Overall, our data indicates that DREAM acts in the regulation of hESC pluripotency and could be a target to promote or prevent differentiation in embryonic cells. PMID:26999760

  3. Factors of home dream recall: a structural equation model.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael; Wittmann, Lutz; Ciric, Petra; Götz, Simon

    2003-06-01

    Previous research has indicated that personality factors such as openness to experience, creativity, visual memory, attitude toward dreams, and sleep behavior is related to home dream recall frequency (DRF). However, a study investigating all areas simultaneously within one sample in order to determine the percentage of variance explained by all variables and to take intercorrelations between the influencing factors into account has not been performed till now. The present study with 444 participants fills this gap. Using several indicators for each of the variables mentioned above, a structural equation model was tested. Although the model fit was satisfying, the four factors which were significantly related to DRF: personality (openness to experience, thin boundaries, absorption), creativity, nocturnal awakenings, and attitude toward dreams, explained only 8.4% of the total variance. As this value is considerably lower than those of studies investigating a single influencing factor and using similar measurement instruments in similar samples, one might speculate about possible expectancy effects in these previous studies, an effect which has been demonstrated for DRF in the laboratory setting. In addition, the small percentage of explained variance of each single factors (<3%) may indicate that other, in this study unmeasured, variables such as sleep duration (state aspect), introspection, and cognitive functioning immediately upon awakening (sleep inertia) show substantial covariance with the interindividual differences in DRF. Future studies should focus on longitudinal aspects in order to differentiate between state versus trait factors (although methodologic issues, e.g. the effect of the measurement technique on DRF itself, have to be clarified) and investigate additional variables which might be associated with DRF (see above). PMID:12753350

  4. iDREAM: an industrial detector for nuclear reactor monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribov, I. V.; Gromov, M. B.; Lukjanchenko, G. A.; Novikova, G. J.; Obinyakov, B. A.; Oralbaev, A. Y.; Skorokhvatov, M. D.; Sukhotin, S. V.; Chepurnov, A. S.; Etenko, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    Prototype of industrial reactor antineutrino detector iDREAM is dedicated for an experiment to demonstrate the possibility of remote monitoring of PWR reactor operational modes by neutrino method in real-time in order to avoid undeclared exposure modes for nuclear fuel and unauthorized removal of isotopes. The prototype detector was started up in 2014. To test the detector elements and components of electronics distilled water has been used as a target, which enables the use of Cerenkov radiation from cosmic muons as a physical signal. Also parallel measuring of the long-term stability has been doing for samples of liquid organic scintillator doped with gadolinium and synthesized by different methods

  5. Antimalarial Drug Discovery: From Quinine to the Dream of Eradication

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The search for antimalarial remedies predates modern medicine and the concept of small molecule chemotherapy, yet has played a central role in the development of both. This history is reviewed in the context of the current renaissance in antimalarial drug discovery, which is seeing modern drug discovery approaches applied to the problem for the first time. Great strides have been made in the past decade, but further innovations from the drug discovery community will be required if the ultimate dream of eradication is to be achieved. PMID:24790706

  6. Dreams of the rarebit fiend: neuromedical synthesis of unconscious meaning.

    PubMed

    Forrest, D V

    1987-07-01

    A promising new "ecumenical" movement in psychiatry attempts to synthesize the two great intellectual traditions, psychoanalysis and neurobiology, so that we may avoid splitting the care of the patient into the partial domains of biotherapy that lacks the understanding of mental interrelations and purely psychological psychotherapy that lacks an appreciation of the embeddedness of mental processes in brain function. Recent synthetic work is assessed, taking as a point of departure an historic symposium in Pittsburgh, October 26-27, 1984, entitled "Neurobiology and the Unconscious: Psychoanalysis Looks Toward the Future." The means of representation of meaning (whose description was begun by Freud) in such unconscious material as dreams and folklore show the imprint of the brain function in which they are imbedded. Our afferent and efferent processes, including language, are patterned by their neuromedical basis. Linkages will be sought of representational images to visual, vestibular, and neuromotor traces: evidence that the human "thinking machine" is a very human body rather than some disembodied psychological self or computer simulation by artificial intelligence programming. Illustrative material is in part drawn from the popular dream episodes cartooned by Winsor McCay, which were considered graphic masterpieces, and incorporated representations of many normal unconscious brain mechanisms, including unusual perspectives, vestibular sensations, neuromotor inhibitions, transformations; visual and linguistic distortions, bizarre bodily intrusions, and sexual symbols. J. Allen Hobson and R.W. McCarley's 1977 arguments for the determining the significance of the pontine dream generator may have been anticipated by McCay's 1905 Dreams of the Rarebit Fiend in which, at the end of each very Freudian nightmare, the dreamer wakes and swears off eating welsh rarebits as if they caused all his unconscious images. To avoid a biological reductiveness, Freud, whom Sulloway

  7. Opening space research: Dreams, technology, and scientific discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-10-01

    On 4 October 1957 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics launched Sputnik, the world's first man-made satellite. It may have been the dawn of humanity's toehold in space, but it was not the beginning of the story. In the AGU monograph Opening Space Research: Dreams, Technology, and Scientific Discovery, George H. Ludwig describes the people, politics, and experiments that led from weather balloons and leftover German V-2 rockets to a highly successful U.S. space research program. In this interview, Ludwig shares some insights with Eos.

  8. Book Review: Opening Space Research: Dreams, Technology, and Scientific Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, Gregory A.

    2012-05-01

    In Opening Space Research: Dreams, Technology, and Scientific Discovery, George Ludwig takes the reader behind the scenes of space exploration in the 1950s. The well-known episodes in this history—such as the stories of Sputnik, Laika the cosmodog, and the founding of NASA—are here placed in the rich context of the scientific and technical goals that motivated Ludwig and his fellow researchers. Ludwig relates the personal experiences of the many engineers, physicists, and university students who made possible humanity’s first ventures into space.

  9. Remains to be transmitted: Primo Levi's traumatic dream.

    PubMed

    Blévis, Jean-Jacques

    2004-07-01

    Drawing on the writings of Primo Levi and the psychoanalysis of Jacques Lacan, the author attempts to conceive psychic trauma as a coalescence of traumas, since this is perhaps the only way to prevent a subject from being forced back into identification with the catastrophic event, whatever that may have been. A recurrent dream of Primo Levi's suggests to the author the way that traumas may have coalesced within Levi. The hope would be to restore the entire significance of what remains from that traumatic event to the speech (parole) of the Other, to the speech of every human, even the most helpless, bruised, or destroyed among us. PMID:15287444

  10. [Desire disorders in the couple: accident, dream, sexuality].

    PubMed

    Stauffacher, M; Godat, A

    2013-03-20

    Eros, as few only would doubt about it, takes part in the deepest and most intimate area of the human being. Our contemporaries attach great importance to sexuality, but feed the illusion that mastering it could lead to miracles in the couple. We suggest that giving up control and committing himself to fully listening to the patient, the physician will be able to orient him in the blind rules of desire and to accept fortuity. Unexpected (?) accident, dream, hypnosis, often powerfully catalyze changes. Some clinical situations are described in this article with their evolution as consultations develop, without foreseeing their interpretation. PMID:23547363

  11. Dr. William Thornton's views on sleep, dreams, and resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Paulson, George

    2009-01-01

    William Thornton, MD, was a polymath who designed the Capitol of the U.S. Capital and the Octagon House, present home of the American Institute of Architecture. He was the founding director of the U.S. Patent Office. His collected papers, which are now preserved at the U.S. Library of Congress, though pruned by the wife who lived almost 40 years after him, are extensive and include comments on science, education, slavery, and politics. His views on sleep and dreaming and his concepts of resuscitation are reviewed as the opinions of an educated man early in the nineteenth century. PMID:19160112

  12. Control of quantum dynamics: The dream is alive

    SciTech Connect

    Rabitz, H.

    1995-05-10

    In atomic and molecular physics, a long sought-after dream has been the use of optical fields to steer wavepackets into desired states. The inherent mechanism of such control consists of manipulating quantum mechanical constructive and destructive interferences. Finding the proper control fields is a problem of design, best expressed in terms of control theory. An overview of the latest developments in this field will be given, along with an indication of where the subject is heading. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  13. Intrinsic dreams are not produced without REM sleep mechanisms: evidence through elicitation of sleep onset REM periods.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Inugami, M; Yamamoto, Y

    2001-03-01

    The hypothesis that there is a strict relationship between dreams and a specific rapid eye movement (REM) sleep mechanism is controversial. Many researchers have recently denied this relationship, yet none of their studies have simultaneously controlled both sleep length and depth prior to non-REM (NREM) and REM sleep awakenings, due to the natural rigid order of the NREM--REM sleep cycle. The failure to control sleep length and depth prior to arousal has confounded interpretations of the REM-dreams relationship. We have hypothesised that different physiological mechanisms underlie dreaming during REM and NREM sleep, based on recent findings concerning the specificity of REM sleep for cognitive function. Using the Sleep Interruption Technique, we elicited sleep onset REM periods (SOREMP) from 13 normal subjects to collect SOREMP and sleep onset NREM (NREMP) dreams without the confounds described above. Regression analyses showed that SOREMP dream occurrences were significantly related to the amount of REM sleep, while NREMP dream occurrences were related to arousals from NREM sleep. Dream properties evaluated using the Dream Property Scale showed qualitative differences between SOREMP and NREMP dream reports. These results support our hypothesis and we have concluded that although 'dreaming' may occur during both REM and NREM periods as previous researchers have suggested, the dreams obtained from these distinct periods differ significantly in their quantitative and qualitative aspects and are likely to be produced by different mechanisms. PMID:11285054

  14. "To what purpose does it think?": dreams, sick bodies and confused minds in the Age of Reason.

    PubMed

    Dacome, Lucia

    2004-12-01

    This paper investigates the debate on the nature of dreams that took place in eighteenth-century Britain. Focusing on the increasingly popular view of the time that perfect sleep was sleep without dreams, it examines the medicalization of dreaming that developed alongside the conceptualization of dreams as instances of mental derangement. At the end of the seventeenth century, John Locke had likened dreaming to madness and drunkenness, and characterized it as a disturbance of the self. In the course of the eighteenth century, physicians, religious preachers, champions of politeness and moral philosophers all provided competing accounts of the doubling of consciousness which was incidental to dreaming. This paper situates their attempts in the context of re-assessment of the authorities that defined what constituted credible and reliable thinking. It does so by drawing attention to the body as one of the crucial sites in which changing attitudes towards dreaming were discussed and negotiated. PMID:15628026

  15. Dreams Fulfilled, Dreams Shattered: Determinants of Segmented Assimilation in the Second Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, William; Portes, Alejandro; Lynch, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    We summarize prior theories on the adaptation process of the contemporary immigrant second generation as a prelude to presenting additive and interactive models showing the impact of family variables, school contexts and academic outcomes on the process. For this purpose, we regress indicators of educational and occupational achievement in early…

  16. Our unacknowledged ancestors: dream theorists of antiquity, the middle ages, and the renaissance.

    PubMed

    Rupprecht, C S

    1990-06-01

    Exploring the dream world from a modern, or post-modern, perspective, especially through the lens of contemporary technologies, often leads us as researchers to see ourselves as engaged in a new and revolutionary discourse. In fact, this self-image is a profoundly ahistorical one, because it ignores the contributions of ancient, medieval and Renaissance oneirologists who wrote extensively, albeit in different terms and images of lucidity, prerecognition, day residue, wish fulfillment, incubation, problem solving, REM, obe, and the collective unconscious. There are also analogues in these early accounts to anxiety, recurrent, mirror, telepathic, shared, flying, and death dreams. Dream interpretation through music, analysis of dream as narrative, sophisticated theories about memory and language and symbolization are all part of the tradition. Further, early texts pose many issues in sleep and dream research which are not currently being pursued. We dream workers of the late twentieth century should therefore fortify ourselves with knowledge of the oneiric past as one important way to enhance our dream work in the twenty-first century. PMID:2197652

  17. Jung on the Nature and Interpretation of Dreams: A Developmental Delineation with Cognitive Neuroscientific Responses

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Caifang

    2013-01-01

    Post-Jungians tend to identify Jung’s dream theory with the concept of compensation; they tend to believe that Jung’s radically open stand constitutes his dream theory in its entirety. However, Jung’s theory regarding dreams was a product of an evolving process throughout his whole intellectual and professional life. Unfortunately, the theory has not been understood in such a developmental light. Based on a historical and textual study of all dream articles found throughout The Collected Works of C.G. Jung, this paper maps a concise three-phase trajectory of Jung’s changing views on dreams and interpretation. The paper posits that Jung’s last essay, “Symbols and the Interpretation of Dreams” (1961), epitomizes his final stand, although such a stand is also reflected in a less explicit and less emphatic way during the latter period of the second phase. The paper also briefly addresses where Jung and Jungians have been enigmatic or negligent. For example, it has not been explicated fully why compensation as slight modifications and compensation as parallels to waking life situations are rare in Jung’s cases In addition, contemporary cognitive and neuroscientific approaches to the study of dreams, as represented by Harry Hunt, William Domhoff, and Allan Hobson, among others, are presented in connection with Jung. The juxtaposition of Jungian, cognitive, and neuroscientific approaches showcases how cognitive and scientific findings challenge, enrich, and in some ways confirm Jung’s dream theory and praxis. PMID:25379263

  18. DREAM Center for Lunar Science: Three Year Summary Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Killen, R. M.; Delory, G. T.

    2012-12-01

    In early 2009, the Dynamic Response of the Environment At the Moon (DREAM) lunar science center became a supporting team of NASA's Lunar Science Institute specifically to study the solar-lunar connection and understand the response of the lunar plasma, exosphere, dust, and surface environments to solar variations. We especially emphasize the effect extreme events like solar storms and impacts have on the plasma-surface-gas dynamic system. One of the center's hallmark contribution is the solar storm - lunar atmosphere modeling (SSLAM) study that cross-integrated a large number of the center's models to determine the effect a strong solar storm has at the Moon. The results from this intramural event will be described herein. A number of other key studies were performed, including a unique ground-based observation of the LCROSS impact-generated sodium plume, LADEE dust and atmosphere expectation studies, ARTEMIS data and model synthesis, polar crater ambipolar modeling, dust transport simulations, and focused studies on the formation and distribution of lunar water. DREAM successfully advanced the understanding of the solar-driven lunar environment from the Apollo era, through the Altair era, to the new flexible era of exploration.

  19. Two Case Reports on Use of Prazosin for Drug Dreams.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishna, Ganesh; Popoola, Oluwole; Campbell, Austin; Nemetalla, Marina A

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse and dependence is estimated to cost roughly $700 billion annually including direct and indirect care in the United States. Drug dreams (DD), or using dreams, are a reportedly common phenomenon among patients with substance abuse, and have been postulated as triggers for relapse. Prazosin is an alpha-1 receptor antagonist originally approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of hypertension. Prazosin passes the blood brain barrier easily, contributing to central and cognitive effects. Prazosin's efficacy has been demonstrated in the management of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and associated nightmares. We present the cases of two patients with substance use disorder experiencing DD which resolved after the addition of prazosin during an acute psychiatric hospitalization. To our knowledge, this is the first time treatment of DD with prazosin has been reported in the literature. Both patients reported an alleviation of their DD after the medication was initiated. The effect was immediate and results were seen on the same night of the initial dose. The precise mechanism of this effect is unclear, but we hypothesize it is related to the decrease in noradrenaline effects at α-1 adrenoreceptors in the brain, similar to the effect on nightmares in PTSD. The key limitation is the low number of patients and lack of follow up presented in this report. No causal relationship can be established between the use of prazosin and resolution of DD in our patients. PMID:26900667

  20. [Imagination and creation: 1-hydroxyindole chemistry and the dream challenge].

    PubMed

    Somei, Masanori

    2008-04-01

    We have had five dreams to challenge through our life. To meet our end, we needed imaginary compounds, 1-hydroxytryptophans. This review describes how we had conceived the 1-hydroxyindole hypothesis, how we created a general synthetic method for 1-hydroxyindoles after 20 years' research, and how we have developed the chemistry of 1-hydroxytryptophans with full of new findings and discoveries. During the period, we defined "the efficient synthesis" and "the ideal synthesis" consisting of originality rate (OR), intellectual property factor (IPF), and application potential factor (APF). For evaluating the originality and the efficiency of the synthetic research, these indexes are more effective than both citation index and impact factor. Taking advantage of our 1-hydroxyindole chemistry, we have achieved three "ideal syntheses" approximately with high OR, IPF, and APF values. The methods employ only conventional reagents and reaction conditions without using any protecting groups. These methods made possible to produce such intellectual properties as leads for an alpha(2)-blocker, an inhibitor of platelet aggregation, an anti-osteoporosis agent, and a promising medicine for combating desertification, changing Gobi desert to the tract with full of green plants. These would be suitable for realizing our five dreams. Chemical conversion of enmein to gibberellin A(15), four-step total synthesis of optically active ergot alkaloids, and various new reactions for the synthesis of 4-substituted indoles are also involved. PMID:18379172