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Sample records for adaptive mmse equalization

  1. Blind adaptive equalization of polarization-switched QPSK modulation.

    PubMed

    Millar, David S; Savory, Seb J

    2011-04-25

    Coherent detection in combination with digital signal processing has recently enabled significant progress in the capacity of optical communications systems. This improvement has enabled detection of optimum constellations for optical signals in four dimensions. In this paper, we propose and investigate an algorithm for the blind adaptive equalization of one such modulation format: polarization-switched quaternary phase shift keying (PS-QPSK). The proposed algorithm, which includes both blind initialization and adaptation of the equalizer, is found to be insensitive to the input polarization state and demonstrates highly robust convergence in the presence of PDL, DGD and polarization rotation.

  2. Low complexity adaptive equalizers for underwater acoustic communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soflaei, Masoumeh; Azmi, Paeiz

    2014-08-01

    Interference signals due to scattering from surface and reflecting from bottom is one of the most important problems of reliable communications in shallow water channels. To solve this problem, one of the best suggested ways is to use adaptive equalizers. Convergence rate and misadjustment error in adaptive algorithms play important roles in adaptive equalizer performance. In this paper, affine projection algorithm (APA), selective regressor APA(SR-APA), family of selective partial update (SPU) algorithms, family of set-membership (SM) algorithms and selective partial update selective regressor APA (SPU-SR-APA) are compared with conventional algorithms such as the least mean square (LMS) in underwater acoustic communications. We apply experimental data from the Strait of Hormuz for demonstrating the efficiency of the proposed methods over shallow water channel. We observe that the values of the steady-state mean square error (MSE) of SR-APA, SPU-APA, SPU-normalized least mean square (SPU-NLMS), SPU-SR-APA, SM-APA and SM-NLMS algorithms decrease in comparison with the LMS algorithm. Also these algorithms have better convergence rates than LMS type algorithm.

  3. A successive overrelaxation iterative technique for an adaptive equalizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosovych, O. S.

    1973-01-01

    An adaptive strategy for the equalization of pulse-amplitude-modulated signals in the presence of intersymbol interference and additive noise is reported. The successive overrelaxation iterative technique is used as the algorithm for the iterative adjustment of the equalizer coefficents during a training period for the minimization of the mean square error. With 2-cyclic and nonnegative Jacobi matrices substantial improvement is demonstrated in the rate of convergence over the commonly used gradient techniques. The Jacobi theorems are also extended to nonpositive Jacobi matrices. Numerical examples strongly indicate that the improvements obtained for the special cases are possible for general channel characteristics. The technique is analytically demonstrated to decrease the mean square error at each iteration for a large range of parameter values for light or moderate intersymbol interference and for small intervals for general channels. Analytically, convergence of the relaxation algorithm was proven in a noisy environment and the coefficient variance was demonstrated to be bounded.

  4. Adaptive sigmoid function bihistogram equalization for image contrast enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arriaga-Garcia, Edgar F.; Sanchez-Yanez, Raul E.; Ruiz-Pinales, Jose; Garcia-Hernandez, Ma. de Guadalupe

    2015-09-01

    Contrast enhancement plays a key role in a wide range of applications including consumer electronic applications, such as video surveillance, digital cameras, and televisions. The main goal of contrast enhancement is to increase the quality of images. However, most state-of-the-art methods induce different types of distortion such as intensity shift, wash-out, noise, intensity burn-out, and intensity saturation. In addition, in consumer electronics, simple and fast methods are required in order to be implemented in real time. A bihistogram equalization method based on adaptive sigmoid functions is proposed. It consists of splitting the image histogram into two parts that are equalized independently by using adaptive sigmoid functions. In order to preserve the mean brightness of the input image, the parameter of the sigmoid functions is chosen to minimize the absolute mean brightness metric. Experiments on the Berkeley database have shown that the proposed method improves the quality of images and preserves their mean brightness. An application to improve the colorfulness of images is also presented.

  5. Cognitive Evolution by MMSE in Poststroke Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Costa, Fabricia Azevedo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cognitive and clinical evolution of post-acute stroke patients and the evolution of each Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) item. A longitudinal study was conducted with 42 poststroke individuals in rehabilitation. The MMSE and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale were used to assess…

  6. Light wave transmission through free space using atmospheric laser links with adaptive equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Gamal A.; Mohamed, Abd El-Naser A.; Oraby, Osama A.; Hassan, Emad S.; Eldokany, Ibrahim M.; El-Rabaie, El-Sayed M.; Dessouky, Moawad I.; Alshebeili, Saleh A.; El-Samie, Fathi E. Abd

    2013-07-01

    The utilization of adaptive equalization in the design of atmospheric laser link transceiver architectures that can be used for television and broadcast signal interconnect between the external place of event and the master control room is suggested. At the transmitter side of the proposed transceiver; an array of atmospheric laser sources, digital signal processing, and optical radiators are used to send light waves in free space. At the receiver side, an adaptive finite impulse response least mean square (LMS) equalizer with activity detection guidance (ADG) and tap decoupling (TD) is used to mitigate the effect of channel impairments. The performance of the suggested adaptive equalizer is compared with that of the conventional adaptive equalizer based only on the standard LMS algorithm. The simulation results revealed that the adaptive LMS equalizer with ADG and TD is a promising solution for the inter-symbol interference problem in optical wireless communication systems.

  7. Learning Rate Updating Methods Applied to Adaptive Fuzzy Equalizers for Broadband Power Line Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Moisés V.

    2004-12-01

    This paper introduces adaptive fuzzy equalizers with variable step size for broadband power line (PL) communications. Based on delta-bar-delta and local Lipschitz estimation updating rules, feedforward, and decision feedback approaches, we propose singleton and nonsingleton fuzzy equalizers with variable step size to cope with the intersymbol interference (ISI) effects of PL channels and the hardness of the impulse noises generated by appliances and nonlinear loads connected to low-voltage power grids. The computed results show that the convergence rates of the proposed equalizers are higher than the ones attained by the traditional adaptive fuzzy equalizers introduced by J. M. Mendel and his students. Additionally, some interesting BER curves reveal that the proposed techniques are efficient for mitigating the above-mentioned impairments.

  8. Adaptive Pre-FFT Equalizer with High-Precision Channel Estimator for ISI Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Makoto

    We present an attractive approach for OFDM transmission using an adaptive pre-FFT equalizer, which can select ICI reduction mode according to channel condition, and a degenerated-inverse-matrix-based channel estimator (DIME), which uses a cyclic sinc-function matrix uniquely determined by transmitted subcarriers. In addition to simulation results, the proposed system with an adaptive pre-FFT equalizer and DIME has been laboratory tested by using a software defined radio (SDR)-based test bed. The simulation and experimental results demonstrated that the system at a rate of more than 100Mbps can provide a bit error rate of less than 10-3 for a fast multi-path fading channel that has a moving velocity of more than 200km/h with a delay spread of 1.9µs (a maximum delay path of 7.3µs) in the 5-GHz band.

  9. A NOISE ADAPTIVE FUZZY EQUALIZATION METHOD FOR PROCESSING SOLAR EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET IMAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Druckmueller, M.

    2013-08-15

    A new image enhancement tool ideally suited for the visualization of fine structures in extreme ultraviolet images of the corona is presented in this paper. The Noise Adaptive Fuzzy Equalization method is particularly suited for the exceptionally high dynamic range images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. This method produces artifact-free images and gives significantly better results than methods based on convolution or Fourier transform which are often used for that purpose.

  10. Adaptive reconfigurable V-BLAST type equalizer for cognitive MIMO-OFDM radios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozden, Mehmet Tahir

    2015-12-01

    An adaptive channel shortening equalizer design for multiple input multiple output-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) radio receivers is considered in this presentation. The proposed receiver has desirable features for cognitive and software defined radio implementations. It consists of two sections: MIMO decision feedback equalizer (MIMO-DFE) and adaptive multiple Viterbi detection. In MIMO-DFE section, a complete modified Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization of multichannel input data is accomplished using sequential processing multichannel Givens lattice stages, so that a Vertical Bell Laboratories Layered Space Time (V-BLAST) type MIMO-DFE is realized at the front-end section of the channel shortening equalizer. Matrix operations, a major bottleneck for receiver operations, are accordingly avoided, and only scalar operations are used. A highly modular and regular radio receiver architecture that has a suitable structure for digital signal processing (DSP) chip and field programable gate array (FPGA) implementations, which are important for software defined radio realizations, is achieved. The MIMO-DFE section of the proposed receiver can also be reconfigured for spectrum sensing and positioning functions, which are important tasks for cognitive radio applications. In connection with adaptive multiple Viterbi detection section, a systolic array implementation for each channel is performed so that a receiver architecture with high computational concurrency is attained. The total computational complexity is given in terms of equalizer and desired response filter lengths, alphabet size, and number of antennas. The performance of the proposed receiver is presented for two-channel case by means of mean squared error (MSE) and probability of error evaluations, which are conducted for time-invariant and time-variant channel conditions, orthogonal and nonorthogonal transmissions, and two different modulation schemes.

  11. Simulation of a QPSK high data rate receiver - Modeling of tracking loops and adaptive equalizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiavoni, Maryanne T.; Ray, Robert T.

    The simulation effort supporting the design of the high-data-rate receiver for the second tracking and data relay satellite system ground terminal is detailed. The receiver accepts quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) signals at data rates from 6 to 300 Mb/s. The modeling of the Costas tracking loop that tracks the phase of the carrier signal and the clock recovery loop that aligns the data timing, both of which include hardlimiting functions that add a degree of nonlinearity to the designs, is discussed. The simulation of the equalizer, which applies a least-mean-squares adaptive algorithm to remove the intersymbol interference and crosstalk from the channel in order to improve the end-to-end link performance, is also addressed. Simulation results are provided.

  12. A low power CMOS 3.3 Gbps continuous-time adaptive equalizer for serial link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Ju; Yumei, Zhou; Jianzhong, Zhao

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes using a high-speed continuous-time analog adaptive equalizer as the front-end of a receiver for a high-speed serial interface, which is compliant with many serial communication specifications such as USB2.0, PCI-E2.0 and Rapid IO. The low and high frequency loops are merged to decrease the effect of delay between the two paths, in addition, the infinite input impedance facilitates the cascade stages in order to improve the high frequency boosting gain. The implemented circuit architecture could facilitate the wide frequency range from 1 to 3.3 Gbps with different length FR4-PCB traces, which brings as much as 25 dB loss. The replica control circuits are injected to provide a convenient way to regulate common-mode voltage for full differential operation. In addition, AC coupling is adopted to suppress the common input from the forward stage. A prototype chip was fabricated in 0.18-μm 1P6M mixed-signal CMOS technology. The actual area is 0.6 × 0.57 mm2 and the analog equalizer operates up to 3.3 Gbps over FR4-PCB trace with 25 dB loss. The overall power dissipation is approximately 23.4 mW.

  13. Reducing interferences in wireless communication systems by mobile agents with recurrent neural networks-based adaptive channel equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beritelli, Francesco; Capizzi, Giacomo; Lo Sciuto, Grazia; Napoli, Christian; Tramontana, Emiliano; Woźniak, Marcin

    2015-09-01

    Solving channel equalization problem in communication systems is based on adaptive filtering algorithms. Today, Mobile Agents (MAs) with Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) can be also adopted for effective interference reduction in modern wireless communication systems (WCSs). In this paper MAs with RNNs are proposed as novel computing algorithms for reducing interferences in WCSs performing an adaptive channel equalization. The method to provide it is so called MAs-RNNs. We perform the implementation of this new paradigm for interferences reduction. Simulations results and evaluations demonstrates the effectiveness of this approach and as better transmission performance in wireless communication network can be achieved by using the MAs-RNNs based adaptive filtering algorithm.

  14. A Laplacian-based MMSE estimator for speech enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bin; Loizou, Philipos C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on optimal estimators of the magnitude spectrum for speech enhancement. We present an analytical solution for estimating in the MMSE sense the magnitude spectrum when the clean speech DFT coefficients are modeled by a Laplacian distribution and the noise DFT coefficients are modeled by a Gaussian distribution. Furthermore, we derive the MMSE estimator under speech presence uncertainty and a Laplacian statistical model. Results indicated that the Laplacian-based MMSE estimator yielded less residual noise in the enhanced speech than the traditional Gaussian-based MMSE estimator. Overall, the present study demonstrates that the assumed distribution of the DFT coefficients can have a significant effect on the quality of the enhanced speech. PMID:18037977

  15. Adaptive gain, equalization, and wavelength stabilization techniques for silicon photonic microring resonator-based optical receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palermo, Samuel; Chiang, Patrick; Yu, Kunzhi; Bai, Rui; Li, Cheng; Chen, Chin-Hui; Fiorentino, Marco; Beausoleil, Ray; Li, Hao; Shafik, Ayman; Titriku, Alex

    2016-03-01

    Interconnect architectures based on high-Q silicon photonic microring resonator devices offer a promising solution to address the dramatic increase in datacenter I/O bandwidth demands due to their ability to realize wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) in a compact and energy efficient manner. However, challenges exist in realizing efficient receivers for these systems due to varying per-channel link budgets, sensitivity requirements, and ring resonance wavelength shifts. This paper reports on adaptive optical receiver design techniques which address these issues and have been demonstrated in two hybrid-integrated prototypes based on microring drop filters and waveguide photodetectors implemented in a 130nm SOI process and high-speed optical front-ends designed in 65nm CMOS. A 10Gb/s powerscalable architecture employs supply voltage scaling of a three inverter-stage transimpedance amplifier (TIA) that is adapted with an eye-monitor control loop to yield the necessary sensitivity for a given channel. As reduction of TIA input-referred noise is more critical at higher data rates, a 25Gb/s design utilizes a large input-stage feedback resistor TIA cascaded with a continuous-time linear equalizer (CTLE) that compensates for the increased input pole. When tested with a waveguide Ge PD with 0.45A/W responsivity, this topology achieves 25Gb/s operation with -8.2dBm sensitivity at a BER=10-12. In order to address microring drop filters sensitivity to fabrication tolerances and thermal variations, efficient wavelength-stabilization control loops are necessary. A peak-power-based monitoring loop which locks the drop filter to the input wavelength, while achieving compatibility with the high-speed TIA offset-correction feedback loop is implemented with a 0.7nm tuning range at 43μW/GHz efficiency.

  16. Testing the equality of students' performance using Alexander-Govern test with adaptive trimmed means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Suhaida; Yahaya, Sharipah Soaad Syed; Yusof, Zahayu Md

    2014-06-01

    Analyzing the equality of independent group has to be done with caution. The classical approaches such as ttest for two groups and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for more than two groups always are favorable selection by researchers. However, sometime these methods were abused by the presence of nonnormality or variance heterogeneity or both. It is known that ANOVA is restricted to the assumptions of normality and homogeneity of variance. In real life data, sometimes these requirements are hard to attain. The Alexander-Govern test with adaptive trimmed mean (AG_atm) is one approach that can be chosen as alternative to the classical tests when their assumptions are violated. In this paper, the performances of AG_atm were compared to the original AG test and ANOVA using simulated and real life data. The simulation study proved that the AG_atm performs better than the original AG test and the classical test. For real life data, student's performance in decision analysis course, measured by final examination score was chosen. Based on the exploratory data analysis, this data found to have problem of nonnormality.

  17. Asymmetry Compensation by Nonlinear Adaptive Partial Response Equalizer for 31.3 GB Blu-ray Disk ROM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiwara, Yoshiyuki; Higashino, Satoru; Yamagami, Tamotsu

    2005-05-01

    We investigated a nonlinear adaptive partial response equalizer for the asymmetry compensation of a 31.3 GB higher linear density Blu-ray disc read only memory (ROM) with a 16% asymmetry. A second-order adaptive Volterra filter approximately equalizes a nonlinear signal into a linear one. We reduced its calculation complexity to design a digital circuit in optimum hardware resources by the result of computer simulations. Then we designed an adaptive Volterra filter on an FPGA evaluation board for bit error rate measurements. Finally, we determined that an adaptive Volterra filter has a capability to obtain improved bit error rates by signal linearization in a conventional Viterbi detector for PR(1221).

  18. MMSE Reconstruction for 3D Freehand Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Zheng, Yibin

    2008-01-01

    The reconstruction of 3D ultrasound (US) images from mechanically registered, but otherwise irregularly positioned, B-scan slices is of great interest in image guided therapy procedures. Conventional 3D ultrasound algorithms have low computational complexity, but the reconstructed volume suffers from severe speckle contamination. Furthermore, the current method cannot reconstruct uniform high-resolution data from several low-resolution B-scans. In this paper, the minimum mean-squared error (MMSE) method is applied to 3D ultrasound reconstruction. Data redundancies due to overlapping samples as well as correlation of the target and speckle are naturally accounted for in the MMSE reconstruction algorithm. Thus, the reconstruction process unifies the interpolation and spatial compounding. Simulation results for synthetic US images are presented to demonstrate the excellent reconstruction. PMID:18382623

  19. An Adaptive Niching Genetic Algorithm using a niche size equalization mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Yuichi

    Niching GAs have been widely investigated to apply genetic algorithms (GAs) to multimodal function optimization problems. In this paper, we suggest a new niching GA that attempts to form niches, each consisting of an equal number of individuals. The proposed GA can be applied also to combinatorial optimization problems by defining a distance metric in the search space. We apply the proposed GA to the job-shop scheduling problem (JSP) and demonstrate that the proposed niching method enhances the ability to maintain niches and improve the performance of GAs.

  20. Equalizing resolution in smoothed-particle hydrodynamics calculations using self-adaptive sinc kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Senz, Domingo; Cabezón, Rubén M.; Escartín, José A.; Ebinger, Kevin

    2014-10-01

    Context. The smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) technique is a numerical method for solving gas-dynamical problems. It has been applied to simulate the evolution of a wide variety of astrophysical systems. The method has a second-order accuracy, with a resolution that is usually much higher in the compressed regions than in the diluted zones of the fluid. Aims: We propose and check a method to balance and equalize the resolution of SPH between high- and low-density regions. This method relies on the versatility of a family of interpolators called sinc kernels, which allows increasing the interpolation quality by varying only a single parameter (the exponent of the sinc function). Methods: The proposed method was checked and validated through a number of numerical tests, from standard one-dimensional Riemann problems in shock tubes, to multidimensional simulations of explosions, hydrodynamic instabilities, and the collapse of a Sun-like polytrope. Results: The analysis of the hydrodynamical simulations suggests that the scheme devised to equalize the accuracy improves the treatment of the post-shock regions and, in general, of the rarefacted zones of fluids while causing no harm to the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities. The method is robust and easy to implement with a low computational overload. It conserves mass, energy, and momentum and reduces to the standard SPH scheme in regions of the fluid that have smooth density gradients.

  1. Convergence study of various non-quadratic adaptive algorithms in the equalization of impulsive DS-CDMA channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimaa, Shihab A.; Jadah, Mohamed E.

    2005-10-01

    This paper investigates the performance of using various non-quadratic adaptive algorithms in the adaptation of a non-linear receiver, coupled with a second-order phase tracking subsystem, for asynchronous DS-CDMA communication system impaired by double-spread multipath channel and Gaussian mixture impulsive noise. These algorithms are the lower order (where the power of the cost function is lower than 2), the least-mean mixed norm (where a mixed-norm function is introduced, which combines the LMS and the LMF functions), and the least mean square-fourth switching (where this algorithm switches between LMS and LMF depending on the value of the error). The non-linear receiver comprises feed-forward filter (FFF), feedback filter (FBF), and an equalizer/second order phase locked loop (PLL). The investigations study the effect of using the proposed algorithms on the performance of the non-linear receiver in terms of the mean-square error (MSE) and bit-error-rate (BER). Computer simulation results indicate that the least-mean mixed proposed receiver's algorithm gives the fastest convergence rate and similar BER performance, in comparison with the NLMS adaptive receiver. Furthermore, extensive computer simulation tests have been carried out to determine the optimum values of the step-size, the power of the cost function, and the adaptation parameter of the proposed algorithms. Results show that the optimum values of the step-size for the lower-order, least-mean square fourth, least-mean mixed norm, and the NLMS algorithms are 5x10 -4, 10 -6, 5x10 -4, and 0.01, respectively. The optimum value of the power of the lower-order algorithm is 1.9 and the optimum value of the adaptation parameter of the least-mean mixed algorithm is 0.9.

  2. Studies on effects of feedback delay on the convergence performance of adaptive time-domain equalizers for fiber dispersive channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qun; Xu, Bo; Qiu, Kun

    2016-04-01

    Adaptive time-domain equalizer (TDE) is an important module for digital optical coherent receivers. From an implementation perspective, we analyze and compare in detail the effects of error signal feedback delay on the convergence performance of TDE using either least-mean square (LMS) or constant modulus algorithm (CMA). For this purpose, a simplified theoretical model is proposed based on which iterative equations on the mean value and the variance of the tap coefficient are derived with or without error signal feedback delay for both LMS- and CMA-based methods for the first time. The analytical results show that decreased step size has to be used for TDE to converge and a slower convergence speed cannot be avoided as the feedback delay increases. Compared with the data-aided LMS-based method, the CMA-based method has a slower convergence speed and larger variation after convergence. Similar results are confirmed using numerical simulations for fiber dispersive channels. As the step size increases, a feedback delay of 20 clock cycles might cause the TDE to diverge. Compared with the CMA-based method, the LMS-based method has a higher tolerance on the feedback delay and allows a larger step size for a faster convergence speed.

  3. Iterative Frequency Domain Decision Feedback Equalization and Decoding for Underwater Acoustic Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liang; Ge, Jian-Hua

    2012-12-01

    Single-carrier (SC) transmission with frequency-domain equalization (FDE) is today recognized as an attractive alternative to orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) for communication application with the inter-symbol interference (ISI) caused by multi-path propagation, especially in shallow water channel. In this paper, we investigate an iterative receiver based on minimum mean square error (MMSE) decision feedback equalizer (DFE) with symbol rate and fractional rate samplings in the frequency domain (FD) and serially concatenated trellis coded modulation (SCTCM) decoder. Based on sound speed profiles (SSP) measured in the lake and finite-element ray tracking (Bellhop) method, the shallow water channel is constructed to evaluate the performance of the proposed iterative receiver. Performance results show that the proposed iterative receiver can significantly improve the performance and obtain better data transmission than FD linear and adaptive decision feedback equalizers, especially in adopting fractional rate sampling.

  4. Osteoarthritis Classification Using Self Organizing Map Based on Gabor Kernel and Contrast-Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization

    PubMed Central

    Anifah, Lilik; Purnama, I Ketut Eddy; Hariadi, Mochamad; Purnomo, Mauridhi Hery

    2013-01-01

    Localization is the first step in osteoarthritis (OA) classification. Manual classification, however, is time-consuming, tedious, and expensive. The proposed system is designed as decision support system for medical doctors to classify the severity of knee OA. A method has been proposed here to localize a joint space area for OA and then classify it in 4 steps to classify OA into KL-Grade 0, KL-Grade 1, KL-Grade 2, KL-Grade 3 and KL-Grade 4, which are preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction, and classification. In this proposed system, right and left knee detection was performed by employing the Contrast-Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE) and the template matching. The Gabor kernel, row sum graph and moment methods were used to localize the junction space area of knee. CLAHE is used for preprocessing step, i.e.to normalize the varied intensities. The segmentation process was conducted using the Gabor kernel, template matching, row sum graph and gray level center of mass method. Here GLCM (contrast, correlation, energy, and homogeinity) features were employed as training data. Overall, 50 data were evaluated for training and 258 data for testing. Experimental results showed the best performance by using gabor kernel with parameters α=8, θ=0, Ψ=[0 π/2], γ=0,8, N=4 and with number of iterations being 5000, momentum value 0.5 and α0=0.6 for the classification process. The run gave classification accuracy rate of 93.8% for KL-Grade 0, 70% for KL-Grade 1, 4% for KL-Grade 2, 10% for KL-Grade 3 and 88.9% for KL-Grade 4. PMID:23525188

  5. The Relevance of Sociodemographic and Health Variables on MMSE Normative Data.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Sandra; Simões, Mário R; Alves, Lara; Santana, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most broadly used cognitive screening instrument in clinical and research contexts. The MMSE was administered to a community-based sample of cognitively healthy adults (n = 850), stratified according to several sociodemographic variables, with a distribution similar to that observed in the Portuguese population. This study aimed to analyze the influence of sociodemographic (age, gender, education level, marital and employment status, geographic region, geographic localization, and residence area) and health variables (subjective memory complaints of the participant and evaluated by the informant, depressive symptoms, and family history of dementia) on the participants' performance on the MMSE and to establish normative data for the Portuguese population. Education level and age significantly contributed to the prediction of the MMSE scores and explained 26% of its variance. Regarding health variables, only the subjective memory complaints of the participant showed a small contribution (4%) to the variance of the MMSE scores. According to these results, age and education were considered in the development of the normative data of the MMSE for the Portuguese population. PMID:25531579

  6. [Using the MMSE as a cognitive screener among Turkish and Moroccan migrants].

    PubMed

    Zwart, L A R; Goudsmit, M; van Campen, J P C M; Rijkers, C J M; Wind, A W

    2015-02-01

    The Dutch population of first generation Turkish and Moroccan migrants is ageing. Among them hypertension and diabetes mellitus are frequent findings, which will probably cause an increased incidence of dementia. The language barrier, low education and cultural differences make the diagnosis more difficult. To what extent the MMSE can be used as a cognitive screener in this population will be investigated in this retrospective study.Patients received standard diagnostics, a professional translator addressed the language barrier. Correspondence was scored on characteristics of dementia, a procedure was used to diagnose without including the MMSE score. The optimal cut-off was calculated with the Youden Index and Area under the ROC (AUROC).106 patients were included, 61% had no education. Average MMSE-score was 16, with dementia 12, without 19. The AUROC was 0.85, optimal cut-off was 18 with a Youden index of 0.61.By using a professional translator the MMSE can possibly be used as a cognitive screener in this population. However, the cognitive skills addressed by the MMSE require an education and language skills. Developing a test that is independent of education and language barrier will probably be better. PMID:25475409

  7. How to calculate an MMSE score from a MODA score (and vice versa) in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cazzaniga, R; Francescani, A; Saetti, C; Spinnler, H

    2003-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide a statistically sound way of reciprocally converting scores of the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and the Milan overall dementia assessment (MODA). A consecutive series of 182 patients with "probable" Alzheimer's disease patients was examined with both tests. MODA and MMSE scores proved to be highly correlated. A formula for converting MODA and MMSE scores was generated.

  8. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE): sensitivity in an Italian sample of patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, M; Ferroni, L; Lombardi, L; Del Torto, E; Vista, M; Moretti, P

    1992-05-01

    The sensitivity of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was assessed in a sample of patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type or vascular dementia. The MMSE identified the majority of pts with diffuse cognitive impairment but did not discriminate between the two types of dementia. If failed to detect mild deterioration or forms in which only some cognitive functions were impaired. The test is therefore not sufficient for distinguishing deteriorated from non deteriorated pts, although it is still useful in mass screening or for a quick assessment of deterioration in the course of clinical neurological examination.

  9. Equal Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Presents an interview with Stephen McCarthy, co-partner and president of Equal Access ADA Consulting Architects of San Diego, California, about designing schools to naturally integrate compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). (EV)

  10. The MMSE and MoCA for Screening Cognitive Impairment in Less Educated Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji In; Sunwoo, Mun Kyung; Sohn, Young H.; Lee, Phil Hyu; Hong, Jin Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore whether the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) can be used to screen for dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in less educated patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods We reviewed the medical records of PD patients who had taken the Korean MMSE (K-MMSE), Korean MoCA (K-MoCA), and comprehensive neuropsychological tests. Predictive values of the K-MMSE and K-MoCA for dementia or MCI were analyzed in groups divided by educational level. Results The discriminative powers of the K-MMSE and K-MoCA were excellent [area under the curve (AUC) 0.86–0.97] for detecting dementia but not for detecting MCI (AUC 0.64–0.85). The optimal screening cutoff values of both tests increased with educational level for dementia (K-MMSE < 15 for illiterate, < 20 for 0.5–3 years of education, < 23 for 4–6 years, < 25 for 7–9 years, and < 26 for 10 years or more; K-MoCA < 7 for illiterate, < 13 for 0.5–3 years, < 16 for 4–6 years, < 19 for 7–9 years, < 20 for 10 years or more) and MCI (K-MMSE < 19 for illiterate, < 26 for 0.5–3 years, < 27 for 4–6 years, < 28 for 7–9 years, and < 29 for 10 years or more; K-MoCA < 13 for illiterate, < 21 for 0.5–3 years, < 23 for 4–6 years, < 25 for 7–9 years, < 26 for 10 years or more). Conclusion Both MMSE and MoCA can be used to screen for dementia in patients with PD, regardless of educational level; however, neither test is sufficient to discriminate MCI from normal cognition without additional information. PMID:27667187

  11. Different MMSE Score Is Associated with Postoperative Delirium in Young-Old and Old-Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meijuan; Zhu, Yingbo; Li, Cheng; Li, Guodong; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Xie, Zhongcong; Shen, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Postoperative delirium is one of the most common postoperative complications in geriatric patients. Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) assesses cognitive function in patients and is associated with postoperative delirium. However, whether there is an age-dependent relationship between preoperative MMSE score and postoperative delirium remains unknown. Methods We therefore set out to investigate the association between preoperative MMSE score and postoperative delirium in young-old (≤80 year-old, 75.46±4.69 years, 27.0% male, n = 63) and old-old (>80 year-old, 84.51±3.46 years, 20.9% male, n = 67) participants, who had repairs of hip fractures under general anesthesia. The Confusion Assessment Method and Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale were administrated before surgery, and on the first, second and fourth days after surgery, to assess the incidence and severity of the delirium, respectively. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to calculate the optimal cutoff score of MMSE in predicting postoperative delirium. Results Thirty-four (26.2%) of 130 patients (80.12±6.12 years, 23.8% male) developed postoperative delirium. Preoperative MMSE scores were negatively associated with higher incidences and greater severity of postoperative delirium. The optimal cutoff scores of MMSE associated with postoperative delirium for young-old and old-old participants were 18.4 and 21.4, with a sensitivity of 60% and 83.8%, and a specificity of 92.5% and 62.8%, respectively. Conclusion The data demonstrated the optimal cutoff score of MMSE associated with postoperative delirium in young-old adults might be lower than that in old-old adults. Pending further investigation, these findings suggest that the association between preoperative MMSE score and postoperative delirium is age-dependent. PMID:26460750

  12. MMSE items that predict incident delirium and hypoactive subtype in older medical inpatients.

    PubMed

    Gabriel Franco, José; Santesteban, Olga; Trzepacz, Paula; Bernal, Carolina; Valencia, Camila; Ocampo, María Victoria; Pablo, Joan de; Gaviria, Ana Milena; Vilella, Elisabet

    2014-12-30

    Because hypoactive delirium is especially under-recognized, we analyzed which Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) items predicted incident delirium and its hypoactive motor presentation. Over a 1-year period, older medical inpatients (n=291) were consecutively screened on admission with the Confusion Assessment Method-Spanish (CAM-S) to exclude prevalent delirium. Nondelirious patients were evaluated the same day with the MMSE, followed by daily ratings with the CAM-S. Those who became CAM-S positive were rated using the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 to assess severity and motor subtype. Disorientation to time (OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.7-11.1) and place (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.7-8.2) at admission were risk factors for delirium at follow-up and together correctly classified 88.3% of subjects as to delirium status. Disorientation to time and place, and visuoconstructional impairment were each associated with either hypoactive or mixed subtype (p<0.05 χ(2) test). Simple bedside evaluation of cognitive function in nondelirious patients revealed deficits that detected patients at risk for developing incident delirium at follow-up (especially hypoactive or mixed). We recommend patients with orientation deficits be monitored closely for emergence of delirium. A separate evaluation for possible dementia or other causes of cognitive impairment at admission should be considered too. PMID:25307690

  13. An innovative technique for contrast enhancement of computed tomography images using normalized gamma-corrected contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ameen, Zohair; Sulong, Ghazali; Rehman, Amjad; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah

    2015-12-01

    Image contrast is an essential visual feature that determines whether an image is of good quality. In computed tomography (CT), captured images tend to be low contrast, which is a prevalent artifact that reduces the image quality and hampers the process of extracting its useful information. A common tactic to process such artifact is by using histogram-based techniques. However, although these techniques may improve the contrast for different grayscale imaging applications, the results are mostly unacceptable for CT images due to the presentation of various faults, noise amplification, excess brightness, and imperfect contrast. Therefore, an ameliorated version of the contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) is introduced in this article to provide a good brightness with decent contrast for CT images. The novel modification to the aforesaid technique is done by adding an initial phase of a normalized gamma correction function that helps in adjusting the gamma of the processed image to avoid the common errors of the basic CLAHE of the excess brightness and imperfect contrast it produces. The newly developed technique is tested with synthetic and real-degraded low-contrast CT images, in which it highly contributed in producing better quality results. Moreover, a low intricacy technique for contrast enhancement is proposed, and its performance is also exhibited against various versions of histogram-based enhancement technique using three advanced image quality assessment metrics of Universal Image Quality Index (UIQI), Structural Similarity Index (SSIM), and Feature Similarity Index (FSIM). Finally, the proposed technique provided acceptable results with no visible artifacts and outperformed all the comparable techniques.

  14. The life cycle of the amoeboid alga Synchroma grande (Synchromophyceae, Heterokontophyta)--highly adapted yet equally equipped for rapid diversification in benthic habitats.

    PubMed

    Koch, C; Brumme, B; Schmidt, M; Flieger, K; Schnetter, R; Wilhelm, C

    2011-09-01

    Synchroma grande (Synchromophyceae, Heterokontophyta) is a marine amoeboid alga, which was isolated from a benthic habitat. This species has sessile cell stages (amoeboid cells with lorica and cysts) and non-sessile cell stages (migrating and floating amoebae) during its life cycle. The different cell types and their transitions within the life cycle are described, as are their putative functions. Cell proliferation was observed only in cells attached to the substrate but not in free-floating or migrating cells. We also characterised the phagotrophy of the meroplasmodium in comparison to other amoeboid algae and the formation of the lorica. The functional adaptations of S. grande during its life cycle were compared to the cell stages of other amoeboid algae of the red and green chloroplast lineages. S. grande was found to be highly adapted to the benthic habitat. One sexual and two asexual reproductive strategies (haplo-diploid life cycle) support the ability of this species to achieve rapid diversification and high adaptivity in its natural habitat.

  15. COMPASS: A computational model to predict changes in MMSE scores 24-months after initial assessment of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fan; Panwar, Bharat; Dodge, Hiroko H.; Li, Hongdong; Hampstead, Benjamin M.; Albin, Roger L.; Paulson, Henry L.; Guan, Yuanfang

    2016-01-01

    We present COMPASS, a COmputational Model to Predict the development of Alzheimer’s diSease Spectrum, to model Alzheimer’s disease (AD) progression. This was the best-performing method in recent crowdsourcing benchmark study, DREAM Alzheimer’s Disease Big Data challenge to predict changes in Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores over 24-months using standardized data. In the present study, we conducted three additional analyses beyond the DREAM challenge question to improve the clinical contribution of our approach, including: (1) adding pre-validated baseline cognitive composite scores of ADNI-MEM and ADNI-EF, (2) identifying subjects with significant declines in MMSE scores, and (3) incorporating SNPs of top 10 genes connected to APOE identified from functional-relationship network. For (1) above, we significantly improved predictive accuracy, especially for the Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) group. For (2), we achieved an area under ROC of 0.814 in predicting significant MMSE decline: our model has 100% precision at 5% recall, and 91% accuracy at 10% recall. For (3), “genetic only” model has Pearson’s correlation of 0.15 to predict progression in the MCI group. Even though addition of this limited genetic model to COMPASS did not improve prediction of progression of MCI group, the predictive ability of SNP information extended beyond well-known APOE allele. PMID:27703197

  16. Performance analysis of low-complexity adaptive frequency-domain equalization and MIMO signal processing for compensation of differential mode group delay in mode-division multiplexing communication systems using few-mode fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Yi; He, Xuan; Pan, Zhongqi

    2016-02-01

    Mode-division multiplexing (MDM) transmission systems utilizing few-mode fibers (FMF) have been intensively explored to sustain continuous traffic growth. The key challenges of MDM systems are inter-modal crosstalk due to random mode coupling (RMC), and largely-accumulated differential mode group delay (DMGD), whilst hinders mode-demultiplexer implementation. The adaptive multi-input multi-output (MIMO) frequency-domain equalization (FDE) can dynamically compensate DMGD using digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms. The frequency-domain least-mean squares (FD-LMS) algorithm has been universally adopted for high-speed MDM communications, mainly for its relatively low computational complexity. However, longer training sequence is appended for FD-LMS to achieve faster convergence, which incurs prohibitively higher system overhead and reduces overall throughput. In this paper, we propose a fast-convergent single-stage adaptive frequency-domain recursive least-squares (FD-RLS) algorithm with reduced complexity for DMGD compensation at MDM coherent receivers. The performance and complexity comparison of FD-RLS, with signal-PSD-dependent FD-LMS method and conventional FD-LMS approach, are performed in a 3000 km six-mode transmission system with 65 ps/km DMGD. We explore the convergence speed of three adaptive algorithms, including the normalized mean-square-error (NMSE) per fast Fourier transform (FFT) block at 14-30 dB OSNR. The fast convergence of FD-RLS is exploited at the expense of slightly-increased necessary tap numbers for MIMO equalizers, and it can partially save the overhead of training sequence. Furthermore, we demonstrate adaptive FD-RLS can also be used for chromatic dispersion (CD) compensation without increasing the filter tap length, thus prominently reducing the DSP implementation complexity for MDM systems.

  17. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  18. Forget about equality.

    PubMed

    Powers, Madison

    1996-06-01

    Justice is widely thought to consist in equality. For many theorists, the central question has been: Equality of what? The author argues that the ideal of equality distorts practical reasoning and has deeply counterintuitive implications. Moreover, an alternative view of distributive justice can give a better account of what egalitarians should care about than can any of the competing ideals of equality.

  19. Moments and Root-Mean-Square Error of the Bayesian MMSE Estimator of Classification Error in the Gaussian Model.

    PubMed

    Zollanvari, Amin; Dougherty, Edward R

    2014-06-01

    The most important aspect of any classifier is its error rate, because this quantifies its predictive capacity. Thus, the accuracy of error estimation is critical. Error estimation is problematic in small-sample classifier design because the error must be estimated using the same data from which the classifier has been designed. Use of prior knowledge, in the form of a prior distribution on an uncertainty class of feature-label distributions to which the true, but unknown, feature-distribution belongs, can facilitate accurate error estimation (in the mean-square sense) in circumstances where accurate completely model-free error estimation is impossible. This paper provides analytic asymptotically exact finite-sample approximations for various performance metrics of the resulting Bayesian Minimum Mean-Square-Error (MMSE) error estimator in the case of linear discriminant analysis (LDA) in the multivariate Gaussian model. These performance metrics include the first, second, and cross moments of the Bayesian MMSE error estimator with the true error of LDA, and therefore, the Root-Mean-Square (RMS) error of the estimator. We lay down the theoretical groundwork for Kolmogorov double-asymptotics in a Bayesian setting, which enables us to derive asymptotic expressions of the desired performance metrics. From these we produce analytic finite-sample approximations and demonstrate their accuracy via numerical examples. Various examples illustrate the behavior of these approximations and their use in determining the necessary sample size to achieve a desired RMS. The Supplementary Material contains derivations for some equations and added figures.

  20. Science EQUALS Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Kitty B., Ed.; Conwell, Catherine R., Ed.

    The purpose of the EQUALS programs is to increase the interest and awareness that females and minorities have concerning mathematics and science related careers. This book, produced by an EQUALS program in North Carolina, contains 35 hands-on, discovery science activities that center around four EQUALS processes--problem solving, cooperative…

  1. EQUAL PAY FACTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    EQUAL PAY MEANS PAYMENT OF "RATE OF THE JOB" WITHOUT REGARD TO SEX. EQUAL PAY LAWS WERE ENACTED IN 29 STATES FROM 1919 TO 1965. FOUR ADDITIONAL STATES HAVE FAIR EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES LAWS. SUPPORT FOR SUCH LEGISLATION HAS COME FROM WOMEN'S AND CIVIC ORGANIZATIONS, AFL-CIO, AND THE PRESIDENT'S AND STATE COMMISSIONS ON THE STATUS OF WOMEN. THE…

  2. Equality and Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The two big events in higher education during 2010 were the implementation of the Equality Act, and the introduction of a new dispensation on fees and funding. The former is intended to promote equality, the latter is premised on the need for economy. In this article, the author focuses on the effect of the latter on the former. He considers this…

  3. Equality, Innovation and Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Offers some ideas concerning promotion of gender equality and diversity within European Union-funded programs and activities. Reviews efforts since the 1970s to foster equal access in European schools and universities, examines some principles of innovation and entrepreneurship, and considers stages in diversity policy development. (DB)

  4. Early Understanding of Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavy, Aisling; Hourigan, Mairéad; McMahon, Áine

    2013-01-01

    Quite a bit of the arithmetic in elementary school contains elements of algebraic reasoning. After researching and testing a number of instructional strategies with Irish third graders, these authors found effective methods for cultivating a relational concept of equality in third-grade students. Understanding equality is fundamental to algebraic…

  5. Integer Equal Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, C A; Schulz, A S

    2009-01-07

    The integer equal flow problem is an NP-hard network flow problem, in which all arcs in given sets R{sub 1}, ..., R{sub {ell}} must carry equal flow. We show this problem is effectively inapproximable, even if the cardinality of each set R{sub k} is two. When {ell} is fixed, it is solvable in polynomial time.

  6. Searching for Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giese, James; Miller, Barbara

    1987-01-01

    Offers an activity designed to illustrate the historical context of current legal questions relating to equal rights. The activity shows how the definition of equality has been expanded as a result of the continuous hard work of individuals and civil rights groups. (JDH)

  7. Equalization in redundant channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulpule, Bhalchandra R. (Inventor); Collins, Robert E. (Inventor); Cominelli, Donald F. (Inventor); O'Neill, Richard D. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A miscomparison between a channel's configuration data base and a voted system configuration data base in a redundant channel system having identically operating, frame synchronous channels triggers autoequalization of the channel's historical signal data bases in a hierarchical, chronological manner with that of a correctly operating channel. After equalization, symmetrization of the channel's configuration data base with that of the system permits upgrading of the previously degraded channel to full redundancy. An externally provided equalization command, e.g., manually actuated, can also trigger equalization.

  8. Density Equalizing Map Projections

    1995-07-01

    A geographic map is mathematically transformed so that the subareas of the map are proportional to a given quantity such as population. In other words, population density is equalized over the entire map. The transformed map can be used as a display tool, or it can be statistically analyzed. For example, cases of disease plotted on the transformed map should be uniformly distributed at random, if disease rates are everywhere equal. Geographic clusters of diseasemore » can be readily identified, and their statistical significance determined, on a density equalized map.« less

  9. Happiness as Educational Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCord, Arline Sakuma

    1974-01-01

    A review of six monographs in the American Sociological Association Rose Monograph Series that examine attitudes toward self as they relate to the pervasiveness of American values concerning happiness and equality of opportunity. (EH)

  10. Technology--The Equalizer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane, Eydie

    1989-01-01

    This article describes a number of computer-based learning tools for disabled students. Adaptive input devices, assisted technologies, software, and hardware and software resources are discussed. (IAH)

  11. Transhumanism and moral equality.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James

    2007-10-01

    Conservative thinkers such as Francis Fukuyama have produced a battery of objections to the transhumanist project of fundamentally enhancing human capacities. This article examines one of these objections, namely that by allowing some to greatly extend their capacities, we will undermine the fundamental moral equality of human beings. I argue that this objection is groundless: once we understand the basis for human equality, it is clear that anyone who now has sufficient capacities to count as a person from the moral point of view will continue to count as one even if others are fundamentally enhanced; and it is mistaken to think that a creature which had even far greater capacities than an unenhanced human being should count as more than an equal from the moral point of view.

  12. Equality and Academic Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardarson, Atli

    2013-01-01

    A recent national curriculum guide for upper secondary schools in my home country, Iceland, requires secondary schools to work towards equality and five other overarching aims. This requirement raises questions about to what extent secondary schools have to change their curricula in order to approach these aims or work towards them in an adequate…

  13. Equal Opportunity in Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Paul

    This book focuses on discrimination in employment, defined as the denial of equal opportunity in the labor market to qualified persons on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, age, sex, or any other factor not related to their individual qualifications for work. The average nonwhite college graduate can expect to earn less during…

  14. Education and Economic Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurow, Lester C.

    1972-01-01

    Argues that the present reliance on education as the ultimate policy for curing all problems, economic and social, is unwarranted at best and in all probability, ineffective. Suggests that any time a consensus emerges on the need for more equality, it can be at least partly achieved by making a frontal attack on wage differentials. (RJ)

  15. EQUALS Investigations: Remote Rulers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, Karen; Whitlow, Robert

    EQUALS is a teacher education program that helps elementary and secondary educators acquire methods and materials to attract minority and female students to mathematics. It supports a problem-solving approach to mathematics which has students working in groups, uses active assessment methods, and incorporates a broad mathematics curriculum…

  16. Equality of Fitness Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swoyer, Jesse O.

    2008-01-01

    The author, who has been a personal trainer for the past ten years, recently realized that all fitness centers are not equal. In February, he was able to participate in the grand opening of the Center for Independent Living of Central PA (CILCP), a fitness center that is designed to accommodate persons with disabilities living in the Central…

  17. Granting Each Equal Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Linda Lucas

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes federal legislation regarding equal access for students with disabilities and discusses environmental barriers to accessibility in the library media center. Solutions to these design problems are suggested in the following areas: material formats and space requirements; the physical setting, including furniture, floor coverings,…

  18. Equality of Educational Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, K. Patricia

    A consideration of the use of the phrase "equality of educational opportunity" and of the educational models used to attempt its implementation suggest the following recommendations. If education is to devise learning models that will maximize individual potential and aid in matching human abilities to the work required by societies, then (1) we…

  19. Defining Equality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Ronald E.

    1977-01-01

    Defines equality of education in three areas: 1) by the degree of integration of school systems; 2) by a comparison of material resources and assets in education; and 3) by the effects of schooling as measured by the mean scores of groups on standardized tests. Available from: College of Education, 107 Quadrangle, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa…

  20. Equality Versus Inequality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that political equality and democracy are attainable only through the distribution of access to political resources and the willingness to use them. Discusses the broad philosophical and sociological components that contribute to a system marked by advantage and inequalities, as well as opportunities for opposition and resistance. (MJP)

  1. Freedom, equality, race.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Jeffrey B

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores come of the reasons for the continuing power of racial categorization in our era, and thus offers some friendly amendments to the more optimistic renderings of the term post-racial. Focusing mainly on the relationship between black and white Americans, it argues that the widespread embrace of universal values of freedom and equality, which most regard as antidotes to racial exclusion, actually reinforce it. The internal logic of these categories requires the construction of the "other." In America, where freedom and equality still stand at the contested center of collective identity, a history of racial oppression informs the very meaning of these terms. Thus the irony: much of the effort exerted to transcend race tends to fuel continuing division. PMID:21469393

  2. Equality in Education: An Equality of Condition Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Kathleen; Baker, John

    2005-01-01

    Transforming schools into truly egalitarian institutions requires a holistic and integrated approach. Using a robust conception of "equality of condition", we examine key dimensions of equality that are central to both the purposes and processes of education: equality in educational and related resources; equality of respect and recognition;…

  3. Genetic Diversity and Human Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobzhansky, Theodosius

    The idea of equality often, if not frequently, bogs down in confusion and apparent contradictions; equality is confused with identity, and diversity with inequality. It would seem that the easiest way to discredit the idea of equality is to show that people are innately, genetically, and, therefore, irremediably diverse and unlike. The snare is,…

  4. [Using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for preliminary assessment of cognitive impairment in subjects exposed to air pollution with particulate matter].

    PubMed

    Pedata, Paola; Grella, Rodolfo; Lamberti, Monica; Bergamasco, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic and clinical studies have linked elevated concentrations of particulate matter to adverse health effects. In particular, has been demonstrated an association between UFPs exposure and occurrence of acute respiratory infections, lung cancer, chronic chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, the exposure to particulate air pollution has been linked to cognitive decline. In this work, we used the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in a preliminary assessment of cognitive function in individuals who have lived and carried out work in heavily urbanized areas, where ambient levels of particulate air pollution were frequently above the standard of the law. The results showed the presence of mild-moderate cognitive impairment in 39.4% of the subjects examined compared to the control group.

  5. Medical Need, Equality, and Uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Horne, L Chad

    2016-10-01

    Many hold that distributing healthcare according to medical need is a requirement of equality. Most egalitarians believe, however, that people ought to be equal on the whole, by some overall measure of well-being or life-prospects; it would be a massive coincidence if distributing healthcare according to medical need turned out to be an effective way of promoting equality overall. I argue that distributing healthcare according to medical need is important for reducing individuals' uncertainty surrounding their future medical needs. In other words, distributing healthcare according to medical need is a natural feature of healthcare insurance; it is about indemnity, not equality. PMID:27196999

  6. Medical Need, Equality, and Uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Horne, L Chad

    2016-10-01

    Many hold that distributing healthcare according to medical need is a requirement of equality. Most egalitarians believe, however, that people ought to be equal on the whole, by some overall measure of well-being or life-prospects; it would be a massive coincidence if distributing healthcare according to medical need turned out to be an effective way of promoting equality overall. I argue that distributing healthcare according to medical need is important for reducing individuals' uncertainty surrounding their future medical needs. In other words, distributing healthcare according to medical need is a natural feature of healthcare insurance; it is about indemnity, not equality.

  7. Luck, Choice, and Educational Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, John

    2015-01-01

    Harry Brighouse discusses two conceptions of educational equality. The first is a type of equality of opportunity, heavily influenced by the work of John Rawls, which he calls the meritocratic conception. According to this conception, an individual's educational prospects should not be influenced by factors such as their social class background.…

  8. Democracy, Equal Citizenship, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Eamonn

    2016-01-01

    Two appealing principles of educational distribution--equality and sufficiency--are comparatively assessed. The initial point of comparison is the distribution of civic educational goods. One reason to favor equality in educational distribution rather than sufficiency is the elimination of undeserved positional advantage in access to labor…

  9. Governing Equality: Mathematics for All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Jennifer D.

    2013-01-01

    With the notion of governmentality, this article considers how the equal sign (=) in the U.S. math curriculum organizes knowledge of equality and inscribes cultural rules for thinking, acting, and seeing in the world. Situating the discussion within contemporary math reforms aimed at teaching mathematics for all, I draw attention to how the…

  10. Loudspeaker equalization for auditory research.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Justin A; Tran, Phuong K

    2007-02-01

    The equalization of loudspeaker frequency response is necessary to conduct many types of well-controlled auditory experiments. This article introduces a program that includes functions to measure a loudspeaker's frequency response, design equalization filters, and apply the filters to a set of stimuli to be used in an auditory experiment. The filters can compensate for both magnitude and phase distortions introduced by the loudspeaker. A MATLAB script is included in the Appendix to illustrate the details of the equalization algorithm used in the program.

  11. Multiple point least squares equalization in a room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, S. J.; Nelson, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    Equalization filters designed to minimize the mean square error between a delayed version of the original electrical signal and the equalized response at a point in a room have previously been investigated. In general, such a strategy degrades the response at positions in a room away from the equalization point. A method is presented for designing an equalization filter by adjusting the filter coefficients to minimize the sum of the squares of the errors between the equalized responses at multiple points in the room and delayed versions of the original, electrical signal. Such an equalization filter can give a more uniform frequency response over a greater volume of the enclosure than can the single point equalizer above. Computer simulation results are presented of equalizing the frequency responses from a loudspeaker to various typical ear positions, in a room with dimensions and acoustic damping typical of a car interior, using the two approaches outlined above. Adaptive filter algorithms, which can automatically adjust the coefficients of a digital equalization filter to achieve this minimization, will also be discussed.

  12. Equal Education and the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanks, Hershel

    1970-01-01

    A number of court cases are cited which trace the development of various definitions and interpretations of the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution as would be applicable to inadequate" schools. (DM)

  13. Electronegativity Equalization with Pauling Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratsch, Steven G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses electronegativity equalization using Pauling units. Although Pauling has qualitatively defined electronegativity as the power of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to itself, Pauling electronegativities are treated in this paper as prebonded, isolated-atom quantities. (JN)

  14. Electronegativity Equalization and Partial Charge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, R. T.

    1974-01-01

    This article elaborates the relationship between covalent radius, homonuclear bond energy, and electronegativity, and sets the background for bond energy calculation by discussing the nature of heteronuclear covalent bonding on the basis of electronegativity equalization and particle charge. (DT)

  15. Equal Pay for Comparable Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Nancy Lloyd; Rothman, Daniel A.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the legal battleground upon which one struggle for the equality of women is being fought. Updates a civil rights decision of crucial importance to nursing--Lemons v City and County of Denver. (JOW)

  16. Equal Employment + Equal Pay = Multiple Problems for Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbach, Sheldon Elliot; Reback, Joyce E.

    1974-01-01

    Issues involved in government regulation of university employment practices are discussed: confidentiality of records, pregnancy as a disability, alleged discrimination in benefits, tests and other employment criteria, seniority and layoff, reverse discrimination, use of statistics for determination of discrimination, and the Equal Pay Act. (JT)

  17. Adapting to the Revolution of Equal Opportunity for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Cornelia W.

    1979-01-01

    Federal regulations regarding the handicapped pose problems for recipients of federal aid, but higher education's reactions have been more positive than negative. The principle problems seem to be compliance costs, the need for interpretation of the regulations, and difficulties in the areas of admissions and academic requirements. (Author/JMD)

  18. A Perspective on Diversity, Equality and Equity in Swedish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Olof; Davis, Anna; Geijer, Luule

    2007-01-01

    This study presents policy and theory as they apply to diversity, equality and equity in Swedish social and educational policy. All education in Sweden should, according to the curriculum (Lpo 94, 1994, p. 5) be of equivalent value, irrespective of where in the country it is provided and education should be adapted to each pupil's circumstances…

  19. 41 CFR 60-741.5 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., demotion, transfer, layoff, termination, right of return from layoff and rehiring; iii. Rates of pay or any... opportunity clause in each of its subcontracts subject to this part. (c) Adaption of language. Such necessary changes in language may be made to the equal opportunity clause as shall be appropriate to...

  20. Equal Time for Creationism? No.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skoog, Gerald

    1983-01-01

    Legal decisions and other arguments support the argument that the exclusion of creationism from school curricula is not the result of censorship or bias. Equal-time legislation for creationism has the potential to entangle the state and religion and to make the task of teachers, textbook authors, and publishers nearly impossible. (PP)

  1. Higher Education and Equal Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnigan, John J.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of the Bakke case, in which the courts first encountered the question of legality of reverse discrimination, is explored; its constitutional significance is examined. It is concluded that the virtue of the decision is in its support of affirmative action and its equal protection implications. (MSE)

  2. STEM Equality and Diversity Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Jill

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the Centre for Science Education at Sheffield Hallam University teamed up with VT Enterprise (now Babcock International) in their submission of a successful bid to deliver the national STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths) Subject Choice and Careers Project. An integral part of the bid was the promotion of equality and…

  3. The Road to Racial Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Beverly Daniel

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how he was born in 1954, just four months after the Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision outlawed the "separate but equal" doctrine of school segregation. He discusses how that fact has shaped his life immeasurably. Beginning with entering the world in Tallahassee, Fla., where his father taught…

  4. Primer of Equal Employment Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Howard J.

    This booklet presents laws and court cases concerning discrimination in hiring. It begins with a presentation of the laws and orders regulating equal employment opportunity and the remedies available. It lists those employees and employers to whom the laws apply and exemptions. Sections deal with discrimination on the basis of race, sex, sexual…

  5. Extending Understanding of Equal Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfuss, Elisabeth T.

    1988-01-01

    Presents four strategies for teaching secondary students about equal protection clause of the U.S. Constitution's Fourteenth Amendment. To be taught by the classroom teacher or a visiting lawyer, these strategies use such methods as a panel discussion and examination of Fourteenth Amendment court cases to accomplish their goals. (GEA)

  6. Promote Equality in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sharon; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents suggestions to help physical educators treat all students equally and avoid unconsciously making inequitable gender-based statements and practicing other gender discrimination. Suggestions include encouraging girls to talk more, praising girls' performance and boys' appearance, using gender-neutral language, not stereotyping either sex,…

  7. Equalization among Florida School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Kern; Shiver, Lee

    1983-01-01

    This statistical analysis of funding equalization from 1970 to 1981 evaluates the distributional equity achieved by Florida's school finance plan and examines the relationship between selected per pupil revenue measures and variables thought to influence school district spending, concluding that greater equity has not been attained. (MJL)

  8. Racial equity or racial equality.

    PubMed

    Daymont, T N

    1980-11-01

    This study examines the relationship between racial equity in labor market processes and racial equality in future labor market rewards. In particular, a regression standardization procedure is used to project the degree of racial inequality in earnings that would exist among men at various future points in time based on three different sets of assumptions about attainment processes in labor market and educational institutions. The most important results suggest that even if racial discrimination were eliminated immediately in labor market and educational institutions, it would take almost 50 years for the black-white earnings ratio to reach .95. This incompatibility between equity and equality needs to be considered more explicitly both by those who advocate a color-blind labor market and those who advocate preferential treatment for blacks.

  9. Equal opportunity in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Allen, A

    1992-04-01

    The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) was created by the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The commission encourages voluntary compliance with equal employment opportunity practices, and has authority to investigate complaints alleging discrimination in hiring, firing, wage rates, testing, training, apprenticeship, and other conditions of employment. In October 1991, during the Senate Judiciary Committee hearings, the confirmation of Judge Clarence Thomas for a seat on the United States Supreme Court was placed in jeopardy by a charge of sexual harassment while Thomas was head of the EEOC. This article focuses on aspects of sexual harassment in the workplace, the role of the EEOC, and offers some suggestions for keeping the work environment free of abusive behavior.

  10. Office of Equal Opportunity Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Office of Equal Opportunity Programs works to provide quality service for all programs and/or to assist the Center in becoming a model workplace. During the summer of 2004, I worked with Deborah Cotleur along with other staff members to create and modify customer satisfaction surveys. This office aims to assist in developing a model workplace by providing functions as a change agent to the center by serving as an advisor to management to ensure equity throughout the Center. In addition, the office serves as a mediator for the Center in addressing issues and concerns. Lastly, the office provides assistance to employees to enable attainment of personal and organizational goals. The Office of Equal Opportunities is a staff office which reports and provides advice to the Center Director and Executive Leadership, implements laws, regulations, and presidential executive orders, and provides center wide leadership and assistance to NASA GRC employees. Some of the major responsibilities of the office include working with the discrimination complaints program, special emphasis programs (advisory groups), management support, monitoring and evaluation, contract compliance, and community outreach. During my internship in this office, my main objective was to create four customer satisfaction surveys based on EO retreats, EO observances, EO advisory boards, and EO mediation/counseling. I created these surveys after conducting research on past events and surveys as well as similar survey research created and conducted by other NASA centers, program for EO Advisory group members, leadership training sessions for supervisors, preventing sexual harassment training sessions, and observance events. I also conducted research on the style and format from feedback surveys from the Marshall Equal Opportunity website, the Goddard website, and the main NASA website. Using the material from the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs at Glenn Research Center along with my

  11. The equal right to drink.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Laura A

    2014-11-01

    The starting place for this essay is Knupfer and Room's insight that more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication tend to be selectively applied to the economically dependent segments of society, such as women. However, since these authors wrote in 1964, women in the US and many other societies around the globe have experienced rising economic independence. The essay considers how the moral categories of acceptable drinking and drunkenness may have shifted alongside women's rising economic independence, and looks at evidence on the potential consequences for women's health and wellbeing. I argue that, as women have gained economic independence, changes in drinking norms have produced two different kinds of negative unintended consequences for women at high and low extremes of economic spectrum. As liberated women of the middle and upper classes have become more economically equal to men, they have enjoyed the right to drink with less restraint. For them, alongside the equal right to drink has come greater equality in exposure to alcohol-attributable harms, abuse and dependence. I further suggest that, as societies become more liberated, the economic dependency of low-income women is brought into greater question. Under such conditions, women in poverty-particularly those economically dependent on the state, such as welfare mothers-have become subject to more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication, and more punitive social controls.

  12. The equal right to drink.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Laura A

    2014-11-01

    The starting place for this essay is Knupfer and Room's insight that more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication tend to be selectively applied to the economically dependent segments of society, such as women. However, since these authors wrote in 1964, women in the US and many other societies around the globe have experienced rising economic independence. The essay considers how the moral categories of acceptable drinking and drunkenness may have shifted alongside women's rising economic independence, and looks at evidence on the potential consequences for women's health and wellbeing. I argue that, as women have gained economic independence, changes in drinking norms have produced two different kinds of negative unintended consequences for women at high and low extremes of economic spectrum. As liberated women of the middle and upper classes have become more economically equal to men, they have enjoyed the right to drink with less restraint. For them, alongside the equal right to drink has come greater equality in exposure to alcohol-attributable harms, abuse and dependence. I further suggest that, as societies become more liberated, the economic dependency of low-income women is brought into greater question. Under such conditions, women in poverty-particularly those economically dependent on the state, such as welfare mothers-have become subject to more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication, and more punitive social controls. PMID:25303360

  13. Equal is as equal does: challenging Vatican views on women.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The authors of this piece are women from the Roman Catholic tradition who are critical of the Vatican position on women's rights. The Report of the Holy See in Preparation for the Fourth World Conference on Women reveals a religious fundamentalism that misuses tradition and anthropology to limit women's roles and rights. The Vatican is itself a self-proclaimed state that offers women neither opportunities nor protections within its own organization, and there is no evidence of women's participation in the preparation of its report. The Vatican document constructs a vision of women and men in which men are normative persons, whose dignity is conferred by their humanity, and women are the variant other, defined by and granted dignity by their reproductive and mothering functions. The Vatican document is anti-feminist. It criticizes the "radical feminists" of the 1960s for trying to deny sexual differences, and accuses today's Western feminists of ignoring the needs of women in developing countries while pursuing selfish and hedonistic goals. It makes no recognition of the work of feminists to improve the lives of women worldwide. The Vatican document claims to support women's equality, but it qualifies each statement of equality with a presumption of difference. The document defines women as vulnerable without naming men as responsible for the oppression and violence to which women are vulnerable. It ridicules as feminist cant the well-documented fact that the home is the setting of most violence against women. The Vatican decries the suffering families undergo as a result of cumpulsory birth control and abortion policies, while it would deny families sex education, contraceptives, and safe abortion, thereby making pregnancy cumpulsory. A new vision of social justice is needed, one that: 1) rests on a radical equality, in which both women and men are expected to contribute to work, education, culture, morality, and reproduction; 2) accepts a "discipleship of equals

  14. Equal is as equal does: challenging Vatican views on women.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The authors of this piece are women from the Roman Catholic tradition who are critical of the Vatican position on women's rights. The Report of the Holy See in Preparation for the Fourth World Conference on Women reveals a religious fundamentalism that misuses tradition and anthropology to limit women's roles and rights. The Vatican is itself a self-proclaimed state that offers women neither opportunities nor protections within its own organization, and there is no evidence of women's participation in the preparation of its report. The Vatican document constructs a vision of women and men in which men are normative persons, whose dignity is conferred by their humanity, and women are the variant other, defined by and granted dignity by their reproductive and mothering functions. The Vatican document is anti-feminist. It criticizes the "radical feminists" of the 1960s for trying to deny sexual differences, and accuses today's Western feminists of ignoring the needs of women in developing countries while pursuing selfish and hedonistic goals. It makes no recognition of the work of feminists to improve the lives of women worldwide. The Vatican document claims to support women's equality, but it qualifies each statement of equality with a presumption of difference. The document defines women as vulnerable without naming men as responsible for the oppression and violence to which women are vulnerable. It ridicules as feminist cant the well-documented fact that the home is the setting of most violence against women. The Vatican decries the suffering families undergo as a result of cumpulsory birth control and abortion policies, while it would deny families sex education, contraceptives, and safe abortion, thereby making pregnancy cumpulsory. A new vision of social justice is needed, one that: 1) rests on a radical equality, in which both women and men are expected to contribute to work, education, culture, morality, and reproduction; 2) accepts a "discipleship of equals

  15. The Business of Equal Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Reginald D.

    1992-01-01

    The author describes his journey from poor African-American youth in the rural South to successful businessman. He discusses the Inroads program, an internship for African-American and Hispanic youth and advises giving up victimhood and adapting to the mainstream of capitalism. (SK)

  16. Midwives, gender equality and feminism.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Denis

    2016-03-01

    Gender inequality and the harmful effects of patriarchy are sustaining the wide spread oppression of women across the world and this is also having an impact on maternity services with unacceptable rates of maternal mortality, the continued under investment in the midwifery profession and the limiting of women's place of birth options. However alongside these effects, the current zeitgeist is affirming an alignment of feminism and gender equality such that both have a high profile in public discourse. This presents a once in a generation opportunity for midwives to self-declare as feminists and commit to righting the wrongs of this most pernicious form of discrimination. PMID:27044191

  17. Midwives, gender equality and feminism.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Denis

    2016-03-01

    Gender inequality and the harmful effects of patriarchy are sustaining the wide spread oppression of women across the world and this is also having an impact on maternity services with unacceptable rates of maternal mortality, the continued under investment in the midwifery profession and the limiting of women's place of birth options. However alongside these effects, the current zeitgeist is affirming an alignment of feminism and gender equality such that both have a high profile in public discourse. This presents a once in a generation opportunity for midwives to self-declare as feminists and commit to righting the wrongs of this most pernicious form of discrimination.

  18. Educational Equality: Luck Egalitarian, Pluralist and Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, John

    2014-01-01

    The basic principle of educational equality is that each child should receive an equally good education. This sounds appealing, but is rather vague and needs substantial working out. Also, educational equality faces all the objections to equality per se, plus others specific to its subject matter. Together these have eroded confidence in the…

  19. Mobile phone imaging module with extended depth of focus based on axial irradiance equalization phase coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Hsin-Yueh; Chen, Po-Chang; Chang, Chuan-Chung; Chang, Chir-Weei; Yang, Sidney S.; Chang, Horng

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a mobile phone imaging module with extended depth of focus (EDoF) by using axial irradiance equalization (AIE) phase coding. From radiation energy transfer along optical axis with constant irradiance, the focal depth enhancement solution is acquired. We introduce the axial irradiance equalization phase coding to design a two-element 2-megapixel mobile phone lens for trade off focus-like aberrations such as field curvature, astigmatism and longitudinal chromatic defocus. The design results produce modulation transfer functions (MTF) and phase transfer functions (PTF) with substantially similar characteristics at different field and defocus positions within Nyquist pass band. Besides, the measurement results are shown. Simultaneously, the design results and measurement results are compared. Next, for the EDoF mobile phone camera imaging system, we present a digital decoding design method and calculate a minimum mean square error (MMSE) filter. Then, the filter is applied to correct the substantially similar blur image. Last, the blur and de-blur images are demonstrated.

  20. Gender equality and human rights.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This editorial introduces an issue of INSTRAW News that commemorates the 50th anniversary of the UN's Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This introduction notes that the lead article in the journal expresses optimism about potential progress towards achieving gender equity and human rights because 1) industrialized countries are undergoing a "powershift" to an information society that will offer more and better jobs for women and give women greater access to the power of information, 2) women's earnings have increased worldwide, 3) more and more women are organizing on their own behalf, and 4) a public discourse is being created that promotes the mainstreaming of women's rights and their equality. In addition, several of the UN's international treaties promote gender equality and women's human rights. Foremost among these are 1) the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women; 2) the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, adopted by the 1993 World Conference on Human Rights; 3) the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women; and 4) the Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on women. Counteracting these positive steps is a trend towards defining identity and rights on the basis of community membership only, which ignores the fact that cultures, traditions, and religions are not gender neutral. Given the challenges ahead, the partnership model of society created by women when they have political power is more likely to result in sustainable solutions than the dominator model that men have forwarded for the past 6000 years.

  1. All equal-area map projections are created equal, but some are more equal than others

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usery, E.L.; Seong, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution regional and global raster databases are currently being generated for a variety of environmental and scientific modeling applications. The projection of these data from geographic coordinates to a plane coordinate system is subject to significant areal error. Sources of error include users selecting an inappropriate projection or incorrect parameters for a given projection, algorithmic errors in commercial geographic information system (GIS) software, and errors resulting from the projection of data in the raster format. To assess the latter type of errors, the accuracy of raster projection was analyzed by two methods. First, a set of 12 one-degree by one-degree quadrilaterals placed at various latitudes was projected at several raster resolutions and compared to the projection of a vector representation of the same quadrilaterals. Second, several different raster resolutions of land cover data for Asia were projected and the total areas of 21 land cover categories were tabulated and compared. While equal-area projections are designed to specifically preserve area, the comparison of the results of the one-degree by one-degree quadrilaterals with the common equal area projections (e.g., the Mollweide) indicates a considerable variance in the one-degree area after projection. Similarly, the empirical comparison of land cover areas for Asia among various projections shows that total areas of land cover vary with projection type, raster resolution, and latitude. No single projection is best for all resolutions and all latitudes. While any of the equal-area projections tested are reasonably accurate for most applications with resolutions of eight-kilometer pixels or smaller, significant variances in accuracies appear at larger pixel sizes.

  2. Modified projection algorithms for solving the split equality problems.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qiao-Li; He, Songnian

    2014-01-01

    The split equality problem (SEP) has extraordinary utility and broad applicability in many areas of applied mathematics. Recently, Byrne and Moudafi (2013) proposed a CQ algorithm for solving it. In this paper, we propose a modification for the CQ algorithm, which computes the stepsize adaptively and performs an additional projection step onto two half-spaces in each iteration. We further propose a relaxation scheme for the self-adaptive projection algorithm by using projections onto half-spaces instead of those onto the original convex sets, which is much more practical. Weak convergence results for both algorithms are analyzed.

  3. Brightness-equalized quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung Jun; Zahid, Mohammad U.; Le, Phuong; Ma, Liang; Entenberg, David; Harney, Allison S.; Condeelis, John; Smith, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    As molecular labels for cells and tissues, fluorescent probes have shaped our understanding of biological structures and processes. However, their capacity for quantitative analysis is limited because photon emission rates from multicolour fluorophores are dissimilar, unstable and often unpredictable, which obscures correlations between measured fluorescence and molecular concentration. Here we introduce a new class of light-emitting quantum dots with tunable and equalized fluorescence brightness across a broad range of colours. The key feature is independent tunability of emission wavelength, extinction coefficient and quantum yield through distinct structural domains in the nanocrystal. Precise tuning eliminates a 100-fold red-to-green brightness mismatch of size-tuned quantum dots at the ensemble and single-particle levels, which substantially improves quantitative imaging accuracy in biological tissue. We anticipate that these materials engineering principles will vastly expand the optical engineering landscape of fluorescent probes, facilitate quantitative multicolour imaging in living tissue and improve colour tuning in light-emitting devices. PMID:26437175

  4. The across frequency independence of equalization of interaural time delay in the equalization-cancellation model of binaural unmasking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akeroyd, Michael A.

    2004-08-01

    The equalization stage in the equalization-cancellation model of binaural unmasking compensates for the interaural time delay (ITD) of a masking noise by introducing an opposite, internal delay [N. I. Durlach, in Foundations of Modern Auditory Theory, Vol. II., edited by J. V. Tobias (Academic, New York, 1972)]. Culling and Summerfield [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 785-797 (1995)] developed a multi-channel version of this model in which equalization was ``free'' to use the optimal delay in each channel. Two experiments were conducted to test if equalization was indeed free or if it was ``restricted'' to the same delay in all channels. One experiment measured binaural detection thresholds, using an adaptive procedure, for 1-, 5-, or 17-component tones against a broadband masking noise, in three binaural configurations (N0S180, N180S0, and N90S270). The thresholds for the 1-component stimuli were used to normalize the levels of each of the 5- and 17-component stimuli so that they were equally detectable. If equalization was restricted, then, for the 5- and 17-component stimuli, the N90S270 and N180S0 configurations would yield a greater threshold than the N0S180 configurations. No such difference was found. A subsequent experiment measured binaural detection thresholds, via psychometric functions, for a 2-component complex tone in the same three binaural configurations. Again, no differential effect of configuration was observed. An analytic model of the detection of a complex tone showed that the results were more consistent with free equalization than restricted equalization, although the size of the differences was found to depend on the shape of the psychometric function for detection.

  5. Promoting Racial Equality in the Nursing Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foolchand, M. K.

    1995-01-01

    Equality in nursing education and the profession can be promoted in the following ways: a working policy on racism and equal opportunities; curriculum content that explores stereotypes, values, attitudes, and prejudices; and multicultural health research, education, and promotion. (SK)

  6. Gandhigram: fostering equality through development.

    PubMed

    Devi, R K

    1991-12-01

    A noticeable trend towards 1-child families reveals the success of Gandhigram, an integrated rural development program in Tamil Nadu, India. Founded in 1947 by T.S. Soundram, Gandhigram has adhered to Gandhian principles of truth, nonviolence, castlessness, and equality between the sexes. The program has combined health and family planning with social welfare, education, and economic development. From the outset, Gandhigram has sought community participation, including the involvement of women. Girls have been encouraged to attend school up to at least the 10th level, and employment opportunities for women have been increased. Women's increased economic independence and level of education have influenced their decision to delay marriage by about 2 1/2 years, to choose their own partners, and to decide on the number of children they want. And increasingly, women are opting to limit family size to 2 -- and sometimes 1 -- child. Women are choosing to undergo tubectomies at a younger age, partly because of the availability of recanalization surgery, which has allowed mothers who have lost a child to conceive again. Unlike typical government family planning programs, which usually provide only contraception to meet the objective of a small family norm, Gandhigram also offers infertility services. Not all of Gandhigram's efforts have resulted in success. For example, a plan to develop a health insurance program did not succeed. However, Gandhigram's 44 years of experience have revealed the necessary elements for success. These elements include community participation, the participation of women through educational and employment programs, and easy access to services. PMID:12317116

  7. Reconstruction for distributed video coding: a Markov random field approach with context-adaptive smoothness prior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongsheng; Xiong, Hongkai; He, Zhihai; Yu, Songyu

    2010-07-01

    An important issue in Wyner-Ziv video coding is the reconstruction of Wyner-Ziv frames with decoded bit-planes. So far, there are two major approaches: the Maximum a Posteriori (MAP) reconstruction and the Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) reconstruction algorithms. However, these approaches do not exploit smoothness constraints in natural images. In this paper, we model a Wyner-Ziv frame by Markov random fields (MRFs), and produce reconstruction results by finding an MAP estimation of the MRF model. In the MRF model, the energy function consists of two terms: a data term, MSE distortion metric in this paper, measuring the statistical correlation between side-information and the source, and a smoothness term enforcing spatial coherence. In order to better describe the spatial constraints of images, we propose a context-adaptive smoothness term by analyzing the correspondence between the output of Slepian-Wolf decoding and successive frames available at decoders. The significance of the smoothness term varies in accordance with the spatial variation within different regions. To some extent, the proposed approach is an extension to the MAP and MMSE approaches by exploiting the intrinsic smoothness characteristic of natural images. Experimental results demonstrate a considerable performance gain compared with the MAP and MMSE approaches.

  8. Equal Cell Size and Nonorthogonality in ANCOVA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llabre, Maria M.; Ware, William B.

    1980-01-01

    Computer programs for analysis of covariance use classical experimental, regression, or hierarchical methods of least squares. In a 3 X 3 factorial experiment with equal cell frequencies, three solutions yielded different sums of squares for main effects although correlation between variables was negligible and cell frequencies were equal.…

  9. Continuing Controversy in Equal Employment Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Carl W.; Robles, Martin J.

    1980-01-01

    Some current controversies in the growing body of equal employment law are examined: wage comparability in the context of sex discrimination; procedural sections of the laws and related litigation; class actions by the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission; the scope of litigation; and the criteria for conferring standing on the plaintiff.…

  10. Equal Opportunity in the Air Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatling, Wade S.

    1976-01-01

    Notes that the Affirmative Action Plan of the Air Force is built on the premise that equal opportunity and treatment is everyone's responsibility. Unit Commanders, on-the-job training monitors, recreation centers directors, and others are involved in specific facets of the Plan to insure equality. (Author/AM)

  11. Equal Plate Charges on Series Capacitors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illman, B. L.; Carlson, G. T.

    1994-01-01

    Provides a line of reasoning in support of the contention that the equal charge proposition is at best an approximation. Shows how the assumption of equal plate charge on capacitors in series contradicts the conservative nature of the electric field. (ZWH)

  12. Vocational Education and Equality of Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Benjamin; Feinberg, Walter

    1990-01-01

    Examines the concepts of equality of opportunity and equality of educational opportunity and their relationship to vocational education. Traces the history of vocational education. Delineates the distinction between training and education as enumerated in Aristotelian philosophy. Discusses the role vocational education can play in the educative…

  13. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  14. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  15. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  16. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  17. Image quality and automatic color equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambah, M.; Rizzi, A.; Saint Jean, C.

    2007-01-01

    In the professional movie field, image quality is mainly judged visually. In fact, experts and technicians judge and determine the quality of the film images during the calibration (post production) process. As a consequence, the quality of a restored movie is also estimated subjectively by experts [26,27]. On the other hand, objective quality metrics do not necessarily correlate well with perceived quality [28]. Moreover, some measures assume that there exists a reference in the form of an "original" to compare to, which prevents their use in digital restoration field, where often there is no reference to compare to. That is why subjective evaluation is the most used and most efficient approach up to now. But subjective assessment is expensive, time consuming and does not respond, hence, to the economic requirements of the field [29,25]. Thus, reliable automatic methods for visual quality assessment are needed in the field of digital film restoration. Ideally, a quality assessment system would perceive and measure image or video impairments just like a human being. The ACE method, for Automatic Color Equalization [1,2], is an algorithm for digital images unsupervised enhancement. Like our vision system ACE is able to adapt to widely varying lighting conditions, and to extract visual information from the environment efficaciously. We present in this paper is the use of ACE as a basis of a reference free image quality metric. ACE output is an estimate of our visual perception of a scene. The assumption, tested in other papers [3,4], is that ACE enhancing images is in the way our vision system will perceive them, increases their overall perceived quality. The basic idea proposed in this paper, is that ACE output can differ from the input more or less according to the visual quality of the input image In other word, an image appears good if it is near to the visual appearance we (estimate to) have of it. Reversely bad quality images will need "more filtering". Test

  18. Equality Assurance: Self-Assessment for Equal Opportunities in Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadzie, Stella, Comp.

    This manual is intended as a tool kit for further education (FE) colleges to use to develop their own approaches to equal opportunities policy development and implementation. The following topics are discussed in the eight sections: the manual's development; the case for equality; things an equal opportunities policy should cover; strategic and…

  19. Equality Hypocrisy, Inconsistency, and Prejudice: The Unequal Application of the Universal Human Right to Equality

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In Western culture, there appears to be widespread endorsement of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (which stresses equality and freedom). But do people really apply their equality values equally, or are their principles and application systematically discrepant, resulting in equality hypocrisy? The present study, conducted with a representative national sample of adults in the United Kingdom (N = 2,895), provides the first societal test of whether people apply their value of “equality for all” similarly across multiple types of status minority (women, disabled people, people aged over 70, Blacks, Muslims, and gay people). Drawing on theories of intergroup relations and stereotyping we examined, relation to each of these groups, respondents’ judgments of how important it is to satisfy their particular wishes, whether there should be greater or reduced equality of employment opportunities, and feelings of social distance. The data revealed a clear gap between general equality values and responses to these specific measures. Respondents prioritized equality more for “paternalized” groups (targets of benevolent prejudice: women, disabled, over 70) than others (Black people, Muslims, and homosexual people), demonstrating significant inconsistency. Respondents who valued equality more, or who expressed higher internal or external motivation to control prejudice, showed greater consistency in applying equality. However, even respondents who valued equality highly showed significant divergence in their responses to paternalized versus nonpaternalized groups, revealing a degree of hypocrisy. Implications for strategies to promote equality and challenge prejudice are discussed. PMID:25914516

  20. Jarzynski equality for quantum stochastic maps.

    PubMed

    Rastegin, Alexey E; Życzkowski, Karol

    2014-01-01

    Jarzynski equality and related fluctuation theorems can be formulated for various setups. Such an equality was recently derived for nonunitary quantum evolutions described by unital quantum operations, i.e., for completely positive, trace-preserving maps, which preserve the maximally mixed state. We analyze here a more general case of arbitrary quantum operations on finite systems and derive the corresponding form of the Jarzynski equality. It contains a correction term due to nonunitality of the quantum map. Bounds for the relative size of this correction term are established and they are applied for exemplary systems subjected to quantum channels acting on a finite-dimensional Hilbert space.

  1. Jarzynski equality for quantum stochastic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegin, Alexey E.; Życzkowski, Karol

    2014-01-01

    Jarzynski equality and related fluctuation theorems can be formulated for various setups. Such an equality was recently derived for nonunitary quantum evolutions described by unital quantum operations, i.e., for completely positive, trace-preserving maps, which preserve the maximally mixed state. We analyze here a more general case of arbitrary quantum operations on finite systems and derive the corresponding form of the Jarzynski equality. It contains a correction term due to nonunitality of the quantum map. Bounds for the relative size of this correction term are established and they are applied for exemplary systems subjected to quantum channels acting on a finite-dimensional Hilbert space.

  2. Equal Remuneration Convention (ILO No. 100).

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    The government of Uruguay ratified this UN International Labor Organization convention on equal remuneration on November 16, 1989, and the Government of Zimbabwe ratified this Convention on December 14, 1989.

  3. 7 CFR 622.6 - Equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Agriculture (7 CFR Part 15), which provide that no person in the United States shall, on the... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS General § 622.6 Equal opportunity. The Pub. L. 83-566 and...

  4. 7 CFR 622.6 - Equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of Agriculture (7 CFR Part 15), which provide that no person in the United States shall, on the... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS General § 622.6 Equal opportunity. The Pub. L. 83-566 and...

  5. 7 CFR 622.6 - Equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of Agriculture (7 CFR Part 15), which provide that no person in the United States shall, on the... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS General § 622.6 Equal opportunity. The Pub. L. 83-566 and...

  6. 7 CFR 622.6 - Equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Agriculture (7 CFR Part 15), which provide that no person in the United States shall, on the... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS General § 622.6 Equal opportunity. The Pub. L. 83-566 and...

  7. Publicly Supported, Universally Available Education and Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulding, Kenneth E.

    1976-01-01

    It was once thought that publicly supported, universally available education would produce socioeconomic equality. Family inheritance--financial, cultural, social--explains much of its failure to do so. (Author)

  8. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... equalizing piston chamber of the automatic brake valve, to provide uniform service reductions in brake pipe pressure regardless of the length of the train. Cross Reference: Rocker, see § 236.755....

  9. The Bakke Opinions and Equal Protection Doctrine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karst, Kenneth L.; Horowitz, Harold W.

    1979-01-01

    Constitutional issues addressed in the Supreme Court's decision are reviewed. The opinions rendered by Justice Powell are viewed as reflections of the weakness of recent equal protection theory, and as signs of future doctrine. (GC)

  10. The Equality Act 2010 and mental health.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Graeme; Henderson, Claire; Thornicroft, Graham

    2012-03-01

    One aim of the Equality Act 2010 is to protect people with disabilities and prevent disability discrimination. We review the key provisions of the Act relevant to disability discrimination with respect to mental illness.

  11. Summary of the second equal opportunity conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    Reports and recommendations are included for: Hispanic Employment Program; Federal Women's Program; Equal Employment Opportunity Program; complaint processing workshop; Affirmative Actions Program Workshop; EEO programs in the Office of Personnel Management; and an overall evaluation of the program. (PSB)

  12. Turbo Equalization Using Partial Gaussian Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuanzong; Wang, Zhongyong; Manchon, Carles Navarro; Sun, Peng; Guo, Qinghua; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    2016-09-01

    This paper deals with turbo-equalization for coded data transmission over intersymbol interference (ISI) channels. We propose a message-passing algorithm that uses the expectation-propagation rule to convert messages passed from the demodulator-decoder to the equalizer and computes messages returned by the equalizer by using a partial Gaussian approximation (PGA). Results from Monte Carlo simulations show that this approach leads to a significant performance improvement compared to state-of-the-art turbo-equalizers and allows for trading performance with complexity. We exploit the specific structure of the ISI channel model to significantly reduce the complexity of the PGA compared to that considered in the initial paper proposing the method.

  13. 29 CFR 1620.14 - Testing equality of jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing equality of jobs. 1620.14 Section 1620.14 Labor... Testing equality of jobs. (a) In general. What constitutes equal skill, equal effort, or equal..., or responsibility required for the performance of jobs will not render the equal pay...

  14. 29 CFR 1620.14 - Testing equality of jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Testing equality of jobs. 1620.14 Section 1620.14 Labor... Testing equality of jobs. (a) In general. What constitutes equal skill, equal effort, or equal..., or responsibility required for the performance of jobs will not render the equal pay...

  15. 29 CFR 1620.14 - Testing equality of jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Testing equality of jobs. 1620.14 Section 1620.14 Labor... Testing equality of jobs. (a) In general. What constitutes equal skill, equal effort, or equal..., or responsibility required for the performance of jobs will not render the equal pay...

  16. 29 CFR 1620.14 - Testing equality of jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Testing equality of jobs. 1620.14 Section 1620.14 Labor... Testing equality of jobs. (a) In general. What constitutes equal skill, equal effort, or equal..., or responsibility required for the performance of jobs will not render the equal pay...

  17. 29 CFR 1620.14 - Testing equality of jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Testing equality of jobs. 1620.14 Section 1620.14 Labor... Testing equality of jobs. (a) In general. What constitutes equal skill, equal effort, or equal..., or responsibility required for the performance of jobs will not render the equal pay...

  18. Adaptive cancellation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-11-01

    An adaptive signal canceller has been evaluated for the enhancement of pulse signal reception during the transmission of a high power ECM jamming signal. The canceller design is based on the use of DRFM(Digital RF Memory) technology as part of an adaptive multiple tapped delay line. The study includes analysis of relationship of tap spacing and waveform bandwidth, survey of related documents in areas of sidelobe cancellers, transversal equalizers, and adaptive filters, and derivation of control equations and corresponding control processes. The simulation of overall processes included geometric analysis of the multibeam transmitting antenna, multiple reflection sources and the receiving antenna; waveforms, tap spacings and bandwidths; and alternate control algorithms. Conclusions are provided regarding practical system control algorithms, design characteristics and limitations.

  19. Criteria for equality in two entropic inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Shirokov, M. E.

    2014-07-31

    We obtain a simple criterion for local equality between the constrained Holevo capacity and the quantum mutual information of a quantum channel. This shows that the set of all states for which this equality holds is determined by the kernel of the channel (as a linear map). Applications to Bosonic Gaussian channels are considered. It is shown that for a Gaussian channel having no completely depolarizing components the above characteristics may coincide only at non-Gaussian mixed states and a criterion for the existence of such states is given. All the obtained results may be reformulated as conditions for equality between the constrained Holevo capacity of a quantum channel and the input von Neumann entropy. Bibliography: 20 titles. (paper)

  20. All Are Equal, but Some Are More Equal than Others: Managerialism and Gender Equality in Higher Education in Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teelken, Christine; Deem, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate what impact new regimes of management and governance, including new managerialism, have had on perceptions of gender equality at universities in three Western European countries. While in accordance with national laws and EU directives, contemporary current management approaches in universities…

  1. A Substituting Meaning for the Equals Sign in Arithmetic Notating Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian; Pratt, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Three studies explore arithmetic tasks that support both substitutive and basic relational meanings for the equals sign. The duality of meanings enabled children to engage meaningfully and purposefully with the structural properties of arithmetic statements in novel ways. Some, but not all, children were successful at the adapted task and were…

  2. Adaptive Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive managem...

  3. Equal Opportunity and Racial Differences in IQ.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Joseph F.; Holland, Cynthia R.

    2002-01-01

    Administered an intelligence test to blacks and whites in 2 studies involving 254 community college students and 2 more studies involving 115 community college students. Results show that differences in knowledge between blacks and whites for items on an intelligence test, the meanings of words, can be eliminated when equal opportunities for…

  4. Gender Equality Policies and Higher Education Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berggren, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Gender equality policies regulate the Swedish labour market, including higher education. This study analyses and discusses the career development of postgraduate students in the light of labour market influences. The principle of gender separation is used to understand these effects. Swedish register data encompassing information on 585…

  5. Gender Equality in Academia: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchester, Hilary P. M.; Browning, Lynette

    2015-01-01

    Gender equality in academia has been monitored in Australia for the past three decades so it is timely to reflect on what progress has been made, what works, and what challenges remain. When data were first published on the gender composition of staff in Australian universities in the mid-1980s women comprised 20 per cent of academic staff and…

  6. 75 FR 53559 - Women's Equality Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... ladies'' in the ``new code of laws'' of our fledgling country. It has taken the collective efforts of... Constitution. Standing on the shoulders of these trailblazers, we pay tribute to the brave women who dot the... remains committed to advancing women's equality in all areas of our society and around the world. I...

  7. Racial Equality. To Protect These Rights Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Laughlin

    A historical review of racial discrimination against Negroes is the scope of this volume, part of a series of six volumes which explore the basic American rights. These include due process of law, freedom of speech and religious freedom. This volume traces the development of racial equality in the legal system, explores the controversies and…

  8. 45 CFR 98.43 - Equal access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Program Operations (Child Care Services)-Lead Agency and Provider Requirements § 98.43 Equal access. (a) The Lead Agency shall certify that the payment rates for the provision of child care services under this part...

  9. 45 CFR 98.43 - Equal access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Program Operations (Child Care Services)-Lead Agency and Provider Requirements § 98.43 Equal access. (a) The Lead Agency shall certify that the payment rates for the provision of child care services under this part...

  10. 45 CFR 98.43 - Equal access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Program Operations (Child Care Services)-Lead Agency and Provider Requirements § 98.43 Equal access. (a) The Lead Agency shall certify that the payment rates for the provision of child care services under this part...

  11. 45 CFR 98.43 - Equal access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Program Operations (Child Care Services)-Lead Agency and Provider Requirements § 98.43 Equal access. (a) The Lead Agency shall certify that the payment rates for the provision of child care services under this part...

  12. 45 CFR 98.43 - Equal access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Program Operations (Child Care Services)-Lead Agency and Provider Requirements § 98.43 Equal access. (a) The Lead Agency shall certify that the payment rates for the provision of child care services under this part...

  13. Equality by Default: Women in Dual Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Ena

    1978-01-01

    The struggle for an Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) to the American Constitution is one of the most controversial issues of this era. Discusses the changing role of women amidst a fast-changing society, the styles of those opposing the women's revolution, the debate over women as persons, women in dual roles, and the implications of ERA for the world…

  14. Hawkins' Swan Song: Equalize Funding Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penning, Nick

    1990-01-01

    Representative Augustus Hawkins, outgoing chairman of the U.S. House Committee on Education and Labor, stunned state governments and the education community in January by introducing a bill requiring each state to certify that its public education funds are or will be equalized by 1996, contingent on federal funding redistribution penalties. (MLH)

  15. Disability in the UK: Measuring Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdam, Kingsley; Afkhami, Reza; Olsen, Wendy; Thornton, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    In this article we identify the key survey data for examining the issue of equality in the lives of disabled people in the UK. Such data is essential for assessing change in quality of life over time and for the evaluation of the impact of policy initiatives. For each data source we consider definitions, data collection, issue coverage, sample…

  16. Public Schools and Equal Educational Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Robert L.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses several steps necessary to obtaining equal educational opportunities. These include placing better teaching staffs in urban schools, providing extensive field work for student teachers interested in teaching minority children, reevaluating the current curriculum for occurrences of racism and devising extracurricular activities for…

  17. The Path to Equal Rights in Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The litigant in a historic reverse-discrimination case against the University of Michigan, and subsequently the leader of a Michigan ballot initiative that carried the day against long odds, recounts how her simple call for equal treatment under the law persuaded the people of her state that color-conscious preferences are wrong.

  18. Equal Educational Opportunity for Puerto Ricans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Mary

    Puerto Ricans as a group are more disadvantaged economically, politically, and socially than any other ethnic minority. This marginalization is partly due to the educational system's discriminatory practices which deprive the vast majority of Puerto Rican children of equal educational opportunities. The educational problems of Puerto Ricans stem…

  19. Equity, Equal Opportunities, Gender and Organization Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standing, Hilary; Baume, Elaine

    The issues of equity, equal opportunities, gender, and organization performance in the health care sector worldwide was examined. Information was gathered from the available literature and from individuals in 17 countries. The analysis highlighted the facts that employment equity debates and policies refer largely to high-income countries and…

  20. Transversal filter for parabolic phase equalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Larry R. (Inventor); Waugh, Geoffrey S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An equalizer (10) for removing parabolic phase distortion from an analog signal (3), utilizing a pair of series connected transversal filters. The parabolic phase distortion is cancelled by generating an inverse parabolic approximation using a sinusoidal phase control filter (18). The signal (3) is then passed through an amplitude control filter (21) to remove magnitude ripple components.

  1. When Equal Masses Don't Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newburgh, Ronald; Peidle, Joseph; Rueckner, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    We treat a modified Atwood's machine in which equal masses do not balance because of being in an accelerated frame of reference. Analysis of the problem illuminates the meaning of inertial forces, d'Alembert's principle, the use of free-body diagrams and the selection of appropriate systems for the diagrams. In spite of the range of these…

  2. Equalizing Multi-School Curriculum by Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etowah County Board of Education, Gadsden, AL.

    A three year project aimed at providing equal educational opportunity for all students in the seven high schools of Etowah County, Alabama by implementing a county-wide curriculum using a flexible, rotating schedule, audio-graphic network, instructional television, a learning center, and individualized instruction. The report rates the project as…

  3. An American Perspective on Equal Educational Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles; Perkins, Brian

    2004-01-01

    The United States Supreme Court ushered in a new era in American history on May 17, 1954 in its monumental ruling in "Brown v Board of Education," Topeka, Kansas. "Brown" is not only the Court's most significant decision on race and equal educational opportunities, but also ranks among the most important cases it has ever decided. In "Brown" a…

  4. The Circle and Sphere as Great Equalizers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzman, Steven

    1991-01-01

    From the equality of the ratios of the surface areas and volumes of a sphere and its circumscribed cylinder, the exploration of theorems relating the ratios of surface areas and volumes of a sphere and other circumscribed solids in three dimensions, and analogous questions relating two-dimensional concepts of perimeter and area is recounted. (MDH)

  5. How the Equality Act affects you.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Wendy

    This article examines what the Equality Act 2010 covers and how it affects nurses and healthcare organisations. It outlines the main groups the act sets out to protect and the protection it offers, and describes how this law differs from previous legislation.

  6. Some Are More Equal Than Others.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohanian, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Contends that not all books are created equal--"Anna Karenina," for example, is worth more than Nancy Drew mysteries. Relates, in a personal narrative, that when this opinion was manifested in a newspaper column, hundreds of letters took issue with the idea. Reiterates that the literate teacher finds ways to convince students that literacy is of…

  7. An Equal Employment Opportunity Sensitivity Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Thomas H., Jr.; Dorey, Lester E.

    1972-01-01

    The equal employment opportunity sensitivity workshop seems to be a useful training device for getting an organization started on developing black and white change agents. A report on the establishment of such a workshop at the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Command (TACOM). Includes charts of design, characteristics, analysis of results, program…

  8. What Is Equality of Opportunity in Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazenby, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    There is widespread disagreement about what equality of opportunity in education requires. For some it is that each child is legally permitted to go to school. For others it is that each child receives the same educational resources. Further interpretations abound. This fact presents a problem: when politicians or academics claim they are in…

  9. Three Utilities for the Equal Sign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian; Pratt, Dave

    2005-01-01

    We compare the activity of young children using a microworld and a JavaScript relational calculator with the literature on children using traditional calculators. We describe how the children constructed different meanings for the equal sign in each setting. It appears that the nature of the meaning constructed is highly dependent on specificities…

  10. Gender Equality in Education: Definitions and Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subrahmanian, R.

    2005-01-01

    International consensus on education priorities accords an important place to achieving gender justice in the educational sphere. Both the Dakar 'Education for All' goals and the Millennium Development goals emphasise two goals, in this regard. These two goals are distinguished as gender parity goals [achieving equal participation of girls and…

  11. The Equal Access Act: Recent Court Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklun, Eugene C.

    1989-01-01

    Examines court decisions which led to the passage of the Equal Access Act of 1984. Although the act was designed to clarify the issue over the legality of permitting religious clubs to meet on school property, it may have created more confusion. Concludes that the Supreme Court may have to decide the issue. (SLM)

  12. Position Paper: NO equals x Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Thomas R.; Shy, Carl M.

    1972-01-01

    Doubts about the accuracy of measured concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) in ambient air have led the Environmental Protection Agency to reassess both the analytical technique and the extent to which nitrogen oxides (NO equals x) control will need to satisfy federal laws. (BL)

  13. Precise Phase Comparator for Nearly Equal Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhardt, V. S.; Adams, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    New circuit precisely compares phases of two RF signals nearly equal in frequency, such as two hydrogen-maser frequency standards. Measuring circuit minimizes interactions between two sources. Also stabilized against thermal effects and against noise that could produce erroneous readings. Heat sinking, buffer amplifiers, and low-noise zero-crossing detector make picosecond precision possible.

  14. Evaluating Faculty Performance Under the Equal Pay for Equal Work Doctrine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzan, Bert Carl; Hunt, Thomas Lynn

    1976-01-01

    Faculty promotion and salary policies at the University of Texas at Austin are analyzed to determine whether male and female faculty members are rewarded equally for equal academic qualifications and performances. This regression analysis tends to support the discrimination hypothesis with respect to both promotion and salary policies. (Author/LBH)

  15. Fireplace adapters

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, R.L.

    1983-12-27

    An adapter is disclosed for use with a fireplace. The stove pipe of a stove standing in a room to be heated may be connected to the flue of the chimney so that products of combustion from the stove may be safely exhausted through the flue and outwardly of the chimney. The adapter may be easily installed within the fireplace by removing the damper plate and fitting the adapter to the damper frame. Each of a pair of bolts has a portion which hooks over a portion of the damper frame and a threaded end depending from the hook portion and extending through a hole in the adapter. Nuts are threaded on the bolts and are adapted to force the adapter into a tight fit with the adapter frame.

  16. Neural network with dynamically adaptable neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawel, Raoul (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention is an adaptive neuron for use in neural network processors. The adaptive neuron participates in the supervised learning phase of operation on a co-equal basis with the synapse matrix elements by adaptively changing its gain in a similar manner to the change of weights in the synapse IO elements. In this manner, training time is decreased by as much as three orders of magnitude.

  17. New equal-area map projections for noncircular regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, John P.

    1988-01-01

    A series of new equal-area map projections has been devised. Called Oblated Equal-Area, its lines of constant distortion follow approximately oval or rectangular paths instead of the circles of the Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection or the straight lines of the Cylindrical Equal-Area projection. The projection series permits design of equal-area maps of oblong regions with less overall distortion of shape and scale than equal-area maps on other projections.

  18. Density equalizing map projections: A new algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, D.W.; Selvin, S.; Mohr, M.S.

    1992-02-01

    In the study of geographic disease clusters, an alternative to traditional methods based on rates is to analyze case locations on a transformed map in which population density is everywhere equal. Although the analyst`s task is thereby simplified, the specification of the density equalizing map projection (DEMP) itself is not simple and continues to be the subject of considerable research. Here a new DEMP algorithm is described, which avoids some of the difficulties of earlier approaches. The new algorithm (a) avoids illegal overlapping of transformed polygons; (b) finds the unique solution that minimizes map distortion; (c) provides constant magnification over each map polygon; (d) defines a continuous transformation over the entire map domain; (e) defines an inverse transformation; (f) can accept optional constraints such as fixed boundaries; and (g) can use commercially supported minimization software. Work is continuing to improve computing efficiency and improve the algorithm.

  19. Density equalizing map projections: A new algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, D.W.; Selvin, S.; Mohr, M.S.

    1992-02-01

    In the study of geographic disease clusters, an alternative to traditional methods based on rates is to analyze case locations on a transformed map in which population density is everywhere equal. Although the analyst's task is thereby simplified, the specification of the density equalizing map projection (DEMP) itself is not simple and continues to be the subject of considerable research. Here a new DEMP algorithm is described, which avoids some of the difficulties of earlier approaches. The new algorithm (a) avoids illegal overlapping of transformed polygons; (b) finds the unique solution that minimizes map distortion; (c) provides constant magnification over each map polygon; (d) defines a continuous transformation over the entire map domain; (e) defines an inverse transformation; (f) can accept optional constraints such as fixed boundaries; and (g) can use commercially supported minimization software. Work is continuing to improve computing efficiency and improve the algorithm.

  20. Microscopic justification of the equal filling approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Martin, Sara; Robledo, L. M.

    2008-07-15

    The equal filling approximation, a procedure widely used in mean-field calculations to treat the dynamics of odd nuclei in a time-reversal invariant way, is justified as the consequence of a variational principle over an average energy functional. The ideas of statistical quantum mechanics are employed in the justification. As an illustration of the method, the ground and lowest-lying states of some octupole deformed radium isotopes are computed.

  1. When equal masses don't balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newburgh, Ronald; Peidle, Joseph; Rueckner, Wolfgang

    2004-05-01

    We treat a modified Atwood's machine in which equal masses do not balance because of being in an accelerated frame of reference. Analysis of the problem illuminates the meaning of inertial forces, d'Alembert's principle, the use of free-body diagrams and the selection of appropriate systems for the diagrams. In spite of the range of these applications the analysis does not require calculus, so the ideas are accessible even to first-year students.

  2. The equal effectiveness of different defensive strategies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Yuxin; Ma, Keming

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved a variety of defensive strategies to resist herbivory, but at the interspecific level, the relative effectiveness of these strategies has been poorly evaluated. In this study, we compared the level of herbivory between species that depend on ants as indirect defenders and species that rely primarily on their own direct defenses. Using a dataset of 871 species and 1,405 data points, we found that in general, ant-associated species had levels of herbivory equal to those of species that are unattractive to ants; the pattern was unaffected by plant life form, climate and phylogenetic relationships between species. Interestingly, species that offer both food and nesting spaces for ants suffered significantly lower herbivory compared to species that offer either food or nesting spaces only or no reward for ants. A negative relationship between herbivory and latitude was detected, but the pattern can be changed by ants. These findings suggest that, at the interspecific level, the effectiveness of different defensive strategies may be equal. Considering the effects of herbivory on plant performance and fitness, the equal effectiveness of different defensive strategies may play an important role in the coexistence of various species at the community scale. PMID:26267426

  3. Spatio-Temporal Equalizer for a Receiving-Antenna Feed Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukai, Ryan; Lee, Dennis; Vilnrotter, Victor

    2010-01-01

    A spatio-temporal equalizer has been conceived as an improved means of suppressing multipath effects in the reception of aeronautical telemetry signals, and may be adaptable to radar and aeronautical communication applications as well. This equalizer would be an integral part of a system that would also include a seven-element planar array of receiving feed horns centered at the focal point of a paraboloidal antenna that would be nominally aimed at or near the aircraft that would be the source of the signal that one seeks to receive (see Figure 1). This spatio-temporal equalizer would consist mostly of a bank of seven adaptive finite-impulse-response (FIR) filters one for each element in the array - and the outputs of the filters would be summed (see Figure 2). The combination of the spatial diversity of the feedhorn array and the temporal diversity of the filter bank would afford better multipath-suppression performance than is achievable by means of temporal equalization alone. The seven-element feed array would supplant the single feed horn used in a conventional paraboloidal ground telemetry-receiving antenna. The radio-frequency telemetry signals re ceiv ed by the seven elements of the array would be digitized, converted to complex baseband form, and sent to the FIR filter bank, which would adapt itself in real time to enable reception of telemetry at a low bit error rate, even in the presence of multipath of the type found at many flight test ranges.

  4. Adaptive SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Freed, Melanie; Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Clarkson, Eric; Whitaker, Meredith K.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive imaging systems alter their data-acquisition configuration or protocol in response to the image information received. An adaptive pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system might acquire an initial scout image to obtain preliminary information about the radiotracer distribution and then adjust the configuration or sizes of the pinholes, the magnifications, or the projection angles in order to improve performance. This paper briefly describes two small-animal SPECT systems that allow this flexibility and then presents a framework for evaluating adaptive systems in general, and adaptive SPECT systems in particular. The evaluation is in terms of the performance of linear observers on detection or estimation tasks. Expressions are derived for the ideal linear (Hotelling) observer and the ideal linear (Wiener) estimator with adaptive imaging. Detailed expressions for the performance figures of merit are given, and possible adaptation rules are discussed. PMID:18541485

  5. Adaptive Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, William

    1999-01-01

    Provides information on various adaptive technology resources available to people with disabilities. (Contains 19 references, an annotated list of 129 websites, and 12 additional print resources.) (JOW)

  6. Contour adaptation.

    PubMed

    Anstis, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    It is known that adaptation to a disk that flickers between black and white at 3-8 Hz on a gray surround renders invisible a congruent gray test disk viewed afterwards. This is contrast adaptation. We now report that adapting simply to the flickering circular outline of the disk can have the same effect. We call this "contour adaptation." This adaptation does not transfer interocularly, and apparently applies only to luminance, not color. One can adapt selectively to only some of the contours in a display, making only these contours temporarily invisible. For instance, a plaid comprises a vertical grating superimposed on a horizontal grating. If one first adapts to appropriate flickering vertical lines, the vertical components of the plaid disappears and it looks like a horizontal grating. Also, we simulated a Cornsweet (1970) edge, and we selectively adapted out the subjective and objective contours of a Kanisza (1976) subjective square. By temporarily removing edges, contour adaptation offers a new technique to study the role of visual edges, and it demonstrates how brightness information is concentrated in edges and propagates from them as it fills in surfaces.

  7. Vision: two plus four equals six.

    PubMed

    Loew, Ellis R

    2014-08-18

    Using two UV-sensitive visual pigments and the UV-filtering properties of four mycosporine-like amino acids, mantis shrimp create six spectrally distinct UV receptors. This is yet another example of the unique ways in which mantis shrimp have adapted to extract information from their visual world. PMID:25137589

  8. Climate adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinzig, Ann P.

    2015-03-01

    This paper is intended as a brief introduction to climate adaptation in a conference devoted otherwise to the physics of sustainable energy. Whereas mitigation involves measures to reduce the probability of a potential event, such as climate change, adaptation refers to actions that lessen the impact of climate change. Mitigation and adaptation differ in other ways as well. Adaptation does not necessarily have to be implemented immediately to be effective; it only needs to be in place before the threat arrives. Also, adaptation does not necessarily require global, coordinated action; many effective adaptation actions can be local. Some urban communities, because of land-use change and the urban heat-island effect, currently face changes similar to some expected under climate change, such as changes in water availability, heat-related morbidity, or changes in disease patterns. Concern over those impacts might motivate the implementation of measures that would also help in climate adaptation, despite skepticism among some policy makers about anthropogenic global warming. Studies of ancient civilizations in the southwestern US lends some insight into factors that may or may not be important to successful adaptation.

  9. Local structure of equality constrained NLP problems

    SciTech Connect

    Mari, J.

    1994-12-31

    We show that locally around a feasible point, the behavior of an equality constrained nonlinear program is described by the gradient and the Hessian of the Lagrangian on the tangent subspace. In particular this holds true for reduced gradient approaches. Applying the same ideas to the control of nonlinear ODE:s, one can device first and second order methods that can be applied also to stiff problems. We finally describe an application of these ideas to the optimization of the production of human growth factor by fed-batch fermentation.

  10. Equal-Curvature X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.; Zhang, William

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a new type of x-ray telescope design; an Equal-Curvature telescope. We simply add a second order axial sag to the base grazing incidence cone-cone telescope. The radius of curvature of the sag terms is the same on the primary surface and on the secondary surface. The design is optimized so that the on-axis image spot at the focal plane is minimized. The on-axis RMS (root mean square) spot diameter of two studied telescopes is less than 0.2 arc-seconds. The off-axis performance is comparable to equivalent Wolter type 1 telescopes.

  11. Mergers of equals: understanding the dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rovner, J

    1997-06-01

    The current wave of mergers in the healthcare field is marked by demands from staff that their organizations not lose autonomy--and one way leaders are getting agreements signed is to assert that each merging group will be treated as equal in power. But such mergers, says consultant Stephen L. Ummel, can lead to "inertia, indecisiveness and confusion". Leaders of three healthcare systems--Partners in Boston, BJC in St. Louis and Lifespan in Rhode Island--cite four major lessons that others planning mergers should take to heart.

  12. 34 CFR 21.1 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equal Access to Justice Act. 21.1 Section 21.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE General § 21.1 Equal Access to Justice Act. (a) The Equal Access to Justice Act (the Act) provides for the award of fees...

  13. 34 CFR 21.1 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equal Access to Justice Act. 21.1 Section 21.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE General § 21.1 Equal Access to Justice Act. (a) The Equal Access to Justice Act (the Act) provides for the award of fees...

  14. 34 CFR 21.1 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equal Access to Justice Act. 21.1 Section 21.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE General § 21.1 Equal Access to Justice Act. (a) The Equal Access to Justice Act (the Act) provides for the award of fees...

  15. 34 CFR 21.1 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equal Access to Justice Act. 21.1 Section 21.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE General § 21.1 Equal Access to Justice Act. (a) The Equal Access to Justice Act (the Act) provides for the award of fees...

  16. 34 CFR 21.1 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equal Access to Justice Act. 21.1 Section 21.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE General § 21.1 Equal Access to Justice Act. (a) The Equal Access to Justice Act (the Act) provides for the award of fees...

  17. 48 CFR 52.211-6 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 52....211-6 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 11.107(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (AUG 1999) (a) If an item in this solicitation is identified as “brand name or equal,”...

  18. 48 CFR 52.211-6 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 52....211-6 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 11.107(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (AUG 1999) (a) If an item in this solicitation is identified as “brand name or equal,”...

  19. Spearman's g and the Problem of Educational Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Arthur R.

    1991-01-01

    Criticizes approach to equal education that seeks equality of outcome as well as equality of opportunity. Discusses Spearman's theory of g that attempts to explain individual differences in intelligence. Contrasts efforts at genuinely reducing equality of outcome, including Aptitude X Treatment Interaction, Mastery Learning, and Thinking Skills…

  20. 47 CFR 36.191 - Equal access equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equal access equipment. 36.191 Section 36.191... AND RESERVES FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES 1 Telecommunications Property Equal Access Equipment § 36.191 Equal access equipment. (a) Equal access investment includes only initial...

  1. Is Primatology an equal-opportunity discipline?

    PubMed

    Addessi, Elsa; Borgi, Marta; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    The proportion of women occupying academic positions in biological sciences has increased in the past few decades, but women are still under-represented in senior academic ranks compared to their male colleagues. Primatology has been often singled out as a model of "equal-opportunity" discipline because of the common perception that women are more represented in Primatology than in similar fields. But is this indeed true? Here we show that, although in the past 15 years the proportion of female primatologists increased from the 38% of the early 1990s to the 57% of 2008, Primatology is far from being an "equal-opportunity" discipline, and suffers the phenomenon of "glass ceiling" as all the other scientific disciplines examined so far. In fact, even if Primatology does attract more female students than males, at the full professor level male members significantly outnumber females. Moreover, regardless of position, IPS male members publish significantly more than their female colleagues. Furthermore, when analyzing gender difference in scientific productivity in relation to the name order in the publications, it emerged that the scientific achievements of female primatologists (in terms of number and type of publications) do not always match their professional achievements (in terms of academic position). However, the gender difference in the IPS members' number of publications does not correspond to a similar difference in their scientific impact (as measured by their H index), which may indicate that female primatologists' fewer articles are of higher impact than those of their male colleagues.

  2. Equal area rule methods for ternary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Shyu, G.S.; Hanif, N.S.M.; Alvarado, J.F.J.; Hall, K.R.; Eubank, P.T.

    1995-12-01

    The phase equilibrium behavior of fluid mixtures is an important design consideration for both chemical processes and oil production. Eubank and Hall have recently shown the equal area rule (EAR) applies to the composition derivative of the Gibbs energy of a binary system at fixed pressure and temperature regardless of derivative continuity. A sufficient condition for equilibria, EAR is faster and simpler than either the familiar tangent-line method or the area method of Eubank et al. Here, the authors show that EAR can be extended to ternary systems exhibiting one, two, or three phases at equilibrium. A single directional vector is searched in composition space; at equilibrium, this vector is the familiar tie line. A sensitive criterion for equilibrium under EAR is equality of orthogonal derivatives such as ({partial_derivative}g/{partial_derivative}x{sub 1}){sub x{sub 2}P,T} at the end points ({alpha} and {beta}), where g {equivalent_to} ({Delta}{sub m}G/RT). Repeated use of the binary algorithm published in the first reference allows rapid, simple solution of ternary problems, even with hand-held calculations for cases where the background model is simple (e.g., activity coefficient models) and the derivative continuous.

  3. Evolution of equal division among unequal partners.

    PubMed

    Debove, Stéphane; Baumard, Nicolas; André, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-02-01

    One of the hallmarks of human fairness is its insensitivity to power: although strong individuals are often in a position to coerce weak individuals, fairness requires them to share the benefits of cooperation equally. The existence of such egalitarianism is poorly explained by current evolutionary models. We present a model based on cooperation and partner choice that can account for the emergence of a psychological disposition toward fairness, whatever the balance of power between the cooperative partners. We model the evolution of the division of a benefit in an interaction similar to an ultimatum game, in a population made up of individuals of variable strength. The model shows that strong individuals will not receive any advantage from their strength, instead having to share the benefits of cooperation equally with weak individuals at the evolutionary equilibrium, a result that is robust to variations in population size and the proportion of weak individuals. We discuss how this model suggests an explanation for why egalitarian behaviors toward everyone, including the weak, should be more likely to evolve in humans than in any other species.

  4. A primer on equalization, decoding and non-iterative joint equalization and decoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myburgh, Hermanus C.; Olivier, Jan C.

    2013-12-01

    In this article, a general model for non-iterative joint equalization and decoding is systematically derived for use in systems transmitting convolutionally encoded BPSK-modulated information through a multipath channel, with and without interleaving. Optimal equalization and decoding are discussed first, by presenting the maximum likelihood sequence estimation and maximum a posteriori probability algorithms and relating them to equalization in single-carrier channels with memory, and to the decoding of convolutional codes. The non-iterative joint equalizer/decoder (NI-JED) is then derived for the case where no interleaver is used, as well as for the case when block interleavers of varying depths are used, and complexity analyses are performed in each case. Simulation results are performed to compare the performance of the NI-JED to that of a conventional turbo equalizer (CTE), and it is shown that the NI-JED outperforms the CTE, although at much higher computational cost. This article serves to explain the state-of-the-art to students and professionals in the field of wireless communication systems, presenting these fundamental topics clearly and concisely.

  5. Public hospital care: equal for all or equal for some? Evidence from the Philippines.

    PubMed

    James, Chris D; Peabody, John; Hanson, Kara; Solon, Orville

    2015-03-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, government budgets are rarely sufficient to cover a public hospital's operating costs. Shortfalls are typically financed through a combination of health insurance contributions and user charges. The mixed nature of this financing arrangement potentially creates financial incentives to treat patients with equal health need unequally. Using data from the Philippines, the authors analyzed whether doctors respond to such incentives. After controlling for a patient's condition, they found that patients using insurance, paying more for hospital accommodation, and being treated in externally monitored hospitals were likely to receive more care. This highlights the worrying possibility that public hospital patients with equal health needs are not always equally treated.

  6. rp Process and Masses of N{approx_equal}Z{approx_equal}34 Nuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Savory, J.; Schury, P.; Bachelet, C.; Block, M.; Bollen, G.; Facina, M.; Folden, C. M. III; Guenaut, C.; Kwan, E.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Morrissey, D. J.; Pang, G. K.; Prinke, A.; Ringle, R.; Schatz, H.; Schwarz, S.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.

    2009-04-03

    High-precision Penning-trap mass measurements of the N{approx_equal}Z{approx_equal}34 nuclides {sup 68}Se, {sup 70}Se, {sup 70m}Br, and {sup 71}Br were performed, reaching experimental uncertainties of 0.5-15 keV. The new and improved mass data together with theoretical Coulomb displacement energies were used as input for rp process network calculations. An increase in the effective lifetime of the waiting point nucleus {sup 68}Se was found, and more precise information was obtained on the luminosity during a type I x-ray burst along with the final elemental abundances after the burst.

  7. Pressure equalizing photovoltaic assembly and method

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2003-05-27

    Each PV assembly of an array of PV assemblies comprises a base, a PV module and a support assembly securing the PV module to a position overlying the upper surface of the base. Vents are formed through the base. A pressure equalization path extends from the outer surface of the PV module, past the peripheral edge of the PV module, to and through at least one of the vents, and to the lower surface of the base to help reduce wind uplift forces on the PV assembly. The PV assemblies may be interengaged, such as by interengaging the bases of adjacent PV assemblies. The base may include a main portion and a cover and the bases of adjacent PV assemblies may be interengaged by securing the covers of adjacent bases together.

  8. Pressure-equalizing PV assembly and method

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2004-10-26

    Each PV assembly of an array of PV assemblies comprises a base, a PV module and a support assembly securing the PV module to a position overlying the upper surface of the base. Vents are formed through the base. A pressure equalization path extends from the outer surface of the PV module, past the PV module, to and through at least one of the vents, and to the lower surface of the base to help reduce wind uplift forces on the PV assembly. The PV assemblies may be interengaged, such as by interengaging the bases of adjacent PV assemblies. The base may include a main portion and a cover and the bases of adjacent PV assemblies may be interengaged by securing the covers of adjacent bases together.

  9. Acoustical numerology and lucky equal temperaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Donald E.

    1988-04-01

    Equally tempered musical scales with N steps per octave are known to work especially well in approximating justly tuned intervals for such values as N=12, 19, 31, and 53. A quantitative measure of the closeness of such fits is suggested, in terms of the probabilities of coming as close to randomly chosen intervals as to the justly tuned targets. When two or more harmonic intervals are considered simultaneously, this involves a Monte Carlo evaluation of the probabilities. The results can be used to gauge how much advantage the special values of N mentioned above have over others. This article presents the rationale and method of computation, together with illustrative results in a few of the most interesting cases. References are provided to help relate these results to earlier works by music theorists.

  10. Social Epigenetics and Equality of Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Loi, Michele; Del Savio, Lorenzo; Stupka, Elia

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological reports of associations between socioeconomic status and epigenetic markers that predict vulnerability to diseases are bringing to light substantial biological effects of social inequalities. Here, we start the discussion of the moral consequences of these findings. We firstly highlight their explanatory importance in the context of the research program on the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) and the social determinants of health. In the second section, we review some theories of the moral status of health inequalities. Rather than a complete outline of the debate, we single out those theories that rest on the principle of equality of opportunity and analyze the consequences of DOHaD and epigenetics for these particular conceptions of justice. We argue that DOHaD and epigenetics reshape the conceptual distinction between natural and acquired traits on which these theories rely and might provide important policy tools to tackle unjust distributions of health. PMID:23864907

  11. Toothbrush Adaptations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Suggestions are presented for helping disabled individuals learn to use or adapt toothbrushes for proper dental care. A directory lists dental health instructional materials available from various organizations. (CB)

  12. Is Primatology an Equal-Opportunity Discipline?

    PubMed Central

    Borgi, Marta

    2012-01-01

    The proportion of women occupying academic positions in biological sciences has increased in the past few decades, but women are still under-represented in senior academic ranks compared to their male colleagues. Primatology has been often singled out as a model of “equal-opportunity” discipline because of the common perception that women are more represented in Primatology than in similar fields. But is this indeed true? Here we show that, although in the past 15 years the proportion of female primatologists increased from the 38% of the early 1990s to the 57% of 2008, Primatology is far from being an “equal-opportunity” discipline, and suffers the phenomenon of “glass ceiling” as all the other scientific disciplines examined so far. In fact, even if Primatology does attract more female students than males, at the full professor level male members significantly outnumber females. Moreover, regardless of position, IPS male members publish significantly more than their female colleagues. Furthermore, when analyzing gender difference in scientific productivity in relation to the name order in the publications, it emerged that the scientific achievements of female primatologists (in terms of number and type of publications) do not always match their professional achievements (in terms of academic position). However, the gender difference in the IPS members' number of publications does not correspond to a similar difference in their scientific impact (as measured by their H index), which may indicate that female primatologists' fewer articles are of higher impact than those of their male colleagues. PMID:22272353

  13. Downhole component with a pressure equalization passageway

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott; Reynolds, Jay T.; Breihan, James W.; Briscoe, Michael A.

    2006-08-22

    The present invention includes a downhole component adapted for transmitting downhole data. The downhole component includes a threaded end on a downhole component. The threaded end furthermore includes an interior region, and exterior region, and a mating surface wherein a cavity is formed. A data transmission element is disposed in the cavity and displaces a volume of the cavity. At least one passageway is formed in the threaded region between interior and exterior regions. The passageway is in fluid communication with both the interior and exterior regions and thereby relieves pressure build up of thread lubricant upon tool joint make up.

  14. Equalization of loudspeaker response using balanced model truncation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiansheng; Cai, Zhibo; Zheng, Chengshi; Li, Xiaodong

    2015-04-01

    Traditional loudspeaker equalization algorithms cannot decide the order of an equalizer before the whole equalization procedure has been completed. Designers have to try many times before they determine a proper order of the equalization filter. A method which solves this drawback is presented for loudspeaker equalization using balanced model truncation. The order of the equalizer can be easily decided using this algorithm and the error between the model and the loudspeaker can also be readily controlled. Examples are presented and the performance of the proposed method is discussed with comparative experiments.

  15. The Equal Rights Amendment: Guaranteeing Equal Rights for Women Under the Constitution. Clearinghouse Publication 68.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    This report examines the effects that the ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment will have on laws concerning women. The amendment's impacts on divorced, married, and employed women, on women in the military and in school, and on women dependent on pensions, insurance, and social security are all analyzed. A discussion of the Constitutional…

  16. Teachers Negotiating Discourses of Gender (In) Equality: The Case of Equal Opportunities Reform in Andalusia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cubero, Mercedes; Santamaría, Andrés; Rebollo, Mª Ángeles; Cubero, Rosario; García, Rafael; Vega, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    This article is focused on the analysis of the narratives produced by a group of teachers, experts in coeducation, while they were discussing their everyday activities. They are responsible for the implementation of a Plan for Gender Equality in public secondary schools in Andalusia (Spain). This study is based on contributions about doing gender…

  17. School Finance, Equivalent Educational Expenditure, and the Income Distribution: Equal Dollars or Equal Chances for Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kathryn; Lambright, Kristina; Smeeding, Timothy M.

    2006-01-01

    This article breaks new ground in the debate on school finance and equality of per pupil school expenditures. We are able to merge school district data with the individual and family data of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). This allows us to examine both student and school district characteristics and to assess several measures of…

  18. Equality, Adequacy, and Stakes Fairness: Retrieving the Equal Opportunities in Education Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Lesley A.

    2010-01-01

    Two approaches to making judgments about moral urgency in educational policy have prevailed in American law and public policy. One approach holds that educational policy should aspire to realizing equal opportunities in education for all. The other approach holds that educational policy should aspire to realizing adequate opportunities in…

  19. Scale adaptive compressive tracking.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pengpeng; Cui, Shaohui; Gao, Min; Fang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the compressive tracking (CT) method (Zhang et al. in Proceedings of European conference on computer vision, pp 864-877, 2012) has attracted much attention due to its high efficiency, but it cannot well deal with the scale changing objects due to its constant tracking box. To address this issue, in this paper we propose a scale adaptive CT approach, which adaptively adjusts the scale of tracking box with the size variation of the objects. Our method significantly improves CT in three aspects: Firstly, the scale of tracking box is adaptively adjusted according to the size of the objects. Secondly, in the CT method, all the compressive features are supposed independent and equal contribution to the classifier. Actually, different compressive features have different confidence coefficients. In our proposed method, the confidence coefficients of features are computed and used to achieve different contribution to the classifier. Finally, in the CT method, the learning parameter λ is constant, which will result in large tracking drift on the occasion of object occlusion or large scale appearance variation. In our proposed method, a variable learning parameter λ is adopted, which can be adjusted according to the object appearance variation rate. Extensive experiments on the CVPR2013 tracking benchmark demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method compared to state-of-the-art tracking algorithms. PMID:27386298

  20. Prism adaptation by mental practice.

    PubMed

    Michel, Carine; Gaveau, Jérémie; Pozzo, Thierry; Papaxanthis, Charalambos

    2013-09-01

    The prediction of our actions and their interaction with the external environment is critical for sensorimotor adaptation. For instance, during prism exposure, which deviates laterally our visual field, we progressively correct movement errors by combining sensory feedback with forward model sensory predictions. However, very often we project our actions to the external environment without physically interacting with it (e.g., mental actions). An intriguing question is whether adaptation will occur if we imagine, instead of executing, an arm movement while wearing prisms. Here, we investigated prism adaptation during mental actions. In the first experiment, participants (n = 54) performed arm pointing movements before and after exposure to the optical device. They were equally divided into six groups according to prism exposure: Prisms-Active, Prisms-Imagery, Prisms-Stationary, Prisms-Stationary-Attention, No Conflict-Prisms-Imagery, No Prisms-Imagery. Adaptation, measured by the difference in pointing errors between pre-test and post-test, occurred only in Prisms-Active and Prisms-Imagery conditions. The second experiment confirmed the results of the first experiment and further showed that sensorimotor adaptation was mainly due to proprioceptive realignment in both Prisms-Active (n = 10) and Prisms-Imagery (n = 10) groups. In both experiments adaptation was greater following actual than imagined pointing movements. The present results are the first demonstration of prism adaptation by mental practice under prism exposure and they are discussed in terms of internal forward models and sensorimotor plasticity.

  1. Differential Trends Toward Equality Between Whites and Nonwhites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmore, Erdman; Whittington, Frank J.

    1970-01-01

    By using an equality index to measure the amount of overlap between percentage distributions of whites and nonwhites, it is shown that nonwhites have substantially progressed toward equality in income, education, occupation, employment, and housing. (JM)

  2. The L_infinity constrained global optimal histogram equalization technique for real time imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Qiongwei; Niu, Yi; Liu, Lin; Jiao, Yang; Shi, Guangming

    2015-08-01

    Although the current imaging sensors can achieve 12 or higher precision, the current display devices and the commonly used digital image formats are still only 8 bits. This mismatch causes significant waste of the sensor precision and loss of information when storing and displaying the images. For better usage of the precision-budget, tone mapping operators have to be used to map the high-precision data into low-precision digital images adaptively. In this paper, the classic histogram equalization tone mapping operator is reexamined in the sense of optimization. We point out that the traditional histogram equalization technique and its variants are fundamentally improper by suffering from local optimum problems. To overcome this drawback, we remodel the histogram equalization tone mapping task based on graphic theory which achieves the global optimal solutions. Another advantage of the graphic-based modeling is that the tone-continuity is also modeled as a vital constraint in our approach which suppress the annoying boundary artifacts of the traditional approaches. In addition, we propose a novel dynamic programming technique to solve the histogram equalization problem in real time. Experimental results shows that the proposed tone-preserved global optimal histogram equalization technique outperforms the traditional approaches by exhibiting more subtle details in the foreground while preserving the smoothness of the background.

  3. Battery Charge Equalizer with Transformer Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Francis

    2013-01-01

    High-power batteries generally consist of a series connection of many cells or cell banks. In order to maintain high performance over battery life, it is desirable to keep the state of charge of all the cell banks equal. A method provides individual charging for battery cells in a large, high-voltage battery array with a minimum number of transformers while maintaining reasonable efficiency. This is designed to augment a simple highcurrent charger that supplies the main charge energy. The innovation will form part of a larger battery charge system. It consists of a transformer array connected to the battery array through rectification and filtering circuits. The transformer array is connected to a drive circuit and a timing and control circuit that allow individual battery cells or cell banks to be charged. The timing circuit and control circuit connect to a charge controller that uses battery instrumentation to determine which battery bank to charge. It is important to note that the innovation can charge an individual cell bank at the same time that the main battery charger is charging the high-voltage battery. The fact that the battery cell banks are at a non-zero voltage, and that they are all at similar voltages, can be used to allow charging of individual cell banks. A set of transformers can be connected with secondary windings in series to make weighted sums of the voltages on the primaries.

  4. Categorical facilitation with equally discriminable colors.

    PubMed

    Witzel, Christoph; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of language on color perception. By categorical facilitation, we refer to an aspect of categorical perception, in which the linguistic distinction between categories affects color discrimination beyond the low-level, sensory sensitivity to color differences. According to this idea, discrimination performance for colors that cross a category border should be better than for colors that belong to the same category when controlling for low-level sensitivity. We controlled for sensitivity by using colors that were equally discriminable according to empirically measured discrimination thresholds. To test for categorical facilitation, we measured response times and error rates in a speeded discrimination task for suprathreshold stimuli. Robust categorical facilitation occurred for five out of six categories with a group of inexperienced observers, namely for pink, orange, yellow, green, and purple. Categorical facilitation was robust against individual variations of categories or the laterality of target presentation. However, contradictory effects occurred in the blue category, most probably reflecting the difficulty to control effects of sensory mechanisms at the green-blue boundary. Moreover, a group of observers who were highly familiar with the discrimination task did not show consistent categorical facilitation in the other five categories. This trained group had much faster response times than the inexperienced group without any speed-accuracy trade-off. Additional analyses suggest that categorical facilitation occurs when observers pay attention to the categorical distinction but not when they respond automatically based on sensory feed-forward information. PMID:26129860

  5. Adaptive Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop and demonstrate innovative adaptive seal technologies that can lead to dramatic improvements in engine performance, life, range, and emissions, and enhance operability for next generation gas turbine engines. This work is concentrated on the development of self-adaptive clearance control systems for gas turbine engines. Researchers have targeted the high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade tip seal location for following reasons: Current active clearance control (ACC) systems (e.g., thermal case-cooling schemes) cannot respond to blade tip clearance changes due to mechanical, thermal, and aerodynamic loads. As such they are prone to wear due to the required tight running clearances during operation. Blade tip seal wear (increased clearances) reduces engine efficiency, performance, and service life. Adaptive sealing technology research has inherent impact on all envisioned 21st century propulsion systems (e.g. distributed vectored, hybrid and electric drive propulsion concepts).

  6. Pushing Economies (and Students) outside the Factor Price Equalization Zone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oslington, Paul; Towers, Isaac

    2009-01-01

    Despite overwhelming empirical evidence of the failure of factor price equalization, most teaching of international trade theory (even at the graduate level) assumes that economies are incompletely specialized and that factor price equalization holds. The behavior of trading economies in the absence of factor price equalization is not well…

  7. The Shadow of Equality: Some Notes on Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Eleanor

    1973-01-01

    This article presents a critique of Christopher Jencks' concept of equality as detailed in Inequality: A Reassessment of the Effect of Family and School in America.'' The article claims that Jencks' concept of equality in education as equality of relative incomes, has serious educational consequences. (JA)

  8. 77 FR 39117 - Equal Access to Justice Act Implementation Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1071 RIN 3170-AA27 Equal Access to Justice Act Implementation Rule AGENCY: Bureau of... Equal Access to Justice Act (EAJA or the Act) requires agencies ] that conduct adversary adjudications..., Credit, Credit unions, Equal access to justice, Law enforcement, National banks, Savings...

  9. 48 CFR 52.222-26 - Equal Opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal Opportunity. 52.222... Equal Opportunity. As prescribed in 22.810(e), insert the following clause: Equal Opportunity (MAR 2007... particular religion to perform work connected with the carrying on of the Contractor's activities (41 CFR...

  10. 41 CFR 60-250.5 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equal opportunity clause. 60-250.5 Section 60-250.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... PROTECTED VETERANS Preliminary Matters, Equal Opportunity Clause § 60-250.5 Equal opportunity clause....

  11. Special Issue (26): Teacher Education and Equal Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Audrey, Ed.; Davies, Lynn, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    "Focussing on Equal Rights in Teacher Education (TE)" (Davies); "Place of Women in TE" (Maguire, Weiner); "UN Convention on the Rights of the Child" (Osler); "Parents and Entitlement" (Holden et al.); "International Political Development and Democratic TE" (Harber); "Equal Rights in the Classroom?" (Klein); "Equality of Educational Opportunity in…

  12. 5 CFR 720.101 - Federal Equal Opportunity Recruitment Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal Equal Opportunity Recruitment... Federal Equal Opportunity Recruitment Program. This section incorporates the statutory requirements for establishing and conducting an equal opportunity recruitment program consistent with law within the...

  13. 29 CFR 530.414 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equal Access to Justice Act. 530.414 Section 530.414 Labor... OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Administrative Procedures § 530.414 Equal Access to Justice Act. Proceedings under this part are not subject to the provisions of the Equal Access to Justice Act. In...

  14. 29 CFR 530.414 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equal Access to Justice Act. 530.414 Section 530.414 Labor... OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Administrative Procedures § 530.414 Equal Access to Justice Act. Proceedings under this part are not subject to the provisions of the Equal Access to Justice Act. In...

  15. 75 FR 65214 - Equal Access to Justice Act Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Justice Act. The proposed regulation was published in the Federal Register at 75 FR 17622 (April 7, 2010... Oversight 12 CFR Part 1705 RIN 2590-AA29 Equal Access to Justice Act Implementation AGENCY: Federal Housing... 1302 and 1312 of HERA. B. Equal Access to Justice Act The Equal Access to Justice Act, 5 U.S.C....

  16. 29 CFR 530.414 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equal Access to Justice Act. 530.414 Section 530.414 Labor... OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Administrative Procedures § 530.414 Equal Access to Justice Act. Proceedings under this part are not subject to the provisions of the Equal Access to Justice Act. In...

  17. 29 CFR 530.414 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equal Access to Justice Act. 530.414 Section 530.414 Labor... OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Administrative Procedures § 530.414 Equal Access to Justice Act. Proceedings under this part are not subject to the provisions of the Equal Access to Justice Act. In...

  18. 29 CFR 530.414 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equal Access to Justice Act. 530.414 Section 530.414 Labor... OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Administrative Procedures § 530.414 Equal Access to Justice Act. Proceedings under this part are not subject to the provisions of the Equal Access to Justice Act. In...

  19. Halving It All: How Equally Shared Parenting Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Francine M.

    Noting that details of everyday life contribute to parental equality or inequality, this qualitative study focused on how couples transformed parental roles to create truly equal families. Participating in the study were 88 couples in 4 categories, based on division of parental responsibilities: equal sharers, 60-40 couples, 75-25 couples, and…

  20. 24 CFR 582.330 - Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Nondiscrimination and equal... nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, recipients serving a designated...) and implementing regulations at 41 CFR chapter 60-741. (2) The nondiscrimination and equal...

  1. 48 CFR 852.211-73 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 852... Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 811.104-71, insert the following clause: Brand Name or Equal (JAN 2008) (Note: As used in this clause, the term “brand name” includes identification of products by...

  2. 48 CFR 452.211-70 - Brand Name or Equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand Name or Equal. 452... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.211-70 Brand Name or Equal. As prescribed in 411.171, insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (NOV...

  3. 48 CFR 852.211-73 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 852... Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 811.104-71, insert the following clause: Brand Name or Equal (JAN 2008) (Note: As used in this clause, the term “brand name” includes identification of products by...

  4. 48 CFR 1852.210-70 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 1852... 1852.210-70 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 1810.011-70(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (DEC 1988) (a) As used in this provision, “brand name” means identification of...

  5. On Selecting Tests for Equality of Two Normal Mean Vectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnamoorthy, K.; Xia, Yanping

    2006-01-01

    The conventional approach for testing the equality of two normal mean vectors is to test first the equality of covariance matrices, and if the equality assumption is tenable, then use the two-sample Hotelling T[superscript 2] test. Otherwise one can use one of the approximate tests for the multivariate Behrens-Fisher problem. In this article, we…

  6. Adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive management has explicit structure, including a careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. The process is iterative, and serves to reduce uncertainty, build knowledge and improve management over time in a goal-oriented and structured process.

  7. Employment equality legislation, 3 March 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    On 1 April 1988, new employment equality legislation came into effect in Israel. The new legislation outlaws discrimination at work on the grounds of sex, marital status, and parenthood with respect to recruitment, terms of employment, promotion, vocational training, retraining, dismissal, and severance pay. Under the legislation, 1) employers may not cause prejudice to workers who allege discrimination, help others to do so, or decline sexual advances by a direct or indirect supervisor; 2) the burden of proof in discrimination claims against an employer is on the employer if the worker can show that requirements set by the employer have been met; 3) company managers and co-owners in a partnership are personally liable for violations on the part of the employer if the firm has over six workers unless they prove that the offense was committed without their knowledge or that they had taken all appropriate measures to prevent it; and 4) no special rights given to women by law, collective agreement, or other work contract are to be considered discrimination. The legislation establishes a Public Council to advise the Minister of Labour and Social Affairs on implementing and publicizing the legislation. It also allows a father to receive the following work benefits that were previously restricted to mothers: 1) leave of absence to care for a sick child and 2) statutory leave and statutory entitlement to severance pay for resigning to care for a newborn or adopted baby if the father is the sole guardian or if the mother renounces her right because she is working.

  8. Employment equality legislation, 3 March 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    On 1 April 1988, new employment equality legislation came into effect in Israel. The new legislation outlaws discrimination at work on the grounds of sex, marital status, and parenthood with respect to recruitment, terms of employment, promotion, vocational training, retraining, dismissal, and severance pay. Under the legislation, 1) employers may not cause prejudice to workers who allege discrimination, help others to do so, or decline sexual advances by a direct or indirect supervisor; 2) the burden of proof in discrimination claims against an employer is on the employer if the worker can show that requirements set by the employer have been met; 3) company managers and co-owners in a partnership are personally liable for violations on the part of the employer if the firm has over six workers unless they prove that the offense was committed without their knowledge or that they had taken all appropriate measures to prevent it; and 4) no special rights given to women by law, collective agreement, or other work contract are to be considered discrimination. The legislation establishes a Public Council to advise the Minister of Labour and Social Affairs on implementing and publicizing the legislation. It also allows a father to receive the following work benefits that were previously restricted to mothers: 1) leave of absence to care for a sick child and 2) statutory leave and statutory entitlement to severance pay for resigning to care for a newborn or adopted baby if the father is the sole guardian or if the mother renounces her right because she is working. PMID:12289294

  9. Adaptive Thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Bremer, P. -T.

    2014-08-26

    ADAPT is a topological analysis code that allow to compute local threshold, in particular relevance based thresholds for features defined in scalar fields. The initial target application is vortex detection but the software is more generally applicable to all threshold based feature definitions.

  10. Equality and fertility in the kibbutz.

    PubMed

    Danziger, L; Neuman, S

    1993-01-01

    The kibbutz is a uniquely socially organized entity that consists of members having equal consumption possibilities, which are not tied to production. There are no wages and child rearing is performed outside the family unit. A theoretical model is presented which explains the differences between fertility in the kibbutz and in the city, and which is tested with data from the 1983 Israeli Census of Population and Housing. The model includes family consumption, the number of children, the time a parent works, years of finished schooling, duration of marriage, wages, and the time a parent cares for own children. The sample population only considers first marrieds with both spouses present, where the wife is at least 35 years old: 77,455 urban families and 2532 kibbutz families. The results of the ordinary least squares analysis indicate that socioeconomic variables explain fertility in the city much better. Regressions which include oriental origin show that women of oriental origin have 1.663 more children in the city and .343 more children in the kibbutz than Western women. Only 10% of the kibbutzim (plural of kibbutz) had an oriental background, while 40% had an oriental background in the city in 1983. Other control variables were immigration status and duration of marriage. The effect of mother's education shows the number of children decreasing with education until reaching a minimum of 13.9 years, or 14.5 years for mother's education and 10.5 years for father's education in the city. Parents' education is insignificant in the kibbutz. Father's ethnicity affects fertility in the city, but mother's ethnicity affects fertility in the kibbutz. Mother's predicted wage is added to her education; the results show a positive effect in both the city and kibbutz, which shows a larger effect. The reason is that education is more valuable in the city in securing work. Regressions with fathers' ages and education indicate that fathers' predicted wages is positive in both

  11. Combined spatial diversity and time equalization for broadband multiple channel underwater acoustic communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoro Kaskarovska, Violeta

    High data rate acoustic communications become feasible with the use of communication systems that operate at high frequency. The high frequency acoustic transmission in shallow water endures severe distortion as a result of the extensive intersymbol interference and Doppler shift, caused by the time variable multipath nature of the channel. In this research a Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO) acoustic communication system is developed to improve the reliability of the high data rate communications at short range in the shallow water acoustic channel. The proposed SIMO communication system operates at very high frequency and combines spatial diversity and decision feedback equalizer in a multilevel adaptive configuration. The first configuration performs selective combining on the equalized signals from multiple receivers and generates quality feedback parameter for the next level of combining. The second configuration implements a form of turbo equalization to evaluate the individual receivers using the feedback parameters as decision symbols. The improved signals from individual receivers are used in the next iteration of selective combining. Multiple iterations are used to achieve optimal estimate of the received signal. The multilevel adaptive configuration is evaluated on experimental and simulated data using SIMO system with three, four and five receivers. The simulation channel model developed for this research is based on experimental channel and Rician fading channel model. The performance of the channel is evaluated in terms of Bit Error Rate (BER) and Signal-to-Noise-and-Interference Ratio (SNIR). Using experimental data with non-zero BER, multilevel adaptive spatial diversity can achieve BER of 0 % and SNIR gain of 3 dB. The simulation results show that the average BER and SNIR after multilevel combining improve dramatically compared to the single receiver, even in case of extremely high BER of individual received signals. The results demonstrate the

  12. Cortical Magnification Plus Cortical Plasticity Equals Vision?

    PubMed Central

    Born, Richard T.; Trott, Alexander; Hartmann, Till

    2014-01-01

    Most approaches to visual prostheses have focused on the retina, and for good reasons. The earlier that one introduces signals into the visual system, the more one can take advantage of its prodigious computational abilities. For methods that make use of microelectrodes to introduce electrical signals, however, the limited density and volume occupying nature of the electrodes place severe limits on the image resolution that can be provided to the brain. In this regard, non-retinal areas in general, and the primary visual cortex in particular, possess one large advantage: “magnification factor” (MF)—a value that represents the distance across a sheet of neurons that represents a given angle of the visual field. In the foveal representation of primate primary visual cortex, the MF is enormous—on the order of 15–20 mm/deg in monkeys and humans, whereas on the retina, the MF is limited by the optical design of the eye to around 0.3 mm/deg. This means that, for an electrode array of a given density, a much higher- resolution image can be introduced into V1 than onto the retina (or any other visual structure). In addition to this tremendous advantage in resolution, visual cortex is plastic at many different levels ranging from a very local ability to learn to better detect electrical stimulation to higher levels of learning that permit human observers to adapt to radical changes to their visual inputs. We argue that the combination of the large magnification factor and the impressive ability of the cerebral cortex to learn to recognize arbitrary patterns, might outweigh the disadvantages of bypassing earlier processing stages and makes V1 a viable option for the restoration of vision. PMID:25449335

  13. Connector adapter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacker, Scott C. (Inventor); Dean, Richard J. (Inventor); Burge, Scott W. (Inventor); Dartez, Toby W. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An adapter for installing a connector to a terminal post, wherein the connector is attached to a cable, is presented. In an embodiment, the adapter is comprised of an elongated collet member having a longitudinal axis comprised of a first collet member end, a second collet member end, an outer collet member surface, and an inner collet member surface. The inner collet member surface at the first collet member end is used to engage the connector. The outer collet member surface at the first collet member end is tapered for a predetermined first length at a predetermined taper angle. The collet includes a longitudinal slot that extends along the longitudinal axis initiating at the first collet member end for a predetermined second length. The first collet member end is formed of a predetermined number of sections segregated by a predetermined number of channels and the longitudinal slot.

  14. Adaptive VFH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odriozola, Iñigo; Lazkano, Elena; Sierra, Basi

    2011-10-01

    This paper investigates the improvement of the Vector Field Histogram (VFH) local planning algorithm for mobile robot systems. The Adaptive Vector Field Histogram (AVFH) algorithm has been developed to improve the effectiveness of the traditional VFH path planning algorithm overcoming the side effects of using static parameters. This new algorithm permits the adaptation of planning parameters for the different type of areas in an environment. Genetic Algorithms are used to fit the best VFH parameters to each type of sector and, afterwards, every section in the map is labelled with the sector-type which best represents it. The Player/Stage simulation platform has been chosen for making all sort of tests and to prove the new algorithm's adequateness. Even though there is still much work to be carried out, the developed algorithm showed good navigation properties and turned out to be softer and more effective than the traditional VFH algorithm.

  15. Adaptive sampler

    DOEpatents

    Watson, B.L.; Aeby, I.

    1980-08-26

    An adaptive data compression device for compressing data is described. The device has a frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.

  16. Adaptive sampler

    DOEpatents

    Watson, Bobby L.; Aeby, Ian

    1982-01-01

    An adaptive data compression device for compressing data having variable frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.

  17. Equally parsimonious pathways through an RNA sequence space are not equally likely

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. H.; DSouza, L. M.; Fox, G. E.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental system for determining the potential ability of sequences resembling 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) to perform as functional 5S rRNAs in vivo in the Escherichia coli cellular environment was devised previously. Presumably, the only 5S rRNA sequences that would have been fixed by ancestral populations are ones that were functionally valid, and hence the actual historical paths taken through RNA sequence space during 5S rRNA evolution would have most likely utilized valid sequences. Herein, we examine the potential validity of all sequence intermediates along alternative equally parsimonious trajectories through RNA sequence space which connect two pairs of sequences that had previously been shown to behave as valid 5S rRNAs in E. coli. The first trajectory requires a total of four changes. The 14 sequence intermediates provide 24 apparently equally parsimonious paths by which the transition could occur. The second trajectory involves three changes, six intermediate sequences, and six potentially equally parsimonious paths. In total, only eight of the 20 sequence intermediates were found to be clearly invalid. As a consequence of the position of these invalid intermediates in the sequence space, seven of the 30 possible paths consisted of exclusively valid sequences. In several cases, the apparent validity/invalidity of the intermediate sequences could not be anticipated on the basis of current knowledge of the 5S rRNA structure. This suggests that the interdependencies in RNA sequence space may be more complex than currently appreciated. If ancestral sequences predicted by parsimony are to be regarded as actual historical sequences, then the present results would suggest that they should also satisfy a validity requirement and that, in at least limited cases, this conjecture can be tested experimentally.

  18. Adaptive antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, P.

    1987-04-01

    The basic principles of adaptive antennas are outlined in terms of the Wiener-Hopf expression for maximizing signal to noise ratio in an arbitrary noise environment; the analogy with generalized matched filter theory provides a useful aid to understanding. For many applications, there is insufficient information to achieve the above solution and thus non-optimum constrained null steering algorithms are also described, together with a summary of methods for preventing wanted signals being nulled by the adaptive system. The three generic approaches to adaptive weight control are discussed; correlation steepest descent, weight perturbation and direct solutions based on sample matrix conversion. The tradeoffs between hardware complexity and performance in terms of null depth and convergence rate are outlined. The sidelobe cancellor technique is described. Performance variation with jammer power and angular distribution is summarized and the key performance limitations identified. The configuration and performance characteristics of both multiple beam and phase scan array antennas are covered, with a brief discussion of performance factors.

  19. Equalization and detection for digital communication over nonlinear bandlimited satellite communication channels. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez, Alberto, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This dissertation evaluates receiver-based methods for mitigating the effects due to nonlinear bandlimited signal distortion present in high data rate satellite channels. The effects of the nonlinear bandlimited distortion is illustrated for digitally modulated signals. A lucid development of the low-pass Volterra discrete time model for a nonlinear communication channel is presented. In addition, finite-state machine models are explicitly developed for a nonlinear bandlimited satellite channel. A nonlinear fixed equalizer based on Volterra series has previously been studied for compensation of noiseless signal distortion due to a nonlinear satellite channel. This dissertation studies adaptive Volterra equalizers on a downlink-limited nonlinear bandlimited satellite channel. We employ as figure of merits performance in the mean-square error and probability of error senses. In addition, a receiver consisting of a fractionally-spaced equalizer (FSE) followed by a Volterra equalizer (FSE-Volterra) is found to give improvement beyond that gained by the Volterra equalizer. Significant probability of error performance improvement is found for multilevel modulation schemes. Also, it is found that probability of error improvement is more significant for modulation schemes, constant amplitude and multilevel, which require higher signal to noise ratios (i.e., higher modulation orders) for reliable operation. The maximum likelihood sequence detection (MLSD) receiver for a nonlinear satellite channel, a bank of matched filters followed by a Viterbi detector, serves as a probability of error lower bound for the Volterra and FSE-Volterra equalizers. However, this receiver has not been evaluated for a specific satellite channel. In this work, an MLSD receiver is evaluated for a specific downlink-limited satellite channel. Because of the bank of matched filters, the MLSD receiver may be high in complexity. Consequently, the probability of error performance of a more practical

  20. Gender Equality and Violent Behavior: How Neighborhood Gender Equality Influences the Gender Gap in Violence

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Edmond, Mary Bond

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 703 African American adolescents from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) along with census data from the year 2000, we examine the association between neighborhood-level gender equality and violence. We find that boys’ and girls’ violent behavior is unevenly distributed across neighborhood contexts. In particular, gender differences in violent behavior are less pronounced in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods compared to those characterized by gender inequality. We also find that the gender gap narrows in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods because boys’ rates of violence decrease whereas girls’ rates remain relatively low across neighborhoods. This is in stark contrast to the pessimistic predictions of theorists who argue that the narrowing of the gender gap in equalitarian settings is the result of an increase in girls’ violence. In addition, the relationship between neighborhood gender equality and violence is mediated by a specific articulation of masculinity characterized by toughness. Our results provide evidence for the use of gender-specific neighborhood prevention programs. PMID:24672996

  1. Cone pigment polymorphism in New World monkeys: are all pigments created equal?

    PubMed

    Rowe, Mickey P; Jacobs, Gerald H

    2004-01-01

    Most platyrrhine monkeys have a triallelic M/L opsin gene polymorphism that underlies significant individual variations in color vision. A survey of the frequencies of these polymorphic genes suggests that the three alleles occur with equal frequency among squirrel monkeys (subfamily Cebinae), but are not equally frequent in a number of species from the subfamily Callitrichinae. This departure from equal frequency in the Callitrichids should slightly increase the ratio of dichromats to trichromats in the population and significantly alter the relative representation of the three possible dichromatic and trichromatic phenotypes. A particular feature of the inequality is that it leads to a relative increase in the number of trichromats whose M/L pigments have the largest possible spectral separation. To assess whether these trichromatic phenotypes are equally well equipped to make relevant visual discriminations, psychophysical experiments were run on human observers. A technique involving the functional substitution of photopigments was used to simulate the discrimination between fruits among a background of leaves. The goal of the simulation was to reproduce in the cones of human observers excitations equivalent to those produced in monkey cones as the animals view fruit. Three different viewing conditions were examined involving variations in the relative luminances of fruit and leaves and the spectrum of the illuminant. In all cases, performance was best for simulated trichromacies including M/L pigments with the largest spectral separation. Thus, the inequality of opsin gene frequency in Callitrichid monkeys may reflect adaptive pressures. PMID:15518191

  2. Method for solvent extraction with near-equal density solutions

    DOEpatents

    Birdwell, Joseph F.; Randolph, John D.; Singh, S. Paul

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is a modified centrifugal contactor for separating solutions of near equal density. The modified contactor has a pressure differential establishing means that allows the application of a pressure differential across fluid in the rotor of the contactor. The pressure differential is such that it causes the boundary between solutions of near-equal density to shift, thereby facilitating separation of the phases. Also disclosed is a method of separating solutions of near-equal density.

  3. Channel Equalization for Single Carrier MIMO Underwater Acoustic Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Jun; Zheng, Yahong Rosa; Xiao, Chengshan; Yang, T. C.; Yang, Wen-Bin

    2010-12-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) underwater acoustic (UWA) channels introduce both space-time interference (STI) and time-varying phase distortion for transmitted signals. In such cases, the equalized symbols produced by conventional equalizer aiming for STI cancelation suffer phase rotation and thus cannot be reliably detected. In this paper, we propose a new equalization scheme for high data rate single carrier MIMO UWA channels. Different from existing methods employing joint equalization and symbolwise phase tracking technology, the proposed scheme decouples the interference cancelation (IC) operation and the phase compensation operation, leading to a generalized equalizer structure combining an IC equalizer with a phase compensator. The decoupling of the two functionalities leads to robust signal detection, which is most desirable in practical UWA applications. MIMO linear equalizer (LE) is adopted to remove space-time interference, and a groupwise phase estimation and correction method is used to compensate the phase rotation. In addition, the layered space-time processing technology is adopted to enhance the equalization performance. The proposed equalization scheme is tested to be very robust with extensive experimental data collected at Kauai, Hawaii, in September 2005, and Saint Margaret's Bay, Nova Scotia, Canada, in May 2006.

  4. Application of equalization notch to improve synthetic aperture radar coherent data products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musgrove, Cameron; West, James C.

    2015-05-01

    Interference and interference mitigation techniques degrade synthetic aperture radar (SAR) coherent data products. Radars utilizing stretch processing present a unique challenge for many mitigation techniques because the interference signal itself is modified through stretch processing from its original signal characteristics. Many sources of interference, including constant tones, are only present within the fast-time sample data for a limited number of samples, depending on the radar and interference bandwidth. Adaptive filtering algorithms to estimate and remove the interference signal that rely upon assuming stationary interference signal characteristics can be ineffective. An effective mitigation method, called notching, forces the value of the data samples containing interference to zero. However, as the number of data samples set to zero increases, image distortion and loss of resolution degrade both the image product and any second order image products. Techniques to repair image distortions,1 are effective for point-like targets. However, these techniques are not designed to model and repair distortions in SAR image terrain. Good terrain coherence is important for SAR second order image products because terrain occupies the majority of many scenes. For the case of coherent change detection it is the terrain coherence itself that determines the quality of the change detection image. This paper proposes an unique equalization technique that improves coherence over existing notching techniques. First, the proposed algorithm limits mitigation to only the samples containing interference, unlike adaptive filtering algorithms, so the remaining samples are not modified. Additionally, the mitigation adapts to changing interference power such that the resulting correction equalizes the power across the data samples. The result is reduced distortion and improved coherence for the terrain. SAR data demonstrates improved coherence from the proposed equalization

  5. Equal Protection in Special Admissions Programs: Forward from Bakke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Julius

    1979-01-01

    Bakke's equal protection holding is analyzed and an assessment is offered of what the decisions mean for academic special admissions programs. Discussion focuses on how race may be used as a factor in admissions decisions consistently with the equal protection clause of the Federal Constitution. (Author/MSE)

  6. 77 FR 23595 - National Equal Pay Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... Force has helped women recover millions in lost wages, built collaborative training programs that... the heart of an America built to last. Equal pay will strengthen our families, grow our economy, and... efforts to achieve equal pay. ] IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this seventeenth day...

  7. Towards an Analytical Framework for Accountability Regarding Equal Educational Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Johan; Prinsloo, Justus

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the issue of accountability for equal educational opportunities against the background of the constitutional provision that elevates accountability above a management tool to a national goal and value. It asserts that the government is indeed accountable for equal educational opportunities. However, government reporting on…

  8. Equality and Fiscal Equity in School Finance Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Kathy J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examines distributional implications of a recent Supreme Court of Texas decision mandating a fiscally neutral school finance system. Comparing 1988-89 system's distribution with that of two forms of district power equalization, this article finds that the new alternatives would generate a more equal distribution of expenditures per unit of tax…

  9. 43 CFR 34.6 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal opportunity clause. 34.6 Section 34.6 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUAL OPPORTUNITY DURING CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE ALASKA NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM § 34.6...

  10. 29 CFR 2.32 - Equal participation of religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Social Service Providers and Beneficiaries § 2.32 Equal participation of religious organizations. (a... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equal participation of religious organizations. 2.32... or participate in DOL programs for which they are otherwise eligible. DOL, DOL social...

  11. 47 CFR 101.311 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 101.311 Section 101.311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous Common Carrier Provisions § 101.311 Equal...

  12. 47 CFR 101.311 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 101.311 Section 101.311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous Common Carrier Provisions § 101.311 Equal...

  13. 47 CFR 101.311 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 101.311 Section 101.311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous Common Carrier Provisions § 101.311 Equal...

  14. 47 CFR 101.311 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 101.311 Section 101.311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous Common Carrier Provisions § 101.311 Equal...

  15. 47 CFR 101.311 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 101.311 Section 101.311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous Common Carrier Provisions § 101.311 Equal...

  16. Equal Education Opportunity for All the Visually Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education of the Visually Handicapped, Philadelphia, PA.

    The booklet contains 12 selected papers on equal educational opportunity for visually handicapped (VH) children that were presented at the 52nd biennial conference (June, 1974) of the Association for Education of the Visually Handicapped. Included are presentations on the following: the history and concept of equal educational opportunity (B.…

  17. Teaching the Substitutive Conception of the Equals Sign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian; Inglis, Matthew; Gilmore, Camilla; Evans, Rhys

    2013-01-01

    A cumulative body of research has shown that children typically shift from an "operational" to a "relational" conception of the equals sign as they move through schooling. Jones (2008) argued that a truly relational conception of the equals sign comprises a "substitutive" component and a "sameness"…

  18. District Power Equalizing: Cure-All or Prescription?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, James L.; Addonizio, Michael F.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the conflicting goals of school finance reform--educational equity, equality, and excellence--and their effects on the district power equalizing (DPE) method of achieving school equity. Describes the experiences with DPE in California, Ohio, Illinois, and Michigan. (RW)

  19. Swedish Schools and Gender Equality in the 1970s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedlin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden, as in many countries before Sweden, boys' academic achievements are getting considerable attention as the big gender issue. The Swedish gender equality policy that was put on the agenda in the 1970s is now associated with extreme discussions. This study aims to explore how gender equality was discussed in the 1970s, in connection with…

  20. Conceptualising Gender Equality in Research on Education Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikman, Sheila; Halai, Anjum; Rubagiza, Jolly

    2011-01-01

    This article sets out to re-conceptualise gender equality in education quality. Four approaches to conceptualising gender equitable education quality are identified in the literature: human capital theory with a focus on parity and sameness for all; a human rights and power perspective, within which gender equality is viewed as transforming unjust…

  1. 41 CFR 60-1.4 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Equal opportunity clause. 60-1.4 Section 60-1.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... 1-OBLIGATIONS OF CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS Preliminary Matters; Equal Opportunity...

  2. 41 CFR 60-1.4 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equal opportunity clause. 60-1.4 Section 60-1.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... 1-OBLIGATIONS OF CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS Preliminary Matters; Equal Opportunity...

  3. Planning Human Resource Development through Equal Opportunities. A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Jill

    This handbook is intended for managers who wish to develop human resources in their organizations, particularly where women are currently underrepresented. It provides a positive model for the successful equal opportunities manager and a checklist of activities that will lead to the successful implementation of equal opportunities. The handbook…

  4. 41 CFR 60-250.5 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REGARDING SPECIAL DISABLED VETERANS, VETERANS OF THE VIETNAM ERA, RECENTLY SEPARATED VETERANS, AND OTHER PROTECTED VETERANS Preliminary Matters, Equal Opportunity Clause § 60-250.5 Equal opportunity clause. (a... Disabled Veterans, Veterans of the Vietnam Era, Recently Separated Veterans, and Other Protected...

  5. 41 CFR 60-300.5 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REGARDING DISABLED VETERANS, RECENTLY SEPARATED VETERANS, OTHER PROTECTED VETERANS, AND ARMED FORCES SERVICE MEDAL VETERANS Preliminary Matters, Equal Opportunity Clause § 60-300.5 Equal opportunity clause. (a... VETERANS, RECENTLY SEPARATED VETERANS, OTHER PROTECTED VETERANS, AND ARMED FORCES SERVICE MEDAL VETERANS...

  6. 12 CFR 626.6025 - Equal housing lender poster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 626.6025 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM NONDISCRIMINATION IN LENDING § 626.6025 Equal housing lender poster. (a) Each Farm Credit institution that makes loans for the... Secretary for Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity, Department of Housing and Urban Development,...

  7. 12 CFR 626.6025 - Equal housing lender poster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 626.6025 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM NONDISCRIMINATION IN LENDING § 626.6025 Equal housing lender poster. (a) Each Farm Credit institution that makes loans for the... Secretary for Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity, Department of Housing and Urban Development,...

  8. 12 CFR 626.6025 - Equal housing lender poster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 626.6025 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM NONDISCRIMINATION IN LENDING § 626.6025 Equal housing lender poster. (a) Each Farm Credit institution that makes loans for the... Secretary for Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity, Department of Housing and Urban Development,...

  9. 12 CFR 626.6025 - Equal housing lender poster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 626.6025 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM NONDISCRIMINATION IN LENDING § 626.6025 Equal housing lender poster. (a) Each Farm Credit institution that makes loans for the... Secretary for Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity, Department of Housing and Urban Development,...

  10. 12 CFR 626.6025 - Equal housing lender poster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 626.6025 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM NONDISCRIMINATION IN LENDING § 626.6025 Equal housing lender poster. (a) Each Farm Credit institution that makes loans for the... Secretary for Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity, Department of Housing and Urban Development,...

  11. 4 CFR 7.2 - Equal employment opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equal employment opportunity. 7.2 Section 7.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PERSONNEL RELATIONS AND SERVICES § 7.2 Equal employment... Commission, Office of Personnel Management, the Merit Systems Protection Board, or any other agency in...

  12. 29 CFR 8.19 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Equal Access to Justice Act. 8.19 Section 8.19 Labor Office... SERVICE CONTRACTS General Procedural Matters § 8.19 Equal Access to Justice Act. Proceedings under the... Access to Justice Act (Pub. L. 96-481). Accordingly, in any proceeding conducted pursuant to...

  13. 29 CFR 8.19 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equal Access to Justice Act. 8.19 Section 8.19 Labor Office... SERVICE CONTRACTS General Procedural Matters § 8.19 Equal Access to Justice Act. Proceedings under the... Access to Justice Act (Pub. L. 96-481). Accordingly, in any proceeding conducted pursuant to...

  14. 29 CFR 8.19 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equal Access to Justice Act. 8.19 Section 8.19 Labor Office... SERVICE CONTRACTS General Procedural Matters § 8.19 Equal Access to Justice Act. Proceedings under the... Access to Justice Act (Pub. L. 96-481). Accordingly, in any proceeding conducted pursuant to...

  15. 29 CFR 8.19 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equal Access to Justice Act. 8.19 Section 8.19 Labor Office... SERVICE CONTRACTS General Procedural Matters § 8.19 Equal Access to Justice Act. Proceedings under the... Access to Justice Act (Pub. L. 96-481). Accordingly, in any proceeding conducted pursuant to...

  16. 29 CFR 8.19 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equal Access to Justice Act. 8.19 Section 8.19 Labor Office... SERVICE CONTRACTS General Procedural Matters § 8.19 Equal Access to Justice Act. Proceedings under the... Access to Justice Act (Pub. L. 96-481). Accordingly, in any proceeding conducted pursuant to...

  17. 76 FR 36885 - Regulation B; Equal Credit Opportunity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ...; ] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR Part 202 RIN No. 7100-AD-78 Regulation B; Equal Credit Opportunity AGENCY.... SUMMARY: The Board is publishing for public comment a proposed rule amending Regulation B (Equal Credit.... \\2\\ Section 1029(a) of the Dodd-Frank Act states: ``Except as permitted in subsection (b), the...

  18. 24 CFR 574.603 - Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Nondiscrimination and equal... this program, the nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5 and...-12213) and implementing regulations at 28 CFR part 35 (States and local government grantees) and part...

  19. 24 CFR 574.603 - Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Nondiscrimination and equal... this program, the nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5 and...-12213) and implementing regulations at 28 CFR part 35 (States and local government grantees) and part...

  20. 48 CFR 411.170 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 411... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 411.170 Brand name or equal. (a) A “brand name or equal” purchase description shall include the following type...

  1. 48 CFR 411.170 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 411... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 411.170 Brand name or equal. (a) A “brand name or equal” purchase description shall include the following type...

  2. Equality: Constitutional Update. Bar/School Partnership Programs Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Special Committee on Youth Education for Citizenship.

    The second in a special four-part series of law-school partnership handbooks on constitutional themes, this document focuses on equality. "Equality--the Forgotten Word" (J. A. Hughes) discusses what has been considered the U.S. Constitution's one flaw, its failure to abolish slavery, and the remedy to that flaw, the Fourteenth Amendment. The issue…

  3. The Unfinished Assignment: Equal Education for Women. Worldwatch Paper 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Patricia L.

    New educational opportunities for women around the world are traced. An introductory section provides an overview and discussion on the implications of equal education for women. Other sections discuss the historical background of equal education for women, women's literacy, the primary school experience, secondary education, technical skills,…

  4. Equal Opportunity and ESL for LEP Domestic Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poh, Shin C.

    The concept of equal educational opportunity is examined as it applies to recent Asian immigrants who are university students. It is proposed that recent immigrants, especially refugees, are deprived of equal education due to life circumstances and inadequate academic preparation. As such, many of them cannot be expected to compete with other U.S.…

  5. 16 CFR 240.9 - Proportionally equal terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proportionally equal terms. 240.9 Section 240.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.9 Proportionally equal terms....

  6. 41 CFR 60-4.3 - Equal opportunity clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) The equal opportunity clause published at 41 CFR 60-1.4(a) of this chapter is required to be included... contracts and subcontracts. The equal opportunity clause published at 41 CFR 60-1.4(b) is required to be... Federal Social Security number used on the Employer's Quarterly Federal Tax Return, U.S....

  7. 24 CFR 582.330 - Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, recipients serving a designated...) and implementing regulations at 41 CFR chapter 60-741. (2) The nondiscrimination and equal opportunity... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nondiscrimination and...

  8. 41 CFR 60-4.3 - Equal opportunity clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) The equal opportunity clause published at 41 CFR 60-1.4(a) of this chapter is required to be included... contracts and subcontracts. The equal opportunity clause published at 41 CFR 60-1.4(b) is required to be... participating (pursuant to 41 CFR 60-4.5) in a Hometown Plan approved by the U.S. Department of Labor in...

  9. 41 CFR 60-4.3 - Equal opportunity clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... African racial groups not of Hispanic origin); (ii) Hispanic (all persons of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban... clauses. (a) The equal opportunity clause published at 41 CFR 60-1.4(a) of this chapter is required to be... contracts and subcontracts. The equal opportunity clause published at 41 CFR 60-1.4(b) is required to...

  10. 41 CFR 60-4.3 - Equal opportunity clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... African racial groups not of Hispanic origin); (ii) Hispanic (all persons of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban...) The equal opportunity clause published at 41 CFR 60-1.4(a) of this chapter is required to be included... contracts and subcontracts. The equal opportunity clause published at 41 CFR 60-1.4(b) is required to...

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Fiscal Equalization in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickrod, G. Alan; Chaudhari, Ramesh

    Fiscal data were analyzed for a nine-year period (1963-1971) for all school districts in Illinois. Two hypotheses were tested relative to two different definitions of equalization -- "permissible variance" and "fiscal neutrality." Support was given to the notion of increasing interdistrict equality relative to expenditures and tax effort. Support…

  12. Problem Contexts for Thinking about Equality: An Additional Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Angela T.; Harmon, Shannon E.

    2012-01-01

    It has been well-documented that many students do not understand the meaning of the equal sign. Thus, researchers have called for instruction that specifically addresses misconceptions about the equal sign, and have indicated that such work must start at the elementary level. In response to these recommendations, some state curriculums require…

  13. Better to be equal? Challenges to equality for cognitively able children with autism spectrum disorders in a social decision game.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Eva A; Banerjee, Robin; Pouw, Lucinda Bc; Stockmann, Lex; Rieffe, Carolien

    2015-02-01

    Much controversy surrounds questions about whether humans have an aversion to inequity and how a commitment to equality might play a role in cooperation and other aspects of social interactions. Examining the social decisions of children with autism spectrum disorders provides a fascinating opportunity to explore these issues. Specifically, we evaluated the possibility that children with autism spectrum disorders may be less likely than typically developing children to show a prioritisation of equality. A total of 69 typically developing (mean age 11;6 years) and 57 cognitively able children with autism spectrum disorders (mean age 11;7 years) played a social decision game in which the equality option was pitted against alternatives that varied in instrumental outcomes. Results showed that both groups were more likely to choose the equality option when there was no cost to the self. However, even though children with autism spectrum disorders appeared to view equality as preferable to causing explicit harm to others, they departed from an equality stance when there was an opportunity to increase instrumental gain without any obvious harm to the self or the other. Typically developing children, in contrast, showed similar prioritisation of equality across these contexts. Future research needs to address the question of how differences in the commitment to equality affect children's social behaviour and relationships in daily life.

  14. Robustness of spatial average equalization: a statistical reverberation model approach.

    PubMed

    Bharitkar, Sunil; Hilmes, Philip; Kyriakakis, Chris

    2004-12-01

    Traditionally, multiple listener room equalization is performed to improve sound quality at all listeners, during audio playback, in a multiple listener environment (e.g., movie theaters, automobiles, etc.). A typical way of doing multiple listener equalization is through spatial averaging, where the room responses are averaged spatially between positions and an inverse equalization filter is found from the spatially averaged result. However, the equalization performance, will be affected if there is a mismatch between the position of the microphones (which are used for measuring the room responses for designing the equalization filter) and the actual center of listener head position (during playback). In this paper, we will present results on the effects of microphone-listener mismatch on spatial average equalization performance. The results indicate that, for the analyzed rectangular configuration, the region of effective equalization depends on (i) the distance of a listener from the source, (ii) the amount of mismatch between the responses, and (iii) the frequency of the audio signal. We also present some convergence analysis to interpret the results.

  15. Jarzynski equality: connections to thermodynamics and the second law.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Benoit; Ronis, David

    2007-01-01

    The one-dimensional expanding ideal gas model is used to compute the exact nonequilibrium distribution function. The state of the system during the expansion is defined in terms of local thermodynamics quantities. The final equilibrium free energy, obtained a long time after the expansion, is compared against the free energy that appears in the Jarzynski equality. Within this model, where the Jarzynski equality holds rigorously, the free energy change that appears in the equality does not equal the actual free energy change of the system at any time of the process. More generally, the work bound that is obtained from the Jarzynski equality is an upper bound to the upper bound that is obtained from the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The cancellation of the dissipative (nonequilibrium) terms that result in the Jarzynski equality is shown in the framework of response theory. This is used to show that the intuitive assumption that the Jarzynski work bound becomes equal to the average work done when the system evolves quasistatically is incorrect under some conditions. PMID:17358136

  16. Race equality and health service management: the professional interface.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Penny

    2007-04-01

    The Amicus/CPHVA Equalities Committee is working to educate and support the workforce on equity and diversity. There is a strong focus on the race equality agenda. A work pack has been developed to help members challenge racism in the work place. It can be argued that racism remains endemic within the NHS and within professional employment structures. Policy and strategic development has so far done little to challenge the situation. Practitioners must be accountable for challenging their own stance on race equality and must be active in supporting equity within the work place.

  17. Implementing the Equal Access Act and State Constitutional Provisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklun, Eugene C.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the issue of whether implementation of the Equal Access Act would violate the constitutions of some states that require a stricter separation of church and state than the federal Constitution. (MLF)

  18. Reduced complexity turbo equalization using a dynamic Bayesian network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myburgh, Hermanus C.; Olivier, Jan C.; van Zyl, Augustinus J.

    2012-12-01

    It is proposed that a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) is used to perform turbo equalization in a system transmitting information over a Rayleigh fading multipath channel. The DBN turbo equalizer (DBN-TE) is modeled on a single directed acyclic graph by relaxing the Markov assumption and allowing weak connections to past and future states. Its complexity is exponential in encoder constraint length and approximately linear in the channel memory length. Results show that the performance of the DBN-TE closely matches that of a traditional turbo equalizer that uses a maximum a posteriori equalizer and decoder pair. The DBN-TE achieves full convergence and near-optimal performance after small number of iterations.

  19. Female equality and suicide in the Indian states.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Peter

    2003-06-01

    Indian suicide rates rose by 76% in the 10 years between 1984 and 1994. In this study of the 16 principal states of India, male and female suicide rates in 1994 were associated with measures of equal education for men and women. Male suicide rates were associated with equal life expectancy for men and women. Equal income for women and men was not associated with suicide rates. Unlike earlier studies, no inverse association was found between equal attainment in education and suicide sex ratios. The Indian findings thus do not conform to patterns found in more developed economies. Given increasing human development in India, it seems probable that suicide rates in that country may increase two to three times over coming decades.

  20. Menopause: Not All Hot Flashes Are Created Equal

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160027.html Menopause: Not All Hot Flashes Are Created Equal Weight, race, education and ... 2016 FRIDAY, July 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The hot flashes and night sweats of menopause don't ...

  1. 47 CFR 73.881 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 73.881 Section 73.881 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO... origin, or sex....

  2. 47 CFR 73.881 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 73.881 Section 73.881 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO... origin, or sex....

  3. 47 CFR 73.881 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 73.881 Section 73.881 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO... origin, or sex....

  4. 47 CFR 73.881 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 73.881 Section 73.881 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO... origin, or sex....

  5. 47 CFR 73.881 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 73.881 Section 73.881 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO... origin, or sex....

  6. Quality Versus Equality: The Dilemma of the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulding, Kenneth E.

    1975-01-01

    The author discusses the trend toward faculty mediocrity in university departments. The author suggests that equality breeds mediocrity. Inequality should be legitimated in the interest of the whole as a possible solution. (DE)

  7. Equal Employment Law and the Employer--An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levins, Will

    1979-01-01

    Sets forth in simple terms some of the requirements of the Equal Employment Opportunities Act of 1972. Available from the New York State Bar Association, One Elk Street, Albany, N.Y. 12207; sc $2.00. (Author/IRT)

  8. 7 CFR 1720.15 - Equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 1720.15 Equal opportunity requirements. Executive Order 12898, “Environmental Justice.” To comply with... environmental justice. The Civil Rights Impact Analysis will be conducted prior to application approval or...

  9. 7 CFR 1720.15 - Equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 1720.15 Equal opportunity requirements. Executive Order 12898, “Environmental Justice.” To comply with... environmental justice. The Civil Rights Impact Analysis will be conducted prior to application approval or...

  10. 7 CFR 1720.15 - Equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 1720.15 Equal opportunity requirements. Executive Order 12898, “Environmental Justice.” To comply with... environmental justice. The Civil Rights Impact Analysis will be conducted prior to application approval or...

  11. 7 CFR 1720.15 - Equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 1720.15 Equal opportunity requirements. Executive Order 12898, “Environmental Justice.” To comply with... environmental justice. The Civil Rights Impact Analysis will be conducted prior to application approval or...

  12. 7 CFR 1720.15 - Equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 1720.15 Equal opportunity requirements. Executive Order 12898, “Environmental Justice.” To comply with... environmental justice. The Civil Rights Impact Analysis will be conducted prior to application approval or...

  13. 43 CFR 27.6 - Equal opportunity implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GRANTED OR ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.6 Equal opportunity implementation. Within... as to facilitiate the participation of minority business enterprises; (4) Submit periodic reports...

  14. 43 CFR 27.6 - Equal opportunity implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GRANTED OR ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.6 Equal opportunity implementation. Within... as to facilitiate the participation of minority business enterprises; (4) Submit periodic reports...

  15. 43 CFR 27.6 - Equal opportunity implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GRANTED OR ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.6 Equal opportunity implementation. Within... as to facilitiate the participation of minority business enterprises; (4) Submit periodic reports...

  16. 43 CFR 27.6 - Equal opportunity implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GRANTED OR ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.6 Equal opportunity implementation. Within... as to facilitiate the participation of minority business enterprises; (4) Submit periodic reports...

  17. Contrast adaptation to luminance and brightness modulations.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takehiro; Nakayama, Kazuki; Kawashima, Yuki; Yamauchi, Yasuki

    2016-03-01

    Perceptual brightness and color contrast decrease after seeing a light temporally modulating along a certain direction in a color space, a phenomenon known as contrast adaptation. We investigated whether contrast adaptation along the luminance direction arises from modulation of luminance signals or apparent brightness signals. The stimulus consisted of two circles on a gray background presented on a CRT monitor. In the adaptation phase, the luminance and chromaticity of one circle were temporally modulated, while the other circle was kept at a constant luminance and color metameric with an equal-energy white. We employed two types of temporal modulations, namely, in luminance and brightness. Chromaticity was sinusoidally modulated along the L-M axis, leading to dissociation between luminance and brightness (the Helmholtz-Kohlrausch effect). In addition, luminance modulation was minimized in the brightness modulation, while brightness modulation was minimized in the luminance modulation. In the test phase, an asymmetric matching method was used to measure the magnitude of contrast adaptation for both modulations. Our results showed that, although contrast adaptation along the luminance direction occurred for both modulations, contrast adaptation for luminance modulation was significantly stronger than that for the brightness modulation regardless of the temporal frequency of the adaptation modulation. These results suggest that luminance modulation is more influential in contrast adaptation than brightness modulation.

  18. Derivative of Area Equals Perimeter--Coincidence or Rule?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zazkis, Rina; Sinitsky, Ilya; Leikin, Roza

    2013-01-01

    Why is the derivative of the area of a circle equal to its circumference? Why is the derivative of the volume of a sphere equal to its surface area? And why does a similar relationship not hold for a square or a cube? Or does it? In their work in teacher education, these authors have heard at times undesirable responses to these questions:…

  19. Patterns of gender equality at workplaces and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Elwér, Sofia; Harryson, Lisa; Bolin, Malin; Hammarström, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Research in the field of occupational health often uses a risk factor approach which has been criticized by feminist researchers for not considering the combination of many different variables that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress. Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 715) have been analysed and supplemented with register data about the participants' workplaces. The register data were used to create gender equality indicators of women/men ratios of number of employees, educational level, salary and parental leave. Cluster analysis was used to identify patterns of gender equality at the workplaces. Differences in psychological distress between the clusters were analysed by chi-square test and logistic regression analyses, adjusting for individual socio-demographics and previous psychological distress. The cluster analysis resulted in six distinctive clusters with different patterns of gender equality at the workplaces that were associated to psychological distress for women but not for men. For women the highest odds of psychological distress was found on traditionally gender unequal workplaces. The lowest overall occurrence of psychological distress as well as same occurrence for women and men was found on the most gender equal workplaces. The results from this study support the convergence hypothesis as gender equality at the workplace does not only relate to better mental health for women, but also more similar occurrence of mental ill-health between women and men. This study highlights the importance of utilizing a multidimensional view of gender equality to understand its association to health outcomes. Health policies need to consider gender equality at the workplace level as a social determinant of health that is of importance for reducing differences in health

  20. Patterns of Gender Equality at Workplaces and Psychological Distress

    PubMed Central

    Bolin, Malin; Hammarström, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Research in the field of occupational health often uses a risk factor approach which has been criticized by feminist researchers for not considering the combination of many different variables that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress. Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 715) have been analysed and supplemented with register data about the participants' workplaces. The register data were used to create gender equality indicators of women/men ratios of number of employees, educational level, salary and parental leave. Cluster analysis was used to identify patterns of gender equality at the workplaces. Differences in psychological distress between the clusters were analysed by chi-square test and logistic regression analyses, adjusting for individual socio-demographics and previous psychological distress. The cluster analysis resulted in six distinctive clusters with different patterns of gender equality at the workplaces that were associated to psychological distress for women but not for men. For women the highest odds of psychological distress was found on traditionally gender unequal workplaces. The lowest overall occurrence of psychological distress as well as same occurrence for women and men was found on the most gender equal workplaces. The results from this study support the convergence hypothesis as gender equality at the workplace does not only relate to better mental health for women, but also more similar occurrence of mental ill-health between women and men. This study highlights the importance of utilizing a multidimensional view of gender equality to understand its association to health outcomes. Health policies need to consider gender equality at the workplace level as a social determinant of health that is of importance for reducing differences in health

  1. 41 CFR 60-4.3 - Equal opportunity clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... clauses. (a) The equal opportunity clause published at 41 CFR 60-1.4(a) of this chapter is required to be... contracts and subcontracts. The equal opportunity clause published at 41 CFR 60-1.4(b) is required to be... participating (pursuant to 41 CFR 60-4.5) in a Hometown Plan approved by the U.S. Department of Labor in...

  2. Constructions of equality and discrimination in professional men's talk.

    PubMed

    Riley, Sarah C E

    2002-09-01

    The contradiction between support for egalitarian employment practices and the maintenance of occupational androcentrism was examined by discursively analysing constructions of equality and discrimination from 46 interviews with professional men. Accounts of equality were produced through the interpretative repertories of 'interchangeability', 'individual ability' and 'pragmatism'. This enables, first, an understanding of discrimination as 'non-individualism', a term used to describe the treatment of social group memberships as salient, and second, defined interventions based on a structural analysis of equality as discrimination. These repertoires minimized the gendered nature of men and women's experiences and negated the use of context in favour of an abstract principle of individualism. Participants warranted their accounts through feminist arguments, two-sided argument formulations, and the construction of a dichotomy between individualist-equality and structuralist-discrimination-supporting the material practice of 'affirmative non-action', the active support of non-action. Relating the findings to equal opportunity policy, occupational cultural analyses and the discursive production of 'new sexism', the article identifies the absence of an account that conceptualizes both individual and structural facets of equality. PMID:12419012

  3. ADAPTATION AND ADAPTABILITY, THE BELLEFAIRE FOLLOWUP STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALLERHAND, MELVIN E.; AND OTHERS

    A RESEARCH TEAM STUDIED INFLUENCES, ADAPTATION, AND ADAPTABILITY IN 50 POORLY ADAPTING BOYS AT BELLEFAIRE, A REGIONAL CHILD CARE CENTER FOR EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILDREN. THE TEAM ATTEMPTED TO GAUGE THE SUCCESS OF THE RESIDENTIAL TREATMENT CENTER IN TERMS OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL PATTERNS AND ROLE PERFORMANCES OF THE BOYS DURING INDIVIDUAL CASEWORK…

  4. Are adaptation costs necessary to build up a local adaptation pattern?

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Sara; Blanchet, Elodie; Egas, Martijn; Olivieri, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    Background Ecological specialization is pervasive in phytophagous arthropods. In such specialization mode, limits to host range are imposed by trade-offs preventing adaptation to several hosts. The occurrence of such trade-offs is inferred by a pattern of local adaptation, i.e., a negative correlation between relative performance on different hosts. Results To establish a causal link between local adaptation and trade-offs, we performed experimental evolution of spider mites on cucumber, tomato and pepper, starting from a population adapted to cucumber. Spider mites adapted to each novel host within 15 generations and no further evolution was observed at generation 25. A pattern of local adaptation was found, as lines evolving on a novel host performed better on that host than lines evolving on other hosts. However, costs of adaptation were absent. Indeed, lines adapted to tomato had similar or higher performance on pepper than lines evolving on the ancestral host (which represent the initial performance of all lines) and the converse was also true, e.g. negatively correlated responses were not observed on the alternative novel host. Moreover, adapting to novel hosts did not result in decreased performance on the ancestral host. Adaptation did not modify host ranking, as all lines performed best on the ancestral host. Furthermore, mites from all lines preferred the ancestral to novel hosts. Mate choice experiments indicated that crosses between individuals from the same or from a different selection regime were equally likely, hence development of reproductive isolation among lines adapted to different hosts is unlikely. Conclusion Therefore, performance and preference are not expected to impose limits to host range in our study species. Our results show that the evolution of a local adaptation pattern is not necessarily associated with the evolution of an adaptation cost. PMID:19650899

  5. Equalizer system and method for series connected energy storing devices

    DOEpatents

    Rouillard, Jean; Comte, Christophe; Hagen, Ronald A.; Knudson, Orlin B.; Morin, Andre; Ross, Guy

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method for regulating the charge voltage of a number of electrochemical cells connected in series is disclosed. Equalization circuitry is provided to control the amount of charge current supplied to individual electrochemical cells included within the series string of electrochemical cells without interrupting the flow of charge current through the series string. The equalization circuitry balances the potential of each of the electrochemical cells to within a pre-determined voltage setpoint tolerance during charging, and, if necessary, prior to initiating charging. Equalization of cell potentials may be effected toward the end of a charge cycle or throughout the charge cycle. Overcharge protection is also provided for each of the electrochemical cells coupled to the series connection. During a discharge mode of operation in accordance with one embodiment, the equalization circuitry is substantially non-conductive with respect to the flow of discharge current from the series string of electrochemical cells. In accordance with another embodiment, equalization of the series string of cells is effected during a discharge cycle.

  6. Prioritizing environmental justice and equality: diesel emissions in southern California.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Julian D; Swor, Kathryn R; Nguyen, Nam P

    2014-04-01

    Existing environmental policies aim to reduce emissions but lack standards for addressing environmental justice. Environmental justice research documents disparities in exposure to air pollution; however, little guidance currently exists on how to make improvements or on how specific emission-reduction scenarios would improve or deteriorate environmental justice conditions. Here, we quantify how emission reductions from specific sources would change various measures of environmental equality and justice. We evaluate potential emission reductions for fine diesel particulate matter (DPM) in Southern California for five sources: on-road mobile, off-road mobile, ships, trains, and stationary. Our approach employs state-of-the-science dispersion and exposure models. We compare four environmental goals: impact, efficiency, equality, and justice. Results indicate potential trade-offs among those goals. For example, reductions in train emissions produce the greatest improvements in terms of efficiency, equality, and justice, whereas off-road mobile source reductions can have the greatest total impact. Reductions in on-road emissions produce improvements in impact, equality, and justice, whereas emission reductions from ships would widen existing population inequalities. Results are similar for complex versus simplified exposure analyses. The approach employed here could usefully be applied elsewhere to evaluate opportunities for improving environmental equality and justice in other locations.

  7. Adaptive Image Denoising by Mixture Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Enming; Chan, Stanley H.; Nguyen, Truong Q.

    2016-10-01

    We propose an adaptive learning procedure to learn patch-based image priors for image denoising. The new algorithm, called the Expectation-Maximization (EM) adaptation, takes a generic prior learned from a generic external database and adapts it to the noisy image to generate a specific prior. Different from existing methods that combine internal and external statistics in ad-hoc ways, the proposed algorithm is rigorously derived from a Bayesian hyper-prior perspective. There are two contributions of this paper: First, we provide full derivation of the EM adaptation algorithm and demonstrate methods to improve the computational complexity. Second, in the absence of the latent clean image, we show how EM adaptation can be modified based on pre-filtering. Experimental results show that the proposed adaptation algorithm yields consistently better denoising results than the one without adaptation and is superior to several state-of-the-art algorithms.

  8. Photoreceptor processes in visual adaptation.

    PubMed

    Ripps, H; Pepperberg, D R

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we have stressed two experimental results in need of explanation: (i) the reduced efficacy with which (remaining, abundant) rhodopsin in the light-adapted receptor mediates the flash response; and (ii) the disparity in conditions of irradiation (weak background vs. extensive bleaching) leading to equivalent conditions of threshold. The model discussed above suggests, in molecular terms, a possible basis for both properties of receptor adaptation. On the view developed here, property (i) derives from the ability of photoactivated or bleached pigment (R or B) to restrict dramatically the availability of a substance required for phototransduction. Property (ii) derives in large part from the pronounced disparity in the effectiveness of R (during illumination) and B (remaining after illumination) in reducing the availability of this substance. On this view, the "equivalence" of threshold elevation in states of light- vs. dark-adaptation derives from an overall equality of a product of factors (Q, Etot/Es, and J of equation 2). Under all but extreme conditions, this aggregate of factors is dominated by the term Etot/Es, reflecting the functional state of E. PMID:3317149

  9. Achieving equal pay for comparable worth through arbitration.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, S C

    1982-01-01

    Traditional "women's jobs" often pay relatively low wages because of the effects of institutionalized stereotypes concerning women and their role in the work place. One way of dealing with sex discrimination that results in job segregation is to narrow the existing wage differential between "men's jobs" and "women's jobs." Where the jobs are dissimilar on their face, this narrowing of pay differences involves implementing the concept of "equal pay for jobs of comparable worth." Some time in the future, far-reaching, perhaps even industrywide, reductions in male-female pay differentials may be achieved by pursuing legal remedies based on equal pay for comparable worth. However, as the author demonstrates, immediate, albeit more limited, relief for sex-based pay inequities found in specific work places can be obtained by implementing equal pay for jobs of comparable worth through the collective bargaining and arbitration processes.

  10. A benchmark study of controlled emptying of equalization basins.

    PubMed

    Bolmstedt, J; Olsson, G

    2005-01-01

    Storm tanks, or equalization basins, have been used for many years in sewer or wastewater treatment systems to reduce the amount of combined sewer overflows. In this paper, a systematic control of an equalization basin is used not only to dampen or reduce the hydraulic load, but also to systematically improve the effluent quality in a nitrogen removal plant. It is demonstrated that the effluent ammonia concentration is the key component. The Benchmark Simulation Model 1, implemented in MATLAB/Simulink, has been used to perform the evaluations. It has been extended with systematic rainfall generations. Intuitively, it is apparent that the equalization basin should be emptied before a rainfall. This requires a prediction capacity. It is shown that the choice of prediction time is by no means trivial and it is not true that a long prediction horizon is always advantageous.

  11. Jarzynski Equality in PT-Symmetric Quantum Mechanics.

    PubMed

    Deffner, Sebastian; Saxena, Avadh

    2015-04-17

    We show that the quantum Jarzynski equality generalizes to PT-symmetric quantum mechanics with unbroken PT symmetry. In the regime of broken PT symmetry, the Jarzynski equality does not hold as also the CPT norm is not preserved during the dynamics. These findings are illustrated for an experimentally relevant system-two coupled optical waveguides. It turns out that for these systems the phase transition between the regimes of unbroken and broken PT symmetry is thermodynamically inhibited as the irreversible work diverges at the critical point.

  12. Equal Access Initiative HIV/AIDS Information Resources from NLM

    SciTech Connect

    Templin-Branner W. and N. Dancy

    2010-09-11

    The Equal Access Initiative: HIV/AIDS Information Resources from the National Library of Medicine training is designed specifically for the National Minority AIDS Council 2010 Equal Access Initiative (EAI) Computer Grants Program awardees to provide valuable health information resources from the National Library of Medicine and other reliable sources to increase awareness of the wealth of treatment information and educational materials that are available on the Internet and to improve prevention and treatment education for their clients. These resources will also meet the needs of community-based

  13. Radiometric correction and equalization of satellite digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Algazi, V. R.; Ford, G. E.; Kazakoff, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Satellite digital data from Landsat and NOAA satellites is often marred by striping or streaking errors due to variations in the response of the radiometric sensors. In this paper, we discuss the equalization of the digital data as a preprocessing step, prior to image enhancement or automatic classification. The methods described make use of statistics of the data itself to generate nonlinear or linear memory-less equalization algorithms. These algorithms, by contrast to multidimensional filtering, do not result in a loss of spatial resolution. Examples of applications to Landsat and NOAA-3 thermal infrared data are given and illustrated.

  14. Jarzynski equality in PT-symmetric quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Deffner, Sebastian; Saxena, Avadh

    2015-04-13

    We show that the quantum Jarzynski equality generalizes to PT -symmetric quantum mechanics with unbroken PT -symmetry. In the regime of broken PT -symmetry the Jarzynski equality does not hold as also the CPT -norm is not preserved during the dynamics. These findings are illustrated for an experimentally relevant system – two coupled optical waveguides. It turns out that for these systems the phase transition between the regimes of unbroken and broken PT -symmetry is thermodynamically inhibited as the irreversible work diverges at the critical point.

  15. Near-lossless image compression by adaptive prediction: new developments and comparison of algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiazzi, Bruno; Alparone, Luciano; Baronti, Stefano

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes state-of-the-art approaches to near-lossless image compression by adaptive causal DPCM and presents two advanced schemes based on crisp and fuzzy switching of predictors, respectively. The former relies on a linear-regression prediction in which a different predictor is employed for each image block. Such block-representative predictors are calculated from the original data set through an iterative relaxation-labeling procedure. Coding time are affordable thanks to fast convergence of training. Decoding is always performed in real time. The latter is still based on adaptive MMSE prediction in which a different predictor at each pixel position is achieved by blending a number of prototype predictors through adaptive weights calculated from the past decoded samples. Quantization error feedback loops are introduced into the basic lossless encoders to enable user-defined upper-bounded reconstruction errors. Both schemes exploit context modeling of prediction errors followed by arithmetic coding to enhance entropy coding performances. A thorough performance comparison on a wide test image set show the superiority of the proposed schemes over both up-to-date encoders in the literature and new/upcoming standards.

  16. The Equal Protection Clause, School Integration, and the Burger Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Frank

    The history of cases before the United States Supreme Court in which minorities have sought relief from discriminatory state laws under the "equal protection clause" of the Fourteenth Amendment (and the "due process clause" of the Fifth Amendment for federal action) suggests that court action in this area has changed over time. Not only has court…

  17. Equality bias impairs collective decision-making across cultures

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoodi, Ali; Bang, Dan; Olsen, Karsten; Zhao, Yuanyuan Aimee; Shi, Zhenhao; Broberg, Kristina; Safavi, Shervin; Han, Shihui; Nili Ahmadabadi, Majid; Frith, Chris D.; Roepstorff, Andreas; Rees, Geraint; Bahrami, Bahador

    2015-01-01

    We tend to think that everyone deserves an equal say in a debate. This seemingly innocuous assumption can be damaging when we make decisions together as part of a group. To make optimal decisions, group members should weight their differing opinions according to how competent they are relative to one another; whenever they differ in competence, an equal weighting is suboptimal. Here, we asked how people deal with individual differences in competence in the context of a collective perceptual decision-making task. We developed a metric for estimating how participants weight their partner’s opinion relative to their own and compared this weighting to an optimal benchmark. Replicated across three countries (Denmark, Iran, and China), we show that participants assigned nearly equal weights to each other’s opinions regardless of true differences in their competence—even when informed by explicit feedback about their competence gap or under monetary incentives to maximize collective accuracy. This equality bias, whereby people behave as if they are as good or as bad as their partner, is particularly costly for a group when a competence gap separates its members. PMID:25775532

  18. Promoting Disability Equality and Inclusive Learning in Planning Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peel, Deborah; Posas, Paula J.

    2009-01-01

    In the UK, the Disability Discrimination Act 2005 created a positive duty on the public sector to promote disability equality. This duty extends to higher education and local planning authorities. Based on Zuber-Skerrit's CRASP model for professional development, this paper examines an initiative to enact the duty. It details a completed action…

  19. Investigation of axial bearings with lever-operated equalization system

    SciTech Connect

    Zaretskii, E.I.; Serezhkina, L.P.; Tomkov, Yu.P.

    1983-01-01

    The authors describe the operation of lever-operated systems of an axial bearing which automatically equalizes the load on the pads when the fulcrum of the lower levers are moved out into the plane of conjugation of the upper levers with the lower levers.

  20. Equal Time for "Creation Science": A Freedom of Communication Issue?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Peter E.

    When the Supreme Court struck down a Louisiana law that required public schools to give "equal time" to "creation science," an apparent contradiction was created because groups that traditionally supported the defense of civil liberties in general and freedom of expression in particular seemed to support a position designed to limit rather than…

  1. Did School Finance Equalization Increase Revenue Instability for School Districts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balu, Rekha

    2011-01-01

    This study uses an Interrupted Time Series analysis with a non-equivalent comparison group to estimate the causal effect of school finance equalization on district revenue instability. The author applies a microeconomic framework to an understudied problem in education finance and policy. In so doing, she illustrates how policies can sometimes…

  2. 47 CFR 22.321 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., religion, or national origin. (a) Equal employment opportunity program. Each licensee shall establish... qualified applicants without regard to sex, race, color, religion or national origin, and solicit their... prejudice or discrimination based upon sex, race, color, religion, or national origin, from the...

  3. Equality of Educational Opportunities at Public Primary Schools in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrogue, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the degree of equality of educational opportunities across Argentina's public primary schools. The main finding is that there are inequalities between jurisdictions, but even greater inequalities within them, suggesting the existence of serious problems in the distribution of resources at the sub-national level. Following…

  4. Automated deduction for first-order logic with equality

    2003-09-01

    Otter 3.3 is the current version of ANL's automated deduction system designed to search for proofs and countermodels of conjectures stated in first-order logic with equality. It is used mostly for research in mathematics and logic and also for various applications requiring deductive data processing.

  5. Achieving Equality of Student Internet Access within Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Janet Ward; Davidson, Ann Locke

    One benefit often expected to flow from Internet use in schools is an increase in equality of educational opportunity as all kinds of schools gain access to the same extraordinary set of resources and opportunities for interaction with the outside world. Yet, prior research suggests that patterns of technology access often mirror existing…

  6. Learning To Change. A WEA Equal Opportunities Training Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workers Educational Association, London (England).

    This training pack contains materials to help embed the principles of equal opportunities into the practice of part-time tutors and voluntary members of the Workers' Educational Association (WEA), a national voluntary organization dedicated to giving adults in the United Kingdom access to organized learning. Part 1 describes the rationale for the…

  7. NC Families and Communities Equals Success (FACES): Six Months Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Maria E.; Campbell, Kimm; Honess, Karen; Gallagher, Natalie Gibbs; Thurber, Lori; Smitley, Andy

    This paper reports on clinical and school outcomes after 6 months of implementing the North Carolina FACES (Families and Communities Equals Success) mental health program. Of the 210 children and youth participating in the program evaluation, 42 percent were African American, more than three quarters were male, 55 percent of families had annual…

  8. From Equal to Equivalent Pay: Salary Discrimination in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Ester

    1977-01-01

    Examines the federal statutes barring sex discrimination in employment and argues that the work of any two professors is comparable but not equal. Suggests using regression analysis to prove salary discrimination and discusses the legal justification for adopting regression analysis and the standard of comparable pay for comparable work.…

  9. 48 CFR 852.211-73 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 852.211-73 Section 852.211-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses...

  10. 48 CFR 452.211-71 - Equal Products Offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equal Products Offered. 452.211-71 Section 452.211-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses...

  11. 48 CFR 452.211-70 - Brand Name or Equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Brand Name or Equal. 452.211-70 Section 452.211-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.211-70 Brand...

  12. Equality, Inclusion and Marketization of Nordic Education: Introductory Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundahl, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a Nordic model of education is sometimes used to refer to the considerable similarities of education reforms and systems of the five Nordic countries (i.e. Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) during the second half of the 20th century--reforms that aimed at social justice, equality and cohesion not least by providing…

  13. Gender Equality in SOCRATES. Final Report. SCRE Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirrie, Anne; Wilson, Valerie; Powney, Janet; Hamilton, Sheila

    SOCRATES is the European Community education action program. SOCRATES I began in 1995 and ended in 1999. SOCRATES II, begun in 2000, continues until December 31, 2006. This study sought to identify how both the principles and practices of equal opportunities between women and men were interpreted in a sample of 100 centralized and 113…

  14. Parallel-Processing Equalizers for Multi-Gbps Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Andrew; Ghuman, Parminder; Hoy, Scott; Satorius, Edgar H.

    2004-01-01

    Architectures have been proposed for the design of frequency-domain least-mean-square complex equalizers that would be integral parts of parallel- processing digital receivers of multi-gigahertz radio signals and other quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) or 16-quadrature-amplitude-modulation (16-QAM) of data signals at rates of multiple gigabits per second. Equalizers as used here denotes receiver subsystems that compensate for distortions in the phase and frequency responses of the broad-band radio-frequency channels typically used to convey such signals. The proposed architectures are suitable for realization in very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuitry and, in particular, complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) application- specific integrated circuits (ASICs) operating at frequencies lower than modulation symbol rates. A digital receiver of the type to which the proposed architecture applies (see Figure 1) would include an analog-to-digital converter (A/D) operating at a rate, fs, of 4 samples per symbol period. To obtain the high speed necessary for sampling, the A/D and a 1:16 demultiplexer immediately following it would be constructed as GaAs integrated circuits. The parallel-processing circuitry downstream of the demultiplexer, including a demodulator followed by an equalizer, would operate at a rate of only fs/16 (in other words, at 1/4 of the symbol rate). The output from the equalizer would be four parallel streams of in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) samples.

  15. Justice Department Policies on Equal Employment and Affirmative Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, William Bradford

    In these remarks, the Assistant Attorney General for the Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, discusses the Department's policy to enforce Federal equal employment opportunity guarantees without supporting quotas and other numerical formulae that provide preferential treatment. The discussion counters the charge that this policy is…

  16. Redefining Equality: Authoritarian Populism and the Conservative Restoration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Michael W.

    1988-01-01

    This article examines equality in education within the context of two larger conflicts--the breakdown of the largely liberal consensus that guided much educational and social policy since World War II and the growth of the new right and conservative movements. (IAH)

  17. 76 FR 40874 - Information Collection; Equal Opportunity Compliance Review Record

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as amended. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended... recipients' employees understand their customer service role. Collection will occur during face-to-face... Forest Service Information Collection; Equal Opportunity Compliance Review Record AGENCY: Forest...

  18. 24 CFR 578.93 - Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... criminal record that includes a violent crime from the project so long as the child resides in the housing... nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements set forth in 24 CFR 5.105(a) are applicable. (b) Housing for... federal nondiscrimination laws in 24 CFR 5.105 (e.g., the housing may be limited to homeless...

  19. Dividing Any Angle into Any Number of Equal Parts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutcheson, Thomas W.

    2001-01-01

    Presents two ancient problems, trisecting any angle and dividing a circle into any number of equal parts. Illustrates how to use these problems to prompt students to think broadly and creatively about problems instead of letting the apparent boundaries of the problem limit their thoughts. Combines three-dimensional solutions to the problems to…

  20. Perspectives on "Bakke": Equal Protection, Procedural Fairness, or Structural Justice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tribe, Laurence H.

    1979-01-01

    The "Bakke" case is examined for what it has to say regarding first the area of equal protection, then the idea of procedural fairness as distinct from accuracy of result, and finally the notion of structural justice. Available from Harvard Law Review, Harvard Law Review Association, Gannett House, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138; sc $5.50.…

  1. Locating, Recruiting, and Employing Women: An Equal Opportunity Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxley, Cecelia H.

    To aid employers in providing equal opportunities for women workers, this book describes working women today, their education and training, laws, regulations, and programs providing employment protection, and suggests ways of recruiting, employing, and working with women. An overview of women in the present workforce is presented--their…

  2. Equality bias impairs collective decision-making across cultures.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Ali; Bang, Dan; Olsen, Karsten; Zhao, Yuanyuan Aimee; Shi, Zhenhao; Broberg, Kristina; Safavi, Shervin; Han, Shihui; Nili Ahmadabadi, Majid; Frith, Chris D; Roepstorff, Andreas; Rees, Geraint; Bahrami, Bahador

    2015-03-24

    We tend to think that everyone deserves an equal say in a debate. This seemingly innocuous assumption can be damaging when we make decisions together as part of a group. To make optimal decisions, group members should weight their differing opinions according to how competent they are relative to one another; whenever they differ in competence, an equal weighting is suboptimal. Here, we asked how people deal with individual differences in competence in the context of a collective perceptual decision-making task. We developed a metric for estimating how participants weight their partner's opinion relative to their own and compared this weighting to an optimal benchmark. Replicated across three countries (Denmark, Iran, and China), we show that participants assigned nearly equal weights to each other's opinions regardless of true differences in their competence-even when informed by explicit feedback about their competence gap or under monetary incentives to maximize collective accuracy. This equality bias, whereby people behave as if they are as good or as bad as their partner, is particularly costly for a group when a competence gap separates its members.

  3. 48 CFR 1852.210-70 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses... Name or Equal (DEC 1988) (a) As used in this provision, “brand name” means identification of products by make and model. The term “bid” means “offer” if this is a negotiated acquisition. (b) If...

  4. Rights, Equality, and the Ethics of School Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diorio, Joseph A.

    1986-01-01

    Where a plurality of opinions exists, the effect of uniform educational policy denies a minority group's desires for equal rights and serves partisan views. Dworkin's theory of rights supports this perspective. Governmental imposition of uniform schooling practices on unwilling persons is an illegitimate devaluation of some citizens' lives. (36…

  5. Equality, Prioritising the Disadvantaged, and the New Educational Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brighouse, Harry

    2014-01-01

    This paper takes Mary Warnock's paper in the first issue of the "Oxford Review of Education" as its starting point, and explores how both philosophical thinking about equality in education and the landscape of educational provision have changed. It articulates a view of justice in education that emphasises benefiting the least…

  6. 41 CFR 60-50.2 - Equal employment policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 50-GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF RELIGION OR NATIONAL ORIGIN § 60-50.2 Equal employment... applicants for employment because of religion or national origin, and must take affirmative action to insure... religion or national origin. Such action includes, but is not limited to the following:...

  7. Equations and the Equal Sign in Elementary Mathematics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Sarah R.

    2012-01-01

    To promote a relational understanding of the equal sign (=), students may require exposure to a variety of equation types (i.e., 3 = 8 - 5; 2 + 3 = 1 + 4; 9 - 3 = 6). The purpose of this study was to evaluate 8 elementary curricula for degree of exposure to equation types. Across 6 elementary grade levels, curricula were coded for the number of…

  8. Educational Opportunity: El Salvador's Barriers to Achieving Equality Persist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosekrans, Kristin

    This paper analyzes barriers to educational equality in El Salvador, using a multi-layered framework of educational opportunity. To improve educational opportunity and give the most marginalized sectors of society the possibility of changing their life circumstances requires policies that go beyond mere access to formal schooling. The model…

  9. 21. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Equalizing Gear Layout, 1917. Photographic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Equalizing Gear Layout, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-4 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  10. The Constitutional Framework for Pursuing Equal Opportunities in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malherbe, Rassie

    2004-01-01

    The promotion of equal learning opportunities is crucially important for the improvement of the quality of life of millions of people. The virtues of education in preparing learners for life, for meaningful interaction with other human beings, for constructive civic and political involvement, and for successful economic participation stand beyond…

  11. Sexual Equality and the Family in the Supreme Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, F. L.

    This paper traces and analyzes the development of the Supreme Court's work in the area of sexual equality, with particular emphasis on the family dimension of this issue. The Court is criticized for both the legal and policy inadequacies of its recent decisions. It is argued that the Court has failed to use a consistent, principled standard by…

  12. 41 CFR 60-50.2 - Equal employment policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 50-GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF RELIGION OR NATIONAL ORIGIN § 60-50.2 Equal employment... applicants for employment because of religion or national origin, and must take affirmative action to insure... religion or national origin. Such action includes, but is not limited to the following:...

  13. 41 CFR 60-50.2 - Equal employment policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 50-GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF RELIGION OR NATIONAL ORIGIN § 60-50.2 Equal employment... applicants for employment because of religion or national origin, and must take affirmative action to insure... religion or national origin. Such action includes, but is not limited to the following:...

  14. 41 CFR 60-50.2 - Equal employment policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 50-GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF RELIGION OR NATIONAL ORIGIN § 60-50.2 Equal employment... applicants for employment because of religion or national origin, and must take affirmative action to insure... religion or national origin. Such action includes, but is not limited to the following:...

  15. 41 CFR 60-50.2 - Equal employment policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 50-GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF RELIGION OR NATIONAL ORIGIN § 60-50.2 Equal employment... applicants for employment because of religion or national origin, and must take affirmative action to insure... religion or national origin. Such action includes, but is not limited to the following:...

  16. Equality bias impairs collective decision-making across cultures.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Ali; Bang, Dan; Olsen, Karsten; Zhao, Yuanyuan Aimee; Shi, Zhenhao; Broberg, Kristina; Safavi, Shervin; Han, Shihui; Nili Ahmadabadi, Majid; Frith, Chris D; Roepstorff, Andreas; Rees, Geraint; Bahrami, Bahador

    2015-03-24

    We tend to think that everyone deserves an equal say in a debate. This seemingly innocuous assumption can be damaging when we make decisions together as part of a group. To make optimal decisions, group members should weight their differing opinions according to how competent they are relative to one another; whenever they differ in competence, an equal weighting is suboptimal. Here, we asked how people deal with individual differences in competence in the context of a collective perceptual decision-making task. We developed a metric for estimating how participants weight their partner's opinion relative to their own and compared this weighting to an optimal benchmark. Replicated across three countries (Denmark, Iran, and China), we show that participants assigned nearly equal weights to each other's opinions regardless of true differences in their competence-even when informed by explicit feedback about their competence gap or under monetary incentives to maximize collective accuracy. This equality bias, whereby people behave as if they are as good or as bad as their partner, is particularly costly for a group when a competence gap separates its members. PMID:25775532

  17. The Concept of Reverse Discrimination and Equality of Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgatta, Edgar F.

    1976-01-01

    Notes that implementation of the universalistic value of equality of opportunity favors minorities if they are relatively disadvantaged. Despite the time lag, recent statistical indicators suggest no great differences in education for current cohorts of persons classified by sex, age, or ethnic categories. (Author/AM)

  18. District Power Equalization, Horizontal Equity and the Property Mix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilley, John

    1980-01-01

    Argues that the traditional district power equalization (DPE) grant formula achieves horizontal equity, that the formula must be modified when the measure of fiscal capacity differs from the legal tax base, and that the inclusion of a tax exporting variable leads to the breakdown of horizontal equity. (Author/IRT)

  19. 18 CFR 1316.2 - Affirmative action and equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... provisions: “Affirmative Action for Disabled Veterans and Veterans of the Vietnam Era” clause, 41 CFR 60-250.4; the “Affirmative Action for Handicapped Workers” clause, 41 CFR 60-741.4; and the “Equal... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Affirmative action...

  20. A Questionnaire Method for Measuring the Autonomy/Equality Norm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packard, John S.

    Lortie has described teacher sentiments that meld into a structure called the autonomy/equality norm. This norm helps preserve the separation of teaching from organizational and collegial purviews. As part of a larger study which looks for conditions that affect and are influenced by variations in task interdependence among teachers, an effort was…

  1. 18 CFR 1316.2 - Affirmative action and equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... provisions: “Affirmative Action for Disabled Veterans and Veterans of the Vietnam Era” clause, 41 CFR 60-250.4; the “Affirmative Action for Handicapped Workers” clause, 41 CFR 60-741.4; and the “Equal Opportunity” clause, 41 CFR 60-1.4. Contractor complies with applicable regulatory requirements,...

  2. 18 CFR 1316.2 - Affirmative action and equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... provisions: “Affirmative Action for Disabled Veterans and Veterans of the Vietnam Era” clause, 41 CFR 60-250.4; the “Affirmative Action for Handicapped Workers” clause, 41 CFR 60-741.4; and the “Equal Opportunity” clause, 41 CFR 60-1.4. Contractor complies with applicable regulatory requirements,...

  3. 18 CFR 1316.2 - Affirmative action and equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... provisions: “Affirmative Action for Disabled Veterans and Veterans of the Vietnam Era” clause, 41 CFR 60-250.4; the “Affirmative Action for Handicapped Workers” clause, 41 CFR 60-741.4; and the “Equal Opportunity” clause, 41 CFR 60-1.4. Contractor complies with applicable regulatory requirements,...

  4. The Equal Rights Amendment: Its Potential Impact on Family Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myricks, Noel

    1977-01-01

    The potential impact of the proposed Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) can be measured in areas such as alimony, child support, child custody, property ownership, divorce and rights of consortium. Statutes which use sex as the sole criterion would be unconstitutional. (Author)

  5. Equality, Quality and Quantity: The Elusive Triangle in Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naik, J. P.

    1979-01-01

    Since independence in 1947, India's educational goals have included expansion, improved quality, and equal opportunity. The author analyzes India's successes and failures in reaching these goals in the context of its limited economic resources, the traditional educational values of its people, and its traditionally stratified social system. (SJL)

  6. 24 CFR 583.325 - Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Nondiscrimination and equal... population, to comply with these requirements for nondiscrimination on the basis of race, color, religion... supportive housing are unlikely to reach persons of any particular race, color, religion, sex, age,...

  7. 24 CFR 583.325 - Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Nondiscrimination and equal... population, to comply with these requirements for nondiscrimination on the basis of race, color, religion... supportive housing are unlikely to reach persons of any particular race, color, religion, sex, age,...

  8. Equal Educational Opportunity, Constitutional Uniformity and the "Defunis" Remand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Arval A.

    1975-01-01

    Analyzes competing definitions of equal educational opportunity and determines that some state courts are required to give affirmative content to the term, but the Fourteenth Amendment is interpreted only as a limitation on state action. Relates this discussion to the inconclusive history of Defunis v. Odegaard regarding racially conditioned law…

  9. Can ICT Give Children with Disabilities Equal Opportunities in School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodin, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Opportunities for children with disabilities to participate in school on equal conditions as others are often stressed, while reality shows that many children with disabilities are still segregated. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been highlighted as a tool for communication and inclusion for children with disabilities but from…

  10. Equality and Diversity in Adult and Community Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisenberger, Anna; Dadzie, Stella

    This document is a practical guide to help managers of adult and community education programs in the United Kingdom address equality and diversity in the context of the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) remit and the Common Inspection Framework. The following are among the topics discussed in Sections 1-4: (1) learner-centered approaches…

  11. 48 CFR 452.211-71 - Equal Products Offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in solicitations seeking offers on a “brand name or equal” basis to allow offerors the opportunity to... furnish an “equal” product, in accordance with the “Brand Name or Equal” provision of this solicitation... any): Brand Name or Equal Product identified by the Government in this solicitation: Offered...

  12. The Status of Equal Opportunity for Minorities in Moorhead, Minnesota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, St. Paul.

    This report contains information received at a public fact finding meeting held in Moorhead, Minnesota, in 1999. The meeting examined equal opportunity conditions for minority residents in Moorhead, noting possible disparities in four areas: income and employment, education, public safety, and housing and public accommodation. To buttress the data…

  13. 76 FR 39233 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Equal Opportunity for Veterans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... Programs, Department of Labor, 60-300.2 (p), 72 FR 44393.) B. Delete References to the VETS-100 Form... rule amending the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to implement Department of Labor (DOL... Federal Register at 75 FR 60249 on September 29, 2010, to implement DOL regulations on equal...

  14. James Bryant Conant and Equality of Educational Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Wayne J.

    2010-01-01

    This essay critically examines the commitment of James Bryant Conant to equality of opportunity as a guide for educational practice in his own era and in contemporary society. Noted chemist, president of Harvard University from the 1930s through the early 1950s, and noted analyst of the American high school from the time of publication of his…

  15. Automated deduction for first-order logic with equality

    2001-06-01

    Otter 3.2 is the current version of ANL's automated deduction system designed to search for proofs and countermodels of conjectures stated in first-order logic with equality. It is used mostly for research in mathematics and logic and also for various applications requiring deductive data processing.

  16. The Democratic Imperative to Address Sexual Equality Rights in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gereluk, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Issues of sexual orientation elicit ethical debates in schools and society. In jurisdictions where a legal right has not yet been established, one argument commonly rests on whether schools ought to address issues of same-sex relationships and marriage on the basis of civil equality, or whether such controversial issues ought to remain in the…

  17. The Invisible Obstacle to Educational Equality: Gender Bias in Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Rae Lesser

    2008-01-01

    Gender bias in textbooks (GBIT) is a low-profile education issue, given the 72,000,000 children who still have no access to schooling, but this article argues that GBIT is: (1) an important, (2) near-universal, (3) remarkably uniform, (4) quite persistent but (5) virtually invisible obstacle on the road to gender equality in education--an obstacle…

  18. Still Far From Equal: Young Women in Literature for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knodel, Bea

    Many of the most popular books comprising the young adult literature boom--the romances--continue to fail female readers in three ways. First, some of the most frequently recommended books for young adults portray worlds that are almost exclusively masculine. Second, even the books that appear to deal fairly equally with male and female characters…

  19. The Meritocratic Conception of Educational Equality: Ideal Theory Run Amuck

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    The dominant conception of educational equality in the United States is meritocratic: an individual's chances of educational achievements should track only (natural) talent and effort, not social class or other morally irrelevant factors. The meritocratic conception must presuppose that natural talent and effort can be isolated from social…

  20. 24 CFR 200.30 - Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity. 200.30 Section 200.30 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for...

  1. The Equal Access Act: Policy and Regulations for Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, H. Lawrence; Martin, James

    The Equal Access Act of 1984 was drafted to implement access for religious clubs to public secondary schools, but with constitutionally protected safeguards to preclude entanglement of church and state. A number of challenges were made on the constitutional grounds of excessive entanglement of church and state, as well as what the definition of…

  2. 24 CFR 574.603 - Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... this program, the nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5 and...-12213) and implementing regulations at 28 CFR part 35 (States and local government grantees) and part 36... Order 11246, as amended by Executive Orders 11375, 11478, 12086, and 12107 (3 CFR, 1964-1965 Comp.,...

  3. Education Reform in Latin America: Equal Educational Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the general developments and challenges of Latin American public education systems from the 1970s to the late 1990s. A framework using five stages of equal educational opportunity is used to organize the findings: (1) Enrollment--Involves the mechanisms needed to enroll children in school; (2) Quality--Great disparities in…

  4. Individuality, Equality, and Creative Democracy--The Task before Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Education is ubiquitous and inevitable; schooling is an institutionalized activity usually confined to designated times and places. Public schooling is subject to public regulation and control, presumably for the common good. The author contends that true democratic education seeks educational equality as a way to educate individuals capable of…

  5. 28 CFR 42.304 - Written equal employment opportunity program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Department of Justice Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures, 28 CFR part 50, set out the appropriate... CFR 60-2.24(e). (h) Plan for dissemination of the applicant's Equal Employment Opportunity Program to... Compliance, U.S. Department of Labor, found at 41 CFR 60-2.21. (i) Designation of specified personnel...

  6. 7 CFR 1980.434 - Equal opportunity and nondiscrimination requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equal opportunity and nondiscrimination requirements. 1980.434 Section 1980.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued)...

  7. 7 CFR 1980.434 - Equal opportunity and nondiscrimination requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equal opportunity and nondiscrimination requirements. 1980.434 Section 1980.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued)...

  8. 7 CFR 1980.434 - Equal opportunity and nondiscrimination requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equal opportunity and nondiscrimination requirements. 1980.434 Section 1980.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued)...

  9. 7 CFR 1980.434 - Equal opportunity and nondiscrimination requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equal opportunity and nondiscrimination requirements. 1980.434 Section 1980.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued)...

  10. 7 CFR 1980.434 - Equal opportunity and nondiscrimination requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equal opportunity and nondiscrimination requirements. 1980.434 Section 1980.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued)...

  11. Computers = Equality for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackall, Phil

    1996-01-01

    Highlights the equality that computers bring to children with hearing impairments and the different ways computers can be used. The ability of the computer to facilitate communication (regardless of hearing ability), provide informational materials, and operate as a TTY (the phone-teletype device for the deaf), TTY answering machine, and fax…

  12. Equality and Education: The Role of Universities and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fensham, Peter J.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses equal education issues in Victoria, Australia, summarizing the expansion of secondary and higher education since the 1940s. Explores transition problems between school and university furthering social inequalities. Views educational structures from abundancy and scarcity perspectives, cautioning that limited resources will maintain the…

  13. 24 CFR 578.93 - Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements set forth in 24 CFR 5.105(a) are applicable. (b) Housing for... federal nondiscrimination laws in 24 CFR 5.105 (e.g., the housing may be limited to homeless veterans... Persons with AIDS program under 24 CFR part 574 may be limited to persons with acquired...

  14. Social Justice, Equality and Inclusion in Scottish Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila

    2009-01-01

    Social justice, equality and inclusion are complex and inter-linked concepts and feature prominently in Scottish social policy rhetoric. This paper begins with an overview of the discourses surrounding these concepts and the ways in which they are used in Scottish education policy, which, in general, is founded on principles of universalism. The…

  15. Still Not Equal: Expanding Educational Opportunity in Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, M. Christopher, II, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Still Not Equal: Expanding Educational Opportunity in Society" addresses the successes and failures of "Brown v. Board of Education" and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as well as the continuing challenge of expanding educational opportunity in the United States and across the Black diaspora. The educational, political, and social influence…

  16. 78 FR 21811 - National Equal Pay Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... begun to heal. But even now, too many Americans are seeing their hard work go unrewarded because of...-American women and Latinas. On National Equal Pay Day, we recognize this injustice by marking how far into... diminished wages shortchange families, they slow our entire economy--weakening growth here at home...

  17. Here's How Boards Are Coping with the Equal Access Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakariya, Sally Banks

    1985-01-01

    Two Constitutional principles--separation of church and state and freedom of speech--have been placed in conflict by the newly established Equal Access Act (1984). Some ways that school boards have found to deal with the confusion are presented. (MD)

  18. State Centralization and Equal Access to Educational Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Vernon L.; Sederberg, Charles H.

    This study's purpose was to explore the premise that increasing state support for elementary/secondary schools increases equal student access to educational opportunity. Following a brief overview of the background of the problem, including a description of the so-called "Minnesota Miracle" or Omnibus Tax Law of 1971 with its provisions for…

  19. 41 CFR 60-250.5 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equal opportunity clause. 60-250.5 Section 60-250.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... positions except executive and top management, those positions that will be filled from within...

  20. The Construction of Motherhood: Tasks, Relational Connection, and Gender Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowdery, Randi S.; Knudson-Martin, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative analysis of 50 couples explored how gender equality is related to the construction of motherhood in their day-to-day interactions. Results identified two models of mothering: (a) mothering as a gendered talent and (b) mothering as conscious collaboration. The first model perpetuated gender inequality through a recursive…

  1. State Lotteries: Their Effect on Equal Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Randall G.; Elrod, Henry E.

    2004-01-01

    Many states (18 of 39) use revenue generated by lotteries to help fund higher education. The revenue is generated as a regressive tax disproportionately collected. As such, do state lotteries contribute toward facilitation of equal access to higher education for low-income and minority citizens? Given population trends, college enrollment, and…

  2. 29 CFR 1620.17 - Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance. 1620.17... THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.17 Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance. (a) In general. The equal pay standard applies to jobs the performance of which requires equal...

  3. 29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. 1620.15 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs requiring equal skill in their performance. Where the...

  4. 29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. 1620.15 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs requiring equal skill in their performance. Where the...

  5. 29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. 1620.16 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.16 Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs that require equal effort to perform. Where...

  6. 29 CFR 1620.17 - Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance. 1620.17... THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.17 Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance. (a) In general. The equal pay standard applies to jobs the performance of which requires equal...

  7. 29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. 1620.16 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.16 Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs that require equal effort to perform. Where...

  8. 29 CFR 1620.17 - Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance. 1620.17... THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.17 Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance. (a) In general. The equal pay standard applies to jobs the performance of which requires equal...

  9. 29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. 1620.15 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs requiring equal skill in their performance. Where the...

  10. 29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. 1620.15 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs requiring equal skill in their performance. Where the...

  11. 29 CFR 1620.17 - Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance. 1620.17... THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.17 Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance. (a) In general. The equal pay standard applies to jobs the performance of which requires equal...

  12. 29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. 1620.16 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.16 Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs that require equal effort to perform. Where...

  13. 29 CFR 1620.17 - Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance. 1620.17... THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.17 Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance. (a) In general. The equal pay standard applies to jobs the performance of which requires equal...

  14. 29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. 1620.15 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs requiring equal skill in their performance. Where the...

  15. 29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. 1620.16 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.16 Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs that require equal effort to perform. Where...

  16. 29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. 1620.16 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.16 Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs that require equal effort to perform. Where...

  17. Remedial Study plus Retake Exams Equals Better Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Winkle, Lon J.

    1978-01-01

    Describes adaptation of the Retake System to larger lecture classes and tests the importance of remedial study in improving exam performance for 410 students enrolled in an interdisciplinary (chemistry, physics, and biology) science course for nonscience majors. (HM)

  18. NASA Workshop on Biological Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily (Editor); Tischler, Marc (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    A workshop was convened to review the current program in Space Biology Biological Adaptation Research and its objectives and to identify future research directions. Two research areas emerged from these deliberations: gravitational effects on structures and biomineralization and gravity affected regulatory mechanisms. The participants also recommended that research concentrate on rapidly growing animals, since gravity effects may be more pronounced during growth and development. Both research areas were defined and future research directions were identified. The recommendations of the workshop will assist the Life Sciences Division of NASA in it assessment and long-range planning of these areas of space biology. Equally important, the workshop was intended to stimulate thought and research among those attending so that they would, in turn, interest, excite, and involve other members of the academic community in research efforts relevant to these programs.

  19. Optimized pre-equalization for gigabit polarization division multiplexed visible light communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Do-Hoon; Kim, Sung-Jin; Yang, Se-Hoon; Han, Sang-Kook

    2015-07-01

    We experimentally demonstrated a gigabit visible light communication system employing polarization division multiplexing and adaptive modulation optical-discrete multitones by using a phosphor-based white light-emitting diode. An optimized pre-equalization circuit was used to prevent clipping of the baseband signal, which exceeded the linear operating range of the LED, and to control the power distribution of each subcarrier in order to obtain an efficient bit-loading profile. Using this technique, we achieved 1.025 and 1.016 Gbps transmissions for each polarization channel and a total of 2.041 Gbps transmissions were experimentally verified. In each transmission, bit error rate performances were below the forward error correction limit.

  20. Efficient nonlinear equalizer for intra-channel nonlinearity compensation for next generation agile and dynamically reconfigurable optical networks.

    PubMed

    Malekiha, Mahdi; Tselniker, Igor; Plant, David V

    2016-02-22

    In this work, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel low-complexity technique for fiber nonlinearity compensation. We achieved a transmission distance of 2818 km for a 32-GBaud dual-polarization 16QAM signal. For efficient implantation, and to facilitate integration with conventional digital signal processing (DSP) approaches, we independently compensate fiber nonlinearities after linear impairment equalization. Therefore this algorithm can be easily implemented in currently deployed transmission systems after using linear DSP. The proposed equalizer operates at one sample per symbol and requires only one computation step. The structure of the algorithm is based on a first-order perturbation model with quantized perturbation coefficients. Also, it does not require any prior calculation or detailed knowledge of the transmission system. We identified common symmetries between perturbation coefficients to avoid duplicate and unnecessary operations. In addition, we use only a few adaptive filter coefficients by grouping multiple nonlinear terms and dedicating only one adaptive nonlinear filter coefficient to each group. Finally, the complexity of the proposed algorithm is lower than previously studied nonlinear equalizers by more than one order of magnitude.

  1. Detection of the oxygen consumption rate of migrating zebrafish by electrochemical equalization systems.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Tomoyuki; Koide, Masahiro; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Abe, Ryoko; Shiku, Hitoshi; Mizutani, Fumio; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2014-01-01

    A novel measurement system to determine oxygen consumption rates via respiration in migrating Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been developed. A signal equalization system was adapted to detect oxygen in a chamber with one fish, because typical electrochemical techniques cannot measure respiration activities for migrating organisms. A closed chamber was fabricated using a pipet tip attached to a Pt electrode, and a columnar Vycor glass tip was used as the salt bridge. Pt electrode, which was attached to the chamber with one zebrafish, and Ag electrode were immersed in 10 mM potassium iodide (KI), and both the electrodes were connected externally to form a galvanic cell. Pt and Ag electrodes act as the cathode and anode to reduce oxygen and oxidize silver, respectively, allowing the deposition of insoluble silver iodide (AgI). The AgI acts as the signal source accumulated on the Ag electrode by conversion of oxygen. The amount of AgI deposited on the Ag electrode was determined by cathodic stripping voltammetry. The presence of zebrafish or its embryo led to a decrease in the stripping currents generated by a 10 min conversion of oxygen to AgI. The conversion of oxygen to AgI is disturbed by the migration of the zebrafish and allows the detection of different equalized signals corresponding to respiration activity. The oxygen consumption rates of the zebrafish and its embryo were estimated and determined to be ∼4.1 and 2.4 pmol·s(-1), respectively. The deposited AgI almost completely disappeared with a single stripping process. The signal equalization system provides a method to determine the respiration activities for migrating zebrafish and could be used to estimate environmental risk and for effective drug screening.

  2. Adaptive filtering in biological signal processing.

    PubMed

    Iyer, V K; Ploysongsang, Y; Ramamoorthy, P A

    1990-01-01

    The high dependence of conventional optimal filtering methods on the a priori knowledge of the signal and noise statistics render them ineffective in dealing with signals whose statistics cannot be predetermined accurately. Adaptive filtering methods offer a better alternative, since the a priori knowledge of statistics is less critical, real time processing is possible, and the computations are less expensive for this approach. Adaptive filtering methods compute the filter coefficients "on-line", converging to the optimal values in the least-mean square (LMS) error sense. Adaptive filtering is therefore apt for dealing with the "unknown" statistics situation and has been applied extensively in areas like communication, speech, radar, sonar, seismology, and biological signal processing and analysis for channel equalization, interference and echo canceling, line enhancement, signal detection, system identification, spectral analysis, beamforming, modeling, control, etc. In this review article adaptive filtering in the context of biological signals is reviewed. An intuitive approach to the underlying theory of adaptive filters and its applicability are presented. Applications of the principles in biological signal processing are discussed in a manner that brings out the key ideas involved. Current and potential future directions in adaptive biological signal processing are also discussed.

  3. Infrared image enhancement based on atmospheric scattering model and histogram equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Zhang, Yunfeng; Geng, Aihui; Cao, Lihua; Chen, Juan

    2016-09-01

    Infrared images are fuzzy due to the special imaging technology of infrared sensor. In order to achieve contrast enhancement and gain clear edge details from a fuzzy infrared image, we propose an efficient enhancement method based on atmospheric scattering model and histogram equalization. The novel algorithm optimizes and improves the visual image haze remove method which combines the characteristics of the fuzzy infrared images. Firstly, an average filtering operation is presented to get the estimation of coarse transmission rate. Then we get the fuzzy free image through self-adaptive transmission rate calculated with the statistics information of original infrared image. Finally, to deal with low lighting problem of fuzzy free image, we propose a sectional plateau histogram equalization method which is capable of background suppression. Experimental results show that the performance and efficiency of the proposed algorithm are pleased, compared to four other algorithms in both subjective observation and objective quantitative evaluation. In addition, the proposed algorithm is competent to enhance infrared image for different applications under different circumstances.

  4. Equal Employment in Postsecondary HPERD. Administrative Guidelines for Compliance with Title VII and the Equal Pay Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nursall, John G.

    1989-01-01

    Outlined are key provisions, relevant to education, of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Equal Pay Act of 1963. Administrative guidelines to insure compliance are presented, as well as preventive measures that reduce vulnerability to charges of discrimination in hiring, promotion, and compensation. (IAH)

  5. Better to Be Equal? Challenges to Equality for Cognitively Able Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Social Decision Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Eva A.; Banerjee, Robin; Pouw, Lucinda B. C.; Stockmann, Lex; Rieffe, Carolien

    2015-01-01

    Much controversy surrounds questions about whether humans have an aversion to inequity and how a commitment to equality might play a role in cooperation and other aspects of social interactions. Examining the social decisions of children with autism spectrum disorders provides a fascinating opportunity to explore these issues. Specifically, we…

  6. Expressing Adaptation Strategies Using Adaptation Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemirline, N.; Bourda, Y.; Reynaud, C.

    2012-01-01

    Today, there is a real challenge to enable personalized access to information. Several systems have been proposed to address this challenge including Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHSs). However, the specification of adaptation strategies remains a difficult task for creators of such systems. In this paper, we consider the problem of the definition…

  7. The MAPK cascade in equally cleaving spiralian embryos.

    PubMed

    Lambert, J David; Nagy, Lisa M

    2003-11-15

    Spiralian development is shared by several protostome phyla and characterized by regularities in early cleavage, fate map, and larva. Experimental evidence from multiple spiralian species implicates cells in the D quadrant lineage as the organizer of future axial development of the embryo. However, the mechanisms by which the D quadrant is specified differ between species with equal and unequal spiral cleavage. Equally cleaving mollusc embryos establish the D quadrant via cell-cell interactions between the micromeres and macromeres at the 24- to 36-cell stage. In unequally cleaving embryos, the D quadrant is established at the 4-cell stage via asymmetries in the first 2 cell divisions. We have begun to explore the molecular mechanisms of D quadrant patterning in spiralians. Previously, we showed that, in the unequally cleaving embryo of the mollusc Ilyanassa obsoleta, the MAPK pathway is activated and functionally required in 3D and also in the micromeres known to require a signal from 3D. Here, we examine the role of MAPK signaling in 4 spiralians with equal cleavage. In 3 equally cleaving molluscs, the chiton Chaetopleura, the limpet Tectura, and the snail Lymnaea, the MAPK pathway is activated in the 3D cell but not in the overlying micromeres. In the equally cleaving embryo of the polychaete annelid Hydroides, MAPK activation was not detected in the 3D macromere but was observed in one of its daughter cells, 4d. In addition, inhibiting Tectura MAPK activation disrupts differentiation of 3D and cells induced by it, supporting a functional role for MAPK in axis specification in equally cleaving spiralians. Thus, MAPK signaling may have a conserved role in the D quadrant organizer cell 3D in molluscs. However, there have been at least 2 evolutionary changes in the activation of the MAPK pathway during spiralian evolution. MAPK function in the Ilyanassa micromeres is a recent cooption and, since the divergence of annelids and molluscs, there has been a shift in

  8. Adaptation Strategies of Individuals With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Roper, Jaimie A.; Terza, Matthew J.; Tillman, Mark D.; Hass, Chris J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the strong implications for rehabilitation design, the capability of individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) to adapt and store novel gait patterns have not been well studied. Purpose: To investigate how reconstructive surgery may affect the ability to adapt and store novel gait patterns in persons with ACLR while walking on a split-belt treadmill. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Gait adaptation was compared between 20 participants with ACLR and 20 healthy controls during split-belt treadmill walking. Gait adaptation was assessed in slow- and fast-adapting parameters by (1) the magnitude of symmetry during late adaptation and (2) the amount of the asymmetry during de-adaptation. Results: Healthy individuals adapted a new walking pattern and stored the new walking pattern equally in both the dominant and nondominant limbs. Conversely, individuals with ACLR displayed impairments in both slow-adapting and fast-adapting derived gait adaptation and significant differences in behavior between the reconstructed and uninjured limb. Conclusion: While surgical reconstruction and physical therapy are aimed at improving mechanical stability to the knee, the study data suggest that fundamental features of motor control remain altered. After ACLR, participants display an altered ability to learn and store functional gait patterns. PMID:26894200

  9. Gender equality and well-being of rural women.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, N

    1996-01-01

    Social, cultural, and religious attitudes have led to the development of discriminatory laws and/or practices which prevent women from participating as equal members of society. Rural women in poor households therefore have enormous workloads and responsibilities with little to no control over resources and decision making. The ability of poor women to provide for their families is significantly affected by such limited and declining resources. The author presents cases from Krishna Rakshit Chak and Kalsigeriya villages to describe how gender-equality affects poverty and well-being, and the related policy implications. The author acknowledges that government organizations support programs to improve poor women's accessibility to credit, land, water, and technology. She stresses, however, that considerable investment and clean implementation are crucial to social sector activities such as health care, child care, family planning, and literacy.

  10. Perceptions of power equality among drug-using women.

    PubMed

    Fenaughty, Andrea M

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the associations between perceptions of the power equality in a current sexual relationship and each of several alternative indicators of power in a sample of drug-using women. Using targeted sampling, 262 women were recruited from the streets of Anchorage, Alaska. A battery of face-to-face questionnaires was administered to adult women who gave evidence of recent drug use (track marks or positive urinalysis) and had been recently sexually active. Perceived power equality was associated with physical, verbal, and sexual abuse, self-efficacy, sexual communication, and income for main partners, and the trade of sex and traditionalism of her views on home and family for casual partners. These findings suggest that power is a complex, multifaceted construct, and that type of relationship must be considered when trying to understand the meaning of power within drug-using women's lives. Implications for risk behavior interventions are discussed.

  11. Methodology and mythology of equal-life-group depreciation

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, J.S.

    1983-01-06

    The equal-life-group method of depreciation, as opposed to the average-life-group method, has a favorable impact on the cash flows of utilities, but has been disapproved by most regulatory bodies because one effect is to increase revenue requirements during the early service years of utility property even though, since the property is removed from rate base earlier, the revenue requirement is less in subsequent years than it would be under the average-life-group method. The author's thesis is that a better understanding of the concepts underlying the equal-life-group method, as well as its operation, on the part of utility financial managers and regulators would lead to more widespread acceptance of the method for use in utility rate setting. The purpose of his article is to enhance that understanding. 4 tables.

  12. Equity or equality? Moral judgments follow the money.

    PubMed

    DeScioli, Peter; Massenkoff, Maxim; Shaw, Alex; Petersen, Michael Bang; Kurzban, Robert

    2014-12-22

    Previous research emphasizes people's dispositions as a source of differences in moral views. We investigate another source of moral disagreement, self-interest. In three experiments, participants played a simple economic game in which one player divides money with a partner according to the principle of equality (same payoffs) or the principle of equity (pay-offs proportional to effort expended). We find, first, that people's moral judgment of an allocation rule depends on their role in the game. People not only prefer the rule that most benefits them but also judge it to be more fair and moral. Second, we find that participants' views about equality and equity change in a matter of minutes as they learn where their interests lie. Finally, we find limits to self-interest: when the justification for equity is removed, participants no longer show strategic advocacy of the unequal division. We discuss implications for understanding moral debate and disagreement. PMID:25355480

  13. Equity or equality? Moral judgments follow the money.

    PubMed

    DeScioli, Peter; Massenkoff, Maxim; Shaw, Alex; Petersen, Michael Bang; Kurzban, Robert

    2014-12-22

    Previous research emphasizes people's dispositions as a source of differences in moral views. We investigate another source of moral disagreement, self-interest. In three experiments, participants played a simple economic game in which one player divides money with a partner according to the principle of equality (same payoffs) or the principle of equity (pay-offs proportional to effort expended). We find, first, that people's moral judgment of an allocation rule depends on their role in the game. People not only prefer the rule that most benefits them but also judge it to be more fair and moral. Second, we find that participants' views about equality and equity change in a matter of minutes as they learn where their interests lie. Finally, we find limits to self-interest: when the justification for equity is removed, participants no longer show strategic advocacy of the unequal division. We discuss implications for understanding moral debate and disagreement.

  14. Quantitative, equal carbon response HSQC experiment, QEC-HSQC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkelä, Valtteri; Helminen, Jussi; Kilpeläinen, Ilkka; Heikkinen, Sami

    2016-10-01

    Quantitative NMR has become increasingly useful and popular in recent years, with many new and emerging applications in metabolomics, quality control, reaction monitoring and other types of mixture analysis. While sensitive and simple to acquire, the low resolving power of 1D 1H NMR spectra can be a limiting factor when analyzing complex mixtures. This drawback can be solved by observing a different type of nuclei offering improved resolution or with multidimensional experiments, such as HSQC. In this paper, we present a novel Quantitative, Equal Carbon HSQC (QEC-HSQC) experiment providing an equal response across different type of carbons regardless of the number of attached protons, in addition to an uniform response over a wide range of 1JCH couplings. This enables rapid quantification and integration over multiple signals without the need for complete resonance assignments and simplifies the integration of overlapping signals.

  15. Multichannel decision feedback equalization in underwater acoustic communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Wang, Haibin; Wang, Jun

    2012-11-01

    This paper studies an underwater acoustic communication system and its performance in shallow water. A channel encoder and a quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulation scheme have been adopted at the transmitter, and a multichannel decision feedback equalizer (DFE) with a soft decision device has been used at the receiver. This system has been tested in a Yellow Sea experiment for transmitting an image at a range of 18.5km. A space diversity procedure is used to mitigate the performance degradation of the multichannel DFE caused by occasional impulsive noise in the receiver. In the case of two receivers, the equalizer exhibits good performance with bit error number of 319 out of 239946. After channel decoding, an image is obtained without any errant bits.

  16. Interaction of equal-size bubbles in shear flow.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jai; Lavrenteva, Olga M; Byk, Leonid; Nir, Avinoam

    2013-04-01

    The inertia-induced forces on two identical spherical bubbles in a simple shear flow at small but finite Reynolds number, for the case when the bubbles are within each other's inner viscous region, are calculated making use of the reciprocal theorem. This interaction force is further employed to model the dynamics of air bubbles injected to a viscous fluid sheared in a Couette device at the first shear flow instability where the bubbles are trapped inside the stable Taylor vortex. It was shown that, during a long time scale, the inertial interaction between the bubbles in the primary shear flow drives them away from each other and, as a result, equal-size bubbles eventually assume an ordered string with equal separation distances between all neighbors. We report on experiments showing the dynamic evolution of various numbers of bubbles. The results of the theory are in good agreement with the experimental observations.

  17. Equity or equality? Moral judgments follow the money

    PubMed Central

    DeScioli, Peter; Massenkoff, Maxim; Shaw, Alex; Petersen, Michael Bang; Kurzban, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Previous research emphasizes people's dispositions as a source of differences in moral views. We investigate another source of moral disagreement, self-interest. In three experiments, participants played a simple economic game in which one player divides money with a partner according to the principle of equality (same payoffs) or the principle of equity (payoffs proportional to effort expended). We find, first, that people's moral judgment of an allocation rule depends on their role in the game. People not only prefer the rule that most benefits them but also judge it to be more fair and moral. Second, we find that participants' views about equality and equity change in a matter of minutes as they learn where their interests lie. Finally, we find limits to self-interest: when the justification for equity is removed, participants no longer show strategic advocacy of the unequal division. We discuss implications for understanding moral debate and disagreement. PMID:25355480

  18. Gender equality observations and actions by the European Research Council

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rydin, Claudia Alves de Jesus; Farina Busto, Luis; Penny, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Women have historically been underrepresented in science. Much positive progress in attracting women to research careers has been achieved in recent years; however, the most influential and high profile positions in most countries are still predominantly occupied by men. The European Research Council (ERC), Europe's premiere funding agency for frontier research, views gender equality as an important challenge. The ERC monitors closely gender figures on every call and has taken actions to tackle gender imbalances and potential unconscious biases. The ERC talk is focused on efforts made to understand and ensure equal treatment of all candidates, with particular focus on gender balance and with specific attention to geosciences. Data and statistics collected from ERC's internationally recognised funding schemes are presented.

  19. A comparison of adaptive and fixed schedules of practice.

    PubMed

    Mettler, Everett; Massey, Christine M; Kellman, Philip J

    2016-07-01

    Understanding and optimizing spacing during learning is a central topic for research in learning and memory and has substantial implications for real-world learning. Spacing memory retrievals across time improves memory relative to massed practice-the well-known spacing effect. Most spacing research has utilized fixed (predetermined) spacing intervals. Some findings indicate advantages of expanding over equal spacing (e.g., Landauer & Bjork, 1978); however, evidence is mixed (e.g., Karpicke & Roediger, 2007), and the field has lacked an integrated explanation. Learning may instead depend on interactions of spacing with an underlying variable of learning strength that varies for learners and items, and it may be better optimized by adaptive adjustments of spacing to learners' ongoing performance. Two studies investigated an adaptive spacing algorithm, Adaptive Response-Time-based Sequencing or ARTS (Mettler, Massey & Kellman, 2011) that uses response-time and accuracy to generate spacing. Experiment 1 compared adaptive scheduling with fixed schedules having either expanding or equal spacing. Experiment 2 compared adaptive schedules to 2 fixed "yoked" schedules that were copied from adaptive participants, equating average spacing across conditions. In both experiments, adaptive scheduling outperformed fixed conditions at immediate and delayed tests of retention. No evidence was found for differences between expanding and equal spacing. Yoked conditions showed that learning gains were due to adaptation to individual items and learners. Adaptive spacing based on ongoing assessments of learning strength yields greater learning gains than fixed schedules, a finding that helps to understand the spacing effect theoretically and has direct applications for enhancing learning in many domains. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Grain refinement of aluminum using equal-channel angular pressing

    SciTech Connect

    Horita, Z.; Furukawa, M.; Nemoto, M.; Langdon, T.G.

    2000-07-01

    Using the technique of equal-channel angular (ECA) pressing, it is possible to reduce the grain size of polycrystalline materials to the submicrometer level. Thus, this processing technique has the potential for producing materials which may exhibit superplasticity. This paper describes various factors affecting the development and evolution of the microstructure produced by ECA pressing. Optimization of such factors is then presented for the advent of superplasticity.

  1. Let your communication skills equal your clinical skills.

    PubMed

    Demarais, Ann; Baum, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Relating effectively with patients is among the most valued skills of clinical care. Honing your communication skills is an art that every physician needs to learn and understand. In this era of increased volume of patients there is a tendency to lose sight of the importance of having good communication skills. This article will review 11 suggestions for letting your communication skills equal your clinical skills.

  2. Identifying Reading Problems with Computer-Adaptive Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrell, C.; Tymms, P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an adaptive assessment called Interactive Computerised Assessment System (InCAS) that is aimed at children of a wide age and ability range to identify specific reading problems. Rasch measurement has been used to create the equal interval scales that form each part of the assessment. The rationale for the…

  3. Contrast enhancement via texture region based histogram equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kuldeep; Vishwakarma, Dinesh K.; Singh Walia, Gurjit; Kapoor, Rajiv

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents two novel contrast enhancement approaches using texture regions-based histogram equalization (HE). In HE-based contrast enhancement methods, the enhanced image often contains undesirable artefacts because an excessive number of pixels in the non-textured areas heavily bias the histogram. The novel idea presented in this paper is to suppress the impact of pixels in non-textured areas and to exploit texture features for the computation of histogram in the process of HE. The first algorithm named as Dominant Orientation-based Texture Histogram Equalization (DOTHE), constructs the histogram of the image using only those image patches having dominant orientation. DOTHE categories image patches into smooth, dominant or non-dominant orientation patches by using the image variance and singular value decomposition algorithm and utilizes only dominant orientation patches in the process of HE. The second method termed as Edge-based Texture Histogram Equalization, calculates significant edges in the image and constructs the histogram using the grey levels present in the neighbourhood of edges. The cumulative density function of the histogram formed from texture features is mapped on the entire dynamic range of the input image to produce the contrast-enhanced image. Subjective as well as objective performance assessment of proposed methods is conducted and compared with other existing HE methods. The performance assessment in terms of visual quality, contrast improvement index, entropy and measure of enhancement reveals that the proposed methods outperform the existing HE methods.

  4. Contrast Enhancement Algorithm Based on Gap Adjustment for Histogram Equalization

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chung-Cheng; Ting, Chih-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Image enhancement methods have been widely used to improve the visual effects of images. Owing to its simplicity and effectiveness histogram equalization (HE) is one of the methods used for enhancing image contrast. However, HE may result in over-enhancement and feature loss problems that lead to unnatural look and loss of details in the processed images. Researchers have proposed various HE-based methods to solve the over-enhancement problem; however, they have largely ignored the feature loss problem. Therefore, a contrast enhancement algorithm based on gap adjustment for histogram equalization (CegaHE) is proposed. It refers to a visual contrast enhancement algorithm based on histogram equalization (VCEA), which generates visually pleasing enhanced images, and improves the enhancement effects of VCEA. CegaHE adjusts the gaps between two gray values based on the adjustment equation, which takes the properties of human visual perception into consideration, to solve the over-enhancement problem. Besides, it also alleviates the feature loss problem and further enhances the textures in the dark regions of the images to improve the quality of the processed images for human visual perception. Experimental results demonstrate that CegaHE is a reliable method for contrast enhancement and that it significantly outperforms VCEA and other methods. PMID:27338412

  5. Image enhancement circuit using nonlinear processing curve and constrained histogram range equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetkovic, Sascha D.; de With, Peter H. N.

    2004-01-01

    For real-time imaging in surveillance applications, image fidelity is of primary importance to ensure customer confidence. The obtained image fidelity is a result from amongst others dynamic range expansion and video signal enhancement. The dynamic range of the signal needs adaptation, because the sensor signal has a much larger range than the standard CRT display. The signal enhancement should accommodate for the widely varying light and scene conditions and user scenarios of the equipment. This paper proposes a new system to combine dynamic range and enhancement processing, offering a strongly improved picture quality for surveillance applications. The key to our solution is that we use Non-Linear Processing (NLP) with a so-called Constrained Histogram Range Equalization (CHRE). The NLP transforms the digitized high-dynamic luminance sensor signal such that details of the low-luminance parts are enhanced, while avoiding detail losses in the high-luminance areas. The CHRE technique enhances visibility of the global contrast for the camera signal without significant information loss in the statistically less relevant areas. Evaluations of this proposal have shown clear improvements of the perceptual image quality. An additional advantage is that the new scheme is adaptable and allows the concatenation of further enhancement techniques without sacrificing the obtained picture quality improvement.

  6. Combination of spatial diversity and parallel decision feedback equalizer in a Single Input Multiple Output underwater acoustic communication system operating at very high frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoro Kaskarovska, Violeta; Beaujean, Pierre-Philippe

    2013-05-01

    Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO) acoustic communication system using an adaptive spatial diversity combined with parallel Decision Feedback Equalizer (DFE) is presented in this document. The SIMO system operates at high frequencies with high data rate over a limited range (less than 200 m) in very shallow waters. The SIMO system consists of a single source transmitting Phase Shift Keying (PSK) messages modulated at 300 kHz and received by multiple receivers. In a first configuration, the symbols collected at each receiver are equalized using a decision feedback equalizer and combined using Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC). In a second configuration, the MRC outputs are used as decision symbols in the DFE. This second configuration is a form of turbo equalization: the process can be repeated over and over, leading to a better estimate of the received message as the number of iterations increases. The adaptive process of diversity is repeated until the best possible result is achieved or a predefined error criterion is met. Bit Error Rate (BER) and Signal-to-Noise-and-Interference Ratio (SNIR) are used as performance metrics of the acoustic channel. Experimental results using SIMO system with three, four or five receivers and pre-processed real recorded data demonstrate ability to improve the performance of the acoustic channel in challenging environments. Using received messages with non-zero BER, adaptive spatial diversity can achieve BER of 0% and increased SNIR of 3 dB with number of iterations depending on the number of receivers used.

  7. An Analysis of Citizenship and Democracy Education Text Book in the Context of Gender Equality and Determining Students' Perceptions on Gender Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalayci, Nurdan; Hayirsever, Fahriye

    2014-01-01

    Gender equality has been explained as both the equal treatment of women and men before the law and women's and men's equal usage of resources, opportunities, and services within the family and society. Today, although the conditions that support gender inequality have relatively decreased, gender discrimination still persists. Gender…

  8. A Novel Approach for Adaptive Signal Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Ya-Chin; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1998-01-01

    Adaptive linear predictors have been used extensively in practice in a wide variety of forms. In the main, their theoretical development is based upon the assumption of stationarity of the signals involved, particularly with respect to the second order statistics. On this basis, the well-known normal equations can be formulated. If high- order statistical stationarity is assumed, then the equivalent normal equations involve high-order signal moments. In either case, the cross moments (second or higher) are needed. This renders the adaptive prediction procedure non-blind. A novel procedure for blind adaptive prediction has been proposed and considerable implementation has been made in our contributions in the past year. The approach is based upon a suitable interpretation of blind equalization methods that satisfy the constant modulus property and offers significant deviations from the standard prediction methods. These blind adaptive algorithms are derived by formulating Lagrange equivalents from mechanisms of constrained optimization. In this report, other new update algorithms are derived from the fundamental concepts of advanced system identification to carry out the proposed blind adaptive prediction. The results of the work can be extended to a number of control-related problems, such as disturbance identification. The basic principles are outlined in this report and differences from other existing methods are discussed. The applications implemented are speech processing, such as coding and synthesis. Simulations are included to verify the novel modelling method.

  9. Human adaptation to repeated cold immersions.

    PubMed Central

    Golden, F S; Tipton, M J

    1988-01-01

    1. The present investigation was designed to examine human adaptation to intermittent severe cold exposure and to assess the effect of exercise on any adaptation obtained. 2. Sixteen subjects were divided into two equal groups. Each subject performed ten head-out immersions; two into thermoneutral water which was then cooled until they shivered vigorously, and eight into water at 15 degrees C for 40 min. During the majority of the 15 degrees C immersions, one group (dynamic group) exercised whilst the other (static group) rested. 3. Results showed that both groups responded to repeated cold immersions with a reduction in their initial responses to cold. The time course of these reductions varied, however, between responses. 4. Only the static group developed a reduced metabolic response to prolonged resting immersion. 5. It is concluded that repeated resting exposure to cold was the more effective way of producing an adaptation. The performance of exercise during repeated exposure to cold prevented the development of an adaptive reduction in the metabolic response to cold during a subsequent resting immersion. In addition, many of the adaptations obtained during repeated resting exposure were overridden or masked during a subsequent exercising immersion. PMID:3411500

  10. Equalization of dispersion in single-mode fibers.

    PubMed

    Marcuse, D

    1981-02-15

    Optical pulse equalization in single-mode fibers using positive and negative chromatic dispersion has been demonstrated by Lin et al. [Opt. Lett. 5, 476 (1980)]. In this paper, an earlier theory of pulse propagation in single-mode fibers is extended to the case of a tandem arrangement of N fibers with different dispersive properties. The theory includes first- and second-order dispersion. It is shown that, by using fibers with positive and negative chromatic dispersion, the first-order dispersion term cancels out on average.

  11. Rich versus poor: equality in nursing care 100 years ago.

    PubMed

    The question relating to the importance of the equality of nursing care the rich and poor should receive was raised in a very interesting article in the BJN 100 years ago. Miss EA Stevenson, Late Lady Superintendent of the Sutherland Benefit Nursing Association, highlighted some of the key factors. For example, there was the foundation and growth of organizations for the preservation of health and the cure of disease, the increasing role which the metropolitan and provincial hospitals made, and the foundation of Queen Victoria's institute for providing trained nurses for the sick and poor in their own homes.

  12. Equal velocity rule in heavy hadron production at high energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kitazoe, T. ); Inazawa, H.; Morii, T. )

    1989-01-01

    In this paper a production mechanism of heavy particles in e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} annihilations is studied on a field theoretical basis using the bound state wave functions. The requirement that wave functions of hadrons overlap maximally with each other leads to the conclusion that the model predicts a 2-jet structure in a one-loop diagram and heavy hadrons in a jet have an equal velocity. Heavy particle production cross sections and their characteristic energy distributions are calculated for some typical reactions.

  13. Employing trapped cold ions to verify the quantum Jarzynski equality.

    PubMed

    Huber, Gerhard; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand; Deffner, Sebastian; Lutz, Eric

    2008-08-15

    We propose a scheme to investigate the nonequilibrium work distribution of a quantum particle under well controlled transformations of the external potential, exploiting the versatility of a single ion in a segmented linear Paul trap. We describe in detail how the motional quantum state of a single ion can be prepared, manipulated, and finally readout to fully determine the free energy difference in both harmonic and anharmonic potentials. Uniquely to our system, we show how an ion may be immersed in an engineered laser-field reservoir. Trapped ions therefore represent an ideal tool for investigating the Jarzynski equality in open and closed quantum systems.

  14. On adaptive robustness approach to Anti-Jam signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poberezhskiy, Y. S.; Poberezhskiy, G. Y.

    An effective approach to exploiting statistical differences between desired and jamming signals named adaptive robustness is proposed and analyzed in this paper. It combines conventional Bayesian, adaptive, and robust approaches that are complementary to each other. This combining strengthens the advantages and mitigates the drawbacks of the conventional approaches. Adaptive robustness is equally applicable to both jammers and their victim systems. The capabilities required for realization of adaptive robustness in jammers and victim systems are determined. The employment of a specific nonlinear robust algorithm for anti-jam (AJ) processing is described and analyzed. Its effectiveness in practical situations has been proven analytically and confirmed by simulation. Since adaptive robustness can be used by both sides in electronic warfare, it is more advantageous for the fastest and most intelligent side. Many results obtained and discussed in this paper are also applicable to commercial applications such as communications in unregulated or poorly regulated frequency ranges and systems with cognitive capabilities.

  15. 48 CFR 2811.104-70 - Brand-name or equal description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Brand-name or equal... 2811.104-70 Brand-name or equal description. When a brand-name or equal description is used, the clause set forth in 2852.211-70, Brand-name or Equal, shall be inserted into the solicitation....

  16. 48 CFR 2811.104-70 - Brand-name or equal description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Brand-name or equal... 2811.104-70 Brand-name or equal description. When a brand-name or equal description is used, the clause set forth in 2852.211-70, Brand-name or Equal, shall be inserted into the solicitation....

  17. Equality in Educational Policy and the Heritability of Educational Attainment.

    PubMed

    Colodro-Conde, Lucía; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Tornero-Gómez, María J; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Ordoñana, Juan R

    2015-01-01

    Secular variation in the heritability of educational attainment are proposed to be due to the implementation of more egalitarian educational policies leading to increased equality in educational opportunities in the second part of the 20th century. The action of effect is hypothesized to be a decrease of shared environmental (e.g., family socioeconomic status or parents' education) influences on educational attainment, giving more room for genetic differences between individuals to impact on the variation of the trait. However, this hypothesis has not yet found consistent evidence. Support for this effect relies mainly on comparisons between countries adopting different educational systems or between different time periods within a country reflecting changes in general policy. Using a population-based sample of 1271 pairs of adult twins, we analyzed the effect of the introduction of a specific educational policy in Spain in 1970. The shared-environmental variance decreased, leading to an increase in heritability in the post-reform cohort (44 vs. 67%) for males. Unstandardized estimates of genetic variance were of a similar magnitude (.56 vs. .57) between cohorts, while shared environmental variance decreased from .56 to .04. Heritability remained in the same range for women (40 vs. 34%). Our results support the role of educational policy in affecting the relative weight of genetic and environmental factors on educational attainment, such that increasing equality in educational opportunities increases heritability estimates by reducing variation of non-genetic familial origin.

  18. Ion acoustic shock wave in collisional equal mass plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Adak, Ashish; Ghosh, Samiran; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2015-10-15

    The effect of ion-ion collision on the dynamics of nonlinear ion acoustic wave in an unmagnetized pair-ion plasma has been investigated. The two-fluid model has been used to describe the dynamics of both positive and negative ions with equal masses. It is well known that in the dynamics of the weakly nonlinear wave, the viscosity mediates wave dissipation in presence of weak nonlinearity and dispersion. This dissipation is responsible for the shock structures in pair-ion plasma. Here, it has been shown that the ion-ion collision in presence of collective phenomena mediated by the plasma current is the source of dissipation that causes the Burgers' term which is responsible for the shock structures in equal mass pair-ion plasma. The dynamics of the weakly nonlinear wave is governed by the Korteweg-de Vries Burgers equation. The analytical and numerical investigations revealed that the ion acoustic wave exhibits both oscillatory and monotonic shock structures depending on the frequency of ion-ion collision parameter. The results have been discussed in the context of the fullerene pair-ion plasma experiments.

  19. The Flexible Fairness: Equality, Earned Entitlement, and Self-Interest

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ruolei; Broster, Lucas S.; Shen, Xueyi; Tian, Tengxiang; Luo, Yue-Jia; Krueger, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The current study explored whether earned entitlement modulated the perception of fairness in three experiments. A preliminary resource earning task was added before players decided how to allocate the resource they jointly earned. Participants’ decision in allocation, their responses to equal or unequal offers, whether advantageous or disadvantageous, and subjective ratings of fairness were all assessed in the current study. Behavioral results revealed that participants proposed more generous offers and showed enhanced tolerance to disadvantageous unequal offers from others when they performed worse than their presumed “partners,” while the reverse was true in the better-performance condition. The subjective ratings also indicated the effect of earned entitlement, such that worse performance was associated with higher perceived feelings of fairness for disadvantageous unequal offers, while better performance was associated with higher feelings of fairness for advantageous unequal offers. Equal offers were considered “fair” only when earned entitlement was even between two parties. In sum, the perception of fairness is modulated by an integration of egalitarian motivation and entitlement. In addition to justice principles, participants were also motivated by self-interest, such that participants placed more weight on entitlement in the better-performance condition than in the worse-performance condition. These results imply that earned entitlement is evaluated in a self-serving way. PMID:24039867

  20. Density equalizing map projections (cartograms) in public health applications

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, D.W.

    1998-05-01

    In studying geographic disease distributions, one normally compares rates among arbitrarily defined geographic subareas (e.g. census tracts), thereby sacrificing some of the geographic detail of the original data. The sparser the data, the larger the subareas must be in order to calculate stable rates. This dilemma is avoided with the technique of Density Equalizing Map Projections (DEMP){copyright}. Boundaries of geographic subregions are adjusted to equalize population density over the entire study area. Case locations plotted on the transformed map should have a uniform distribution if the underlying disease risk is constant. On the transformed map, the statistical analysis of the observed distribution is greatly simplified. Even for sparse distributions, the statistical significance of a supposed disease cluster can be calculated with validity. The DEMP algorithm was applied to a data set previously analyzed with conventional techniques; namely, 401 childhood cancer cases in four counties of California. The distribution of cases on the transformed map was analyzed visually and statistically. To check the validity of the method, the identical analysis was performed on 401 artificial cases randomly generated under the assumption of uniform risk. No statistically significant evidence for geographic non-uniformity of rates was found, in agreement with the original analysis performed by the California Department of Health Services.