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Sample records for adaptive mmse equalization

  1. Fast Adaptive Blind MMSE Equalizer for Multichannel FIR Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacha, Ibrahim; Abed-Meraim, Karim; Belouchrani, Adel

    2006-12-01

    We propose a new blind minimum mean square error (MMSE) equalization algorithm of noisy multichannel finite impulse response (FIR) systems, that relies only on second-order statistics. The proposed algorithm offers two important advantages: a low computational complexity and a relative robustness against channel order overestimation errors. Exploiting the fact that the columns of the equalizer matrix filter belong both to the signal subspace and to the kernel of truncated data covariance matrix, the proposed algorithm achieves blindly a direct estimation of the zero-delay MMSE equalizer parameters. We develop a two-step procedure to further improve the performance gain and control the equalization delay. An efficient fast adaptive implementation of our equalizer, based on the projection approximation and the shift invariance property of temporal data covariance matrix, is proposed for reducing the computational complexity from[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] to[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.], where[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] is the number of emitted signals,[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] the data vector length, and[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] the dimension of the signal subspace. We then derive a statistical performance analysis to compare the equalization performance with that of the optimal MMSE equalizer. Finally, simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed blind equalization algorithm.

  2. Low complexity adaptive equalizers for underwater acoustic communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soflaei, Masoumeh; Azmi, Paeiz

    2014-08-01

    Interference signals due to scattering from surface and reflecting from bottom is one of the most important problems of reliable communications in shallow water channels. To solve this problem, one of the best suggested ways is to use adaptive equalizers. Convergence rate and misadjustment error in adaptive algorithms play important roles in adaptive equalizer performance. In this paper, affine projection algorithm (APA), selective regressor APA(SR-APA), family of selective partial update (SPU) algorithms, family of set-membership (SM) algorithms and selective partial update selective regressor APA (SPU-SR-APA) are compared with conventional algorithms such as the least mean square (LMS) in underwater acoustic communications. We apply experimental data from the Strait of Hormuz for demonstrating the efficiency of the proposed methods over shallow water channel. We observe that the values of the steady-state mean square error (MSE) of SR-APA, SPU-APA, SPU-normalized least mean square (SPU-NLMS), SPU-SR-APA, SM-APA and SM-NLMS algorithms decrease in comparison with the LMS algorithm. Also these algorithms have better convergence rates than LMS type algorithm.

  3. A successive overrelaxation iterative technique for an adaptive equalizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosovych, O. S.

    1973-01-01

    An adaptive strategy for the equalization of pulse-amplitude-modulated signals in the presence of intersymbol interference and additive noise is reported. The successive overrelaxation iterative technique is used as the algorithm for the iterative adjustment of the equalizer coefficents during a training period for the minimization of the mean square error. With 2-cyclic and nonnegative Jacobi matrices substantial improvement is demonstrated in the rate of convergence over the commonly used gradient techniques. The Jacobi theorems are also extended to nonpositive Jacobi matrices. Numerical examples strongly indicate that the improvements obtained for the special cases are possible for general channel characteristics. The technique is analytically demonstrated to decrease the mean square error at each iteration for a large range of parameter values for light or moderate intersymbol interference and for small intervals for general channels. Analytically, convergence of the relaxation algorithm was proven in a noisy environment and the coefficient variance was demonstrated to be bounded.

  4. Adaptive sigmoid function bihistogram equalization for image contrast enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arriaga-Garcia, Edgar F.; Sanchez-Yanez, Raul E.; Ruiz-Pinales, Jose; Garcia-Hernandez, Ma. de Guadalupe

    2015-09-01

    Contrast enhancement plays a key role in a wide range of applications including consumer electronic applications, such as video surveillance, digital cameras, and televisions. The main goal of contrast enhancement is to increase the quality of images. However, most state-of-the-art methods induce different types of distortion such as intensity shift, wash-out, noise, intensity burn-out, and intensity saturation. In addition, in consumer electronics, simple and fast methods are required in order to be implemented in real time. A bihistogram equalization method based on adaptive sigmoid functions is proposed. It consists of splitting the image histogram into two parts that are equalized independently by using adaptive sigmoid functions. In order to preserve the mean brightness of the input image, the parameter of the sigmoid functions is chosen to minimize the absolute mean brightness metric. Experiments on the Berkeley database have shown that the proposed method improves the quality of images and preserves their mean brightness. An application to improve the colorfulness of images is also presented.

  5. Cognitive Evolution by MMSE in Poststroke Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Costa, Fabricia Azevedo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cognitive and clinical evolution of post-acute stroke patients and the evolution of each Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) item. A longitudinal study was conducted with 42 poststroke individuals in rehabilitation. The MMSE and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale were used to assess…

  6. Adaptive Channel-Tracking Method and Equalization for MC-CDMA Systems over Rapidly Fading Channel under Colored Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chang-Yi; Chen, Bor-Sen

    2010-12-01

    A recursive maximum-likelihood (RML) algorithm for channel estimation under rapidly fading channel and colored noise in a multicarrier code-division multiple-access (MC-CDMA) system is proposed in this paper. A moving-average model with exogenous input (MAX) is given to describe the transmission channel and colored noise. Based on the pseudoregression method, the proposed RML algorithm can simultaneously estimate the parameters of channel and colored noise. Following the estimation results, these parameters can be used to enhance the minimum mean-square error (MMSE) equalizer. Considering high-speed mobile stations, a one-step linear trend predictor is added to improve symbol detection. Simulation results indicate that the proposed RML estimator can track the channel more precisely than the conventional estimator. Meanwhile, the performance of the proposed enhanced MMSE equalizer is robust to the rapidly Rayleigh fading channel under colored noise in the MC-CDMA systems.

  7. Comparison of hybrid adaptive blind equalizers for QAM signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labed, A.; Belouchrani, A.; Aissa-El-Bey, A.; Chonavel, T.

    2009-06-01

    This paper compares different hybrid blind equalization algorithms used for QAM signals. In hybrid equalizers, a penalty term, with zeros at constellation points coordinates, called constellation matching error (CME) is added to the criterion of one of the standard algorithms, such as the constant modulus algorithm (CMA), the multimodulus algorithm (MMA) or the recently proposed extended constant modulus algorithm (ECMA). Among the CMEs, to be considered, we have recently introduced a new one which is the product of l1-norm of the deviations of equalizer output from the constellation points. The hybrid algorithms, obtained by combining different CMEs with the CMA or the ECMA are compared through simulations on 16-QAM, 64-QAM and 256-QAM signals transmitted over different channels.

  8. Light wave transmission through free space using atmospheric laser links with adaptive equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Gamal A.; Mohamed, Abd El-Naser A.; Oraby, Osama A.; Hassan, Emad S.; Eldokany, Ibrahim M.; El-Rabaie, El-Sayed M.; Dessouky, Moawad I.; Alshebeili, Saleh A.; El-Samie, Fathi E. Abd

    2013-07-01

    The utilization of adaptive equalization in the design of atmospheric laser link transceiver architectures that can be used for television and broadcast signal interconnect between the external place of event and the master control room is suggested. At the transmitter side of the proposed transceiver; an array of atmospheric laser sources, digital signal processing, and optical radiators are used to send light waves in free space. At the receiver side, an adaptive finite impulse response least mean square (LMS) equalizer with activity detection guidance (ADG) and tap decoupling (TD) is used to mitigate the effect of channel impairments. The performance of the suggested adaptive equalizer is compared with that of the conventional adaptive equalizer based only on the standard LMS algorithm. The simulation results revealed that the adaptive LMS equalizer with ADG and TD is a promising solution for the inter-symbol interference problem in optical wireless communication systems.

  9. Digital timing recovery combined with adaptive equalization for optical coherent receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xian; Chen, Xue; Zhou, Weiqing; Fan, Yangyang; Zhu, Hai; Li, Zhiyu

    2009-11-01

    We propose a novel equalization and timing recovery scheme, which adds an adaptive butterfly-structured equalizer in an all-digital timing recovery loop, for polarization multiplexing (POLMUX) coherent receivers. It resolves an incompatible problem that digital equalizer requires the timing recovered (synchronous) signal and Gardner timing-error detection algorithm requires the equalized signal because of its small tolerance on dispersion. This joint module can complete synchronization, equalization and polarization de-multiplexing simultaneously without any extra computational cost. Finally, we demonstrate the good performance of the new scheme in a 112-Gbit/s POLMUX-NRZ-DQPSK digital optical coherent receiver.

  10. Time-domain digital pre-equalization for band-limited signals based on receiver-side adaptive equalizers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junwen; Yu, Jianjun; Chi, Nan; Chien, Hung-Chang

    2014-08-25

    We theoretically and experimentally investigate a time-domain digital pre-equalization (DPEQ) scheme for bandwidth-limited optical coherent communication systems, which is based on feedback of channel characteristics from the receiver-side blind and adaptive equalizers, such as least-mean-squares (LMS) algorithm and constant or multi- modulus algorithms (CMA, MMA). Based on the proposed DPEQ scheme, we theoretically and experimentally study its performance in terms of various channel conditions as well as resolutions for channel estimation, such as filtering bandwidth, taps length, and OSNR. Using a high speed 64-GSa/s DAC in cooperation with the proposed DPEQ technique, we successfully synthesized band-limited 40-Gbaud signals in modulation formats of polarization-diversion multiplexed (PDM) quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK), 8-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and 16-QAM, and significant improvement in both back-to-back and transmission BER performances are also demonstrated. PMID:25321257

  11. A novel high precision adaptive equalizer in digital coherent optical receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiurong; Xu, Yujun; Wang, Xiao; Ding, Zhaocai

    2015-10-01

    A novel high precision adaptive equalization method is introduced and applied to dynamic equalization for quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) coherent optical communication system in this paper. A frequency-domain constant modulus algorithm (CMA) method is used to equalize the received signal roughly. Then, some non-ideal output signals will be picked out through the error measurement, and they will be equalized accurately further in a fixed time-domain CMA equalizer. This high precision equalization method can decrease the equalization error, then it can reduce the bit error ratio (BER) of coherent communication system. Simulation results show that there is a 6% decrease for computation complexity by proposed scheme when compared with time-domain CMA. Furthermore, compared with time-domain CMA and frequency-domain CMA, about 2 dB and 2.2 dB in OSNR improvement can be obtained by proposed scheme at the BER value of 1e-3, respectively.

  12. Learning Rate Updating Methods Applied to Adaptive Fuzzy Equalizers for Broadband Power Line Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Moisés V.

    2004-12-01

    This paper introduces adaptive fuzzy equalizers with variable step size for broadband power line (PL) communications. Based on delta-bar-delta and local Lipschitz estimation updating rules, feedforward, and decision feedback approaches, we propose singleton and nonsingleton fuzzy equalizers with variable step size to cope with the intersymbol interference (ISI) effects of PL channels and the hardness of the impulse noises generated by appliances and nonlinear loads connected to low-voltage power grids. The computed results show that the convergence rates of the proposed equalizers are higher than the ones attained by the traditional adaptive fuzzy equalizers introduced by J. M. Mendel and his students. Additionally, some interesting BER curves reveal that the proposed techniques are efficient for mitigating the above-mentioned impairments.

  13. Use of STS subsystems and components for MMSE, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Multiuse mission support equipment (MMSE) is flight/ground equipment for the shuttle era which is used in conjunction with more than one mission payload. Initial verification of STS subsystem's applicability to MMSE is provided along with the cost savings potential and programmatic data needed for further program planning decisions. Some 70 MMSE requirements were found to be potentially satisfied by STS equipment, and and 6 items of particular interest were chosen for special emphasis. All were found to be feasible and beneficial. Program cost savings through their use are estimated to be substantial. Further study is recommended to identify additional MMSE requirements and hardware.

  14. A NOISE ADAPTIVE FUZZY EQUALIZATION METHOD FOR PROCESSING SOLAR EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET IMAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Druckmueller, M.

    2013-08-15

    A new image enhancement tool ideally suited for the visualization of fine structures in extreme ultraviolet images of the corona is presented in this paper. The Noise Adaptive Fuzzy Equalization method is particularly suited for the exceptionally high dynamic range images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. This method produces artifact-free images and gives significantly better results than methods based on convolution or Fourier transform which are often used for that purpose.

  15. Adaptive reconfigurable V-BLAST type equalizer for cognitive MIMO-OFDM radios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozden, Mehmet Tahir

    2015-12-01

    An adaptive channel shortening equalizer design for multiple input multiple output-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) radio receivers is considered in this presentation. The proposed receiver has desirable features for cognitive and software defined radio implementations. It consists of two sections: MIMO decision feedback equalizer (MIMO-DFE) and adaptive multiple Viterbi detection. In MIMO-DFE section, a complete modified Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization of multichannel input data is accomplished using sequential processing multichannel Givens lattice stages, so that a Vertical Bell Laboratories Layered Space Time (V-BLAST) type MIMO-DFE is realized at the front-end section of the channel shortening equalizer. Matrix operations, a major bottleneck for receiver operations, are accordingly avoided, and only scalar operations are used. A highly modular and regular radio receiver architecture that has a suitable structure for digital signal processing (DSP) chip and field programable gate array (FPGA) implementations, which are important for software defined radio realizations, is achieved. The MIMO-DFE section of the proposed receiver can also be reconfigured for spectrum sensing and positioning functions, which are important tasks for cognitive radio applications. In connection with adaptive multiple Viterbi detection section, a systolic array implementation for each channel is performed so that a receiver architecture with high computational concurrency is attained. The total computational complexity is given in terms of equalizer and desired response filter lengths, alphabet size, and number of antennas. The performance of the proposed receiver is presented for two-channel case by means of mean squared error (MSE) and probability of error evaluations, which are conducted for time-invariant and time-variant channel conditions, orthogonal and nonorthogonal transmissions, and two different modulation schemes.

  16. Reducing interferences in wireless communication systems by mobile agents with recurrent neural networks-based adaptive channel equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beritelli, Francesco; Capizzi, Giacomo; Lo Sciuto, Grazia; Napoli, Christian; Tramontana, Emiliano; Woźniak, Marcin

    2015-09-01

    Solving channel equalization problem in communication systems is based on adaptive filtering algorithms. Today, Mobile Agents (MAs) with Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) can be also adopted for effective interference reduction in modern wireless communication systems (WCSs). In this paper MAs with RNNs are proposed as novel computing algorithms for reducing interferences in WCSs performing an adaptive channel equalization. The method to provide it is so called MAs-RNNs. We perform the implementation of this new paradigm for interferences reduction. Simulations results and evaluations demonstrates the effectiveness of this approach and as better transmission performance in wireless communication network can be achieved by using the MAs-RNNs based adaptive filtering algorithm.

  17. A low power CMOS 3.3 Gbps continuous-time adaptive equalizer for serial link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Ju; Yumei, Zhou; Jianzhong, Zhao

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes using a high-speed continuous-time analog adaptive equalizer as the front-end of a receiver for a high-speed serial interface, which is compliant with many serial communication specifications such as USB2.0, PCI-E2.0 and Rapid IO. The low and high frequency loops are merged to decrease the effect of delay between the two paths, in addition, the infinite input impedance facilitates the cascade stages in order to improve the high frequency boosting gain. The implemented circuit architecture could facilitate the wide frequency range from 1 to 3.3 Gbps with different length FR4-PCB traces, which brings as much as 25 dB loss. The replica control circuits are injected to provide a convenient way to regulate common-mode voltage for full differential operation. In addition, AC coupling is adopted to suppress the common input from the forward stage. A prototype chip was fabricated in 0.18-μm 1P6M mixed-signal CMOS technology. The actual area is 0.6 × 0.57 mm2 and the analog equalizer operates up to 3.3 Gbps over FR4-PCB trace with 25 dB loss. The overall power dissipation is approximately 23.4 mW.

  18. Testing the equality of students' performance using Alexander-Govern test with adaptive trimmed means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Suhaida; Yahaya, Sharipah Soaad Syed; Yusof, Zahayu Md

    2014-06-01

    Analyzing the equality of independent group has to be done with caution. The classical approaches such as ttest for two groups and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for more than two groups always are favorable selection by researchers. However, sometime these methods were abused by the presence of nonnormality or variance heterogeneity or both. It is known that ANOVA is restricted to the assumptions of normality and homogeneity of variance. In real life data, sometimes these requirements are hard to attain. The Alexander-Govern test with adaptive trimmed mean (AG_atm) is one approach that can be chosen as alternative to the classical tests when their assumptions are violated. In this paper, the performances of AG_atm were compared to the original AG test and ANOVA using simulated and real life data. The simulation study proved that the AG_atm performs better than the original AG test and the classical test. For real life data, student's performance in decision analysis course, measured by final examination score was chosen. Based on the exploratory data analysis, this data found to have problem of nonnormality.

  19. An IIR adaptive electronic equalizer for polarization multiplexed fiber optic communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiang-Ye; Liu, Jian-Fei; Zhao, Qi-Da

    2011-09-01

    An electronic digital equalizer for polarization multiplex coherent fiber optic communication systems is designed to compensate polarization mode dispersion (PMD) and residual chromatic dispersion (CD) of transmission channel. The proposed equalizer is realized with fraction spaced infinite impulse response (IIR) butterfly structure with 21 feedforward taps and 2 feedback taps. Compared with finite impulse response (FIR) structure, this structure can reduce implementation complexity of hardware under the same condition. To keep track of the random variation of channel characteristics, the filter weights are updated by least mean square (LMS) algorithm. The simulation results show that the proposed equalizer can compensate residual chromatic dispersion (CD) of 1600 ps/nm and differential group delay (DGD) of 90 ps simultaneously, and also can increase the PMD and residual CD tolerance of the whole communication system.

  20. A Hybrid Multiuser Detector Based on MMSE and AFSA for TDRS System Forward Link

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zhendong; Liu, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    This study mainly focuses on multiuser detection in tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS) system forward link. Minimum mean square error (MMSE) is a low complexity multiuser detection method, but MMSE detector cannot achieve satisfactory bit error ratio and near-far resistance, whereas artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA) is expert in optimization and it can realize the global convergence efficiently. Therefore, a hybrid multiuser detector based on MMSE and AFSA (MMSE-AFSA) is proposed in this paper. The result of MMSE and its modified formations are used as the initial values of artificial fishes to accelerate the speed of global convergence and reduce the iteration times for AFSA. The simulation results show that the bit error ratio and near-far resistance performances of the proposed detector are much better, compared with MF, DEC, and MMSE, and are quite close to OMD. Furthermore, the proposed MMSE-AFSA detector also has a large system capacity. PMID:24883418

  1. Urban Heat Island Adaptation Strategies are not created equal: Assessment of Impacts and Tradeoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, Matei

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable urban expansion requires an extension of contemporary approaches that focus nearly exclusively on reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Researchers have proposed biophysical approaches to urban heat island mitigation (e.g., via deployment of cool or green roofs) but little is known how these technologies vary with place and season and what impacts are beyond those of near surface temperature. Using a suite of continuous, multi-year and multi-member continental scale numerical simulations for the United States, we examine hydroclimatic impacts for a variety of U.S. urban expansion (to the year 2100) and urban adaptation futures and compare those to contemporary urban extent. Adaptation approaches include widespread adoption of cool roofs, green roofs, and a hypothetical hybrid approach integrating properties of both cool and green roofs (i.e., reflective green roofs). Widespread adoption of adaptation strategies exhibits hydroclimatic impacts that are regionally and seasonally dependent. For some regions and seasons, urban-induced warming of 3°C can be completely offset by the adaptation approaches examined. For other regions and seasons, widespread adoption of some adaptation strategies can result in significant reduction in precipitation. Finally, implications of large-scale urbanization for seasonal energy demand will be examined.

  2. An Adaptive Niching Genetic Algorithm using a niche size equalization mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Yuichi

    Niching GAs have been widely investigated to apply genetic algorithms (GAs) to multimodal function optimization problems. In this paper, we suggest a new niching GA that attempts to form niches, each consisting of an equal number of individuals. The proposed GA can be applied also to combinatorial optimization problems by defining a distance metric in the search space. We apply the proposed GA to the job-shop scheduling problem (JSP) and demonstrate that the proposed niching method enhances the ability to maintain niches and improve the performance of GAs.

  3. Equalizing resolution in smoothed-particle hydrodynamics calculations using self-adaptive sinc kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Senz, Domingo; Cabezón, Rubén M.; Escartín, José A.; Ebinger, Kevin

    2014-10-01

    Context. The smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) technique is a numerical method for solving gas-dynamical problems. It has been applied to simulate the evolution of a wide variety of astrophysical systems. The method has a second-order accuracy, with a resolution that is usually much higher in the compressed regions than in the diluted zones of the fluid. Aims: We propose and check a method to balance and equalize the resolution of SPH between high- and low-density regions. This method relies on the versatility of a family of interpolators called sinc kernels, which allows increasing the interpolation quality by varying only a single parameter (the exponent of the sinc function). Methods: The proposed method was checked and validated through a number of numerical tests, from standard one-dimensional Riemann problems in shock tubes, to multidimensional simulations of explosions, hydrodynamic instabilities, and the collapse of a Sun-like polytrope. Results: The analysis of the hydrodynamical simulations suggests that the scheme devised to equalize the accuracy improves the treatment of the post-shock regions and, in general, of the rarefacted zones of fluids while causing no harm to the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities. The method is robust and easy to implement with a low computational overload. It conserves mass, energy, and momentum and reduces to the standard SPH scheme in regions of the fluid that have smooth density gradients.

  4. Studies on effects of feedback delay on the convergence performance of adaptive time-domain equalizers for fiber dispersive channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qun; Xu, Bo; Qiu, Kun

    2016-04-01

    Adaptive time-domain equalizer (TDE) is an important module for digital optical coherent receivers. From an implementation perspective, we analyze and compare in detail the effects of error signal feedback delay on the convergence performance of TDE using either least-mean square (LMS) or constant modulus algorithm (CMA). For this purpose, a simplified theoretical model is proposed based on which iterative equations on the mean value and the variance of the tap coefficient are derived with or without error signal feedback delay for both LMS- and CMA-based methods for the first time. The analytical results show that decreased step size has to be used for TDE to converge and a slower convergence speed cannot be avoided as the feedback delay increases. Compared with the data-aided LMS-based method, the CMA-based method has a slower convergence speed and larger variation after convergence. Similar results are confirmed using numerical simulations for fiber dispersive channels. As the step size increases, a feedback delay of 20 clock cycles might cause the TDE to diverge. Compared with the CMA-based method, the LMS-based method has a higher tolerance on the feedback delay and allows a larger step size for a faster convergence speed.

  5. Osteoarthritis Classification Using Self Organizing Map Based on Gabor Kernel and Contrast-Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization

    PubMed Central

    Anifah, Lilik; Purnama, I Ketut Eddy; Hariadi, Mochamad; Purnomo, Mauridhi Hery

    2013-01-01

    Localization is the first step in osteoarthritis (OA) classification. Manual classification, however, is time-consuming, tedious, and expensive. The proposed system is designed as decision support system for medical doctors to classify the severity of knee OA. A method has been proposed here to localize a joint space area for OA and then classify it in 4 steps to classify OA into KL-Grade 0, KL-Grade 1, KL-Grade 2, KL-Grade 3 and KL-Grade 4, which are preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction, and classification. In this proposed system, right and left knee detection was performed by employing the Contrast-Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE) and the template matching. The Gabor kernel, row sum graph and moment methods were used to localize the junction space area of knee. CLAHE is used for preprocessing step, i.e.to normalize the varied intensities. The segmentation process was conducted using the Gabor kernel, template matching, row sum graph and gray level center of mass method. Here GLCM (contrast, correlation, energy, and homogeinity) features were employed as training data. Overall, 50 data were evaluated for training and 258 data for testing. Experimental results showed the best performance by using gabor kernel with parameters α=8, θ=0, Ψ=[0 π/2], γ=0,8, N=4 and with number of iterations being 5000, momentum value 0.5 and α0=0.6 for the classification process. The run gave classification accuracy rate of 93.8% for KL-Grade 0, 70% for KL-Grade 1, 4% for KL-Grade 2, 10% for KL-Grade 3 and 88.9% for KL-Grade 4. PMID:23525188

  6. Osteoarthritis classification using self organizing map based on gabor kernel and contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization.

    PubMed

    Anifah, Lilik; Purnama, I Ketut Eddy; Hariadi, Mochamad; Purnomo, Mauridhi Hery

    2013-01-01

    Localization is the first step in osteoarthritis (OA) classification. Manual classification, however, is time-consuming, tedious, and expensive. The proposed system is designed as decision support system for medical doctors to classify the severity of knee OA. A method has been proposed here to localize a joint space area for OA and then classify it in 4 steps to classify OA into KL-Grade 0, KL-Grade 1, KL-Grade 2, KL-Grade 3 and KL-Grade 4, which are preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction, and classification. In this proposed system, right and left knee detection was performed by employing the Contrast-Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE) and the template matching. The Gabor kernel, row sum graph and moment methods were used to localize the junction space area of knee. CLAHE is used for preprocessing step, i.e.to normalize the varied intensities. The segmentation process was conducted using the Gabor kernel, template matching, row sum graph and gray level center of mass method. Here GLCM (contrast, correlation, energy, and homogeinity) features were employed as training data. Overall, 50 data were evaluated for training and 258 data for testing. Experimental results showed the best performance by using gabor kernel with parameters α=8, θ=0, Ψ=[0 π/2], γ=0,8, N=4 and with number of iterations being 5000, momentum value 0.5 and α0=0.6 for the classification process. The run gave classification accuracy rate of 93.8% for KL-Grade 0, 70% for KL-Grade 1, 4% for KL-Grade 2, 10% for KL-Grade 3 and 88.9% for KL-Grade 4. PMID:23525188

  7. Coordinated Analysis of Age, Sex, and Education Effects on Change in MMSE Scores

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We describe and compare the expected performance trajectories of older adults on the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) across six independent studies from four countries in the context of a collaborative network of longitudinal studies of aging. A coordinated analysis approach is used to compare patterns of change conditional on sample composition differences related to age, sex, and education. Such coordination accelerates evaluation of particular hypotheses. In particular, we focus on the effect of educational attainment on cognitive decline. Method. Regular and Tobit mixed models were fit to MMSE scores from each study separately. The effects of age, sex, and education were examined based on more than one centering point. Results. Findings were relatively consistent across studies. On average, MMSE scores were lower for older individuals and declined over time. Education predicted MMSE score, but, with two exceptions, was not associated with decline in MMSE over time. Conclusion. A straightforward association between educational attainment and rate of cognitive decline was not supported. Thoughtful consideration is needed when synthesizing evidence across studies, as methodologies adopted and sample characteristics, such as educational attainment, invariably differ. PMID:23033357

  8. [Using the MMSE as a cognitive screener among Turkish and Moroccan migrants].

    PubMed

    Zwart, L A R; Goudsmit, M; van Campen, J P C M; Rijkers, C J M; Wind, A W

    2015-02-01

    The Dutch population of first generation Turkish and Moroccan migrants is ageing. Among them hypertension and diabetes mellitus are frequent findings, which will probably cause an increased incidence of dementia. The language barrier, low education and cultural differences make the diagnosis more difficult. To what extent the MMSE can be used as a cognitive screener in this population will be investigated in this retrospective study.Patients received standard diagnostics, a professional translator addressed the language barrier. Correspondence was scored on characteristics of dementia, a procedure was used to diagnose without including the MMSE score. The optimal cut-off was calculated with the Youden Index and Area under the ROC (AUROC).106 patients were included, 61% had no education. Average MMSE-score was 16, with dementia 12, without 19. The AUROC was 0.85, optimal cut-off was 18 with a Youden index of 0.61.By using a professional translator the MMSE can possibly be used as a cognitive screener in this population. However, the cognitive skills addressed by the MMSE require an education and language skills. Developing a test that is independent of education and language barrier will probably be better. PMID:25475409

  9. Predictors of performance on the MMSE and the DRS-2 among American Indian elders.

    PubMed

    Jervis, Lori L; Fickenscher, Alexandra; Beals, Janette; Cullum, C Munro; Novins, Douglas K; Manson, Spero M; Arciniegas, David B

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about factors that predict older American Indians' performance on cognitive tests. This study examined 137 American Indian elders' performance on the MMSE and the Dementia Rating Scale-Second Edition (DRS-2). Multivariate regression identified younger age, more education, not receiving Supplemental Security Income, and frequent receipt of needed health care as predictors of better performance on the MMSE. Better performance on the DRS-2 was predicted by more education, boarding school attendance, not receiving Supplemental Security Income, and frequent receipt of needed health care. This study points to the importance of economic and educational factors on cognitive test performance among American Indian elders. PMID:21037127

  10. Are Urban Heat Island Adaptation Strategies Created Equal? Hydroclimatic Impact Assessment for U.S. 2100 Urban Expansion (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, M.; Bierwagen, B. G.; Morefield, P.; Weaver, C. P.

    2013-12-01

    With population projections ranging from 380 to 690 million inhabitants for U.S. 2100, considerable conversion of landscapes will be necessary to meet increased demand for the built environment. Incorporating Integrated Climate and Land Use Scenarios (ICLUS) urban expansion data for 2100 as surface boundary conditions within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modeling system, we examine hydroclimatic consequences owing to built environment expansion scenarios across the conterminous U.S. Continuous, multi-year and multi-member continental scale numerical simulations are performed for a modern day urban representation (Control), a worst-case (A2) and a best-case (B1) urban expansion scenario. Three adaptation approaches are explored to assess the potential offset of urban-induced warming to growth of the built environment: (i) widespread adoption of cool roofs, (ii) a simple representation of green roofs, and a (iii) hypothetical hybrid approach integrating properties of both cool and green roofs (i.e., reflective green roofs).Widespread adoption of adaptation strategies exhibit hydroclimatic impacts that are regionally and seasonally dependant. To help prioritize region-specific adaptation strategies, the potential to offset urban-induced warming by each of the trio of strategies is examined and contrasted across the various hydrometeorological environments.

  11. Different MMSE Score Is Associated with Postoperative Delirium in Young-Old and Old-Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meijuan; Zhu, Yingbo; Li, Cheng; Li, Guodong; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Xie, Zhongcong; Shen, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Postoperative delirium is one of the most common postoperative complications in geriatric patients. Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) assesses cognitive function in patients and is associated with postoperative delirium. However, whether there is an age-dependent relationship between preoperative MMSE score and postoperative delirium remains unknown. Methods We therefore set out to investigate the association between preoperative MMSE score and postoperative delirium in young-old (≤80 year-old, 75.46±4.69 years, 27.0% male, n = 63) and old-old (>80 year-old, 84.51±3.46 years, 20.9% male, n = 67) participants, who had repairs of hip fractures under general anesthesia. The Confusion Assessment Method and Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale were administrated before surgery, and on the first, second and fourth days after surgery, to assess the incidence and severity of the delirium, respectively. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to calculate the optimal cutoff score of MMSE in predicting postoperative delirium. Results Thirty-four (26.2%) of 130 patients (80.12±6.12 years, 23.8% male) developed postoperative delirium. Preoperative MMSE scores were negatively associated with higher incidences and greater severity of postoperative delirium. The optimal cutoff scores of MMSE associated with postoperative delirium for young-old and old-old participants were 18.4 and 21.4, with a sensitivity of 60% and 83.8%, and a specificity of 92.5% and 62.8%, respectively. Conclusion The data demonstrated the optimal cutoff score of MMSE associated with postoperative delirium in young-old adults might be lower than that in old-old adults. Pending further investigation, these findings suggest that the association between preoperative MMSE score and postoperative delirium is age-dependent. PMID:26460750

  12. The MMSE is not an adequate screening cognitive instrument in studies of late-life depression ✩

    PubMed Central

    Rajji, Tarek K.; Miranda, Dielle; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Lotz, Meredith; Houck, Patricia; Zmuda, Michelle D.; Bensasi, Salem; Reynolds, Charles F.; Butters, Meryl A.

    2009-01-01

    Background The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is frequently used to assess cognition in studies of late-life depression (LLD). However, its sensitivity and specificity in this population are largely unknown. We undertook an analysis of subjects with LLD and hypothesized that: (1) at the traditional cutoff of 24, the MMSE would have low sensitivity in the detection of cognitive impairment; (2) increasing the cutoff score would improve this sensitivity at the expense of a minimal reduction in specificity. Methods We analyzed the MMSE scores of 447 non-demented subjects with LLD using the Dementia Rating Scale (DRS) as the gold standard for cognitive function. Results Using the DRS raw total cutoff of 132 as the “gold standard”, the MMSE at a cutoff of 24 has a sensitivity of 8.0% and a specificity of 99.4% in detecting “cognitively impaired” depressed elders. A receiver operating characteristic curve demonstrates that with an MMSE cutoff of 27 instead of 24, its sensitivity more than quadruples and increases to 37.5% while its specificity decreases minimally from 99.4% to 91.3%. Conclusions In our sample almost all of those classified as cognitively impaired by the DRS are mislabelled as “cognitively intact” by the MMSE. By using a higher cutoff score, the sensitivity can be increased with a minimal reduction in specificity. Our findings have significant implications for those who study or treat persons with LLD or other neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:18644607

  13. Ultrasound image despeckling based on MMSE estimation in nonsubsampled contourlet domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Sheng; Yuan, Jianping; Hou, Chaohuan

    2012-04-01

    To suppress speckle noise and preserve edges information in ultrasound images, the nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) is applied to decompose the ultrasound image into NSCT subbands. The multiplicative speckle noises in NSCT high frequency subbands can be expressed in additive forms. A thresholding method is applied to extract and preserve strong edge coefficients in each NSCT subband. Then a Bayesian minimum mean square error (MMSE) criterion based equation is achieved to despeckle other NSCT coefficients. Last the despeckled image is reconstructed by the inverse NSCT transformation. The experimental results of synthetic speckle and clinical ultrasound images show that the proposed method outperforms several ultrasound image despeckling methods in terms of speckle reduction and edge preservation indices.

  14. Equality Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malzer, Maris; Popovic, Milica; Striedinger, Angelika; Bjorklund, Karin; Olsson, Anna-Clara; Elstad, Linda; Brus, Sanja; Stark, Kat; Stojanovic, Marko; Scholz, Christine

    2009-01-01

    "Tolerance is not enough, discrimination must be fought" is what ESU staff stated in their Seminar on Equality in London, last May. Following their seminar, they decided to provide members with more practical tools to fight discrimination in higher education. This handbook aims at as part of that strategy. Focusing on several issues that are high…

  15. An innovative technique for contrast enhancement of computed tomography images using normalized gamma-corrected contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ameen, Zohair; Sulong, Ghazali; Rehman, Amjad; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah

    2015-12-01

    Image contrast is an essential visual feature that determines whether an image is of good quality. In computed tomography (CT), captured images tend to be low contrast, which is a prevalent artifact that reduces the image quality and hampers the process of extracting its useful information. A common tactic to process such artifact is by using histogram-based techniques. However, although these techniques may improve the contrast for different grayscale imaging applications, the results are mostly unacceptable for CT images due to the presentation of various faults, noise amplification, excess brightness, and imperfect contrast. Therefore, an ameliorated version of the contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) is introduced in this article to provide a good brightness with decent contrast for CT images. The novel modification to the aforesaid technique is done by adding an initial phase of a normalized gamma correction function that helps in adjusting the gamma of the processed image to avoid the common errors of the basic CLAHE of the excess brightness and imperfect contrast it produces. The newly developed technique is tested with synthetic and real-degraded low-contrast CT images, in which it highly contributed in producing better quality results. Moreover, a low intricacy technique for contrast enhancement is proposed, and its performance is also exhibited against various versions of histogram-based enhancement technique using three advanced image quality assessment metrics of Universal Image Quality Index (UIQI), Structural Similarity Index (SSIM), and Feature Similarity Index (FSIM). Finally, the proposed technique provided acceptable results with no visible artifacts and outperformed all the comparable techniques.

  16. Patterns of missing mini mental status exam (MMSE) in radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) brain cancer trials.

    PubMed

    Bae, K; Bruner, D W; Baek, S; Movsas, B; Corn, B W; Dignam, J J

    2011-11-01

    The Mini Mental Status Exam (MMSE) instrument has been commonly used in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) to assess mental status in brain cancer patients. Evaluating patient factors in relation to patterns of incomplete MMSE assessments can provide insight into predictors of missingness and optimal MMSE collection schedules in brain cancer clinical trials. This study examined eight RTOG brain cancer trials with ten treatment arms and 1,957 eligible patients. Patient data compliance patterns were categorized as: (1) evaluated at all time points (Complete), (2) not evaluated from a given time point or any subsequent time points but evaluated at all the previous time points (Monotone drop-out), (3) not evaluated at any time point (All missing), and (4) all other patterns (Mixed). Patient characteristics and reasons for missingness were summarized and compared among the missing pattern groups. Baseline MMSE scores and change scores after radiation therapy (RT) were compared between these groups, adjusting for differences in other characteristics. There were significant differences in frequency of missing patterns by age, treatment type, education, and Zubrod performance status (ZPS; P < 0.001). Ninety-two percent of patients were evaluated at least once: seven percent of patients were complete pattern, 49% were Monotone pattern, and 36% were mixed pattern. Patients who received RT only regimens were evaluated at a higher rate than patients who received RT + other treatments (49-64% vs. 27-45%). Institutional error and request to not be contacted were the most frequent known reasons for missing data, but most often, reasons for missing MMSE was unspecified. Differences in baseline mean MMSE scores by missing pattern (Complete, Monotone dropout, Mixed) were statistically significant (P < 0.001) but differences were small (<1.5 points) and significance did not persist after adjustment for age, ZPS, and other factors related to missingness. Post-RT change scores

  17. Brief cognitive screening of the elderly: a comparison of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT) and Mental Status Questionnaire (MSQ).

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, D M; Copp, P; Shaw, R J; Goodwin, G M

    1996-03-01

    One hundred and fifty unselected elderly community subjects were assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT) and Mental Status Questionnaire (MSQ). The effects on cognitive test scores of potential confounding (non-cognitive) variables were evaluated. Sensitivities and specificities were: MMSE 80% and 98%; AMT 77% and 90%; and MSQ 70% and 89%. The MMSE identified significantly fewer false positives than the AMT and MSQ. The major effect of intelligence on cognitive test scores has previously been underestimated. Age, social class, sensitivity of hearing and history of stroke were also significantly correlated with cognitive test scores. Years of full time education and depression only affected the longer MMSE and CAMCOG. The MMSE (cut-off 20/21) can be recommended for routine screening. However, as scores are affected by variables other than cognitive function, particularly intelligence, further assessment of identified cases may fail to reveal significant functional impairment. PMID:8685299

  18. Validation of the MoCA versus MMSE against hypertension and hypertensive arteriopathy after TIA or minor stroke

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Alastair JS; Pendlebury, Sarah T; Li, Linxin; Simoni, Michela; Lovett, Nicola; Mehta, Ziyah; Rothwell, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Lack of reduced cognitive impairment with blood pressure (BP) lowering in trials may reflect use of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), which is insensitive to mild cognitive impairment after cerebrovascular events compared to the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA). We determined relationships between impairment on MMSE vs. MoCA with the major physiological determinant of vascular cognitive impairment: hypertension and hypertensive arteriopathy. Methods Cognitive impairment in consecutive patients 6 months after TIA or minor stroke was defined as “significant”, “mild” or “none” (MMSE<23,23-26,≥27; MOCA<20,20-24,≥25) and related to 20 premorbid systolic blood pressure (SBP) readings, home BP (HBPM, 3 measurements, 3 times daily for one month) and hypertensive arteriopathy (creatinine, stroke vs TIA, leukoaraiosis), by ordinal regression. Results Of 463 patients, 45% vs 28% had at least mild cognitive impairment on the MOCA vs MMSE (p<0.001). Hypertensive arteriopathy was more strongly associated with cognitive impairment on the MOCA than MMSE (Creatinine:OR=3.99, 95%CI 2.06-7.73 vs 2.16, 1.08-4.33; event:1.53, 1.06-2.19 vs 1.23, 0.81-1.85; leukoaraiosis:2.09, 1.42-3.06 vs 1.34, 0.87-2.07). Premorbid and HBPM SBP were more strongly associated with impairment on vascular subdomains of the MoCA than MMSE (OR/10mmHg: visuo-spatial 1.29 vs 1.05; attention 1.18 vs 1.07; language 1.22 vs 0.91; naming 1.07 vs 0.86). Conclusions The stronger relationship between impairment on the MoCA with hypertensive arteriopathy, independent of age, indicates a greater sensitivity for vascular-origin cognitive impairment. Use of MoCA should improve sensitivity for cognitive impairment and treatment effects in future studies. PMID:25248911

  19. The Brief Cognitive Status Examination (BCSE): Comparing Diagnostic Utility and Equating Scores to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE).

    PubMed

    Hilsabeck, Robin C; Holdnack, James A; Cullum, C Munro; Drozdick, Lisa Whipple; Edelstein, Barry; Fiske, Amy; Lacritz, Laura; McCoy, Karin J M; Wahlstrom, Dustin

    2015-08-01

    The study purpose was to compare the diagnostic utility of the Brief Cognitive Status Exam (BCSE) to that of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and to develop equated scores to facilitate comparisons. One hundred and eighty-two patients underwent cognitive evaluation and were placed into three groups: dementia (DEM), cognitive impairment, no dementia (CIND), and no cognitive impairment (NCI). One hundred and eighty-two healthy controls from the BCSE standardization sample served as a comparison group. On both measures, the DEM group obtained significantly lower scores than the other two groups, and the CIND group scored significantly lower than the NCI group. The BCSE was more sensitive in all clinical groups, although at extremely low scores, the two tests displayed similar sensitivity. Results indicate the BCSE has diagnostic utility as a cognitive screening measure in a mixed clinical sample and is more sensitive at detecting cognitive impairment, particularly milder levels, than the MMSE. PMID:26085478

  20. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  1. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is superior to the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) in detection of Korsakoff's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oudman, Erik; Postma, Albert; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Appelhof, Britt; Wijnia, Jan W; Nijboer, Tanja C W

    2014-01-01

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) are brief screening instruments for cognitive disorders. Although these instruments have frequently been used in the detection of dementia, there is currently little knowledge on the validity to detect Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) with both screening instruments. KS is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder associated with profound declarative amnesia after thiamine deficiency. A representative sample of 30 patients with KS and 30 age-, education-, gender- and premorbid-IQ-matched controls was administered the MoCA and MMSE. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated in addition to the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for various cut-off points on the MoCA and MMSE. Compared with the MMSE, the MoCA demonstrated consistently superior psychometric properties and discriminant validity--AUC: MoCA (1.00 SE .003) and MMSE (0.92 SE .033). When applying a cut-off value as suggested in the manuals of both instruments, the MMSE (< 24) misdiagnosed 46.7% of the patients, while the MoCA (< 26) diagnosed all patients correctly. As a screening instrument with the most optimal cut-offs, the MoCA (optimal cutoff point 22/23, 98.3% correctly diagnosed) was superior to the MMSE (optimal cutoff point 26/27, 83.3% correctly diagnosed). We conclude that both tests have adequate psychometric properties as a screening instrument for the detection of KS, but the MoCA is superior to the MMSE for this specific patient population. PMID:25249353

  2. Application of FT-based MMSE Deconvolution Method for Cerebral Blood Flow Measurement in Patients with Leukoaraiosis

    PubMed Central

    Sakoglu, Unal; Garate, Branko H.; Rosenberg, Gary A.; Sood, Rohit

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The bolus tracking (BT) technique is the most popular PW DSC-MRI method used for estimating CBF, CBV and MTT. The BT technique uses a convolution model that establishes the input-output relationship between blood flow and the vascular tracer concentration. SVD (Singular Value Decomposition) and FT (Fourier Transform)-based methods are popular and widely used for estimating PW-MRI parameters. However, from the published literature it appears that SVD is more widely accepted than other method. In a previous article, an FT-based MMSE technique was proposed and simulation experiments were performed to compare it with the well established oSVD method. In this study, the FT-based MMSE method has been used to estimate relative CBF in 8 patients with white matter lesions (leukoaraiosis) and results are compared with the widely used circular SVD (oSVD) method. Materials and Methods 8 patients with leukoaraiosis were imaged on a 1.5T Siemens whole body scanner. After acquiring the localizer and structural scans consisting of FLAIR, T1 and T2w images, perfusion study was implemented as part of the MRI protocol. For each patient and method two values were calculated: 1) relative CBF for NWM, obtained by dividing the average ROI CBF value in NWM with average CBF in GM and 2) relative ROI CBF for WML, obtained by dividing the average flow value in WML with average flow in GM. Results and Discussion A significant (p<0.05) decrease in estimated CBF was observed in the WML in all the patients using MMSE method, while for the oSVD method, the decrease was observed in all but one patient. Initial results suggest that MMSE method is comparable to oSVD method for estimating CBF in NMW while it may be better than oSVD for estimating flow in low flow lesions. Studies in a larger patient population may be required to further validate this finding. PMID:19121907

  3. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  4. High-throughput, fully-automated volumetry for prediction of MMSE and CDR decline in mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Kovacevic, Sanja; Rafii, Michael S.; Brewer, James B.

    2008-01-01

    Medial temporal lobe (MTL) atrophy is associated with increased risk for conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD), but manual tracing techniques and even semi-automated techniques for volumetric assessment are not practical in the clinical setting. In addition, most studies that examined MTL atrophy in AD have focused only on the hippocampus. It is unknown the extent to which volumes of amygdala and temporal horn of the lateral ventricle predict subsequent clinical decline. This study examined whether measures of hippocampus, amygdala, and temporal horn volume predict clinical decline over the following 6-month period in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Fully-automated volume measurements were performed in 269 MCI patients. Baseline volumes of the hippocampus, amygdala, and temporal horn were evaluated as predictors of change in Mini-mental State Exam (MMSE) and Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR SB) over a 6-month interval. Fully-automated measurements of baseline hippocampus and amygdala volumes correlated with baseline delayed recall scores. Patients with smaller baseline volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala or larger baseline volumes of the temporal horn had more rapid subsequent clinical decline on MMSE and CDR SB. Fully-automated and rapid measurement of segmental MTL volumes may help clinicians predict clinical decline in MCI patients. PMID:19474571

  5. Combining Vector Quantization and Histogram Equalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosman, Pamela C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of contrast enhancement techniques focuses on the use of histogram equalization with a data compression technique, i.e., tree-structured vector quantization. The enhancement technique of intensity windowing is described, and the use of enhancement techniques for medical images is explained, including adaptive histogram equalization.…

  6. Performance of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in long-stay patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders in a psychiatric institute.

    PubMed

    Ong, Hui Lin; Subramaniam, Mythily; Abdin, Edimansyah; Wang, Peizhi; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Lee, Siau Pheng; Shafie, Saleha; Seow, Esmond; Chong, Siow Ann

    2016-07-30

    Studies have found that age and education were associated with cognition in older adults. However, little is known how clinical factors (e.g. age of illness onset, length of hospital stay, type of antipsychotic medications, and duration of illness) are associated with cognitive functioning in patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to examine the influence of socio-demographic and clinical factors on cognitive domains measured using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) among patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders residing in a psychiatric institute in Singapore. A single-phase interview was conducted at the Institute of Mental Health (IMH) in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders (n=110). MMSE was administered to all participants. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, smoking, alcohol consumption, and medical history were collected. Age, gender, and level of education were significantly associated with MMSE scores. After adjusting for all socio-demographic correlates, longer length of hospital stay remained significant in predicting lower MMSE scores. Length of hospital stay was independently associated with cognitive functioning. Early interventions for cognition such as physical and mental exercises should be implemented for better prognosis. PMID:27203153

  7. Is the Short Form of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) a better screening instrument for dementia in older primary care patients than the original MMSE? Results of the German study on ageing, cognition, and dementia in primary care patients (AgeCoDe).

    PubMed

    Stein, Janine; Luppa, Melanie; Kaduszkiewicz, Hanna; Eisele, Marion; Weyerer, Siegfried; Werle, Jochen; Bickel, Horst; Mösch, Edelgard; Wiese, Birgitt; Prokein, Jana; Pentzek, Michael; Fuchs, Angela; König, Hans-Helmut; Brettschneider, Christian; Heser, Kathrin; Wagner, Michael; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Scherer, Martin; Maier, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a Short Form of the Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE) for the screening of dementia in older primary care patients. Data were obtained from a large longitudinal cohort study of initially nondemented individuals recruited via primary care chart registries and followed at 18-month intervals. Item and scale parameters for MMSE and SMMSE scores were analyzed and cross-validated for 2 follow-up assessments (n1 = 2,657 and n2 = 2,274). Binary logistic regression and receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were conducted in order to assess diagnostic accuracy parameters for MMSE and SMMSE scores. Cross-sectional differentiation between dementia-free and dementia patients yielded moderate to good results for MMSE and SMMSE scores. With regard to most diagnostic accuracy parameters, SMMSE scores did not outperform the MMSE scores. The current study provides first evidence regarding the psychometric properties of the SMMSE score in a sample of older primary care patients. However, our findings do not confirm previous findings that the SMMSE is a more accurate screening instrument for dementia than the original MMSE. Further studies are needed in order to assess and to develop short, reliable and valid instruments for routine cognitive screening in clinical practice and primary care settings. PMID:25822830

  8. Science EQUALS Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Kitty B., Ed.; Conwell, Catherine R., Ed.

    The purpose of the EQUALS programs is to increase the interest and awareness that females and minorities have concerning mathematics and science related careers. This book, produced by an EQUALS program in North Carolina, contains 35 hands-on, discovery science activities that center around four EQUALS processes--problem solving, cooperative…

  9. A correlativity study of plasma APL1β28 and clusterin levels with MMSE/MoCA/CASI in aMCI patients.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ying; Li, Huiying; Hua, Rui; Wang, Huali; Lu, Jian; Yu, Xin; Zhang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is a sub-clinical condition characterized by memory deficits that are not severe enough to affect daily functioning. Here we investigated two potential biomarkers found in the cerebrospinal fluid of AD patients, APLP1-derived Aβ-like peptides 28 (APL1β28) and clusterin plasma levels, in terms of their relationship to cognitive function, as reflected in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Cognitive Assessment Screening Instrument (CASI) in aMCI patients. Forty-seven aMCI patients and thirty-five age- and gender-matched healthy adult controls were recruited for this study. Using the ELISA method, we found that the mean concentrations of both APL1β28 and clusterin were not significantly different between the control and aMCI groups. The APL1β28 levels were positively correlated with clusterin and that both were negatively correlated with the MMSE scores of the aMCI patients. Clusterin levels were negatively correlated with the MoCA and CASI scores of the aMCI patients. Using multivariate analysis, the correlation between clusterin and MMSE/MoCA/CASI was independent of other AD risk factors including age, education, sex, body mass index and ApoE genotype. The data presented here demonstrate that plasma clusterin levels reflect cognitive function in aMCI patients. PMID:26503441

  10. Equal Justice Under Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Earl, Jr., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This special theme issue of "Update on Law-Related Education""tells about the past, present, and future of equal legal representation for all in our society." It is dedicated to the history and heroes of legal aid for the poor and the need to further that cause if the United States hopes to achieve equal justice for all. In his foreword, Justice…

  11. Early Understanding of Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavy, Aisling; Hourigan, Mairéad; McMahon, Áine

    2013-01-01

    Quite a bit of the arithmetic in elementary school contains elements of algebraic reasoning. After researching and testing a number of instructional strategies with Irish third graders, these authors found effective methods for cultivating a relational concept of equality in third-grade students. Understanding equality is fundamental to algebraic…

  12. Equality and Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The two big events in higher education during 2010 were the implementation of the Equality Act, and the introduction of a new dispensation on fees and funding. The former is intended to promote equality, the latter is premised on the need for economy. In this article, the author focuses on the effect of the latter on the former. He considers this…

  13. Equality, Innovation and Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Offers some ideas concerning promotion of gender equality and diversity within European Union-funded programs and activities. Reviews efforts since the 1970s to foster equal access in European schools and universities, examines some principles of innovation and entrepreneurship, and considers stages in diversity policy development. (DB)

  14. Integer Equal Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, C A; Schulz, A S

    2009-01-07

    The integer equal flow problem is an NP-hard network flow problem, in which all arcs in given sets R{sub 1}, ..., R{sub {ell}} must carry equal flow. We show this problem is effectively inapproximable, even if the cardinality of each set R{sub k} is two. When {ell} is fixed, it is solvable in polynomial time.

  15. Density Equalizing Map Projections

    SciTech Connect

    Close, E. R.; Merrill, D. W.; Holmes, H. H.

    1995-07-01

    A geographic map is mathematically transformed so that the subareas of the map are proportional to a given quantity such as population. In other words, population density is equalized over the entire map. The transformed map can be used as a display tool, or it can be statistically analyzed. For example, cases of disease plotted on the transformed map should be uniformly distributed at random, if disease rates are everywhere equal. Geographic clusters of disease can be readily identified, and their statistical significance determined, on a density equalized map.

  16. Equalization in redundant channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulpule, Bhalchandra R. (Inventor); Collins, Robert E. (Inventor); Cominelli, Donald F. (Inventor); O'Neill, Richard D. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A miscomparison between a channel's configuration data base and a voted system configuration data base in a redundant channel system having identically operating, frame synchronous channels triggers autoequalization of the channel's historical signal data bases in a hierarchical, chronological manner with that of a correctly operating channel. After equalization, symmetrization of the channel's configuration data base with that of the system permits upgrading of the previously degraded channel to full redundancy. An externally provided equalization command, e.g., manually actuated, can also trigger equalization.

  17. Density Equalizing Map Projections

    1995-07-01

    A geographic map is mathematically transformed so that the subareas of the map are proportional to a given quantity such as population. In other words, population density is equalized over the entire map. The transformed map can be used as a display tool, or it can be statistically analyzed. For example, cases of disease plotted on the transformed map should be uniformly distributed at random, if disease rates are everywhere equal. Geographic clusters of diseasemore » can be readily identified, and their statistical significance determined, on a density equalized map.« less

  18. Technology--The Equalizer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane, Eydie

    1989-01-01

    This article describes a number of computer-based learning tools for disabled students. Adaptive input devices, assisted technologies, software, and hardware and software resources are discussed. (IAH)

  19. Transhumanism and moral equality.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James

    2007-10-01

    Conservative thinkers such as Francis Fukuyama have produced a battery of objections to the transhumanist project of fundamentally enhancing human capacities. This article examines one of these objections, namely that by allowing some to greatly extend their capacities, we will undermine the fundamental moral equality of human beings. I argue that this objection is groundless: once we understand the basis for human equality, it is clear that anyone who now has sufficient capacities to count as a person from the moral point of view will continue to count as one even if others are fundamentally enhanced; and it is mistaken to think that a creature which had even far greater capacities than an unenhanced human being should count as more than an equal from the moral point of view. PMID:17845448

  20. 43 CFR 2201.6 - Value equalization; cash equalization waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Value equalization; cash equalization... PROCEDURES Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.6 Value equalization; cash equalization waiver. (a) To equalize the agreed upon values of the Federal and non-Federal lands involved in an exchange, either...

  1. A review of translations and adaptations of the Mini-Mental State Examination in languages other than English and Spanish.

    PubMed

    Steis, Melinda R; Schrauf, Robert W

    2009-07-01

    This article provides a systematic review of linguistically and culturally adapted versions (translations) of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in languages other than English and Spanish. Adapted versions were found via database search (PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts). Source information (where available) is provided for each instrument. To facilitate comparison of the instruments, we developed an assessment framework that provides an organizational structure for the assessment of the quality of translation (linguistic and cultural), psychometric properties, educational considerations, and quality of field testing. The search resulted in 20 articles reporting on 15 language versions of the MMSE. PMID:20078011

  2. Equal Opportunity in Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    This overview of developments in housing opportunities for minorities and women includes an historical review of housing discrimination, its nature, and its effects. Federal legislation and Federal actions which were taken to assure equal housing opportunities for women and minorities are described. Other topic areas addressed include minority…

  3. Equality and Academic Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardarson, Atli

    2013-01-01

    A recent national curriculum guide for upper secondary schools in my home country, Iceland, requires secondary schools to work towards equality and five other overarching aims. This requirement raises questions about to what extent secondary schools have to change their curricula in order to approach these aims or work towards them in an adequate…

  4. Defining Equality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Ronald E.

    1977-01-01

    Defines equality of education in three areas: 1) by the degree of integration of school systems; 2) by a comparison of material resources and assets in education; and 3) by the effects of schooling as measured by the mean scores of groups on standardized tests. Available from: College of Education, 107 Quadrangle, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa…

  5. Status Equalization Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elizabeth G.; Deslonde, James

    The introduction of the Multiple Ability Curriculum (MAC) and Expectation Training (ET) into the curriculum of racially integrated elementary schools appears to improve the equal status interaction between students of differing academic and social status. The goals of the MAC and ET are the following: (1) prevent classroom dominance by students of…

  6. Equal Opportunity in Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Paul

    This book focuses on discrimination in employment, defined as the denial of equal opportunity in the labor market to qualified persons on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, age, sex, or any other factor not related to their individual qualifications for work. The average nonwhite college graduate can expect to earn less during…

  7. Freedom, equality, race.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Jeffrey B

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores come of the reasons for the continuing power of racial categorization in our era, and thus offers some friendly amendments to the more optimistic renderings of the term post-racial. Focusing mainly on the relationship between black and white Americans, it argues that the widespread embrace of universal values of freedom and equality, which most regard as antidotes to racial exclusion, actually reinforce it. The internal logic of these categories requires the construction of the "other." In America, where freedom and equality still stand at the contested center of collective identity, a history of racial oppression informs the very meaning of these terms. Thus the irony: much of the effort exerted to transcend race tends to fuel continuing division. PMID:21469393

  8. Battery equalization active methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; Milanes-Montero, M. Isabel; Guerrero-Martinez, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Many different battery technologies are available for the applications which need energy storage. New researches are being focused on Lithium-based batteries, since they are becoming the most viable option for portable energy storage applications. As most of the applications need series battery strings to meet voltage requirements, battery imbalance is an important matter to be taken into account, since it leads the individual battery voltages to drift apart over time, and premature cells degradation, safety hazards, and capacity reduction will occur. A large number of battery equalization methods can be found, which present different advantages/disadvantages and are suitable for different applications. The present paper presents a summary, comparison and evaluation of the different active battery equalization methods, providing a table that compares them, which is helpful to select the suitable equalization method depending on the application. By applying the same weight to the different parameters of comparison, switch capacitor and double-tiered switching capacitor have the highest ratio. Cell bypass methods are cheap and cell to cell ones are efficient. Cell to pack, pack to cell and cell to pack to cell methods present a higher cost, size, and control complexity, but relatively low voltage and current stress in high-power applications.

  9. Equality in Education: An Equality of Condition Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Kathleen; Baker, John

    2005-01-01

    Transforming schools into truly egalitarian institutions requires a holistic and integrated approach. Using a robust conception of "equality of condition", we examine key dimensions of equality that are central to both the purposes and processes of education: equality in educational and related resources; equality of respect and recognition;…

  10. 43 CFR 2201.6 - Value equalization; cash equalization waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Value equalization; cash equalization... PROCEDURES Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.6 Value equalization; cash equalization waiver. (a) To... as compensation for costs under § 2201.1-3 of this part may not exceed 25 percent of the value of...

  11. 43 CFR 2201.6 - Value equalization; cash equalization waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Value equalization; cash equalization... PROCEDURES Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.6 Value equalization; cash equalization waiver. (a) To... as compensation for costs under § 2201.1-3 of this part may not exceed 25 percent of the value of...

  12. 36 CFR 254.12 - Value equalization; cash equalization waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Value equalization; cash... AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.12 Value equalization; cash equalization waiver. (a) To equalize the agreed upon values of the Federal and non-Federal lands involved in an...

  13. [Polynesian adaptation of the Mini-Mental State Examination].

    PubMed

    Wong, H; Larre, P; Ghawché, F

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate a Polynesian version of the MMSE (Mini-Mental State Examination). For this study a sample (n=112) of healthy people were evaluated with the French version of the consensual version of the MMSE, to target and modify some inadequate items for French Polynesia. Subsequently, a second sample (n=112) with the same characteristics (age, educational level) as well as 46 healthy people aged 60 years and more were evaluated with the adaptive version of the MMSE (P-MMSE). This version was then applied to 17 participants with Alzheimer disease. The control subjects were selected according to their age and educational level. The variables gender and evaluation sites were checked. An analysis of the results showed a significant dissociation between the two versions as well as a meaningful effect on global performance of the variables age (r=-0.45) and educational level (r=-0.25). Cut-off scores taking into consideration these variables were defined. The sensitivity and specificity values of the new cut-off scores were much greater than 0.5. Various global cut-off scores were also analyzed. A general cut-off score (≤23) was defined and yielded 82 % sensitivity and 75 % specificity in detecting Alzheimer disease. PMID:25575608

  14. Genes and equality.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, C

    2004-12-01

    The way people think about equality as a value will influence how they think genetic interventions should be regulated. In this paper the author uses the taxonomy of equality put forth by Derek Parfit and applies this to the issue of genetic interventions. It is argued that telic egalitarianism is untenable and that deontic egalitarianism collapses into prioritarianism. The priority view maintains that it is morally more important to benefit the people who are worse off. Once this precision has been given to the concerns egalitarians have, a number of diverse issues must be considered before determining what the just regulation of genetic interventions would be. Consideration must be given to the current situation of the least advantaged, the fiscal realities behind genetic interventions, the budget constraints on other social programmes egalitarians believe should receive scarce public funds, and the interconnected nature of genetic information. These considerations might lead egalitarians to abandon what they take to be the obvious policy recommendations for them to endorse regarding the regulation of gene therapies and enhancements. PMID:15574450

  15. Webster and women's equality.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, D; Wilder, M J

    1989-01-01

    The National Abortion Rights Action League (NARAL) and the Women's Legal Defense Fund (WLDF) co-authored an "amicus curiae" brief in "Webster." The brief was written for 77 organizations who believe in equality of women. The brief said that constitutional protection of a woman's right to choose is guaranteed by the right to privacy. The brief said that if abortions were illegal, women would not be able to take place in society equally with men. Liberty would be taken away from women. If the state interferes with abortion, the principle of bodily integrity is violated. In "Winston v. Lee," the Supreme Court found that the state could not compel a criminal to undergo an invasive surgical procedure to retrieve a bullet necessary for the state to prosecute with. 1 in 4 women have a cesarean section, which requires a larger incision in the abdomen, and has many risks. Bearing and raising children often puts a damper on women's employment opportunities. Therefore, if the Supreme Court denied women the right to bear children when and where they wanted, women would not have the right to plan their futures. If the Supreme Court were to agree that "interest in potential life outweighs" a woman's tight to procreate autonomously, states could declare all abortions illegal, investigate them to see if they were induced on purpose, and murder women who induced them. Contraceptive devices could be declared illegal. Laws could be used to force women to submit to cesarean sections and other fetal surgery. Pre-viability abortion restrictions should be rejected because they have old-fashioned notions of women's role in society. They reinforce stereotypes. Missouri's law stresses aiding "potential," rather than actual life. PMID:2603859

  16. 36 CFR 254.12 - Value equalization; cash equalization waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Value equalization; cash... AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.12 Value equalization; cash equalization waiver. (a... to as compensation for costs under § 254.7 of this subpart may not exceed 25 percent of the value...

  17. 36 CFR 254.12 - Value equalization; cash equalization waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Value equalization; cash... AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.12 Value equalization; cash equalization waiver. (a... to as compensation for costs under § 254.7 of this subpart may not exceed 25 percent of the value...

  18. 36 CFR 254.12 - Value equalization; cash equalization waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Value equalization; cash... AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.12 Value equalization; cash equalization waiver. (a... to as compensation for costs under § 254.7 of this subpart may not exceed 25 percent of the value...

  19. Genetic Diversity and Human Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobzhansky, Theodosius

    The idea of equality often, if not frequently, bogs down in confusion and apparent contradictions; equality is confused with identity, and diversity with inequality. It would seem that the easiest way to discredit the idea of equality is to show that people are innately, genetically, and, therefore, irremediably diverse and unlike. The snare is,…

  20. Reframing Inclusive Education: Educational Equality as Capability Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzi, Lorella

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that rethinking questions of inclusive education in the light of the value of educational equality--specifically conceived as capability equality, or genuine opportunities to achieve educational functionings--adds some important insights to the current debate on inclusive education. First, it provides a cohesive value…

  1. Determination of the effects of different washing processes on aroma characteristics in silver carp mince by MMSE-GC-MS, e-nose and sensory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuxia; Chong, Yunqing; Ding, Yuting; Gu, Saiqi; Liu, Lin

    2016-09-15

    The present study investigated the volatile compounds of silver carp mince and the effects of washing processes on the integral aroma characteristics and aroma-active compounds (AACs) of the mince. 57 volatile compounds were identified by monolithic material sorptive extraction (MMSE) and GC-MS analysis, and 13 volatile compounds with odor activity values greater than 1 (OAVs > 1) were further selected as AACs contributing primarily to the integral aroma profile of silver carp. Washing methods affected the overall aroma profiles of fish samples by washing away or facilitating the release of AACs but to different extents. Compared with water washing, washing with saline and weak alkaline solution removed more AACs. Washing with water three times (T2) exhibited a relatively stronger removal effect on most AACs compared to washing with water twice (T1). Washing with a high concentration of saline (T4) produced a strong removal effect on AACs. The results of sensory evaluation and electronic nose (e-nose) detection for distinguishing the aroma characteristics of different samples demonstrated good agreement with those obtained by OAV analysis. PMID:27080898

  2. On-line equalization for lithium-ion battery packs based on charging cell voltages: Part 2. Fuzzy logic equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yuejiu; Ouyang, Minggao; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu; Han, Xuebing; Xu, Liangfei

    2014-02-01

    In the first part of this work, we propose dissipative cell equalization (DCE) algorithm based on remaining charging capacity estimation (RCCE) and establish a pack model with 8 cells in series. The results show that RCCE-DCE algorithm is suitable for on-line equalization in electric vehicles (EVs) and no over-equalization happens. However, 1% pack capacity difference from the DCE theoretical pack capacity is observed with RCCE-DCE algorithm. Therefore, as the second part of the series, we propose fuzzy logic (FL) DCE algorithm based on charging cell voltage curves (CCVCs). Cell capacities and SOCs are fuzzily identified in FL-DCE algorithm by comparing cell voltages at the beginning and end of charging. Adaptive FL-DCE is further improved to prevent over-equalization and maintain the equalization capability. The simulation results show that pack capacity difference from the DCE theoretical pack capacity with the adaptive FL-DCE is smaller than that with RCCE-DCE algorithm, and the duration of the infant stage is also shorter. The proposed adaptive FL-DCE is suitable for on-line equalization in EVs and well prevents over-equalization.

  3. Dual-mode type algorithms for blind equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerackody, Vijitha; Kassam, Saleem A.

    1994-01-01

    Adaptive channel equalization accomplished without resorting to a training sequence is known as blind equalization. The Godard algorithm and the generalized Sato algorithm are two widely referenced algorithms for blind equalization of a QAM system. These algorithms exhibit very slow convergence rates when compared to algorithms employed in conventional data-aided equalization schemes. In order to speed up the convergence process, these algorithms may be switched over to a decision-directed equalization scheme once the error level is reasonably low. We present a scheme which is capable of operating in two modes: blind equalization mode and a mode similar to the decision-directed equalization mode. In this proposed scheme, the dominant mode of operation changes from the blind equalization mode at higher error levels to the mode similar to the decision-directed equalization mode at lower error levels. Manual switch-over to the decision-directed mode from the blind equalization mode, or vice-versa, is not necessary since transitions between the two modes take place smoothly and automatically.

  4. Compensating Acoustic Mismatch Using Class-Based Histogram Equalization for Robust Speech Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Youngjoo; Kim, Sungtak; Kim, Hoirin

    2007-12-01

    A new class-based histogram equalization method is proposed for robust speech recognition. The proposed method aims at not only compensating for an acoustic mismatch between training and test environments but also reducing the two fundamental limitations of the conventional histogram equalization method, the discrepancy between the phonetic distributions of training and test speech data, and the nonmonotonic transformation caused by the acoustic mismatch. The algorithm employs multiple class-specific reference and test cumulative distribution functions, classifies noisy test features into their corresponding classes, and equalizes the features by using their corresponding class reference and test distributions. The minimum mean-square error log-spectral amplitude (MMSE-LSA)-based speech enhancement is added just prior to the baseline feature extraction to reduce the corruption by additive noise. The experiments on the Aurora2 database proved the effectiveness of the proposed method by reducing relative errors by[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] over the mel-cepstral-based features and by[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] over the conventional histogram equalization method, respectively.

  5. Equality and Education -- Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, John

    1975-01-01

    Discusses equality in education within the framework of the ideas of John Rawls, asserting that even though in the real world it is not easy to implement his version of equality and justice without endangering his prior principle of liberty, he provides a philosophical foundation for the reconsideration of the meritocratic principle. (Author/JM)

  6. Ensuring equal opportunity sprinkler irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equal opportunity for plants to sprinkler irrigation water must be carefully considered by crop producers, irrigation consultants, and the industry that supplies the irrigation equipment. Equal opportunity can be negated by improper marketing, design, and installation, as well as through improper f...

  7. Equal Educational Opportunity Resource Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Since theory and practice of equal educational opportunity is an issue which is currently confronting decisionmakers at all levels of American education, this handbook presents key federal regulations and Oregon statutes, and administrative rules which provide for equality in employment and in the delivery of educational services. Sources of…

  8. Gender Equality in Teacher Organisations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Torill Scharning

    1995-01-01

    Most senior trade union posts are held by men, even in organizations where most members are women. The paper examines how the Norwegian Union of Teachers has advanced in this area, noting the status of gender equality in Norway, Norway's work toward gender equality, and the country's focus on educational change. (SM)

  9. Democracy, Equal Citizenship, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Eamonn

    2016-01-01

    Two appealing principles of educational distribution--equality and sufficiency--are comparatively assessed. The initial point of comparison is the distribution of civic educational goods. One reason to favor equality in educational distribution rather than sufficiency is the elimination of undeserved positional advantage in access to labor…

  10. Governing Equality: Mathematics for All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Jennifer D.

    2013-01-01

    With the notion of governmentality, this article considers how the equal sign (=) in the U.S. math curriculum organizes knowledge of equality and inscribes cultural rules for thinking, acting, and seeing in the world. Situating the discussion within contemporary math reforms aimed at teaching mathematics for all, I draw attention to how the…

  11. Luck, Choice, and Educational Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, John

    2015-01-01

    Harry Brighouse discusses two conceptions of educational equality. The first is a type of equality of opportunity, heavily influenced by the work of John Rawls, which he calls the meritocratic conception. According to this conception, an individual's educational prospects should not be influenced by factors such as their social class background.…

  12. Equalization of data transmission cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobrist, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes an equalization approach utilizing a simple RLC network which can obtain a maximum slope of -12dB/octave for reshaping the frequency characteristics of a data transmission cable, so that data may be generated and detected at the receiver. An experimental procedure for determining equalizer design specifications using distortion analysis is presented. It was found that for lengths of 16 PEV-L cable of up to 5 miles and data transmission rates of up to 1 Mbs, the equalization scheme proposed here is sufficient for generation of the data with acceptable error rates.

  13. Multiple point least squares equalization in a room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, S. J.; Nelson, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    Equalization filters designed to minimize the mean square error between a delayed version of the original electrical signal and the equalized response at a point in a room have previously been investigated. In general, such a strategy degrades the response at positions in a room away from the equalization point. A method is presented for designing an equalization filter by adjusting the filter coefficients to minimize the sum of the squares of the errors between the equalized responses at multiple points in the room and delayed versions of the original, electrical signal. Such an equalization filter can give a more uniform frequency response over a greater volume of the enclosure than can the single point equalizer above. Computer simulation results are presented of equalizing the frequency responses from a loudspeaker to various typical ear positions, in a room with dimensions and acoustic damping typical of a car interior, using the two approaches outlined above. Adaptive filter algorithms, which can automatically adjust the coefficients of a digital equalization filter to achieve this minimization, will also be discussed.

  14. A Dynamic Tap Allocation for Concurrent CMA-DD Equalizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trindade, Diego von B. M.; Halmenschlager, Vitor; Ortolan, Leonardo; De Castro, Maria C. F.; De Castro, Fernando C. C.; Ourique, Fabrício

    2010-12-01

    This paper proposes a dynamic tap allocation for the concurrent CMA-DD equalizer as a low complexity solution for the blind channel deconvolution problem. The number of taps is a crucial factor which affects the performance and the complexity of most adaptive equalizers. Generally an equalizer requires a large number of taps in order to cope with long delays in the channel multipath profile. Simulations show that the proposed new blind equalizer is able to solve the blind channel deconvolution problem with a specified and reduced number of active taps. As a result, it minimizes the output excess mean square error due to inactive taps during and after the equalizer convergence and the hardware complexity as well.

  15. Electronegativity Equalization and Partial Charge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, R. T.

    1974-01-01

    This article elaborates the relationship between covalent radius, homonuclear bond energy, and electronegativity, and sets the background for bond energy calculation by discussing the nature of heteronuclear covalent bonding on the basis of electronegativity equalization and particle charge. (DT)

  16. Equal Education and the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanks, Hershel

    1970-01-01

    A number of court cases are cited which trace the development of various definitions and interpretations of the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution as would be applicable to inadequate" schools. (DM)

  17. Equal Pay for Comparable Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Nancy Lloyd; Rothman, Daniel A.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the legal battleground upon which one struggle for the equality of women is being fought. Updates a civil rights decision of crucial importance to nursing--Lemons v City and County of Denver. (JOW)

  18. Electronegativity Equalization with Pauling Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratsch, Steven G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses electronegativity equalization using Pauling units. Although Pauling has qualitatively defined electronegativity as the power of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to itself, Pauling electronegativities are treated in this paper as prebonded, isolated-atom quantities. (JN)

  19. Adapting to the Revolution of Equal Opportunity for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Cornelia W.

    1979-01-01

    Federal regulations regarding the handicapped pose problems for recipients of federal aid, but higher education's reactions have been more positive than negative. The principle problems seem to be compliance costs, the need for interpretation of the regulations, and difficulties in the areas of admissions and academic requirements. (Author/JMD)

  20. Equal Employment + Equal Pay = Multiple Problems for Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbach, Sheldon Elliot; Reback, Joyce E.

    1974-01-01

    Issues involved in government regulation of university employment practices are discussed: confidentiality of records, pregnancy as a disability, alleged discrimination in benefits, tests and other employment criteria, seniority and layoff, reverse discrimination, use of statistics for determination of discrimination, and the Equal Pay Act. (JT)

  1. A Perspective on Diversity, Equality and Equity in Swedish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Olof; Davis, Anna; Geijer, Luule

    2007-01-01

    This study presents policy and theory as they apply to diversity, equality and equity in Swedish social and educational policy. All education in Sweden should, according to the curriculum (Lpo 94, 1994, p. 5) be of equivalent value, irrespective of where in the country it is provided and education should be adapted to each pupil's circumstances…

  2. Genomics and equal opportunity ethics.

    PubMed

    Cappelen, A W; Norheim, O F; Tungodden, B

    2008-05-01

    Genomics provides information on genetic susceptibility to diseases and new possibilities for interventions which can fundamentally alter the design of fair health policies. The aim of this paper is to explore implications of genomics from the perspective of equal opportunity ethics. The ideal of equal opportunity requires that individuals are held responsible for some, but not all, factors that affect their health. Informational problems, however, often make it difficult to implement the ideal of equal opportunity in the context of healthcare. In this paper, examples are considered of how new genetic information may affect the way individual responsibility for choice is assigned. It is also argued that genomics may result in relocation of the responsibility cut by providing both new information and new technology. Finally, how genomics may affect healthcare policies and the market for health insurance is discussed. PMID:18448717

  3. Higher Education and Equal Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnigan, John J.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of the Bakke case, in which the courts first encountered the question of legality of reverse discrimination, is explored; its constitutional significance is examined. It is concluded that the virtue of the decision is in its support of affirmative action and its equal protection implications. (MSE)

  4. Primer of Equal Employment Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Howard J.

    This booklet presents laws and court cases concerning discrimination in hiring. It begins with a presentation of the laws and orders regulating equal employment opportunity and the remedies available. It lists those employees and employers to whom the laws apply and exemptions. Sections deal with discrimination on the basis of race, sex, sexual…

  5. Extending Understanding of Equal Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfuss, Elisabeth T.

    1988-01-01

    Presents four strategies for teaching secondary students about equal protection clause of the U.S. Constitution's Fourteenth Amendment. To be taught by the classroom teacher or a visiting lawyer, these strategies use such methods as a panel discussion and examination of Fourteenth Amendment court cases to accomplish their goals. (GEA)

  6. The Road to Racial Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Beverly Daniel

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how he was born in 1954, just four months after the Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision outlawed the "separate but equal" doctrine of school segregation. He discusses how that fact has shaped his life immeasurably. Beginning with entering the world in Tallahassee, Fla., where his father taught…

  7. Equalizing Educational Opportunity Through Funding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGary, Carroll R.

    This speech incorporates a major policy statement regarding school subsidies in Maine. The author discusses equality of educational opportunity; and he comments on the property tax, wealth-connected inequities, and class action suits. The speech focuses on a discussion of the Maine subsidy law and its effects; as well as the Maine property, sales,…

  8. The Forces of Information Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidow, William H.

    1996-01-01

    It is argued that college trustees and campus executives must understand the tools of information technology and be open to the changes created by equalized access to information, even if they threaten traditions and symbols. This means addressing new issues of organizational functions, changes in the order of teaching/learning and life events,…

  9. Religious Freedom vs. Sex Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    This essay examines Susan Moller Okin's writing on conflicts between religious freedom and sex equality, and her criticism of "political liberal" approaches to these conflicts, which I take to be a part of her lifelong critique of the public-private distinction. I argue that, while Okin ultimately accepted a version of the distinction, she was…

  10. Equalization among Florida School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Kern; Shiver, Lee

    1983-01-01

    This statistical analysis of funding equalization from 1970 to 1981 evaluates the distributional equity achieved by Florida's school finance plan and examines the relationship between selected per pupil revenue measures and variables thought to influence school district spending, concluding that greater equity has not been attained. (MJL)

  11. Bias or equality? Unconscious thought equally integrates temporally scattered information.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiansheng; Gao, Qiyang; Zhou, Jifan; Li, Xinyu; Zhang, Meng; Shen, Mowei

    2014-04-01

    In previous experiments on unconscious thought, information was presented to participants in one continuous session; however, in daily life, information is delivered in a temporally partitioned way. We examined whether unconscious thought could equally integrate temporally scattered information when making overall evaluations. When presenting participants with information in two temporally partitioned sessions, participants' overall evaluation was based on neither the information in the first session (Experiment 1) nor that in the second session (Experiment 2); instead, information in both sessions were equally integrated to reach a final judgment. Conscious thought, however, overemphasized information in the second session. Experiments 3 and 4 further ruled out possible influencing factors including differences in the distributions of positive/negative attributes in the first and second sessions and on-line judgment. These findings suggested that unconscious thought can integrate information from a wider range of periods during an evaluation, while conscious thought cannot. PMID:24583456

  12. Office of Equal Opportunity Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Office of Equal Opportunity Programs works to provide quality service for all programs and/or to assist the Center in becoming a model workplace. During the summer of 2004, I worked with Deborah Cotleur along with other staff members to create and modify customer satisfaction surveys. This office aims to assist in developing a model workplace by providing functions as a change agent to the center by serving as an advisor to management to ensure equity throughout the Center. In addition, the office serves as a mediator for the Center in addressing issues and concerns. Lastly, the office provides assistance to employees to enable attainment of personal and organizational goals. The Office of Equal Opportunities is a staff office which reports and provides advice to the Center Director and Executive Leadership, implements laws, regulations, and presidential executive orders, and provides center wide leadership and assistance to NASA GRC employees. Some of the major responsibilities of the office include working with the discrimination complaints program, special emphasis programs (advisory groups), management support, monitoring and evaluation, contract compliance, and community outreach. During my internship in this office, my main objective was to create four customer satisfaction surveys based on EO retreats, EO observances, EO advisory boards, and EO mediation/counseling. I created these surveys after conducting research on past events and surveys as well as similar survey research created and conducted by other NASA centers, program for EO Advisory group members, leadership training sessions for supervisors, preventing sexual harassment training sessions, and observance events. I also conducted research on the style and format from feedback surveys from the Marshall Equal Opportunity website, the Goddard website, and the main NASA website. Using the material from the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs at Glenn Research Center along with my

  13. The equal right to drink.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Laura A

    2014-11-01

    The starting place for this essay is Knupfer and Room's insight that more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication tend to be selectively applied to the economically dependent segments of society, such as women. However, since these authors wrote in 1964, women in the US and many other societies around the globe have experienced rising economic independence. The essay considers how the moral categories of acceptable drinking and drunkenness may have shifted alongside women's rising economic independence, and looks at evidence on the potential consequences for women's health and wellbeing. I argue that, as women have gained economic independence, changes in drinking norms have produced two different kinds of negative unintended consequences for women at high and low extremes of economic spectrum. As liberated women of the middle and upper classes have become more economically equal to men, they have enjoyed the right to drink with less restraint. For them, alongside the equal right to drink has come greater equality in exposure to alcohol-attributable harms, abuse and dependence. I further suggest that, as societies become more liberated, the economic dependency of low-income women is brought into greater question. Under such conditions, women in poverty-particularly those economically dependent on the state, such as welfare mothers-have become subject to more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication, and more punitive social controls. PMID:25303360

  14. Mobile phone imaging module with extended depth of focus based on axial irradiance equalization phase coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Hsin-Yueh; Chen, Po-Chang; Chang, Chuan-Chung; Chang, Chir-Weei; Yang, Sidney S.; Chang, Horng

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a mobile phone imaging module with extended depth of focus (EDoF) by using axial irradiance equalization (AIE) phase coding. From radiation energy transfer along optical axis with constant irradiance, the focal depth enhancement solution is acquired. We introduce the axial irradiance equalization phase coding to design a two-element 2-megapixel mobile phone lens for trade off focus-like aberrations such as field curvature, astigmatism and longitudinal chromatic defocus. The design results produce modulation transfer functions (MTF) and phase transfer functions (PTF) with substantially similar characteristics at different field and defocus positions within Nyquist pass band. Besides, the measurement results are shown. Simultaneously, the design results and measurement results are compared. Next, for the EDoF mobile phone camera imaging system, we present a digital decoding design method and calculate a minimum mean square error (MMSE) filter. Then, the filter is applied to correct the substantially similar blur image. Last, the blur and de-blur images are demonstrated.

  15. Equal is as equal does: challenging Vatican views on women.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The authors of this piece are women from the Roman Catholic tradition who are critical of the Vatican position on women's rights. The Report of the Holy See in Preparation for the Fourth World Conference on Women reveals a religious fundamentalism that misuses tradition and anthropology to limit women's roles and rights. The Vatican is itself a self-proclaimed state that offers women neither opportunities nor protections within its own organization, and there is no evidence of women's participation in the preparation of its report. The Vatican document constructs a vision of women and men in which men are normative persons, whose dignity is conferred by their humanity, and women are the variant other, defined by and granted dignity by their reproductive and mothering functions. The Vatican document is anti-feminist. It criticizes the "radical feminists" of the 1960s for trying to deny sexual differences, and accuses today's Western feminists of ignoring the needs of women in developing countries while pursuing selfish and hedonistic goals. It makes no recognition of the work of feminists to improve the lives of women worldwide. The Vatican document claims to support women's equality, but it qualifies each statement of equality with a presumption of difference. The document defines women as vulnerable without naming men as responsible for the oppression and violence to which women are vulnerable. It ridicules as feminist cant the well-documented fact that the home is the setting of most violence against women. The Vatican decries the suffering families undergo as a result of cumpulsory birth control and abortion policies, while it would deny families sex education, contraceptives, and safe abortion, thereby making pregnancy cumpulsory. A new vision of social justice is needed, one that: 1) rests on a radical equality, in which both women and men are expected to contribute to work, education, culture, morality, and reproduction; 2) accepts a "discipleship of equals

  16. The Business of Equal Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Reginald D.

    1992-01-01

    The author describes his journey from poor African-American youth in the rural South to successful businessman. He discusses the Inroads program, an internship for African-American and Hispanic youth and advises giving up victimhood and adapting to the mainstream of capitalism. (SK)

  17. Midwives, gender equality and feminism.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Denis

    2016-03-01

    Gender inequality and the harmful effects of patriarchy are sustaining the wide spread oppression of women across the world and this is also having an impact on maternity services with unacceptable rates of maternal mortality, the continued under investment in the midwifery profession and the limiting of women's place of birth options. However alongside these effects, the current zeitgeist is affirming an alignment of feminism and gender equality such that both have a high profile in public discourse. This presents a once in a generation opportunity for midwives to self-declare as feminists and commit to righting the wrongs of this most pernicious form of discrimination. PMID:27044191

  18. Shape from equal thickness contours

    SciTech Connect

    Cong, G.; Parvin, B.

    1998-05-10

    A unique imaging modality based on Equal Thickness Contours (ETC) has introduced a new opportunity for 3D shape reconstruction from multiple views. We present a computational framework for representing each view of an object in terms of its object thickness, and then integrating these representations into a 3D surface by algebraic reconstruction. The object thickness is inferred by grouping curve segments that correspond to points of second derivative maxima. At each step of the process, we use some form of regularization to ensure closeness to the original features, as well as neighborhood continuity. We apply our approach to images of a sub-micron crystal structure obtained through a holographic process.

  19. Educational Equality: Luck Egalitarian, Pluralist and Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, John

    2014-01-01

    The basic principle of educational equality is that each child should receive an equally good education. This sounds appealing, but is rather vague and needs substantial working out. Also, educational equality faces all the objections to equality per se, plus others specific to its subject matter. Together these have eroded confidence in the…

  20. Gender equality and women empowerment.

    PubMed

    Dargan, R

    1996-01-01

    This article lists 11 suggestions for empowering women that the government of India should take, if it has a sincere commitment to gender equality and women's empowerment grounded in social change and not just rhetoric: 1) education should be made compulsory for all female children and places held on a 50/50 basis in all technical institutions; 2) a uniform civil code should be adopted for all citizens regardless of cast, creed, and religion; 3) women should have an equal right to own property and receive inheritance; 4) the National Women's Commission should be enlarged, representative of diversity, and effective in making policy decisions related to welfare, education, recruitment, and promotion; 5) a State Women's Commission should be established with affiliates at the block, district, and division levels; 6) the National and State Women's Commission should be established as a Statutory Body with binding decisions mandating government action; 7) the National and State Women's Commissions should have transparent functions, be regulatory, and offer workshops and seminars for women; 8) state governments should not interfere in the functions of National and State Women's Commissions; 9) women should fill 50% of all Center and State government service posts and concessions should be made on minimum academic qualifications and completed years of service, until all positions are filled; 10) 50% of the seats of Parliament should be reserved for women in both the State Legislature, Council of Ministry Boards, Corporations, Committees, and Commissions; and 11) the Constitution should provide for women judges in courts of law. PMID:12179426

  1. All equal-area map projections are created equal, but some are more equal than others

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usery, E.L.; Seong, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution regional and global raster databases are currently being generated for a variety of environmental and scientific modeling applications. The projection of these data from geographic coordinates to a plane coordinate system is subject to significant areal error. Sources of error include users selecting an inappropriate projection or incorrect parameters for a given projection, algorithmic errors in commercial geographic information system (GIS) software, and errors resulting from the projection of data in the raster format. To assess the latter type of errors, the accuracy of raster projection was analyzed by two methods. First, a set of 12 one-degree by one-degree quadrilaterals placed at various latitudes was projected at several raster resolutions and compared to the projection of a vector representation of the same quadrilaterals. Second, several different raster resolutions of land cover data for Asia were projected and the total areas of 21 land cover categories were tabulated and compared. While equal-area projections are designed to specifically preserve area, the comparison of the results of the one-degree by one-degree quadrilaterals with the common equal area projections (e.g., the Mollweide) indicates a considerable variance in the one-degree area after projection. Similarly, the empirical comparison of land cover areas for Asia among various projections shows that total areas of land cover vary with projection type, raster resolution, and latitude. No single projection is best for all resolutions and all latitudes. While any of the equal-area projections tested are reasonably accurate for most applications with resolutions of eight-kilometer pixels or smaller, significant variances in accuracies appear at larger pixel sizes.

  2. A co-designed equalization, modulation, and coding scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peile, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    The commercial impact and technical success of Trellis Coded Modulation seems to illustrate that, if Shannon's capacity is going to be neared, the modulation and coding of an analogue signal ought to be viewed as an integrated process. More recent work has focused on going beyond the gains obtained for Average White Gaussian Noise and has tried to combine the coding/modulation with adaptive equalization. The motive is to gain similar advances on less perfect or idealized channels.

  3. Klystron equalization for RF feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Corredoura, P.

    1993-01-01

    The next generation of colliding beam storage rings support higher luminosities by significantly increasing the number of bunches and decreasing the spacing between respective bunches. The heavy beam loading requires large RF cavity detuning which drives several lower coupled bunch modes very strongly. One technique which has proven to be very successful in reducing the coupled bunch mode driving impedance is RF feedback around the klystron-cavity combination. The gain and bandwidth of the feedback loop is limited by the group delay around the feedback loop. Existing klystrons on the world market have not been optimized for this application and contribute a large portion of the total loop group delay. This paper describes a technique to reduce klystron group delay by adding an equalizing filter to the klystron RF drive. Such a filter was built and tested on a 500 kill klystron as part of the on going PEP-II R D effort here at SLAC.

  4. Klystron equalization for RF feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Corredoura, P.

    1993-01-01

    The next generation of colliding beam storage rings support higher luminosities by significantly increasing the number of bunches and decreasing the spacing between respective bunches. The heavy beam loading requires large RF cavity detuning which drives several lower coupled bunch modes very strongly. One technique which has proven to be very successful in reducing the coupled bunch mode driving impedance is RF feedback around the klystron-cavity combination. The gain and bandwidth of the feedback loop is limited by the group delay around the feedback loop. Existing klystrons on the world market have not been optimized for this application and contribute a large portion of the total loop group delay. This paper describes a technique to reduce klystron group delay by adding an equalizing filter to the klystron RF drive. Such a filter was built and tested on a 500 kill klystron as part of the on going PEP-II R&D effort here at SLAC.

  5. Brightness-equalized quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sung Jun; Zahid, Mohammad U.; Le, Phuong; Ma, Liang; Entenberg, David; Harney, Allison S.; Condeelis, John; Smith, Andrew M.

    2015-10-01

    As molecular labels for cells and tissues, fluorescent probes have shaped our understanding of biological structures and processes. However, their capacity for quantitative analysis is limited because photon emission rates from multicolour fluorophores are dissimilar, unstable and often unpredictable, which obscures correlations between measured fluorescence and molecular concentration. Here we introduce a new class of light-emitting quantum dots with tunable and equalized fluorescence brightness across a broad range of colours. The key feature is independent tunability of emission wavelength, extinction coefficient and quantum yield through distinct structural domains in the nanocrystal. Precise tuning eliminates a 100-fold red-to-green brightness mismatch of size-tuned quantum dots at the ensemble and single-particle levels, which substantially improves quantitative imaging accuracy in biological tissue. We anticipate that these materials engineering principles will vastly expand the optical engineering landscape of fluorescent probes, facilitate quantitative multicolour imaging in living tissue and improve colour tuning in light-emitting devices.

  6. Brightness-equalized quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung Jun; Zahid, Mohammad U.; Le, Phuong; Ma, Liang; Entenberg, David; Harney, Allison S.; Condeelis, John; Smith, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    As molecular labels for cells and tissues, fluorescent probes have shaped our understanding of biological structures and processes. However, their capacity for quantitative analysis is limited because photon emission rates from multicolour fluorophores are dissimilar, unstable and often unpredictable, which obscures correlations between measured fluorescence and molecular concentration. Here we introduce a new class of light-emitting quantum dots with tunable and equalized fluorescence brightness across a broad range of colours. The key feature is independent tunability of emission wavelength, extinction coefficient and quantum yield through distinct structural domains in the nanocrystal. Precise tuning eliminates a 100-fold red-to-green brightness mismatch of size-tuned quantum dots at the ensemble and single-particle levels, which substantially improves quantitative imaging accuracy in biological tissue. We anticipate that these materials engineering principles will vastly expand the optical engineering landscape of fluorescent probes, facilitate quantitative multicolour imaging in living tissue and improve colour tuning in light-emitting devices. PMID:26437175

  7. Extended equal area criterion revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, X.; Wehenkel, L.; Belhomme, R.; Rousseaux, P.; Pavella, M. ); Euxibie, E.; Heilbronn, B.; Lesigne, J.F. )

    1992-08-01

    This paper reports on a case study conducted on the EHV French power system in order to revisit the extended equal area criterion and test its suitability as a fast transient stability indicator. The assumptions underlying the method are reexamined, causes liable to invalidate them are identified, and indices are devised to automatically circumvent them. The selection of candidate critical machines is also reconsidered and an augmented criterion is proposed. The various improvements are developed and tested on about 1000 stability scenarios, covering the entire 400-kV system; the severity of the scenarios, resulting from the combination of weakened both pre- and post-fault configurations, subjects the method to particularly stringent conditions. The obtained results show that the devised tools contribute to significantly reinforce its robustness and reliability.

  8. The across frequency independence of equalization of interaural time delay in the equalization-cancellation model of binaural unmasking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akeroyd, Michael A.

    2004-08-01

    The equalization stage in the equalization-cancellation model of binaural unmasking compensates for the interaural time delay (ITD) of a masking noise by introducing an opposite, internal delay [N. I. Durlach, in Foundations of Modern Auditory Theory, Vol. II., edited by J. V. Tobias (Academic, New York, 1972)]. Culling and Summerfield [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 785-797 (1995)] developed a multi-channel version of this model in which equalization was ``free'' to use the optimal delay in each channel. Two experiments were conducted to test if equalization was indeed free or if it was ``restricted'' to the same delay in all channels. One experiment measured binaural detection thresholds, using an adaptive procedure, for 1-, 5-, or 17-component tones against a broadband masking noise, in three binaural configurations (N0S180, N180S0, and N90S270). The thresholds for the 1-component stimuli were used to normalize the levels of each of the 5- and 17-component stimuli so that they were equally detectable. If equalization was restricted, then, for the 5- and 17-component stimuli, the N90S270 and N180S0 configurations would yield a greater threshold than the N0S180 configurations. No such difference was found. A subsequent experiment measured binaural detection thresholds, via psychometric functions, for a 2-component complex tone in the same three binaural configurations. Again, no differential effect of configuration was observed. An analytic model of the detection of a complex tone showed that the results were more consistent with free equalization than restricted equalization, although the size of the differences was found to depend on the shape of the psychometric function for detection.

  9. Promoting Racial Equality in the Nursing Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foolchand, M. K.

    1995-01-01

    Equality in nursing education and the profession can be promoted in the following ways: a working policy on racism and equal opportunities; curriculum content that explores stereotypes, values, attitudes, and prejudices; and multicultural health research, education, and promotion. (SK)

  10. The neural bases for valuing social equality.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Ryuta; Yomogida, Yukihito; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    The neural basis of how humans value and pursue social equality has become a major topic in social neuroscience research. Although recent studies have identified a set of brain regions and possible mechanisms that are involved in the neural processing of equality of outcome between individuals, how the human brain processes equality of opportunity remains unknown. In this review article, first we describe the importance of the distinction between equality of outcome and equality of opportunity, which has been emphasized in philosophy and economics. Next, we discuss possible approaches for empirical characterization of human valuation of equality of opportunity vs. equality of outcome. Understanding how these two concepts are distinct and interact with each other may provide a better explanation of complex human behaviors concerning fairness and social equality. PMID:25452125

  11. 34 CFR 108.6 - Equal access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equal access. 108.6 Section 108.6 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EQUAL ACCESS TO PUBLIC SCHOOL FACILITIES FOR THE BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA AND OTHER DESIGNATED YOUTH GROUPS § 108.6 Equal access. (a) General....

  12. 76 FR 59237 - Equal Credit Opportunity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... 7100 AD 78 Equal Credit Opportunity AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Board is publishing a final rule amending Regulation B (Equal Credit Opportunity). Section 704B of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA), as added by Section 1071 of the...

  13. 45 CFR 98.43 - Equal access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal access. 98.43 Section 98.43 Public Welfare... Operations (Child Care Services)-Lead Agency and Provider Requirements § 98.43 Equal access. (a) The Lead... sufficient to ensure equal access, for eligible families in the area served by the Lead Agency, to child...

  14. 45 CFR 98.43 - Equal access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equal access. 98.43 Section 98.43 Public Welfare... Operations (Child Care Services)-Lead Agency and Provider Requirements § 98.43 Equal access. (a) The Lead... sufficient to ensure equal access, for eligible families in the area served by the Lead Agency, to child...

  15. Does 0.999... Really Equal 1?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Anderson; Baldwin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This article confronts the issue of why secondary and post-secondary students resist accepting the equality of 0.999... and 1, even after they have seen and understood logical arguments for the equality. In some sense, we might say that the equality holds by definition of 0.999..., but this definition depends upon accepting properties of the real…

  16. Gandhigram: fostering equality through development.

    PubMed

    Devi, R K

    1991-12-01

    A noticeable trend towards 1-child families reveals the success of Gandhigram, an integrated rural development program in Tamil Nadu, India. Founded in 1947 by T.S. Soundram, Gandhigram has adhered to Gandhian principles of truth, nonviolence, castlessness, and equality between the sexes. The program has combined health and family planning with social welfare, education, and economic development. From the outset, Gandhigram has sought community participation, including the involvement of women. Girls have been encouraged to attend school up to at least the 10th level, and employment opportunities for women have been increased. Women's increased economic independence and level of education have influenced their decision to delay marriage by about 2 1/2 years, to choose their own partners, and to decide on the number of children they want. And increasingly, women are opting to limit family size to 2 -- and sometimes 1 -- child. Women are choosing to undergo tubectomies at a younger age, partly because of the availability of recanalization surgery, which has allowed mothers who have lost a child to conceive again. Unlike typical government family planning programs, which usually provide only contraception to meet the objective of a small family norm, Gandhigram also offers infertility services. Not all of Gandhigram's efforts have resulted in success. For example, a plan to develop a health insurance program did not succeed. However, Gandhigram's 44 years of experience have revealed the necessary elements for success. These elements include community participation, the participation of women through educational and employment programs, and easy access to services. PMID:12317116

  17. Hybrid time-frequency domain equalization for LED nonlinearity mitigation in OFDM-based VLC systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Huang, Zhitong; Liu, Xiaoshuang; Ji, Yuefeng

    2015-01-12

    A novel hybrid time-frequency domain equalization scheme is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to mitigate the white light emitting diode (LED) nonlinearity in visible light communication (VLC) systems based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). We handle the linear and nonlinear distortion separately in a nonlinear OFDM system. The linear part is equalized in frequency domain and the nonlinear part is compensated by an adaptive nonlinear time domain equalizer (N-TDE). The experimental results show that with only a small number of parameters the nonlinear equalizer can efficiently mitigate the LED nonlinearity. With the N-TDE the modulation index (MI) and BER performance can be significantly enhanced. PMID:25835706

  18. A New Blind Equalization Method Based on Negentropy Minimization for Constant Modulus Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sooyong; Chung, Jong-Moon; Jeong, Wun-Cheol

    A new blind adaptive equalization method for constant modulus signals based on minimizing the approximate negentropy of the estimation error for a finite-length equalizer is presented. We consider the approximate negentropy using nonpolynomial expansions of the estimation error as a new performance criterion to improve the performance of a linear equalizer using the conventional constant modulus algorithm (CMA). Negentropy includes higher order statistical information and its minimization provides improved convergence, performance, and accuracy compared to traditional methods, such as the CMA, in terms of the bit error rate (BER). Also, the proposed equalizer shows faster convergence characteristics than the CMA equalizer and is more robust to nonlinear distortion than the CMA equalizer.

  19. 78 FR 53231 - Women's Equality Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... hundred and thirty- eighth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-21188 Filed 8-27-13; 11:15 am] Billing code... march toward gender equality. We have fought for equal pay, prohibited gender discrimination in America... strategy to close any gender pay gap within the Federal workforce. To build on this work, I will...

  20. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  1. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  2. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  3. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  4. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  5. School Law: A Question of Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the Equal Access Act (EAA) as it pertains to high-school student clubs. It raises basics questions about EAA: What does "equal" mean? What level of access is required? Does the First Amendment's free-speech clause offer broader protection to student clubs than the EAA? (WFA)

  6. Vocational Education and Equality of Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Benjamin; Feinberg, Walter

    1990-01-01

    Examines the concepts of equality of opportunity and equality of educational opportunity and their relationship to vocational education. Traces the history of vocational education. Delineates the distinction between training and education as enumerated in Aristotelian philosophy. Discusses the role vocational education can play in the educative…

  7. Equal Plate Charges on Series Capacitors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illman, B. L.; Carlson, G. T.

    1994-01-01

    Provides a line of reasoning in support of the contention that the equal charge proposition is at best an approximation. Shows how the assumption of equal plate charge on capacitors in series contradicts the conservative nature of the electric field. (ZWH)

  8. Brown and the Politics of Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Frank

    1994-01-01

    Assesses the progress of equality since Brown v Topeka Board of Education and argues that there still has not been a full implementation of that Supreme Court decree. School integration is shown to be declining. It is recommended that The court could merge the equality standards of Plessy v Ferguson with Brown to provide quality education. (GR)

  9. Nonequilibrium equalities in absolutely irreversible processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murashita, Yuto; Funo, Ken; Ueda, Masahito

    2015-03-01

    Nonequilibrium equalities have attracted considerable attention in the context of statistical mechanics and information thermodynamics. Integral nonequilibrium equalities reveal an ensemble property of the entropy production σ as = 1 . Although nonequilibrium equalities apply to rather general nonequilibrium situations, they break down in absolutely irreversible processes, where the forward-path probability vanishes and the entropy production diverges. We identify the mathematical origins of this inapplicability as the singularity of probability measure. As a result, we generalize conventional integral nonequilibrium equalities to absolutely irreversible processes as = 1 -λS , where λS is the probability of the singular part defined based on Lebesgue's decomposition theorem. The acquired equality contains two physical quantities related to irreversibility: σ characterizing ordinary irreversibility and λS describing absolute irreversibility. An inequality derived from the obtained equality demonstrates the absolute irreversibility leads to the fundamental lower bound on the entropy production. We demonstrate the validity of the obtained equality for a simple model.

  10. Equality Hypocrisy, Inconsistency, and Prejudice: The Unequal Application of the Universal Human Right to Equality

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In Western culture, there appears to be widespread endorsement of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (which stresses equality and freedom). But do people really apply their equality values equally, or are their principles and application systematically discrepant, resulting in equality hypocrisy? The present study, conducted with a representative national sample of adults in the United Kingdom (N = 2,895), provides the first societal test of whether people apply their value of “equality for all” similarly across multiple types of status minority (women, disabled people, people aged over 70, Blacks, Muslims, and gay people). Drawing on theories of intergroup relations and stereotyping we examined, relation to each of these groups, respondents’ judgments of how important it is to satisfy their particular wishes, whether there should be greater or reduced equality of employment opportunities, and feelings of social distance. The data revealed a clear gap between general equality values and responses to these specific measures. Respondents prioritized equality more for “paternalized” groups (targets of benevolent prejudice: women, disabled, over 70) than others (Black people, Muslims, and homosexual people), demonstrating significant inconsistency. Respondents who valued equality more, or who expressed higher internal or external motivation to control prejudice, showed greater consistency in applying equality. However, even respondents who valued equality highly showed significant divergence in their responses to paternalized versus nonpaternalized groups, revealing a degree of hypocrisy. Implications for strategies to promote equality and challenge prejudice are discussed. PMID:25914516

  11. New spatial diversity equalizer based on PLL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Wei

    2011-10-01

    A new Spatial Diversity Equalizer (SDE) based on phase-locked loop (PLL) is proposed to overcome the inter-symbol interference (ISI) and phase rotations simultaneously in the digital communication system. The proposed SDE consists of equal gain combining technique based on a famous blind equalization algorithm constant modulus algorithm (CMA) and a PLL. Compared with conventional SDE, the proposed SDE has not only faster convergence rate and lower residual error but also the ability to recover carrier phase rotation. The efficiency of the method is proved by computer simulation.

  12. Contributorships Are Not 'Weighable' to be Equal.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2016-05-01

    A new trend to assign some authors as 'first co-authors' is noticeable in scientific publications as a statement highlighting that two or more authors 'contributed equally' to a reported work. However, the requirements of scientific rigor, honesty, and accuracy in academic standards make such statements invalid and, thus, should be avoided. A potential solution is to specify the role of each co-author, from study conception to communication of results, and let readers judge the importance of each contribution by themselves. Alternatively, authors should demonstrate how they contributed 'equally' when they are defined as 'equal contributors'. PMID:27025412

  13. The Bakke Opinions and Equal Protection Doctrine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karst, Kenneth L.; Horowitz, Harold W.

    1979-01-01

    Constitutional issues addressed in the Supreme Court's decision are reviewed. The opinions rendered by Justice Powell are viewed as reflections of the weakness of recent equal protection theory, and as signs of future doctrine. (GC)

  14. 7 CFR 622.6 - Equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of Agriculture (7 CFR Part 15), which provide that no person in the United States shall, on the... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS General § 622.6 Equal opportunity. The Pub. L. 83-566 and...

  15. 7 CFR 622.6 - Equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of Agriculture (7 CFR Part 15), which provide that no person in the United States shall, on the... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS General § 622.6 Equal opportunity. The Pub. L. 83-566 and...

  16. Turbo Equalization Using Partial Gaussian Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuanzong; Wang, Zhongyong; Manchon, Carles Navarro; Sun, Peng; Guo, Qinghua; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    2016-09-01

    This paper deals with turbo-equalization for coded data transmission over intersymbol interference (ISI) channels. We propose a message-passing algorithm that uses the expectation-propagation rule to convert messages passed from the demodulator-decoder to the equalizer and computes messages returned by the equalizer by using a partial Gaussian approximation (PGA). Results from Monte Carlo simulations show that this approach leads to a significant performance improvement compared to state-of-the-art turbo-equalizers and allows for trading performance with complexity. We exploit the specific structure of the ISI channel model to significantly reduce the complexity of the PGA compared to that considered in the initial paper proposing the method.

  17. 7 CFR 622.6 - Equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Agriculture (7 CFR Part 15), which provide that no person in the United States shall, on the... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS General § 622.6 Equal opportunity. The Pub. L. 83-566 and...

  18. 29 CFR 1620.14 - Testing equality of jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Testing equality of jobs. 1620.14 Section 1620.14 Labor... Testing equality of jobs. (a) In general. What constitutes equal skill, equal effort, or equal..., or responsibility required for the performance of jobs will not render the equal pay...

  19. 29 CFR 1620.14 - Testing equality of jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing equality of jobs. 1620.14 Section 1620.14 Labor... Testing equality of jobs. (a) In general. What constitutes equal skill, equal effort, or equal..., or responsibility required for the performance of jobs will not render the equal pay...

  20. 29 CFR 1620.14 - Testing equality of jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Testing equality of jobs. 1620.14 Section 1620.14 Labor... Testing equality of jobs. (a) In general. What constitutes equal skill, equal effort, or equal..., or responsibility required for the performance of jobs will not render the equal pay...

  1. 29 CFR 1620.14 - Testing equality of jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Testing equality of jobs. 1620.14 Section 1620.14 Labor... Testing equality of jobs. (a) In general. What constitutes equal skill, equal effort, or equal..., or responsibility required for the performance of jobs will not render the equal pay...

  2. 29 CFR 1620.14 - Testing equality of jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Testing equality of jobs. 1620.14 Section 1620.14 Labor... Testing equality of jobs. (a) In general. What constitutes equal skill, equal effort, or equal..., or responsibility required for the performance of jobs will not render the equal pay...

  3. Adaptive Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive managem...

  4. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Equal Opportunity and Treatment Classroom Course 17-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    These instructor lesson plans and teaching guides and student study guides for a secondary-postsecondary-level course for equal opportunity and treatment personnel are one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Purpose stated for the…

  5. Criteria for equality in two entropic inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Shirokov, M. E.

    2014-07-31

    We obtain a simple criterion for local equality between the constrained Holevo capacity and the quantum mutual information of a quantum channel. This shows that the set of all states for which this equality holds is determined by the kernel of the channel (as a linear map). Applications to Bosonic Gaussian channels are considered. It is shown that for a Gaussian channel having no completely depolarizing components the above characteristics may coincide only at non-Gaussian mixed states and a criterion for the existence of such states is given. All the obtained results may be reformulated as conditions for equality between the constrained Holevo capacity of a quantum channel and the input von Neumann entropy. Bibliography: 20 titles. (paper)

  6. Overpaying morbidity adjusters in risk equalization models.

    PubMed

    van Kleef, R C; van Vliet, R C J A; van de Ven, W P M M

    2016-09-01

    Most competitive social health insurance markets include risk equalization to compensate insurers for predictable variation in healthcare expenses. Empirical literature shows that even the most sophisticated risk equalization models-with advanced morbidity adjusters-substantially undercompensate insurers for selected groups of high-risk individuals. In the presence of premium regulation, these undercompensations confront consumers and insurers with incentives for risk selection. An important reason for the undercompensations is that not all information with predictive value regarding healthcare expenses is appropriate for use as a morbidity adjuster. To reduce incentives for selection regarding specific groups we propose overpaying morbidity adjusters that are already included in the risk equalization model. This paper illustrates the idea of overpaying by merging data on morbidity adjusters and healthcare expenses with health survey information, and derives three preconditions for meaningful application. Given these preconditions, we think overpaying may be particularly useful for pharmacy-based cost groups. PMID:26420555

  7. All Are Equal, but Some Are More Equal than Others: Managerialism and Gender Equality in Higher Education in Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teelken, Christine; Deem, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate what impact new regimes of management and governance, including new managerialism, have had on perceptions of gender equality at universities in three Western European countries. While in accordance with national laws and EU directives, contemporary current management approaches in universities…

  8. 34 CFR 108.6 - Equal access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... limited to, school-related means of communication, such as bulletin board notices and literature... ACCESS TO PUBLIC SCHOOL FACILITIES FOR THE BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA AND OTHER DESIGNATED YOUTH GROUPS § 108... equal access to school premises or facilities to conduct meetings. (2) Benefits and services. Any...

  9. The Equal Access Act: Recent Court Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklun, Eugene C.

    1989-01-01

    Examines court decisions which led to the passage of the Equal Access Act of 1984. Although the act was designed to clarify the issue over the legality of permitting religious clubs to meet on school property, it may have created more confusion. Concludes that the Supreme Court may have to decide the issue. (SLM)

  10. The Path to Equal Rights in Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The litigant in a historic reverse-discrimination case against the University of Michigan, and subsequently the leader of a Michigan ballot initiative that carried the day against long odds, recounts how her simple call for equal treatment under the law persuaded the people of her state that color-conscious preferences are wrong.

  11. The Internet and Equality of Educational Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Janet Ward; Davidson, Ann Locke

    One benefit often expected to flow from Internet use in schools is an increase in equality of educational opportunity as all kinds of schools gain access to the same extraordinary set of resources. Yet, prior research suggests that patterns of technology access often mirror existing inequalities rather than mitigate them. This paper discusses the…

  12. An American Perspective on Equal Educational Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles; Perkins, Brian

    2004-01-01

    The United States Supreme Court ushered in a new era in American history on May 17, 1954 in its monumental ruling in "Brown v Board of Education," Topeka, Kansas. "Brown" is not only the Court's most significant decision on race and equal educational opportunities, but also ranks among the most important cases it has ever decided. In "Brown" a…

  13. Equal Opportunity and Racial Differences in IQ.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Joseph F.; Holland, Cynthia R.

    2002-01-01

    Administered an intelligence test to blacks and whites in 2 studies involving 254 community college students and 2 more studies involving 115 community college students. Results show that differences in knowledge between blacks and whites for items on an intelligence test, the meanings of words, can be eliminated when equal opportunities for…

  14. Power Equalization through Organization Development Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartunek, Jean M.; Keys, Christopher B.

    The effects of a three-year Organization Development (OD) intervention on power equalization were examined in seven experimental and seven control schools. The principals and teachers from experimental schools participated in OD workshops, in a project-coordinating council for planning and policy, and in school goal-setting activities. The power…

  15. 75 FR 53559 - Women's Equality Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-21904 Filed 8-30-10; 11:15 am] Billing code... education and economic opportunity, face gender-based violence, and cannot participate fully and equally in... to all Americans, regardless of gender, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, disability,...

  16. Race Equality Scheme 2005-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education (HMIE) is strongly committed to promoting race equality in the way that HMIE staff go about performing their role within Scottish education. Scottish society reflects cultural, ethnic, religious and linguistic diversity and Scottish education should be accessible to all. No-one should be disadvantaged or…

  17. When Equal Masses Don't Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newburgh, Ronald; Peidle, Joseph; Rueckner, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    We treat a modified Atwood's machine in which equal masses do not balance because of being in an accelerated frame of reference. Analysis of the problem illuminates the meaning of inertial forces, d'Alembert's principle, the use of free-body diagrams and the selection of appropriate systems for the diagrams. In spite of the range of these…

  18. Great Constitutional Ideas: Justice, Equality, and Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Isidore

    1987-01-01

    Examines the ideas of justice, equality, and property as they are represented in the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Discusses how these ideas affect the way public schools operate and the lessons educators teach or don't teach about our society. Includes ideas for classroom activities. (JDH)

  19. 77 FR 52583 - Women's Equality Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... August 29, 2012 Part IV The President Proclamation 8848--Women's Equality Day, 2012 #0; #0; #0... / Presidential Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8848 of August 24, 2012...

  20. 7 CFR 622.6 - Equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Agriculture (7 CFR Part 15), which provide that no person in the United States shall, on the... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equal opportunity. 622.6 Section 622.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  1. Three Utilities for the Equal Sign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian; Pratt, Dave

    2005-01-01

    We compare the activity of young children using a microworld and a JavaScript relational calculator with the literature on children using traditional calculators. We describe how the children constructed different meanings for the equal sign in each setting. It appears that the nature of the meaning constructed is highly dependent on specificities…

  2. Disability in the UK: Measuring Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdam, Kingsley; Afkhami, Reza; Olsen, Wendy; Thornton, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    In this article we identify the key survey data for examining the issue of equality in the lives of disabled people in the UK. Such data is essential for assessing change in quality of life over time and for the evaluation of the impact of policy initiatives. For each data source we consider definitions, data collection, issue coverage, sample…

  3. Position Paper: NO equals x Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Thomas R.; Shy, Carl M.

    1972-01-01

    Doubts about the accuracy of measured concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) in ambient air have led the Environmental Protection Agency to reassess both the analytical technique and the extent to which nitrogen oxides (NO equals x) control will need to satisfy federal laws. (BL)

  4. Gender Equality in Academia: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchester, Hilary P. M.; Browning, Lynette

    2015-01-01

    Gender equality in academia has been monitored in Australia for the past three decades so it is timely to reflect on what progress has been made, what works, and what challenges remain. When data were first published on the gender composition of staff in Australian universities in the mid-1980s women comprised 20 per cent of academic staff and…

  5. Equalizing Multi-School Curriculum by Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etowah County Board of Education, Gadsden, AL.

    A three year project aimed at providing equal educational opportunity for all students in the seven high schools of Etowah County, Alabama by implementing a county-wide curriculum using a flexible, rotating schedule, audio-graphic network, instructional television, a learning center, and individualized instruction. The report rates the project as…

  6. Equity, Equal Opportunities, Gender and Organization Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standing, Hilary; Baume, Elaine

    The issues of equity, equal opportunities, gender, and organization performance in the health care sector worldwide was examined. Information was gathered from the available literature and from individuals in 17 countries. The analysis highlighted the facts that employment equity debates and policies refer largely to high-income countries and…

  7. Gender Equality Policies and Higher Education Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berggren, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Gender equality policies regulate the Swedish labour market, including higher education. This study analyses and discusses the career development of postgraduate students in the light of labour market influences. The principle of gender separation is used to understand these effects. Swedish register data encompassing information on 585…

  8. Gender Equality in Education: Definitions and Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subrahmanian, R.

    2005-01-01

    International consensus on education priorities accords an important place to achieving gender justice in the educational sphere. Both the Dakar 'Education for All' goals and the Millennium Development goals emphasise two goals, in this regard. These two goals are distinguished as gender parity goals [achieving equal participation of girls and…

  9. Sourcebook of Equal Educational Opportunity. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1977

    This reference book offers current information about equal opportunity in education through the elimination of racial, cultural, sexist, and linguistic barriers facing minority groups. The volume consists of seven parts, plus subject and geographical indexes. The first section includes a general demographic overview of the U.S., with statistics on…

  10. Women and Employment. Policies for Equal Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This document contains the proceedings of a high-level conference on the Employment of Women, attended by labor ministers and other high officials of countries belonging to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Delegates to the conference adopted a 14-point declaration pledging themselves to achieve equality of…

  11. What Is Equality of Opportunity in Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazenby, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    There is widespread disagreement about what equality of opportunity in education requires. For some it is that each child is legally permitted to go to school. For others it is that each child receives the same educational resources. Further interpretations abound. This fact presents a problem: when politicians or academics claim they are in…

  12. The Circle and Sphere as Great Equalizers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzman, Steven

    1991-01-01

    From the equality of the ratios of the surface areas and volumes of a sphere and its circumscribed cylinder, the exploration of theorems relating the ratios of surface areas and volumes of a sphere and other circumscribed solids in three dimensions, and analogous questions relating two-dimensional concepts of perimeter and area is recounted. (MDH)

  13. Equal Justice Under Law. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Isidore; And Others

    This document is a teachers' guide to accompany the book "Equal Justice Under Law: The Supreme Court in American Life." Because the book contains a tremendous amount of detail, the guide does not attempt to explicate everything in the text. Instead the guide attempts to provide more detail on one or more of the issues covered in different sections…

  14. Racial Equality. To Protect These Rights Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Laughlin

    A historical review of racial discrimination against Negroes is the scope of this volume, part of a series of six volumes which explore the basic American rights. These include due process of law, freedom of speech and religious freedom. This volume traces the development of racial equality in the legal system, explores the controversies and…

  15. Social Responsibility in Librarianship: Essays on Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCann, Donnarae, Ed.

    In a culturally complex world, librarians can best work toward the equalization of library services if they understand their institutions in the light of cultural history. The six essays in this book highlight problems that affect unempowered populations, and address a variety of cultural problems and biases--problems that contribute to the…

  16. Equality in the Workplace. An Equal Opportunities Handbook for Trainers. Human Resource Management in Action Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Helen

    This workbook, which is intended as a practical guide for human resource managers, trainers, and others concerned with developing and implementing equal opportunities training programs in British workplaces, examines issues in and methods for equal opportunities training. The introduction gives an overview of current training trends and issues.…

  17. Neural network with dynamically adaptable neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawel, Raoul (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention is an adaptive neuron for use in neural network processors. The adaptive neuron participates in the supervised learning phase of operation on a co-equal basis with the synapse matrix elements by adaptively changing its gain in a similar manner to the change of weights in the synapse IO elements. In this manner, training time is decreased by as much as three orders of magnitude.

  18. Automatic image equalization and contrast enhancement using Gaussian mixture modeling.

    PubMed

    Celik, Turgay; Tjahjadi, Tardi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an adaptive image equalization algorithm that automatically enhances the contrast in an input image. The algorithm uses the Gaussian mixture model to model the image gray-level distribution, and the intersection points of the Gaussian components in the model are used to partition the dynamic range of the image into input gray-level intervals. The contrast equalized image is generated by transforming the pixels' gray levels in each input interval to the appropriate output gray-level interval according to the dominant Gaussian component and the cumulative distribution function of the input interval. To take account of the hypothesis that homogeneous regions in the image represent homogeneous silences (or set of Gaussian components) in the image histogram, the Gaussian components with small variances are weighted with smaller values than the Gaussian components with larger variances, and the gray-level distribution is also used to weight the components in the mapping of the input interval to the output interval. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm produces better or comparable enhanced images than several state-of-the-art algorithms. Unlike the other algorithms, the proposed algorithm is free of parameter setting for a given dynamic range of the enhanced image and can be applied to a wide range of image types. PMID:21775265

  19. Adaptive SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Freed, Melanie; Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Clarkson, Eric; Whitaker, Meredith K.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive imaging systems alter their data-acquisition configuration or protocol in response to the image information received. An adaptive pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system might acquire an initial scout image to obtain preliminary information about the radiotracer distribution and then adjust the configuration or sizes of the pinholes, the magnifications, or the projection angles in order to improve performance. This paper briefly describes two small-animal SPECT systems that allow this flexibility and then presents a framework for evaluating adaptive systems in general, and adaptive SPECT systems in particular. The evaluation is in terms of the performance of linear observers on detection or estimation tasks. Expressions are derived for the ideal linear (Hotelling) observer and the ideal linear (Wiener) estimator with adaptive imaging. Detailed expressions for the performance figures of merit are given, and possible adaptation rules are discussed. PMID:18541485

  20. Density equalizing map projections: A new algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, D.W.; Selvin, S.; Mohr, M.S.

    1992-02-01

    In the study of geographic disease clusters, an alternative to traditional methods based on rates is to analyze case locations on a transformed map in which population density is everywhere equal. Although the analyst`s task is thereby simplified, the specification of the density equalizing map projection (DEMP) itself is not simple and continues to be the subject of considerable research. Here a new DEMP algorithm is described, which avoids some of the difficulties of earlier approaches. The new algorithm (a) avoids illegal overlapping of transformed polygons; (b) finds the unique solution that minimizes map distortion; (c) provides constant magnification over each map polygon; (d) defines a continuous transformation over the entire map domain; (e) defines an inverse transformation; (f) can accept optional constraints such as fixed boundaries; and (g) can use commercially supported minimization software. Work is continuing to improve computing efficiency and improve the algorithm.

  1. Density equalizing map projections: A new algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, D.W.; Selvin, S.; Mohr, M.S.

    1992-02-01

    In the study of geographic disease clusters, an alternative to traditional methods based on rates is to analyze case locations on a transformed map in which population density is everywhere equal. Although the analyst's task is thereby simplified, the specification of the density equalizing map projection (DEMP) itself is not simple and continues to be the subject of considerable research. Here a new DEMP algorithm is described, which avoids some of the difficulties of earlier approaches. The new algorithm (a) avoids illegal overlapping of transformed polygons; (b) finds the unique solution that minimizes map distortion; (c) provides constant magnification over each map polygon; (d) defines a continuous transformation over the entire map domain; (e) defines an inverse transformation; (f) can accept optional constraints such as fixed boundaries; and (g) can use commercially supported minimization software. Work is continuing to improve computing efficiency and improve the algorithm.

  2. Microscopic justification of the equal filling approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Martin, Sara; Robledo, L. M.

    2008-07-15

    The equal filling approximation, a procedure widely used in mean-field calculations to treat the dynamics of odd nuclei in a time-reversal invariant way, is justified as the consequence of a variational principle over an average energy functional. The ideas of statistical quantum mechanics are employed in the justification. As an illustration of the method, the ground and lowest-lying states of some octupole deformed radium isotopes are computed.

  3. Spatio-Temporal Equalizer for a Receiving-Antenna Feed Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukai, Ryan; Lee, Dennis; Vilnrotter, Victor

    2010-01-01

    A spatio-temporal equalizer has been conceived as an improved means of suppressing multipath effects in the reception of aeronautical telemetry signals, and may be adaptable to radar and aeronautical communication applications as well. This equalizer would be an integral part of a system that would also include a seven-element planar array of receiving feed horns centered at the focal point of a paraboloidal antenna that would be nominally aimed at or near the aircraft that would be the source of the signal that one seeks to receive (see Figure 1). This spatio-temporal equalizer would consist mostly of a bank of seven adaptive finite-impulse-response (FIR) filters one for each element in the array - and the outputs of the filters would be summed (see Figure 2). The combination of the spatial diversity of the feedhorn array and the temporal diversity of the filter bank would afford better multipath-suppression performance than is achievable by means of temporal equalization alone. The seven-element feed array would supplant the single feed horn used in a conventional paraboloidal ground telemetry-receiving antenna. The radio-frequency telemetry signals re ceiv ed by the seven elements of the array would be digitized, converted to complex baseband form, and sent to the FIR filter bank, which would adapt itself in real time to enable reception of telemetry at a low bit error rate, even in the presence of multipath of the type found at many flight test ranges.

  4. The equal effectiveness of different defensive strategies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Yuxin; Ma, Keming

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved a variety of defensive strategies to resist herbivory, but at the interspecific level, the relative effectiveness of these strategies has been poorly evaluated. In this study, we compared the level of herbivory between species that depend on ants as indirect defenders and species that rely primarily on their own direct defenses. Using a dataset of 871 species and 1,405 data points, we found that in general, ant-associated species had levels of herbivory equal to those of species that are unattractive to ants; the pattern was unaffected by plant life form, climate and phylogenetic relationships between species. Interestingly, species that offer both food and nesting spaces for ants suffered significantly lower herbivory compared to species that offer either food or nesting spaces only or no reward for ants. A negative relationship between herbivory and latitude was detected, but the pattern can be changed by ants. These findings suggest that, at the interspecific level, the effectiveness of different defensive strategies may be equal. Considering the effects of herbivory on plant performance and fitness, the equal effectiveness of different defensive strategies may play an important role in the coexistence of various species at the community scale. PMID:26267426

  5. Equalization method for Medipix3RX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinkel, Jean; Magalhães, Debora; Wagner, Franz; Frojdh, Erik; Ballabriga Sune, Rafael

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes a new method of threshold equalization for X-ray detectors based on the Medipix3RX ASIC, using electrical pulses to calibrate and correct for the threshold dispersion between pixels. This method involves a coarse threshold tuning, based on two 8 bits global DACs and which sets the range of variation of the threshold values; and a fine-tuning, based on two 5-bits adjustment DACs per pixel. As our fine-tuning approach is based on a state-of-the-art methodology, our coarse tuning relies on an original theoretical model. This model takes into account the noise level of the ASIC, which varies with temperature and received radiation dose. The experimental results using 300 μm Si sensor and Kα fluorescence of Zn show a global energy resolution improvement of 14% compared to previous equalization methods. We compared these results with the best achievable global energy resolution given by the resolution of individual pixels and concluded that the remaining 14% difference was due to the discretization error limited by the number of equalization bits.

  6. Local structure of equality constrained NLP problems

    SciTech Connect

    Mari, J.

    1994-12-31

    We show that locally around a feasible point, the behavior of an equality constrained nonlinear program is described by the gradient and the Hessian of the Lagrangian on the tangent subspace. In particular this holds true for reduced gradient approaches. Applying the same ideas to the control of nonlinear ODE:s, one can device first and second order methods that can be applied also to stiff problems. We finally describe an application of these ideas to the optimization of the production of human growth factor by fed-batch fermentation.

  7. 47 CFR 36.191 - Equal access equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equal access equipment. 36.191 Section 36.191... AND RESERVES FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES 1 Telecommunications Property Equal Access Equipment § 36.191 Equal access equipment. (a) Equal access investment includes only initial...

  8. 47 CFR 36.421 - Equal access expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equal access expenses. 36.421 Section 36.421... AND RESERVES FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES 1 Operating Expenses and Taxes Equal Access Expenses § 36.421 Equal access expenses. (a) Equal access expenses include only initial incremental...

  9. 29 CFR 1614.202 - Equal Pay Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Provisions Applicable to Particular Complaints § 1614.202 Equal Pay Act. (a) In its enforcement of the Equal Pay Act, the Commission has the authority to investigate an agency's employment practices...

  10. 29 CFR 1614.408 - Civil action: Equal Pay Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil action: Equal Pay Act. 1614.408 Section 1614.408 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Appeals and Civil Actions § 1614.408 Civil action: Equal Pay Act....

  11. 48 CFR 52.211-6 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 52....211-6 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 11.107(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (AUG 1999) (a) If an item in this solicitation is identified as “brand name or equal,”...

  12. 48 CFR 52.211-6 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 52....211-6 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 11.107(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (AUG 1999) (a) If an item in this solicitation is identified as “brand name or equal,”...

  13. 48 CFR 52.211-6 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 52....211-6 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 11.107(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (AUG 1999) (a) If an item in this solicitation is identified as “brand name or equal,”...

  14. 34 CFR 21.1 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equal Access to Justice Act. 21.1 Section 21.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE General § 21.1 Equal Access to Justice Act. (a) The Equal Access to Justice Act (the Act) provides for the award of fees...

  15. 48 CFR 52.211-6 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 52....211-6 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 11.107(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (AUG 1999) (a) If an item in this solicitation is identified as “brand name or equal,”...

  16. 48 CFR 52.211-6 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 52....211-6 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 11.107(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (AUG 1999) (a) If an item in this solicitation is identified as “brand name or equal,”...

  17. Equal area rule methods for ternary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Shyu, G.S.; Hanif, N.S.M.; Alvarado, J.F.J.; Hall, K.R.; Eubank, P.T.

    1995-12-01

    The phase equilibrium behavior of fluid mixtures is an important design consideration for both chemical processes and oil production. Eubank and Hall have recently shown the equal area rule (EAR) applies to the composition derivative of the Gibbs energy of a binary system at fixed pressure and temperature regardless of derivative continuity. A sufficient condition for equilibria, EAR is faster and simpler than either the familiar tangent-line method or the area method of Eubank et al. Here, the authors show that EAR can be extended to ternary systems exhibiting one, two, or three phases at equilibrium. A single directional vector is searched in composition space; at equilibrium, this vector is the familiar tie line. A sensitive criterion for equilibrium under EAR is equality of orthogonal derivatives such as ({partial_derivative}g/{partial_derivative}x{sub 1}){sub x{sub 2}P,T} at the end points ({alpha} and {beta}), where g {equivalent_to} ({Delta}{sub m}G/RT). Repeated use of the binary algorithm published in the first reference allows rapid, simple solution of ternary problems, even with hand-held calculations for cases where the background model is simple (e.g., activity coefficient models) and the derivative continuous.

  18. Is Primatology an equal-opportunity discipline?

    PubMed

    Addessi, Elsa; Borgi, Marta; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    The proportion of women occupying academic positions in biological sciences has increased in the past few decades, but women are still under-represented in senior academic ranks compared to their male colleagues. Primatology has been often singled out as a model of "equal-opportunity" discipline because of the common perception that women are more represented in Primatology than in similar fields. But is this indeed true? Here we show that, although in the past 15 years the proportion of female primatologists increased from the 38% of the early 1990s to the 57% of 2008, Primatology is far from being an "equal-opportunity" discipline, and suffers the phenomenon of "glass ceiling" as all the other scientific disciplines examined so far. In fact, even if Primatology does attract more female students than males, at the full professor level male members significantly outnumber females. Moreover, regardless of position, IPS male members publish significantly more than their female colleagues. Furthermore, when analyzing gender difference in scientific productivity in relation to the name order in the publications, it emerged that the scientific achievements of female primatologists (in terms of number and type of publications) do not always match their professional achievements (in terms of academic position). However, the gender difference in the IPS members' number of publications does not correspond to a similar difference in their scientific impact (as measured by their H index), which may indicate that female primatologists' fewer articles are of higher impact than those of their male colleagues. PMID:22272353

  19. Public hospital care: equal for all or equal for some? Evidence from the Philippines.

    PubMed

    James, Chris D; Peabody, John; Hanson, Kara; Solon, Orville

    2015-03-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, government budgets are rarely sufficient to cover a public hospital's operating costs. Shortfalls are typically financed through a combination of health insurance contributions and user charges. The mixed nature of this financing arrangement potentially creates financial incentives to treat patients with equal health need unequally. Using data from the Philippines, the authors analyzed whether doctors respond to such incentives. After controlling for a patient's condition, they found that patients using insurance, paying more for hospital accommodation, and being treated in externally monitored hospitals were likely to receive more care. This highlights the worrying possibility that public hospital patients with equal health needs are not always equally treated. PMID:23420059

  20. rp Process and Masses of N{approx_equal}Z{approx_equal}34 Nuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Savory, J.; Schury, P.; Bachelet, C.; Block, M.; Bollen, G.; Facina, M.; Folden, C. M. III; Guenaut, C.; Kwan, E.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Morrissey, D. J.; Pang, G. K.; Prinke, A.; Ringle, R.; Schatz, H.; Schwarz, S.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.

    2009-04-03

    High-precision Penning-trap mass measurements of the N{approx_equal}Z{approx_equal}34 nuclides {sup 68}Se, {sup 70}Se, {sup 70m}Br, and {sup 71}Br were performed, reaching experimental uncertainties of 0.5-15 keV. The new and improved mass data together with theoretical Coulomb displacement energies were used as input for rp process network calculations. An increase in the effective lifetime of the waiting point nucleus {sup 68}Se was found, and more precise information was obtained on the luminosity during a type I x-ray burst along with the final elemental abundances after the burst.

  1. Jarzynski equality for non-Hamiltonian dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Dibyendu; Deweese, Michael R.

    Recent years have witnessed major advances in our understanding of nonequilibrium processes. The Jarzynski equality, for example, provides a link between equilibrium free energy differences and finite-time, nonequilibrium dynamics. We propose a generalization of this relation to non-Hamiltonian dynamics, relevant for active matter systems, continuous feedback, and computer simulation. Surprisingly, this relation allows us to calculate the free energy difference between the desired initial and final states using arbitrary dynamics. As a practical matter, this dissociation between the dynamics and the initial and final states promises to facilitate a range of techniques for free energy estimation in a single, universal expression. This material is based upon work supported in part by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory and the U.S. Army Research Office under Contract Number W911NF-13-1-0390.

  2. Pressure-equalizing PV assembly and method

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2004-10-26

    Each PV assembly of an array of PV assemblies comprises a base, a PV module and a support assembly securing the PV module to a position overlying the upper surface of the base. Vents are formed through the base. A pressure equalization path extends from the outer surface of the PV module, past the PV module, to and through at least one of the vents, and to the lower surface of the base to help reduce wind uplift forces on the PV assembly. The PV assemblies may be interengaged, such as by interengaging the bases of adjacent PV assemblies. The base may include a main portion and a cover and the bases of adjacent PV assemblies may be interengaged by securing the covers of adjacent bases together.

  3. Social Epigenetics and Equality of Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Loi, Michele; Del Savio, Lorenzo; Stupka, Elia

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological reports of associations between socioeconomic status and epigenetic markers that predict vulnerability to diseases are bringing to light substantial biological effects of social inequalities. Here, we start the discussion of the moral consequences of these findings. We firstly highlight their explanatory importance in the context of the research program on the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) and the social determinants of health. In the second section, we review some theories of the moral status of health inequalities. Rather than a complete outline of the debate, we single out those theories that rest on the principle of equality of opportunity and analyze the consequences of DOHaD and epigenetics for these particular conceptions of justice. We argue that DOHaD and epigenetics reshape the conceptual distinction between natural and acquired traits on which these theories rely and might provide important policy tools to tackle unjust distributions of health. PMID:23864907

  4. Acoustical numerology and lucky equal temperaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Donald E.

    1988-04-01

    Equally tempered musical scales with N steps per octave are known to work especially well in approximating justly tuned intervals for such values as N=12, 19, 31, and 53. A quantitative measure of the closeness of such fits is suggested, in terms of the probabilities of coming as close to randomly chosen intervals as to the justly tuned targets. When two or more harmonic intervals are considered simultaneously, this involves a Monte Carlo evaluation of the probabilities. The results can be used to gauge how much advantage the special values of N mentioned above have over others. This article presents the rationale and method of computation, together with illustrative results in a few of the most interesting cases. References are provided to help relate these results to earlier works by music theorists.

  5. Pressure equalizing photovoltaic assembly and method

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2003-05-27

    Each PV assembly of an array of PV assemblies comprises a base, a PV module and a support assembly securing the PV module to a position overlying the upper surface of the base. Vents are formed through the base. A pressure equalization path extends from the outer surface of the PV module, past the peripheral edge of the PV module, to and through at least one of the vents, and to the lower surface of the base to help reduce wind uplift forces on the PV assembly. The PV assemblies may be interengaged, such as by interengaging the bases of adjacent PV assemblies. The base may include a main portion and a cover and the bases of adjacent PV assemblies may be interengaged by securing the covers of adjacent bases together.

  6. Is Primatology an Equal-Opportunity Discipline?

    PubMed Central

    Borgi, Marta

    2012-01-01

    The proportion of women occupying academic positions in biological sciences has increased in the past few decades, but women are still under-represented in senior academic ranks compared to their male colleagues. Primatology has been often singled out as a model of “equal-opportunity” discipline because of the common perception that women are more represented in Primatology than in similar fields. But is this indeed true? Here we show that, although in the past 15 years the proportion of female primatologists increased from the 38% of the early 1990s to the 57% of 2008, Primatology is far from being an “equal-opportunity” discipline, and suffers the phenomenon of “glass ceiling” as all the other scientific disciplines examined so far. In fact, even if Primatology does attract more female students than males, at the full professor level male members significantly outnumber females. Moreover, regardless of position, IPS male members publish significantly more than their female colleagues. Furthermore, when analyzing gender difference in scientific productivity in relation to the name order in the publications, it emerged that the scientific achievements of female primatologists (in terms of number and type of publications) do not always match their professional achievements (in terms of academic position). However, the gender difference in the IPS members' number of publications does not correspond to a similar difference in their scientific impact (as measured by their H index), which may indicate that female primatologists' fewer articles are of higher impact than those of their male colleagues. PMID:22272353

  7. Downhole component with a pressure equalization passageway

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott; Reynolds, Jay T.; Breihan, James W.; Briscoe, Michael A.

    2006-08-22

    The present invention includes a downhole component adapted for transmitting downhole data. The downhole component includes a threaded end on a downhole component. The threaded end furthermore includes an interior region, and exterior region, and a mating surface wherein a cavity is formed. A data transmission element is disposed in the cavity and displaces a volume of the cavity. At least one passageway is formed in the threaded region between interior and exterior regions. The passageway is in fluid communication with both the interior and exterior regions and thereby relieves pressure build up of thread lubricant upon tool joint make up.

  8. Equalization of loudspeaker response using balanced model truncation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiansheng; Cai, Zhibo; Zheng, Chengshi; Li, Xiaodong

    2015-04-01

    Traditional loudspeaker equalization algorithms cannot decide the order of an equalizer before the whole equalization procedure has been completed. Designers have to try many times before they determine a proper order of the equalization filter. A method which solves this drawback is presented for loudspeaker equalization using balanced model truncation. The order of the equalizer can be easily decided using this algorithm and the error between the model and the loudspeaker can also be readily controlled. Examples are presented and the performance of the proposed method is discussed with comparative experiments. PMID:25920872

  9. The Equal Right to Inequality: Equality and Utility in on- and off-Campus Subject Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luck, Morgan

    2009-01-01

    The principle of equality states that it is bad for some people to be worse off than others. In the context of distance education, this principle is violated on those occasions where on-campus students have access, not only to all the resources available to distance education students, but also to face-to-face tutorials. This is because the…

  10. Equal Opportunity Handbook: A Resource on Equal Opportunities for Education and Employment in Oregon Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This handbook is an information source for Oregon public school districts developing policies to ensure equal opportunities in education, employment, and the provision of educational services required by Federal and state laws, regulations, and policies. Not addressed are issues and services for the handicapped or programs for migrants, the…

  11. 101 Short Problems from EQUALS = 101 Problemas Cortos del programma EQUALS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenmark, Jean Kerr, Ed.

    EQUALS is a teacher advisory program that helps elementary and secondary educators acquire methods and materials to attract minority and female students to mathematics. The program supports a problem-solving approach to mathematics, including having students working in groups, using active assessment methods, and incorporating a broad mathematics…

  12. Teachers Negotiating Discourses of Gender (In) Equality: The Case of Equal Opportunities Reform in Andalusia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cubero, Mercedes; Santamaría, Andrés; Rebollo, Mª Ángeles; Cubero, Rosario; García, Rafael; Vega, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    This article is focused on the analysis of the narratives produced by a group of teachers, experts in coeducation, while they were discussing their everyday activities. They are responsible for the implementation of a Plan for Gender Equality in public secondary schools in Andalusia (Spain). This study is based on contributions about doing gender…

  13. Adaptive Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop and demonstrate innovative adaptive seal technologies that can lead to dramatic improvements in engine performance, life, range, and emissions, and enhance operability for next generation gas turbine engines. This work is concentrated on the development of self-adaptive clearance control systems for gas turbine engines. Researchers have targeted the high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade tip seal location for following reasons: Current active clearance control (ACC) systems (e.g., thermal case-cooling schemes) cannot respond to blade tip clearance changes due to mechanical, thermal, and aerodynamic loads. As such they are prone to wear due to the required tight running clearances during operation. Blade tip seal wear (increased clearances) reduces engine efficiency, performance, and service life. Adaptive sealing technology research has inherent impact on all envisioned 21st century propulsion systems (e.g. distributed vectored, hybrid and electric drive propulsion concepts).

  14. Decision feedback equalization for CDMA in indoor wireless communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulrahman, Majeed; Sheikh, Asrar U. H.; Falconer, David D.

    1994-05-01

    Commercial interest in Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) systems has risen dramatically in the last few years. It yields a potential increase in capacity over other access schemes, because it provides protection against interference, multipath, fading, and jamming. Recently, several interference cancellation schemes for CDMA have been proposed but they require information about all interfering active users or some channel parameters. In this paper, we present an adaptive fractionally spaced decision feedback equalizer (DFE) for a CDMA system in an indoor wireless Rayleigh fading environment. This system only uses information about the desired user's spreading code and a training sequence. An analysis on the optimum performance of the DFE receiver shows the advantages of this system over others in terms of capacity improvements. A simulation of this system is also presented to study the convergence properties and implementation considerations of the DFE receiver. Effects on the performance because of sudden birth and death of users in the CDMA system and bit error rate performanceof the DFE receiver is also presented. of the DFE receiver is also presented.

  15. The L_infinity constrained global optimal histogram equalization technique for real time imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Qiongwei; Niu, Yi; Liu, Lin; Jiao, Yang; Shi, Guangming

    2015-08-01

    Although the current imaging sensors can achieve 12 or higher precision, the current display devices and the commonly used digital image formats are still only 8 bits. This mismatch causes significant waste of the sensor precision and loss of information when storing and displaying the images. For better usage of the precision-budget, tone mapping operators have to be used to map the high-precision data into low-precision digital images adaptively. In this paper, the classic histogram equalization tone mapping operator is reexamined in the sense of optimization. We point out that the traditional histogram equalization technique and its variants are fundamentally improper by suffering from local optimum problems. To overcome this drawback, we remodel the histogram equalization tone mapping task based on graphic theory which achieves the global optimal solutions. Another advantage of the graphic-based modeling is that the tone-continuity is also modeled as a vital constraint in our approach which suppress the annoying boundary artifacts of the traditional approaches. In addition, we propose a novel dynamic programming technique to solve the histogram equalization problem in real time. Experimental results shows that the proposed tone-preserved global optimal histogram equalization technique outperforms the traditional approaches by exhibiting more subtle details in the foreground while preserving the smoothness of the background.

  16. 47 CFR 90.168 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations Special Rules Governing Facilities Used to Provide Commercial Mobile Radio Services § 90.168 Equal employment opportunities. Commercial Mobile Radio Services licensees shall afford equal opportunity in employment to all...

  17. 47 CFR 90.168 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations Special Rules Governing Facilities Used to Provide Commercial Mobile Radio Services § 90.168 Equal employment opportunities. Commercial Mobile Radio Services licensees shall afford equal opportunity in employment to all...

  18. 47 CFR 90.168 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations Special Rules Governing Facilities Used to Provide Commercial Mobile Radio Services § 90.168 Equal employment opportunities. Commercial Mobile Radio Services licensees shall afford equal opportunity in employment to all...

  19. Adapting Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedman, John; Wedman, Judy

    1985-01-01

    The "Animals" program found on the Apple II and IIe system master disk can be adapted for use in the mathematics classroom. Instructions for making the necessary changes and suggestions for using it in lessons related to geometric shapes are provided. (JN)

  20. Adaptive Thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Bremer, P. -T.

    2014-08-26

    ADAPT is a topological analysis code that allow to compute local threshold, in particular relevance based thresholds for features defined in scalar fields. The initial target application is vortex detection but the software is more generally applicable to all threshold based feature definitions.

  1. Adaptive homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kelvin J A

    2016-06-01

    Homeostasis is a central pillar of modern Physiology. The term homeostasis was invented by Walter Bradford Cannon in an attempt to extend and codify the principle of 'milieu intérieur,' or a constant interior bodily environment, that had previously been postulated by Claude Bernard. Clearly, 'milieu intérieur' and homeostasis have served us well for over a century. Nevertheless, research on signal transduction systems that regulate gene expression, or that cause biochemical alterations to existing enzymes, in response to external and internal stimuli, makes it clear that biological systems are continuously making short-term adaptations both to set-points, and to the range of 'normal' capacity. These transient adaptations typically occur in response to relatively mild changes in conditions, to programs of exercise training, or to sub-toxic, non-damaging levels of chemical agents; thus, the terms hormesis, heterostasis, and allostasis are not accurate descriptors. Therefore, an operational adjustment to our understanding of homeostasis suggests that the modified term, Adaptive Homeostasis, may be useful especially in studies of stress, toxicology, disease, and aging. Adaptive Homeostasis may be defined as follows: 'The transient expansion or contraction of the homeostatic range in response to exposure to sub-toxic, non-damaging, signaling molecules or events, or the removal or cessation of such molecules or events.' PMID:27112802

  2. Subsea choke and riser pressure equalization system

    SciTech Connect

    Shanks, F.

    1980-07-01

    A description is given of a subsea choke and riser pressure equalization system comprising, in combination: a section of riser pipe; a choke conduit line mechanically supported by said riser pipe; a variable choke valve having an inlet port and a discharge port; a gate valve having an inlet port and a discharge port; a gate valve having an inlet port conected in fluid communiction with the choke line and an output port connected in fluid communication with the inlet port of the variable choke for permitting diversion of fluid from the choke line to the variable choke; and, means connecting the discharge port of the variable choke in fluid communication with the interior of the riser section, said means including a discharge conduit extending from said choke valve in inclined relation with respect to the axis of said riser, whereby fluid diverted from said choke conduit is discharged into said riser in counterflow relation with respect to the upward flow of drilling fluid through said riser.

  3. Categorical facilitation with equally discriminable colors.

    PubMed

    Witzel, Christoph; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of language on color perception. By categorical facilitation, we refer to an aspect of categorical perception, in which the linguistic distinction between categories affects color discrimination beyond the low-level, sensory sensitivity to color differences. According to this idea, discrimination performance for colors that cross a category border should be better than for colors that belong to the same category when controlling for low-level sensitivity. We controlled for sensitivity by using colors that were equally discriminable according to empirically measured discrimination thresholds. To test for categorical facilitation, we measured response times and error rates in a speeded discrimination task for suprathreshold stimuli. Robust categorical facilitation occurred for five out of six categories with a group of inexperienced observers, namely for pink, orange, yellow, green, and purple. Categorical facilitation was robust against individual variations of categories or the laterality of target presentation. However, contradictory effects occurred in the blue category, most probably reflecting the difficulty to control effects of sensory mechanisms at the green-blue boundary. Moreover, a group of observers who were highly familiar with the discrimination task did not show consistent categorical facilitation in the other five categories. This trained group had much faster response times than the inexperienced group without any speed-accuracy trade-off. Additional analyses suggest that categorical facilitation occurs when observers pay attention to the categorical distinction but not when they respond automatically based on sensory feed-forward information. PMID:26129860

  4. Battery Charge Equalizer with Transformer Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Francis

    2013-01-01

    High-power batteries generally consist of a series connection of many cells or cell banks. In order to maintain high performance over battery life, it is desirable to keep the state of charge of all the cell banks equal. A method provides individual charging for battery cells in a large, high-voltage battery array with a minimum number of transformers while maintaining reasonable efficiency. This is designed to augment a simple highcurrent charger that supplies the main charge energy. The innovation will form part of a larger battery charge system. It consists of a transformer array connected to the battery array through rectification and filtering circuits. The transformer array is connected to a drive circuit and a timing and control circuit that allow individual battery cells or cell banks to be charged. The timing circuit and control circuit connect to a charge controller that uses battery instrumentation to determine which battery bank to charge. It is important to note that the innovation can charge an individual cell bank at the same time that the main battery charger is charging the high-voltage battery. The fact that the battery cell banks are at a non-zero voltage, and that they are all at similar voltages, can be used to allow charging of individual cell banks. A set of transformers can be connected with secondary windings in series to make weighted sums of the voltages on the primaries.

  5. Nonlinear Algorithms for Channel Equalization and Map Symbol Detection.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giridhar, K.

    The transfer of information through a communication medium invariably results in various kinds of distortion to the transmitted signal. In this dissertation, a feed -forward neural network-based equalizer, and a family of maximum a posteriori (MAP) symbol detectors are proposed for signal recovery in the presence of intersymbol interference (ISI) and additive white Gaussian noise. The proposed neural network-based equalizer employs a novel bit-mapping strategy to handle multilevel data signals in an equivalent bipolar representation. It uses a training procedure to learn the channel characteristics, and at the end of training, the multilevel symbols are recovered from the corresponding inverse bit-mapping. When the channel characteristics are unknown and no training sequences are available, blind estimation of the channel (or its inverse) and simultaneous data recovery is required. Convergence properties of several existing Bussgang-type blind equalization algorithms are studied through computer simulations, and a unique gain independent approach is used to obtain a fair comparison of their rates of convergence. Although simple to implement, the slow convergence of these Bussgang-type blind equalizers make them unsuitable for many high data-rate applications. Rapidly converging blind algorithms based on the principle of MAP symbol-by -symbol detection are proposed, which adaptively estimate the channel impulse response (CIR) and simultaneously decode the received data sequence. Assuming a linear and Gaussian measurement model, the near-optimal blind MAP symbol detector (MAPSD) consists of a parallel bank of conditional Kalman channel estimators, where the conditioning is done on each possible data subsequence that can convolve with the CIR. This algorithm is also extended to the recovery of convolutionally encoded waveforms in the presence of ISI. Since the complexity of the MAPSD algorithm increases exponentially with the length of the assumed CIR, a suboptimal

  6. 76 FR 36885 - Regulation B; Equal Credit Opportunity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ...; ] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR Part 202 RIN No. 7100-AD-78 Regulation B; Equal Credit Opportunity AGENCY.... SUMMARY: The Board is publishing for public comment a proposed rule amending Regulation B (Equal Credit Opportunity). Section 704B of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA), as added by Section 1071 of the...

  7. 12 CFR 528.5 - Equal Housing Lender Poster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equal Housing Lender Poster. 528.5 Section 528... REQUIREMENTS § 528.5 Equal Housing Lender Poster. (a) Each savings association shall post and maintain one or more Equal Housing Lender Posters, the text of which is prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  8. 12 CFR 626.6025 - Equal housing lender poster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equal housing lender poster. 626.6025 Section... § 626.6025 Equal housing lender poster. (a) Each Farm Credit institution that makes loans for the... by a dwelling shall post and maintain an Equal Housing Lender Poster in the lobby of each of...

  9. 12 CFR 128.5 - Equal Housing Lender Poster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equal Housing Lender Poster. 128.5 Section 128... REQUIREMENTS § 128.5 Equal Housing Lender Poster. (a) Each savings association shall post and maintain one or more Equal Housing Lender Posters, the text of which is prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  10. 12 CFR 390.146 - Equal Housing Lender Poster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equal Housing Lender Poster. 390.146 Section....146 Equal Housing Lender Poster. (a) Each State savings association shall post and maintain one or more Equal Housing Lender Posters, the text of which is prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  11. 12 CFR 390.146 - Equal Housing Lender Poster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equal Housing Lender Poster. 390.146 Section....146 Equal Housing Lender Poster. (a) Each State savings association shall post and maintain one or more Equal Housing Lender Posters, the text of which is prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  12. 12 CFR 528.5 - Equal Housing Lender Poster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Equal Housing Lender Poster. 528.5 Section 528.5... REQUIREMENTS § 528.5 Equal Housing Lender Poster. (a) Each savings association shall post and maintain one or more Equal Housing Lender Posters, the text of which is prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  13. 12 CFR 390.146 - Equal Housing Lender Poster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equal Housing Lender Poster. 390.146 Section....146 Equal Housing Lender Poster. (a) Each State savings association shall post and maintain one or more Equal Housing Lender Posters, the text of which is prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  14. 12 CFR 528.5 - Equal Housing Lender Poster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equal Housing Lender Poster. 528.5 Section 528... REQUIREMENTS § 528.5 Equal Housing Lender Poster. (a) Each savings association shall post and maintain one or more Equal Housing Lender Posters, the text of which is prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  15. 12 CFR 626.6025 - Equal housing lender poster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equal housing lender poster. 626.6025 Section... § 626.6025 Equal housing lender poster. (a) Each Farm Credit institution that makes loans for the... by a dwelling shall post and maintain an Equal Housing Lender Poster in the lobby of each of...

  16. 12 CFR 268.407 - Civil action: Equal Pay Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil action: Equal Pay Act. 268.407 Section 268.407 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RULES REGARDING EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Appeals to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission §...

  17. 12 CFR 268.407 - Civil action: Equal Pay Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Civil action: Equal Pay Act. 268.407 Section 268.407 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) RULES REGARDING EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Appeals to the Equal Employment...

  18. 45 CFR 1616.6 - Equal employment opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal employment opportunity. 1616.6 Section 1616... ATTORNEY HIRING § 1616.6 Equal employment opportunity. A recipient shall adopt employment qualifications... employment, and shall take affirmative action to insure equal employment opportunity....

  19. 45 CFR 2543.81 - Equal employment opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal employment opportunity. 2543.81 Section 2543...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Statutory Compliance § 2543.81 Equal employment opportunity. All contracts shall contain a provision requiring compliance with E.O. 11246, “Equal Employment Opportunity,” as amended by...

  20. 47 CFR 73.881 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 73.881 Section... BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.881 Equal employment opportunities. General EEO policy. Equal employment opportunity shall be afforded by all LPFM licensees and permittees to...

  1. 36 CFR 254.11 - Exchanges at approximately equal value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... equal value. 254.11 Section 254.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.11 Exchanges at approximately equal value. (a) The authorized officer may exchange lands which are of approximately equal value upon a determination that:...

  2. 36 CFR 254.11 - Exchanges at approximately equal value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... equal value. 254.11 Section 254.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.11 Exchanges at approximately equal value. (a) The authorized officer may exchange lands which are of approximately equal value upon a determination that:...

  3. 36 CFR 254.11 - Exchanges at approximately equal value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... equal value. 254.11 Section 254.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.11 Exchanges at approximately equal value. (a) The authorized officer may exchange lands which are of approximately equal value upon a determination that:...

  4. 43 CFR 2201.5 - Exchanges at approximately equal value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exchanges at approximately equal value... PROCEDURES Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.5 Exchanges at approximately equal value. (a) The authorized officer may exchange lands that are of approximately equal value when it is determined that:...

  5. 43 CFR 2201.5 - Exchanges at approximately equal value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exchanges at approximately equal value... PROCEDURES Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.5 Exchanges at approximately equal value. (a) The authorized officer may exchange lands that are of approximately equal value when it is determined that:...

  6. 43 CFR 2201.5 - Exchanges at approximately equal value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exchanges at approximately equal value... PROCEDURES Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.5 Exchanges at approximately equal value. (a) The authorized officer may exchange lands that are of approximately equal value when it is determined that:...

  7. 36 CFR 254.11 - Exchanges at approximately equal value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... equal value. 254.11 Section 254.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.11 Exchanges at approximately equal value. (a) The authorized officer may exchange lands which are of approximately equal value upon a determination that:...

  8. 5 CFR 720.101 - Federal Equal Opportunity Recruitment Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal Equal Opportunity Recruitment... Federal Equal Opportunity Recruitment Program. This section incorporates the statutory requirements for establishing and conducting an equal opportunity recruitment program consistent with law within the...

  9. 48 CFR 852.211-73 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 852... Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 811.104-71, insert the following clause: Brand Name or Equal (JAN 2008) (Note: As used in this clause, the term “brand name” includes identification of products by...

  10. 48 CFR 1852.210-70 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 1852... 1852.210-70 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 1810.011-70(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (DEC 1988) (a) As used in this provision, “brand name” means identification of...

  11. 48 CFR 452.211-70 - Brand Name or Equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Brand Name or Equal. 452... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.211-70 Brand Name or Equal. As prescribed in 411.171, insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (NOV...

  12. 48 CFR 1852.210-70 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 1852... 1852.210-70 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 1810.011-70(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (DEC 1988) (a) As used in this provision, “brand name” means identification of...

  13. 48 CFR 452.211-70 - Brand Name or Equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Brand Name or Equal. 452... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.211-70 Brand Name or Equal. As prescribed in 411.171, insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (NOV...

  14. 48 CFR 452.211-70 - Brand Name or Equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Brand Name or Equal. 452... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.211-70 Brand Name or Equal. As prescribed in 411.171, insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (NOV...

  15. 48 CFR 852.211-73 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 852... Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 811.104-71, insert the following clause: Brand Name or Equal (JAN 2008) (Note: As used in this clause, the term “brand name” includes identification of products by...

  16. 48 CFR 852.211-73 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 852... Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 811.104-71, insert the following clause: Brand Name or Equal (JAN 2008) (Note: As used in this clause, the term “brand name” includes identification of products by...

  17. 48 CFR 1852.210-70 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 1852... 1852.210-70 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 1810.011-70(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (DEC 1988) (a) As used in this provision, “brand name” means identification of...

  18. Pushing Economies (and Students) outside the Factor Price Equalization Zone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oslington, Paul; Towers, Isaac

    2009-01-01

    Despite overwhelming empirical evidence of the failure of factor price equalization, most teaching of international trade theory (even at the graduate level) assumes that economies are incompletely specialized and that factor price equalization holds. The behavior of trading economies in the absence of factor price equalization is not well…

  19. Reflections on Mainstreaming Gender Equality in Adult Basic Education Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Agneta

    2006-01-01

    This article is about mainstreaming gender equality in adult basic learning and education (ABLE). Gender equality is defined as equal rights of both women and men to influence, participate in and benefit from a programme. It is argued that specific gender analyses of emerging patterns of gender relations is helpful in formulating gender equality…

  20. The Struggle for Gender Equality: How Men Respond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Michael S.

    1993-01-01

    Men's responses to women's demands for educational equality during three peak periods of activism for women's equality (mid-nineteenth century, turn of the century, and contemporary era) are examined for the insight they offer into the different issues and shifting arguments for and against gender equality in this and other arenas. (MSE)

  1. 29 CFR 530.414 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equal Access to Justice Act. 530.414 Section 530.414 Labor... OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Administrative Procedures § 530.414 Equal Access to Justice Act. Proceedings under this part are not subject to the provisions of the Equal Access to Justice Act. In...

  2. 48 CFR 852.211-73 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 852... Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 811.104-71, insert the following clause: Brand Name or Equal (JAN 2008) (Note: As used in this clause, the term “brand name” includes identification of products by...

  3. 48 CFR 452.211-70 - Brand Name or Equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Brand Name or Equal. 452... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.211-70 Brand Name or Equal. As prescribed in 411.171, insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (NOV...

  4. 48 CFR 1852.210-70 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Brand name or equal. 1852... 1852.210-70 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 1810.011-70(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (DEC 1988) (a) As used in this provision, “brand name” means identification of...

  5. 48 CFR 852.211-73 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 852... Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 811.104-71, insert the following clause: Brand Name or Equal (JAN 2008) (Note: As used in this clause, the term “brand name” includes identification of products by...

  6. 48 CFR 1852.210-70 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 1852... 1852.210-70 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 1810.011-70(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (DEC 1988) (a) As used in this provision, “brand name” means identification of...

  7. 48 CFR 452.211-70 - Brand Name or Equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand Name or Equal. 452... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.211-70 Brand Name or Equal. As prescribed in 411.171, insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (NOV...

  8. 77 FR 39117 - Equal Access to Justice Act Implementation Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1071 RIN 3170-AA27 Equal Access to Justice Act Implementation Rule AGENCY: Bureau of... Equal Access to Justice Act (EAJA or the Act) requires agencies ] that conduct adversary adjudications..., Credit, Credit unions, Equal access to justice, Law enforcement, National banks, Savings...

  9. 75 FR 17622 - Equal Access to Justice Act Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight 12 CFR Part 1705 RIN 2590-AA29 Equal Access to Justice Act... form, the OFHEO ``Implementation of the Equal Access to ] Justice Act'' regulation at 12 CFR part 1705... Subjects in 12 CFR Parts 1203 and 1705 Administrative practice and procedure, Equal access to...

  10. Halving It All: How Equally Shared Parenting Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Francine M.

    Noting that details of everyday life contribute to parental equality or inequality, this qualitative study focused on how couples transformed parental roles to create truly equal families. Participating in the study were 88 couples in 4 categories, based on division of parental responsibilities: equal sharers, 60-40 couples, 75-25 couples, and…

  11. Employment equality legislation, 3 March 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    On 1 April 1988, new employment equality legislation came into effect in Israel. The new legislation outlaws discrimination at work on the grounds of sex, marital status, and parenthood with respect to recruitment, terms of employment, promotion, vocational training, retraining, dismissal, and severance pay. Under the legislation, 1) employers may not cause prejudice to workers who allege discrimination, help others to do so, or decline sexual advances by a direct or indirect supervisor; 2) the burden of proof in discrimination claims against an employer is on the employer if the worker can show that requirements set by the employer have been met; 3) company managers and co-owners in a partnership are personally liable for violations on the part of the employer if the firm has over six workers unless they prove that the offense was committed without their knowledge or that they had taken all appropriate measures to prevent it; and 4) no special rights given to women by law, collective agreement, or other work contract are to be considered discrimination. The legislation establishes a Public Council to advise the Minister of Labour and Social Affairs on implementing and publicizing the legislation. It also allows a father to receive the following work benefits that were previously restricted to mothers: 1) leave of absence to care for a sick child and 2) statutory leave and statutory entitlement to severance pay for resigning to care for a newborn or adopted baby if the father is the sole guardian or if the mother renounces her right because she is working. PMID:12289294

  12. Connector adapter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacker, Scott C. (Inventor); Dean, Richard J. (Inventor); Burge, Scott W. (Inventor); Dartez, Toby W. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An adapter for installing a connector to a terminal post, wherein the connector is attached to a cable, is presented. In an embodiment, the adapter is comprised of an elongated collet member having a longitudinal axis comprised of a first collet member end, a second collet member end, an outer collet member surface, and an inner collet member surface. The inner collet member surface at the first collet member end is used to engage the connector. The outer collet member surface at the first collet member end is tapered for a predetermined first length at a predetermined taper angle. The collet includes a longitudinal slot that extends along the longitudinal axis initiating at the first collet member end for a predetermined second length. The first collet member end is formed of a predetermined number of sections segregated by a predetermined number of channels and the longitudinal slot.

  13. Adaptive sampler

    DOEpatents

    Watson, Bobby L.; Aeby, Ian

    1982-01-01

    An adaptive data compression device for compressing data having variable frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.

  14. Adaptive sampler

    DOEpatents

    Watson, B.L.; Aeby, I.

    1980-08-26

    An adaptive data compression device for compressing data is described. The device has a frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.

  15. Superchannel transmission system based on multi-channel equalization.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Tao

    2013-06-17

    We proposed a new method for superchannel transmission based on the newly proposed multi-channel equalization technique. This method allows us to realize tight channel spacing (equal to the baud rate) without using frequency-locked lasers and complex spectral shaping techniques at the transmitter. The inter-channel interference originated from the tight channel spacing is removed at the receiver by joint equalization of multiple adjacent channels. When the channel spacing is equal to the baud rate, our simulation results show that, with conventional oversample ratio (2 samples per symbol), realistic laser frequency offset and laser linewidth, the proposed multi-channel-equalization based method can achieve better performance than the traditional method using spectral shaping plus single channel equalization, although at the expense of a moderate increase in DSP complexity. The paper also gives a simple method to process the data after conventional chromatic dispersion compensation, which enables subsequent multi-channel equalization for long-haul transmissions. PMID:23787667

  16. Adaptive antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, P.

    1987-04-01

    The basic principles of adaptive antennas are outlined in terms of the Wiener-Hopf expression for maximizing signal to noise ratio in an arbitrary noise environment; the analogy with generalized matched filter theory provides a useful aid to understanding. For many applications, there is insufficient information to achieve the above solution and thus non-optimum constrained null steering algorithms are also described, together with a summary of methods for preventing wanted signals being nulled by the adaptive system. The three generic approaches to adaptive weight control are discussed; correlation steepest descent, weight perturbation and direct solutions based on sample matrix conversion. The tradeoffs between hardware complexity and performance in terms of null depth and convergence rate are outlined. The sidelobe cancellor technique is described. Performance variation with jammer power and angular distribution is summarized and the key performance limitations identified. The configuration and performance characteristics of both multiple beam and phase scan array antennas are covered, with a brief discussion of performance factors.

  17. Cortical Magnification Plus Cortical Plasticity Equals Vision?

    PubMed Central

    Born, Richard T.; Trott, Alexander; Hartmann, Till

    2014-01-01

    Most approaches to visual prostheses have focused on the retina, and for good reasons. The earlier that one introduces signals into the visual system, the more one can take advantage of its prodigious computational abilities. For methods that make use of microelectrodes to introduce electrical signals, however, the limited density and volume occupying nature of the electrodes place severe limits on the image resolution that can be provided to the brain. In this regard, non-retinal areas in general, and the primary visual cortex in particular, possess one large advantage: “magnification factor” (MF)—a value that represents the distance across a sheet of neurons that represents a given angle of the visual field. In the foveal representation of primate primary visual cortex, the MF is enormous—on the order of 15–20 mm/deg in monkeys and humans, whereas on the retina, the MF is limited by the optical design of the eye to around 0.3 mm/deg. This means that, for an electrode array of a given density, a much higher- resolution image can be introduced into V1 than onto the retina (or any other visual structure). In addition to this tremendous advantage in resolution, visual cortex is plastic at many different levels ranging from a very local ability to learn to better detect electrical stimulation to higher levels of learning that permit human observers to adapt to radical changes to their visual inputs. We argue that the combination of the large magnification factor and the impressive ability of the cerebral cortex to learn to recognize arbitrary patterns, might outweigh the disadvantages of bypassing earlier processing stages and makes V1 a viable option for the restoration of vision. PMID:25449335

  18. Equalization and detection for digital communication over nonlinear bandlimited satellite communication channels. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez, Alberto, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This dissertation evaluates receiver-based methods for mitigating the effects due to nonlinear bandlimited signal distortion present in high data rate satellite channels. The effects of the nonlinear bandlimited distortion is illustrated for digitally modulated signals. A lucid development of the low-pass Volterra discrete time model for a nonlinear communication channel is presented. In addition, finite-state machine models are explicitly developed for a nonlinear bandlimited satellite channel. A nonlinear fixed equalizer based on Volterra series has previously been studied for compensation of noiseless signal distortion due to a nonlinear satellite channel. This dissertation studies adaptive Volterra equalizers on a downlink-limited nonlinear bandlimited satellite channel. We employ as figure of merits performance in the mean-square error and probability of error senses. In addition, a receiver consisting of a fractionally-spaced equalizer (FSE) followed by a Volterra equalizer (FSE-Volterra) is found to give improvement beyond that gained by the Volterra equalizer. Significant probability of error performance improvement is found for multilevel modulation schemes. Also, it is found that probability of error improvement is more significant for modulation schemes, constant amplitude and multilevel, which require higher signal to noise ratios (i.e., higher modulation orders) for reliable operation. The maximum likelihood sequence detection (MLSD) receiver for a nonlinear satellite channel, a bank of matched filters followed by a Viterbi detector, serves as a probability of error lower bound for the Volterra and FSE-Volterra equalizers. However, this receiver has not been evaluated for a specific satellite channel. In this work, an MLSD receiver is evaluated for a specific downlink-limited satellite channel. Because of the bank of matched filters, the MLSD receiver may be high in complexity. Consequently, the probability of error performance of a more practical

  19. Equally parsimonious pathways through an RNA sequence space are not equally likely

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. H.; DSouza, L. M.; Fox, G. E.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental system for determining the potential ability of sequences resembling 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) to perform as functional 5S rRNAs in vivo in the Escherichia coli cellular environment was devised previously. Presumably, the only 5S rRNA sequences that would have been fixed by ancestral populations are ones that were functionally valid, and hence the actual historical paths taken through RNA sequence space during 5S rRNA evolution would have most likely utilized valid sequences. Herein, we examine the potential validity of all sequence intermediates along alternative equally parsimonious trajectories through RNA sequence space which connect two pairs of sequences that had previously been shown to behave as valid 5S rRNAs in E. coli. The first trajectory requires a total of four changes. The 14 sequence intermediates provide 24 apparently equally parsimonious paths by which the transition could occur. The second trajectory involves three changes, six intermediate sequences, and six potentially equally parsimonious paths. In total, only eight of the 20 sequence intermediates were found to be clearly invalid. As a consequence of the position of these invalid intermediates in the sequence space, seven of the 30 possible paths consisted of exclusively valid sequences. In several cases, the apparent validity/invalidity of the intermediate sequences could not be anticipated on the basis of current knowledge of the 5S rRNA structure. This suggests that the interdependencies in RNA sequence space may be more complex than currently appreciated. If ancestral sequences predicted by parsimony are to be regarded as actual historical sequences, then the present results would suggest that they should also satisfy a validity requirement and that, in at least limited cases, this conjecture can be tested experimentally.

  20. Direct handling of equality constraints in multilevel optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renaud, John E.; Gabriele, Gary A.

    1990-01-01

    In recent years there have been several hierarchic multilevel optimization algorithms proposed and implemented in design studies. Equality constraints are often imposed between levels in these multilevel optimizations to maintain system and subsystem variable continuity. Equality constraints of this nature will be referred to as coupling equality constraints. In many implementation studies these coupling equality constraints have been handled indirectly. This indirect handling has been accomplished using the coupling equality constraints' explicit functional relations to eliminate design variables (generally at the subsystem level), with the resulting optimization taking place in a reduced design space. In one multilevel optimization study where the coupling equality constraints were handled directly, the researchers encountered numerical difficulties which prevented their multilevel optimization from reaching the same minimum found in conventional single level solutions. The researchers did not explain the exact nature of the numerical difficulties other than to associate them with the direct handling of the coupling equality constraints. The coupling equality constraints are handled directly, by employing the Generalized Reduced Gradient (GRG) method as the optimizer within a multilevel linear decomposition scheme based on the Sobieski hierarchic algorithm. Two engineering design examples are solved using this approach. The results show that the direct handling of coupling equality constraints in a multilevel optimization does not introduce any problems when the GRG method is employed as the internal optimizer. The optimums achieved are comparable to those achieved in single level solutions and in multilevel studies where the equality constraints have been handled indirectly.

  1. Whether others were treated equally affects neural responses to unfairness in the Ultimatum Game.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Li; Guo, Xiuyan; Zhu, Lei; Li, Jianqi; Chen, Luguang; Dienes, Zoltan

    2015-03-01

    People expect to be treated equivalently as others in like circumstances. The present study investigated that whether and how equal or unequal treatments of others in like circumstances affected individuals' responses to unfairness through justifying their reference points for fairness considerations. Twenty-five participants were scanned while they were playing an adapted version of the Ultimatum Game as responders. During the experiment, the participant was not only informed of the offer given by her/his proposer but also informed of the division scheme of another proposer-responder pair. It turned out that participants were more likely to accept unequal offers and reported higher fairness ratings when other responders received unequal offers compared with equal offers. Stronger bilateral anterior insula and dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus activities were observed when only participants (but not other responders) received equal offers, whereas greater right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity was found when both of them received unequal offers, especially when participants accepted the unequal offers. Taken together, the results demonstrated that whether others in like circumstances were offered equally also plays an important role in responders' fairness-related social decision making. PMID:24847114

  2. Gender Equality and Violent Behavior: How Neighborhood Gender Equality Influences the Gender Gap in Violence

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Edmond, Mary Bond

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 703 African American adolescents from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) along with census data from the year 2000, we examine the association between neighborhood-level gender equality and violence. We find that boys’ and girls’ violent behavior is unevenly distributed across neighborhood contexts. In particular, gender differences in violent behavior are less pronounced in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods compared to those characterized by gender inequality. We also find that the gender gap narrows in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods because boys’ rates of violence decrease whereas girls’ rates remain relatively low across neighborhoods. This is in stark contrast to the pessimistic predictions of theorists who argue that the narrowing of the gender gap in equalitarian settings is the result of an increase in girls’ violence. In addition, the relationship between neighborhood gender equality and violence is mediated by a specific articulation of masculinity characterized by toughness. Our results provide evidence for the use of gender-specific neighborhood prevention programs. PMID:24672996

  3. Gender equality and violent behavior: how neighborhood gender equality influences the gender gap in violence.

    PubMed

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Edmond, Mary Bond

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 703 African American adolescents from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) along with census data from the year 2000, we examine the association between neighborhood-level gender equality and violence. We find that boys' and girls' violent behavior is unevenly distributed across neighborhood contexts. In particular, gender differences in violent behavior are less pronounced in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods compared to those characterized by gender inequality. We also find that the gender gap narrows in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods because boys' rates of violence decrease whereas girls' rates remain relatively low across neighborhoods. This is in stark contrast to the pessimistic predictions of theorists who argue that the narrowing of the gender gap in equalitarian settings is the result of an increase in girls' violence. In addition, the relationship between neighborhood gender equality and violence is mediated by a specific articulation of masculinity characterized by toughness. Our results provide evidence for the use of gender-specific neighborhood prevention programs. PMID:24672996

  4. Method for solvent extraction with near-equal density solutions

    DOEpatents

    Birdwell, Joseph F.; Randolph, John D.; Singh, S. Paul

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is a modified centrifugal contactor for separating solutions of near equal density. The modified contactor has a pressure differential establishing means that allows the application of a pressure differential across fluid in the rotor of the contactor. The pressure differential is such that it causes the boundary between solutions of near-equal density to shift, thereby facilitating separation of the phases. Also disclosed is a method of separating solutions of near-equal density.

  5. 47 CFR 22.321 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and employment practices and adopt positive recruitment, training, job design and other measures... herein. (5) Complaints indicating a general pattern of disregard of equal employment practices which...

  6. Channel Equalization for Single Carrier MIMO Underwater Acoustic Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Jun; Zheng, Yahong Rosa; Xiao, Chengshan; Yang, T. C.; Yang, Wen-Bin

    2010-12-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) underwater acoustic (UWA) channels introduce both space-time interference (STI) and time-varying phase distortion for transmitted signals. In such cases, the equalized symbols produced by conventional equalizer aiming for STI cancelation suffer phase rotation and thus cannot be reliably detected. In this paper, we propose a new equalization scheme for high data rate single carrier MIMO UWA channels. Different from existing methods employing joint equalization and symbolwise phase tracking technology, the proposed scheme decouples the interference cancelation (IC) operation and the phase compensation operation, leading to a generalized equalizer structure combining an IC equalizer with a phase compensator. The decoupling of the two functionalities leads to robust signal detection, which is most desirable in practical UWA applications. MIMO linear equalizer (LE) is adopted to remove space-time interference, and a groupwise phase estimation and correction method is used to compensate the phase rotation. In addition, the layered space-time processing technology is adopted to enhance the equalization performance. The proposed equalization scheme is tested to be very robust with extensive experimental data collected at Kauai, Hawaii, in September 2005, and Saint Margaret's Bay, Nova Scotia, Canada, in May 2006.

  7. Performance of DBS-Radio using concatenated coding and equalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevargiz, J.; Bell, D.; Truong, L.; Vaisnys, A.; Suwitra, K.; Henson, P.

    1995-01-01

    The Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) receiver is being developed for operation in a multipath Rayleigh channel. This receiver uses equalization and concatenated coding, in addition to open loop and closed loop architectures for carrier demodulation and symbol synchronization. Performance test results of this receiver are presented in both AWGN and multipath Rayleigh channels. Simulation results show that the performance of the receiver operating in a multipath Rayleigh channel is significantly improved by using equalization. These results show that fractional-symbol equalization offers a performance advantage over full symbol equalization. Also presented is the base-line performance of the DBS-R receiver using concatenated coding and interleaving.

  8. Application of equalization notch to improve synthetic aperture radar coherent data products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musgrove, Cameron; West, James C.

    2015-05-01

    Interference and interference mitigation techniques degrade synthetic aperture radar (SAR) coherent data products. Radars utilizing stretch processing present a unique challenge for many mitigation techniques because the interference signal itself is modified through stretch processing from its original signal characteristics. Many sources of interference, including constant tones, are only present within the fast-time sample data for a limited number of samples, depending on the radar and interference bandwidth. Adaptive filtering algorithms to estimate and remove the interference signal that rely upon assuming stationary interference signal characteristics can be ineffective. An effective mitigation method, called notching, forces the value of the data samples containing interference to zero. However, as the number of data samples set to zero increases, image distortion and loss of resolution degrade both the image product and any second order image products. Techniques to repair image distortions,1 are effective for point-like targets. However, these techniques are not designed to model and repair distortions in SAR image terrain. Good terrain coherence is important for SAR second order image products because terrain occupies the majority of many scenes. For the case of coherent change detection it is the terrain coherence itself that determines the quality of the change detection image. This paper proposes an unique equalization technique that improves coherence over existing notching techniques. First, the proposed algorithm limits mitigation to only the samples containing interference, unlike adaptive filtering algorithms, so the remaining samples are not modified. Additionally, the mitigation adapts to changing interference power such that the resulting correction equalizes the power across the data samples. The result is reduced distortion and improved coherence for the terrain. SAR data demonstrates improved coherence from the proposed equalization

  9. 47 CFR 22.321 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 22.321 Section 22.321 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Operational and Technical Requirements Operational Requirements § 22.321 Equal employment opportunities. Public Mobile...

  10. 47 CFR 22.321 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 22.321 Section 22.321 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Operational and Technical Requirements Operational Requirements § 22.321 Equal employment opportunities. Public Mobile...

  11. 47 CFR 73.2080 - Equal employment opportunities (EEO).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities (EEO). 73.2080 Section 73.2080 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.2080 Equal employment opportunities (EEO). (a) General EEO policy....

  12. 47 CFR 22.321 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Maintaining systematic contacts with minority and human relations organizations, leaders and spokespersons to... herein. (5) Complaints indicating a general pattern of disregard of equal employment practices which are...) Communicate its equal employment opportunity policy and program and its employment needs to sources...

  13. The Power War: Male Response to Power Loss under Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Arnold

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes the male response to anticipated loss of power as women continue to demand equality and equal power. Describes the scope of male power, and analyzes the importance of power to men in terms of the male sex-role stereotype. Hypothesizes some likely male responses to a loss of power. (BH)

  14. 41 CFR 60-4.3 - Equal opportunity clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) The equal opportunity clause published at 41 CFR 60-1.4(a) of this chapter is required to be included... contracts and subcontracts. The equal opportunity clause published at 41 CFR 60-1.4(b) is required to be... participating (pursuant to 41 CFR 60-4.5) in a Hometown Plan approved by the U.S. Department of Labor in...

  15. 24 CFR 582.330 - Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, recipients serving a designated...) and implementing regulations at 41 CFR chapter 60-741. (2) The nondiscrimination and equal opportunity.... (ii) (c) Affirmative outreach. (1) If the procedures that the recipient intends to use to make...

  16. 7 CFR 3015.184 - Equal employment opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equal employment opportunity. 3015.184 Section 3015... employment opportunity. (a) The Attachment 0 requires recipients to include in contracts in excess of $10,000 a provision requiring compliance with Executive Order 11246, concerning equal employment...

  17. 47 CFR 76.1702 - Equal employment opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal employment opportunity. 76.1702 Section... employment opportunity. (a) Every employment unit with six or more full-time employees shall maintain for... pursuant to § 76.77 and the equal employment opportunity program information described in paragraph (b)...

  18. 48 CFR 970.2208 - Equal employment opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... employment opportunity. The equal employment opportunity provisions of 48 CFR subpart 22.8 and subpart 922.8 of this chapter, including Executive Order 11246 and 41 CFR part 60, are applicable to DOE management... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal...

  19. 7 CFR 4279.58 - Equal Credit Opportunity Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Opportunity Act as contained in the Federal Reserve Board's Regulation implementing that Act (see 12 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equal Credit Opportunity Act. 4279.58 Section 4279.58... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING General § 4279.58 Equal...

  20. 47 CFR 78.75 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 78.75 Section 78.75 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.75 Equal employment opportunities. See Subpart...

  1. 29 CFR 30.3 - Equal opportunity standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the Secretary of Labor EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY IN APPRENTICESHIP AND TRAINING § 30.3 Equal opportunity standards. (a) Obligations of sponsors. Each sponsor of an apprenticeship program shall: (1) Recruit, select, employ, and train apprentices during their apprenticeship, without discrimination...

  2. 29 CFR 30.3 - Equal opportunity standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of the Secretary of Labor EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY IN APPRENTICESHIP AND TRAINING § 30.3 Equal opportunity standards. (a) Obligations of sponsors. Each sponsor of an apprenticeship program shall: (1) Recruit, select, employ, and train apprentices during their apprenticeship, without discrimination...

  3. 29 CFR 30.3 - Equal opportunity standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the Secretary of Labor EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY IN APPRENTICESHIP AND TRAINING § 30.3 Equal opportunity standards. (a) Obligations of sponsors. Each sponsor of an apprenticeship program shall: (1) Recruit, select, employ, and train apprentices during their apprenticeship, without discrimination...

  4. 29 CFR 30.3 - Equal opportunity standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the Secretary of Labor EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY IN APPRENTICESHIP AND TRAINING § 30.3 Equal opportunity standards. (a) Obligations of sponsors. Each sponsor of an apprenticeship program shall: (1) Recruit, select, employ, and train apprentices during their apprenticeship, without discrimination...

  5. Equal Education Opportunity for All the Visually Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education of the Visually Handicapped, Philadelphia, PA.

    The booklet contains 12 selected papers on equal educational opportunity for visually handicapped (VH) children that were presented at the 52nd biennial conference (June, 1974) of the Association for Education of the Visually Handicapped. Included are presentations on the following: the history and concept of equal educational opportunity (B.…

  6. Equal Educational Opportunity in High School Athletics. Conference Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Charles D., Sr., Ed.; And Others

    These conference proceedings cover three general areas: (1) purposes and values of high school athletics, (2) the need for a definition of equality, and (3) the legal basis for athletics and evolving definitions of equality. Specific essays discuss topics such as the organization and legal basis for athletics; racial segregation in high school…

  7. 29 CFR 2.32 - Equal participation of religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Social Service Providers and Beneficiaries § 2.32 Equal participation of religious organizations. (a... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equal participation of religious organizations. 2.32... or participate in DOL programs for which they are otherwise eligible. DOL, DOL social...

  8. 29 CFR 2.32 - Equal participation of religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Social Service Providers and Beneficiaries § 2.32 Equal participation of religious organizations. (a... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Equal participation of religious organizations. 2.32 Section... or participate in DOL programs for which they are otherwise eligible. DOL, DOL social...

  9. Equal Protection in Special Admissions Programs: Forward from Bakke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Julius

    1979-01-01

    Bakke's equal protection holding is analyzed and an assessment is offered of what the decisions mean for academic special admissions programs. Discussion focuses on how race may be used as a factor in admissions decisions consistently with the equal protection clause of the Federal Constitution. (Author/MSE)

  10. 7 CFR 1720.15 - Equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equal opportunity requirements. 1720.15 Section 1720.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEES FOR BONDS AND NOTES ISSUED FOR ELECTRIFICATION OR TELEPHONE PURPOSES § 1720.15 Equal opportunity...

  11. 7 CFR 1720.15 - Equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equal opportunity requirements. 1720.15 Section 1720.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEES FOR BONDS AND NOTES ISSUED FOR ELECTRIFICATION OR TELEPHONE PURPOSES § 1720.15 Equal opportunity...

  12. 48 CFR 411.170 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 411... name or equal. (a) A “brand name or equal” purchase description shall include the following type of... designation, or other description, and identification of a commercial catalog where it is listed. (3) Name...

  13. 48 CFR 411.170 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 411... name or equal. (a) A “brand name or equal” purchase description shall include the following type of... designation, or other description, and identification of a commercial catalog where it is listed. (3) Name...

  14. 48 CFR 411.170 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 411... name or equal. (a) A “brand name or equal” purchase description shall include the following type of... designation, or other description, and identification of a commercial catalog where it is listed. (3) Name...

  15. 41 CFR 60-4.3 - Equal opportunity clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) The equal opportunity clause published at 41 CFR 60-1.4(a) of this chapter is required to be included... contracts and subcontracts. The equal opportunity clause published at 41 CFR 60-1.4(b) is required to be... participating (pursuant to 41 CFR 60-4.5) in a Hometown Plan approved by the U.S. Department of Labor in...

  16. An Application of the Equal Pay Act to Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Debra H.

    1981-01-01

    The applicability of legal principles governing equal pay and sex discrimination in university settings is discussed. The most objective mechanism that a university can utilize to achieve compliance with the Equal Pay Act would be implementation of a salary system that relies on experience, formal education, and time in grade. (MLW)

  17. 7 CFR 4279.58 - Equal Credit Opportunity Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Opportunity Act as contained in the Federal Reserve Board's Regulation implementing that Act (see 12 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equal Credit Opportunity Act. 4279.58 Section 4279.58... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING General § 4279.58 Equal...

  18. Measuring Structural Gender Equality in Mexico: A State Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frias, Sonia M.

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to assess the level of gender equality across the 32 Mexican states. After reviewing conceptual and methodological issues related to previous measures of structural inequality I detail the logic and methodology involved in the construction of a composite and multidimensional measure of gender equality, at the…

  19. Conceptualising Gender Equality in Research on Education Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikman, Sheila; Halai, Anjum; Rubagiza, Jolly

    2011-01-01

    This article sets out to re-conceptualise gender equality in education quality. Four approaches to conceptualising gender equitable education quality are identified in the literature: human capital theory with a focus on parity and sameness for all; a human rights and power perspective, within which gender equality is viewed as transforming unjust…

  20. 41 CFR 60-4.3 - Equal opportunity clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) The equal opportunity clause published at 41 CFR 60-1.4(a) of this chapter is required to be included... contracts and subcontracts. The equal opportunity clause published at 41 CFR 60-1.4(b) is required to be... participating (pursuant to 41 CFR 60-4.5) in a Hometown Plan approved by the U.S. Department of Labor in...

  1. 48 CFR 14.408-6 - Equal low bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... respects: (1) Small business concerns that are also labor surplus area concerns. (2) Other small business concerns. (3) Other business concerns. (b) If two or more bidders still remain equally eligible after... AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 14.408-6 Equal low bids....

  2. 47 CFR 101.311 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 101.311 Section 101.311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous Common Carrier Provisions § 101.311 Equal...

  3. 47 CFR 101.311 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 101.311 Section 101.311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous Common Carrier Provisions § 101.311 Equal...

  4. 16 CFR 240.9 - Proportionally equal terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proportionally equal terms. 240.9 Section 240.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.9 Proportionally equal terms....

  5. 16 CFR 240.9 - Proportionally equal terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proportionally equal terms. 240.9 Section 240.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.9 Proportionally equal terms....

  6. 29 CFR 2.32 - Equal participation of religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equal participation of religious organizations. 2.32 Section 2.32 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GENERAL REGULATIONS Equal Treatment in Department of Labor Programs for Religious Organizations; Protection of Religious Liberty of Department of...

  7. 29 CFR 8.19 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE CONTRACTS General Procedural Matters § 8.19 Equal Access to Justice Act. Proceedings under the... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equal Access to Justice Act. 8.19 Section 8.19 Labor Office... Access to Justice Act (Pub. L. 96-481). Accordingly, in any proceeding conducted pursuant to...

  8. Towards an Analytical Framework for Accountability Regarding Equal Educational Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Johan; Prinsloo, Justus

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the issue of accountability for equal educational opportunities against the background of the constitutional provision that elevates accountability above a management tool to a national goal and value. It asserts that the government is indeed accountable for equal educational opportunities. However, government reporting on…

  9. Teaching the Substitutive Conception of the Equals Sign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian; Inglis, Matthew; Gilmore, Camilla; Evans, Rhys

    2013-01-01

    A cumulative body of research has shown that children typically shift from an "operational" to a "relational" conception of the equals sign as they move through schooling. Jones (2008) argued that a truly relational conception of the equals sign comprises a "substitutive" component and a "sameness"…

  10. 47 CFR 73.2080 - Equal employment opportunities (EEO).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities (EEO). 73.2080 Section 73.2080 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.2080 Equal employment opportunities (EEO). (a) General EEO policy....

  11. Swedish Schools and Gender Equality in the 1970s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedlin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden, as in many countries before Sweden, boys' academic achievements are getting considerable attention as the big gender issue. The Swedish gender equality policy that was put on the agenda in the 1970s is now associated with extreme discussions. This study aims to explore how gender equality was discussed in the 1970s, in connection with…

  12. 48 CFR 411.170 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 411... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 411.170 Brand name or equal. (a) A “brand name or equal” purchase description shall include the following type...

  13. 48 CFR 411.170 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 411... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 411.170 Brand name or equal. (a) A “brand name or equal” purchase description shall include the following type...

  14. 75 FR 65214 - Equal Access to Justice Act Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Justice Act. The proposed regulation was published in the Federal Register at 75 FR 17622 (April 7, 2010... Oversight 12 CFR Part 1705 RIN 2590-AA29 Equal Access to Justice Act Implementation AGENCY: Federal Housing... OFHEO Implementation of the Equal Access to Justice Act regulation at 12 CFR part 1705. IV. Section...

  15. 24 CFR 582.330 - Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, recipients serving a designated...) and implementing regulations at 41 CFR chapter 60-741. (2) The nondiscrimination and equal opportunity... DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES SHELTER PLUS CARE...

  16. 24 CFR 582.330 - Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, recipients serving a designated...) and implementing regulations at 41 CFR chapter 60-741. (2) The nondiscrimination and equal opportunity... DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES SHELTER PLUS CARE...

  17. 24 CFR 582.330 - Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, recipients serving a designated...) and implementing regulations at 41 CFR chapter 60-741. (2) The nondiscrimination and equal opportunity... DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES SHELTER PLUS CARE...

  18. 24 CFR 582.330 - Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, recipients serving a designated...) and implementing regulations at 41 CFR chapter 60-741. (2) The nondiscrimination and equal opportunity... DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES SHELTER PLUS CARE...

  19. 47 CFR 101.311 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 101.311 Section 101.311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous Common Carrier Provisions § 101.311 Equal...

  20. 47 CFR 101.311 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 101.311 Section 101.311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous Common Carrier Provisions § 101.311 Equal...

  1. 47 CFR 101.311 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 101.311 Section 101.311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous Common Carrier Provisions § 101.311 Equal...

  2. 48 CFR 52.222-26 - Equal Opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equal Opportunity. 52.222-26 Section 52.222-26 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-26 Equal Opportunity. As prescribed in...

  3. Toward a New Definition of Equal Educational Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeley, David S.

    1985-01-01

    Considers the meaning of "equal educational opportunity." Asserts that successful learning depends on the interaction of many factors, including teacher-student interactions, and equality of educational opportunity will be achieved only when interactions are productive for all children. Achieving equity will require a collaborative approach with…

  4. 29 CFR 2.32 - Equal participation of religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Social Service Providers and Beneficiaries § 2.32 Equal participation of religious organizations. (a... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equal participation of religious organizations. 2.32 Section... or participate in DOL programs for which they are otherwise eligible. DOL, DOL social...

  5. Better to be equal? Challenges to equality for cognitively able children with autism spectrum disorders in a social decision game.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Eva A; Banerjee, Robin; Pouw, Lucinda Bc; Stockmann, Lex; Rieffe, Carolien

    2015-02-01

    Much controversy surrounds questions about whether humans have an aversion to inequity and how a commitment to equality might play a role in cooperation and other aspects of social interactions. Examining the social decisions of children with autism spectrum disorders provides a fascinating opportunity to explore these issues. Specifically, we evaluated the possibility that children with autism spectrum disorders may be less likely than typically developing children to show a prioritisation of equality. A total of 69 typically developing (mean age 11;6 years) and 57 cognitively able children with autism spectrum disorders (mean age 11;7 years) played a social decision game in which the equality option was pitted against alternatives that varied in instrumental outcomes. Results showed that both groups were more likely to choose the equality option when there was no cost to the self. However, even though children with autism spectrum disorders appeared to view equality as preferable to causing explicit harm to others, they departed from an equality stance when there was an opportunity to increase instrumental gain without any obvious harm to the self or the other. Typically developing children, in contrast, showed similar prioritisation of equality across these contexts. Future research needs to address the question of how differences in the commitment to equality affect children's social behaviour and relationships in daily life. PMID:24523411

  6. Moving beyond gender: processes that create relationship equality.

    PubMed

    Knudson-Martin, Carmen; Mahoney, Anne Rankin

    2005-04-01

    Equality is related to relationship success, yet few couples achieve it. In this qualitative study, we examine how couples with children in two time cohorts (1982 and 2001) moved toward equality. The analysis identifies three types of couples: Postgender, gender legacy, and traditional. Movement toward equality is facilitated by: (a) Stimulus for change, including awareness of gender, commitment to family and work, and situational pressures; and (b) patterns that promote change, including active negotiation, challenges to gender entitlement, development of new competencies, and mutual attention to relationship and family tasks. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:15974060

  7. Is equal moral consideration really compatible with unequal moral status?

    PubMed

    Rossi, John

    2010-09-01

    The issue of moral considerability, or how much moral importance a being's interests deserve, is one of the most important in animal ethics. Some leading theorists--most notably David DeGrazia--have argued that a principle of "equal moral consideration" is compatible with "unequal moral status." Such a position would reconcile the egalitarian force of equal consideration with more stringent obligations to humans than animals. The article presents arguments that equal consideration is not compatible with unequal moral status, thereby forcing those who would justify significantly different moral protections for humans and animals to argue for unequal consideration. PMID:21133335

  8. Alpha-gamma equalization-enhanced hand radiographic image segmentation scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsiu-Hsia; Shu, San-Ging; Kuo, Shiau-Wei; Wang, Chien-Hsuan; Chan, Ya-Ping; Yu, Shyr-Shen

    2009-10-01

    Bone age assessment of children is a procedure frequently performed in pediatric radiology. The feature extractions of metaphyseal and epiphyseal regions are crucial to automatic bone age assessment. The first step of feature extraction is applying a segmentation scheme to find exact regions of epiphysis and metaphysis. A segmentation method is normally based on both intensity information and the relative location of pixels. There is a fundamental problem; when the intensity contrast of soft tissue and bony tissue is poor, bony and soft tissue cannot easily be separated. We propose an α-gamma equalization method to increase the intensity contrast between bony and soft tissue. Sobel, two-means, Canny edge-detection, and watershed methods are applied to illustrate the effect of this method on initial segmentation. Adaptive two-means and gradient vector flow snake are adopted for the final segmentation. Experimental results reveal that α-gamma equalization-enhanced two-means initial segmentation with an adaptive two-means clustering scheme can greatly reduce the average error measurements of segmentations. These are evaluated according to the following measurements: misclassification error, edge mismatch, region nonuniformity, relative foreground area eror, and modified Hausdorff distance. Furthermore, the experimental results show that the proposed scheme provides increased stable performance for the segmentation of epiphyseal/metaphyseal regions.

  9. 43 CFR 27.6 - Equal opportunity implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GRANTED OR ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.6 Equal opportunity implementation. Within... as to facilitiate the participation of minority business enterprises; (4) Submit periodic reports...

  10. 43 CFR 27.6 - Equal opportunity implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GRANTED OR ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.6 Equal opportunity implementation. Within... as to facilitiate the participation of minority business enterprises; (4) Submit periodic reports...

  11. 43 CFR 27.6 - Equal opportunity implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GRANTED OR ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.6 Equal opportunity implementation. Within... as to facilitiate the participation of minority business enterprises; (4) Submit periodic reports...

  12. 43 CFR 27.6 - Equal opportunity implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GRANTED OR ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.6 Equal opportunity implementation. Within... as to facilitiate the participation of minority business enterprises; (4) Submit periodic reports...

  13. 43 CFR 27.6 - Equal opportunity implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GRANTED OR ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.6 Equal opportunity implementation. Within... as to facilitiate the participation of minority business enterprises; (4) Submit periodic reports...

  14. 43 CFR 34.6 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DURING CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE ALASKA NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM § 34.6 Equal..., regulations, and orders, or by any other means authorized by law; (e) The recipient, contractor,...

  15. Implementing the Equal Access Act and State Constitutional Provisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklun, Eugene C.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the issue of whether implementation of the Equal Access Act would violate the constitutions of some states that require a stricter separation of church and state than the federal Constitution. (MLF)

  16. 7 CFR 1720.15 - Equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 1720.15 Equal opportunity requirements. Executive Order 12898, “Environmental Justice.” To comply with... environmental justice. The Civil Rights Impact Analysis will be conducted prior to application approval or...

  17. 7 CFR 1720.15 - Equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 1720.15 Equal opportunity requirements. Executive Order 12898, “Environmental Justice.” To comply with... environmental justice. The Civil Rights Impact Analysis will be conducted prior to application approval or...

  18. 7 CFR 1720.15 - Equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 1720.15 Equal opportunity requirements. Executive Order 12898, “Environmental Justice.” To comply with... environmental justice. The Civil Rights Impact Analysis will be conducted prior to application approval or...

  19. 24 CFR 200.30 - Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Miscellaneous Cross Cutting Regulations § 200.30 Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity. The requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5,...

  20. Equal Employment Law and the Employer--An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levins, Will

    1979-01-01

    Sets forth in simple terms some of the requirements of the Equal Employment Opportunities Act of 1972. Available from the New York State Bar Association, One Elk Street, Albany, N.Y. 12207; sc $2.00. (Author/IRT)

  1. Implications of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act Amendments of 1976

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Richard P.

    1977-01-01

    Explains the provisions of the Equal Credit Opportunities Act Amendments of 1976 (Public Law 94-239, 94th Congress, H.R. 6516, March 23, 1976), discusses their implications, and suggests enforcement improvements in the Act. (Author/RK)

  2. 43 CFR 34.6 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DURING CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE ALASKA NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM § 34.6 Equal..., regulations, and orders, or by any other means authorized by law; (e) The recipient, contractor,...

  3. 41 CFR 60-1.4 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of language. Such necessary changes in language may be made in the equal opportunity clause as shall... defined in the regulations of the Secretary of Labor at 41 CFR Chapter 60, which is paid for in whole...

  4. 41 CFR 60-1.4 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of language. Such necessary changes in language may be made in the equal opportunity clause as shall... defined in the regulations of the Secretary of Labor at 41 CFR Chapter 60, which is paid for in whole...

  5. Full Employment and Economic Equality. Jobs and Minority Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Bernard E.

    1976-01-01

    Traces some of the evidence that supports the full employment minority advancement thesis, and discusses some additional measures required to assist full employment in achieving racial equality. Most of the discussion focuses on black workers. (Author/AM)

  6. 43 CFR 34.6 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE ALASKA NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM § 34.6 Equal opportunity clause..., regulations, and orders, or by any other means authorized by law; (e) The recipient, contractor,...

  7. 40 CFR 35.935-6 - Equal employment opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935-6 Equal employment opportunity. Contracts involving step 3-type work of $10,000 or more are subject...

  8. 40 CFR 35.935-6 - Equal employment opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935-6 Equal employment opportunity. Contracts involving step 3-type work of $10,000 or more are subject...

  9. 40 CFR 35.935-6 - Equal employment opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935-6 Equal employment opportunity. Contracts involving step 3-type work of $10,000 or more are subject...

  10. 40 CFR 35.935-6 - Equal employment opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935-6 Equal employment opportunity. Contracts involving step 3-type work of $10,000 or more are subject...

  11. 40 CFR 35.935-6 - Equal employment opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935-6 Equal employment opportunity. Contracts involving step 3-type work of $10,000 or more are subject...

  12. Menopause: Not All Hot Flashes Are Created Equal

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160027.html Menopause: Not All Hot Flashes Are Created Equal Weight, race, education and lifestyle all affect timing, duration of symptoms, research indicates To ...

  13. ADAPTATION AND ADAPTABILITY, THE BELLEFAIRE FOLLOWUP STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALLERHAND, MELVIN E.; AND OTHERS

    A RESEARCH TEAM STUDIED INFLUENCES, ADAPTATION, AND ADAPTABILITY IN 50 POORLY ADAPTING BOYS AT BELLEFAIRE, A REGIONAL CHILD CARE CENTER FOR EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILDREN. THE TEAM ATTEMPTED TO GAUGE THE SUCCESS OF THE RESIDENTIAL TREATMENT CENTER IN TERMS OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL PATTERNS AND ROLE PERFORMANCES OF THE BOYS DURING INDIVIDUAL CASEWORK…

  14. Patterns of gender equality at workplaces and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Elwér, Sofia; Harryson, Lisa; Bolin, Malin; Hammarström, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Research in the field of occupational health often uses a risk factor approach which has been criticized by feminist researchers for not considering the combination of many different variables that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress. Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 715) have been analysed and supplemented with register data about the participants' workplaces. The register data were used to create gender equality indicators of women/men ratios of number of employees, educational level, salary and parental leave. Cluster analysis was used to identify patterns of gender equality at the workplaces. Differences in psychological distress between the clusters were analysed by chi-square test and logistic regression analyses, adjusting for individual socio-demographics and previous psychological distress. The cluster analysis resulted in six distinctive clusters with different patterns of gender equality at the workplaces that were associated to psychological distress for women but not for men. For women the highest odds of psychological distress was found on traditionally gender unequal workplaces. The lowest overall occurrence of psychological distress as well as same occurrence for women and men was found on the most gender equal workplaces. The results from this study support the convergence hypothesis as gender equality at the workplace does not only relate to better mental health for women, but also more similar occurrence of mental ill-health between women and men. This study highlights the importance of utilizing a multidimensional view of gender equality to understand its association to health outcomes. Health policies need to consider gender equality at the workplace level as a social determinant of health that is of importance for reducing differences in health

  15. Derivative of Area Equals Perimeter--Coincidence or Rule?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zazkis, Rina; Sinitsky, Ilya; Leikin, Roza

    2013-01-01

    Why is the derivative of the area of a circle equal to its circumference? Why is the derivative of the volume of a sphere equal to its surface area? And why does a similar relationship not hold for a square or a cube? Or does it? In their work in teacher education, these authors have heard at times undesirable responses to these questions:…

  16. 41 CFR 60-4.3 - Equal opportunity clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... clauses. (a) The equal opportunity clause published at 41 CFR 60-1.4(a) of this chapter is required to be... contracts and subcontracts. The equal opportunity clause published at 41 CFR 60-1.4(b) is required to be... participating (pursuant to 41 CFR 60-4.5) in a Hometown Plan approved by the U.S. Department of Labor in...

  17. 41 CFR 60-4.3 - Equal opportunity clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... clauses. (a) The equal opportunity clause published at 41 CFR 60-1.4(a) of this chapter is required to be... contracts and subcontracts. The equal opportunity clause published at 41 CFR 60-1.4(b) is required to be... participating (pursuant to 41 CFR 60-4.5) in a Hometown Plan approved by the U.S. Department of Labor in...

  18. Neighboring extremals of dynamic optimization problems with path equality constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, A. Y.

    1988-01-01

    Neighboring extremals of dynamic optimization problems with path equality constraints and with an unknown parameter vector are considered in this paper. With some simplifications, the problem is reduced to solving a linear, time-varying two-point boundary-value problem with integral path equality constraints. A modified backward sweep method is used to solve this problem. Two example problems are solved to illustrate the validity and usefulness of the solution technique.

  19. Constructions of equality and discrimination in professional men's talk.

    PubMed

    Riley, Sarah C E

    2002-09-01

    The contradiction between support for egalitarian employment practices and the maintenance of occupational androcentrism was examined by discursively analysing constructions of equality and discrimination from 46 interviews with professional men. Accounts of equality were produced through the interpretative repertories of 'interchangeability', 'individual ability' and 'pragmatism'. This enables, first, an understanding of discrimination as 'non-individualism', a term used to describe the treatment of social group memberships as salient, and second, defined interventions based on a structural analysis of equality as discrimination. These repertoires minimized the gendered nature of men and women's experiences and negated the use of context in favour of an abstract principle of individualism. Participants warranted their accounts through feminist arguments, two-sided argument formulations, and the construction of a dichotomy between individualist-equality and structuralist-discrimination-supporting the material practice of 'affirmative non-action', the active support of non-action. Relating the findings to equal opportunity policy, occupational cultural analyses and the discursive production of 'new sexism', the article identifies the absence of an account that conceptualizes both individual and structural facets of equality. PMID:12419012

  20. Equality of the sexes in Sweden under a new government.

    PubMed

    Mccrea, J M

    1979-07-01

    Although the Social Democratic Party lost its long control of Parliament, Sweden is a country with a strong egalitarian philosophy which transcends party politics, and it is felt that the loss of the election had virtually no affect on policy toward women or other aspects of social policy. A review of the Swedish political situation, including political parties; election issues; aftermath of the election; and labor force participation precedes consideration of developments in the economic status of women, 1976-1978. Factors considered include Labour Market Board equality measures; parenthood insurance; work hours; the Committee on Equality Between Men and Women; proposed legislation on equality; private agreements between employers and trade unions on family policy; and womens' participation. It is concluded that the new government has merely continued the equality programs of the previous government, with the only meaningful contribution of the new Equality Committee to draft legislation prohibiting discrimination. The law on equality is a vital issue for the Liberal Party and they will have to persuade the Social Democrats that its enactment will provide the basis of an egalitarian society. PMID:12309568

  1. Near-lossless image compression by adaptive prediction: new developments and comparison of algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiazzi, Bruno; Alparone, Luciano; Baronti, Stefano

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes state-of-the-art approaches to near-lossless image compression by adaptive causal DPCM and presents two advanced schemes based on crisp and fuzzy switching of predictors, respectively. The former relies on a linear-regression prediction in which a different predictor is employed for each image block. Such block-representative predictors are calculated from the original data set through an iterative relaxation-labeling procedure. Coding time are affordable thanks to fast convergence of training. Decoding is always performed in real time. The latter is still based on adaptive MMSE prediction in which a different predictor at each pixel position is achieved by blending a number of prototype predictors through adaptive weights calculated from the past decoded samples. Quantization error feedback loops are introduced into the basic lossless encoders to enable user-defined upper-bounded reconstruction errors. Both schemes exploit context modeling of prediction errors followed by arithmetic coding to enhance entropy coding performances. A thorough performance comparison on a wide test image set show the superiority of the proposed schemes over both up-to-date encoders in the literature and new/upcoming standards.

  2. Adaptive Image Denoising by Mixture Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Enming; Chan, Stanley H; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2016-10-01

    We propose an adaptive learning procedure to learn patch-based image priors for image denoising. The new algorithm, called the expectation-maximization (EM) adaptation, takes a generic prior learned from a generic external database and adapts it to the noisy image to generate a specific prior. Different from existing methods that combine internal and external statistics in ad hoc ways, the proposed algorithm is rigorously derived from a Bayesian hyper-prior perspective. There are two contributions of this paper. First, we provide full derivation of the EM adaptation algorithm and demonstrate methods to improve the computational complexity. Second, in the absence of the latent clean image, we show how EM adaptation can be modified based on pre-filtering. The experimental results show that the proposed adaptation algorithm yields consistently better denoising results than the one without adaptation and is superior to several state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:27416593

  3. Particle Filtering Equalization Method for a Satellite Communication Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sénécal, Stéphane; Amblard, Pierre-Olivier; Cavazzana, Laurent

    2004-12-01

    We propose the use of particle filtering techniques and Monte Carlo methods to tackle the in-line and blind equalization of a satellite communication channel. The main difficulties encountered are the nonlinear distortions caused by the amplifier stage in the satellite. Several processing methods manage to take into account these nonlinearities but they require the knowledge of a training input sequence for updating the equalizer parameters. Blind equalization methods also exist but they require a Volterra modelization of the system which is not suited for equalization purpose for the present model. The aim of the method proposed in the paper is also to blindly restore the emitted message. To reach this goal, a Bayesian point of view is adopted. Prior knowledge of the emitted symbols and of the nonlinear amplification model, as well as the information available from the received signal, is jointly used by considering the posterior distribution of the input sequence. Such a probability distribution is very difficult to study and thus motivates the implementation of Monte Carlo simulation methods. The presentation of the equalization method is cut into two parts. The first part solves the problem for a simplified model, focusing on the nonlinearities of the model. The second part deals with the complete model, using sampling approaches previously developed. The algorithms are illustrated and their performance is evaluated using bit error rate versus signal-to-noise ratio curves.

  4. Equalizer system and method for series connected energy storing devices

    DOEpatents

    Rouillard, Jean; Comte, Christophe; Hagen, Ronald A.; Knudson, Orlin B.; Morin, Andre; Ross, Guy

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method for regulating the charge voltage of a number of electrochemical cells connected in series is disclosed. Equalization circuitry is provided to control the amount of charge current supplied to individual electrochemical cells included within the series string of electrochemical cells without interrupting the flow of charge current through the series string. The equalization circuitry balances the potential of each of the electrochemical cells to within a pre-determined voltage setpoint tolerance during charging, and, if necessary, prior to initiating charging. Equalization of cell potentials may be effected toward the end of a charge cycle or throughout the charge cycle. Overcharge protection is also provided for each of the electrochemical cells coupled to the series connection. During a discharge mode of operation in accordance with one embodiment, the equalization circuitry is substantially non-conductive with respect to the flow of discharge current from the series string of electrochemical cells. In accordance with another embodiment, equalization of the series string of cells is effected during a discharge cycle.

  5. A selective equalizer for NiMH batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hande, A.; Stuart, T. A.

    A unique method has been developed to equalize nickel metal hydride (NiMH) battery packs using a new selective equalizer. This equalizer detects batteries either at a very low state of charge (SOC) or at an extremely high SOC. In this system a set of electromechanical relays is connected in a matrix to route boost current to the weaker batteries. The relay switching is controlled by a 32 bit microcontroller, and the boost current is supplied by a boost charger. Once a weak battery is detected, it is scheduled for a specific boost time by a special "Round Robin" (RR) algorithm. The equalizer was tested on a pack of 12 series connected 12 V 93 ampere hour (Ah) NiMH batteries. Test results show that the equalizer was able to re-balance an artificially unbalanced pack, and the capacity was increased by 27% within six charge-discharge cycles. Results indicate the number of cycles required to re-balance the pack was significantly reduced by using this technique.

  6. Achieving equal pay for comparable worth through arbitration.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, S C

    1982-01-01

    Traditional "women's jobs" often pay relatively low wages because of the effects of institutionalized stereotypes concerning women and their role in the work place. One way of dealing with sex discrimination that results in job segregation is to narrow the existing wage differential between "men's jobs" and "women's jobs." Where the jobs are dissimilar on their face, this narrowing of pay differences involves implementing the concept of "equal pay for jobs of comparable worth." Some time in the future, far-reaching, perhaps even industrywide, reductions in male-female pay differentials may be achieved by pursuing legal remedies based on equal pay for comparable worth. However, as the author demonstrates, immediate, albeit more limited, relief for sex-based pay inequities found in specific work places can be obtained by implementing equal pay for jobs of comparable worth through the collective bargaining and arbitration processes. PMID:10257047

  7. EQUATIONS AND THE EQUAL SIGN IN ELEMENTARY MATHEMATICS TEXTBOOKS

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Sarah R.

    2012-01-01

    To promote a relational understanding of the equal sign (=), students may require exposure to a variety of equation types (i.e., 3 = 8 − 5; 2 + 3 = 1 + 4; 9 − 3 = 6). The purpose of this study was to evaluate 8 elementary curricula for degree of exposure to equation types. Across 6 elementary grade levels, curricula were coded for the number of standard and nonstandard equation types appearing within the student textbook. Except in 1 of the 8 curricula, students typically do not receive exposure to nonstandard equation types that promote a relational understanding of the equal sign. An analysis of the accompanying teacher manual for each textbook suggests that students receive minimal instruction on relational definitions of the equal sign, with the majority of instruction occurring in grades K–2 and minimal instruction provided in grades 3–5. PMID:22707760

  8. EQUATIONS AND THE EQUAL SIGN IN ELEMENTARY MATHEMATICS TEXTBOOKS.

    PubMed

    Powell, Sarah R

    2012-06-01

    To promote a relational understanding of the equal sign (=), students may require exposure to a variety of equation types (i.e., 3 = 8 - 5; 2 + 3 = 1 + 4; 9 - 3 = 6). The purpose of this study was to evaluate 8 elementary curricula for degree of exposure to equation types. Across 6 elementary grade levels, curricula were coded for the number of standard and nonstandard equation types appearing within the student textbook. Except in 1 of the 8 curricula, students typically do not receive exposure to nonstandard equation types that promote a relational understanding of the equal sign. An analysis of the accompanying teacher manual for each textbook suggests that students receive minimal instruction on relational definitions of the equal sign, with the majority of instruction occurring in grades K-2 and minimal instruction provided in grades 3-5. PMID:22707760

  9. [Equality between men and women is a right].

    PubMed

    1995-07-01

    Equality between men and women is one of the basic human rights. Investments in health, education, and family planning are the fundamental measures for promoting sexual equality. Promoting equality in turn is an investment in improving the health of women and children and the quality of human resources. By reducing pressure for large families, sexual equality creates conditions for faster economic growth. Women control most of the nonmonetary economy including subsistence agriculture, care of children, and domestic work, and they also play an important role in the monetary economy, although much of their work is unrecognized. The unfavorable condition of women limits their access to productive goods and social services. A strong inverse relationship exists between fertility and female education. More educated women have a greater probability of receiving prenatal care and of providing adequate care for their children. In many countries of Latin America, more than 20% of births are to adolescents. Adolescent pregnancies are often problematic, resulting in interrupted education, perpetuation of poverty, health complications, abortion, or even suicide. The problems of adolescent maternity are closely related to the inferior position of women. Education and family planning services are essential in breaking the vicious cycle. Access to employment for women contributes to reducing fertility, improves the position of women in the family, directly aids children, and reduces the woman's need to have many children for old age security. To establish conditions of equality between men and women, political actions must be taken to assure women equal social conditions and economic opportunities. Men must become more involved in family planning and in child care. The society as a whole must understand the social function of maternity. PMID:12179420

  10. Equal Access Initiative HIV/AIDS Information Resources from NLM

    SciTech Connect

    Templin-Branner W. and N. Dancy

    2010-09-11

    The Equal Access Initiative: HIV/AIDS Information Resources from the National Library of Medicine training is designed specifically for the National Minority AIDS Council 2010 Equal Access Initiative (EAI) Computer Grants Program awardees to provide valuable health information resources from the National Library of Medicine and other reliable sources to increase awareness of the wealth of treatment information and educational materials that are available on the Internet and to improve prevention and treatment education for their clients. These resources will also meet the needs of community-based

  11. Initial ensemble dependence of Jarzynski equality in the thermodynamic limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Euijin; Kim, Yong Woon; Yi, Juyeon

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the initial ensemble dependence of the Jarzynski relation for nonequilibrium work performed on a classical system in the thermodynamic limit. It is shown that the Jarzynski equality holds also for a microcanonical ensemble only if the work process is quasi statically slow. If work is performed by a rapid perturbation, the average of exponentiated work expanded on a microcanonical system markedly deviates from the Jarzynski equality. Such deviation in fact quantifies the ratio of the energy distributions of nonequilibrium states in relative to equilibrium distribution. We exemplify these points in a simple model system both for the cases of deterministic and stochastic dynamics.

  12. Jarzynski equality in PT-symmetric quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Deffner, Sebastian; Saxena, Avadh

    2015-04-13

    We show that the quantum Jarzynski equality generalizes to PT -symmetric quantum mechanics with unbroken PT -symmetry. In the regime of broken PT -symmetry the Jarzynski equality does not hold as also the CPT -norm is not preserved during the dynamics. These findings are illustrated for an experimentally relevant system – two coupled optical waveguides. It turns out that for these systems the phase transition between the regimes of unbroken and broken PT -symmetry is thermodynamically inhibited as the irreversible work diverges at the critical point.

  13. Benchmark problems in which equality plays the major role

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, E.; Wos, L.

    1992-05-01

    We have recently heard rumors that researchers are again studying paramodulation [Wos87] in the context of strategy for its control. In part to facilitate such research, and in part to provide test problems for evaluating other approaches to equality-oriented reasoning, we offer in this article a set of benchmark problems in which equality plays the dominant role. The test problems are taken from group theory, Robbins algebra, combinatory logic, and other areas. For each problem, we include appropriate clauses and comment as to its status with regard to provability by an unaided automated reasoning program.

  14. Benchmark problems in which equality plays the major role

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, E.; Wos, L.

    1992-01-01

    We have recently heard rumors that researchers are again studying paramodulation (Wos87) in the context of strategy for its control. In part to facilitate such research, and in part to provide test problems for evaluating other approaches to equality-oriented reasoning, we offer in this article a set of benchmark problems in which equality plays the dominant role. The test problems are taken from group theory, Robbins algebra, combinatory logic, and other areas. For each problem, we include appropriate clauses and comment as to its status with regard to provability by an unaided automated reasoning program.

  15. Habituation of visual adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xue; Gao, Yi; Lv, Lili; Bao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Our sensory system adjusts its function driven by both shorter-term (e.g. adaptation) and longer-term (e.g. learning) experiences. Most past adaptation literature focuses on short-term adaptation. Only recently researchers have begun to investigate how adaptation changes over a span of days. This question is important, since in real life many environmental changes stretch over multiple days or longer. However, the answer to the question remains largely unclear. Here we addressed this issue by tracking perceptual bias (also known as aftereffect) induced by motion or contrast adaptation across multiple daily adaptation sessions. Aftereffects were measured every day after adaptation, which corresponded to the degree of adaptation on each day. For passively viewed adapters, repeated adaptation attenuated aftereffects. Once adapters were presented with an attentional task, aftereffects could either reduce for easy tasks, or initially show an increase followed by a later decrease for demanding tasks. Quantitative analysis of the decay rates in contrast adaptation showed that repeated exposure of the adapter appeared to be equivalent to adaptation to a weaker stimulus. These results suggest that both attention and a non-attentional habituation-like mechanism jointly determine how adaptation develops across multiple daily sessions. PMID:26739917

  16. Habituation of visual adaptation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xue; Gao, Yi; Lv, Lili; Bao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Our sensory system adjusts its function driven by both shorter-term (e.g. adaptation) and longer-term (e.g. learning) experiences. Most past adaptation literature focuses on short-term adaptation. Only recently researchers have begun to investigate how adaptation changes over a span of days. This question is important, since in real life many environmental changes stretch over multiple days or longer. However, the answer to the question remains largely unclear. Here we addressed this issue by tracking perceptual bias (also known as aftereffect) induced by motion or contrast adaptation across multiple daily adaptation sessions. Aftereffects were measured every day after adaptation, which corresponded to the degree of adaptation on each day. For passively viewed adapters, repeated adaptation attenuated aftereffects. Once adapters were presented with an attentional task, aftereffects could either reduce for easy tasks, or initially show an increase followed by a later decrease for demanding tasks. Quantitative analysis of the decay rates in contrast adaptation showed that repeated exposure of the adapter appeared to be equivalent to adaptation to a weaker stimulus. These results suggest that both attention and a non-attentional habituation-like mechanism jointly determine how adaptation develops across multiple daily sessions. PMID:26739917

  17. Are outcome-adaptive allocation trials ethical?

    PubMed

    Hey, Spencer Phillips; Kimmelman, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Randomization is firmly established as a cornerstone of clinical trial methodology. Yet, the ethics of randomization continues to generate controversy. The default, and most efficient, allocation scheme randomizes patients equally (1:1) across all arms of study. However, many randomized trials are using outcome-adaptive allocation schemes, which dynamically adjust the allocation ratio in favor of the better performing treatment arm. Advocates of outcome-adaptive allocation contend that it better accommodates clinical equipoise and promotes informed consent, since such trials limit patient-subject exposure to sub-optimal care. In this essay, we argue that this purported ethical advantage of outcome-adaptive allocation does not stand up to careful scrutiny in the setting of two-armed studies and/or early-phase research. PMID:25649106

  18. Adaptive decoding of convolutional codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueske, K.; Geldmacher, J.; Götze, J.

    2007-06-01

    Convolutional codes, which are frequently used as error correction codes in digital transmission systems, are generally decoded using the Viterbi Decoder. On the one hand the Viterbi Decoder is an optimum maximum likelihood decoder, i.e. the most probable transmitted code sequence is obtained. On the other hand the mathematical complexity of the algorithm only depends on the used code, not on the number of transmission errors. To reduce the complexity of the decoding process for good transmission conditions, an alternative syndrome based decoder is presented. The reduction of complexity is realized by two different approaches, the syndrome zero sequence deactivation and the path metric equalization. The two approaches enable an easy adaptation of the decoding complexity for different transmission conditions, which results in a trade-off between decoding complexity and error correction performance.

  19. NASA Workshop on Biological Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily (Editor); Tischler, Marc (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    A workshop was convened to review the current program in Space Biology Biological Adaptation Research and its objectives and to identify future research directions. Two research areas emerged from these deliberations: gravitational effects on structures and biomineralization and gravity affected regulatory mechanisms. The participants also recommended that research concentrate on rapidly growing animals, since gravity effects may be more pronounced during growth and development. Both research areas were defined and future research directions were identified. The recommendations of the workshop will assist the Life Sciences Division of NASA in it assessment and long-range planning of these areas of space biology. Equally important, the workshop was intended to stimulate thought and research among those attending so that they would, in turn, interest, excite, and involve other members of the academic community in research efforts relevant to these programs.

  20. Adaptive filtering in biological signal processing.

    PubMed

    Iyer, V K; Ploysongsang, Y; Ramamoorthy, P A

    1990-01-01

    The high dependence of conventional optimal filtering methods on the a priori knowledge of the signal and noise statistics render them ineffective in dealing with signals whose statistics cannot be predetermined accurately. Adaptive filtering methods offer a better alternative, since the a priori knowledge of statistics is less critical, real time processing is possible, and the computations are less expensive for this approach. Adaptive filtering methods compute the filter coefficients "on-line", converging to the optimal values in the least-mean square (LMS) error sense. Adaptive filtering is therefore apt for dealing with the "unknown" statistics situation and has been applied extensively in areas like communication, speech, radar, sonar, seismology, and biological signal processing and analysis for channel equalization, interference and echo canceling, line enhancement, signal detection, system identification, spectral analysis, beamforming, modeling, control, etc. In this review article adaptive filtering in the context of biological signals is reviewed. An intuitive approach to the underlying theory of adaptive filters and its applicability are presented. Applications of the principles in biological signal processing are discussed in a manner that brings out the key ideas involved. Current and potential future directions in adaptive biological signal processing are also discussed. PMID:2180633

  1. 47 CFR 90.168 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 90.168 Section 90.168 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations Special Rules Governing Facilities Used to Provide Commercial Mobile...

  2. Parallel-Processing Equalizers for Multi-Gbps Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Andrew; Ghuman, Parminder; Hoy, Scott; Satorius, Edgar H.

    2004-01-01

    Architectures have been proposed for the design of frequency-domain least-mean-square complex equalizers that would be integral parts of parallel- processing digital receivers of multi-gigahertz radio signals and other quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) or 16-quadrature-amplitude-modulation (16-QAM) of data signals at rates of multiple gigabits per second. Equalizers as used here denotes receiver subsystems that compensate for distortions in the phase and frequency responses of the broad-band radio-frequency channels typically used to convey such signals. The proposed architectures are suitable for realization in very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuitry and, in particular, complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) application- specific integrated circuits (ASICs) operating at frequencies lower than modulation symbol rates. A digital receiver of the type to which the proposed architecture applies (see Figure 1) would include an analog-to-digital converter (A/D) operating at a rate, fs, of 4 samples per symbol period. To obtain the high speed necessary for sampling, the A/D and a 1:16 demultiplexer immediately following it would be constructed as GaAs integrated circuits. The parallel-processing circuitry downstream of the demultiplexer, including a demodulator followed by an equalizer, would operate at a rate of only fs/16 (in other words, at 1/4 of the symbol rate). The output from the equalizer would be four parallel streams of in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) samples.

  3. The Constitutional Framework for Pursuing Equal Opportunities in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malherbe, Rassie

    2004-01-01

    The promotion of equal learning opportunities is crucially important for the improvement of the quality of life of millions of people. The virtues of education in preparing learners for life, for meaningful interaction with other human beings, for constructive civic and political involvement, and for successful economic participation stand beyond…

  4. The Democratic Imperative to Address Sexual Equality Rights in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gereluk, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Issues of sexual orientation elicit ethical debates in schools and society. In jurisdictions where a legal right has not yet been established, one argument commonly rests on whether schools ought to address issues of same-sex relationships and marriage on the basis of civil equality, or whether such controversial issues ought to remain in the…

  5. 76 FR 39233 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Equal Opportunity for Veterans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... Programs, Department of Labor, 60-300.2 (p), 72 FR 44393.) B. Delete References to the VETS-100 Form... Federal Register at 75 FR 60249 on September 29, 2010, to implement DOL regulations on equal opportunity... interim rule amending 48 CFR parts 1, 22, and 52, which was published in the Federal Register at 75...

  6. 5 CFR 720.101 - Federal Equal Opportunity Recruitment Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Federal Equal Opportunity Recruitment... civil service. The policy in 5 U.S.C. 7201(b) reads as follows: “It is the policy of the United States....” 5 U.S.C. 7201(c) requires under regulations prescribed by the Office of Personnel Management:...

  7. 5 CFR 720.101 - Federal Equal Opportunity Recruitment Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal Equal Opportunity Recruitment... civil service. The policy in 5 U.S.C. 7201(b) reads as follows: “It is the policy of the United States....” 5 U.S.C. 7201(c) requires under regulations prescribed by the Office of Personnel Management:...

  8. Equality, Inclusion and Marketization of Nordic Education: Introductory Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundahl, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a Nordic model of education is sometimes used to refer to the considerable similarities of education reforms and systems of the five Nordic countries (i.e. Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) during the second half of the 20th century--reforms that aimed at social justice, equality and cohesion not least by providing…

  9. 43 CFR 27.5 - Equal opportunity terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equal opportunity terms. 27.5 Section 27.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED UNDER PERMITS, RIGHTS-OF-WAY, PUBLIC LAND ORDERS, AND OTHER FEDERAL AUTHORIZATIONS GRANTED OR ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 §...

  10. Organizing for Change: PEER's Guide to Campaigning for Equal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-McCormick, Lynda; And Others

    This manual is a workbook designed to prepare and help citizens' groups to campaign for equal education for children of both sexes in their communities' public elementary and secondary schools. The manual is divided into two major sections. Section I, "Planning Your Campaign," includes chapters on (1) goal setting; (2) analyzing the community,…

  11. Promoting equality by assessing discrimination in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Burr, Steven A; Leung, Yee L

    2015-11-01

    How well do you understand your impact on the opportunities of others, and their impact on your opportunities? Do you reflect on the equality of your values and whether your behaviour could be improved? This article gives an overview of these issues for hospital doctors. PMID:26551494

  12. Equal Educational Opportunity, Constitutional Uniformity and the "Defunis" Remand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Arval A.

    1975-01-01

    Analyzes competing definitions of equal educational opportunity and determines that some state courts are required to give affirmative content to the term, but the Fourteenth Amendment is interpreted only as a limitation on state action. Relates this discussion to the inconclusive history of Defunis v. Odegaard regarding racially conditioned law…

  13. Automated deduction for first-order logic with equality

    2001-06-01

    Otter 3.2 is the current version of ANL's automated deduction system designed to search for proofs and countermodels of conjectures stated in first-order logic with equality. It is used mostly for research in mathematics and logic and also for various applications requiring deductive data processing.

  14. Automated deduction for first-order logic with equality

    2003-09-01

    Otter 3.3 is the current version of ANL's automated deduction system designed to search for proofs and countermodels of conjectures stated in first-order logic with equality. It is used mostly for research in mathematics and logic and also for various applications requiring deductive data processing.

  15. Learning To Change. A WEA Equal Opportunities Training Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workers Educational Association, London (England).

    This training pack contains materials to help embed the principles of equal opportunities into the practice of part-time tutors and voluntary members of the Workers' Educational Association (WEA), a national voluntary organization dedicated to giving adults in the United Kingdom access to organized learning. Part 1 describes the rationale for the…

  16. Promoting Disability Equality and Inclusive Learning in Planning Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peel, Deborah; Posas, Paula J.

    2009-01-01

    In the UK, the Disability Discrimination Act 2005 created a positive duty on the public sector to promote disability equality. This duty extends to higher education and local planning authorities. Based on Zuber-Skerrit's CRASP model for professional development, this paper examines an initiative to enact the duty. It details a completed action…

  17. Legal and Judicial Problems in Mandating Equal Time for Creationism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skoog, Gerald

    This paper, presented at the annual meeting of the National Association of Biology Teachers, is focused on legal and judicial problems in mandating equal time for creationism. Past events provide evidence that legislation, policies, and local resolutions that require science textbooks and curricula to include the Genesis account of creation are…

  18. 78 FR 62339 - Blind Americans Equality Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-18

    ... opportunity. Whether sprinting across finish lines, leading innovation in business and government, or creating... hereby proclaim October 15, 2013, as Blind Americans Equality Day. I call upon public officials, business... the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- eighth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc....

  19. 24 CFR 81.101 - Equal employment opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equal employment opportunity. 81... employment opportunity. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac shall comply with sections 1 and 2 of Executive Order 11478 (3 CFR, 1966-1970 Compilation, p. 803), as amended by Executive Order 12106, (3 CFR,...

  20. 41 CFR 60-50.2 - Equal employment policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 50-GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF RELIGION OR NATIONAL ORIGIN § 60-50.2 Equal employment... applicants for employment because of religion or national origin, and must take affirmative action to insure... religion or national origin. Such action includes, but is not limited to the following:...

  1. 41 CFR 60-50.2 - Equal employment policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 50-GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF RELIGION OR NATIONAL ORIGIN § 60-50.2 Equal employment... applicants for employment because of religion or national origin, and must take affirmative action to insure... religion or national origin. Such action includes, but is not limited to the following:...

  2. 41 CFR 60-50.2 - Equal employment policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 50-GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF RELIGION OR NATIONAL ORIGIN § 60-50.2 Equal employment... applicants for employment because of religion or national origin, and must take affirmative action to insure... religion or national origin. Such action includes, but is not limited to the following:...

  3. 41 CFR 60-50.2 - Equal employment policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 50-GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF RELIGION OR NATIONAL ORIGIN § 60-50.2 Equal employment... applicants for employment because of religion or national origin, and must take affirmative action to insure... religion or national origin. Such action includes, but is not limited to the following:...

  4. 18 CFR 1316.2 - Affirmative action and equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... provisions: “Affirmative Action for Disabled Veterans and Veterans of the Vietnam Era” clause, 41 CFR 60-250.4; the “Affirmative Action for Handicapped Workers” clause, 41 CFR 60-741.4; and the “Equal... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Affirmative action...

  5. 18 CFR 1316.2 - Affirmative action and equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Affirmative action and equal opportunity. 1316.2 Section 1316.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY GENERAL CONDITIONS AND CERTIFICATIONS FOR INCORPORATION IN CONTRACT DOCUMENTS OR ACTIONS Text of Conditions and Certifications §...

  6. 18 CFR 1316.2 - Affirmative action and equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... provisions: “Affirmative Action for Disabled Veterans and Veterans of the Vietnam Era” clause, 41 CFR 60-250.4; the “Affirmative Action for Handicapped Workers” clause, 41 CFR 60-741.4; and the “Equal... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Affirmative action...

  7. 18 CFR 1316.2 - Affirmative action and equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... provisions: “Affirmative Action for Disabled Veterans and Veterans of the Vietnam Era” clause, 41 CFR 60-250.4; the “Affirmative Action for Handicapped Workers” clause, 41 CFR 60-741.4; and the “Equal... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Affirmative action...

  8. 18 CFR 1316.2 - Affirmative action and equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... provisions: “Affirmative Action for Disabled Veterans and Veterans of the Vietnam Era” clause, 41 CFR 60-250.4; the “Affirmative Action for Handicapped Workers” clause, 41 CFR 60-741.4; and the “Equal... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Affirmative action...

  9. 24 CFR 578.93 - Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements set forth in 24 CFR 5.105(a) are applicable. (b) Housing for... federal nondiscrimination laws in 24 CFR 5.105 (e.g., the housing may be limited to homeless veterans... Persons with AIDS program under 24 CFR part 574 may be limited to persons with acquired...

  10. CALIFORNIA LAWS AND POLICIES RELATING TO EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    CALIFORNIA, BY LAW AND CUSTOM, HAS HISTORICALLY OPERATED ON THE DEMOCRATIC PRINCIPLE OF EQUALITY OF EDUCATION OPPORTUNITY. HOWEVER, PRIMARILY BECAUSE OF RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION, DE FACTO SEGREGATION DOES EXIST AND HAS BEEN CHALLENGED WITH THE LEGAL AUTHORITY AND MORAL LEADERSHIP OF THE STATE. THE CALIFORNIA EDUCATION CODE PROVIDES FOR THE…

  11. Discipline: Impact on Access to Equal Educational Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joubert, Rika; de Waal, Elda; Rossouw, JP

    2004-01-01

    Complying with the founding values (human dignity, equality and freedom) of the South African Constitution is one of the most important challenges of creating and maintaining a safe, disciplined environment where effective teaching and learning can take place. All school principals, educators and school governing bodies--bearing in mind the…

  12. 21. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Equalizing Gear Layout, 1917. Photographic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Equalizing Gear Layout, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-4 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. The Status of Equal Opportunity for Minorities in Moorhead, Minnesota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, St. Paul.

    This report contains information received at a public fact finding meeting held in Moorhead, Minnesota, in 1999. The meeting examined equal opportunity conditions for minority residents in Moorhead, noting possible disparities in four areas: income and employment, education, public safety, and housing and public accommodation. To buttress the data…

  14. Achieving Equality of Student Internet Access within Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Janet Ward; Davidson, Ann Locke

    One benefit often expected to flow from Internet use in schools is an increase in equality of educational opportunity as all kinds of schools gain access to the same extraordinary set of resources and opportunities for interaction with the outside world. Yet, prior research suggests that patterns of technology access often mirror existing…

  15. The Meritocratic Conception of Educational Equality: Ideal Theory Run Amuck

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    The dominant conception of educational equality in the United States is meritocratic: an individual's chances of educational achievements should track only (natural) talent and effort, not social class or other morally irrelevant factors. The meritocratic conception must presuppose that natural talent and effort can be isolated from social…

  16. 28 CFR 42.304 - Written equal employment opportunity program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... classified by race, sex and national origin (include for example Hispanic, Asian or Pacific Islander, and... Department of Justice Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures, 28 CFR part 50, set out the appropriate... CFR 60-2.24(e). (h) Plan for dissemination of the applicant's Equal Employment Opportunity Program...

  17. 28 CFR 42.304 - Written equal employment opportunity program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... classified by race, sex and national origin (include for example Hispanic, Asian or Pacific Islander, and... Department of Justice Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures, 28 CFR part 50, set out the appropriate... CFR 60-2.24(e). (h) Plan for dissemination of the applicant's Equal Employment Opportunity Program...

  18. 28 CFR 42.304 - Written equal employment opportunity program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... classified by race, sex and national origin (include for example Hispanic, Asian or Pacific Islander, and... Department of Justice Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures, 28 CFR part 50, set out the appropriate... CFR 60-2.24(e). (h) Plan for dissemination of the applicant's Equal Employment Opportunity Program...

  19. 28 CFR 42.304 - Written equal employment opportunity program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... classified by race, sex and national origin (include for example Hispanic, Asian or Pacific Islander, and... Department of Justice Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures, 28 CFR part 50, set out the appropriate... CFR 60-2.24(e). (h) Plan for dissemination of the applicant's Equal Employment Opportunity Program...

  20. District Power Equalization, Horizontal Equity and the Property Mix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilley, John

    1980-01-01

    Argues that the traditional district power equalization (DPE) grant formula achieves horizontal equity, that the formula must be modified when the measure of fiscal capacity differs from the legal tax base, and that the inclusion of a tax exporting variable leads to the breakdown of horizontal equity. (Author/IRT)

  1. Equal Employment Opportunity Regulation and Change in Compensation Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stumpf, Stephen A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Examines the effects of equal employment opportunity regulation on the compensation practices of one organization over a three-year period. Female and minority employees who were employed at the time of the policy change received little benefit; newcomers experienced moderate benefit. (Author/IRT)

  2. Equality, Prioritising the Disadvantaged, and the New Educational Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brighouse, Harry

    2014-01-01

    This paper takes Mary Warnock's paper in the first issue of the "Oxford Review of Education" as its starting point, and explores how both philosophical thinking about equality in education and the landscape of educational provision have changed. It articulates a view of justice in education that emphasises benefiting the least…

  3. Advancing Equality of Opportunity: A Matter of Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cynthia J., Ed.

    Papers include: public responsibility for equality and justice (Charles V. Hamilton); justice is the reversal of discrimination (Kenneth S. Tollett); the ramifications of Bakke and the destiny of affirmative action (Herbert O. Reid, Sr.); the justice of affirmative action (Kenneth A. Strike); legislative and administrative attacks on affirmative…

  4. Equality of Educational Opportunities at Public Primary Schools in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrogue, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the degree of equality of educational opportunities across Argentina's public primary schools. The main finding is that there are inequalities between jurisdictions, but even greater inequalities within them, suggesting the existence of serious problems in the distribution of resources at the sub-national level. Following…

  5. Did School Finance Equalization Increase Revenue Instability for School Districts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balu, Rekha

    2011-01-01

    This study uses an Interrupted Time Series analysis with a non-equivalent comparison group to estimate the causal effect of school finance equalization on district revenue instability. The author applies a microeconomic framework to an understudied problem in education finance and policy. In so doing, she illustrates how policies can sometimes…

  6. 28 CFR 42.304 - Written equal employment opportunity program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Department of Justice Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures, 28 CFR part 50, set out the appropriate... CFR 60-2.24(e). (h) Plan for dissemination of the applicant's Equal Employment Opportunity Program to... Compliance, U.S. Department of Labor, found at 41 CFR 60-2.21. (i) Designation of specified personnel...

  7. Equal Time for "Creation Science": A Freedom of Communication Issue?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Peter E.

    When the Supreme Court struck down a Louisiana law that required public schools to give "equal time" to "creation science," an apparent contradiction was created because groups that traditionally supported the defense of civil liberties in general and freedom of expression in particular seemed to support a position designed to limit rather than…

  8. Equations and the Equal Sign in Elementary Mathematics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Sarah R.

    2012-01-01

    To promote a relational understanding of the equal sign (=), students may require exposure to a variety of equation types (i.e., 3 = 8 - 5; 2 + 3 = 1 + 4; 9 - 3 = 6). The purpose of this study was to evaluate 8 elementary curricula for degree of exposure to equation types. Across 6 elementary grade levels, curricula were coded for the number of…

  9. Still Not Equal: Expanding Educational Opportunity in Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, M. Christopher, II, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Still Not Equal: Expanding Educational Opportunity in Society" addresses the successes and failures of "Brown v. Board of Education" and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as well as the continuing challenge of expanding educational opportunity in the United States and across the Black diaspora. The educational, political, and social influence…

  10. The Invisible Obstacle to Educational Equality: Gender Bias in Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Rae Lesser

    2008-01-01

    Gender bias in textbooks (GBIT) is a low-profile education issue, given the 72,000,000 children who still have no access to schooling, but this article argues that GBIT is: (1) an important, (2) near-universal, (3) remarkably uniform, (4) quite persistent but (5) virtually invisible obstacle on the road to gender equality in education--an obstacle…

  11. 48 CFR 452.211-71 - Equal Products Offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in solicitations seeking offers on a “brand name or equal” basis to allow offerors the opportunity to... furnish an “equal” product, in accordance with the “Brand Name or Equal” provision of this solicitation... any): Brand Name or Equal Product identified by the Government in this solicitation: Offered...

  12. The Myth of Social Equalization: Hispanics and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancuso-Edwards, Flora

    There is a popular and pervasive myth that higher education has been a potent social equalizer and great enfranchising vehicle for immigrants to the United States. Historic facts place the vast majority of yesterday's immigrants behind pushcarts or alongside mass production lines, waiting two or three generations before benefiting from the fruits…

  13. Equality, Quality and Quantity: The Elusive Triangle in Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naik, J. P.

    1979-01-01

    Since independence in 1947, India's educational goals have included expansion, improved quality, and equal opportunity. The author analyzes India's successes and failures in reaching these goals in the context of its limited economic resources, the traditional educational values of its people, and its traditionally stratified social system. (SJL)

  14. Social Justice, Equality and Inclusion in Scottish Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila

    2009-01-01

    Social justice, equality and inclusion are complex and inter-linked concepts and feature prominently in Scottish social policy rhetoric. This paper begins with an overview of the discourses surrounding these concepts and the ways in which they are used in Scottish education policy, which, in general, is founded on principles of universalism. The…

  15. 48 CFR 52.222-35 - Equal Opportunity for Veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... opportunity clause at 41 CFR 60-300.5(a), as of March 24, 2014. This clause prohibits discrimination against... Veterans. 52.222-35 Section 52.222-35 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....222-35 Equal Opportunity for Veterans. As prescribed in 22.1310(a)(1), insert the following...

  16. Different but Equal? Dilemmas in the Reform of Girls' Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Victoria

    1992-01-01

    Attempts to achieve educational equality for girls are examined critically, and reform issues are discussed, including the public/private dichotomy within education and efforts to increase female access to and participation in male-dominated subject areas. These issues are then related to the Australian gender-inclusive curriculum design and to…

  17. Feminists and the Ideology and Practice of Marital Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaisure, Karen R.; Allen, Katherine R.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty heterosexual married female and male feminists were interviewed and asked to describe the influence of feminism on their marriage. Couples reported practicing vigilance, which entails a critique of gender injustices, public acts of equality, support of wives' activities, reflective assessment, and emotional involvement. (JPS)

  18. The Equal Access Act: Policy and Regulations for Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, H. Lawrence; Martin, James

    The Equal Access Act of 1984 was drafted to implement access for religious clubs to public secondary schools, but with constitutionally protected safeguards to preclude entanglement of church and state. A number of challenges were made on the constitutional grounds of excessive entanglement of church and state, as well as what the definition of…

  19. Equality and Education: The Role of Universities and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fensham, Peter J.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses equal education issues in Victoria, Australia, summarizing the expansion of secondary and higher education since the 1940s. Explores transition problems between school and university furthering social inequalities. Views educational structures from abundancy and scarcity perspectives, cautioning that limited resources will maintain the…

  20. 47 CFR 22.321 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MOBILE SERVICES Operational and Technical Requirements Operational Requirements § 22.321 Equal employment.... (b) EEO statement. Each licensee having 16 or more full-time employees shall file with the FCC, no... shall file with the FCC, no later than May 31st thereafter, a revised statement reflecting the...

  1. Locating, Recruiting, and Employing Women: An Equal Opportunity Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxley, Cecelia H.

    To aid employers in providing equal opportunities for women workers, this book describes working women today, their education and training, laws, regulations, and programs providing employment protection, and suggests ways of recruiting, employing, and working with women. An overview of women in the present workforce is presented--their…

  2. 41 CFR 60-300.5 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... business is a corporate or other type of organization, and who is actively engaged in its management. iii... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Equal opportunity clause. 60-300.5 Section 60-300.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating...

  3. Different but Equal? Assessing European Dual HE Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivinen, Osmo; Nurmi, Jouni

    2010-01-01

    In higher education dual systems, graduates are qualified to apply for jobs in same professional fields along two separated educational routes. The research problem is whether the rival applicants for professional positions are treated equally in the labour market despite their different qualifications. From the graduates point of view, to be…

  4. The Problem of Defending Equal Rights for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Lois A.

    1981-01-01

    The positions of three advocates of human rights--Bernard A. O. Williams, A. I. Melden, and Stanley I. Benn--are sketched, and deemed inadequate for extending equal educational rights to severely mentally and emotionally handicapped persons. Lines of inquiry for theorists in this area are suggested. (PP)

  5. Redefining Equality: Authoritarian Populism and the Conservative Restoration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Michael W.

    1988-01-01

    This article examines equality in education within the context of two larger conflicts--the breakdown of the largely liberal consensus that guided much educational and social policy since World War II and the growth of the new right and conservative movements. (IAH)

  6. NC Families and Communities Equals Success (FACES): Six Months Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Maria E.; Campbell, Kimm; Honess, Karen; Gallagher, Natalie Gibbs; Thurber, Lori; Smitley, Andy

    This paper reports on clinical and school outcomes after 6 months of implementing the North Carolina FACES (Families and Communities Equals Success) mental health program. Of the 210 children and youth participating in the program evaluation, 42 percent were African American, more than three quarters were male, 55 percent of families had annual…

  7. 48 CFR 452.211-71 - Equal Products Offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in solicitations seeking offers on a “brand name or equal” basis to allow offerors the opportunity to... furnish an “equal” product, in accordance with the “Brand Name or Equal” provision of this solicitation... any): Brand Name or Equal Product identified by the Government in this solicitation: Offered...

  8. 48 CFR 452.211-71 - Equal Products Offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in solicitations seeking offers on a “brand name or equal” basis to allow offerors the opportunity to... furnish an “equal” product, in accordance with the “Brand Name or Equal” provision of this solicitation... any): Brand Name or Equal Product identified by the Government in this solicitation: Offered...

  9. Evaluating the Equal-Interval Hypothesis with Test Score Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domingue, Benjamin Webre

    2012-01-01

    In psychometrics, it is difficult to verify that measurement instruments can be used to produce numeric values with the desirable property that differences between units are equal-interval because the attributes being measured are latent. The theory of additive conjoint measurement (e.g., Krantz, Luce, Suppes, & Tversky, 1971, ACM) guarantees…

  10. Gender Equality in SOCRATES. Final Report. SCRE Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirrie, Anne; Wilson, Valerie; Powney, Janet; Hamilton, Sheila

    SOCRATES is the European Community education action program. SOCRATES I began in 1995 and ended in 1999. SOCRATES II, begun in 2000, continues until December 31, 2006. This study sought to identify how both the principles and practices of equal opportunities between women and men were interpreted in a sample of 100 centralized and 113…

  11. 76 FR 40874 - Information Collection; Equal Opportunity Compliance Review Record

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as amended. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended... recipients' employees understand their customer service role. Collection will occur during face-to-face... Forest Service Information Collection; Equal Opportunity Compliance Review Record AGENCY: Forest...

  12. 24 CFR 200.30 - Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity. 200.30 Section 200.30 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  13. The European Gender Equality Index: Conceptual and Analytical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bericat, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a composite indicator designed to measure and compare existing structural gender equality in the countries of the European Union. The construction of an index is always a complex task which requires making a great many important conceptual, analytical and empirical decisions. This complexity explains the wide variety of…

  14. Education Reform in Latin America: Equal Educational Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the general developments and challenges of Latin American public education systems from the 1970s to the late 1990s. A framework using five stages of equal educational opportunity is used to organize the findings: (1) Enrollment--Involves the mechanisms needed to enroll children in school; (2) Quality--Great disparities in…

  15. State Lotteries: Their Effect on Equal Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Randall G.; Elrod, Henry E.

    2004-01-01

    Many states (18 of 39) use revenue generated by lotteries to help fund higher education. The revenue is generated as a regressive tax disproportionately collected. As such, do state lotteries contribute toward facilitation of equal access to higher education for low-income and minority citizens? Given population trends, college enrollment, and…

  16. 41 CFR 60-50.2 - Equal employment policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 50-GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF RELIGION OR NATIONAL ORIGIN § 60-50.2 Equal employment... applicants for employment because of religion or national origin, and must take affirmative action to insure... religion or national origin. Such action includes, but is not limited to the following:...

  17. Just Schools: Pursuing Equality in Societies of Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minow, Martha, Ed.; Shweder, Richard A., Ed.; Markus, Hazel Rose, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Educators and policymakers who share the goal of equal opportunity in schools often hold differing notions of what entails a just school in multicultural America. Some emphasize the importance of integration and uniform treatment for all, while others point to the benefits of honoring cultural diversity in ways that make minority students feel at…

  18. Equal Employment Opportunity Civil Suits: An Analysis of Their Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakano, George M.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses pertinent aspects of the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972, Civil Service Commission and Air Force regulations, and judicial decisions and remedies that bear on the responsibilities and rights of the Air Force. Available from Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402; sc $1.80.…

  19. The Equal Protection Clause, School Integration, and the Burger Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Frank

    The history of cases before the United States Supreme Court in which minorities have sought relief from discriminatory state laws under the "equal protection clause" of the Fourteenth Amendment (and the "due process clause" of the Fifth Amendment for federal action) suggests that court action in this area has changed over time. Not only has court…

  20. Sexual Equality and the Family in the Supreme Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, F. L.

    This paper traces and analyzes the development of the Supreme Court's work in the area of sexual equality, with particular emphasis on the family dimension of this issue. The Court is criticized for both the legal and policy inadequacies of its recent decisions. It is argued that the Court has failed to use a consistent, principled standard by…