Science.gov

Sample records for adaptive observation strategies

  1. Sensor Web Dynamic Measurement Techniques and Adaptive Observing Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talabac, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    Sensor Web observing systems may have the potential to significantly improve our ability to monitor, understand, and predict the evolution of rapidly evolving, transient, or variable environmental features and events. This improvement will come about by integrating novel data collection techniques, new or improved instruments, emerging communications technologies and protocols, sensor mark-up languages, and interoperable planning and scheduling systems. In contrast to today's observing systems, "event-driven" sensor webs will synthesize real- or near-real time measurements and information from other platforms and then react by reconfiguring the platforms and instruments to invoke new measurement modes and adaptive observation strategies. Similarly, "model-driven" sensor webs will utilize environmental prediction models to initiate targeted sensor measurements or to use a new observing strategy. The sensor web concept contrasts with today's data collection techniques and observing system operations concepts where independent measurements are made by remote sensing and in situ platforms that do not share, and therefore cannot act upon, potentially useful complementary sensor measurement data and platform state information. This presentation describes NASA's view of event-driven and model-driven Sensor Webs and highlights several research and development activities at the Goddard Space Flight Center.

  2. A global logrank test for adaptive treatment strategies based on observational studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiguo; Valenstein, Marcia; Pfeiffer, Paul; Ganoczy, Dara

    2014-02-28

    In studying adaptive treatment strategies, a natural question that is of paramount interest is whether there is any significant difference among all possible treatment strategies. When the outcome variable of interest is time-to-event, we propose an inverse probability weighted logrank test for testing the equivalence of a fixed set of pre-specified adaptive treatment strategies based on data from an observational study. The weights take into account both the possible selection bias in an observational study and the fact that the same subject may be consistent with more than one treatment strategy. The asymptotic distribution of the weighted logrank statistic under the null hypothesis is obtained. We show that, in an observational study where the treatment selection probabilities need to be estimated, the estimation of these probabilities does not have an effect on the asymptotic distribution of the weighted logrank statistic, as long as the estimation of the parameters in the models for these probabilities is n-consistent. Finite sample performance of the test is assessed via a simulation study. We also show in the simulation that the test can be pretty robust to misspecification of the models for the probabilities of treatment selection. The method is applied to analyze data on antidepressant adherence time from an observational database maintained at the Department of Veterans Affairs' Serious Mental Illness Treatment Research and Evaluation Center.

  3. The impact of aircraft digital weather data in an adaptive observation strategy to improve the ensemble prediction of hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensman, Edward Leroy

    Modern meteorological data assimilation techniques and ensemble weather prediction methods involve the minimization of error variance. Both of these techniques are used here to assess the impact of assimilating digital aircraft weather data, in an adaptive observation strategy, to improve hurricane forecasting. Many operational and research centers utilize ensemble prediction systems to improve their weather forecasts. This study utilizes a Monte Carlo technique to randomly generate a series of 50 separate perturbed model states. These ``random'' perturbations are scaled to the typical error values observed daily in meteorology. From the family of 50 ensemble members a field of sea level pressure variance, at the 48-hour forecast point, is calculated using deviations of the 50 members from the control (unperturbed state). The bull's eye of maximum error variance is then backward correlated to various meteorological fields such as temperature, wind and humidity at the 24-hour point of the forecast. The areas of highest correlation represent model sensitivity to random error growth and thus targets for intensive observations. In August and September of 1998, a team of scientists participated in a NASA-sponsored field campaign termed the Third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3). The purpose was to conduct an intensive study of Atlantic hurricanes. The CAMEX-3 data were utilized in this research to assess the impact of targeted observations on subsequent forecasts. Specifically, a series of experiments were conducted utilizing: all of the CAMEX-3 data, a portion just over the model-sensitive target areas, and from a random selection of data throughout the near-storm environment. These data were assimilated using both a multivariate optimal interpolation technique and a 4-dimensional variational assimilation method. Results from these experiments showed that these data, once assimilated into the model's initial state, improved subsequent hurricane forecasts

  4. Expressing Adaptation Strategies Using Adaptation Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemirline, N.; Bourda, Y.; Reynaud, C.

    2012-01-01

    Today, there is a real challenge to enable personalized access to information. Several systems have been proposed to address this challenge including Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHSs). However, the specification of adaptation strategies remains a difficult task for creators of such systems. In this paper, we consider the problem of the definition…

  5. Strategies of Adaptive Ability Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.

    A number of strategies are described for adapting ability test items to individual differences in ability levels of testees. Each strategy consists of a different set of rules for selecting the sequence of test items to be administered to a given testee. Advantages and disadvantages of each strategy are discussed, and research issues unique to the…

  6. SVOM Observing Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachaud, C.; SVOM Consortium

    2016-10-01

    We will present the observing strategy developed to optimize the scientific return of the SVOM mission. We will review the attitude law, the communication processes and the different observation programs (Core Program, ToO and General Program).

  7. An adaptive strategy for controlling chaotic system.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yi-Jia; Hang, Hong-Xian

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive strategy for controlling chaotic systems. By employing the phase space reconstruction technique in nonlinear dynamical systems theory, the proposed strategy transforms the nonlinear system into canonical form, and employs a nonlinear observer to estimate the uncertainties and disturbances of the nonlinear system, and then establishes a state-error-like feedback law. The developed control scheme allows chaos control in spite of modeling errors and parametric variations. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been demonstrated through its applications to two well-known chaotic systems: Duffing oscillator and Rössler chaos.

  8. Adaptation Strategies for Global Environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, D. S.; Corell, R.

    2007-12-01

    The global environmental challenges society faces today are unheralded due to the pace at which human activities are affecting the earth system. The rates of energy consumption, nitrogen use and production, and water use increases each year leading to greater global environmental changes affecting warming of the earth system and loss of ecosystem services. The challenge we face today as a society is the manner and speed at which we can adapt to these changes affecting the ecosystem services we depend upon. Innovative strategies are needed to develop the adaptive management tools to integrate the sectors and science necessary to deal with the complexity of effects. Developing strategies to better guide decision making related to climate change trends into changing weather patterns at meaningful temporal and spatial scales are needed, observations and prognostic analyses of climate related triggers of threshold events in ecosystem dynamics, and transfer of knowledge between science, technology, and decision makers. These strategies need to better integrate science (physical, biological, and social knowledge), engineering, policy, and economics interests to create a framework to develop strategies for adaptation and mitigation to global change and to create bridges with institutions and organizations that deal with these issues as a governmental agency or private sector enterprise.

  9. The development of the Swiss Adaptation Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohmann, R.; Köllner-Heck, P.; Probst, T.

    2010-09-01

    In summer 2009, the Federal Council mandated the Departement of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication (DETEC) to develop a Swiss adaptation strategy. This strategy aims to coordinate the efforts of all federal departments involved in adaptation, and to provide them with the necessary basic information. For the development of the Swiss adaptation strategy the following principles are fundamental. (1.) The strategy aims to achieve the overarching objectives of harnessing the opportunities that climate change presents, minimizing the risks of climate change to people and assets, and to increases the adaptive capacity of all resources. (2) The strategy is based on the most recent scientific knowledge about climate change and climate change impacts. (3.) It is based in on a sound and comprehensive analysis of climate change risks. (4.) It includes strategic goals for the sectors that are most vulnerable to climate change, i.e., water management, biodiversity management, agriculture, forestry, natural hazard prevention, health care, energy generation, tourism, land use. (5.) It thoroughly analyzes the interfaces between the sectoral strategies in order solve existing conflicts and profit form existing synergies. The Swiss Adaptation Strategy will be completed and submitted to the Federal Council by the End of 2011.

  10. Dichotomous Search Strategies for Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Beiling

    Dichotomous search strategies (DSSs) for computerized adaptive testing are similar to golden section search strategies (GSSSs). Each middle point of successive search regions is a testing point. After each item is administered, the subject's obtained score is compared with the expected score at successive testing points. If the subject's obtained…

  11. Multigrid solution strategies for adaptive meshing problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, Dimitri J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the issues which arise when combining multigrid strategies with adaptive meshing techniques for solving steady-state problems on unstructured meshes. A basic strategy is described, and demonstrated by solving several inviscid and viscous flow cases. Potential inefficiencies in this basic strategy are exposed, and various alternate approaches are discussed, some of which are demonstrated with an example. Although each particular approach exhibits certain advantages, all methods have particular drawbacks, and the formulation of a completely optimal strategy is considered to be an open problem.

  12. Strategies for Computerized Adaptive Grading Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Beiling

    1999-01-01

    Evaluated three strategies for assigning examinees to grading categories in computerized adaptive testing. The expected a posteriori-based method had more correct classifications in the middle range of grade levels and more errors for the extremes than the golden section search grading test and the Z-score grading test. (SLD)

  13. Climate change adaptation strategies and mitigation policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Fernández, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    The pace of climate change and the consequent warming of the Earth's surface is increasing vulnerability and decreasing adaptive capacity. Achieving a successful adaptation depends on the development of technology, institutional organization, financing availability and the exchange of information. Populations living in arid and semi-arid zones, low-lying coastal areas, land with water shortages or at risk of overflow or small islands are particularly vulnerable to climate change. Due to increasing population density in sensitive areas, some regions have become more vulnerable to events such as storms, floods and droughts, like the river basins and coastal plains. Human activities have fragmented and increased the vulnerability of ecosystems, which limit both, their natural adaptation and the effectiveness of the measures adopted. Adaptation means to carry out the necessary modifications for society to adapt to new climatic conditions in order to reduce their vulnerability to climate change. Adaptive capacity is the ability of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes) and to moderate potential damages, to take advantage of opportunities or face the consequences. Adaptation reduces the adverse impacts of climate change and enhance beneficial impacts, but will not prevent substantial cost that are produced by all damages. The performances require adaptation actions. These are defined and implemented at national, regional or local levels since many of the impacts and vulnerabilities depend on the particular economic, geographic and social circumstances of each country or region. We will present some adaptation strategies at national and local level and revise some cases of its implementation in several vulnerable areas. However, adaptation to climate change must be closely related to mitigation policies because the degree of change planned in different climatic variables is a function of the concentration levels that are achieved

  14. A flicker reduction control strategy using an adaptive var compensator

    SciTech Connect

    Jatskevich, J.; Wasynczuk, O.; Conrad, L.

    1999-11-01

    A detailed computer model of a power network with loads, resistance welders and an Adaptive Var Compensator (AVC) has been developed and used to determine the effectiveness of the AVC on the reduction of observable flicker at neighboring loads. Flicker severity is determined using the UIE/IEC flickermeter methodology. Different control strategies for the AVC are considered and compared with respect to flicker reduction. A new flicker adaptive control (FAC) strategy is proposed that can be used for both power factor correction and flicker reduction. The measurement technique used in the FAC is shown to be accurate even in presence of significant harmonic distortion.

  15. Complex adaptive therapeutic strategy (CATS) for cancer.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yong Woo; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kwon, Ick Chan; Kim, In-San

    2014-02-10

    Tumors begin with a single cell, but as each tumor grows and evolves, it becomes a wide collection of clones that display remarkable heterogeneity in phenotypic features, which has posed a big challenge to current targeted anticancer therapy. Intra- and inter-tumoral heterogeneity is attributable in part to genetic mutations but also to adaptation and evolution of tumors to heterogeneity in tumor microenvironments. If tumors are viewed not only as a disease but also as a complex adaptive system (CAS), tumors should be treated as such and a more systemic approach is needed. Some of many tumors therapeutic strategies are discussed here from a view of a tumor as CAS, which can be collectively called a complex adaptive therapeutic strategy (CATS). The central theme of CATS is based on three intermediate concepts: i) disruption of artifacts, ii) disruption of connections, and iii) reprogramming of cancer-immune dynamics. Each strategy presented here is a piece of the puzzle for CATS. Although each piece by itself may be neither novel nor profound, an assembled puzzle could be a novel and innovative cancer therapeutic strategy.

  16. Climate adaptation strategy for natural resources released

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-04-01

    The National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy, released on 26 March by the Obama administration, calls for a series of measures to help public and private decision makers better address the effects of climate change on living natural resources. The measures include conserving habitat to support healthy fish, wildlife, and plant populations and ecosystem functions; managing species and habitats to protect ecosystem functions and provide sustainable commercial, subsistence, recreational, and cultural use; increasing knowledge and information about effects on and responses of fish, wildlife, and plants; and reducing nonclimate stressors to help fish, wildlife, plants, and ecosystems adapt.

  17. Adaptive Control Strategies for Flexible Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1996-01-01

    The control problem of a flexible robotic arm has been investigated. The control strategies that have been developed have a wide application in approaching the general control problem of flexible space structures. The following control strategies have been developed and evaluated: neural self-tuning control algorithm, neural-network-based fuzzy logic control algorithm, and adaptive pole assignment algorithm. All of the above algorithms have been tested through computer simulation. In addition, the hardware implementation of a computer control system that controls the tip position of a flexible arm clamped on a rigid hub mounted directly on the vertical shaft of a dc motor, has been developed. An adaptive pole assignment algorithm has been applied to suppress vibrations of the described physical model of flexible robotic arm and has been successfully tested using this testbed.

  18. Adaptive Strategies for Materials Design using Uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, Prasanna V; Xue, Dezhen; Theiler, James; Hogden, John; Lookman, Turab

    2016-01-21

    We compare several adaptive design strategies using a data set of 223 M2AX family of compounds for which the elastic properties [bulk (B), shear (G), and Young's (E) modulus] have been computed using density functional theory. The design strategies are decomposed into an iterative loop with two main steps: machine learning is used to train a regressor that predicts elastic properties in terms of elementary orbital radii of the individual components of the materials; and a selector uses these predictions and their uncertainties to choose the next material to investigate. The ultimate goal is to obtain a material with desired elastic properties in as few iterations as possible. We examine how the choice of data set size, regressor and selector impact the design. We find that selectors that use information about the prediction uncertainty outperform those that don't. Our work is a step in illustrating how adaptive design tools can guide the search for new materials with desired properties.

  19. An adaptive strategy for active debris removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Adam E.; Lewis, Hugh G.

    2014-04-01

    Many parameters influence the evolution of the near-Earth debris population, including launch, solar, explosion and mitigation activities, as well as other future uncertainties such as advances in space technology or changes in social and economic drivers that effect the utilisation of space activities. These factors lead to uncertainty in the long-term debris population. This uncertainty makes it difficult to identify potential remediation strategies, involving active debris removal (ADR), that will perform effectively in all possible future cases. Strategies that cannot perform effectively, because of this uncertainty, risk either not achieving their intended purpose, or becoming a hindrance to the efforts of spacecraft manufactures and operators to address the challenges posed by space debris. One method to tackle this uncertainty is to create a strategy that can adapt and respond to the space debris population. This work explores the concept of an adaptive strategy, in terms of the number of objects required to be removed by ADR, to prevent the low Earth orbit (LEO) debris population from growing in size. This was demonstrated by utilising the University of Southampton’s Debris Analysis and Monitoring Architecture to the Geosynchronous Environment (DAMAGE) tool to investigate ADR rates (number of removals per year) that change over time in response to the current space environment, with the requirement of achieving zero growth of the LEO population. DAMAGE was used to generate multiple Monte Carlo projections of the future LEO debris environment. Within each future projection, the debris removal rate was derived at five-year intervals, by a new statistical debris evolutionary model called the Computational Adaptive Strategy to Control Accurately the Debris Environment (CASCADE) model. CASCADE predicted the long-term evolution of the current DAMAGE population with a variety of different ADR rates in order to identify a removal rate that produced a zero net

  20. Adaptive Strategies in the Iterated Exchange Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraov, Arthur

    2011-03-01

    We argue for clear separation of the exchange problem from the exchange paradox to avoid confusion about the subject matter of these two distinct problems. The exchange problem in its current format belongs to the domain of optimal decision making—it doesn't make any sense as a game of competition. But it takes just a tiny modification in the statement of the problem to breathe new life into it and make it a practicable and meaningful game of competition. In this paper, we offer an explanation for paradoxical priors and discuss adaptive strategies for both the house and the player in the restated exchange problem.

  1. Adaptive strategies for materials design using uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Xue, Dezhen; Theiler, James; Hogden, John; Lookman, Turab

    2016-01-21

    Here, we compare several adaptive design strategies using a data set of 223 M2AX family of compounds for which the elastic properties [bulk (B), shear (G), and Young’s (E) modulus] have been computed using density functional theory. The design strategies are decomposed into an iterative loop with two main steps: machine learning is used to train a regressor that predicts elastic properties in terms of elementary orbital radii of the individual components of the materials; and a selector uses these predictions and their uncertainties to choose the next material to investigate. The ultimate goal is to obtain a material with desired elastic properties in as few iterations as possible. We examine how the choice of data set size, regressor and selector impact the design. We find that selectors that use information about the prediction uncertainty outperform those that don’t. Our work is a step in illustrating how adaptive design tools can guide the search for new materials with desired properties.

  2. Adaptive strategies for materials design using uncertainties

    DOE PAGES

    Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Xue, Dezhen; Theiler, James; ...

    2016-01-21

    Here, we compare several adaptive design strategies using a data set of 223 M2AX family of compounds for which the elastic properties [bulk (B), shear (G), and Young’s (E) modulus] have been computed using density functional theory. The design strategies are decomposed into an iterative loop with two main steps: machine learning is used to train a regressor that predicts elastic properties in terms of elementary orbital radii of the individual components of the materials; and a selector uses these predictions and their uncertainties to choose the next material to investigate. The ultimate goal is to obtain a material withmore » desired elastic properties in as few iterations as possible. We examine how the choice of data set size, regressor and selector impact the design. We find that selectors that use information about the prediction uncertainty outperform those that don’t. Our work is a step in illustrating how adaptive design tools can guide the search for new materials with desired properties.« less

  3. Adaptive Strategies for Materials Design using Uncertainties

    PubMed Central

    Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Xue, Dezhen; Theiler, James; Hogden, John; Lookman, Turab

    2016-01-01

    We compare several adaptive design strategies using a data set of 223 M2AX family of compounds for which the elastic properties [bulk (B), shear (G), and Young’s (E) modulus] have been computed using density functional theory. The design strategies are decomposed into an iterative loop with two main steps: machine learning is used to train a regressor that predicts elastic properties in terms of elementary orbital radii of the individual components of the materials; and a selector uses these predictions and their uncertainties to choose the next material to investigate. The ultimate goal is to obtain a material with desired elastic properties in as few iterations as possible. We examine how the choice of data set size, regressor and selector impact the design. We find that selectors that use information about the prediction uncertainty outperform those that don’t. Our work is a step in illustrating how adaptive design tools can guide the search for new materials with desired properties. PMID:26792532

  4. Biometeorology - a science supporting adaptation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzarakis, A.; Cegnar, T.

    2010-09-01

    Biometeorology as an interdisciplinary science deals with the interactions between atmospheric processes and living organisms (plants, animals and humans). If and in what way weather and climate affect the well-being of all the living creatures? This is the most important question biometeorology is answering. The International Society of Biometeorology (ISB) has built an international forum for the promotion of interdisciplinary collaboration between meteorologists, health professionals, biologists, climatologists, ecologists and other scientists. The Society acts as a community of scientists with similar interests, and fulfills an important role in providing information, expertise and advice for international organizations requiring this assistance. The ISB represents the most comprehensive organization, which brings together people with expertise in these areas. Another specific aim of the ISB is the stimulation of research. Therefore, groups of members are working on several topics organized in commissions for specific targets. The recent five commissions are working in the several fields including climate change issues. Some of examples will be presented, which have been initiated by the members of the ISB and how they can be included as a solid scientific basis to develop efficient adaptation strategies. One such example is a project combining natural and social sciences (in the fields of cooperation processes, tourism analysis and strategy, weather and climate change analysis, information and communication and knowledge transfer) in a transdisciplinary approach that includes players from tourism policy and business and which focuses on the North Sea Coast and the Black Forest. The project "Climate trends and sustainable development of tourism in coastal and mountain range regions was divided into four phases - diagnosis, assessment, strategy/design of solutions, and evaluation - where scientific subprojects and practical partners meet regularly to discuss the

  5. Enhanced Ocean Predictability Through Optimal Observing Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-30

    oceanographic applications. Second, use these methods to design optimal observing strategies with special emphasis on drifter deployments that achieve...to assess the predictability of the optimal deployment strategy . The original idea was to use ensemble methods for this analysis. However, a...Enhanced Ocean Predictability Through Optimal Observing Strategies PI: A. D. Kirwan, Jr. College of Marine Studies, University of Delaware

  6. Adaptive versus nonadaptive strategies for quantum channel discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Harrow, Aram W.; Hassidim, Avinatan; Leung, Debbie W.; Watrous, John

    2010-03-15

    We provide a simple example that illustrates the advantage of adaptive over nonadaptive strategies for quantum channel discrimination. In particular, we give a pair of entanglement-breaking channels that can be perfectly discriminated by means of an adaptive strategy that requires just two channel evaluations, but for which no nonadaptive strategy can give a perfect discrimination using any finite number of channel evaluations.

  7. Adaptive strategies to climate change in Southern Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidanti-Malunga, J.

    Climate change poses a big challenge to rural livelihoods in the Shire Valley area of Southern Malawi, where communities have depended almost entirely on rain-fed agriculture for generations. The Shire Valley area comprises of low-altitude dambo areas and uplands which have been the main agricultural areas. Since early to mid 1980s, the uplands have experienced prolonged droughts and poor rainfall distribution, while the dambos have experienced recurrent seasonal floods. This study assessed some of the adaptive strategies exercised by small-scale rural farmers in response to climate change in the Shire Valley. The methodology used in collecting information includes group discussions, household surveys in the area, secondary data, and field observations. The results show that small-scale rural farmers exercise a number of adaptive strategies in response to climate change. These adaptive strategies include: increased use of water resources for small-scale irrigation or wetland farming, mostly using simple delivery techniques; increased management of residual moisture; and increased alternative sources of income such as fishing and crop diversity. It was also observed that government promoted the use of portable motorized pumps for small-scale irrigation in order to mitigate the effects of climate change. However, these external interventions were not fully adopted; instead the farmers preferred local interventions which mostly had indigenous elements.

  8. Ensemble transform sensitivity method for adaptive observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Xie, Yuanfu; Wang, Hongli; Chen, Dehui; Toth, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    The Ensemble Transform (ET) method has been shown to be useful in providing guidance for adaptive observation deployment. It predicts forecast error variance reduction for each possible deployment using its corresponding transformation matrix in an ensemble subspace. In this paper, a new ET-based sensitivity (ETS) method, which calculates the gradient of forecast error variance reduction in terms of analysis error variance reduction, is proposed to specify regions for possible adaptive observations. ETS is a first order approximation of the ET; it requires just one calculation of a transformation matrix, increasing computational efficiency (60%-80% reduction in computational cost). An explicit mathematical formulation of the ETS gradient is derived and described. Both the ET and ETS methods are applied to the Hurricane Irene (2011) case and a heavy rainfall case for comparison. The numerical results imply that the sensitive areas estimated by the ETS and ET are similar. However, ETS is much more efficient, particularly when the resolution is higher and the number of ensemble members is larger.

  9. A holistic strategy for adaptive land management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adaptive management is widely applied to natural resources management. Adaptive management can be generally defined as an iterative decision-making process that incorporates formulation of management objectives, actions designed to address these objectives, monitoring of results, and repeated adapta...

  10. Optimization of Planet Finder Observing Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinukoff, E.

    2014-03-01

    We evaluate radial velocity observing strategies to be considered for future planethunting surveys with the Automated Planet Finder, a new 2.4-m telescope at Lick Observatory. Observing strategies can be optimized to mitigate stellar noise, which can mask and imitate the weak Doppler signals of low-mass planets. We estimate and compare sensitivities of 5 different observing strategies to planets around G2-M2 dwarfs, constructing RV noise models for each stellar spectral type, accounting for acoustic, granulation, and magnetic activity modes. The strategies differ in exposure time, nightly and monthly cadence, and number of years. Synthetic RV time-series are produced by injecting a planet signal onto the stellar noise, sampled according to each observing strategy. For each star and each observing strategy, thousands of planet injection recovery trials are conducted to determine the detection efficiency as a function of orbital period, minimum mass, and eccentricity. We find that 4-year observing strategies of 10 nights per month are sensitive to planets ~25-40% lower in mass than the corresponding 1 year strategies of 30 nights per month. Three 5-minute exposures spaced evenly throughout each night provide a 10% gain in sensitivity over the corresponding single 15-minute exposure strategies. All strategies are sensitive to planets of lowest mass around the modeled K7 dwarf. This study indicates that APF surveys adopting the 4-year strategies should detect Earth-mass planets on < 10-day orbits around quiet late-K dwarfs as well as > 1.6 Earth-mass planets in their habitable zones.

  11. Adapting MCH strategies for the nineties.

    PubMed

    Abel, R

    1994-01-01

    Brief overview was given for strategies in maternal and child health (MCH) in India that were used in the 1980s and adapted for the 1990s in the following areas: perinatal outcomes, empowerment of women, immunization, oral rehydration, adolescent girls, anthropometric measurement, health education, management, and coordination with nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). In order to assure a healthy baby weighing 2.5 kg, monitoring of maternal health is occurring. Iron and folic acid and tetanus toxoid vaccine are provided to pregnant mothers, and fetal growth is monitored. Training of traditional birth attendants and multipurpose health workers will contribute to clean deliveries and referral of complicated pregnancies. During the 1990s, women's health in addition to maternal health has received attention. The empowerment of women to care for themselves, to learn how to mix oral rehydration packets (ORS) at home, and to receive the knowledge and skills were deemed more important than the 1980s focus on the delivery system and inputs of MCH. An excellent cold chain for delivery of vaccines has been put in place, which provides the vehicle for the 1990s to maintain high vaccine coverage. The emphasis on oral rehydration in the 1990s will be on teaching mothers about the importance of ORS treatment of diarrhea. During the 1990s, educating the adolescent girl before she becomes married and pregnant will be the focus. Greater emphasis will be placed on stunting or height for age measurements, as a measure of long term nutritional change; age weight for height for measurement of wasting; and maternal nutritional monitoring of arm circumference. Sustained health education, more media exposure to disease conditions and treatment, and social marketing in health will be better coordinated and more cost effective. Accountability for manpower, materials, and money will be in place within management. Management will focus on motivation and training, and other, newer management

  12. A holistic strategy for adaptive land management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Duniway, Michael C.; Pyke, David A.; Bestelmeyer, Brandon T.; Wills, Skye A.; Brown, Joel R.; Karl, Jason W.; Havstad, Kris M.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive management is widely applied to natural resources management (Holling 1973; Walters and Holling 1990). Adaptive management can be generally defined as an iterative decision-making process that incorporates formulation of management objectives, actions designed to address these objectives, monitoring of results, and repeated adaptation of management until desired results are achieved (Brown and MacLeod 1996; Savory and Butterfield 1999). However, adaptive management is often criticized because very few projects ever complete more than one cycle, resulting in little adaptation and little knowledge gain (Lee 1999; Walters 2007). One significant criticism is that adaptive management is often used as a justification for undertaking actions with uncertain outcomes or as a surrogate for the development of specific, measurable indicators and monitoring programs (Lee 1999; Ruhl 2007).

  13. Some Tests For Adaptative Observations In Atmospheric Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quélo, D.; Michelangeli, P.-A.; Sportisse, B.

    Air pollution forecast requires the coupling of models with data through data assimi- lation. A key question is related to the choice of observations (apart from technical require- ments). One wants to choose in a judicious way the species to observe, in which loca- tions and at which moments. The appropriate strategies are related to the techniques of "targeting" and "adaptative observations". We will investigate these techniques on a simplified model. The first part reports the influence of the slow-fast behaviour of atmospheric chem- istry. The second part presents the use of singular vectors and second-order adjoint techniques in order to determine the "optimal" choice of observations. This project is led in the framework of the INRIA Cooperative Research Action CO- MODE (COupling MOdels and Data in Environment).

  14. Adaptation and optimal chemotactic strategy for {ital E. coli}

    SciTech Connect

    Strong, S.P.; Bialek, William; Koberle, R. Freedman, B.

    1998-04-01

    Extending the classic works of Berg and Purcell on the biophysics of bacterial chemotaxis, we find the optimal chemotactic strategy for the peritrichous bacterium {ital E. coli} in the high and low signal to noise ratio limits. The optimal strategy depends on properties of the environment and properties of the individual bacterium, and is therefore highly adaptive. We review experiments relevant to testing both the form of the proposed strategy and its adaptability, and propose extensions of them which could test the limits of the adaptability in this simplest sensory processing system. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. Strategy application, observability, and the choice combinator.

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, Victor Lono

    2004-03-01

    In many strategic systems, the choice combinator provides a powerful mechanism for controlling the application of rules and strategies to terms. The ability of the choice combinator to exercise control over rewriting is based on the premise that the success and failure of strategy application can be observed. In this paper we present a higher-order strategic framework with the ability to dynamically construct strategies containing the choice combinator. To this framework, a combinator called hide is introduced that prevents the successful application of a strategy from being observed by the choice combinator. We then explore the impact of this new combinator on a real-world problem involving a restricted implementation of the Java Virtual Machine.

  16. Adaptive strategies for cumulative cultural learning.

    PubMed

    Ehn, Micael; Laland, Kevin

    2012-05-21

    The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences the relative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers' paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers' paradox in a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning.

  17. VLBI2010: Networks and Observing Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrachenko, Bill; Corey, Brian; Himwich, Ed; Ma, Chopo; Malkin, Zinovy; Niell, Arthur; Shaffer, David; Vandenberg, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    The Observing Strategies Sub-group of IVS's Working Group 3 has been tasked with producing a vision for the following aspects of geodetic VLBI: antenna-network structure and observing strategies; source strength/structure/distribution; frequency bands, RFI; and field system and scheduling. These are high level considerations that have far reaching impact since they significantly influence performance potential and also constrain requirements for a number of other \\VG3 sub-groups. The paper will present the status of the sub-group's work on these topics.

  18. The Contextual Adaptation of English Teachers' Questioning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xi, Hong-mei; Li, Wang-zi; Lei, Ping

    2010-01-01

    In order to guarantee an interactive classroom atmosphere, English teachers pay much attention to the questioning strategies when they use question-answer teaching method. This paper makes a comprehensive analysis on English teachers' questioning strategies from the perspective of adaptation theory. It shows that the utilization of teachers'…

  19. Adaptive finite element strategies for shell structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, G.; Levit, I.; Stehlin, B.; Hurlbut, B.

    1992-01-01

    The present paper extends existing finite element adaptive refinement (AR) techniques to shell structures, which have heretofore been neglected in the AR literature. Specific challenges in applying AR to shell structures include: (1) physical discontinuities (e.g., stiffener intersections); (2) boundary layers; (3) sensitivity to geometric imperfections; (4) the sensitivity of most shell elements to mesh distortion, constraint definition and/or thinness; and (5) intrinsic geometric nonlinearity. All of these challenges but (5) are addressed here.

  20. Exposure to stressful environments - Strategy of adaptive responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhi, Leon E.

    1991-01-01

    Stresses such as hypoxia, water lack, and heat exposure can produce strains in more than a single organ system, in turn stimulating the body to adapt in multiple ways. Nevertheless, a general strategy of the various adaptive responses emerges when the challenges are divided into three groups: (1) conditions that affect the supply of essential molecules, (2) stresses that prevent the body from regulating properly the output of waste products such as CO2 and heat, and (3) environments that disrupt body transport systems. Problems may arise when there is a conflict between two stresses requiring conflicting adaptive changes. An alternative to adaptation, creation of microenvironment, is often favored by the animal.

  1. The adaptive observer. [liapunov synthesis, single-input single-output, and reduced observers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    The simple generation of state from available measurements, for use in systems for which the criteria defining the acceptable state behavior mandates a control that is dependent upon unavailable measurement is described as an adaptive means for determining the state of a linear time invariant differential system having unknown parameters. A single input output adaptive observer and the reduced adaptive observer is developed. The basic ideas for both the adaptive observer and the nonadaptive observer are examined. A survey of the Liapunov synthesis technique is taken, and the technique is applied to adaptive algorithm for the adaptive observer.

  2. Earth Observations: Experiences from Various Communication Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilja Bye, Bente

    2015-04-01

    With Earth observations and the Group of Earth Observations as the common thread, a variety of communication strategies have been applied showcasing the use of Earth observations in geosciences such as climate change, natural hazards, hydrology and more. Based on the experiences from these communication strategies, using communication channels ranging from popular articles in established media, video production, event-based material and social media, lessons have been learned both with respect to the need of capacity, skills, networks, and resources. In general it is not difficult to mobilize geoscientists willing to spend some time on outreach activities. Time for preparing and training is however scarce among scientists. In addition, resources to cover the various aspects of professional science outreach is far from abundant. Among the challenges is the connection between the scientific networks and media channels. Social media competence and capacity are also issues that needs to be addressed more explicitly and efficiently. An overview of the experiences from several types of outreach activities will be given along with some input on possible steps towards improved communication strategies. Steady development of science communication strategies continuously integrating trainging of scientists in use of new outreach tools such as web technology and social innovations for more efficient use of limited resources will remain an issue for the scientific community.

  3. Focus on climate projections for adaptation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feijt, Arnout; Appenzeller, Christof; Siegmund, Peter; von Storch, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Most papers in this focus issue on ‘climate and climate impact projections for adaptation strategies’ are solicited by the guest editorial team and originate from a cluster of projects that were initiated 5 years ago. These projects aimed to provide climate change and climate change adaptation information for a wide range of societal areas for the lower parts of the deltas of the Rhine and Meuse rivers, and particularly for the Netherlands. The papers give an overview of our experiences, methods, approaches, results and surprises in the process to developing scientifically underpinned climate products and services for various clients. Although the literature on interactions between society and climate science has grown over the past decade both with respect to policy-science framing in post-normal science (Storch et al 2011 J. Environ. Law Policy 1 1-15, van der Sluijs 2012 Nature and Culture 7 174-195), user-science framing (Berkhout et al 2014 Regional Environ. Change 14 879-93) and joint knowledge production (Hegger et al 2014 Regional Environ. Change 14 1049-62), there is still a lot to gain. With this focus issue we want to contribute to best practices in this quickly moving field between science and society.

  4. Adaptive control strategies for flexible robotic arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1993-01-01

    The motivation of this research came about when a neural network direct adaptive control scheme was applied to control the tip position of a flexible robotic arm. Satisfactory control performance was not attainable due to the inherent non-minimum phase characteristics of the flexible robotic arm tip. Most of the existing neural network control algorithms are based on the direct method and exhibit very high sensitivity if not unstable closed-loop behavior. Therefore a neural self-tuning control (NSTC) algorithm is developed and applied to this problem and showed promising results. Simulation results of the NSTC scheme and the conventional self-tuning (STR) control scheme are used to examine performance factors such as control tracking mean square error, estimation mean square error, transient response, and steady state response.

  5. Parallel Programming Strategies for Irregular Adaptive Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Achieving scalable performance for dynamic irregular applications is eminently challenging. Traditional message-passing approaches have been making steady progress towards this goal; however, they suffer from complex implementation requirements. The use of a global address space greatly simplifies the programming task, but can degrade the performance for such computations. In this work, we examine two typical irregular adaptive applications, Dynamic Remeshing and N-Body, under competing programming methodologies and across various parallel architectures. The Dynamic Remeshing application simulates flow over an airfoil, and refines localized regions of the underlying unstructured mesh. The N-Body experiment models two neighboring Plummer galaxies that are about to undergo a merger. Both problems demonstrate dramatic changes in processor workloads and interprocessor communication with time; thus, dynamic load balancing is a required component.

  6. Global Isotope Metabolomics Reveals Adaptive Strategies for Nitrogen Assimilation.

    PubMed

    Kurczy, Michael E; Forsberg, Erica M; Thorgersen, Michael P; Poole, Farris L; Benton, H Paul; Ivanisevic, Julijana; Tran, Minerva L; Wall, Judy D; Elias, Dwayne A; Adams, Michael W W; Siuzdak, Gary

    2016-06-17

    Nitrogen cycling is a microbial metabolic process essential for global ecological/agricultural balance. To investigate the link between the well-established ammonium and the alternative nitrate assimilation metabolic pathways, global isotope metabolomics was employed to examine three nitrate reducing bacteria using (15)NO3 as a nitrogen source. In contrast to a control (Pseudomonas stutzeri RCH2), the results show that two of the isolates from Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Pseudomonas N2A2 and N2E2) utilize nitrate and ammonia for assimilation concurrently with differential labeling observed across multiple classes of metabolites including amino acids and nucleotides. The data reveal that the N2A2 and N2E2 strains conserve nitrogen-containing metabolites, indicating that the nitrate assimilation pathway is a conservation mechanism for the assimilation of nitrogen. Co-utilization of nitrate and ammonia is likely an adaption to manage higher levels of nitrite since the denitrification pathways utilized by the N2A2 and N2E2 strains from the Oak Ridge site are predisposed to the accumulation of the toxic nitrite. The use of global isotope metabolomics allowed for this adaptive strategy to be investigated, which would otherwise not have been possible to decipher.

  7. Global isotope metabolomics reveals adaptive strategies for nitrogen assimilation

    SciTech Connect

    Kurczy, Michael E.; Forsberg, Erica M.; Thorgersen, Michael P.; Poole, Farris L.; Benton, H. Paul; Ivanisevic, Julijana; Tran, Minerva L.; Wall, Judy D.; Elias, Dwayne A.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Siuzdak, Gary

    2016-04-05

    Nitrogen cycling is a microbial metabolic process essential for global ecological/agricultural balance. To investigate the link between the well-established ammonium and the alternative nitrate assimilation metabolic pathways, global isotope metabolomics was employed to examine three nitrate reducing bacteria using 15NO3 as a nitrogen source. In contrast to a control (Pseudomonas stutzeri RCH2), the results show that two of the isolates from Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Pseudomonas N2A2 and N2E2) utilize nitrate and ammonia for assimilation concurrently with differential labeling observed across multiple classes of metabolites including amino acids and nucleotides. The data reveal that the N2A2 and N2E2 strains conserve nitrogen-containing metabolites, indicating that the nitrate assimilation pathway is a conservation mechanism for the assimilation of nitrogen. Co-utilization of nitrate and ammonia is likely an adaption to manage higher levels of nitrite since the denitrification pathways utilized by the N2A2 and N2E2 strains from the Oak Ridge site are predisposed to the accumulation of the toxic nitrite. In conclusion, the use of global isotope metabolomics allowed for this adaptive strategy to be investigated, which would otherwise not have been possible to decipher.

  8. Global isotope metabolomics reveals adaptive strategies for nitrogen assimilation

    DOE PAGES

    Kurczy, Michael E.; Forsberg, Erica M.; Thorgersen, Michael P.; ...

    2016-04-05

    Nitrogen cycling is a microbial metabolic process essential for global ecological/agricultural balance. To investigate the link between the well-established ammonium and the alternative nitrate assimilation metabolic pathways, global isotope metabolomics was employed to examine three nitrate reducing bacteria using 15NO3 as a nitrogen source. In contrast to a control (Pseudomonas stutzeri RCH2), the results show that two of the isolates from Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Pseudomonas N2A2 and N2E2) utilize nitrate and ammonia for assimilation concurrently with differential labeling observed across multiple classes of metabolites including amino acids and nucleotides. The data reveal that the N2A2 and N2E2 strains conserve nitrogen-containingmore » metabolites, indicating that the nitrate assimilation pathway is a conservation mechanism for the assimilation of nitrogen. Co-utilization of nitrate and ammonia is likely an adaption to manage higher levels of nitrite since the denitrification pathways utilized by the N2A2 and N2E2 strains from the Oak Ridge site are predisposed to the accumulation of the toxic nitrite. In conclusion, the use of global isotope metabolomics allowed for this adaptive strategy to be investigated, which would otherwise not have been possible to decipher.« less

  9. Adaptive Strategy Selection in Decision Making.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-31

    s__uc _N__SSEFORE COMLZTM[G FORM . REPORT NUMBER ’ 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. I RECIP ENT* S CATALOG NUMUER 86-1 V4L_ 𔃾 6 4. TITLE (and Subltl)e. S . TYPE OF...Controlling Office) IS. SECURITY CLASS. (of thle eporl) Unclassified Ia. DECLASSIFICATION/DOWNGRADING S . : SCHEDULE * -F.. I. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (ofhis...EDITION OF i NOV 65 IS OBSOLETE S /N 0102- LF- 014. 6601 SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (Mhen bets fntard) efficient strategies for a given

  10. Enhanced Ocean Predictability Through Optimal Observing Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-14

    Enhanced Ocean Predictability Through Optimal Observing Strategies A. D. Kirwan, Jr. College of Marine Studies University of Delaware Robinson Hall...forecasts of oceanic conditions. OBJECTIVES There are three tightly integrated objectives. The first is to focus both oceanographic and dynamical...control number 1. REPORT DATE 30 SEP 1999 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1999 to 00-00-1999 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Enhanced Ocean

  11. Strategies for adapting to high rates of employee turnover.

    PubMed

    Mowday, R T

    1984-01-01

    For many organizations facing high rates of employee turnover, strategies for increasing employee retention may not be practical because employees leave for reasons beyond the control of management or the costs of reducing turnover exceed the benefits to be derived. In this situation managers need to consider strategies that can minimize or buffer the organization from the negative consequences that often follow from turnover. Strategies organizations can use to adapt to uncontrollably high employee turnover rates are presented in this article. In addition, suggestions are made for how managers should make choices among the alternative strategies.

  12. Adaptive Through-Thickness Integration Strategy for Shell Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchitz, I. A.; Meinders, T.; Huétink, J.

    2007-05-01

    Reliable numerical prediction of springback in sheet metal forming is essential for the automotive industry. There are numerous factors that influence the accuracy of springback prediction by using the finite element method. One of the reasons is the through-thickness numerical integration of shell elements. It is known that even for simple problems the traditional integration schemes may require up to 50 integration points to achieve a high accuracy of springback analysis. An adaptive through-thickness integration strategy can be a good alternative. The strategy defines abscissas and weights depending on the integrand's properties and, thus, can adapt itself to improve the accuracy of integration. A concept of the adaptive through-thickness integration strategy for shell elements is presented. It is tested using a simple problem of bending of a beam under tension. Results show that for a similar set of material and process parameters the adaptive Simpson's rule with 7 integration points performs better than the traditional trapezoidal rule with 50 points. The adaptive through-thickness integration strategy for shell elements can improve the accuracy of springback prediction at minimal costs.

  13. Stepping strategies for regulating gait adaptability and stability.

    PubMed

    Hak, Laura; Houdijk, Han; Steenbrink, Frans; Mert, Agali; van der Wurff, Peter; Beek, Peter J; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2013-03-15

    Besides a stable gait pattern, gait in daily life requires the capability to adapt this pattern in response to environmental conditions. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the anticipatory strategies used by able-bodied people to attain an adaptive gait pattern, and how these strategies interact with strategies used to maintain gait stability. Ten healthy subjects walked in a Computer Assisted Rehabilitation ENvironment (CAREN). To provoke an adaptive gait pattern, subjects had to hit virtual targets, with markers guided by their knees, while walking on a self-paced treadmill. The effects of walking with and without this task on walking speed, step length, step frequency, step width and the margins of stability (MoS) were assessed. Furthermore, these trials were performed with and without additional continuous ML platform translations. When an adaptive gait pattern was required, subjects decreased step length (p<0.01), tended to increase step width (p=0.074), and decreased walking speed while maintaining similar step frequency compared to unconstrained walking. These adaptations resulted in the preservation of equal MoS between trials, despite the disturbing influence of the gait adaptability task. When the gait adaptability task was combined with the balance perturbation subjects further decreased step length, as evidenced by a significant interaction between both manipulations (p=0.012). In conclusion, able-bodied people reduce step length and increase step width during walking conditions requiring a high level of both stability and adaptability. Although an increase in step frequency has previously been found to enhance stability, a faster movement, which would coincide with a higher step frequency, hampers accuracy and may consequently limit gait adaptability.

  14. Adaptive mesh strategies for the spectral element method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, Catherine

    1992-01-01

    An adaptive spectral method was developed for the efficient solution of time dependent partial differential equations. Adaptive mesh strategies that include resolution refinement and coarsening by three different methods are illustrated on solutions to the 1-D viscous Burger equation and the 2-D Navier-Stokes equations for driven flow in a cavity. Sharp gradients, singularities, and regions of poor resolution are resolved optimally as they develop in time using error estimators which indicate the choice of refinement to be used. The adaptive formulation presents significant increases in efficiency, flexibility, and general capabilities for high order spectral methods.

  15. 78 FR 19514 - National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy AGENCY: Fish..., Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy (NFWPCAS or Strategy). The purpose of the Strategy is to... Advisor, Attn: National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy, U.S. Fish and...

  16. Adapting Strategies of Effective Instruction for Culturally Diverse Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamauchi, Lois A.; Im, Seongah; Schonleber, Nanette S.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes collaboration between preschool and university educators focused on adapting the Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and Excellence (CREDE) standards for Effective Pedagogy for use in early childhood (EC) settings. The CREDE standards are strategies of best practices for culturally diverse K-12 students. Teachers…

  17. Adaptive Insecure Attachment and Resource Control Strategies during Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Bin-Bin; Chang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    By integrating the life history theory of attachment with resource control theory, the current study examines the hypothesis that insecure attachment styles reorganized in middle childhood are alternative adaptive strategies used to prepare for upcoming competition with the peer group. A sample of 654 children in the second through seventh grades…

  18. Adaptive mesh refinement strategies in isogeometric analysis— A computational comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, Paul; Kästner, Markus; Morgenstern, Philipp; Peterseim, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    We explain four variants of an adaptive finite element method with cubic splines and compare their performance in simple elliptic model problems. The methods in comparison are Truncated Hierarchical B-splines with two different refinement strategies, T-splines with the refinement strategy introduced by Scott et al. in 2012, and T-splines with an alternative refinement strategy introduced by some of the authors. In four examples, including singular and non-singular problems of linear elasticity and the Poisson problem, the H1-errors of the discrete solutions, the number of degrees of freedom as well as sparsity patterns and condition numbers of the discretized problem are compared.

  19. Guideline adaptation and implementation planning: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adaptation of high-quality practice guidelines for local use has been advanced as an efficient means to improve acceptability and applicability of evidence-informed care. In a pan-Canadian study, we examined how cancer care groups adapted pre-existing guidelines to their unique context and began implementation planning. Methods Using a mixed-methods, case-study design, five cases were purposefully sampled from self-identified groups and followed as they used a structured method and resources for guideline adaptation. Cases received the ADAPTE Collaboration toolkit, facilitation, methodological and logistical support, resources and assistance as required. Documentary and primary data collection methods captured individual case experience, including monthly summaries of meeting and field notes, email/telephone correspondence, and project records. Site visits, process audits, interviews, and a final evaluation forum with all cases contributed to a comprehensive account of participant experience. Results Study cases took 12 to >24 months to complete guideline adaptation. Although participants appreciated the structure, most found the ADAPTE method complex and lacking practical aspects. They needed assistance establishing individual guideline mandate and infrastructure, articulating health questions, executing search strategies, appraising evidence, and achieving consensus. Facilitation was described as a multi-faceted process, a team effort, and an essential ingredient for guideline adaptation. While front-line care providers implicitly identified implementation issues during adaptation, they identified a need to add an explicit implementation planning component. Conclusions Guideline adaptation is a positive initial step toward evidence-informed care, but adaptation (vs. ‘de novo’ development) did not meet expectations for reducing time or resource commitments. Undertaking adaptation is as much about the process (engagement and capacity building) as it

  20. Self-Adaptive Differential Evolution Algorithm With Zoning Evolution of Control Parameters and Adaptive Mutation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qinqin; Yan, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    The performance of the differential evolution (DE) algorithm is significantly affected by the choice of mutation strategies and control parameters. Maintaining the search capability of various control parameter combinations throughout the entire evolution process is also a key issue. A self-adaptive DE algorithm with zoning evolution of control parameters and adaptive mutation strategies is proposed in this paper. In the proposed algorithm, the mutation strategies are automatically adjusted with population evolution, and the control parameters evolve in their own zoning to self-adapt and discover near optimal values autonomously. The proposed algorithm is compared with five state-of-the-art DE algorithm variants according to a set of benchmark test functions. Furthermore, seven nonparametric statistical tests are implemented to analyze the experimental results. The results indicate that the overall performance of the proposed algorithm is better than those of the five existing improved algorithms.

  1. Exposure to Stressful Environments: Strategy of Adaptive Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhi, Leon E.

    1991-01-01

    Any new natural environment may generate a number of stresses (such as hypoxia, water lack, and heat exposure), each of which can produce strains in more than a single organ system. Every strain may in turn stimulate the body to adapt in multiple ways. Nevertheless, a general strategy of the various adaptive responses emerges when the challenges are divided into three groups. The first category includes conditions that affect the supply of essential molecules, while the second is made up by those stresses that prevent the body from regulating properly the output of waste products, such as CO2 and heat. In both classes, there is a small number of responses, similar in principle, regardless of the specific situation. The third unit is created by environments that disrupt body transport systems. Problems may arise when there is a conflict between two stresses requiring conflicting adaptive changes. An alternative to adaptation, creation of micro-environment, is often favored by the animal.

  2. Assessment of the effectiveness of flood adaptation strategies for HCMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasage, R.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; de Moel, H.; Van, T. C.; Phi, H. L.; Vellinga, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2014-06-01

    Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, Asian cities in particular are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reduction measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea-level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood-prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet proofing of buildings and elevating roads and buildings). A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. The model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in expected annual damage (EAD). Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea-level scenarios and land-use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modelling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is USD 0.31 million per year, increasing up to USD 0.78 million per year in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5 % range from USD -107 to -1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit-cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet-proofing and dry-proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information

  3. An adaptive tracking observer for failure-detection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidar, M.

    1982-01-01

    The design problem of adaptive observers applied to linear, constant and variable parameters, multi-input, multi-output systems, is considered. It is shown that, in order to keep the observer's (or Kalman filter) false-alarm rate (FAR) under a certain specified value, it is necessary to have an acceptable proper matching between the observer (or KF) model and the system parameters. An adaptive observer algorithm is introduced in order to maintain desired system-observer model matching, despite initial mismatching and/or system parameter variations. Only a properly designed adaptive observer is able to detect abrupt changes in the system (actuator, sensor failures, etc.) with adequate reliability and FAR. Conditions for convergence for the adaptive process were obtained, leading to a simple adaptive law (algorithm) with the possibility of an a priori choice of fixed adaptive gains. Simulation results show good tracking performance with small observer output errors and accurate and fast parameter identification, in both deterministic and stochastic cases.

  4. Controls on Extreme Droughts and Adaptation Strategies in Semiarid Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Cook, C.; Fernando, D. N.; LeBlanc, M.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing vulnerability to droughts with reduced per capita water storage, particularly in semiarid regions, underscores the need for predictive understanding of drought controls and development of adaptation strategies for water resources management. In this study we evaluate causes of major droughts in southwest and southcentral US (California and Texas) and southeast Australia (Murray Darling Basin). Impacts of climate cycles (ENSO, PDO, AMO, NAO, IOD) and atmospheric circulation on drought initiation and persistence are examined. Effects of drought on surface water reservoir storage, groundwater storage, irrigation, and crop production are compared. Adaptation strategies being evaluated include water transfers among sectors, particularly from irrigated agriculture to other groups, increasing storage using managed aquifer recharge, water reuse, and development of new water sources (e.g. seawater desalination). It is critical to develop a broad portfolio of water sources to increase resilience to future droughts.

  5. Diversity of immune strategies explained by adaptation to pathogen statistics

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Andreas; Mora, Thierry; Rivoire, Olivier; Walczak, Aleksandra M.

    2016-01-01

    Biological organisms have evolved a wide range of immune mechanisms to defend themselves against pathogens. Beyond molecular details, these mechanisms differ in how protection is acquired, processed, and passed on to subsequent generations—differences that may be essential to long-term survival. Here, we introduce a mathematical framework to compare the long-term adaptation of populations as a function of the pathogen dynamics that they experience and of the immune strategy that they adopt. We find that the two key determinants of an optimal immune strategy are the frequency and the characteristic timescale of the pathogens. Depending on these two parameters, our framework identifies distinct modes of immunity, including adaptive, innate, bet-hedging, and CRISPR-like immunities, which recapitulate the diversity of natural immune systems. PMID:27432970

  6. Age-Related Differences in Locomotor Strategies During Adaptive Walking.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Kristin A; Sebastian, Katherine; Perera, Subashan; Van Swearingen, Jessie; Smiley-Oyen, Ann L

    2016-11-21

    Simultaneous control of lower limb stepping movements and trunk motion is important for skilled walking; adapting gait to environmental constraints requires frequent alternations in stepping and trunk motion. These alterations provide a window into the locomotor strategies adopted by the walker. The authors examined gait strategies in young and healthy older adults when manipulating step width. Anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) smoothness (quantified by harmonic ratios) and stepping consistency (quantified by gait variability) were analyzed during narrow and wide walking while controlling cadence to preferred pace. Results indicated older adults preserved ML smoothness at the expense of AP smoothness, shortened their steps, and exhibited reduced stepping consistency. The authors conclude that older adults prioritized ML control over forward progression during adaptive walking challenges.

  7. Climate change impacts and adaptive strategies: lessons from the grapevine.

    PubMed

    Mosedale, Jonathan R; Abernethy, Kirsten E; Smart, Richard E; Wilson, Robert J; Maclean, Ilya M D

    2016-11-01

    The cultivation of grapevines for winemaking, known as viticulture, is widely cited as a climate-sensitive agricultural system that has been used as an indicator of both historic and contemporary climate change. Numerous studies have questioned the viability of major viticulture regions under future climate projections. We review the methods used to study the impacts of climate change on viticulture in the light of what is known about the effects of climate and weather on the yields and quality of vineyard harvests. Many potential impacts of climate change on viticulture, particularly those associated with a change in climate variability or seasonal weather patterns, are rarely captured. Key biophysical characteristics of viticulture are often unaccounted for, including the variability of grapevine phenology and the exploitation of microclimatic niches that permit successful cultivation under suboptimal macroclimatic conditions. We consider how these same biophysical characteristics permit a variety of strategies by which viticulture can adapt to changing climatic conditions. The ability to realize these strategies, however, is affected by uneven exposure to risks across the winemaking sector, and the evolving capacity for decision-making within and across organizational boundaries. The role grape provenance plays in shaping perceptions of wine value and quality illustrates how conflicts of interest influence decisions about adaptive strategies within the industry. We conclude by considering what lessons can be taken from viticulture for studies of climate change impacts and the capacity for adaptation in other agricultural and natural systems.

  8. A Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for Management of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sea level rise is causing shoreline erosion, increased coastal flooding, and marsh vulnerability to the impact of storms. Coastal marshes provide flood abatement, carbon and nutrient sequestration, water quality maintenance, and habitat for fish, shellfish, and wildlife, including species of concern, such as the saltmarsh sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus). We present a climate change adaptation strategy (CCAS) adopted by scientific, management, and policy stakeholders for managing coastal marshes and enhancing system resiliency. A common adaptive management approach previously used for restoration projects was modified to identify climate-related vulnerabilities and plan climate change adaptive actions. As an example of implementation of the CCAS, we describe the stakeholder plans and management actions the US Fish and Wildlife Service and partners developed to build coastal resiliency in the Narrow River Estuary, RI, in the aftermath of Superstorm Sandy. When possible, an experimental BACI (before-after, control-impact) design, described as pre- and post-sampling at the impact site and one or more control sites, was incorporated into the climate change adaptation and implementation plans. Specific climate change adaptive actions and monitoring plans are described and include shoreline stabilization, restoring marsh drainage, increasing marsh elevation, and enabling upland marsh migration. The CCAS provides a framework and methodology for successfully managing coa

  9. Readapting the adaptive immune response - therapeutic strategies for atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sage, Andrew P; Mallat, Ziad

    2017-01-04

    Cardiovascular diseases remain a major global health issue, with the development of atherosclerosis as a major underlying cause. Our treatment of cardiovascular disease has improved greatly over the past three decades, but much remains to be done reduce disease burden. Current priorities include reducing atherosclerosis advancement to clinically significant stages and preventing plaque rupture or erosion. Inflammation and involvement of the adaptive immune system influences all these aspects and therefore is one focus for future therapeutic development. The atherosclerotic vascular wall is now recognized to be invaded from both sides (arterial lumen and adventitia), for better or worse, by the adaptive immune system. Atherosclerosis is also affected at several stages by adaptive immune responses, overall providing many opportunities to target these responses and to reduce disease progression. Protective influences that may be defective in diseased individuals include humoral responses to modified LDL and regulatory T cell responses. There are many strategies in development to boost these pathways in humans, including vaccine-based therapies. The effects of various existing adaptive immune targeting therapies, such as blocking critical co-stimulatory pathways or B cell depletion, on cardiovascular disease are beginning to emerge with important consequences for both autoimmune disease patients and the potential for wider use of such therapies. Entering the translation phase for adaptive immune targeting therapies is an exciting and promising prospect.

  10. The Surface of Titan from Adaptive Optics Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbard, S. G.; Macintosh, B.; Max, C.; Roe, H.; de Pater, I.; Young, E. F.; McKay, C. P.

    Saturn's largest moon Titan is the only satellite in the solar system with a substantial atmosphere. Photolysis of methane creates a hydrocarbon haze in Titan's atmosphere that is opaque to visible light. The new adaptive optics system on the 10-meter W.M. Keck Telescope enables us to observe Titan with a resolution of 0.04 arcseconds, or 20 resolution elements across the disk. By observing at near-infrared wavelengths that are methane band windows we can see through Titan's hydrocarbon haze to the surface beneath. Recent adaptive optics images of Titan both in broadband (J, H, and K) filters and in narrowband filters that selectively probe Titan's surface and atmosphere allow us to determine surface albedo and properties of the hydrocarbon haze layer. Future observations will include high-resolution spectroscopy coupled with adaptive optics to obtain spectra of individual surface features.

  11. Adaptation of enzymes to temperature: searching for basic "strategies".

    PubMed

    Somero, George N

    2004-11-01

    The pervasive influence of temperature on biological systems necessitates a suite of temperature--compensatory adaptations that span all levels of biological organization--from behavior to fine-scale molecular structure. Beginning about 50 years ago, physiological studies conducted with whole organisms or isolated tissues, by such pioneers of comparative thermal physiology as V.Ya. Alexandrov, T.H. Bullock, F.E.J. Fry, H. Precht, C.L. Prosser, and P.F. Scholander, began to document in detail the abilities of ectothermic animals to sustain relatively similar rates of metabolic activity at widely different temperatures of adaptation or acclimation. These studies naturally led to investigation of the roles played by enzymatic proteins in metabolic temperature compensation. Peter Hochachka's laboratory became an epicenter of this new focus in comparative physiology. The studies of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) that he initiated as a PhD student at Duke University in the mid-1960s and continued for several years at the University of British Columbia laid much of the foundation for subsequent studies of protein adaptation to temperature. Studies of orthologs of LDH have revealed the importance of conserving kinetic properties (catalytic rate constants (kcat) and Michaelis-Menten constants (Km) and structural stability during adaptation to temperature, and recently have identified the types of amino acid substitutions causing this adaptive variation. The roles of pH and low-molecular-mass organic solutes (osmolytes) in conserving the functional and structural properties of enzymes also have been elucidated using LDH. These studies, begun in Peter Hochachka's laboratory almost 40 years ago, have been instrumental in the development of a conceptual framework for the study of biochemical adaptation, a field whose origin can be traced largely to his creative influences. This framework emphasizes the complementary roles of three "strategies" of adaptation: (1) changes

  12. Water Cycle Multimission Observation Strategy (WACMOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Z.

    2009-04-01

    To understand the role of the terrestrial hydrosphere-biosphere in Earth's climate system it is essential to be able to measure from space hydroclimatic variables, such as radiation, precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, clouds, water vapour, surface water and runoff, vegetation state, albedo and surface temperature, etc. Such measurements are required to further increase our understanding of the global climate and its variability, both spatially and temporally. Additionally, such observations advance our understanding of the coupling between terrestrial and atmospheric branches of the water cycle, and how this coupling may influence climate variability and predictability. To enhance the prediction of variations in the global water cycle, based on improved understanding of hydrological processes and its close linkage with the energy cycle and its sustained monitoring capability, is a key contribution to mitigation of water-related damages and sustainable human development. In many cases, the combination of space-based and high-resolution in situ data provides the essential information for effectively addressing water management issues (GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan - REFERENCE DOCUMENT, GEO 203-1). Recently the European Space Agency (ESA) has initiated, in its Support to Science Element programme, the Water Cycle Multimission Observation Strategy (WACMOS). WACMOS contributes to above described international efforts by supporting scientists in ESA member countries to develop and validate novel and improved multi-mission based products, and to enhance currently available global water datasets, so as to maximize the use of ESA data. In this context, the short term objectives of the project include: • Develop and validate a Product Portfolio of novel and/or improved multi-mission based geoinformation datasets at global and regional scales contributing to the objectives of the GEWEX program. WACMOS is focused on four Thematic Priorities described below

  13. Climate change adaptation strategies for resource management and conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Lawler, Joshua J

    2009-04-01

    Recent rapid changes in the Earth's climate have altered ecological systems around the globe. Global warming has been linked to changes in physiology, phenology, species distributions, interspecific interactions, and disturbance regimes. Projected future climate change will undoubtedly result in even more dramatic shifts in the states of many ecosystems. These shifts will provide one of the largest challenges to natural resource managers and conservation planners. Managing natural resources and ecosystems in the face of uncertain climate requires new approaches. Here, the many adaptation strategies that have been proposed for managing natural systems in a changing climate are reviewed. Most of the recommended approaches are general principles and many are tools that managers are already using. What is new is a turning toward a more agile management perspective. To address climate change, managers will need to act over different spatial and temporal scales. The focus of restoration will need to shift from historic species assemblages to potential future ecosystem services. Active adaptive management based on potential future climate impact scenarios will need to be a part of everyday operations. And triage will likely become a critical option. Although many concepts and tools for addressing climate change have been proposed, key pieces of information are still missing. To successfully manage for climate change, a better understanding will be needed of which species and systems will likely be most affected by climate change, how to preserve and enhance the evolutionary capacity of species, how to implement effective adaptive management in new systems, and perhaps most importantly, in which situations and systems will the general adaptation strategies that have been proposed work and how can they be effectively applied.

  14. Strategies of Adaptation: A Soviet Enterprise Under Perestroika and Privatization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    the early 1970’s (see Il’in, 1973; Gorlin , 1976), we have referred to it as an enterprise throughout this paper. Strateaies of Adaptation 5 convinced...fact, some refer to it as "Shop 1." "See Il’in (1973) and Gorlin (1976) for a discussion of the policy of consolidating enterprises into production...34edineniia. ( Gorlin , 1976; Il’in, 1973) This was encouraged by the state but it also complemented the enterprise strategy of increasing bargaining power

  15. Adaptive strategy for multi-user robotic rehabilitation games.

    PubMed

    Caurin, Glauco A P; Siqueira, Adriano A G; Andrade, Kleber O; Joaquim, Ricardo C; Krebs, Hermano I

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a strategy for the adaptation of the "difficulty level" in games intended to include motor planning during robotic rehabilitation. We consider concurrently the motivation of the user and his/her performance in a Pong game. User motivation is classified in three levels (not motivated, well motivated and overloaded). User performance is measured as a combination of knowledge of results--achieved goals and score points in the game--and knowledge of performance--joint displacement, speed, aiming, user work, etc. Initial results of a pilot test with unimpaired healthy young volunteers are also presented showing a tendency for individualization of the parameter values.

  16. An Adaptive Buddy Check for Observational Quality Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dee, Dick P.; Rukhovets, Leonid; Todling, Ricardo; DaSilva, Arlindo M.; Larson, Jay W.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An adaptive buddy check algorithm is presented that adjusts tolerances for outlier observations based on the variability of surrounding data. The algorithm derives from a statistical hypothesis test combined with maximum-likelihood covariance estimation. Its stability is shown to depend on the initial identification of outliers by a simple background check. The adaptive feature ensures that the final quality control decisions are not very sensitive to prescribed statistics of first-guess and observation errors, nor on other approximations introduced into the algorithm. The implementation of the algorithm in a global atmospheric data assimilation is described. Its performance is contrasted with that of a non-adaptive buddy check, for the surface analysis of an extreme storm that took place in Europe on 27 December 1999. The adaptive algorithm allowed the inclusion of many important observations that differed greatly from the first guess and that would have been excluded on the basis of prescribed statistics. The analysis of the storm development was much improved as a result of these additional observations.

  17. A control strategy for adaptive absorber based on variable mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qiang; Han, Ning; Zhao, Yanqing; Duan, Chendong; Wang, Wanqin

    2015-07-01

    The tuned vibration absorber (TVA) has been an effective tool for vibration control. However, the application of TVA can cause resonance of the primary system and increase its vibration when the absorber is mistuned. In this paper, a novel control strategy based on adaptive tuned vibration absorber (ATVA) of variable mass is proposed to reduce the resonance of the primary system. Unlike most ATVAs suggested by other researchers which adjust the absorber natural frequency by changing the stiffness, the variable mass ATVA varies its natural frequency by changing absorber mass to match the excitation frequency. Some simulations and experiments were conducted to test the performance of the control strategy. The results show that the proposed control plan can widen the frequency bandwidth of the absorber, as well as suppress the resonance of the primary system significantly. This implies that the work is useful for practical applications of ATVA.

  18. Bed bugs evolved unique adaptive strategy to resist pyrethroid insecticides.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fang; Gujar, Hemant; Gordon, Jennifer R; Haynes, Kenneth F; Potter, Michael F; Palli, Subba R

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in genomic and post-genomic technologies have facilitated a genome-wide analysis of the insecticide resistance-associated genes in insects. Through bed bug, Cimex lectularius transcriptome analysis, we identified 14 molecular markers associated with pyrethroid resistance. Our studies revealed that most of the resistance-associated genes functioning in diverse mechanisms are expressed in the epidermal layer of the integument, which could prevent or slow down the toxin from reaching the target sites on nerve cells, where an additional layer of resistance (kdr) is possible. This strategy evolved in bed bugs is based on their unique morphological, physiological and behavioral characteristics and has not been reported in any other insect species. RNA interference-aided knockdown of resistance associated genes showed the relative contribution of each mechanism towards overall resistance development. Understanding the complexity of adaptive strategies employed by bed bugs will help in designing the most effective and sustainable bed bug control methods.

  19. Bed bugs evolved unique adaptive strategy to resist pyrethroid insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fang; Gujar, Hemant; Gordon, Jennifer R.; Haynes, Kenneth F.; Potter, Michael F.; Palli, Subba R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in genomic and post-genomic technologies have facilitated a genome-wide analysis of the insecticide resistance-associated genes in insects. Through bed bug, Cimex lectularius transcriptome analysis, we identified 14 molecular markers associated with pyrethroid resistance. Our studies revealed that most of the resistance-associated genes functioning in diverse mechanisms are expressed in the epidermal layer of the integument, which could prevent or slow down the toxin from reaching the target sites on nerve cells, where an additional layer of resistance (kdr) is possible. This strategy evolved in bed bugs is based on their unique morphological, physiological and behavioral characteristics and has not been reported in any other insect species. RNA interference-aided knockdown of resistance associated genes showed the relative contribution of each mechanism towards overall resistance development. Understanding the complexity of adaptive strategies employed by bed bugs will help in designing the most effective and sustainable bed bug control methods. PMID:23492626

  20. 76 FR 30193 - National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy; Notice of Intent: Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy; Notice of... National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy (Strategy). The Strategy will provide a... ensure that we are able to consider your comments and information as we develop our draft...

  1. Design of Sequentially Randomized Trials for Testing Adaptive Treatment Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ogbagaber, Semhar B.; Karp, Jordan; Wahed, Abdus S.

    2016-01-01

    An adaptive treatment strategy (ATS) is an outcome-guided algorithm that allows personalized treatment of complex diseases based on patients’ disease status and treatment history. Conditions such as AIDS, depression, and cancer usually require several stages of treatment due to the chronic, multifactorial nature of illness progression and management. Sequential multiple assignment randomized (SMAR) designs permit simultaneous inference about multiple ATSs, where patients are sequentially randomized to treatments at different stages depending upon response status. The purpose of the article is to develop a sample size formula to ensure adequate power for comparing two or more ATSs. Based on a Wald-type statistic for comparing multiple ATSs with a continuous endpoint, we develop a sample size formula and test it through simulation studies. We show via simulation that the proposed sample size formula maintains the nominal power. The proposed sample size formula is not applicable to designs with time-to-event endpoints but the formula will be useful for practitioners while designing SMAR trials to compare adaptive treatment strategies. PMID:26412033

  2. Neptune and Titan Observed with Keck Telescope Adaptive Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Max, C.E.; Macintosh, B.A.; Gibbard, S.; Gavel, D.T.; Roe, H.; De Pater, I.; Ghez, A.M.; Acton, S.; Wizinowich, P.L.; Lai, O.

    2000-05-05

    The authors report on observations taken during engineering science validation time using the new adaptive optics system at the 10-m Keck II Telescope. They observe Neptune and Titan at near-infrared wavelengths. These objects are ideal for adaptive optics imaging because they are bright and small, yet have many diffraction-limited resolution elements across their disks. In addition Neptune and Titan have prominent physical features, some of which change markedly with time. They have observed infrared-bright storms on Neptune, and very low-albedo surface regions on Titan, Saturn's largest moon, Spatial resolution on Neptune and Titan was 0.05-0.06 and 0.04-0.05 arc sec, respectively.

  3. Neptune and Titan observed with Keck Telescope adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Max, Claire E.; Macintosh, Bruce A.; Gibbard, Seran; Gavel, Donald T.; Roe, Henry; de Pater, Imke; Ghez, Andrea M.; Acton, Scott; Wizinowich, Peter L.; Lai, Olivier

    2000-07-01

    We report on observations taken during engineering science validation time using the new adaptive optics system at the 10-m Keck II Telescope. We observed Neptune and Titan at near- infrared wavelengths. These objects are ideal for adaptive optics imaging because they are bright and small, yet have many diffraction-limited resolution elements across their disks. In addition Neptune and Titan have prominent physical features, some of which change markedly with time. We have observed infrared-bright 'storms' on Neptune, and very low- albedo surface regions on Titan, Saturn's largest moon. Spatial resolution on Neptune and Titan was 0.05 - 0.06 and 0.04 - 0.05 arc sec, respectively.

  4. Dosimetric evaluation of three adaptive strategies for prostate cancer treatment including pelvic lymph nodes irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Cantin, Audrey; Gingras, Luc; Archambault, Louis; Lachance, Bernard; Foster, William; Goudreault, Julie

    2015-12-15

    strategies, except for the gradient approach where a reduction of 7% is observed. However, a correction of the systematic shift reduced the problem, and the adaptive strategies remain robust against the prostate movement across the fraction. The bladder V{sub 55Gy} is reduced by 35% on average for the adaptive strategies. Conclusions: Because they offer increased CTV coverage and OAR sparing, adaptive methods may be suitable candidates for simple and efficient adaptive treatment strategies for prostate cancer. Margin reduction and systematic error correction in the prostate position improve the protection of the OAR and the dose coverage. A cumulative dose to simulate a complete treatment would show real effects and allow a better comparison between each method.

  5. Alternative adaptive immunity strategies: coelacanth, cod and shark immunity.

    PubMed

    Buonocore, Francesco; Gerdol, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The advent of high throughput sequencing has permitted to investigate the genome and the transcriptome of novel non-model species with unprecedented depth. This technological advance provided a better understanding of the evolution of adaptive immune genes in gnathostomes, revealing several unexpected features in different fish species which are of particular interest. In the present paper, we review the current understanding of the adaptive immune system of the coelacanth, the elephant shark and the Atlantic cod. The study of coelacanth, the only living extant of the long thought to be extinct Sarcopterygian lineage, is fundamental to bring new insights on the evolution of the immune system in higher vertebrates. Surprisingly, coelacanths are the only known jawed vertebrates to lack IgM, whereas two IgD/W loci are present. Cartilaginous fish are of great interest due to their basal position in the vertebrate tree of life; the genome of the elephant shark revealed the lack of several important immune genes related to T cell functions, which suggest the existence of a primordial set of TH1-like cells. Finally, the Atlantic cod lacks a functional major histocompatibility II complex, but balances this evolutionary loss with the expansion of specific gene families, including MHC I, Toll-like receptors and antimicrobial peptides. Overall, these data point out that several fish species present an unconventional adaptive immune system, but the loss of important immune genes is balanced by adaptive evolutionary strategies which still guarantee the establishment of an efficient immune response against the pathogens they have to fight during their life.

  6. Adaptive Observatories for Observing Moving Marine Organisms (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellingham, J. G.; Scholin, C.; Zhang, Y.; Godin, M. A.; Hobson, B.; Frolov, S.

    2010-12-01

    The ability to characterize the response of small marine organisms to each other, and to their environment, is a demanding observational challenge. Small organisms live in a water reference frame, while existing cable or mooring-based observatories operate in an Earth reference frame. Thus repeated observations from a fixed system observe different populations as currents sweep organisms by the sensors. In contrast, mobile systems are typically optimized for spatial coverage rather than repeated observations of the same water volume. Lagrangian drifters track water mass, but are unable to find or reposition themselves relative to ocean features. We are developing a system capable of finding, following and observing discrete populations of marine organisms over time, leveraging a decade and a half investment in the Autonomous Ocean Sampling Network (AOSN) program. AOSN undertook the development of platforms to enable multi-platform coordinated measurement of ocean properties in the late 1990s, leading to the development of a variety of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and associated technologies, notably several glider systems, now in common use. Efforts by a number of research groups have focused on methods to employ these networked systems to observe and predict dynamic physical ocean phenomena. For example, periodic large scale field programs in Monterey Bay have progressively integrated these systems with data systems, predictive models, and web-based collaborative portals. We are adapting these approaches to follow and observe the dynamics of marine organisms. Compared to physical processes, the temporal and spatial variability of small marine organisms, particularly micro-organisms, is typical greater. Consequently, while multi-platform observations of physical processes can be coordinated via intermittent communications links from shore, biological observations require a higher degree of adaptability of the observation system in situ. This talk will

  7. Observations to support adaptation: Principles, scales and decision-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulwarty, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    As has been long noted, a comprehensive, coordinated observing system is the backbone of any Earth information system. Demands are increasingly placed on earth observation and prediction systems and attendant services to address the needs of economically and environmentally vulnerable sectors and investments, including energy, water, human health, transportation, agriculture, fisheries, tourism, biodiversity, and national security. Climate services include building capacity to interpret information and recognize standards and limitations of data in the promotion of social and economic development in a changing climate. This includes improving the understanding of climate in the context of a variety of temporal and spatial scales (including the influence of decadal scale forcings and land surface feedbacks on seasonal forecast reliability). Climate data and information are central for developing decision options that are sensitive to climate-related uncertainties and the design of flexible adaptation pathways. Ideally monitoring should be action oriented to support climate risk assessment and adaptation including informing robust decision making to multiple risks over the long term. Based on the experience of global observations programs and empirical research we outline- Challenges in developing effective monitoring and climate information systems to support adaptation. The types of observations of critical importance needed for sector planning to enhance food, water and energy security, and to improve early warning for disaster risk reduction Observations needed for ecosystem-based adaptation including the identification of thresholds, maintenance of biological diversity and land degradation The benefits and limits of linking regional model output to local observations including analogs and verification for adaptation planning To support these goals a robust systems of integrated observations are needed to characterize the uncertainty surrounding emergent risks

  8. A review of climate-change adaptation strategies for wildlife management and biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Mawdsley, Jonathan R; O'Malley, Robin; Ojima, Dennis S

    2009-10-01

    The scientific literature contains numerous descriptions of observed and potential effects of global climate change on species and ecosystems. In response to anticipated effects of climate change, conservation organizations and government agencies are developing "adaptation strategies" to facilitate the adjustment of human society and ecological systems to altered climate regimes. We reviewed the literature and climate-change adaptation plans that have been developed in United States, Canada, England, México, and South Africa and found 16 general adaptation strategies that relate directly to the conservation of biological diversity. These strategies can be grouped into four broad categories: land and water protection and management; direct species management; monitoring and planning; and law and policy. Tools for implementing these strategies are similar or identical to those already in use by conservationists worldwide (land and water conservation, ecological restoration, agrienvironment schemes, species translocation, captive propagation, monitoring, natural resource planning, and legislation/regulation). Although our review indicates natural resource managers already have many tools that can be used to address climate-change effects, managers will likely need to apply these tools in novel and innovative ways to meet the unprecedented challenges posed by climate change.

  9. Stress Response and Perinatal Reprogramming: Unraveling (Mal)adaptive Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Musazzi, Laura; Marrocco, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stressors induce coping strategies in the majority of individuals. The stress response, involving the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and the consequent release of corticosteroid hormones, is indeed aimed at promoting metabolic, functional, and behavioral adaptations. However, behavioral stress is also associated with fast and long-lasting neurochemical, structural, and behavioral changes, leading to long-term remodeling of glutamate transmission, and increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders. Of note, early-life events, both in utero and during the early postnatal life, trigger reprogramming of the stress response, which is often associated with loss of stress resilience and ensuing neurobehavioral (mal)adaptations. Indeed, adverse experiences in early life are known to induce long-term stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders in vulnerable individuals. Here, we discuss recent findings about stress remodeling of excitatory neurotransmission and brain morphology in animal models of behavioral stress. These changes are likely driven by epigenetic factors that lie at the core of the stress-response reprogramming in individuals with a history of perinatal stress. We propose that reprogramming mechanisms may underlie the reorganization of excitatory neurotransmission in the short- and long-term response to stressful stimuli. PMID:27057367

  10. Adaptive strategies in designing the simultaneous global drug development program.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhilong; Chen, Gang; Huang, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Many methods have been proposed to account for the potential impact of ethnic/regional factors when extrapolating results from multiregional clinical trials (MRCTs) to targeted ethnic (TE) patients, i.e., "bridging." Most of them either focused on TE patients in the MRCT (i.e., internal bridging) or a separate local clinical trial (LCT) (i.e., external bridging). Huang et al. (2012) integrated both bridging concepts in their method for the Simultaneous Global Drug Development Program (SGDDP) which designs both the MRCT and the LCT prospectively and combines patients in both trials by ethnic origin, i.e., TE vs. non-TE (NTE). The weighted Z test was used to combine information from TE and NTE patients to test with statistical rigor whether a new treatment is effective in the TE population. Practically, the MRCT is often completed before the LCT. Thus to increase the power for the SGDDP and/or obtain more informative data in TE patients, we may use the final results from the MRCT to re-evaluate initial assumptions (e.g., effect sizes, variances, weight), and modify the LCT accordingly. We discuss various adaptive strategies for the LCT such as sample size reassessment, population enrichment, endpoint change, and dose adjustment. As an example, we extend a popular adaptive design method to re-estimate the sample size for the LCT, and illustrate it for a normally distributed endpoint.

  11. Nutritional strategies to modulate the adaptive response to endurance training.

    PubMed

    Hawley, John A

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, advances in molecular biology have allowed scientists to elucidate how endurance exercise training stimulates skeletal muscle remodeling (i.e. promotes mitochondrial biogenesis). A growing field of interest directly arising from our understanding of the molecular bases of training adaptation is how nutrient availability can alter the regulation of many contraction-induced events in muscle in response to endurance exercise. Acutely manipulating substrate availability can exert profound effects on muscle energy stores and patterns of fuel metabolism during exercise, as well as many processes activating gene expression and cell signaling. Accordingly, such interventions when repeated over weeks and months have the potential to modulate numerous adaptive processes in skeletal muscle that ultimately drive the phenotype-specific characteristics observed in highly trained athletes. In this review, the molecular and cellular events that occur in skeletal muscle during and after endurance exercise are discussed and evidence provided to demonstrate that nutrient availability plays an important role in modulating many of the adaptive responses to training. Emphasis is on human studies that have determined the regulatory role of muscle glycogen availability on cell metabolism, endurance training capacity and performance.

  12. Adaptive strategy for the statistical analysis of connectomes.

    PubMed

    Meskaldji, Djalel Eddine; Ottet, Marie-Christine; Cammoun, Leila; Hagmann, Patric; Meuli, Reto; Eliez, Stephan; Thiran, Jean Philippe; Morgenthaler, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    We study an adaptive statistical approach to analyze brain networks represented by brain connection matrices of interregional connectivity (connectomes). Our approach is at a middle level between a global analysis and single connections analysis by considering subnetworks of the global brain network. These subnetworks represent either the inter-connectivity between two brain anatomical regions or by the intra-connectivity within the same brain anatomical region. An appropriate summary statistic, that characterizes a meaningful feature of the subnetwork, is evaluated. Based on this summary statistic, a statistical test is performed to derive the corresponding p-value. The reformulation of the problem in this way reduces the number of statistical tests in an orderly fashion based on our understanding of the problem. Considering the global testing problem, the p-values are corrected to control the rate of false discoveries. Finally, the procedure is followed by a local investigation within the significant subnetworks. We contrast this strategy with the one based on the individual measures in terms of power. We show that this strategy has a great potential, in particular in cases where the subnetworks are well defined and the summary statistics are properly chosen. As an application example, we compare structural brain connection matrices of two groups of subjects with a 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, distinguished by their IQ scores.

  13. Cloud Structures on Neptune Observed with Keck Telescope Adaptive Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Max, C. E.; Macintosh, B. A.; Gibbard, S. G.; Gavel, D. T.; Roe, H. G.; de Pater, I.; Ghez, A. M.; Acton, D. S.; Lai, O.; Stomski, P.; Wizinowich, P. L.

    2003-01-01

    We report on observations obtained with the adaptive optics system at the 10 m Keck II Telescope during engineering validation and early science observing time for the adaptive optics system. We observed Neptune at near-infrared wavelengths. Angular resolution was 0.05"-0.06", corresponding to a spatial scale of approximately 1000 km at Neptune. We discuss the latitudinal structure of circumferential cloud bands and of compact infrared-bright features seen in the southern hemisphere, as well as their variation with wavelength. We determine the values of I/F (proportional to the ratio of reflected intensity to incident solar flux) in the J and H infrared-wavelength bands, including narrowband filters where there is strong methane absorption. We use the I/F values inside and outside of methane bands to estimate the altitude of clouds responsible for the brightest compact features in the infrared. Our data show that, on two of our four observing dates, the brightest region on Neptune contained highly reflective haze layers located below the tropopause but not deeper than a few bars.

  14. Adapting global influenza management strategies to address emerging viruses.

    PubMed

    Noah, Diana L; Noah, James W

    2013-07-15

    Death by respiratory complications from influenza infections continues to be a major global health concern. Antiviral drugs are widely available for therapy and prophylaxis, but viral mutations have resulted in resistance that threatens to reduce the long-term utility of approved antivirals. Vaccination is the best method for controlling influenza, but vaccine strategies are blunted by virus antigenic drift and shift. Genetic shift in particular has led to four pandemics in the last century, which have prompted the development of efficient global surveillance and vaccination programs. Although the influenza pandemic of 2009 emphasized the need for the rapid standardization of global surveillance methods and the preparation and dissemination of global assay standards for improved reporting and diagnostic tools, outbreaks of novel influenza strains continue to occur, and current efforts must be enhanced by aggressive public education programs to promote increased vaccination rates in the global population. Recently, a novel H7N9 avian influenza virus with potential to become a pandemic strain emerged in China and was transmitted from animals to humans with a demonstrated >20% mortality rate. Sporadic outbreaks of highly lethal avian virus strains have already increased public awareness and altered annual vaccine production strategies to prevent the natural adaption of this virus to human-to-human transmission. Additional strategies for combating influenza include advancement of new antivirals for unexploited viral or host cellular targets; novel adjuvants and alternate vaccine delivery systems; and development of universal protein, DNA, or multivalent vaccines designed to increase immune responsiveness and enhance public health response times.

  15. Ethnic enclaves and middleman minorities: alternative strategies of immigrant adaptation?

    PubMed

    Cobas, J A

    1987-04-01

    This article examines 2 modes or strategies of immigrant adaptation: middleman minorities and ethnic enclaves. Although they have been discussed as if they were disjointed and mutually exclusive, the authors challenge this view. Middleman minorities 1) tend to be self-employed or to work for a coethnic, 2) are usually concentrated in small business, 3) tend to rely on the in-group for resources, and 4) fill a "status gap" in the receiving society. Ethnic enclaves depend on 3 features: 1) recent coethnic arrivals spend a tour of duty at the worst jobs, 2) coethnics provide ethnic entrepreneurs with consumer markets, 3) ethnic businesses rely on each other to supply their operating needs. Ethnic enclaves are concentrated and spatially identifiable. For this study, the authors collected data in a survey of the Cuban exile community of San Juan, Puerto Rico. The sample selection procedure yielded a total of 261 individuals, 220 of whom were interviewed. 10 predictions found in the middleman minority and ethnic enclave perspectives were checked against the researchers' data. 4 of these predictions are hld in common by both approaches: 1) eomployment in an ethnic enterprise increases subsequent chances of self-employment, 2) ethnic firms rely on the in-group for business resources, 3) coethnic workers represent an asset to the ethnic entrepreneur in that they occupy important positions requiring the employer's trust, and 4) there is business competition between locals and minority members. As predicted by the middleman strategy, Cuban businesses in Puerto Rico tend not to be immediately productive and there is no evidence of spatial concentration of these businesses. However, fitting the enclave approach, these firms do not dominate certain business lines, Cuban entrepreneurs do not appear to be sojourners, and they tend to have business backgrounds. The middleman perspective is supported in that some elements of the local elite favor Cuban exiles. Thus, there is no

  16. Invasion strategies in clonal aquatic plants: are phenotypic differences caused by phenotypic plasticity or local adaptation?

    PubMed Central

    Riis, Tenna; Lambertini, Carla; Olesen, Birgit; Clayton, John S.; Brix, Hans; Sorrell, Brian K.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims The successful spread of invasive plants in new environments is often linked to multiple introductions and a diverse gene pool that facilitates local adaptation to variable environmental conditions. For clonal plants, however, phenotypic plasticity may be equally important. Here the primary adaptive strategy in three non-native, clonally reproducing macrophytes (Egeria densa, Elodea canadensis and Lagarosiphon major) in New Zealand freshwaters were examined and an attempt was made to link observed differences in plant morphology to local variation in habitat conditions. Methods Field populations with a large phenotypic variety were sampled in a range of lakes and streams with different chemical and physical properties. The phenotypic plasticity of the species before and after cultivation was studied in a common garden growth experiment, and the genetic diversity of these same populations was also quantified. Key Results For all three species, greater variation in plant characteristics was found before they were grown in standardized conditions. Moreover, field populations displayed remarkably little genetic variation and there was little interaction between habitat conditions and plant morphological characteristics. Conclusions The results indicate that at the current stage of spread into New Zealand, the primary adaptive strategy of these three invasive macrophytes is phenotypic plasticity. However, while limited, the possibility that genetic diversity between populations may facilitate ecotypic differentiation in the future cannot be excluded. These results thus indicate that invasive clonal aquatic plants adapt to new introduced areas by phenotypic plasticity. Inorganic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous were important in controlling plant size of E. canadensis and L. major, but no other relationships between plant characteristics and habitat conditions were apparent. This implies that within-species differences in plant size can be explained

  17. Natural frequency identification of smart washer by using adaptive observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Okugawa, Masayuki

    2014-04-01

    Bolted joints are used in many machines/structures and some of them have been loosened during long time use, and unluckily these bolt loosening may cause a great accident of machines/structures system. These bolted joint, especially in important places, are main object of maintenance inspection. Maintenance inspection with human- involvement is desired to be improved owing to time-consuming, labor-intensive and high-cost. By remote and full automation monitoring of the bolt loosening, constantly monitoring of bolted joint is achieved. In order to detect loosening of bolted joints without human-involvement, applying a structural health monitoring technique and smart structures/materials concept is the key objective. In this study, a new method of bolt loosening detection by adopting a smart washer has been proposed, and the basic detection principle was discussed with numerical analysis about frequency equation of the system, was confirmed experimentally. The smart washer used in this study is in cantilever type with piezoelectric material, which adds the washer the self-sensing and actuation function. The principle used to detect the loosening of the bolts is a method of a bolt loosening detection noted that the natural frequency of a smart washer system is decreasing by the change of the bolt tightening axial tension. The feature of this proposed method is achieving to identify the natural frequency at current condition on demand by adopting the self-sensing and actuation function and system identification algorithm for varying the natural frequency depending the bolt tightening axial tension. A novel bolt loosening detection method by adopting adaptive observer is proposed in this paper. The numerical simulations are performed to verify the possibility of the adaptive observer-based loosening detection. Improvement of the detection accuracy for a bolt loosening is confirmed by adopting initial parameter and variable adaptive gain by numerical simulation.

  18. Floral thermogenesis: An adaptive strategy of pollination biology in Magnoliaceae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruohan; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2015-01-01

    Floral thermogenesis plays a crucial role in pollination biology, especially in plant-pollinator interactions. We have recently explored how thermogenesis is related to pollinator activity and odour release in Magnolia sprengeri. By analyzing flower temperatures, emission of volatiles, and insect visitation, we found that floral blends released during pistillate and staminate stages were similar and coincided with sap beetle visitation. Thus, odour mimicry of staminate-stage flowers may occur during the pistillate stage and may be an adaptive strategy of Magnolia species to attract pollinators during both stages, ensuring successful pollination. In addition to the biological significance of floral thermogenesis in Magnolia species, we explored the underlying regulatory mechanisms via profiling miRNA expression in M. denudata flowers during thermogenic and non-thermogenic stages. We identified 17 miRNAs that may play regulatory roles in floral thermogenesis. Functional annotation of their target genes indicated that these miRNAs regulate floral thermogenesis by influencing cellular respiration and light reactions. These findings increase our understanding of plant-pollinator interactions and the regulatory mechanisms in thermogenic plants.

  19. Adaptive Management as an Effective Strategy: Interdisciplinary Perceptions for Natural Resources Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreiss, Lindsay M.; Hessenauer, Jan-Michael; Nathan, Lucas R.; O'Connor, Kelly M.; Liberati, Marjorie R.; Kloster, Danielle P.; Barclay, Janet R.; Vokoun, Jason C.; Morzillo, Anita T.

    2017-02-01

    Adaptive management is a well-established approach to managing natural resources, but there is little evidence demonstrating effectiveness of adaptive management over traditional management techniques. Peer-reviewed literature attempts to draw conclusions about adaptive management effectiveness using social perceptions, but those studies are largely restricted to employees of US federal organizations. To gain a more comprehensive insight into perceived adaptive management effectiveness, this study aimed to broaden the suite of disciplines, professional affiliations, and geographic backgrounds represented by both practitioners and scholars. A questionnaire contained a series of questions concerning factors that lead to or inhibit effective management, followed by another set of questions focused on adaptive management. Using a continuum representing strategies of both adaptive management and traditional management, respondents selected those strategies that they perceived as being effective. Overall, characteristics (i.e., strategies, stakeholders, and barriers) identified by respondents as contributing to effective management closely aligned with adaptive management. Responses were correlated to the type of adaptive management experience rather than an individual's discipline, occupational, or regional affiliation. In particular, perceptions of characteristics contributing to adaptive management effectiveness varied between respondents who identified as adaptive management scholars (i.e., no implementation experience) and adaptive management practitioners. Together, these results supported two concepts that make adaptive management effective: practitioners emphasized adaptive management's value as a long-term approach and scholars noted the importance of stakeholder involvement. Even so, more communication between practitioners and scholars regarding adaptive management effectiveness could promote interdisciplinary learning and problem solving for improved

  20. Variability in thermal and phototactic preferences in Drosophila may reflect an adaptive bet‐hedging strategy

    PubMed Central

    Kain, Jamey S.; Zhang, Sarah; Akhund‐Zade, Jamilla; Samuel, Aravinthan D. T.; Klein, Mason; de Bivort, Benjamin L.

    2015-01-01

    Organisms use various strategies to cope with fluctuating environmental conditions. In diversified bet‐hedging, a single genotype exhibits phenotypic heterogeneity with the expectation that some individuals will survive transient selective pressures. To date, empirical evidence for bet‐hedging is scarce. Here, we observe that individual Drosophila melanogaster flies exhibit striking variation in light‐ and temperature‐preference behaviors. With a modeling approach that combines real world weather and climate data to simulate temperature preference‐dependent survival and reproduction, we find that a bet‐hedging strategy may underlie the observed interindividual behavioral diversity. Specifically, bet‐hedging outcompetes strategies in which individual thermal preferences are heritable. Animals employing bet‐hedging refrain from adapting to the coolness of spring with increased warm‐seeking that inevitably becomes counterproductive in the hot summer. This strategy is particularly valuable when mean seasonal temperatures are typical, or when there is considerable fluctuation in temperature within the season. The model predicts, and we experimentally verify, that the behaviors of individual flies are not heritable. Finally, we model the effects of historical weather data, climate change, and geographic seasonal variation on the optimal strategies underlying behavioral variation between individuals, characterizing the regimes in which bet‐hedging is advantageous. PMID:26531165

  1. Robust observer-based adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oveisi, Atta; Nestorović, Tamara

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a new observer-based adaptive fuzzy integral sliding mode controller is proposed based on the Lyapunov stability theorem. The plant is subjected to a square-integrable disturbance and is assumed to have mismatch uncertainties both in state- and input-matrices. Based on the classical sliding mode controller, the equivalent control effort is obtained to satisfy the sufficient requirement of sliding mode controller and then the control law is modified to guarantee the reachability of the system trajectory to the sliding manifold. In order to relax the norm-bounded constrains on the control law and solve the chattering problem of sliding mode controller, a fuzzy logic inference mechanism is combined with the controller. An adaptive law is then introduced to tune the parameters of the fuzzy system on-line. Finally, for evaluating the controller and the robust performance of the closed-loop system, the proposed regulator is implemented on a real-time mechanical vibrating system.

  2. Adaptive optics observations of the core of Cygnus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Max, C. E.; Whysong, D.; Antonucci, R.; Canalizo, G.; Macintosh, B. A.; Stockton, A.

    2001-12-01

    We report on near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy of the core of Cygnus A, using adaptive optics systems at the Lick and Keck Observatories. In our images, a V-shaped ionization cone structure is seen to the south-east of the nucleus, as in previous HST NICMOS observations. To the north-west of the nucleus are two diffuse emission regions. We have obtained K-band spectra of these regions and of the nucleus. Paschen alpha spectra show emission near the nucleus with FWHM 1000 km/s. The diffuse emission regions to the north-west and south-east have narrower linewidths. We interpret these data in terms of models for the core of Cygnus A. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48, and was supported in part by the National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center for Adaptive Optics, managed by the University of California at Santa Cruz under cooperative agreement No. AST - 9876783.

  3. Adaptation Strategies of Individuals With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Roper, Jaimie A.; Terza, Matthew J.; Tillman, Mark D.; Hass, Chris J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the strong implications for rehabilitation design, the capability of individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) to adapt and store novel gait patterns have not been well studied. Purpose: To investigate how reconstructive surgery may affect the ability to adapt and store novel gait patterns in persons with ACLR while walking on a split-belt treadmill. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Gait adaptation was compared between 20 participants with ACLR and 20 healthy controls during split-belt treadmill walking. Gait adaptation was assessed in slow- and fast-adapting parameters by (1) the magnitude of symmetry during late adaptation and (2) the amount of the asymmetry during de-adaptation. Results: Healthy individuals adapted a new walking pattern and stored the new walking pattern equally in both the dominant and nondominant limbs. Conversely, individuals with ACLR displayed impairments in both slow-adapting and fast-adapting derived gait adaptation and significant differences in behavior between the reconstructed and uninjured limb. Conclusion: While surgical reconstruction and physical therapy are aimed at improving mechanical stability to the knee, the study data suggest that fundamental features of motor control remain altered. After ACLR, participants display an altered ability to learn and store functional gait patterns. PMID:26894200

  4. Soar adaptive optics observations of the globular cluster NGC 6496

    SciTech Connect

    Fraga, Luciano; Kunder, Andrea; Tokovinin, Andrei E-mail: lfraga@lna.br

    2013-06-01

    We present high-quality BVRI photometric data in the field of globular cluster NGC 6496 obtained with the SOAR Telescope Adaptive Module (SAM). Our observations were collected as part of the ongoing SAM commissioning. The distance modulus and cluster color excess as found from the red clump are (m – M) {sub V} = 15.71 ± 0.02 mag and E(V – I) = 0.28 ± 0.02 mag. An age of 10.5 ± 0.5 Gyr is determined from the difference in magnitude between the red clump and the subgiant branch. These parameters are in excellent agreement with the values derived from isochrone fitting. From the color-magnitude diagram we find a metallicity of [Fe/H] = –0.65 dex and hence support a disk classification for NGC 6496. The complete BVRI data set for NGC 6469 is made available in the electronic edition of the Journal.

  5. Adaptive Optics Facility: control strategy and first on-sky results of the acquisition sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madec, P.-Y.; Kolb, J.; Oberti, S.; Paufique, J.; La Penna, P.; Hackenberg, W.; Kuntschner, H.; Argomedo, J.; Kiekebusch, M.; Donaldson, R.; Suarez, M.; Arsenault, R.

    2016-07-01

    The Adaptive Optics Facility is an ESO project aiming at converting Yepun, one of the four 8m telescopes in Paranal, into an adaptive telescope. This is done by replacing the current conventional secondary mirror of Yepun by a Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) and attaching four Laser Guide Star (LGS) Units to its centerpiece. In the meantime, two Adaptive Optics (AO) modules have been developed incorporating each four LGS WaveFront Sensors (WFS) and one tip-tilt sensor used to control the DSM at 1 kHz frame rate. The four LGS Units and one AO module (GRAAL) have already been assembled on Yepun. Besides the technological challenge itself, one critical area of AOF is the AO control strategy and its link with the telescope control, including Active Optics used to shape M1. Another challenge is the request to minimize the overhead due to AOF during the acquisition phase of the observation. This paper presents the control strategy of the AOF. The current control of the telescope is first recalled, and then the way the AO control makes the link with the Active Optics is detailed. Lab results are used to illustrate the expected performance. Finally, the overall AOF acquisition sequence is presented as well as first results obtained on sky with GRAAL.

  6. Land Use Adaptation Strategies Analysis in Landslide Risk Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Ching; Chang, Chin-Hsin; Chen, Ying-Tung

    2013-04-01

    In order to respond to the impact of climate and environmental change on Taiwanese mountain region, this study used GTZ (2004) Risk analysis guidelines to assess the landslide risk for 178 Taiwanese mountain towns. This study used 7 indicators to assess landslide risk, which are rainfall distribution, natural environment vulnerability (e.g., rainfall threshold criterion for debris flow, historical disaster frequency, landslide ratio, and road density), physicality vulnerability (e.g., population density) and socio-economic vulnerability (e.g., population with higher education, death rate and income). The landslide risk map can be obtained by multiplying 7 indicators together and ranking the product. The map had 5 risk ranges, and towns within the range of 4 to 5, which are high landslide risk regions, and have high priority in reducing risk. This study collected the regions with high landslide risk regions and analyzed the difference after Typhoon Morakot (2009). The spatial distribution showed that after significant environmental damage high landslide risk regions moved from central to south Taiwan. The changeable pattern of risk regions pointed out the necessity of updating the risk map periodically. Based on the landslide risk map and the land use investigation data which was provided by the National Land Surveying and Mapping Center in 2007, this study calculated the size of the land use area with landslide disaster risk. According to the above results and discussion, this study can be used to suggest appropriate land use adaptation strategies provided for reducing landslide risk under the impact of climate and environmental change.

  7. Strategies for improving adaptation practice in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, Declan; Mustelin, Johanna

    2014-05-01

    The international community's support for adaptation in developing countries has proliferated through numerous complementary funding mechanisms. A range of serious practical issues are emerging, however, as adaptation moves from theory and international negotiation to implementation. We identify three areas deserving greater scrutiny: in-country priorities, entry points and delivery systems, and provide recommendations for improving adaptation practice. These concerns, if not addressed, have the potential to hamper attempts at effective delivery and to increase the vulnerability of intended beneficiaries of the adaptation agenda.

  8. Dual-thread parallel control strategy for ophthalmic adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yongxin; Zhang, Yuhua

    To improve ophthalmic adaptive optics speed and compensate for ocular wavefront aberration of high temporal frequency, the adaptive optics wavefront correction has been implemented with a control scheme including 2 parallel threads; one is dedicated to wavefront detection and the other conducts wavefront reconstruction and compensation. With a custom Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor that measures the ocular wave aberration with 193 subapertures across the pupil, adaptive optics has achieved a closed loop updating frequency up to 110 Hz, and demonstrated robust compensation for ocular wave aberration up to 50 Hz in an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope.

  9. Adaptive tuning functions arise from visual observation of past movement

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Ian S.; Franklin, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Visual observation of movement plays a key role in action. For example, tennis players have little time to react to the ball, but still need to prepare the appropriate stroke. Therefore, it might be useful to use visual information about the ball trajectory to recall a specific motor memory. Past visual observation of movement (as well as passive and active arm movement) affects the learning and recall of motor memories. Moreover, when passive or active, these past contextual movements exhibit generalization (or tuning) across movement directions. Here we extend this work, examining whether visual motion also exhibits similar generalization across movement directions and whether such generalization functions can explain patterns of interference. Both the adaptation movement and contextual movement exhibited generalization beyond the training direction, with the visual contextual motion exhibiting much broader tuning. A second experiment demonstrated that this pattern was consistent with the results of an interference experiment where opposing force fields were associated with two separate visual movements. Overall, our study shows that visual contextual motion exhibits much broader (and shallower) tuning functions than previously seen for either passive or active movements, demonstrating that the tuning characteristics of past motion are highly dependent on their sensory modality. PMID:27341163

  10. SOAR Adaptive Optics Observations of the Globular Cluster NGC 6496

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, Luciano; Kunder, Andrea; Tokovinin, Andrei

    2013-06-01

    We present high-quality BVRI photometric data in the field of globular cluster NGC 6496 obtained with the SOAR Telescope Adaptive Module (SAM). Our observations were collected as part of the ongoing SAM commissioning. The distance modulus and cluster color excess as found from the red clump are (m - M) V = 15.71 ± 0.02 mag and E(V - I) = 0.28 ± 0.02 mag. An age of 10.5 ± 0.5 Gyr is determined from the difference in magnitude between the red clump and the subgiant branch. These parameters are in excellent agreement with the values derived from isochrone fitting. From the color-magnitude diagram we find a metallicity of [Fe/H] = -0.65 dex and hence support a disk classification for NGC 6496. The complete BVRI data set for NGC 6469 is made available in the electronic edition of the Journal. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  11. Adaptive Instructional Strategies for Teaching Rules in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Steven M.; Rakow, Ernest A.

    1982-01-01

    Describes research on an adaptation approach designed to extend the aptitude treatment interaction (ATI) concept by applying instructional variations to individuals as opposed to groups within the context of an introductory mathematics lesson adapted from the beginning module in an undergraduate statistics course. A 17-item reference list is…

  12. Management Strategies for Complex Adaptive Systems: Sensemaking, Learning, and Improvisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Reuben R., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Misspecification of the nature of organizations may be a major reason for difficulty in achieving performance improvement. Organizations are often viewed as machine-like, but complexity science suggests that organizations should be viewed as complex adaptive systems. I identify the characteristics of complex adaptive systems and give examples of…

  13. 77 FR 2996 - National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... natural systems provide, in a changing climate. In addition to this request for written comments, several..., Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy (Strategy). The adverse impacts of climate change... wildlife and society against the effects of climate change. When finalized, this draft Strategy...

  14. Turnaround Management Strategies: The Adaptive Model and the Constructive Model. ASHE 1983 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen E.

    The use of two management strategies by 14 liberal arts and comprehensive colleges attempting to recover from serious financial decline during 1973-1976 were studied. The adaptive model of strategy, based on resource dependence, involves managing demands in order to satisfy critical-resource providers. The constructive model of strategy, based on…

  15. The influence of context on the implementation of adaptive emotion regulation strategies.

    PubMed

    Aldao, Amelia; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2012-08-01

    Putatively adaptive emotion regulation strategies (e.g., acceptance, problem solving, reappraisal) show weaker associations with psychopathology than putatively maladaptive strategies (e.g., avoidance, self-criticism, hiding expression, suppression of experience, worry, rumination). This is puzzling, given the central role that adaptive strategies play in a wide range of psychotherapeutic approaches. We explored this asymmetry by examining the effects of context (i.e., emotion intensity, type of emotion, social vs. academic circumstances) on the implementation of adaptive and maladaptive strategies. We asked 111 participants to describe 8 emotion-eliciting situations and identify which strategies they used in order to regulate their affect. We found support for a contextual model of emotion regulation, in which adaptive strategies were implemented with more cross-situational variability than maladaptive strategies. In addition, the variability in implementation of two adaptive strategies (acceptance, problem solving) predicted lower levels of psychopathology, suggesting that flexible implementation of such strategies in line with contextual demands is associated with better mental health. We discuss these findings by underscoring the importance of adopting a functional approach to the delineation of contextual factors that influence the implementation of emotion regulation strategies.

  16. Lethal aggression in Pan is better explained by adaptive strategies than human impacts.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael L; Boesch, Christophe; Fruth, Barbara; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gilby, Ian C; Hashimoto, Chie; Hobaiter, Catherine L; Hohmann, Gottfried; Itoh, Noriko; Koops, Kathelijne; Lloyd, Julia N; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Mitani, John C; Mjungu, Deus C; Morgan, David; Muller, Martin N; Mundry, Roger; Nakamura, Michio; Pruetz, Jill; Pusey, Anne E; Riedel, Julia; Sanz, Crickette; Schel, Anne M; Simmons, Nicole; Waller, Michel; Watts, David P; White, Frances; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Wrangham, Richard W

    2014-09-18

    Observations of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) provide valuable comparative data for understanding the significance of conspecific killing. Two kinds of hypothesis have been proposed. Lethal violence is sometimes concluded to be the result of adaptive strategies, such that killers ultimately gain fitness benefits by increasing their access to resources such as food or mates. Alternatively, it could be a non-adaptive result of human impacts, such as habitat change or food provisioning. To discriminate between these hypotheses we compiled information from 18 chimpanzee communities and 4 bonobo communities studied over five decades. Our data include 152 killings (n = 58 observed, 41 inferred, and 53 suspected killings) by chimpanzees in 15 communities and one suspected killing by bonobos. We found that males were the most frequent attackers (92% of participants) and victims (73%); most killings (66%) involved intercommunity attacks; and attackers greatly outnumbered their victims (median 8:1 ratio). Variation in killing rates was unrelated to measures of human impacts. Our results are compatible with previously proposed adaptive explanations for killing by chimpanzees, whereas the human impact hypothesis is not supported.

  17. Keck Adaptive Optics Observations of TW Hydrae Association Members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintosh, B.; Max, C.; Zuckerman, B.; Becklin, E. E.; Kaisler, D.; Lowrance, P.; Weinberger, A.; Christou, J.; Schneider, G.; Acton, S.

    Adaptive optics (AO) on 8-10 m telescopes is an enormously powerful tool for studying young nearby stars. It is especially useful for searching for companions. Using AO on the 10-m W.M. Keck II telescope we have measured the position of the brown dwarf companion to TWA5 and resolved the primary into an 0.055 arcsecond double. Over the next several years follow-up astrometry should permit an accurate determination of the masses of these young stars. We have also re-observed the candidate extrasolar planet TWA6B, but measurements of its motion relative to TWA6A are inconclusive. We are carrying out a search for new planetary or brown dwarf companions to TWA stars and, if current giant planet models are correct, are currently capable of detecting a 1 Jupiter-mass companion at ~1 arcsecond and a 5 Jupiter-mass companion at ~0.5 arcsecon around a typical TWA member.

  18. Photoevaporating stellar envelopes observed with Rayleigh beacon adaptive optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccullough, P. R.; Fugate, R. Q.; Christou, J. C.; Ellerbroek, B. L.; Higgins, C. H.; Spinhirne, J. M.; Cleis, R. A.; Moroney, J. F.

    1995-01-01

    We present H-alpha and I-band images of a approximately 1 min diameter field centered on theta(sup 1) C Ori made with a unique adaptive optics system that uses either starlight or Rayleigh-backscattered laser light to correct for atmospheric wavefront distortion. Approximately one-half of the stars in this region are positionally associated with knots of ionized gas, which are interpreted as photoevaporating envelopes of low-mass stars. The acronyms 'partially ionized globule' (PIGs), external ionized (accretion) disks in the environs of radiation sources (EIDERs), or protoplanetary disks (ProPlyDs) all refer to these same knots. The H-alpha fluxes of the PIGs are proportional to their 2 cm radio continumm flux densities, and for nearly all the ionized knots, the 2 cm brightness temperatures are consistent with theta(sup 1) C Ori as the primary source of ionization. The comet-like morphology of the bright nebulosities is modeled as the result of an equilibrium between photoionization, recombination, and shadowing. The radii of the ionized 'head' of the cometary PIGs grow with distance from theta(sup 1) C Ori; the radii range from approximately less than or equal to 0.05 sec to approximately 0.25 sec. We interpret the size-distance relationship as evidence that the envelopes all have the same density profile and mass-loss rate within a factor of 2. Faint, arcuate wisps are observed 1 sec to 2 sec distance from some of the cometary nebulosities; these are modeled as bow shocks caused by the wind from theta(sup 1) C Ori. The positions of the stars associated with the PIGs in the observational H-R diagram indicate they are pre-main-sequence stars with masses less than approximately 3 solar mass, with approximately 1 solar mass being typical. Their medium I-K color is 2.9.

  19. Behavioral and neural correlates of visuomotor adaptation observed through a brain-computer interface in primary motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Chase, Steven M; Kass, Robert E; Schwartz, Andrew B

    2012-07-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) provide a defined link between neural activity and devices, allowing a detailed study of the neural adaptive responses generating behavioral output. We trained monkeys to perform two-dimensional center-out movements of a computer cursor using a BCI. We then applied a perturbation by randomly selecting a subset of the recorded units and rotating their directional contributions to cursor movement by a consistent angle. Globally, this perturbation mimics a visuomotor transformation, and in the first part of this article we characterize the psychophysical indications of motor adaptation and compare them with known results from adaptation of natural reaching movements. Locally, however, only a subset of the neurons in the population actually contributes to error, allowing us to probe for signatures of neural adaptation that might be specific to the subset of neurons we perturbed. One compensation strategy would be to selectively adapt the subset of cells responsible for the error. An alternate strategy would be to globally adapt the entire population to correct the error. Using a recently developed mathematical technique that allows us to differentiate these two mechanisms, we found evidence of both strategies in the neural responses. The dominant strategy we observed was global, accounting for ∼86% of the total error reduction. The remaining 14% came from local changes in the tuning functions of the perturbed units. Interestingly, these local changes were specific to the details of the applied rotation: in particular, changes in the depth of tuning were only observed when the percentage of perturbed cells was small. These results imply that there may be constraints on the network's adaptive capabilities, at least for perturbations lasting only a few hundreds of trials.

  20. When Easy Comes Hard: The Development of Adaptive Strategy Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mata, Rui; von Helversen, Bettina; Rieskamp, Jorg

    2011-01-01

    Can children learn to select the right strategy for a given problem? In one experiment, 9- to 10-year-olds (N = 50), 11- to 12-year-olds (N = 50), and adults (N = 50) made probabilistic inferences. Participants encountered environments favoring either an information-intensive strategy that integrates all available information or an…

  1. Understanding Electrochemistry Concepts Using the Predict-Observe-Explain Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karamustafaoglu, Sevilay; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    The current study deals with freshman students who study at the Department of Science at the Faculty of Education. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of teaching electrochemistry concepts using Predict-Observe-Explain (POE) strategy. The study was quasi-experimental design using 20 students each in the experimental group (EG) and…

  2. Strategy for adaptive process control for a column flotation unit

    SciTech Connect

    Karr, C.L.; Ferguson, C.R.

    1994-12-31

    Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) have developed adaptive process control systems in which genetic algorithms (GAs) are used to augment fuzzy logic controllers (FLCs). Together, GAs and FLCs possess the capabilities necessary to produce powerful, efficient, and robust adaptive control systems. To perform efficiently, such control systems require a control element to manipulate the problem environment, an analysis element to recognize changes in the problem environment, and a learning element to adjust to the changes in the problem environment. In this paper, the details of an ongoing research effort to develop and implement an adaptive process control system for a column flotation unit are discussed. Column flotation units are used extensively in the mineral processing industry to recover valuable minerals from their ores.

  3. Control Reallocation Strategies for Damage Adaptation in Transport Class Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Krishnakumar, K.; Limes, Greg; Bryant, Don

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the feasibility, potential benefits and implementation issues associated with retrofitting a neural-adaptive flight control system (NFCS) to existing transport aircraft, including both cable/hydraulic and fly-by-wire configurations. NFCS uses a neural network based direct adaptive control approach for applying alternate sources of control authority in the presence of damage or failures in order to achieve desired flight control performance. Neural networks are used to provide consistent handling qualities across flight conditions, adapt to changes in aircraft dynamics and to make the controller easy to apply when implemented on different aircraft. Full-motion piloted simulation studies were performed on two different transport models: the Boeing 747-400 and the Boeing C-17. Subjects included NASA, Air Force and commercial airline pilots. Results demonstrate the potential for improving handing qualities and significantly increased survivability rates under various simulated failure conditions.

  4. Responding to flow: How phytoplankton adapt migration strategies to tackle turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Anupam; Carrara, Francesco; Stocker, Roman

    2014-11-01

    Phytoplankton are among the ocean's most important organisms and it has long been recognized that turbulence is a primary determinant of their fitness. Yet, mechanisms by which phytoplankton may adapt to turbulence have remained unknown. We present experiments that demonstrate how phytoplankton are capable of rapid adaptive behavior in response to fluid flow disturbances that mimic turbulence. Our study organism was the toxic marine alga Heterosigma akashiwo, known to exhibit ``negative gravitaxis,'' i . e . , to frequently migrate upwards against gravity. To mimic the effect of Kolmogorov-scale turbulent eddies, which expose cells to repeated reorientations, we observed H. akashiwo in a ``flip chamber,'' whose orientation was periodically flipped. Tracking of single cells revealed a striking, robust behavioral adaptation, whereby within tens of minutes half of the population reversed its direction of migration to swim downwards, demonstrating an active response to fluid flow. Using confocal microscopy, we provide a physiological rationalization of this behavior in terms of the redistribution of internal organelles, and speculate on the motives for this bet-hedging-type strategy. This work suggests that the effects of fluid flow - not just passive but also active - on plankton represents a rich area of investigation with considerable implications for some of earth's most important organisms.

  5. Adaptive dual-layer super-twisting control and observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Christopher; Shtessel, Yuri

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a super-twisting-like structure with adaptive gains is proposed. The structure is parameterised by two scalar gains, both of which adapt, and by an additional time-varying term. The magnitudes of the adaptive terms are allowed to both increase and decrease as appropriate so that they are as small as possible, in the sense that they do not unnecessarily over-bound the uncertainty, and yet are large enough to sustain a sliding motion. In the paper, a new time varying gain is incorporated into the traditional super-twisting architecture. The proposed adaption law has a dual-layer structure which is formally analyzed using Lyapunov techniques. The additional term has the effect of simplifying the stability analysis whilst guaranteeing the second-order sliding mode properties of the traditional super-twisting scheme.

  6. Competition and time-dependent behavior in spatial iterated prisoner’s dilemma incorporating adaptive zero-determinant strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Xu, Chen; Liu, Jie; Hui, Pak Ming

    2016-10-01

    We propose and study the competitiveness of a class of adaptive zero-determinant strategies (ZDSs) in a population with spatial structure against four classic strategies in iterated prisoner’s dilemma. Besides strategy updating via a probabilistic mechanism by imitating the strategy of a better performing opponent, players using the ZDSs can also adapt their strategies to take advantage of their local competing environment with another probability. The adapted ZDSs could be extortionate-like to avoid being continually cheated by defectors or to take advantage of unconditional cooperators. The adapted ZDSs could also be a compliance strategy so as to cooperate with the conditionally cooperative players. This flexibility makes adaptive ZDSs more competitive than nonadaptive ZDSs. Results show that adaptive ZDSs can either dominate over other strategies or at least coexist with them when the ZDSs are allowed to adapt more readily than to imitate other strategies. The effectiveness of the adaptive ZDSs relies on how fast they can adapt to the competing environment before they are replaced by other strategies. The adaptive ZDSs generally work well as they could adapt gradually and make use of other strategies for suppressing their enemies. When adaptation happens more readily than imitation for the ZDSs, they outperform other strategies over a wide range of cost-to-benefit ratios.

  7. On Adaptive Extended Compatibility Changing Type of Product Design Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenwen, Jiang; Zhibin, Xie

    The article uses research ways of Enterprise localization and enterprise's development course to research strategy of company's product design and development. It announces at different stages for development, different kinds of enterprises will adopt product design and development policies of different modes. It also announces close causality between development course of company and central technology and product. The result indicated enterprises in leading position in market, technology and brand adopt pioneer strategy type of product research and development. These enterprise relying on the large-scale leading enterprise offering a complete set service adopts the passively duplicating type tactic of product research and development. Some enterprise in part of advantage in technology, market, management or brand adopt following up strategy of product research and development. The enterprises with relative advantage position adopt the strategy of technology applied taking optimizing services as centre in product research and development in fields of brand culture and market service.

  8. Some Properties of a Bayesian Adaptive Ability Testing Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, James R.; Weiss, David J.

    Four monte carlo simulation studies of Owen's Bayesian sequential procedure for adaptive mental testing were conducted. Whereas previous simulation studies of this procedure have concentrated on evaluating it in terms of the correlation of its test scores with simulated ability in a normal population, these four studies explored a number of…

  9. Adaptive intermittent control: A computational model explaining motor intermittency observed in human behavior.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Tanaka, Masato; Inoue, Yasuyuki

    2015-07-01

    It is a fundamental question how our brain performs a given motor task in a real-time fashion with the slow sensorimotor system. Computational theory proposed an influential idea of feed-forward control, but it has mainly treated the case that the movement is ballistic (such as reaching) because the motor commands should be calculated in advance of movement execution. As a possible mechanism for operating feed-forward control in continuous motor tasks (such as target tracking), we propose a control model called "adaptive intermittent control" or "segmented control," that brain adaptively divides the continuous time axis into discrete segments and executes feed-forward control in each segment. The idea of intermittent control has been proposed in the fields of control theory, biological modeling and nonlinear dynamical system. Compared with these previous models, the key of the proposed model is that the system speculatively determines the segmentation based on the future prediction and its uncertainty. The result of computer simulation showed that the proposed model realized faithful visuo-manual tracking with realistic sensorimotor delays and with less computational costs (i.e., with fewer number of segments). Furthermore, it replicated "motor intermittency", that is, intermittent discontinuities commonly observed in human movement trajectories. We discuss that the temporally segmented control is an inevitable strategy for brain which has to achieve a given task with small computational (or cognitive) cost, using a slow control system in an uncertain variable environment, and the motor intermittency is the side-effect of this strategy.

  10. Toward the Development of an Integrated Global Observing Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, Leslie Bermann

    1998-01-01

    In the current environment of stagnant or shrinking budgets for space research and exploration, nations can no longer afford to develop costly systems in a vacuum. Greater coordination of existing and planned systems, both among space agencies and between the space agencies and user communities, will enable the maximization of global investments in all areas of space-related research. In this manner, a group of space agencies has embarked on an initiative to link their activities in Earth observation with complementary observation programs. The goal of this initiative is to develop a comprehensive strategy for enhanced levels of support to scientific, operational and research communities. The space agencies, through the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS), have embraced the concept of an Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS), primarily in fulfillment of their own set of objectives and to derive greater benefit from both operating and planned Earth observing systems. Through working together, CEOS agencies are in a position to plan their Earth observation projects with the minimum of unnecessary overlap and to devise joint strategies for addressing serious gaps in their observation capabilities. Ultimately, an IGOS should be the joint product of all groups involved in the collection and analysis of both space-based and in-situ data. CEOS is actively seeking IGOS -related partnerships with the Global Climate, Global Ocean and Global Terrestrial Observing Systems, their intergovernmental Sponsors, the International Group of Funding Agencies for Global Change Research, and other scientific and user organizations including the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme and the World Climate Research Programme.

  11. Cultural adaptation of preschool PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies) curriculum for Pakistani children.

    PubMed

    Inam, Ayesha; Tariq, Pervaiz N; Zaman, Sahira

    2015-06-01

    Cultural adaptation of evidence-based programmes has gained importance primarily owing to its perceived impact on the established effectiveness of a programme. To date, many researchers have proposed different frameworks for systematic adaptation process. This article presents the cultural adaptation of preschool Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) curriculum for Pakistani children using the heuristic framework of adaptation (Barrera & Castro, 2006). The study was completed in four steps: information gathering, preliminary adaptation design, preliminary adaptation test and adaptation refinement. Feedbacks on programme content suggested universality of the core programme components. Suggested changes were mostly surface structure: language, presentation of materials, conceptual equivalence of concepts, training needs of implementation staff and frequency of programme delivery. In-depth analysis was done to acquire cultural equivalence. Pilot testing of the outcome measures showed strong internal consistency. The results were further discussed with reference to similar work undertaken in other cultures.

  12. Effects of Self-Statements and Coping Strategies on Adaptational Outcomes of Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhlemann, Max R.; Plater, Sharon A.

    1989-01-01

    Examined effects of self-statements and coping strategies on adaptational outcomes of stress in female subjects (N=62). Results indicated self-statements did not discriminate significantly between individuals who effectively or ineffectively handled stressful encounters. Only information-seeking coping strategy showed a trend toward a significant…

  13. Acculturation Strategies, Social Support, and Cross-Cultural Adaptation: A Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Ting Kin; Tsang, Kwok Kuen; Lian, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Previous acculturation research has established the influences of acculturation strategies and social support on cross-cultural adaptation. The present study attempted to elaborate these direct associations by proposing that social support and the use of the integration and marginalization strategies might affect psychological adaptation…

  14. Adaptation strategies to climate change and climate variability: a comparative study between seven contrasting river basins.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droogers, P.

    2003-04-01

    Climate change and climate variability is and will have a tremendous impact on hydrology and consequently on food security and environmental protection. From the four major components in climate change and climate variability studies, projection, mitigation, impact and adaptation, has the latter so far received less attention than the other three. An international collaboration of ten institutions is comparing adaptation strategies between contrasting basins ranging from wet to dry and from poor to rich. Basins included are: Mekong, Walawe (Sri Lanka), Rhine, Sacramento, Syr Darya, Volta, and Zayandeh (Iran). Simulation models at basin and field scale have been set up and possible adaptation strategies are explored by these models. Preliminary results indicate that appropriate adaptation strategies are different between these seven contrasting basins. It is also clear that these adaptation strategies should focus on increased variability rather than on the overall change of the mean. The focus was hereby not only on an increase in variation but especially on the number of successive dry and wet years. Results show that the studies on these adaptation strategies could not be performed only at one scale, but that a combination of field scale as well as basin scale analysis is essential.

  15. An Incremental Target-Adapted Strategy for Active Geometric Calibration of Projector-Camera Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chia-Yen; Chien, Hsiang-Jen

    2013-01-01

    The calibration of a projector-camera system is an essential step toward accurate 3-D measurement and environment-aware data projection applications, such as augmented reality. In this paper we present a two-stage easy-to-deploy strategy for robust calibration of both intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of a projector. Two key components of the system are the automatic generation of projected light patterns and the incremental calibration process. Based on the incremental strategy, the calibration process first establishes a set of initial parameters, and then it upgrades these parameters incrementally using the projection and captured images of dynamically-generated calibration patterns. The scene-driven light patterns allow the system to adapt itself to the pose of the calibration target, such that the difficulty in feature detection is greatly lowered. The strategy forms a closed-loop system that performs self-correction as more and more observations become available. Compared to the conventional method, which requires a time-consuming process for the acquisition of dense pixel correspondences, the proposed method deploys a homography-based coordinate computation, allowing the calibration time to be dramatically reduced. The experimental results indicate that an improvement of 70% in reprojection errors is achievable and 95% of the calibration time can be saved. PMID:23435056

  16. Comparative Proteogenomics of Twelve Roseobacter Exoproteomes Reveals Different Adaptive Strategies Among These Marine Bacteria*

    PubMed Central

    Christie-Oleza, Joseph Alexander; Piña-Villalonga, Juana Maria; Bosch, Rafael; Nogales, Balbina; Armengaud, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Roseobacters are generalist bacteria abundantly found in the oceans. Because little is known on how marine microorganisms interact in association or competition, we focused our attention on the microbial exoproteome, a key component in their interaction with extracellular milieu. Here we present a comparative analysis of the theoretically encoded exoproteome of twelve members of the Roseobacter group validated by extensive comparative proteogenomics. In silico analysis revealed that 30% of the encoded proteome of these microorganisms could be exported. The ratio of the different protein categories varied in accordance to the ecological distinctness of each strain, a trait reinforced by quantitative proteomics data. Despite the interspecies variations found, the most abundantly detected proteins by shotgun proteomics were from transporter, adhesion, motility, and toxin-like protein categories, defining four different plausible adaptive strategies within the Roseobacter group. In some strains the toxin-secretion strategy was over-represented with repeats-in-toxin-like proteins. Our results show that exoproteomes strongly depend on bacterial trophic strategy and can slightly change because of culture conditions. Simulated natural conditions and the effect of the indigenous microbial community on the exoproteome of Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3 were also assayed. Interestingly, we observed a significant depletion of the toxin-like proteins usually secreted by R. pomeroyi DSS-3 when grown in presence of a natural community sampled from a Mediterranean Sea port. The significance of this specific fraction of the exoproteome is discussed. PMID:22122883

  17. [Cold adaptation strategy in insects inhabiting central Yakutia].

    PubMed

    Li, N G; Averenskiĭ, A I

    2007-01-01

    Cold hardiness in 20 insect species living in extremely cold climate of Yakutia has been investigated for the first time. It was shown that the Yakutian insects prefer to use the strategy of freeze tolerance according to which they produce special substances initiating the freezing of hemolymph at high subzero temperatures. The presence of ice-nucleating agents in the haemolymph of insects belonging to the phylogenetic group of Lepidopteran was shown. We postulate that Pieris rapae may shift between the different cold hardiness strategies when they move from moderately cold regions to a more severe environment.

  18. The Validation of a Classroom Observation Instrument Based on the Construct of Teacher Adaptive Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughland, Tony; Vlies, Penny

    2016-01-01

    Teacher adaptability is a key disposition for teachers that has been linked to outcomes of interests to schools. The aim of this study was to examine how the broader disposition of teacher adaptability might be observable as classroom-based adaptive practices using an argument-based approach to validation. The findings from the initial phase of…

  19. Flexible stocking strategies for adapting to climatic variability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a result of precipitation-induced variability on forage production, ranchers have difficulty matching animal demand with forage availability in their operations. Flexible stocking strategies could more effectively use extra forage in highly productive years and limit risk of overgrazing during dr...

  20. The QoE implications of ultra-high definition video adaptation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nightingale, James; Awobuluyi, Olatunde; Wang, Qi; Alcaraz-Calero, Jose M.; Grecos, Christos

    2016-04-01

    As the capabilities of high-end consumer devices increase, streaming and playback of Ultra-High Definition (UHD) is set to become commonplace. The move to these new, higher resolution, video services is one of the main factors contributing to the predicted continuation of growth in video related traffic in the Internet. This massive increases in bandwidth requirement, even when mitigated by the use of new video compression standards such as H.265, will place an ever-increasing burden on network service providers. This will be especially true in mobile environments where users have come to expect ubiquitous access to content. Consequently, delivering UHD and Full UHD (FUHD) video content is one of the key drivers for future Fifth Generation (5G) mobile networks. One often voiced, but as yet unanswered question, is whether users of mobile devices with modest screen sizes (e.g. smartphones or smaller tablet) will actually benefit from consuming the much higher bandwidth required to watch online UHD video, in terms of an improved user experience. In this paper, we use scalable H.265 encoded video streams to conduct a subjective evaluation of the impact on a user's perception of video quality across a comprehensive range of adaptation strategies, covering each of the three adaptation domains, for UHD and FUHD video. The results of our subjective study provide insightful and useful indications of which methods of adapting UHD and FUHD streams have the least impact on user's perceived QoE. In particular, it was observed that, in over 70% of cases, users were unable to distinguish between full HD (1080p) and UHD (4K) videos when they were unaware of which version was being shown to them. Our results from this evaluation can be used to provide adaptation rule sets that will facilitate fast, QoE aware in-network adaptation of video streams in support of realtime adaptation objectives. Undoubtedly they will also promote discussion around how network service providers manage

  1. Integrated Global Observation Strategy - Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, Ernest; Readings, C. J.; Kaye, J.; Mohnen, V.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The "Long Term Continuity of Stratospheric Ozone Measurements and Atmospheric Chemistry" project was one of six established by the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS) in response to the Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS) initiative. IGOS links satellite and ground based systems for global environmental observations. The strategy of this project is to develop a consensus of user requirements including the scientific (SPARC, IGAC, WCRP) and the applications community (WMO, UNEP) and to develop a long-term international plan for ozone and atmospheric chemistry measurements. The major components of the observing system include operational and research (meeting certain criteria) satellite platforms planned by the space faring nations which are integrated with a well supported and sustained ground, aircraft, and balloon measurements program for directed observations as well satellite validation. Highly integrated and continuous measurements of ozone, validation, and reanalysis efforts are essential to meet the international scientific and applications goals. In order to understand ozone trends, climate change, and air quality, it is essential to conduct long term measurements of certain other atmospheric species. These species include key source, radical, and reservoir constituents.

  2. [Germination strategy and ecological adaptability of Eragrostis pilosa].

    PubMed

    Li, Xuehua; Li, Xiaola; Jiang, Deming; Liu, Zhimin

    2006-04-01

    The study on the germination strategy of Eragrostis pilosa under different storage and environmental conditions showed that freshly collected E. pilosa seeds had a stronger innate dormancy. Chilling and dry storage for 4 months had no obvious effect on releasing from dormancy, while longer time storage could facilitate seed maturation. The seeds could germinate either in light or in darkness, and stronger light was in favor of germination. The optimal temperature for germination was 28 degrees C, while higher or lower temperature could result in the decrease of germination. The germination percentage of seeds under changed temperature (16 to 28 degrees C) was higher than that under constant temperature (28 degrees C), but with no significant difference. The critical amount of rain for seed germination was about 10 mm, and the germination percentage and duration all increased with increasing rainfall. E. pilosa had two germination strategies, i. e., quick germination and dormancy for more than one year. Based on the seed morphological characters and germination strategies, it could be concluded that E. pilosa had a persistent soil seed bank.

  3. An adaptive observer for single-input single-output linear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, R. L.; Lindorff, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that the full order adaptive observer for single input, single output, observable, continuous, stable, linear differential systems in the absence of a deterministic or random disturbance vector guarantees the vanishing of observation error, regardless of the size of the constant or slowly varying parameter ignorance. The observer parameters are directly changed in a Liapunov adaptive way so as to eventually yield the unknown full order Luenberger observer. The observer poles throughout may be placed freely in the stable region and no derivatives are required in the adaptive law.

  4. Using a social justice and health framework to assess European climate change adaptation strategies.

    PubMed

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-11-28

    Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents.

  5. Using a Social Justice and Health Framework to Assess European Climate Change Adaptation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-01-01

    Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents. PMID:25464133

  6. Urban plant physiology: adaptation-mitigation strategies under permanent stress.

    PubMed

    Calfapietra, Carlo; Peñuelas, Josep; Niinemets, Ülo

    2015-02-01

    Urban environments that are stressful for plant function and growth will become increasingly widespread in future. In this opinion article, we define the concept of 'urban plant physiology', which focuses on plant responses and long term adaptations to urban conditions and on the capacity of urban vegetation to mitigate environmental hazards in urbanized settings such as air and soil pollution. Use of appropriate control treatments would allow for studies in urban environments to be comparable to expensive manipulative experiments. In this opinion article, we propose to couple two approaches, based either on environmental gradients or manipulated gradients, to develop the concept of urban plant physiology for assessing how single or multiple environmental factors affect the key environmental services provided by urban forests.

  7. Suppressing traffic-driven epidemic spreading by adaptive routing strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Zhen

    2016-12-01

    Despite extensive work on the interplay between traffic dynamics and epidemic spreading, the control of epidemic spreading by routing strategies has not received adequate attention. In this paper, we study the impact of efficient routing protocol on epidemic spreading. In the case of infinite node-delivery capacity, where the traffic is free of congestion, we find that that there exists optimal values of routing parameter, leading to the maximal epidemic threshold. This means that epidemic spreading can be effectively controlled by fine tuning the routing scheme. Moreover, we find that an increase in the average network connectivity and the emergence of traffic congestion can suppress the epidemic outbreak.

  8. A Structure-Adaptive Hybrid RBF-BP Classifier with an Optimized Learning Strategy.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hui; Xie, Weixin; Pei, Jihong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a structure-adaptive hybrid RBF-BP (SAHRBF-BP) classifier with an optimized learning strategy. SAHRBF-BP is composed of a structure-adaptive RBF network and a BP network of cascade, where the number of RBF hidden nodes is adjusted adaptively according to the distribution of sample space, the adaptive RBF network is used for nonlinear kernel mapping and the BP network is used for nonlinear classification. The optimized learning strategy is as follows: firstly, a potential function is introduced into training sample space to adaptively determine the number of initial RBF hidden nodes and node parameters, and a form of heterogeneous samples repulsive force is designed to further optimize each generated RBF hidden node parameters, the optimized structure-adaptive RBF network is used for adaptively nonlinear mapping the sample space; then, according to the number of adaptively generated RBF hidden nodes, the number of subsequent BP input nodes can be determined, and the overall SAHRBF-BP classifier is built up; finally, different training sample sets are used to train the BP network parameters in SAHRBF-BP. Compared with other algorithms applied to different data sets, experiments show the superiority of SAHRBF-BP. Especially on most low dimensional and large number of data sets, the classification performance of SAHRBF-BP outperforms other training SLFNs algorithms.

  9. A Structure-Adaptive Hybrid RBF-BP Classifier with an Optimized Learning Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Hui; Xie, Weixin; Pei, Jihong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a structure-adaptive hybrid RBF-BP (SAHRBF-BP) classifier with an optimized learning strategy. SAHRBF-BP is composed of a structure-adaptive RBF network and a BP network of cascade, where the number of RBF hidden nodes is adjusted adaptively according to the distribution of sample space, the adaptive RBF network is used for nonlinear kernel mapping and the BP network is used for nonlinear classification. The optimized learning strategy is as follows: firstly, a potential function is introduced into training sample space to adaptively determine the number of initial RBF hidden nodes and node parameters, and a form of heterogeneous samples repulsive force is designed to further optimize each generated RBF hidden node parameters, the optimized structure-adaptive RBF network is used for adaptively nonlinear mapping the sample space; then, according to the number of adaptively generated RBF hidden nodes, the number of subsequent BP input nodes can be determined, and the overall SAHRBF-BP classifier is built up; finally, different training sample sets are used to train the BP network parameters in SAHRBF-BP. Compared with other algorithms applied to different data sets, experiments show the superiority of SAHRBF-BP. Especially on most low dimensional and large number of data sets, the classification performance of SAHRBF-BP outperforms other training SLFNs algorithms. PMID:27792737

  10. Domain adaptation problems: a DASVM classification technique and a circular validation strategy.

    PubMed

    Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Marconcini, Mattia

    2010-05-01

    This paper addresses pattern classification in the framework of domain adaptation by considering methods that solve problems in which training data are assumed to be available only for a source domain different (even if related) from the target domain of (unlabeled) test data. Two main novel contributions are proposed: 1) a domain adaptation support vector machine (DASVM) technique which extends the formulation of support vector machines (SVMs) to the domain adaptation framework and 2) a circular indirect accuracy assessment strategy for validating the learning of domain adaptation classifiers when no true labels for the target--domain instances are available. Experimental results, obtained on a series of two-dimensional toy problems and on two real data sets related to brain computer interface and remote sensing applications, confirmed the effectiveness and the reliability of both the DASVM technique and the proposed circular validation strategy.

  11. Numerous strategies but limited implementation guidance in US local adaptation plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodruff, Sierra C.; Stults, Missy

    2016-08-01

    Adaptation planning offers a promising approach for identifying and devising solutions to address local climate change impacts. Yet there is little empirical understanding of the content and quality of these plans. We use content analysis to evaluate 44 local adaptation plans in the United States and multivariate regression to examine how plan quality varies across communities. We find that plans draw on multiple data sources to analyse future climate impacts and include a breadth of strategies. Most plans, however, fail to prioritize impacts and strategies or provide detailed implementation processes, raising concerns about whether adaptation plans will translate into on-the-ground reductions in vulnerability. Our analysis also finds that plans authored by the planning department and those that engaged elected officials in the planning process were of higher quality. The results provide important insights for practitioners, policymakers and scientists wanting to improve local climate adaptation planning and action.

  12. A Strategy for Integrated Water Cycle Observations from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, E. F.; Houser, P. R.

    2005-12-01

    The coupling of land surface hydrologic processes to atmospheric processes over a range of spatial and temporal scales is needed for understanding how atmosphere-land surface interactions operate and feed back onto the regional and larger scale climate system. An integral component of NASA's Global Water and Energy Cycle (GWEC) program and the World Climate Research is whether knowledge of land surface hydrologic states results in improved weather and short-term climate predictions. The inherent research strategy for NASA/GWEC and WCRP/GEWEX for investigating this is through the merging (assimilation) of remotely sensed observations of the surface hydrospheric state with process-based, terrestrial water and energy balance models. NASA assumes that remote sensing observations using current (TRMM, Terra, and Aqua) and planned (e.g. Global Precipitation Mission, HYDROS for surface soil moisture and freeze-thaw state, and possibly snow and surface water) platforms will provide sufficient estimates of surface hydrologic state variables. The extent to which this assumption can be realized remains an open question. The unmet needs facing the community in fully exploiting space-borne observations include: (i) having sufficiently accurate retrieval of physical surface states, including validation programs that can estimate retrieval error characteristics; (ii) overcoming satellite sensor programs that primarily focus on a single physical parameter; and (iii) having consistency between satellite observations and land surface models in terms of consistency in the retrieved variables as they relate to the spatial and temporal variability of the terrestrial hydrosphere. This presentation will offer a new vision for water cycle observation and modeling that has, at its core, the concept of integrated observations as opposed to isolated observations, and consistency between models and observations. By integrated observations, we mean the simultaneous retrieval of related water

  13. An adaptive regularization parameter choice strategy for multispectral bioluminescence tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Jinchao; Qin Chenghu; Jia Kebin; Han Dong; Liu Kai; Zhu Shouping; Yang Xin; Tian Jie

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) provides an effective tool for monitoring physiological and pathological activities in vivo. However, the measured data in bioluminescence imaging are corrupted by noise. Therefore, regularization methods are commonly used to find a regularized solution. Nevertheless, for the quality of the reconstructed bioluminescent source obtained by regularization methods, the choice of the regularization parameters is crucial. To date, the selection of regularization parameters remains challenging. With regards to the above problems, the authors proposed a BLT reconstruction algorithm with an adaptive parameter choice rule. Methods: The proposed reconstruction algorithm uses a diffusion equation for modeling the bioluminescent photon transport. The diffusion equation is solved with a finite element method. Computed tomography (CT) images provide anatomical information regarding the geometry of the small animal and its internal organs. To reduce the ill-posedness of BLT, spectral information and the optimal permissible source region are employed. Then, the relationship between the unknown source distribution and multiview and multispectral boundary measurements is established based on the finite element method and the optimal permissible source region. Since the measured data are noisy, the BLT reconstruction is formulated as l{sub 2} data fidelity and a general regularization term. When choosing the regularization parameters for BLT, an efficient model function approach is proposed, which does not require knowledge of the noise level. This approach only requests the computation of the residual and regularized solution norm. With this knowledge, we construct the model function to approximate the objective function, and the regularization parameter is updated iteratively. Results: First, the micro-CT based mouse phantom was used for simulation verification. Simulation experiments were used to illustrate why multispectral data were used

  14. Machining Strategy to Adapt Cutting Conditions under Digital Copy Milling Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Takashi; Nakamoto, Keiichi; Shirase, Keiichi

    Most machining tools are controlled by numerical control (NC) programs in order to achieve unmanned machining operations with high precision and improved productivity. However, all the movements of the machining tool are predetermined, and all instructions coded in the NC program are performed sequentially. Therefore, since the cutting process is not adaptable during unmanned machining, the cutting conditions should be set conservatively to avoid cutting difficulties. In this study, machining strategies for adapting the cutting process during a milling operation to avoid tool breakage and to stabilize cutting load have been integrated into an autonomous NC machining tool developed under the Digital Copy Milling (DCM) concept for generating a tool path in real time. In machining strategies, feed speed, radial and axial depths of cut are adapted according to cutting load detected from load cells in the machining table. Successful endmilling experiments verified the effectiveness of the developed machining strategy.

  15. Swift Multi-wavelength Observing Campaigns: Strategies and Outcomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krimm, Hans A.

    2007-01-01

    The Swift gamma-ray burst explorer has been operating since December 2004 as both a gamma-ray burst (GRB) monitor and telescope and a multi-wavelength observatory, covering the energy range from V band and near UV to hard X rays above 150 keV. It is designed to rapidly repoint to observe newly discovered GRBs, and this maneuverability, combined with an easily changed observing program, allows Swift to also be an effective multiwavelength observatory for non-GRB targets, both as targets of opportunity and pre-planned multi-wavelength observing campaigns. Blazars are particularly attractive targets for coordinated campaigns with TeV experiments since many blazars are bright in both the hard X-ray and TeV energy ranges. Successful coordinated campaigns have included observations of 3C454.3 during its 2005 outburst. The latest Swift funding cycles allow for non- GRB related observations to be proposed. The Burst Alert Telescope on Swift also serves as a hard X-ray monitor with a public web page that includes light curves for over 400 X-ray sources and is used to alert the astronomical community about increased activity from both known and newly discovered sources. This presentation mill include Swift capabilities, strategies and policies for coordinated multi-wavelength observations as well as discussion of the potential outcomes of such campaigns.

  16. Leaf Area Adjustment As an Optimal Drought-Adaptation Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoni, S.; Beyer, F.; Thompson, S. E.; Vico, G.; Weih, M.

    2014-12-01

    Leaf phenology plays a major role in land-atmosphere mass and energy exchanges. Much work has focused on phenological responses to light and temperature, but less to leaf area changes during dry periods. Because the duration of droughts is expected to increase under future climates in seasonally-dry as well as mesic environments, it is crucial to (i) predict drought-related phenological changes and (ii) to develop physiologically-sound models of leaf area dynamics during dry periods. Several optimization criteria have been proposed to model leaf area adjustment as soil moisture decreases. Some theories are based on the plant carbon (C) balance, hypothesizing that leaf area will decline when instantaneous net photosynthetic rates become negative (equivalent to maximization of cumulative C gain). Other theories draw on hydraulic principles, suggesting that leaf area should adjust to either maintain a constant leaf water potential (isohydric behavior) or to avoid leaf water potentials with negative impacts on photosynthesis (i.e., minimization of water stress). Evergreen leaf phenology is considered as a control case. Merging these theories into a unified framework, we quantify the effect of phenological strategy and climate forcing on the net C gain over the entire growing season. By accounting for the C costs of leaf flushing and the gains stemming from leaf photosynthesis, this metric assesses the effectiveness of different phenological strategies, under different climatic scenarios. Evergreen species are favored only when the dry period is relatively short, as they can exploit most of the growing season, and only incur leaf maintenance costs during the short dry period. In contrast, deciduous species that lower maintenance costs by losing leaves are advantaged under drier climates. Moreover, among drought-deciduous species, isohydric behavior leads to lowest C gains. Losing leaves gradually so as to maintain a net C uptake equal to zero during the driest period in

  17. Multilevel Optimization Framework for Hierarchical Stiffened Shells Accelerated by Adaptive Equivalent Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Tian, Kuo; Zhao, Haixin; Hao, Peng; Zhu, Tianyu; Zhang, Ke; Ma, Yunlong

    2016-09-01

    In order to improve the post-buckling optimization efficiency of hierarchical stiffened shells, a multilevel optimization framework accelerated by adaptive equivalent strategy is presented in this paper. Firstly, the Numerical-based Smeared Stiffener Method (NSSM) for hierarchical stiffened shells is derived by means of the numerical implementation of asymptotic homogenization (NIAH) method. Based on the NSSM, a reasonable adaptive equivalent strategy for hierarchical stiffened shells is developed from the concept of hierarchy reduction. Its core idea is to self-adaptively decide which hierarchy of the structure should be equivalent according to the critical buckling mode rapidly predicted by NSSM. Compared with the detailed model, the high prediction accuracy and efficiency of the proposed model is highlighted. On the basis of this adaptive equivalent model, a multilevel optimization framework is then established by decomposing the complex entire optimization process into major-stiffener-level and minor-stiffener-level sub-optimizations, during which Fixed Point Iteration (FPI) is employed to accelerate convergence. Finally, the illustrative examples of the multilevel framework is carried out to demonstrate its efficiency and effectiveness to search for the global optimum result by contrast with the single-level optimization method. Remarkably, the high efficiency and flexibility of the adaptive equivalent strategy is indicated by compared with the single equivalent strategy.

  18. Water adaptation strategy in anuran amphibians: molecular diversity of aquaporin.

    PubMed

    Ogushi, Yuji; Akabane, Gen; Hasegawa, Takahiro; Mochida, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Manabu; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tanaka, Shigeyasu

    2010-01-01

    Most adult anuran amphibians except for the aquatic species absorb water across the ventral pelvic skin and reabsorb it from urine in the urinary bladder. Many terrestrial and arboreal species use a region in the posterior or pelvic region of the ventral skin that is specialized for rapid rehydration from shallow water sources or moist substrates. Periods of terrestrial activity can be prolonged by reabsorption of dilute urine from the urinary bladder. Aquaporin (AQP), a water channel protein, plays a fundamental role in these water absorption/reabsorption processes, which are regulated by antidiuretic hormone. Characterization of AQPs from various anurans revealed that the unique water homeostasis is basically mediated by two types of anuran-specific AQPs, i.e. ventral pelvic skin and urinary bladder type, respectively. The bladder-type AQP is further expressed in the pelvic skin of terrestrial and arboreal species, together with the pelvic skin-type AQP. In contrast, the pelvic skin-type AQP (AQP-x3) of the aquatic Xenopus has lost the ability of efficient protein production. The extra C-terminal tail in AQP-x3 consisting of 33 nucleotides within the coding region appears to participate in the posttranscriptional regulation of AQP-x3 gene expression by attenuating protein expression. The positive transcriptional regulation of bladder-type AQP in the pelvic skin and negative posttranscriptional regulation of pelvic skin-type AQP provide flexibility in the water regulation mechanisms, which might have contributed to the evolutionary adaptation of anurans to a wide variety of water environments.

  19. Paradoxical cardiovascular effects of implementing adaptive emotion regulation strategies in generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Aldao, Amelia; Mennin, Douglas S

    2012-02-01

    Recent models of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have expanded on Borkovec's avoidance theory by delineating emotion regulation deficits associated with the excessive worry characteristic of this disorder (see Behar, DiMarco, Hekler, Mohlman, & Staples, 2009). However, it has been difficult to determine whether emotion regulation is simply a useful heuristic for the avoidant properties of worry or an important extension to conceptualizations of GAD. Some of this difficulty may arise from a focus on purported maladaptive regulation strategies, which may be confounded with symptomatic distress components of the disorder (such as worry). We examined the implementation of adaptive regulation strategies by participants with and without a diagnosis of GAD while watching emotion-eliciting film clips. In a between-subjects design, participants were randomly assigned to accept, reappraise, or were not given specific regulation instructions. Implementation of adaptive regulation strategies produced differential effects in the physiological (but not subjective) domain across diagnostic groups. Whereas participants with GAD demonstrated lower cardiac flexibility when implementing adaptive regulation strategies than when not given specific instructions on how to regulate, healthy controls showed the opposite pattern, suggesting they benefited from the use of adaptive regulation strategies. We discuss the implications of these findings for the delineation of emotion regulation deficits in psychopathology.

  20. [Adaptation strategies of halophilic microorganisms and Debaryomyces hansenii (halophilic yeast)].

    PubMed

    González-Hernández, Juan Carlos; Peña, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    The term halophile is used for all those organisms belonging to hypersaline habitats; they constitute an interesting class of organisms able to compete successfully in salt water and to resist its denaturing effects. A wide diversity of microorganisms, prokaryotic and eukaryotic belong to this category. Halophile organisms have strategies allowing them not only to withstand osmotic stress, but also to function better in the presence of salt, in spite of maintaining high intracellular concentrations of salt, partly due to the synthesis of compatible solutes that allow them to balance their osmotic pressure. We describe the characteristics of some halophile organisms and D. hansenii (halophile yeast), that allow them to resist high concentrations of salt. The interest to know the great diversity microorganisms living in hypersaline habitats is growing, and has begun to be the center of recent investigations, since halophile organisms produce an wide variety of biomolecules that can be used for different applications. In this review we describe some mechanisms with which some halophile organisms count to resist the high concentration of salts, mainly NaCl.

  1. Fuel consumptions and exhaust emissions induced by cooperative adaptive cruise control strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shaowei; Shi, Zhongke

    2015-04-01

    Many cooperative adaptive cruise control strategies have been presented to improve traffic efficiency as well as road traffic safety, but scholars have rarely explored the impacts of these strategies on cars' fuel consumptions and exhaust emissions. In this paper, we respectively select two-velocity difference model, multiple velocity difference model and the car-following model considering multiple preceding cars' accelerations to investigate each car's fuel consumptions, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions and carry out comparative analysis. The comparisons of fuel consumptions and exhaust emissions in three different cruise control strategies show that cooperative cars simulated by the car-following model considering multiple preceding cars' accelerations can run with the minimal fuel consumptions, CO, HC and NOX emissions, thus, taking the car-following model considering multiple preceding cars' accelerations as the cooperative adaptive cruise control strategy can significantly improve cars' fuel efficiency and exhaust emissions.

  2. Mathematical strategies for filtering complex systems: Regularly spaced sparse observations

    SciTech Connect

    Harlim, J. Majda, A.J.

    2008-05-01

    Real time filtering of noisy turbulent signals through sparse observations on a regularly spaced mesh is a notoriously difficult and important prototype filtering problem. Simpler off-line test criteria are proposed here as guidelines for filter performance for these stiff multi-scale filtering problems in the context of linear stochastic partial differential equations with turbulent solutions. Filtering turbulent solutions of the stochastically forced dissipative advection equation through sparse observations is developed as a stringent test bed for filter performance with sparse regular observations. The standard ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF) has poor skill on the test bed and even suffers from filter divergence, surprisingly, at observable times with resonant mean forcing and a decaying energy spectrum in the partially observed signal. Systematic alternative filtering strategies are developed here including the Fourier Domain Kalman Filter (FDKF) and various reduced filters called Strongly Damped Approximate Filter (SDAF), Variance Strongly Damped Approximate Filter (VSDAF), and Reduced Fourier Domain Kalman Filter (RFDKF) which operate only on the primary Fourier modes associated with the sparse observation mesh while nevertheless, incorporating into the approximate filter various features of the interaction with the remaining modes. It is shown below that these much cheaper alternative filters have significant skill on the test bed of turbulent solutions which exceeds ETKF and in various regimes often exceeds FDKF, provided that the approximate filters are guided by the off-line test criteria. The skill of the various approximate filters depends on the energy spectrum of the turbulent signal and the observation time relative to the decorrelation time of the turbulence at a given spatial scale in a precise fashion elucidated here.

  3. Probing the functions of contextual modulation by adapting images rather than observers

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Countless visual aftereffects have illustrated how visual sensitivity and perception can be biased by adaptation to the recent temporal context. This contextual modulation has been proposed to serve a variety of functions, but the actual benefits of adaptation remain uncertain. We describe an approach we have recently developed for exploring these benefits by adapting images instead of observers, to simulate how images should appear under theoretically optimal states of adaptation. This allows the long-term consequences of adaptation to be evaluated in ways that are difficult to probe by adapting observers, and provides a common framework for understanding how visual coding changes when the environment or the observer changes, or for evaluating how the effects of temporal context depend on different models of visual coding or the adaptation processes. The approach is illustrated for the specific case of adaptation to color, for which the initial neural coding and adaptation processes are relatively well understood, but can in principle be applied to examine the consequences of adaptation for any stimulus dimension. A simple calibration that adjusts each neuron’s sensitivity according to the stimulus level it is exposed to is sufficient to normalize visual coding and generate a host of benefits, from increased efficiency to perceptual constancy to enhanced discrimination. This temporal normalization may also provide an important precursor for the effective operation of contextual mechanisms operating across space or feature dimensions. To the extent that the effects of adaptation can be predicted, images from new environments could be “pre-adapted” to match them to the observer, eliminating the need for observers to adapt. PMID:25281412

  4. A reduced adaptive observer for multivariable systems. [using reduced dynamic ordering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, R. L.; Lindorff, D. P.

    1973-01-01

    An adaptive observer for multivariable systems is presented for which the dynamic order of the observer is reduced, subject to mild restrictions. The observer structure depends directly upon the multivariable structure of the system rather than a transformation to a single-output system. The number of adaptive gains is at most the sum of the order of the system and the number of input parameters being adapted. Moreover, for the relatively frequent specific cases for which the number of required adaptive gains is less than the sum of system order and input parameters, the number of these gains is easily determined by inspection of the system structure. This adaptive observer possesses all the properties ascribed to the single-input single-output adpative observer. Like the other adaptive observers some restriction is required of the allowable system command input to guarantee convergence of the adaptive algorithm, but the restriction is more lenient than that required by the full-order multivariable observer. This reduced observer is not restricted to cycle systems.

  5. Strategies of Mesenchymal Invasion of Patient-derived Brain Tumors: Microenvironmental Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Junghwa; Kang, Seok-Gu; Kim, Pilnam

    2016-01-01

    The high mortality in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients is primarily caused by extensive infiltration into adjacent tissue and subsequent rapid recurrence. There are no clear therapeutic strategies that target the infiltrative subpopulation of GBM mass. Using mesenchymal mode of invasion, the GBM is known to widely infiltrate by interacting with various unique components within brain microenvironment such as hyaluronic acid (HA)-rich matrix and white matter tracts. However, it is unclear how these GBM microenvironments influence the strategies of mesenchymal invasion. We hypothesize that GBM has different strategies to facilitate such invasion through adaptation to their local microenvironment. Using our in vitro biomimetic microenvironment platform for three-dimensional GBM tumorspheres (TSs), we found that the strategies of GBM invasion were predominantly regulated by the HA-rich ECM microenvironment, showing marked phenotypic changes in the presence of HA, which were mainly mediated by HA synthase (HAS). Interestingly, after inhibition of the HAS gene, GBM switched their invasion strategies to a focal adhesion (FA)-mediated invasion. These results demonstrate that the microenvironmental adaptation allowed a flexible invasion strategy for GBM. Using our model, we suggest a new inhibitory pathway for targeting infiltrative GBM and propose an importance of multi-target therapy for GBM, which underwent microenvironmental adaptation. PMID:27108713

  6. Experimental Investigation of Human Adaptation to Change in Agent's Strategy through a Competitive Two-Player Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Kazunori; Yamada, Seiji; Ito, Akira

    We conducted an experimental investigation on human adaptation to change in an agent's strategy through a competitive two-player game. Modeling the process of human adaptation to agents is important for designing intelligent interface agents and adaptive user interfaces that learn a user's preferences and behavior strategy. However, few studies on human adaptation to such an agent have been done. We propose a human adaptation model for a two-player game. We prepared an on-line experimental system in which a participant and an agent play a repeated penny-matching game with a bonus round. We then conducted experiments in which different opponent agents (human or robot) change their strategy during the game. The experimental results indicated that, as expected, there is an adaptation phase when a human is confronted with a change in the opponent agent's strategy, and adaptation is faster when a human is competing with robot than with another human.

  7. The importance of training strategy adaptation: a learner-oriented approach for improving older adults' memory and transfer.

    PubMed

    Bottiroli, Sara; Cavallini, Elena; Dunlosky, John; Vecchi, Tomaso; Hertzog, Christopher

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the benefits of strategy-adaptation training for promoting transfer effects. This learner-oriented approach--which directly encourages the learner to generalize strategic behavior to new tasks--helps older adults appraise new tasks and adapt trained strategies to them. In Experiment 1, older adults in a strategy-adaptation training group used 2 strategies (imagery and sentence generation) while practicing 2 tasks (list and associative learning); they were then instructed on how to do a simple task analysis to help them adapt the trained strategies for 2 different unpracticed tasks (place learning and text learning) that were discussed during training. Two additional criterion tasks (name-face associative learning and grocery-list learning) were never mentioned during training. Two other groups were included: A strategy training group (who received strategy training and transfer instructions but not strategy-adaptation training) and a waiting-list control group. Both training procedures enhanced older adults' performance on the trained tasks and those tasks that were discussed during training, but transfer was greatest after strategy-adaptation training. Experiment 2 found that strategy-adaptation training conducted via a manual that older adults used at home also promoted transfer. These findings demonstrate the importance of adopting a learner-oriented approach to promote transfer of strategy training.

  8. Evolution of the fruit endocarp: molecular mechanisms underlying adaptations in seed protection and dispersal strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant evolution is largely driven by adaptations in seed protection and dispersal strategies that allow diversification into new niches. This is evident by the tremendous variation in flowering and fruiting structures present both across and within different plant lineages. Within a single plant f...

  9. Identity Formation as a Contemporary Adaptation Strategy: Chinese Immigrants in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mleczko, Agata

    2011-01-01

    This article uses the theory of bright vs. blurred boundaries of Alba (2005) and the adaptation strategies of Berry (2005) to explore the national context of the process of identity formation. Issues of citizenship, language, religion, and race are discussed within the national context of Italy. The study is based on field research among the…

  10. Immune evasion by cytomegalovirus--survival strategies of a highly adapted opportunist.

    PubMed

    Hengel, H; Brune, W; Koszinowski, U H

    1998-05-01

    Slowly replicating, species-specific and complex DNA viruses, such as cytomegaloviruses (CMVs), which code for > 200 antigenic proteins, should be easy prey to the host's immune system. Yet, CMVs are amazingly adapted opportunists that cope with multiple immune responses. Frequently, CMVs exploit immune mechanisms generated by the host. These strategies secure the persistence of CMVs and provide opportunities to spread to naive individuals.

  11. Rangeland management strategies for adapting to climatic variability: Enhancing the positive and mitigating the negative effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland management strategies for adapting to climatic variability are needed to reduce enterprise risk, increase resilience of rangeland/grassland ecosystems and deliver sustainable provision of ecosystem goods (e.g., livestock production) and services (e.g., wildlife habitat) from western North ...

  12. The Effect of Adaptive Confidence Strategies in Computer-Assisted Instruction on Learning and Learner Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Richard Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of including adaptive confidence strategies in instructionally sound computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on learning and learner confidence. Seventy-one general educational development (GED) learners recruited from various GED learning centers at community colleges in the southeast United…

  13. Adaptive pinning control: A review of the fully decentralized strategy and its extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turci, L. F. R.; De Lellis, P.; Macau, E. E. N.; Di Bernardo, M.; Simões, M. M. R.

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we review recent developments related to the problem of guiding a complex network of agents toward a synchronized state. Specifically, we focus on adaptive pinning control strategies, expounding those developed by the authors in the context of the existing literature, in which only a small fraction of the network nodes is directly controlled. The methodologies described herein are adaptive in the sense that the control and coupling gains are updated on the basis of the local mismatch with the desired trajectory and between coupled nodes, respectively. A selection of adaptive strategies recently proposed in the literature is reviewed, and the main stability results are expounded. As a numerical validation, the selected approaches are applied to control an ensemble of coupled mobile agents moving in a formation.

  14. Adapting a Planetary Science Observational Facility for Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland, P.; DFN Team

    2016-09-01

    The Desert Fireball Network (DFN) is designed to track meteoroids entering the atmosphere, determine pre-entry orbits (their origin in the solar system), and pinpoint fall positions for recovery by field teams. Fireball observatories are sited at remote dark-sky sites across Australia - logistics for power, sensor platforms, and data connection are in place. Each observatory is a fully autonomous unit, taking 36MP all-sky images (with fisheye lenses) throughout the night, capable of operating for 12 months in a harsh environment, and storing all imagery collected over that period. They are intelligent imaging systems, using neural network algorithms to recognize and report fireball events. An automated data reduction pipeline delivers orbital data and meteorite fall positions. Currently the DFN stands at 50 observing stations covering 2.5 million km2. A sub-set of the existing stations will be upgraded with a parallel camera package using 50mm prime lenses. Paired stations will allow triangulation. The high resolution array would deliver a Gpixel tiled image of the visible sky every 10 sec, at 20 arcsec resolution, with a limiting magnitude of 13 in a 10 sec snapshot. There are benefits in transient astronomy (optical flashes associated with gamma-ray bursts; flares from sources that generate ultra-high energy cosmic rays), and space situational awareness. The hardware upgrade would extend the resolution of the DFN into the V=11-12 magnitude range for objects in LEO, allowing us to observe significant activity during the terminator period. The result would be a wide field array, capable of triangulation, with a 3500km baseline enabling a larger terminator observing window.

  15. Adapting to Adaptations: Behavioural Strategies that are Robust to Mutations and Other Organisational-Transformations.

    PubMed

    Egbert, Matthew D; Pérez-Mercader, Juan

    2016-01-08

    Genetic mutations, infection by parasites or symbionts, and other events can transform the way that an organism's internal state changes in response to a given environment. We use a minimalistic computational model to support an argument that by behaving "interoceptively," i.e. responding to internal state rather than to the environment, organisms can be robust to these organisational-transformations. We suggest that the robustness of interoceptive behaviour is due, in part, to the asymmetrical relationship between an organism and its environment, where the latter more substantially influences the former than vice versa. This relationship means that interoceptive behaviour can respond to the environment, the internal state and the interaction between the two, while exteroceptive behaviour can only respond to the environment. We discuss the possibilities that (i) interoceptive behaviour may play an important role of facilitating adaptive evolution (especially in the early evolution of primitive life) and (ii) interoceptive mechanisms could prove useful in efforts to create more robust synthetic life-forms.

  16. Adapting to Adaptations: Behavioural Strategies that are Robust to Mutations and Other Organisational-Transformations

    PubMed Central

    Egbert, Matthew D.; Pérez-Mercader, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Genetic mutations, infection by parasites or symbionts, and other events can transform the way that an organism’s internal state changes in response to a given environment. We use a minimalistic computational model to support an argument that by behaving “interoceptively,” i.e. responding to internal state rather than to the environment, organisms can be robust to these organisational-transformations. We suggest that the robustness of interoceptive behaviour is due, in part, to the asymmetrical relationship between an organism and its environment, where the latter more substantially influences the former than vice versa. This relationship means that interoceptive behaviour can respond to the environment, the internal state and the interaction between the two, while exteroceptive behaviour can only respond to the environment. We discuss the possibilities that (i) interoceptive behaviour may play an important role of facilitating adaptive evolution (especially in the early evolution of primitive life) and (ii) interoceptive mechanisms could prove useful in efforts to create more robust synthetic life-forms. PMID:26743579

  17. Assessment of the effectiveness of participatory developed adaptation strategies for HCMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasage, R.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; de Moel, H.; Van, T. C.; Phi, H. L.; Vellinga, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, especially Asian cities are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reducing measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet flood proofing of buildings). A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. the model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in Expected Annual Damage (EAD). Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea level scenarios and land use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modeling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is 0.31 million USD yr-1, increasing up to 0.78 million USD yr-1 in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5% range from USD -107 to -1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet proofing and dry proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information on different strategies will be used by

  18. Neural network-based adaptive controller design of robotic manipulators with an observer.

    PubMed

    Sun, F; Sun, Z; Woo, P Y

    2001-01-01

    A neural network (NN)-based adaptive controller with an observer is proposed for the trajectory tracking of robotic manipulators with unknown dynamics nonlinearities. It is assumed that the robotic manipulator has only joint angle position measurements. A linear observer is used to estimate the robot joint angle velocity, while NNs are employed to further improve the control performance of the controlled system through approximating the modified robot dynamics function. The adaptive controller for robots with an observer can guarantee the uniform ultimate bounds of the tracking errors and the observer errors as well as the bounds of the NN weights. For performance comparisons, the conventional adaptive algorithm with an observer using linearity in parameters of the robot dynamics is also developed in the same control framework as the NN approach for online approximating unknown nonlinearities of the robot dynamics. Main theoretical results for designing such an observer-based adaptive controller with the NN approach using multilayer NNs with sigmoidal activation functions, as well as with the conventional adaptive approach using linearity in parameters of the robot dynamics are given. The performance comparisons between the NN approach and the conventional adaptation approach with an observer is carried out to show the advantages of the proposed control approaches through simulation studies.

  19. Relationships among adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies and psychopathology during the treatment of comorbid anxiety and alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Conklin, Laren R; Cassiello-Robbins, Clair; Brake, C Alex; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Farchione, Todd J; Ciraulo, Domenic A; Barlow, David H

    2015-10-01

    Both maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation strategies have been linked with psychopathology. However, previous studies have largely examined them separately, and little research has examined the interplay of these strategies cross-sectionally or longitudinally in patients undergoing psychological treatment. This study examined the use and interplay of adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in 81 patients receiving cognitive-behavioral interventions for comorbid alcohol use and anxiety disorders. Patients completed measures of emotion regulation strategy use and symptoms of psychopathology pre- and post-treatment. Cross-sectionally, higher use of maladaptive strategies (e.g., denial) was significantly related to higher psychopathology pre- and post-treatment, whereas higher use of adaptive strategies (e.g., acceptance) only significantly related to lower psychopathology post-treatment. Prospectively, changes in maladaptive strategies, but not changes in adaptive strategies, were significantly associated with post-treatment psychopathology. However, for patients with higher pre-treatment maladaptive strategy use, gains in adaptive strategies were significantly associated with lower post-treatment psychopathology. These findings suggest that psychological treatments may maximize efficacy by considering patient skill use at treatment outset. By better understanding a patient's initial emotion regulation skills, clinicians may be better able to optimize treatment outcomes by emphasizing maladaptive strategy use reduction predominately, or in conjunction with increasing adaptive skill use.

  20. Using a mini-Raman spectrometer to monitor the adaptive strategies of extremophile colonizers in arid deserts: relationships between signal strength, adaptive strategies, solar radiation, and humidity.

    PubMed

    Miralles, I; Jorge-Villar, S E; Cantón, Y; Domingo, F

    2012-08-01

    The survival strategies of one cyanobacteria colony and three terricolous lichen species from the hot subdesert of Tabernas, Spain, were studied along with topographical attributes of the area to investigate whether the protective strategies adopted by these pioneer soil colonizers are related to the environmental stressors under which they survive. A handheld Raman spectrometer was used for biomolecular characterization, while the microclimatic and topographic parameters were estimated with a Geographic Information System (GIS). We found that the survival strategies adopted by those organisms are based on different combinations of protective biomolecules, each with diverse ecophysiological functions, such as UV-radiation screening, free-energy quenching, antioxidants, and the production of different types and amounts of calcium oxalates. Our results show that the cyanobacteria community and each lichen species preferentially colonized a particular microhabitat with specific moisture and incident solar radiation levels and exhibited different adaptive mechanisms. In recent years, a number of studies have provided consistent results that suggest a link between the strategies adopted by those extremophile organisms and the microclimatic environmental parameters. To date, however, far too little attention has been paid to results from Raman analyses on dry specimens. Therefore, the results of the present study, produced with the use of our miniaturized instrument, will be of interest to future studies in astrobiology, especially due to the likely use of Raman spectroscopy at the surface of Mars.

  1. Socio-economic vulnerability of coastal communities in southern Thailand: the development of adaptation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willroth, P.; Massmann, F.; Wehrhahn, R.; Revilla Diez, J.

    2012-08-01

    The tsunami of December 2004 impacted large areas of Thailand's coastline and caused severe human and economic losses. The recovery period revealed differences in the vulnerabilities of communities affected. An understanding of the causal factors of vulnerability is crucial for minimising the negative effects of future threats and developing adaptive capacities. This paper analyses the vulnerabilities and the development of adaptation strategies in the booming tourist area of Khao Lak and in the predominantly fishing and agricultural area of Ban Nam Khem through a comprehensive vulnerability framework. The results show that social networks played a crucial role in coping with the disaster. Social cohesion is important for strengthening the community and developing successful adaptation strategies. The development of tourism and the turning away from traditional activities have a significant positive influence on the income situation, but create a dependency on a single business sector. It could be shown that households generating their income in the tourism sector were vulnerable unless they had diversified their income previously. Income diversification decreased the vulnerability in the study areas. Adaptation strategies and processes developed in the aftermath clearly address these issues.

  2. Adaptive isogeometric analysis based on a combined r-h strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basappa, Umesh; Rajagopal, Amirtham; Reddy, J. N.

    2016-03-01

    In the present work, an r-h adaptive isogeometric analysis is proposed for plane elasticity problems. For performing the r-adaption, the control net is considered to be a network of springs with the individual spring stiffness values being proportional to the error estimated at the control points. While preserving the boundary control points, relocation of only the interior control points is made by adopting a successive relaxation approach to achieve the equilibrium of spring system. To suit the noninterpolatory nature of the isogeometric approximation, a new point-wise error estimate for the h-refinement is proposed. To evaluate the point-wise error, hierarchical B-spline functions in Sobolev spaces are considered. The proposed adaptive h-refinement strategy is based on using De-Casteljau's algorithm for obtaining the new control points. The subsequent control meshes are thus obtained by using a recursive subdivision of reference control mesh. Such a strategy ensures that the control points lie in the physical domain in subsequent refinements, thus making the physical mesh to exactly interpolate the control mesh and thereby allowing the exact imposition of essential boundary conditions in the classical isogeometric analysis (IGA). The combined r-h adaptive refinement strategy results in better convergence characteristics with reduced errors than r- or h-refinement. Several numerical examples are presented to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  3. Social and natural sciences differ in their research strategies, adapted to work for different knowledge landscapes.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Do different fields of knowledge require different research strategies? A numerical model exploring different virtual knowledge landscapes, revealed two diverging optimal search strategies. Trend following is maximized when the popularity of new discoveries determine the number of individuals researching it. This strategy works best when many researchers explore few large areas of knowledge. In contrast, individuals or small groups of researchers are better in discovering small bits of information in dispersed knowledge landscapes. Bibliometric data of scientific publications showed a continuous bipolar distribution of these strategies, ranging from natural sciences, with highly cited publications in journals containing a large number of articles, to the social sciences, with rarely cited publications in many journals containing a small number of articles. The natural sciences seem to adapt their research strategies to landscapes with large concentrated knowledge clusters, whereas social sciences seem to have adapted to search in landscapes with many small isolated knowledge clusters. Similar bipolar distributions were obtained when comparing levels of insularity estimated by indicators of international collaboration and levels of country-self citations: researchers in academic areas with many journals such as social sciences, arts and humanities, were the most isolated, and that was true in different regions of the world. The work shows that quantitative measures estimating differences between academic disciplines improve our understanding of different research strategies, eventually helping interdisciplinary research and may be also help improve science policies worldwide.

  4. Social and Natural Sciences Differ in Their Research Strategies, Adapted to Work for Different Knowledge Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Jaffe, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Do different fields of knowledge require different research strategies? A numerical model exploring different virtual knowledge landscapes, revealed two diverging optimal search strategies. Trend following is maximized when the popularity of new discoveries determine the number of individuals researching it. This strategy works best when many researchers explore few large areas of knowledge. In contrast, individuals or small groups of researchers are better in discovering small bits of information in dispersed knowledge landscapes. Bibliometric data of scientific publications showed a continuous bipolar distribution of these strategies, ranging from natural sciences, with highly cited publications in journals containing a large number of articles, to the social sciences, with rarely cited publications in many journals containing a small number of articles. The natural sciences seem to adapt their research strategies to landscapes with large concentrated knowledge clusters, whereas social sciences seem to have adapted to search in landscapes with many small isolated knowledge clusters. Similar bipolar distributions were obtained when comparing levels of insularity estimated by indicators of international collaboration and levels of country-self citations: researchers in academic areas with many journals such as social sciences, arts and humanities, were the most isolated, and that was true in different regions of the world. The work shows that quantitative measures estimating differences between academic disciplines improve our understanding of different research strategies, eventually helping interdisciplinary research and may be also help improve science policies worldwide. PMID:25426723

  5. Cautious but Committed: Moving Toward Adaptive Planning and Operation Strategies for Renewable Energy's Wildlife Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köppel, Johann; Dahmen, Marie; Helfrich, Jennifer; Schuster, Eva; Bulling, Lea

    2014-10-01

    Wildlife planning for renewable energy must cope with the uncertainties of potential wildlife impacts. Unfortunately, the environmental policies which instigate renewable energy and those which protect wildlife are not coherently aligned—creating a green versus green dilemma. Thus, climate mitigation efforts trigger renewable energy development, but then face substantial barriers from biodiversity protection instruments and practices. This article briefly reviews wind energy and wildlife interactions, highlighting the lively debated effects on bats. Today, planning and siting of renewable energy are guided by the precautionary principle in an attempt to carefully address wildlife challenges. However, this planning attitude creates limitations as it struggles to negotiate the aforementioned green versus green dilemma. More adaptive planning and management strategies and practices hold the potential to reconcile these discrepancies to some degree. This adaptive approach is discussed using facets of case studies from policy, planning, siting, and operational stages of wind energy in Germany and the United States, with one case showing adaptive planning in action for solar energy as well. This article attempts to highlight the benefits of more adaptive approaches as well as the possible shortcomings, such as reduced planning security for renewable energy developers. In conclusion, these studies show that adaptive planning and operation strategies can be designed to supplement and enhance the precautionary principle in wildlife planning for green energy.

  6. Urban Heat Island Adaptation Strategies are not created equal: Assessment of Impacts and Tradeoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, Matei

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable urban expansion requires an extension of contemporary approaches that focus nearly exclusively on reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Researchers have proposed biophysical approaches to urban heat island mitigation (e.g., via deployment of cool or green roofs) but little is known how these technologies vary with place and season and what impacts are beyond those of near surface temperature. Using a suite of continuous, multi-year and multi-member continental scale numerical simulations for the United States, we examine hydroclimatic impacts for a variety of U.S. urban expansion (to the year 2100) and urban adaptation futures and compare those to contemporary urban extent. Adaptation approaches include widespread adoption of cool roofs, green roofs, and a hypothetical hybrid approach integrating properties of both cool and green roofs (i.e., reflective green roofs). Widespread adoption of adaptation strategies exhibits hydroclimatic impacts that are regionally and seasonally dependent. For some regions and seasons, urban-induced warming of 3°C can be completely offset by the adaptation approaches examined. For other regions and seasons, widespread adoption of some adaptation strategies can result in significant reduction in precipitation. Finally, implications of large-scale urbanization for seasonal energy demand will be examined.

  7. Cautious but committed: moving toward adaptive planning and operation strategies for renewable energy's wildlife implications.

    PubMed

    Köppel, Johann; Dahmen, Marie; Helfrich, Jennifer; Schuster, Eva; Bulling, Lea

    2014-10-01

    Wildlife planning for renewable energy must cope with the uncertainties of potential wildlife impacts. Unfortunately, the environmental policies which instigate renewable energy and those which protect wildlife are not coherently aligned-creating a green versus green dilemma. Thus, climate mitigation efforts trigger renewable energy development, but then face substantial barriers from biodiversity protection instruments and practices. This article briefly reviews wind energy and wildlife interactions, highlighting the lively debated effects on bats. Today, planning and siting of renewable energy are guided by the precautionary principle in an attempt to carefully address wildlife challenges. However, this planning attitude creates limitations as it struggles to negotiate the aforementioned green versus green dilemma. More adaptive planning and management strategies and practices hold the potential to reconcile these discrepancies to some degree. This adaptive approach is discussed using facets of case studies from policy, planning, siting, and operational stages of wind energy in Germany and the United States, with one case showing adaptive planning in action for solar energy as well. This article attempts to highlight the benefits of more adaptive approaches as well as the possible shortcomings, such as reduced planning security for renewable energy developers. In conclusion, these studies show that adaptive planning and operation strategies can be designed to supplement and enhance the precautionary principle in wildlife planning for green energy.

  8. Strategies for adding adaptive learning mechanisms to rule-based diagnostic expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stclair, D. C.; Sabharwal, C. L.; Bond, W. E.; Hacke, Keith

    1988-01-01

    Rule-based diagnostic expert systems can be used to perform many of the diagnostic chores necessary in today's complex space systems. These expert systems typically take a set of symptoms as input and produce diagnostic advice as output. The primary objective of such expert systems is to provide accurate and comprehensive advice which can be used to help return the space system in question to nominal operation. The development and maintenance of diagnostic expert systems is time and labor intensive since the services of both knowledge engineer(s) and domain expert(s) are required. The use of adaptive learning mechanisms to increment evaluate and refine rules promises to reduce both time and labor costs associated with such systems. This paper describes the basic adaptive learning mechanisms of strengthening, weakening, generalization, discrimination, and discovery. Next basic strategies are discussed for adding these learning mechanisms to rule-based diagnostic expert systems. These strategies support the incremental evaluation and refinement of rules in the knowledge base by comparing the set of advice given by the expert system (A) with the correct diagnosis (C). Techniques are described for selecting those rules in the in the knowledge base which should participate in adaptive learning. The strategies presented may be used with a wide variety of learning algorithms. Further, these strategies are applicable to a large number of rule-based diagnostic expert systems. They may be used to provide either immediate or deferred updating of the knowledge base.

  9. Managing for Climate Change in Western Forest Ecosystems; The Role of Refugia in Adaptation Strategies (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, C. I.; Morelli, T.

    2009-12-01

    Managing forested ecosystems in western North America for adaptation to climate change involves options that depend on resource objectives, landscape conditions, sensitivity to change, and social desires. Strategies range from preserving species and ecosystems in the face of change (resisting change); managing for resilience to change; realigning ecosystems that have been severely altered so that they can adapt successfully; and enabling species to respond to climate changes. We are exploring one extreme in this range of strategies, that is, to manage locations, species, communities, or ecosystems as refugia. This concept is familiar from the Quaternary literature as isolated locations where climates remained warm during cold glacial intervals and wherein species contracted and persisted in small populations. References to refugia have been made in the climate-adaptation literature but little elaborated, and applications have not been described. We are addressing this gap conceptually and in case-studies from national forest and national park environments in California. Using a classification of refugium categories, we extend the concept beyond the original use to include diverse locations and conditions where plant or animal species, or ecosystems of concern, would persist during future changing climatic backgrounds. These locations may be determined as refugial for reasons of local microclimate, substrate, elevation, topographic context, paleohistory, species ecology, or management capacity. Recognizing that species and ecosystems respond to climate change differently, refugium strategies are appropriate in some situations and not others. We describe favorable conditions for using refugium strategies and elaborate specific approaches in Sierra Nevada case studies.

  10. Direct Adaptive Neural Control for a Class of Uncertain Nonaffine Nonlinear Systems Based on Disturbance Observer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mou; Ge, Shuzhi Sam

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, the direct adaptive neural control is proposed for a class of uncertain nonaffine nonlinear systems with unknown nonsymmetric input saturation. Based on the implicit function theorem and mean value theorem, both state feedback and output feedback direct adaptive controls are developed using neural networks (NNs) and a disturbance observer. A compounded disturbance is defined to take into account of the effect of the unknown external disturbance, the unknown nonsymmetric input saturation, and the approximation error of NN. Then, a disturbance observer is developed to estimate the unknown compounded disturbance, and it is established that the estimate error converges to a compact set if appropriate observer design parameters are chosen. Both state feedback and output feedback direct adaptive controls can guarantee semiglobal uniform boundedness of the closed-loop system signals as rigorously proved by Lyapunov analysis. Numerical simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed direct adaptive neural control techniques.

  11. Adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies: interactive effects during CBT for social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Aldao, Amelia; Jazaieri, Hooria; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

    2014-05-01

    There has been a increasing interest in understanding emotion regulation deficits in social anxiety disorder (SAD; e.g., Hofmann, Sawyer, Fang, & Asnaani, 2012). However, much remains to be understood about the patterns of associations among regulation strategies in the repertoire. Doing so is important in light of the growing recognition that people's ability to flexibly implement strategies is associated with better mental health (e.g., Kashdan et al., 2014). Based on previous work (Aldao & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2012), we examined whether putatively adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies interacted with each other in the prediction of social anxiety symptoms in a sample of 71 participants undergoing CBT for SAD. We found that strategies interacted with each other and that this interaction was qualified by a three-way interaction with a contextual factor, namely treatment study phase. Consequently, these findings underscore the importance of modeling contextual factors when seeking to understand emotion regulation deficits in SAD.

  12. Nutritional strategies to support adaptation to high-intensity interval training in team sports.

    PubMed

    Gibala, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Team sports are characterized by intermittent high-intensity activity patterns. Typically, play consists of short periods of very intense or all-out efforts interspersed with longer periods of low-intensity activity. Fatigue is a complex, multi-factorial process, but intense intermittent exercise performance can potentially be limited by reduced availability of substrates stored in skeletal muscle and/or metabolic by-products associated with fuel breakdown. High-intensity interval training (HIT) has been shown to induce adaptations in skeletal muscle that enhance the capacity for both oxidative and non-oxidative metabolism. Nutrient availability is a potent modulator of many acute physiological responses to exercise, including various molecular signaling pathways that are believed to regulate cellular adaptation to training. Several nutritional strategies have also been reported to acutely alter metabolism and enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise performance. However, relatively little is known regarding the effect of chronic interventions, and whether supplementation over a period of weeks or months augments HIT-induced physiological remodeling and promotes greater performance adaptations. Theoretically, a nutritional intervention could augment HIT adaptation by improving energy metabolism during exercise, which could facilitate greater total work and an enhanced chronic training stimulus, or promoting some aspect of the adaptive response during recovery, which could lead to enhanced physiological adaptations over time.

  13. The diversity of gendered adaptation strategies to climate change of Indian farmers: A feminist intersectional approach.

    PubMed

    Ravera, Federica; Martín-López, Berta; Pascual, Unai; Drucker, Adam

    2016-12-01

    This paper examines climate change adaptation and gender issues through an application of a feminist intersectional approach. This approach permits the identification of diverse adaptation responses arising from the existence of multiple and fragmented dimensions of identity (including gender) that intersect with power relations to shape situation-specific interactions between farmers and ecosystems. Based on results from contrasting research cases in Bihar and Uttarakhand, India, this paper demonstrates, inter alia, that there are geographically determined gendered preferences and adoption strategies regarding adaptation options and that these are influenced by the socio-ecological context and institutional dynamics. Intersecting identities, such as caste, wealth, age and gender, influence decisions and reveal power dynamics and negotiation within the household and the community, as well as barriers to adaptation among groups. Overall, the findings suggest that a feminist intersectional approach does appear to be useful and worth further exploration in the context of climate change adaptation. In particular, future research could benefit from more emphasis on a nuanced analysis of the intra-gender differences that shape adaptive capacity to climate change.

  14. Developing an Adaptability Training Strategy and Policy for the DoD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    One reviewer observed: From a neuroscience perspective, adaptability is a core function of the brain and related neural systems. The nervous system...IDA model, but also of individual predispositions and organizational openness. Though neuroscience recognizes adaptability as a core function of the...Moore at the National Security Agency ( NSA ), who teaches critical thinking there and has published a lengthy paper on the subject.51 NSA offers a

  15. Partial Adaptation of Obtained and Observed Value Signals Preserves Information about Gains and Losses

    PubMed Central

    Baddeley, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N.; Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Given that the range of rewarding and punishing outcomes of actions is large but neural coding capacity is limited, efficient processing of outcomes by the brain is necessary. One mechanism to increase efficiency is to rescale neural output to the range of outcomes expected in the current context, and process only experienced deviations from this expectation. However, this mechanism comes at the cost of not being able to discriminate between unexpectedly low losses when times are bad versus unexpectedly high gains when times are good. Thus, too much adaptation would result in disregarding information about the nature and absolute magnitude of outcomes, preventing learning about the longer-term value structure of the environment. Here we investigate the degree of adaptation in outcome coding brain regions in humans, for directly experienced outcomes and observed outcomes. We scanned participants while they performed a social learning task in gain and loss blocks. Multivariate pattern analysis showed two distinct networks of brain regions adapt to the most likely outcomes within a block. Frontostriatal areas adapted to directly experienced outcomes, whereas lateral frontal and temporoparietal regions adapted to observed social outcomes. Critically, in both cases, adaptation was incomplete and information about whether the outcomes arose in a gain block or a loss block was retained. Univariate analysis confirmed incomplete adaptive coding in these regions but also detected nonadapting outcome signals. Thus, although neural areas rescale their responses to outcomes for efficient coding, they adapt incompletely and keep track of the longer-term incentives available in the environment. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Optimal value-based choice requires that the brain precisely and efficiently represents positive and negative outcomes. One way to increase efficiency is to adapt responding to the most likely outcomes in a given context. However, too strong adaptation would result

  16. Intelligent Observation Strategies for Geosynchronous Remote Sensing for Natural Hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Karen; Cappleare, Patrice; Frye, Stuart; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Mandl, Daniel; Flatley, Thomas; Geist, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Geosynchronous satellites offer a unique perspective for monitoring environmental factors important to understanding natural hazards and supporting the disasters management life cycle, namely forecast, detection, response, recovery and mitigation. In the NASA decadal survey for Earth science, the GEO-CAPE mission was proposed to address coastal and air pollution events in geosynchronous orbit, complementing similar initiatives in Asia by the South Koreans and by ESA in Europe, thereby covering the northern hemisphere. In addition to analyzing the challenges of identifying instrument capabilities to meet the science requirements, and the implications of hosting the instrument payloads on commercial geosynchronous satellites, the GEO-CAPE mission design team conducted a short study to explore strategies to optimize the science return for the coastal imaging instrument. The study focused on intelligent scheduling strategies that took into account cloud avoidance techniques as well as onboard processing methods to reduce the data storage and transmission loads. This paper expands the findings of that study to address the use of intelligent scheduling techniques and near-real time data product acquisition of both the coastal water and air pollution events. The topics include the use of onboard processing to refine and execute schedules, to detect cloud contamination in observations, and to reduce data handling operations. Analysis of state of the art flight computing capabilities will be presented, along with an assessment of cloud detection algorithms and their performance characteristics. Tools developed to illustrate operational concepts will be described, including their applicability to environmental monitoring domains with an eye to the future. In the geostationary configuration, the payload becomes a networked thing with enough connectivity to exchange data seamlessly with users. This allows the full field of view to be sensed at very high rate under the control

  17. Intelligent Observation Strategies for Geosynchronous Remote Sensing for Natural Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, K.; Cappelaere, P. G.; Frye, S. W.; LeMoigne, J.; Mandl, D.; Flatley, T.; Geist, A.

    2015-12-01

    Geosynchronous satellites offer a unique perspective for monitoring environmental factors important to understanding natural hazards and supporting the disasters management life cycle, namely forecast, detection, response, recovery and mitigation. In the NASA decadal survey for Earth science, the GEO-CAPE mission was proposed to address coastal and air pollution events in geosynchronous orbit, complementing similar initiatives in Asia by the South Koreans and by ESA in Europe, thereby covering the northern hemisphere. In addition to analyzing the challenges of identifying instrument capabilities to meet the science requirements, and the implications of hosting the instrument payloads on commercial geosynchronous satellites, the GEO-CAPE mission design team conducted a short study to explore strategies to optimize the science return for the coastal imaging instrument. The study focused on intelligent scheduling strategies that took into account cloud avoidance techniques as well as onboard processing methods to reduce the data storage and transmission loads. This paper expands the findings of that study to address the use of intelligent scheduling techniques and near-real time data product acquisition of both the coastal water and air pollution events. The topics include the use of onboard processing to refine and execute schedules, to detect cloud contamination in observations, and to reduce data handling operations. Analysis of state of the art flight computing capabilities will be presented, along with an assessment of cloud detection algorithms and their performance characteristics. Tools developed to illustrate operational concepts will be described, including their applicability to environmental monitoring domains with an eye to the future. In the geostationary configuration, the payload becomes a networked "thing" with enough connectivity to exchange data seamlessly with users. This allows the full field of view to be sensed at very high rate under the

  18. Psychrophilic yeasts from worldwide glacial habitats: diversity, adaptation strategies and biotechnological potential.

    PubMed

    Buzzini, Pietro; Branda, Eva; Goretti, Marta; Turchetti, Benedetta

    2012-11-01

    Glacial habitats (cryosphere) include some of the largest unexplored and extreme biospheres on Earth. These habitats harbor a wide diversity of psychrophilic prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. These highly specialized microorganisms have developed adaptation strategies to overcome the direct and indirect life-endangering influence of low temperatures. For many years Antarctica has been the geographic area preferred by microbiologists for studying the diversity of psychrophilic microorganisms (including yeasts). However, there have been an increasing number of studies on psychrophilic yeasts sharing the non-Antarctic cryosphere. The present paper provides an overview of the distribution and adaptation strategies of psychrophilic yeasts worldwide. Attention is also focused on their biotechnological potential, especially on their exploitation as a source of cold-active enzymes and for bioremediation purposes.

  19. Adaptive Immune Regulation of Glial Homeostasis as an Immunization Strategy for Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kosloski, Lisa M.; Ha, Duy M.; Stone, David K.; Hutter, Jessica A. L.; Pichler, Michael R.; Reynolds, Ashley D.; Gendelman, Howard E.; Mosley, R. Lee

    2010-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases, notably Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, are amongst the most devastating disorders afflicting the elderly. Currently, no curative treatments or treatments that interdict disease progression exist. Over the past decade, immunization strategies have been proposed to combat disease progression. Such strategies induce humoral immune responses against misfolded protein aggregates to facilitate their clearance. Robust adaptive immunity against misfolded proteins, however, accelerates disease progression, precipitated by induced effector T cell responses that lead to encephalitis and neuronal death. Since then, mechanisms that attenuate such adaptive neurotoxic immune responses have been sought. We propose that shifting the balance between effector and regulatory T cell activity can attenuate neurotoxic inflammatory events. This review summarizes advances in immune regulation to achieve a homeostatic glial response for therapeutic gain. Promising new ways to optimize immunization schemes and measure their clinical efficacy are also discussed. PMID:20524958

  20. Real-Time Wastewater System Operational Strategy Adaptation for Rainfall Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, A. L.; Minsker, B. S.; Schmidt, A.; Ostfeld, A.; Treinish, L. A.

    2010-12-01

    Management strategies for many large-scale wastewater systems are based on longstanding rules and may not effectively utilize system capacity for every storm event. Conservative operational rules are established to prevent flow instabilities. However, the rules may be modified to retain more wastewater and reduce overflows while continuing to avoid hydraulic conditions that lead to transients. Possible adaptation of system decision rules can be evaluated through coupling radar rainfall, a hydrologic system model, and an optimization routine. In this study, genetic algorithm optimization is evaluated for a hydrologic test case modeled after the Chicago Tunnel and Reservoir Plan (TARP) that minimizes combined sewer overflow (CSO) discharge to nearby waterways. This approach identifies potential new operational rules that reliably utilize deep tunnel storage and reduce overflows for a variety of historic storm events. The study utilizes a model based on the portion of the TARP deep tunnel system that flows directly under the North Branch of the Chicago River. Potential overflows coming from the upstream pipe and interceptor system are directed into the deep tunnel through sluice gates. System decision variables consist of sluice gate positions that control whether water enters the deep tunnel or flows into the river, as well as a treatment plant pumping rate on the interceptor lines. For different optimization runs, modifications are made to existing hydraulic structures to evaluate solution robustness for comparable hydraulic systems. The operational objective is to minimize the total volume of overflows for each storm event through a decision sequence, generated at discretized intervals, within a model predictive control (MPC) framework. Current operational strategies restrict water entry to the deep tunnel when an averaged tunnel water level reaches 70 percent of the diameter to avoid hydraulic transients. The optimization routine implements constraints that

  1. Motion Analysis of 100 Mediastinal Lymph Nodes: Potential Pitfalls in Treatment Planning and Adaptive Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Pantarotto, Jason R.; Piet, Anna H.M.; Vincent, Andrew; Soernsen de Koste, John R. van; Senan, Suresh

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: The motion of mediastinal lymph nodes may undermine local control with involved-field radiotherapy. We studied patterns of nodal and tumor motion in 41 patients with lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography planning scans were retrospectively evaluated to identify patients with clearly visible mediastinal lymph nodes. One hundred nodes from 14 patients with Stage I and 27 patients with Stage III were manually contoured in all 4D computed tomography respiratory phases. Motion was derived from changes in the nodal center-of-mass position. Primary tumors were also delineated in all phases for 16 patients with Stage III disease. Statistical analysis included a multivariate mixed-effects model of grouped data. Results: Average 3D nodal motion during quiet breathing was 0.68 cm (range, 0.17-1.64 cm); 77% moved greater than 0.5 cm, and 10% moved greater than 1.0 cm. Motion was greatest in the lower mediastinum (p = 0.002), and nodes measuring 2 cm or greater in diameter showed motion similar to that in smaller nodes. In 11 of 16 patients studied, at least one node moved more than the corresponding primary tumor. No association between 3D primary tumor motion and nodal motion was observed. For mobile primary tumors, phase offsets between the primary tumor and nodes of two or more and three or more phases were observed for 33% and 12% of nodes, respectively. Conclusions: Mediastinal nodal motion is common, with phase offsets seen between the primary tumor and different nodes in the same patient. Patient-specific information is needed to ensure geometric coverage, and adaptive strategies based solely on the primary tumor may be misleading.

  2. Comparing and contrasting observed adaptations in three deltas: the Ganges-Meghna-Brahmaputra, Mahanadi and Volta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Suckall, N.; Mensah, A.; Mondal, S.; Dey, S.; Hazra, S.

    2015-12-01

    In low and middle-income countries, many deltaic communities directly depend on the natural environment for income and well-being. Current environmental concerns that threaten deltaic communities, such as increasing salinity, sedimentation, erosion and subsidence are likely to be exacerbated by climate change and variability, for example sea-level rise, increased storminess and rising temperatures. Such changes, along with other social and environmental stressors, mean that communities must adapt. This paper outlines findings of a systematic review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature that examines observed adaptations in three deltas of differing sizes in various geographical contexts: the Ganges-Meghna-Brahmaputra in India and Bangladesh, the Mahanadi in India, and the Volta in Ghana. It compares and contrasts various elements of observed adaptations, including who is driving the adaptation, the beneficiaries, barriers to participation and evidence for maladaptation. The predominant drivers of adaptation vary from government (at state level in India and national level in Bangladesh) and NGOs (in Ghana). Autonomous adaptations are not widely reported in the literature from any of the deltas. In all three deltas there is a focus on supporting adaptation in farming rather than fishing; despite the fact that fisheries contribute to local food security as well as national economies. Lack of access to financial, natural, physical and human capital are common barriers to adaptation in all three deltas. Additionally the Indian literature in particular highlights the lack of coordination between different government departments, coupled with an excessively top-down (state-driven) approach to adaptation. Maladaptation is most commonly reported in the literature from Bangladesh, for example, loss of employment of inland fishermen in embanked areas. The paper concludes by highlighting some of the implications of these findings for adaptation policy in deltas.

  3. Finite element/finite volume approaches with adaptive time stepping strategies for transient thermal problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohan, Ram V.; Tamma, Kumar K.

    1993-01-01

    An adaptive time stepping strategy for transient thermal analysis of engineering systems is described which computes the time step based on the local truncation error with a good global error control and obtains optimal time steps to be used during the analysis. Combined mesh partitionings involving FEM/FVM meshes based on physical situations to obtain numerically improved physical representations are also proposed. Numerical test cases are described and comparative pros and cons are identified for practical situations.

  4. Filter accuracy for the Lorenz 96 model: Fixed versus adaptive observation operators

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, Andrew M.; Shukla, Abhishek; Sanz-Alonso, Daniel; Law, K. J. H.

    2016-02-23

    In the context of filtering chaotic dynamical systems it is well-known that partial observations, if sufficiently informative, can be used to control the inherent uncertainty due to chaos. The purpose of this paper is to investigate, both theoretically and numerically, conditions on the observations of chaotic systems under which they can be accurately filtered. In particular, we highlight the advantage of adaptive observation operators over fixed ones. The Lorenz ’96 model is used to exemplify our findings. Here, we consider discrete-time and continuous-time observations in our theoretical developments. We prove that, for fixed observation operator, the 3DVAR filter can recover the system state within a neighbourhood determined by the size of the observational noise. It is required that a sufficiently large proportion of the state vector is observed, and an explicit form for such sufficient fixed observation operator is given. Numerical experiments, where the data is incorporated by use of the 3DVAR and extended Kalman filters, suggest that less informative fixed operators than given by our theory can still lead to accurate signal reconstruction. Adaptive observation operators are then studied numerically; we show that, for carefully chosen adaptive observation operators, the proportion of the state vector that needs to be observed is drastically smaller than with a fixed observation operator. Indeed, we show that the number of state coordinates that need to be observed may even be significantly smaller than the total number of positive Lyapunov exponents of the underlying system.

  5. Hybrid Self-Adaptive Evolution Strategies Guided by Neighborhood Structures for Combinatorial Optimization Problems.

    PubMed

    Coelho, V N; Coelho, I M; Souza, M J F; Oliveira, T A; Cota, L P; Haddad, M N; Mladenovic, N; Silva, R C P; Guimarães, F G

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an Evolution Strategy (ES)--based algorithm, designed to self-adapt its mutation operators, guiding the search into the solution space using a Self-Adaptive Reduced Variable Neighborhood Search procedure. In view of the specific local search operators for each individual, the proposed population-based approach also fits into the context of the Memetic Algorithms. The proposed variant uses the Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure with different greedy parameters for generating its initial population, providing an interesting exploration-exploitation balance. To validate the proposal, this framework is applied to solve three different [Formula: see text]-Hard combinatorial optimization problems: an Open-Pit-Mining Operational Planning Problem with dynamic allocation of trucks, an Unrelated Parallel Machine Scheduling Problem with Setup Times, and the calibration of a hybrid fuzzy model for Short-Term Load Forecasting. Computational results point out the convergence of the proposed model and highlight its ability in combining the application of move operations from distinct neighborhood structures along the optimization. The results gathered and reported in this article represent a collective evidence of the performance of the method in challenging combinatorial optimization problems from different application domains. The proposed evolution strategy demonstrates an ability of adapting the strength of the mutation disturbance during the generations of its evolution process. The effectiveness of the proposal motivates the application of this novel evolutionary framework for solving other combinatorial optimization problems.

  6. Adaptive governance and institutional strategies for climate-induced community relocations in Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Bronen, Robin; Chapin, F. Stuart

    2013-01-01

    This article presents governance and institutional strategies for climate-induced community relocations. In Alaska, repeated extreme weather events coupled with climate change-induced coastal erosion impact the habitability of entire communities. Community residents and government agencies concur that relocation is the only adaptation strategy that can protect lives and infrastructure. Community relocation stretches the financial and institutional capacity of existing governance institutions. Based on a comparative analysis of three Alaskan communities, Kivalina, Newtok, and Shishmaref, which have chosen to relocate, we examine the institutional constraints to relocation in the United States. We identify policy changes and components of a toolkit that can facilitate community-based adaptation when environmental events threaten people’s lives and protection in place is not possible. Policy changes include amendment of the Stafford Act to include gradual geophysical processes, such as erosion, in the statutory definition of disaster and the creation of an adaptive governance framework to allow communities a continuum of responses from protection in place to community relocation. Key components of the toolkit are local leadership and integration of social and ecological well-being into adaptation planning. PMID:23690592

  7. A spatial explicit strategy reduces error but interferes with sensorimotor adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Bryan L.; Anguera, Joaquin A.

    2011-01-01

    Although sensorimotor adaptation is typically thought of as an implicit form of learning, it has been shown that participants who gain explicit awareness of the nature of the perturbation during adaptation exhibit more learning than those who do not. With rare exceptions, however, explicit awareness is typically polled at the end of the study. Here, we provided participants with either an explicit spatial strategy or no instructions before learning. Early in learning, explicit instructions greatly reduced movement errors but also resulted in increased trial-to-trial variability and longer reaction times. Late in adaptation, performance was indistinguishable between the explicit and implicit groups, but the mechanisms underlying performance improvements remained fundamentally different, as revealed by catch trials. The progression of implicit recalibration in the explicit group was modulated by the use of an explicit strategy: these participants showed a lower level of recalibration as well as decreased aftereffects. This phenomenon may be due to the reduced magnitude of errors made to the target during adaptation or inhibition of implicit learning mechanisms by explicit processing. PMID:21451054

  8. Adaptive governance and institutional strategies for climate-induced community relocations in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Bronen, Robin; Chapin, F Stuart

    2013-06-04

    This article presents governance and institutional strategies for climate-induced community relocations. In Alaska, repeated extreme weather events coupled with climate change-induced coastal erosion impact the habitability of entire communities. Community residents and government agencies concur that relocation is the only adaptation strategy that can protect lives and infrastructure. Community relocation stretches the financial and institutional capacity of existing governance institutions. Based on a comparative analysis of three Alaskan communities, Kivalina, Newtok, and Shishmaref, which have chosen to relocate, we examine the institutional constraints to relocation in the United States. We identify policy changes and components of a toolkit that can facilitate community-based adaptation when environmental events threaten people's lives and protection in place is not possible. Policy changes include amendment of the Stafford Act to include gradual geophysical processes, such as erosion, in the statutory definition of disaster and the creation of an adaptive governance framework to allow communities a continuum of responses from protection in place to community relocation. Key components of the toolkit are local leadership and integration of social and ecological well-being into adaptation planning.

  9. Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change and Agricultural Adaptation Strategies in Rural Sahel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Reenberg, Anette; Diouf, Awa

    2009-05-01

    Farmers in the Sahel have always been facing climatic variability at intra- and inter-annual and decadal time scales. While coping and adaptation strategies have traditionally included crop diversification, mobility, livelihood diversification, and migration, singling out climate as a direct driver of changes is not so simple. Using focus group interviews and a household survey, this study analyzes the perceptions of climate change and the strategies for coping and adaptation by sedentary farmers in the savanna zone of central Senegal. Households are aware of climate variability and identify wind and occasional excess rainfall as the most destructive climate factors. Households attribute poor livestock health, reduced crop yields and a range of other problems to climate factors, especially wind. However, when questions on land use and livelihood change are not asked directly in a climate context, households and groups assign economic, political, and social rather than climate factors as the main reasons for change. It is concluded that the communities studied have a high awareness of climate issues, but climatic narratives are likely to influence responses when questions mention climate. Change in land use and livelihood strategies is driven by adaptation to a range of factors of which climate appears not to be the most important. Implications for policy-making on agricultural and economic development will be to focus on providing flexible options rather than specific solutions to uncertain climate.

  10. Farmers' perceptions of climate change and agricultural adaptation strategies in rural Sahel.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Reenberg, Anette; Diouf, Awa

    2009-05-01

    Farmers in the Sahel have always been facing climatic variability at intra- and inter-annual and decadal time scales. While coping and adaptation strategies have traditionally included crop diversification, mobility, livelihood diversification, and migration, singling out climate as a direct driver of changes is not so simple. Using focus group interviews and a household survey, this study analyzes the perceptions of climate change and the strategies for coping and adaptation by sedentary farmers in the savanna zone of central Senegal. Households are aware of climate variability and identify wind and occasional excess rainfall as the most destructive climate factors. Households attribute poor livestock health, reduced crop yields and a range of other problems to climate factors, especially wind. However, when questions on land use and livelihood change are not asked directly in a climate context, households and groups assign economic, political, and social rather than climate factors as the main reasons for change. It is concluded that the communities studied have a high awareness of climate issues, but climatic narratives are likely to influence responses when questions mention climate. Change in land use and livelihood strategies is driven by adaptation to a range of factors of which climate appears not to be the most important. Implications for policy-making on agricultural and economic development will be to focus on providing flexible options rather than specific solutions to uncertain climate.

  11. Coprophagy in wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Wamba in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: a possibly adaptive strategy?

    PubMed

    Sakamaki, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    Four cases of coprophagy and two cases of fecal inspection were identified during the 1142 h of observing wild bonobos at Wamba in the Luo Scientific Reserve in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. At least 5 females in the study group practiced coprophagy and/or fecal inspection. According to our daily behavioral observations, boredom and stress, insufficient roughage, and the search for essential nutrients could not explain the coprophagy. Several episodes observed in this study indicated that bonobos might have sought and ingested certain valuable food items, such as hard Dialium seeds, in feces during relatively lean seasons. Although coprophagy occurred only rarely among wild bonobos, this practice appeared to represent a possibly adaptive feeding strategy during periods of food scarcity rather than a behavioral abnormality.

  12. Can application and transfer of strategy be observed in low visibility condition?

    PubMed Central

    El Karoui, Imen; Christoforidis, Kalliopi

    2017-01-01

    It has been long assumed that cognitive control processes can only be applied on consciously visible stimuli, but empirical evidence is contradictory. In the present study, we investigated strategic adaptation to conflict both in unmasked and in low-visibility masked trials. Using a paradigm derived from the Stroop task, we studied the application of strategies, but also the transfer of a strategy developed in unmasked trials to masked trials, and the trial-to-trial dynamics of strategic processing. In unmasked trials, we found evidence of strategic adaptation to conflict, both in reaction times and in ERPs (N2 and P300). In masked trials we found no evidence of behavioral adaptation to conflict, but a modulation of the P300 was present in masked trials included in unmasked blocks, suggesting the existence of a transfer of strategy. Finally, trial-to-trial analyses in unmasked trials revealed a pattern suggestive of dynamic subjective adherence to the instructed strategy. PMID:28288178

  13. Multi-type Childhood Abuse, Strategies of Coping, and Psychological Adaptations in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sesar, Kristina; Šimić, Nataša; Barišić, Marijana

    2010-01-01

    Aim To retrospectively analyze the rate of multi-type abuse in childhood and the effects of childhood abuse and type of coping strategies on the psychological adaptation of young adults in a sample form the student population of the University of Mostar. Methods The study was conducted on a convenience sample of 233 students from the University of Mostar (196 female and 37 male), with a median age of 20 (interquartile range, 2). Exposure to abuse was determined using the Child Maltreatment Scales for Adults, which assesses emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, neglect, and witnessing family violence. Psychological adaptation was explored by the Trauma Symptom Checklist, which assesses anxiety/depression, sexual problems, trauma symptoms, and somatic symptoms. Strategies of coping with stress were explored by the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Results Multi-type abuse in childhood was experienced by 172 participants (74%) and all types of abuse by 11 (5%) participants. Emotional and physical maltreatment were the most frequent types of abuse and mostly occurred together with other types of abuse. Significant association was found between all types of abuse (r = 0.436-0.778, P < 0.050). Exposure to sexual abuse in childhood and coping strategies were significant predictors of anxiety/depression (R2 = 0.3553), traumatic symptoms (R2 = 0.2299), somatic symptoms (R2 = 0.2173), and sexual problems (R2 = 0.1550, P < 0.001). Conclusion Exposure to multi-type abuse in childhood is a traumatic experience with long-term negative effects. Problem-oriented coping strategies ensure a better psychosocial adaptation than emotion-oriented strategies. PMID:20960590

  14. Neural adaptive observer-based sensor and actuator fault detection in nonlinear systems: Application in UAV.

    PubMed

    Abbaspour, Alireza; Aboutalebi, Payam; Yen, Kang K; Sargolzaei, Arman

    2017-03-01

    A new online detection strategy is developed to detect faults in sensors and actuators of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems. In this design, the weighting parameters of the Neural Network (NN) are updated by using the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). Online adaptation of these weighting parameters helps to detect abrupt, intermittent, and incipient faults accurately. We apply the proposed fault detection system to a nonlinear dynamic model of the WVU YF-22 unmanned aircraft for its evaluation. The simulation results show that the new method has better performance in comparison with conventional recurrent neural network-based fault detection strategies.

  15. Habitat Choice and Temporal Variation Alter the Balance between Adaptation by Genetic Differentiation, a Jack-of-All-Trades Strategy, and Phenotypic Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Scheiner, Samuel M

    2016-05-01

    Confronted with variable environments, species adapt in several ways, including genetic differentiation, a jack-of-all-trades strategy, or phenotypic plasticity. Adaptive habitat choice favors genetic differentiation and local adaptation over a generalist, jack-of-all-trades strategy. Models predict that, absent plasticity costs, variable environments generally favor phenotypic plasticity over genetic differentiation and being a jack-of-all-trades generalist. It is unknown how habitat choice might affect the evolution of plasticity. Using an individual-based simulation model, I explored the interaction of choice and plasticity. With only spatial variation, habitat choice promotes genetic differentiation over a jack-of-all-trades strategy or phenotypic plasticity. In the absence of plasticity, temporal variation favors a jack-of-all-trades strategy over choice-mediated genetic differentiation; when plasticity is an option, it is favored. This occurs because habitat choice creates a feedback between genetic differentiation and dispersal rates. As demes become better adapted to their local environments, the effective dispersal rate decreases, because more individuals have very high fitness and so choose not to disperse, reinforcing local stabilizing selection and negating selection for plasticity. Temporal variation breaks that feedback. These results point to a potential data paradox: systems with habitat choice may have the lowest actual movement rates. The potential for adaptive habitat choice may be very common, but its existence may reduce observed dispersal rates enough that we do not recognize systems where it may be present, warranting further exploration of likely systems.

  16. Climate change and eHealth: a promising strategy for health sector mitigation and adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Holmner, Åsa; Rocklöv, Joacim; Ng, Nawi; Nilsson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is one of today's most pressing global issues. Policies to guide mitigation and adaptation are needed to avoid the devastating impacts of climate change. The health sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, and its climate impact in low-income countries is growing steadily. This paper reviews and discusses the literature regarding health sector mitigation potential, known and hypothetical co-benefits, and the potential of health information technology, such as eHealth, in climate change mitigation and adaptation. The promising role of eHealth as an adaptation strategy to reduce societal vulnerability to climate change, and the link's between mitigation and adaptation, are also discussed. The topic of environmental eHealth has gained little attention to date, despite its potential to contribute to more sustainable and green health care. A growing number of local and global initiatives on ‘green information and communication technology (ICT)’ are now mentioning eHealth as a promising technology with the potential to reduce emission rates from ICT use. However, the embracing of eHealth is slow because of limitations in technological infrastructure, capacity and political will. Further research on potential emissions reductions and co-benefits with green ICT, in terms of health outcomes and economic effectiveness, would be valuable to guide development and implementation of eHealth in health sector mitigation and adaptation policies. PMID:22679398

  17. Climate change and eHealth: a promising strategy for health sector mitigation and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Holmner, Asa; Rocklöv, Joacim; Ng, Nawi; Nilsson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is one of today's most pressing global issues. Policies to guide mitigation and adaptation are needed to avoid the devastating impacts of climate change. The health sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, and its climate impact in low-income countries is growing steadily. This paper reviews and discusses the literature regarding health sector mitigation potential, known and hypothetical co-benefits, and the potential of health information technology, such as eHealth, in climate change mitigation and adaptation. The promising role of eHealth as an adaptation strategy to reduce societal vulnerability to climate change, and the link's between mitigation and adaptation, are also discussed. The topic of environmental eHealth has gained little attention to date, despite its potential to contribute to more sustainable and green health care. A growing number of local and global initiatives on 'green information and communication technology (ICT)' are now mentioning eHealth as a promising technology with the potential to reduce emission rates from ICT use. However, the embracing of eHealth is slow because of limitations in technological infrastructure, capacity and political will. Further research on potential emissions reductions and co-benefits with green ICT, in terms of health outcomes and economic effectiveness, would be valuable to guide development and implementation of eHealth in health sector mitigation and adaptation policies.

  18. Photosynthetic adaptation strategy of Ulva prolifera floating on the sea surface to environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinyu; Tang, Xuexi; Zhang, Huanxin; Qu, Tongfei; Wang, Ying

    2016-10-01

    For 8 consecutive years, a green tide has originated in the southern Yellow Sea and spread to the Qingdao offshore area. The causative species, Ulva prolifera, always forms a very thick thallus mat that is capable of drifting long distances over long periods. During this process, although the thalli face disturbance by complex environmental factors, they maintain high biomass and proliferation. We hypothesized that some form of photosynthetic adaptation strategy must exist to protect the thalli. Therefore, we studied the different photosynthetic response characteristics of the surface and lower layers of the floating thallus mats, and investigated the physiological and molecular-level adaptation mechanisms. The results showed that: (1) U. prolifera has strong photosynthetic capability that ensures it can gain sufficient energy to increase its biomass and adapt to long-distance migration. (2) Surface layer thalli adapt to the complex environment by dissipating excess energy via photosynthetic quantum control (energy quenching and energy redistribution between PSII/PSI) to avoid irreversible damage to the photosynthetic system. (3) Lower layer thalli increase their contents of Chlorophyll a (Chl a) and Chlorophyll b (Chl b) and decrease their Chl a/Chl b ratio to improve their ability to use light energy. (4) U. prolifera has strong photosynthetic plasticity and can adapt to frequent exchange between the surface and lower layer environments because of wave disturbance. Pigment component changes, energy quenching, and energy redistribution between PSII/PSI contribute to this photosynthetic plasticity.

  19. The New Weather Radar for America's Space Program in Florida: A Temperature Profile Adaptive Scan Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carey, L. D.; Petersen, W. A.; Deierling, W.; Roeder, W. P.

    2009-01-01

    A new weather radar is being acquired for use in support of America s space program at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, NASA Kennedy Space Center, and Patrick AFB on the east coast of central Florida. This new radar replaces the modified WSR-74C at Patrick AFB that has been in use since 1984. The new radar is a Radtec TDR 43-250, which has Doppler and dual polarization capability. A new fixed scan strategy was designed to best support the space program. The fixed scan strategy represents a complex compromise between many competing factors and relies on climatological heights of various temperatures that are important for improved lightning forecasting and evaluation of Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), which are the weather rules to avoid lightning strikes to in-flight rockets. The 0 C to -20 C layer is vital since most generation of electric charge occurs within it and so it is critical in evaluating Lightning LCC and in forecasting lightning. These are two of the most important duties of 45 WS. While the fixed scan strategy that covers most of the climatological variation of the 0 C to -20 C levels with high resolution ensures that these critical temperatures are well covered most of the time, it also means that on any particular day the radar is spending precious time scanning at angles covering less important heights. The goal of this project is to develop a user-friendly, Interactive Data Language (IDL) computer program that will automatically generate optimized radar scan strategies that adapt to user input of the temperature profile and other important parameters. By using only the required scan angles output by the temperature profile adaptive scan strategy program, faster update times for volume scans and/or collection of more samples per gate for better data quality is possible, while maintaining high resolution at the critical temperature levels. The temperature profile adaptive technique will also take into account earth curvature and refraction

  20. Using Copernicus earth observation services to monitor climate change impacts and adaptations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Daniel; Zebisch, Marc; Sonnenschein, Ruth; Schönthaler, Konstanze; von Andrian-Werburg, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    In the last years, earth observation made a big leap towards an operational monitoring of the state of environment. Remote sensing provides for instance information on the dynamics, trends and anomalies of snow and glaciers, vegetation, soil moisture or water temperature. In particular, the European Copernicus initiative offers new opportunities through new satellites with a higher temporal and spatial resolution, operational services for environmental monitoring and an open data access policy. With the Copernicus climate change service and the ESA climate change initiative, specific earth observation programs are in place to address the impacts of climate change. However, such products and services are until now rarely picked up in the field of policy or decision making oriented climate impact or climate risk assessments. In this talk, we will present results of a study, which focus on the question, if and how remote sensing approaches could be integrated into operational monitoring activities of climate impacts and response measures on a national and subnational scale. We assessed all existing and planned Copernicus services regarding their relevance for climate impact monitoring by comparing them against the indication fields from an indicator system for climate impact and response monitoring in Germany, which has lately been developed in the framework of the German national adaptation strategy. For several climate impact or response indicators, an immediate integration of remote sensing data could be identified and been recommended. For these cases, we will show practical examples on the benefit of remote sensing data. For other indication fields, promising approaches were found, which need further development. We argue that remote sensing is a very valuable complement to the existing indicator schemes by contributing with spatial explicit, timely information but not always easy to integrate with classical approaches, which are oriented towards consistent long

  1. Livestock in a changing climate: production system transitions as an adaptation strategy for agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weindl, Isabelle; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Popp, Alexander; Müller, Christoph; Havlík, Petr; Herrero, Mario; Schmitz, Christoph; Rolinski, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    Livestock farming is the world’s largest land use sector and utilizes around 60% of the global biomass harvest. Over the coming decades, climate change will affect the natural resource base of livestock production, especially the productivity of rangeland and feed crops. Based on a comprehensive impact modeling chain, we assess implications of different climate projections for agricultural production costs and land use change and explore the effectiveness of livestock system transitions as an adaptation strategy. Simulated climate impacts on crop yields and rangeland productivity generate adaptation costs amounting to 3% of total agricultural production costs in 2045 (i.e. 145 billion US). Shifts in livestock production towards mixed crop-livestock systems represent a resource- and cost-efficient adaptation option, reducing agricultural adaptation costs to 0.3% of total production costs and simultaneously abating deforestation by about 76 million ha globally. The relatively positive climate impacts on grass yields compared with crop yields favor grazing systems inter alia in South Asia and North America. Incomplete transitions in production systems already have a strong adaptive and cost reducing effect: a 50% shift to mixed systems lowers agricultural adaptation costs to 0.8%. General responses of production costs to system transitions are robust across different global climate and crop models as well as regarding assumptions on CO2 fertilization, but simulated values show a large variation. In the face of these uncertainties, public policy support for transforming livestock production systems provides an important lever to improve agricultural resource management and lower adaptation costs, possibly even contributing to emission reduction.

  2. Divergent Adaptive Strategies by Two Co-occurring Epiphytic Orchids to Water Stress: Escape or Avoidance?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Due to the fluctuating water availability in the arboreal habitat, epiphytic plants are considered vulnerable to climate change and anthropogenic disturbances. Although co-occurring taxa have been observed divergent adaptive performances in response to drought, the underlying physiological and morphological mechanisms by which epiphyte species cope with water stress remain poorly understood. In the present study, two co-occurring epiphytic orchids with different phenologies were selected to investigate their drought-resistance performances. We compared their functional traits, and monitored their physiological performances in a 25-days of drought treatment. In contrast to the deciduous species Pleione albiflora, the evergreen species Coelogyne corymbosa had different root anatomical structures and higher values for saturated water content of pseudobulbs. Moreover, plants of C. corymbosa had thicker leaves and epidermis, denser veins and stomata, and higher values for leaf mass per unit area and the time required to dry saturated leaves to 70% relative water content. However, samples from that species had lower values for net photosynthetic rate (A n), stomatal length and chlorophyll content per unit dry mass. Nevertheless, due to greater capacity for water storage and conservation, C. corymbosa maintained higher A n, stomatal conductance (g s), and instantaneous water-use efficiency during severe drought period, and their values for leaf water potential were higher after the water stress treatment. By Day 10 after irrigation was restarted, only C. corymbosa plants recovered their values for A n and g s to levels close to those calculated prior to the imposition of water stress. Our results suggest that the different performance responding to drought and re-watering in two co-occurring epiphytic orchids is related to water-related traits and these two species have divergent adaptive mechanisms. Overall, C. corymbosa demonstrates drought avoidance by enhancing water

  3. Divergent Adaptive Strategies by Two Co-occurring Epiphytic Orchids to Water Stress: Escape or Avoidance?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Due to the fluctuating water availability in the arboreal habitat, epiphytic plants are considered vulnerable to climate change and anthropogenic disturbances. Although co-occurring taxa have been observed divergent adaptive performances in response to drought, the underlying physiological and morphological mechanisms by which epiphyte species cope with water stress remain poorly understood. In the present study, two co-occurring epiphytic orchids with different phenologies were selected to investigate their drought-resistance performances. We compared their functional traits, and monitored their physiological performances in a 25-days of drought treatment. In contrast to the deciduous species Pleione albiflora, the evergreen species Coelogyne corymbosa had different root anatomical structures and higher values for saturated water content of pseudobulbs. Moreover, plants of C. corymbosa had thicker leaves and epidermis, denser veins and stomata, and higher values for leaf mass per unit area and the time required to dry saturated leaves to 70% relative water content. However, samples from that species had lower values for net photosynthetic rate (An), stomatal length and chlorophyll content per unit dry mass. Nevertheless, due to greater capacity for water storage and conservation, C. corymbosa maintained higher An, stomatal conductance (gs), and instantaneous water-use efficiency during severe drought period, and their values for leaf water potential were higher after the water stress treatment. By Day 10 after irrigation was restarted, only C. corymbosa plants recovered their values for An and gs to levels close to those calculated prior to the imposition of water stress. Our results suggest that the different performance responding to drought and re-watering in two co-occurring epiphytic orchids is related to water-related traits and these two species have divergent adaptive mechanisms. Overall, C. corymbosa demonstrates drought avoidance by enhancing water

  4. Adaptive and Qualitative Changes in Encoding Strategy With Experience: Evidence From the Test-Expectancy Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Finley, Jason R.; Benjamin, Aaron S.

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments demonstrated learners’ abilities to adaptively and qualitatively accommodate their encoding strategies to the demands of an upcoming test. Stimuli were word pairs. In Experiment 1, test expectancy was induced for either cued recall (of targets given cues) or free recall (of targets only) across 4 study–test cycles of the same test format, followed by a final critical cycle featuring either the expected or the unexpected test format. For final tests of both cued and free recall, participants who had expected that test format outperformed those who had not. This disordinal interaction, supported by recognition and self-report data, demonstrated not mere differences in effort based on anticipated test difficulty, but rather qualitative and appropriate differences in encoding strategies based on expected task demands. Participants also came to appropriately modulate metacognitive monitoring (Experiment 2) and study-time allocation (Experiment 3) across study–test cycles. Item and associative recognition performance, as well as self-report data, revealed shifts in encoding strategies across trials; these results were used to characterize and evaluate the different strategies that participants employed for cued versus free recall and to assess the optimality of participants’ metacognitive control of encoding strategies. Taken together, these data illustrate a sophisticated form of metacognitive control, in which learners qualitatively shift encoding strategies to match the demands of anticipated tests. PMID:22103783

  5. Adaptive and qualitative changes in encoding strategy with experience: evidence from the test-expectancy paradigm.

    PubMed

    Finley, Jason R; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2012-05-01

    Three experiments demonstrated learners' abilities to adaptively and qualitatively accommodate their encoding strategies to the demands of an upcoming test. Stimuli were word pairs. In Experiment 1, test expectancy was induced for either cued recall (of targets given cues) or free recall (of targets only) across 4 study-test cycles of the same test format, followed by a final critical cycle featuring either the expected or the unexpected test format. For final tests of both cued and free recall, participants who had expected that test format outperformed those who had not. This disordinal interaction, supported by recognition and self-report data, demonstrated not mere differences in effort based on anticipated test difficulty, but rather qualitative and appropriate differences in encoding strategies based on expected task demands. Participants also came to appropriately modulate metacognitive monitoring (Experiment 2) and study-time allocation (Experiment 3) across study-test cycles. Item and associative recognition performance, as well as self-report data, revealed shifts in encoding strategies across trials; these results were used to characterize and evaluate the different strategies that participants employed for cued versus free recall and to assess the optimality of participants' metacognitive control of encoding strategies. Taken together, these data illustrate a sophisticated form of metacognitive control, in which learners qualitatively shift encoding strategies to match the demands of anticipated tests.

  6. Mixed-gender groups: coping strategies and factors of psychological adaptation in a polar environment.

    PubMed

    Rosnet, Elisabeth; Jurion, Sylvie; Cazes, Geneviève; Bachelard, Claude

    2004-07-01

    The polar environment is often seen as a good analog for long-term space missions in terms of isolation and confinement. This paper focuses on the psychological adaptation of both the men and women in mixed-gender groups in the French polar station Dumont d'Urville. The first 49 expeditions to this station were composed of men only in groups of 25-30. In 2000, two women were included in the first mixed-gender wintering group, followed by five women in 2001. This study on coping strategies and psychological adaptation was included in an end-of-mission debriefing performed by a psychologist. Data were collected using a few quantitative tools and a semi-structured interview, and focused on adaptation to wintering, coping strategies, and information on interpersonal relationships. Including women in a wintering group seems to have had positive effects on the general climate of the group by reducing men's rude behavior, but it also seems to be an important stressor for both men and women when the females' average age is close to the males' because seduction behaviors appear and rivalry, frustration, and sexual harassment frequently result. The use of problem-oriented strategies helps women to adapt. There are strong arguments indicating that living in an isolated and confined environment magnifies the usual difficulties that arise in mixed-gender relationships. Difficulties may be magnified in space since the group size is smaller and the confinement more extreme. This implies the need for rigorous select-in criteria for both men and women, especially for relational criteria, and for group training after selection.

  7. Delayed feedback during sensorimotor learning selectively disrupts adaptation but not strategy use

    PubMed Central

    Brudner, Samuel N.; Kethidi, Nikhit; Graeupner, Damaris; Ivry, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    In sensorimotor adaptation tasks, feedback delays can cause significant reductions in the rate of learning. This constraint is puzzling given that many skilled behaviors have inherently long delays (e.g., hitting a golf ball). One difference in these task domains is that adaptation is primarily driven by error-based feedback, whereas skilled performance may also rely to a large extent on outcome-based feedback. This difference suggests that error- and outcome-based feedback may engage different learning processes, and these processes may be associated with different temporal constraints. We tested this hypothesis in a visuomotor adaptation task. Error feedback was indicated by the terminal position of a cursor, while outcome feedback was indicated by points. In separate groups of participants, the two feedback signals were presented immediately at the end of the movement, after a delay, or with just the error feedback delayed. Participants learned to counter the rotation in a similar manner regardless of feedback delay. However, the aftereffect, an indicator of implicit motor adaptation, was attenuated with delayed error feedback, consistent with the hypothesis that a different learning process supports performance under delay. We tested this by employing a task that dissociates the contribution of explicit strategies and implicit adaptation. We find that explicit aiming strategies contribute to the majority of the learning curve, regardless of delay; however, implicit learning, measured over the course of learning and by aftereffects, was significantly attenuated with delayed error-based feedback. These experiments offer new insight into the temporal constraints associated with different motor learning processes. PMID:26792878

  8. Delayed feedback during sensorimotor learning selectively disrupts adaptation but not strategy use.

    PubMed

    Brudner, Samuel N; Kethidi, Nikhit; Graeupner, Damaris; Ivry, Richard B; Taylor, Jordan A

    2016-03-01

    In sensorimotor adaptation tasks, feedback delays can cause significant reductions in the rate of learning. This constraint is puzzling given that many skilled behaviors have inherently long delays (e.g., hitting a golf ball). One difference in these task domains is that adaptation is primarily driven by error-based feedback, whereas skilled performance may also rely to a large extent on outcome-based feedback. This difference suggests that error- and outcome-based feedback may engage different learning processes, and these processes may be associated with different temporal constraints. We tested this hypothesis in a visuomotor adaptation task. Error feedback was indicated by the terminal position of a cursor, while outcome feedback was indicated by points. In separate groups of participants, the two feedback signals were presented immediately at the end of the movement, after a delay, or with just the error feedback delayed. Participants learned to counter the rotation in a similar manner regardless of feedback delay. However, the aftereffect, an indicator of implicit motor adaptation, was attenuated with delayed error feedback, consistent with the hypothesis that a different learning process supports performance under delay. We tested this by employing a task that dissociates the contribution of explicit strategies and implicit adaptation. We find that explicit aiming strategies contribute to the majority of the learning curve, regardless of delay; however, implicit learning, measured over the course of learning and by aftereffects, was significantly attenuated with delayed error-based feedback. These experiments offer new insight into the temporal constraints associated with different motor learning processes.

  9. Reducing the time complexity of the derandomized evolution strategy with covariance matrix adaptation (CMA-ES).

    PubMed

    Hansen, Nikolaus; Müller, Sibylle D; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a novel evolutionary optimization strategy based on the derandomized evolution strategy with covariance matrix adaptation (CMA-ES). This new approach is intended to reduce the number of generations required for convergence to the optimum. Reducing the number of generations, i.e., the time complexity of the algorithm, is important if a large population size is desired: (1) to reduce the effect of noise; (2) to improve global search properties; and (3) to implement the algorithm on (highly) parallel machines. Our method results in a highly parallel algorithm which scales favorably with large numbers of processors. This is accomplished by efficiently incorporating the available information from a large population, thus significantly reducing the number of generations needed to adapt the covariance matrix. The original version of the CMA-ES was designed to reliably adapt the covariance matrix in small populations but it cannot exploit large populations efficiently. Our modifications scale up the efficiency to population sizes of up to 10n, where n is the problem dimension. This method has been applied to a large number of test problems, demonstrating that in many cases the CMA-ES can be advanced from quadratic to linear time complexity.

  10. Assessing effects of climate change and adaptation strategies on irrigated pastures using DAISY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagimoto, Y.; Cuenca, R. H.

    2013-12-01

    The DAISY ecological model was applied for the flood-irrigated cool-season pastures in the Upper Klamath Basin, Oregon to study 1) the current condition of the pastures in the semi-arid environment, 2) effects of projected climate change, and 3) effects of introducing white clover and a sprinkler system as a potential adaptation strategy. The calibrated model indicated that productivity of the cool-season pastures was limited primarily by nitrogen (N) availability and temperature. The results of our scenario analysis indicated that the projected climate change would increase seasonal forage production (YF) and crop water use (AET) due to longer and warmer growing season. This study also found that introduction of white clover would significantly increase YF without changing AET by improving N availability due to increased nutrients deposition by cattle and increased symbiotic N fixation by white clover. In consequence, the mixed pasture could significantly improve water use efficiency (YF/AET) and, therefore the adaptability of the pasture in an area with high value water. Installing sprinkler system to the mixed pasture would increase YF by increasing net N input by increasing N mineralization and reducing denitrification. Furthermore, upgraded irrigation systems could increase water availability of the area during growing season by releasing significant amount of subsurface water to nearby surface water pools. This study demonstrated that ecological models such as DAISY can be a useful tool to model pasture systems and assess effects of projected climate changes and adaptation strategies.

  11. Cooperative Communication Strategies: Observations in a Black Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Thurmon

    1983-01-01

    Examines two strategies which Blacks use to bring about cooperation in the Black community: (1) "indirection," which makes use of humorous messages, avoidance, and signifying to reduce conflicts, and (2) "neutralization," which involves the use of verbal justifications and excuses to stabilize situations in which disagreements may arise over…

  12. Compromise-based Robust Prioritization of Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for Watershed Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Chung, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    This study suggests a robust prioritization framework for climate change adaptation strategies under multiple climate change scenarios with a case study of selecting sites for reusing treated wastewater (TWW) in a Korean urban watershed. The framework utilizes various multi-criteria decision making techniques, including the VIKOR method and the Shannon entropy-based weights. In this case study, the sustainability of TWW use is quantified with indicator-based approaches with the DPSIR framework, which considers both hydro-environmental and socio-economic aspects of the watershed management. Under the various climate change scenarios, the hydro-environmental responses to reusing TWW in potential alternative sub-watersheds are determined using the Hydrologic Simulation Program in Fortran (HSPF). The socio-economic indicators are obtained from the statistical databases. Sustainability scores for multiple scenarios are estimated individually and then integrated with the proposed approach. At last, the suggested framework allows us to prioritize adaptation strategies in a robust manner with varying levels of compromise between utility-based and regret-based strategies.

  13. Driving Difficulties and Adaptive Strategies: The Perception of Individuals Having Sustained a Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bottari, Carolina; Lamothe, Marie-Pierre; Gosselin, Nadia; Gélinas, Isabelle; Ptito, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. After a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), individuals quickly resume driving. However, relatively little is known about the impact of mTBI on driving ability and, notably, on the perceived influence of postconcussive symptoms on driving. Hence, the objective of this study was to document the perception of driving abilities in individuals with mTBI. Method. Twenty-seven drivers with mTBI were interviewed to document their perception regarding their driving abilities. Both driving-related difficulties and compensatory strategies used to increase driving safety were documented. A mixed quantitative and qualitative analysis of the data was completed. Results. 93% of participants reported at least one difficulty perceived as having an impact on everyday activities. Most frequently named problems affecting driving were fatigue and reduced concentration. In addition, 74% of participants had adapted their driving or developed strategies to compensate for driving difficulties. Discussion/Conclusion. Postconcussive symptoms have repercussions on driving ability. However, people with mTBI tend to be aware of their difficulties and develop, over time, adaptive strategies. Preventive measures are thus warranted to increase health care professionals' awareness of the potential consequences of mTBI on driving ability and to promote guidelines for the safe resumption of driving after injury. PMID:22448334

  14. The communication of physical science uncertainty in European National Adaptation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, S; Dessai, S; Paavola, J; Forster, P M

    Many European countries have developed National Adaptation Strategies (NAS) to guide adaptation to the expected impacts of climate change. There is a need for more structured communication of the uncertainties related to future climate and its impacts so that adaptation actions can be planned and implemented effectively and efficiently. We develop a novel uncertainty assessment framework for comparing approaches to the inclusion and communication of physical science uncertainty, and use it to analyse ten European NAS. The framework is based on but modifies and integrates the notion of the "cascade of uncertainties" and the NUSAP (Numeral Unit Spread Assessment Pedigree) methodology to include the overarching assessment categories of Numerical Value, Spread, Depth and Substantiation. Our assessment indicates that there are marked differences between the NAS in terms of inclusion and communication of physical science uncertainty. We find that there is a bias towards the communication of quantitative uncertainties as opposed to qualitative uncertainties. Through the examination of the English and German NAS, we find that similar stages of development in adaptation policy planning can nevertheless result in differences in handling physical science uncertainty. We propose that the degree of transparency and openness on physical science uncertainty is linked to the wider socio-political context within which the NAS are framed. Our methodology can help raise awareness among NAS users about the explicit and embedded information on physical science uncertainty within the existing NAS and would help to design more structured uncertainty communication in new or revised NAS.

  15. Long-term strategies of climate change adaptation to manage flooding events in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouget, Laurent; Russo, Beniamino; Redaño, Angel; Ribalaygua, Jaime

    2010-05-01

    Heavy and sudden rainfalls regularly affect the Mediterranean area, so a great number of people and buildings are exposed to the risk of rain-generated floods. Climate change is expected to modify this risk and, in the case that extreme rainfalls increase in frequencies and intensity, this could result in important damages, particularly in urban areas. This paper presents a project that aims to determine adaptation strategies to future flood risks in urban areas. It has been developed by a panel of water companies (R+i Alliance funding), and includes the evaluation of the climate change impact on the extreme rainfall, the use of innovative modelling tools to accurately forecast the flood risk and, finally, the definition of a pro-active and long-term planning against floods. This methodology has been applied in the city of Barcelona. Current climate models give some projections that are not directly applicable for flood risk studies, either because they do not have an adequate spatial and temporal resolution, or because they do not consider some important local factors, such as orography. These points have been considered within the project, when developing the design storms corresponding to future climatic conditions (e.g. years 2030 or 2050). The methodology uses statistical downscaling techniques based on global climate models predictions, including corrections for extreme events and convective storms, as well as temporal downscaling based on historical observations. The design storms created are used in combination with the predictions of sea level rise and land use evolutions to determine the future risk of flooding in the area of study. Once the boundary conditions are known, an accurate flood hazard assessment is done. It requires a local knowledge of the flow parameters in the whole analyzed domain. In urban catchments, in order to fulfill this requirement, powerful hydrological and hydraulic tools and detailed topographic data represent the unique way for

  16. An adaptive coupling strategy for joint inversions that use petrophysical information as constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heincke, Björn; Jegen, Marion; Moorkamp, Max; Hobbs, Richard W.; Chen, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Joint inversion strategies for geophysical data have become increasingly popular as they allow for the efficient combination of complementary information from different data sets. The algorithm used for the joint inversion needs to be flexible in its description of the subsurface so as to be able to handle the diverse nature of the data. Hence, joint inversion schemes are needed that 1) adequately balance data from the different methods, 2) have stable convergence behavior, 3) consider the different resolution power of the methods used and 4) link the parameter models in a way that they are suited for a wide range of applications. Here, we combine active source seismic P-wave tomography, gravity and magnetotelluric (MT) data in a petrophysical joint inversion that accounts for these issues. Data from the different methods are inverted separately but are linked through constraints accounting for parameter relationships. An advantage of performing the inversions separately is that no relative weighting between the data sets is required. To avoid perturbing the convergence behavior of the inversions by the coupling, the strengths of the constraints are readjusted at each iteration. The criterion we use to control the adaption of the coupling strengths is based on variations in the objective functions of the individual inversions from one to the next iteration. Adaption of the coupling strengths makes the joint inversion scheme also applicable to subsurface conditions, where assumed relationships are not valid everywhere, because the individual inversions decouple if it is not possible to reach adequately low data misfits for the made assumptions. In addition, the coupling constraints depend on the relative resolutions of the methods, which leads to an improved convergence behavior of the joint inversion. Another benefit of the proposed scheme is that structural information can easily be incorporated in the petrophysical joint inversion (no additional terms are added

  17. Adaptive strategies in the double-extremophilic prokaryotes inhabiting soda lakes.

    PubMed

    Banciu, Horia Leonard; Muntyan, Maria S

    2015-06-01

    Haloalkaliphiles are double extremophilic organisms thriving both at high salinity and alkaline pH. Although numerous haloalkaliphilic representatives have been identified among Archaea and Bacteria over the past 15 years, the adaptations underlying their prosperity at haloalkaline conditions are scarcely known. A multi-level adaptive strategy was proposed to occur in haloalkaliphilic organisms isolated from saline alkaline and soda environments including adjustments in the cell wall structure, plasma membrane lipid composition, membrane transport systems, bioenergetics, and osmoregulation. Isolation of chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing γ-Proteobacteria from soda lakes allowed the elucidation of the structural and physiological differences between haloalkaliphilic (prefer NaCl) and natronophilic (prefer NaHCO3/Na2CO3, i.e. soda) microbes.

  18. Filter accuracy for the Lorenz 96 model: Fixed versus adaptive observation operators

    DOE PAGES

    Stuart, Andrew M.; Shukla, Abhishek; Sanz-Alonso, Daniel; ...

    2016-02-23

    In the context of filtering chaotic dynamical systems it is well-known that partial observations, if sufficiently informative, can be used to control the inherent uncertainty due to chaos. The purpose of this paper is to investigate, both theoretically and numerically, conditions on the observations of chaotic systems under which they can be accurately filtered. In particular, we highlight the advantage of adaptive observation operators over fixed ones. The Lorenz ’96 model is used to exemplify our findings. Here, we consider discrete-time and continuous-time observations in our theoretical developments. We prove that, for fixed observation operator, the 3DVAR filter can recovermore » the system state within a neighbourhood determined by the size of the observational noise. It is required that a sufficiently large proportion of the state vector is observed, and an explicit form for such sufficient fixed observation operator is given. Numerical experiments, where the data is incorporated by use of the 3DVAR and extended Kalman filters, suggest that less informative fixed operators than given by our theory can still lead to accurate signal reconstruction. Adaptive observation operators are then studied numerically; we show that, for carefully chosen adaptive observation operators, the proportion of the state vector that needs to be observed is drastically smaller than with a fixed observation operator. Indeed, we show that the number of state coordinates that need to be observed may even be significantly smaller than the total number of positive Lyapunov exponents of the underlying system.« less

  19. Multiscale parameterization with adaptive regularization for improved assimilation of nonlocal observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan; Oliver, Dean S.

    2012-04-01

    Dynamic data for parameter estimation in groundwater hydrology are often strongly sensitive to averages of porosity and permeability over extended regions, but only weakly sensitive to the properties of individual gridblocks. Consequently, updates of gridblock parameters from the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) will be subject to substantial error due to spurious correlations when the size of the ensemble is small. It has been shown that adaptive localization methods can reduce the magnitude of spurious correlations and regularize updates from the EnKF. In this paper we show that when data are sensitive to an average of parameters over extended regions, adaptive localization methods may eliminate true, but weak, correlations. For this type of data, there appears to be a relationship between the spatial scale of the model variables and the sensitivity of observations to the variables. By introducing a multiscale expansion with adaptive localization, we are able to increase the sensitivity to variables corresponding to large spatial scales and more accurately compute their magnitudes, while eliminating updates to variables corresponding to small spatial scales with weak correlations. Three examples with distinct features are used to compare the new method of combining adaptive localization with wavelet parameterization to the case of no localization and adaptive localization with standard gridblock parameterization. We show that the Kalman gain estimated using the wavelet parameterization with adaptive localization is less biased and has smaller root-mean-square error for the problems in which spatial averaging is important and the Kalman gain has large-scale features.

  20. Water law as an adaptation strategy for global water scarcity in the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakinuma, K.; Yoshikawa, S.; Endo, T.; Kanae, S.

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity due to climate changes and growing human population is a major concern for the world. Adaptation and mitigation strategies should be developed for water scarcity in the future. Previous studies assessed the future water availability by hard technology (e.g., reservoirs, reclaimed and desalinated water plants) as adaptation strategies. On the other hand, soft path such as water law and policy would also be important for adaptation strategies. Water transfers is reallocation of water among water users. For example, distribution of the amount of available water is often heterogeneous especially during drought periods. If water transfers are permitted in these areas, water can be moved from surplus areas/sections to critical need areas/sections. There are several studies which describe the water transfer at the local scales (i.e., water bank in California), however the factors that determined the establishment of water transfer are not clear. If we can detect the factors, it could be used to estimate in which areas the water transfer would come into existence. This in turn would reduce the water stress. Here, we focus on historical interaction between human activity and water environments. Generally, rules of water use are developed by repeated discussion among water users. The frequency of these discussions would be related with their land use, frequency of drought and water resource sizes. For example, people in rice crop area need to discuss about water allocation compared to wheat crop area. Therefore, we examine the relationship between the permission of water transfer and factors such as water environment and human activity in the world.

  1. Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation--Checklist: Development and Factor Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koth, Christine W.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Leaf, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies examined the validity and factor structure of the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation-Checklist, an instrument used to evaluate school-based programs. The checklist is a cost-effective alternative to the original interview format, and the factor structure is consistent across gender, race, age, and time of administration.…

  2. Five Methods to Score the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation Checklist and to Examine Group Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ze; Rohrer, David; Chuang, Chi-ching; Fujiki, Mayo; Herman, Keith; Reinke, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    This study compared 5 scoring methods in terms of their statistical assumptions. They were then used to score the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation Checklist, a measure consisting of 3 subscales and 21 Likert-type items. The 5 methods used were (a) sum/average scores of items, (b) latent factor scores with continuous indicators, (c)…

  3. Design of acoustic metamaterials using the covariance matrix adaptation evolutionary strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bei; Cheng, Qiang; Song, Gang Yong; Cui, Tie Jun

    2017-03-01

    Acoustic metamaterials can manipulate sound waves in surprising ways, including the focusing, cloaking, and extraordinary transmitting of sound waves. With the increasing requirements for acoustic metamaterials with extreme parameters, we propose the design of acoustic meta-atoms with a large refraction index using the covariance matrix adaptation evolutionary optimization strategy. To validate the procedure, we propose an optimized metamaterial to construct an acoustic deflection lens. The full-wave simulation results are consistent with the theoretical predictions, showing the efficacy and accuracy of the proposed method, and indicating that the optimization algorithm is a powerful tool for designing meta-atoms with excellent applications.

  4. An innovative cross-sectoral method for implementation of trade-off adaptation strategy assessment under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Jung-Hsuan; Tung, Ching-Pin; Liu, Tzu-Ming

    2014-05-01

    Climate change will increase sharp risks to the water and food supply in coming decades. Although impact assessment and adaptation evaluation has been discussed a lot in recent years, the importance of adaptation implement should not be ignored. In Taiwan, and elsewhere, fallow is an option of adaptation strategy under climate change. Fallow would improve the water scarcity of domestic use, but the food security might be threatened. The trade-off effects of adaptation actions are just like the side effects of medicine which cannot be avoided. Thus, managing water resources with an integrated approach will be urgent. This study aims to establish a cross-sectoral framework for implementation the trade-off adaptation strategy. Not only fallow, but also other trade-off strategy like increasing the percentage of national grain self-sufficiency would be analyzed by a rational decision process. The recent percentage of grain self-sufficiency in Taiwan is around 32, which was decreasing from 53 thirty years ago. Yet, the goal of increasing grain self-sufficiency means much more water must be used in agriculture. In that way, domestic users may face the water shortage situation. Considering the conflicts between water supply and food security, the concepts from integrative negotiation are appropriate to apply. The implementation of trade-off adaptation strategies needs to start by quantifying the utility of water supply and food security were be quantified. Next, each side's bottom line can be found by BATNA (Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement) and ZOPA (Zone of Possible Agreement). ZOPA provides the entire possible outcomes, and BATNA ensures the efficiency of adaptation actions by moving along with Pareto frontier. Therefore, the optimal percentage of fallow and grain self-sufficiency can be determined. Furthermore, BATNA also provides the pathway step by step which can be a guideline of adaptation strategies. This framework allows analysts and stakeholder to

  5. Adaptive data assimilation including the effect of spatial variations in observation error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frehlich, Rod

    2006-04-01

    An optimal adaptive data assimilation algorithm is derived using the maximum likelihood method based on a conditional Gaussian probability density function for the first-guess and direct observations of the state variables but including local estimates of the observation and first-guess error statistics. An interpolation of the first-guess field to the observation coordinates is not required under the assumption of locally homogeneous statistics for the random atmosphere. However, the definition of observation error requires a definition of model 'truth' which is defined as a spatial average of the continuous random atmospheric variables. Then the total observation error consists of two independent components: an instrument error and an observation sampling error defined by the spatial average of the observation and the statistics of the local turbulence. Estimates of the observation sampling error statistics are determined from an ensemble of background or first-guess fields or from the analysis of the raw data from instrumented aircraft, Doppler lidars, or radar profilers. The spatial variations of the sampling error are referenced to the local turbulence conditions at each analysis coordinate and therefore each observation can have a different observation error for each nearby analysis coordinate. The extension of the adaptive assimilation concept to include the spatial variations in observation error for statistical interpolation, 3D-Var, 4D-Var, extended Kalman filtering, and ensemble Kalman filtering is also presented for the traditional meaning of observation error, i.e. each observation is assigned a single error. The conditional analysis error is derived for a single observation at the analysis coordinate and multiple observations around the analysis point. Example calculations of the conditional analysis error are presented for a few simple set of observation and measurement geometries to demonstrate the impact of the spatially variable observation errors

  6. Flash Flood Risk Perception in an Italian Alpine Region. From Research into Adaptive Strategies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scolobig, A.; de Marchi, B.; Borga, M.

    2009-04-01

    Flash floods are characterised by short lead times and high levels of uncertainty. Adaptive strategies to face them need to take into account not only the physical characteristics of the hydro-geological phenomena, but also peoples' risk perceptions, attitudes and behaviours in case of an emergency. It is quite obvious that a precondition for an effective adaptation, e.g. in the case of a warning, is the awareness of being endangered. At the same time the perceptions of those at risk and their likely actions inform hazard warning strategies and recovery programmes following such events. Usually low risk awareness or "wrong perceptions" of the residents are considered among the causes of an inadequate preparedness or response to flash floods as well as a symptom of a scarce self-protection culture. In this paper we will focus on flood risk perception and on how research on this topic may contribute to design adaptive strategies and give inputs to flood policy decisions. We will report on a flood risk perception study of the population residing in four villages in an Italian Alpine Region (Trentino Alto-Adige), carried out between October 2005 and January 2006. A total of 400 standardised questionnaires were submitted to local residents by face to face interviews. The surveys were preceded by focus groups with officers from agencies in charge of flood risk management and semi-structured and in-depth interviews with policy, scientific and technical experts. Survey results indicated that people are not so worried about hydro-geological phenomena, and think that their community is more endangered than themselves. The knowledge of the territory and danger sources, the unpredictability of flash floods and the feeling of safety induced by structural devices are the main elements which make the difference in shaping residents' perceptions. The study also demonstrated a widespread lack of adoption of preparatory measures among residents, together with a general low

  7. The impact of climate change on grain maize production over Europe - adaptation with different irrigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceglar, A.; Srivastava, A. K.; Chukaliev, O.; Duveiller, G.; Niemeyer, S.

    2013-12-01

    The spatial distribution of water deficit and maize yield deficit across Europe has been compared between current and expected climatic conditions in the near future (time window 2030). Maize yields and water requirements were simulated using the WOFOST (World Food Studies) crop growth model. In our study, the priority has been given to future projections of the A1B emission scenario produced within the ENSEMBLE project: HadRM3 RCM nested within the HADCM3 GCM (HADLEY) and HIRHAM5 RCM nested within ECHAM5 GCM (ECHAM). The two realizations can be considered as warm (HADLEY) and cold (ECHAM5) according to simulated temperature in the near future and therefore represent the extremes in air temperature change within those analyzed in ENSEMBLES project, allowing us to evaluate the largest range of uncertainty in weather inputs to the impact model. In addition, we also explored the advantages of different irrigation strategies for the target crop to offset climate change impacts. In wake of limited amount of water availability for agriculture purposes, we explored effectiveness of three different irrigation strategies on maize yield over Europe, namely full, deficit and supplemental irrigation. The results of our study indicate that the maize yield under rainfed conditions is expected to decrease over the Southern Europe as well as regions around the Black Sea during the 2030s under both climate model realizations. Water deficit is expected to increase especially in the Mediterranean, whereas slightly less in parts of Central and Western Europe. However, adaptation strategies followed in this study negate the detrimental effect of climate change and result in an increased maize yield. Three irrigation strategies have been simulated differing in timing of water application and in the total volume of water supplied during the growing season. The results show that yields, achieved using deficit and full irrigation strategies, are not significantly different. Hence, at least

  8. Offline multiple adaptive planning strategy for concurrent irradiation of the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Peng; Xia, Ping; Pouliot, Jean; Roach, Mack

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Concurrent irradiation of the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes (PLNs) can be challenging due to the independent motion of the two target volumes. To address this challenge, the authors have proposed a strategy referred to as Multiple Adaptive Planning (MAP). To minimize the number of MAP plans, the authors’ previous work only considered the prostate motion in one major direction. After analyzing the pattern of the prostate motion, the authors investigated a practical number of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans needed to accommodate the prostate motion in two major directions simultaneously. Methods: Six patients, who received concurrent irradiation of the prostate and PLNs, were selected for this study. Nine MAP-IMRT plans were created for each patient with nine prostate contours that represented the prostate at nine locations with respect to the PLNs, including the original prostate contour and eight contours shifted either 5 mm in a single anterior-posterior (A-P), or superior-inferior (S-I) direction, or 5 mm in both A-P and S-I directions simultaneously. From archived megavoltage cone beam CT (MV-CBCT) and a dual imaging registration, 17 MV-CBCTs from 33 available MV-CBCT from these patients showed large prostate displacements (>3 mm in any direction) with respect to the pelvic bones. For each of these 17 fractions, one of nine MAP-IMRT plans was retrospectively selected and applied to the MV-CBCT for dose calculation. For comparison, a simulated isocenter-shifting plan and a reoptimized plan were also created for each of these 17 fractions. The doses to 95% (D95) of the prostate and PLNs, and the doses to 5% (D5) of the rectum and bladder were calculated and analyzed. Results: For the prostate, D95 > 97% of the prescription dose was observed in 16, 16, and 17 of 17 fractions for the MAP, isocenter-shifted, and reoptimized plans, respectively. For PLNs, D95 > 97% of the prescription doses was observed in 10, 3, and 17 of 17 fractions for

  9. Autonomous observing strategies for the ocean carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, James K.; Davis, Russ E.

    2000-07-26

    Understanding the exchanges of carbon between the atmosphere and ocean and the fate of carbon delivered to the deep sea is fundamental to the evaluation of ocean carbon sequestration options. An additional key requirement is that sequestration must be verifiable and that environmental effects be monitored and minimized. These needs can be addressed by carbon system observations made from low-cost autonomous ocean-profiling floats and gliders. We have developed a prototype ocean carbon system profiler based on the Sounding Oceanographic Lagrangian Observer (SOLO; Davis et al., 1999). The SOLO/ carbon profiler will measure the two biomass components of the carbon system and their relationship to physical variables, such as upper ocean stratification and mixing. The autonomous observations within the upper 1500 m will be made on daily time scales for periods of months to seasons and will be carried out in biologically dynamic locations in the world's oceans that are difficult to access with ships (due to weather) or observe using remote sensing satellites (due to cloud cover). Such an observational capability not only will serve an important role in carbon sequestration research but will provide key observations of the global ocean's natural carbon cycle.

  10. Adaptations to migration in birds: behavioural strategies, morphology and scaling effects.

    PubMed

    Hedenström, Anders

    2008-01-27

    The annual life cycle of many birds includes breeding, moult and migration. All these processes are time and energy consuming and the extent of investment in any one may compromise the others. The output from breeding is of course the ultimate goal for all birds, while the investment in moult and migration should be selected so that lifetime fitness is maximized. In particular, long-distance migrants breeding at high latitudes face severe time pressures, which is a probable reason why natural selection has evolved efficient behaviours, physiological and morphological adaptations allowing the maximum possible migration speed. Optimal migration theory commonly assumes time minimization as an overall strategy, but the minimization of energy cost and predation risk may also be involved. Based on these assumptions, it is possible to derive adaptive behaviours such as when and at which fuel load a stopover site should be abandoned. I review some core components of optimal migration theory together with some key predictions. A review of accumulated empirical tests of the departure rule indicates that time minimization is an important component of the overall migration strategy, and hence gives support to the assumption about time-selected migration. I also briefly discuss how the optimal policy may be implemented by the bird by applying a set of simple rules. The time constraints on migrants increase with increasing body size. Some consequences of this are discussed.

  11. Adaptive strategies of the influenza virus polymerase for replication in humans.

    PubMed

    Mehle, Andrew; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2009-12-15

    Transmission of influenza viruses into the human population requires surmounting barriers to cross-species infection. Changes in the influenza polymerase overcome one such barrier. Viruses isolated from birds generally contain polymerases with the avian-signature glutamic acid at amino acid 627 in the PB2 subunit. These polymerases display restricted activity in human cells. An adaptive change in this residue from glutamic acid to the human-signature lysine confers high levels of polymerase activity in human cells. This mutation permits escape from a species-specific restriction factor that targets polymerases from avian viruses. A 2009 swine-origin H1N1 influenza A virus recently established a pandemic infection in humans, even though the virus encodes a PB2 with the restrictive glutamic acid at amino acid 627. We show here that the 2009 H1N1 virus has acquired second-site suppressor mutations in its PB2 polymerase subunit that convey enhanced polymerase activity in human cells. Introduction of this polymorphism into the PB2 subunit of a primary avian isolate also increased polymerase activity and viral replication in human and porcine cells. An alternate adaptive strategy has also been identified, whereby introduction of a human PA subunit into an avian polymerase overcomes restriction in human cells. These data reveal a strategy used by the 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus and identify other pathways by which avian and swine-origin viruses may evolve to enhance replication, and potentially pathogenesis, in humans.

  12. Strategies for flood hazard adaptation in drought affected regions of Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleupner, Christine

    2010-05-01

    The development and management of water resources in Afghanistan are critically important for the economic development of the country. But Afghanistan presents a number of specific challenges in terms of water resource management and climate change impact assessment. Political instability and war has caused widespread devastation, insecurity, displacement, poverty and severe environmental degradation. Recent droughts have led to the collapse of many livelihoods, and poor national security restricts structured fieldwork. The recent restructuring and rebuilding of the state can be seen as opportunity to integrate climate change mitigation and adaptation measures into national, regional, and local planning. Governmental organizations are responsible to integrate climate change related issues and pro-active planning processes in water management and environmental considerations into relevant legislations, ministry and sector strategies. Integrated water resource management has been practically nonexistent during the last decades and consideration of climate change impacts are widely ignored in regional planning processes. However, flooding, landslides, drought, and extreme heat and freezing weather are already threatening the population. Climate models suggest that Afghanistan will be confronted by an increase of these events. Desertification and land degradation but also floods due to untimely rainfall are expected to broaden. Studies show that the impact of increasingly frequent flash floods may be amplified due to more rapid spring snow melt as a result of higher temperatures, combined with the downstream effects of land degradation, loss of vegetative cover and land mismanagement. It is further exacerbated by drought, which has the effect of hardening soils and reducing their permeability. In 2007 heavy floods already destroyed fields and harvests, killed livestock, damaged buildings, and claimed many lives. The intensified climatic conditions in Afghanistan will

  13. Adaptive Benefits of Storage Strategy and Dual AMPK/TOR Signaling in Metabolic Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Pfeuty, Benjamin; Thommen, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    Cellular metabolism must ensure that supply of nutrient meets the biosynthetic and bioenergetic needs. Cells have therefore developed sophisticated signaling and regulatory pathways in order to cope with dynamic fluctuations of both resource and demand and to regulate accordingly diverse anabolic and catabolic processes. Intriguingly, these pathways are organized around a relatively small number of regulatory hubs, such as the highly conserved AMPK and TOR kinase families in eukaryotic cells. Here, the global metabolic adaptations upon dynamic environment are investigated using a prototypical model of regulated metabolism. In this model, the optimal enzyme profiles as well as the underlying regulatory architecture are identified by combining perturbation and evolutionary methods. The results reveal the existence of distinct classes of adaptive strategies, which differ in the management of storage reserve depending on the intensity of the stress and in the regulation of ATP-producing reaction depending on the nature of the stress. The regulatory architecture that optimally implements these adaptive features is characterized by a crosstalk between two specialized signaling pathways, which bears close similarities with the sensing and regulatory properties of AMPK and TOR pathways. PMID:27505075

  14. The CEOS Global Observation Strategy for Disaster Risk Management: An Enterprise Architect's View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, K.; Evans, J. D.; Frye, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS), on behalf of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), is defining an enterprise architecture (known as GA.4.D) for the use of satellite observations in international disaster management. This architecture defines the scope and structure of the disaster management enterprise (based on disaster types and phases); its processes (expressed via use cases / system functions); and its core values (in particular, free and open data sharing via standard interfaces). The architecture also details how a disaster management enterprise describes, obtains, and handles earth observations and data products for decision-support; and how it draws on distributed computational services for streamlined operational capability. We have begun to apply this architecture to a new CEOS initiative, the Global Observation Strategy for Disaster Risk Management (DRM). CEOS is defining this Strategy based on the outcomes of three pilot projects focused on seismic hazards, volcanoes, and floods. These pilots offer a unique opportunity to characterize and assess the impacts (benefits / costs) of the GA.4.D architecture in practice. In particular, the DRM Floods Pilot is applying satellite-based optical and radar data to flood mitigation, warning, and response, including monitoring and modeling at regional to global scales. It is focused on serving user needs and building local institutional / technical capacity in the Caribbean, Southern Africa, and Southeast Asia. In the context of these CEOS DRM Pilots, we are characterizing where and how the GA.4D architecture helps participants to: - Understand the scope and nature of hazard events quickly and accurately - Assure timely delivery of observations into analysis, modeling, and decision-making - Streamline user access to products - Lower barriers to entry for users or suppliers - Streamline or focus field operations in

  15. Modeling of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) using WRF - Assessment of adaptation and mitigation strategies for the city of Stuttgart.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallmann, Joachim; Suppan, Peter; Emeis, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Cities are warmer than their surroundings (called urban heat island, UHI). UHI influence urban atmospheric circulation, air quality, and ecological conditions. UHI leads to upward motion and compensating near-surface inflow from the surroundings which import rural trace substances. Chemical and aerosol formation processes are modified due to increased temperature, reduced humidity and modified urban-rural trace substance mixtures. UHIs produce enhanced heat stress for humans, animals and plants, less water availability and modified air quality. Growing cities and Climate Change will aggravate the UHI and its effects and urgently require adaptation and mitigation strategies. Prior to this, UHI properties must be assessed by surface observations, ground- and satellite-based vertical remote sensing and numerical modelling. The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) is an instrument to simulate and assess this phenomenon based on boundary conditions from observations and global climate models. Three urbanization schemes are available with WRF, which are tested during this study for different weather conditions in central Europe and will be enhanced if necessary. High resolution land use maps are used for this modeling effort. In situ measurements and Landsat thermal images are employed for validation of the results. The study will focus on the city of Stuttgart located in the south western part of Germany that is situated in a caldera-like orographic feature. This municipality has a long tradition in urban climate research and thus is well equipped with climatologic measurement stations. By using Geographical Information Systems (GIS), it is possible to simulate several scenarios for different surface properties. By increasing the albedo of roof and wall layers in the urban canopy model or by replacing urban land use by natural vegetation, simple urban planning strategies can be tested and the effect on urban heat island formation and air quality can be

  16. A Functional Approach To Uncover the Low-Temperature Adaptation Strategies of the Archaeon Methanosarcina barkeri

    PubMed Central

    McCay, Paul; Fuszard, Matthew; Botting, Catherine H.; Abram, Florence; O'Flaherty, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Low-temperature anaerobic digestion (LTAD) technology is underpinned by a diverse microbial community. The methanogenic archaea represent a key functional group in these consortia, undertaking CO2 reduction as well as acetate and methylated C1 metabolism with subsequent biogas (40 to 60% CH4 and 30 to 50% CO2) formation. However, the cold adaptation strategies, which allow methanogens to function efficiently in LTAD, remain unclear. Here, a pure-culture proteomic approach was employed to study the functional characteristics of Methanosarcina barkeri (optimum growth temperature, 37°C), which has been detected in LTAD bioreactors. Two experimental approaches were undertaken. The first approach aimed to characterize a low-temperature shock response (LTSR) of M. barkeri DSMZ 800T grown at 37°C with a temperature drop to 15°C, while the second experimental approach aimed to examine the low-temperature adaptation strategies (LTAS) of the same strain when it was grown at 15°C. The latter experiment employed cell viability and growth measurements (optical density at 600 nm [OD600]), which directly compared M. barkeri cells grown at 15°C with those grown at 37°C. During the LTSR experiment, a total of 127 proteins were detected in 37°C and 15°C samples, with 20 proteins differentially expressed with respect to temperature, while in the LTAS experiment 39% of proteins identified were differentially expressed between phases of growth. Functional categories included methanogenesis, cellular information processing, and chaperones. By applying a polyphasic approach (proteomics and growth studies), insights into the low-temperature adaptation capacity of this mesophilically characterized methanogen were obtained which suggest that the metabolically diverse Methanosarcinaceae could be functionally relevant for LTAD systems. PMID:23645201

  17. LES ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) Implementation Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson Jr., WI; Vogelmann, AM

    2015-09-01

    This document illustrates the design of the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) workflow to provide a routine, high-resolution modeling capability to augment the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s high-density observations. LASSO will create a powerful new capability for furthering ARM’s mission to advance understanding of cloud, radiation, aerosol, and land-surface processes. The combined observational and modeling elements will enable a new level of scientific inquiry by connecting processes and context to observations and providing needed statistics for details that cannot be measured. The result will be improved process understanding that facilitates concomitant improvements in climate model parameterizations. The initial LASSO implementation will be for ARM’s Southern Great Plains site in Oklahoma and will focus on shallow convection, which is poorly simulated by climate models due in part to clouds’ typically small spatial scale compared to model grid spacing, and because the convection involves complicated interactions of microphysical and boundary layer processes.

  18. Clear widens the field for observations of the Sun with multi-conjugate adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Dirk; Gorceix, Nicolas; Goode, Philip R.; Marino, Jose; Rimmele, Thomas; Berkefeld, Thomas; Wöger, Friedrich; Zhang, Xianyu; Rigaut, François; von der Lühe, Oskar

    2017-01-01

    The multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) pathfinder Clear on the New Solar Telescope in Big Bear Lake has provided the first-ever MCAO-corrected observations of the Sun that show a clearly and visibly widened corrected field of view compared to quasi-simultaneous observations with classical adaptive optics (CAO) correction. Clear simultaneously uses three deformable mirrors, each conjugated to a different altitude, to compensate for atmospheric turbulence. While the MCAO correction was most effective over an angle that is approximately three times wider than the angle that was corrected by CAO, the full 53'' field of view did benefit from MCAO correction. We further demonstrate that ground-layer-only correction is attractive for solar observations as a complementary flavor of adaptive optics for observational programs that require homogenous seeing improvement over a wide field rather than diffraction-limited resolution. We show illustrative images of solar granulation and of a sunspot obtained on different days in July 2016, and present a brief quantitative analysis of the generalized Fried parameters of the images. The movies associated to Fig. 1 are available at http://www.aanda.org

  19. Real-time nutrient monitoring in rivers: adaptive sampling strategies, technological challenges and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaen, Phillip; Khamis, Kieran; Lloyd, Charlotte; Bradley, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Excessive nutrient concentrations in river waters threaten aquatic ecosystem functioning and can pose substantial risks to human health. Robust monitoring strategies are therefore required to generate reliable estimates of river nutrient loads and to improve understanding of the catchment processes that drive spatiotemporal patterns in nutrient fluxes. Furthermore, these data are vital for prediction of future trends under changing environmental conditions and thus the development of appropriate mitigation measures. In recent years, technological developments have led to an increase in the use of continuous in-situ nutrient analysers, which enable measurements at far higher temporal resolutions than can be achieved with discrete sampling and subsequent laboratory analysis. However, such instruments can be costly to run and difficult to maintain (e.g. due to high power consumption and memory requirements), leading to trade-offs between temporal and spatial monitoring resolutions. Here, we highlight how adaptive monitoring strategies, comprising a mixture of temporal sample frequencies controlled by one or more 'trigger variables' (e.g. river stage, turbidity, or nutrient concentration), can advance our understanding of catchment nutrient dynamics while simultaneously overcoming many of the practical and economic challenges encountered in typical in-situ river nutrient monitoring applications. We present examples of short-term variability in river nutrient dynamics, driven by complex catchment behaviour, which support our case for the development of monitoring systems that can adapt in real-time to rapid environmental changes. In addition, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of current nutrient monitoring techniques, and suggest new research directions based on emerging technologies and highlight how these might improve: 1) monitoring strategies, and 2) understanding of linkages between catchment processes and river nutrient fluxes.

  20. Multimodal Optimization by Covariance Matrix Self-Adaptation Evolution Strategy with Repelling Subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Ahrari, Ali; Deb, Kalyanmoy; Preuss, Mike

    2016-04-12

    During the recent decades, many niching methods have been proposed and empirically verified on some available test problems. They often rely on some particular assumptions associated with the distribution, shape, and size of the basins, which can seldom be made in practical optimization problems. This study utilizes several existing concepts and techniques, such as taboo points, normalized Mahalanobis distance, and the Ursem's hill-valley function in order to develop a new tool for multimodal optimization, which does not make any of these assumptions. In the proposed method, several subpopulations explore the search space in parallel. Offspring of a subpopulation are forced to maintain a sufficient distance to the center of fitter subpopulations and the previously identified basins, which are marked as taboo points. The taboo points repel the subpopulation to prevent convergence to the same basin. A strategy to update the repelling power of the taboo points is proposed to address the challenge of basins of dissimilar size. The local shape of a basin is also approximated by the distribution of the subpopulation members converging to that basin. The proposed niching strategy is incorporated into the covariance matrix self-adaptation evolution strategy (CMSA-ES), a potent global optimization method. The resultant method, called the covariance matrix self-adaptation with repelling subpopulations (RS-CMSA), is assessed and compared to several state-of-the-art niching methods on a standard test suite for multimodal optimization. An organized procedure for parameter setting is followed which assumes a rough estimation of the desired/expected number of minima available. Performance sensitivity to the accuracy of this estimation is also studied by introducing the concept of robust mean peak ratio. Based on the numerical results using the available and the introduced performance measures, RS-CMSA emerges as the most successful method when robustness and efficiency are

  1. Adapting to conversation with semantic dementia: using enactment as a compensatory strategy in everyday social interaction

    PubMed Central

    Kindell, Jacqueline; Sage, Karen; Keady, John; Wilkinson, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies to date in semantic dementia have examined communication in clinical or experimental settings. There is a paucity of research describing the everyday interactional skills and difficulties seen in this condition. Aims To examine the everyday conversation, at home, of an individual with semantic dementia. Methods & Procedures A 71-year-old man with semantic dementia and his wife were given a video camera and asked to record natural conversation in the home situation with no researcher present. Recordings were also made in the home environment, with the individual with semantic dementia in conversation with a member of the research team. Conversation analysis was used to transcribe and analyse the data. Recurring features were noted to identify conversational patterns. Outcomes & Results Analysis demonstrated a repeated practice by the speaker with semantic dementia of acting out a diversity of scenes (enactment). As such, the speaker regularly used direct reported speech along with paralinguistic features (such as pitch and loudness) and non-vocal communication (such as body posture, pointing and facial expression) as an adaptive strategy to communicate with others in conversation. Conclusions & Implications This case shows that while severe difficulties may be present on neuropsychological assessment, relatively effective communicative strategies may be evident in conversation. A repeated practice of enactment in conversation allowed this individual to act out, or perform what he wanted to say, allowing him to generate a greater level of meaningful communication than his limited vocabulary alone could achieve through describing the events concerned. Such spontaneously acquired adaptive strategies require further attention in both research and clinical settings in semantic dementia and analysis of interaction in this condition, using conversation analysis, may be helpful. PMID:24033649

  2. Adaptive strategies for post-renal handling of urine in birds.

    PubMed

    Laverty, Gary; Skadhauge, Erik

    2008-03-01

    Birds are a diverse vertebrate class in terms of diet and habitat, but they share several common physiological features, including the use of uric acid as the major nitrogenous waste product and the lack of a urinary bladder. Instead, ureteral urine refluxes from the urodeum into the more proximal coprodeum and portions of the hindgut (colon or rectum and ceca). This presents a potential problem in that hyperosmotic ureteral urine in contact with the permeable epithelia of these tissues would counteract renal osmotic work. This review describes and provides examples of different strategies used by avian species to balance renal and post-renal changes in urine composition. The strategies described include: 1. a "reptilian" mode, with moderate renal concentrating ability, but high rates of post-renal salt and water resorption; 2. the "mammalian" strategy, in which the coprodeum effectively functions like a mammalian urinary bladder, preserving the osmotic concentrating work of the kidney; 3. an interaction strategy, in which post-renal transport processes are hormonally regulated in order to optimize renal function under varying conditions of salt or water stress; 4. the salt gland strategy seen in marine or estuarine birds with functional salt glands, in which post-renal transport mechanisms are used to conserve urinary water and to recycle excess NaCl to the nasal salt glands. Finally, we also describe some features of an as-yet unstudied group of birds, the birds of prey. At least some species in this group are relatively good renal concentrators, and would be predicted to have post-renal mechanisms to preserve this work. This new synthesis illustrates the marked diversity of adaptive mechanisms used by avian species to maintain osmotic homeostasis.

  3. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  4. Strategies GeoCape Intelligent Observation Studies @ GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cappelaere, Pat; Frye, Stu; Moe, Karen; Mandl, Dan; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Flatley, Tom; Geist, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides information a summary of the tradeoff studies conducted for GeoCape by the GSFC team in terms of how to optimize GeoCape observation efficiency. Tradeoffs include total ground scheduling with simple priorities, ground scheduling with cloud forecast, ground scheduling with sub-area forecast, onboard scheduling with onboard cloud detection and smart onboard scheduling and onboard image processing. The tradeoffs considered optimzing cost, downlink bandwidth and total number of images acquired.

  5. Distributed Adaptive Fuzzy Control for Nonlinear Multiagent Systems Via Sliding Mode Observers.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qikun; Shi, Peng; Shi, Yan

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the problem of distributed adaptive fuzzy control is investigated for high-order uncertain nonlinear multiagent systems on directed graph with a fixed topology. It is assumed that only the outputs of each follower and its neighbors are available in the design of its distributed controllers. Equivalent output injection sliding mode observers are proposed for each follower to estimate the states of itself and its neighbors, and an observer-based distributed adaptive controller is designed for each follower to guarantee that it asymptotically synchronizes to a leader with tracking errors being semi-globally uniform ultimate bounded, in which fuzzy logic systems are utilized to approximate unknown functions. Based on algebraic graph theory and Lyapunov function approach, using Filippov-framework, the closed-loop system stability analysis is conducted. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the effectiveness and potential of the developed design techniques.

  6. Climate Change Predictions and Adaption Strategies for Coastal NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Young, R.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change could significantly impact the personal and operations of federal coastal laboratories. The Goddard Institute for Space Studies has made downscaled climate projections for Hampton Roads, Virginia a coastal region which includes NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). These projections are being used to formulate adaptation and mitigation strategies to reduce climate change impacts at the center. Sea level rise and hurricanes will have significant impacts on LaRC and strategies such as surge modeling and tide gauge measurements and now underway. A proposed windbreak will reduce the impact of hurricane winds on center infrastructure. Disease vectors such as mosquitoes and ticks are being monitored and studied for their response to climate change. LaRC has significant forest and ecosystems which will be impacted by climate change and these impacts are being quantified. Mitigation strategies are being proposed such as the design of a 3 MW solar photovoltaic array to protect the center from brownouts and loss of power to critical missions. These and other programs will be discussed to reduce climate change impacts and allow LaRC to accomplish its mission into the next century.

  7. Complementing institutional with localised strategies for climate change adaptation: a South-North comparison.

    PubMed

    Wamsler, Christine; Lawson, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and disasters pose a serious risk to sustainable development. In the South, local coping strategies are an important element of adaptation to climate and disaster risk. Such strategies have emerged because of the limited assistance provided by urban actors and associated social security and governance systems. In the North, in contrast, local coping strategies are comparatively poorly developed. However, the extent of the changing climatic conditions is also reducing the capacity of Northern institutions to deal with climatic extremes and variability, which emphasises the need for more local-level engagement in the North. This paper analyses the differences in local and institutional responses to climate change and disasters in a Southern and a Northern city (San Salvador, El Salvador, and Manchester, United Kingdom, respectively), and highlights how the lessons learned might be translated into an improved distributed governance system; that is, an 'integrated engagement model', where local and institutionalised responses support rather than hinder each other, as is currently the case.

  8. Forest adjacent households' voices on their perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Balama, Chelestino; Augustino, Suzana; Eriksen, Siri; Makonda, Fortunatus B S

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a global and local challenge to both sustainable livelihoods and economic development. Tanzania as other countries of the world has been affected. Several studies have been conducted on farmers' perceptions and adaptation to climate change in the country, but little attention has been devoted to forest adjacent households in humid areas. This study assessed this gap through assessing forest adjacent households' voices on perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania. Data collection involved key informant interviews, focus group discussions and household questionnaires. Results showed that the majority of households perceived changed climate in terms of temperature increase, unpredictable rainfall, frequent occurrence of floods, increased dry spells during rainy season coupled with decreased water sources and emergence of new pests and diseases. The perceived change in climate has impacted agriculture productivity as the main livelihood source. Different coping and adaptation strategies are employed. These are; crop diversification, changing cropping calendar, adopting modern farming technologies, and increasing reliance on non-timber forest products. These strategies were positively and significantly influenced by socio-economic factors including household size, residence period, land ownership and household income. The study concludes that, there are changes in climatic conditions; and to respond to these climatic changes, forest adjacent households have developed numerous coping and adaptation strategies, which were positively and significantly influenced by some socio-economic factors. The study calls for actual implementation of local climate change policies and strategies in order to enhance adaptive capacity at household level.

  9. Adhesive Sociocultural Adaptation of Korean Immigrants in the U.S.: An Alternative Strategy of Minority Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurh, Won Moo; Kim, Kwang Chung

    1984-01-01

    "Adhesive adaptation" occurs when aspects of a new culture and social relations with members of the host society are added on to immigrants' traditional culture and social networks, without replacing or modifying any significant part of the old. Interviews with 615 Korean immigrants empirically confirmed this adaptation model. (Author/KH)

  10. Sliding mode disturbance observer-based adaptive integral backstepping control of a piezoelectric nano-manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yangming; Yan, Peng

    2016-12-01

    This paper investigates a systematic modeling and control methodology for a multi-axis PZT (piezoelectric transducer) actuated servo stage supporting nano-manipulations. A sliding mode disturbance observer-based adaptive integral backstepping control method with an estimated inverse model compensation scheme is proposed to achieve ultra high precision tracking in the presence of the hysteresis nonlinearities, model uncertainties, and external disturbances. By introducing a time rate of the input signal, an enhanced rate-dependent Prandtl-Ishlinskii model is developed to describe the hysteresis behaviors, and its inverse is also constructed to mitigate their adverse effects. In particular, the corresponding inverse compensation error is analyzed and its boundedness is proven. Subsequently, the sliding mode disturbance observer-based adaptive integral backstepping controller is designed to guarantee the convergence of the tracking error, where the sliding mode disturbance observer can track the total disturbances in a finite time, while the integral action is incorporated into the adaptive backstepping design to improve the steady-state control accuracy. Finally, real time implementations of the proposed algorithm are applied on the PZT actuated servo system, where excellent tracking performance with tracking precision error around 6‰ for circular contour tracking is achieved in the experimental results.

  11. Adaptive nonlinear observer for state and unknown parameter estimation in noisy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayaraghavan, Krishna; Valibeygi, Amir

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel adaptive observer for Lipschitz nonlinear systems and dissipative nonlinear systems in the presence of disturbances and sensor noise. The observer is based on an H∞ observer that can estimate both the system states and unknown parameters by minimising a cost function consisting of the sum of the square integrals of the estimation errors in the states and unknown parameters. The paper presents necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of the observer, and the equations for determining observer gains are formulated as linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) that can be solved offline using commercially available LMI solvers. The observer design has also been extended to the case of time-varying unknown parameters. The use of the observer is demonstrated through illustrative examples and the performance is compared with extended Kalman filtering. Compared to previous results on nonlinear observers, the proposed observer is more computationally efficient, and guarantees state and parameter estimation for two very broad classes of nonlinear systems (Lipschitz and dissipative nonlinear systems) in the presence of input disturbances and sensor noise. In addition, the proposed observer does not require online computation of the observer gain.

  12. Adaptive strategies in nocturnally migrating insects and songbirds: contrasting responses to wind.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Jason W; Nilsson, Cecilia; Lim, Ka S; Bäckman, Johan; Reynolds, Don R; Alerstam, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Animals that use flight as their mode of transportation must cope with the fact that their migration and orientation performance is strongly affected by the flow of the medium they are moving in, that is by the winds. Different strategies can be used to mitigate the negative effects and benefit from the positive effects of a moving flow. The strategies an animal can use will be constrained by the relationship between the speed of the flow and the speed of the animal's own propulsion in relation to the surrounding air. Here we analyse entomological and ornithological radar data from north-western Europe to investigate how two different nocturnal migrant taxa, the noctuid moth Autographa gamma and songbirds, deal with wind by analysing variation in resulting flight directions in relation to the wind-dependent angle between the animal's heading and track direction. Our results, from fixed locations along the migratory journey, reveal different global strategies used by moths and songbirds during their migratory journeys. As expected, nocturnally migrating moths experienced a greater degree of wind drift than nocturnally migrating songbirds, but both groups were more affected by wind in autumn than in spring. The songbirds' strategies involve elements of both drift and compensation, providing some benefits from wind in combination with destination and time control. In contrast, moths expose themselves to a significantly higher degree of drift in order to obtain strong wind assistance, surpassing the songbirds in mean ground speed, at the cost of a comparatively lower spatiotemporal migratory precision. Moths and songbirds show contrasting but adaptive responses to migrating through a moving flow, which are fine-tuned to the respective flight capabilities of each group in relation to the wind currents they travel within.

  13. Microevolution from shock to adaptation revealed strategies improving ethanol tolerance and production in Thermoanaerobacter

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The molecular links between shock-response and adaptation remain poorly understood, particularly for extremophiles. This has hindered rational engineering of solvent tolerance and correlated traits (e.g., productivity) in extremophiles. To untangle such molecular links, here we established a model that tracked the microevolution from shock to adaptation in thermophilic bacteria. Method Temporal dynamics of genomes and transcriptomes was tracked for Thermoanaerobacter sp. X514 which under increasing exogenous ethanol evolved from ethanol-sensitive wild-type (Strain X) to tolerance of 2%- (XI) and eventually 6%-ethanol (XII). Based on the reconstructed transcriptional network underlying stress tolerance, genetic engineering was employed to improve ethanol tolerance and production in Thermoanaerobacter. Results The spontaneous genome mutation rate (μg) of Thermoanaerobacter sp. X514, calculated at 0.045, suggested a higher mutation rate in thermophile than previously thought. Transcriptomic comparison revealed that shock-response and adaptation were distinct in nature, whereas the transcriptomes of XII resembled those of the extendedly shocked X. To respond to ethanol shock, X employed fructose-specific phosphotransferase system (PTS), Arginine Deiminase (ADI) pathway, alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) and a distinct mechanism of V-type ATPase. As an adaptation to exogenous ethanol, XI mobilized resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) efflux system and Adh, whereas XII, which produced higher ethanol than XI, employed ECF-type ϭ24, an alcohol catabolism operon and phase-specific heat-shock proteins (Hsps), modulated hexose/pentose-transport operon structure and reinforced membrane rigidity. Exploiting these findings, we further showed that ethanol productivity and tolerance can be improved simultaneously by overexpressing adh or ϭ24 in X. Conclusion Our work revealed thermophilic-bacteria specific features of adaptive evolution and demonstrated a rational

  14. Adaptive super-twisting observer for estimation of random road excitation profile in automotive suspension systems.

    PubMed

    Rath, J J; Veluvolu, K C; Defoort, M

    2014-01-01

    The estimation of road excitation profile is important for evaluation of vehicle stability and vehicle suspension performance for autonomous vehicle control systems. In this work, the nonlinear dynamics of the active automotive system that is excited by the unknown road excitation profile are considered for modeling. To address the issue of estimation of road profile, we develop an adaptive supertwisting observer for state and unknown road profile estimation. Under Lipschitz conditions for the nonlinear functions, the convergence of the estimation error is proven. Simulation results with Ford Fiesta MK2 demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed observer for state and unknown input estimation for nonlinear active suspension system.

  15. Study on Chaotic Fault Tolerant Synchronization Control Based on Adaptive Observer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dongming; Huang, Xinyu; Ren, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the abrupt faults of the chaotic system, an adaptive observer is proposed to trace the states of the master system. The sufficient conditions for synchronization of such chaotic systems are also derived. Then the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are illustrated via numerical simulations of chaotic Chen system. Finally, the proposed synchronization schemes are applied to secure communication system successfully. The experimental results demonstrate that the employed observer can manage real-time fault diagnosis and parameter identification as well as states tracing of the master system, and so the synchronization of master system and slave system is achieved. PMID:24959615

  16. Adaptive Super-Twisting Observer for Estimation of Random Road Excitation Profile in Automotive Suspension Systems

    PubMed Central

    Rath, J. J.; Veluvolu, K. C.; Defoort, M.

    2014-01-01

    The estimation of road excitation profile is important for evaluation of vehicle stability and vehicle suspension performance for autonomous vehicle control systems. In this work, the nonlinear dynamics of the active automotive system that is excited by the unknown road excitation profile are considered for modeling. To address the issue of estimation of road profile, we develop an adaptive supertwisting observer for state and unknown road profile estimation. Under Lipschitz conditions for the nonlinear functions, the convergence of the estimation error is proven. Simulation results with Ford Fiesta MK2 demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed observer for state and unknown input estimation for nonlinear active suspension system. PMID:24683321

  17. A Teaching Strategy for Developing the Power of Observation in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguz-Unver, Ayse; Yurumezoglu, Kemal

    2009-01-01

    Despite the importance of observation in knowledge building, it has received less attention than experimental forms of inquiry in science education. Therefore, the aims of this study are to use observation strategies for developing the power of observation in science education and to develop student teachers' skills of observation process. The…

  18. Adaptive strategies of Yersinia pestis to persist during inter-epizootic and epizootic periods

    PubMed Central

    Eisen, Rebecca J.; Gage, Kenneth L.

    2009-01-01

    Plague is a flea-borne zoonotic bacterial disease caused by Yersinia pestis. It has caused three historical pandemics, including the Black Death which killed nearly a third of Europe's population in the 14th century. In modern times, plague epizootics can extirpate entire susceptible wildlife populations and then disappear for long time periods. Understanding how Y. pestis is maintained during inter-epizootic periods and the factors responsible for transitioning to epizootics is important for preventing and controlling pathogen transmission and ultimately reducing the burden of human disease. In this review, we focus primarily on plague in North American foci and discuss the potential adaptive strategies Y. pestis might employ to ensure not only its survival during inter-epizootic periods but also the rapid epizootic spread and invasion of new territories that are so characteristic of plague and have resulted in major pandemics and establishment of plague foci throughout much of the world. PMID:18803931

  19. Adapting to aging losses: do resources facilitate strategies of selection, compensation, and optimization in everyday functioning?

    PubMed

    Lang, Frieder R; Rieckmann, Nina; Baltes, Margret M

    2002-11-01

    Previous cross-sectional research has shown that older people who are rich in sensorimotor-cognitive and social-personality resources are better functioning in everyday life and exhibit fewer negative age differences than resource-poor adults. Longitudinal data from the Berlin Aging Study was used to examine these findings across a 4-year time interval and to compare cross-sectional indicators of adaptive everyday functioning among survivors and nonsurvivors. Apart from their higher survival rate, resource-rich older people (a) invest more social time with their family members, (b) reduce the diversity of activities within the most salient leisure domain, (c) sleep more often and longer during daytime, and (d) increase the variability of time investments across activities after 4 years. Overall, findings suggest a greater use of selection, compensation, and optimization strategies in everyday functioning among resource-rich older adults as compared with resource-poor older adults.

  20. Weighted log-rank statistic to compare shared-path adaptive treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Kidwell, Kelley M; Wahed, Abdus S

    2013-04-01

    Adaptive treatment strategies (ATSs) more closely mimic the reality of a physician's prescription process where the physician prescribes a medication to his/her patient, and based on that patient's response to the medication, modifies the treatment. Two-stage randomization designs, more generally, sequential multiple assignment randomization trial designs, are useful to assess ATSs where the interest is in comparing the entire sequence of treatments, including the patient's intermediate response. In this paper, we introduce the notion of shared-path and separate-path ATSs and propose a weighted log-rank statistic to compare overall survival distributions of multiple two-stage ATSs, some of which may be shared-path. Large sample properties of the statistic are derived and the type I error rate and power of the test are compared with the standard log-rank test through simulation.

  1. Adaptive strategies of remote systems operators exposed to perturbed camera-viewing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Mark A.; Manahan, Meera K.; Bierschwale, John M.; Sampaio, Carlos E.; Legendre, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes a preliminary investigation of the use of perturbed visual feedback during the performance of simulated space-based remote manipulation tasks. The primary objective of this NASA evaluation was to determine to what extent operators exhibit adaptive strategies which allow them to perform these specific types of remote manipulation tasks more efficiently while exposed to perturbed visual feedback. A secondary objective of this evaluation was to establish a set of preliminary guidelines for enhancing remote manipulation performance and reducing the adverse effects. These objectives were accomplished by studying the remote manipulator performance of test subjects exposed to various perturbed camera-viewing conditions while performing a simulated space-based remote manipulation task. Statistical analysis of performance and subjective data revealed that remote manipulation performance was adversely affected by the use of perturbed visual feedback and performance tended to improve with successive trials in most perturbed viewing conditions.

  2. Comparison of adaptive treatment strategies based on longitudinal outcomes in sequential multiple assignment randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiguo

    2017-02-10

    In sequential multiple assignment randomized trials, longitudinal outcomes may be the most important outcomes of interest because this type of trials is usually conducted in areas of chronic diseases or conditions. We propose to use a weighted generalized estimating equation (GEE) approach to analyzing data from such type of trials for comparing two adaptive treatment strategies based on generalized linear models. Although the randomization probabilities are known, we consider estimated weights in which the randomization probabilities are replaced by their empirical estimates and prove that the resulting weighted GEE estimator is more efficient than the estimators with true weights. The variance of the weighted GEE estimator is estimated by an empirical sandwich estimator. The time variable in the model can be linear, piecewise linear, or more complicated forms. This provides more flexibility that is important because, in the adaptive treatment setting, the treatment changes over time and, hence, a single linear trend over the whole period of study may not be practical. Simulation results show that the weighted GEE estimators of regression coefficients are consistent regardless of the specification of the correlation structure of the longitudinal outcomes. The weighted GEE method is then applied in analyzing data from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Strategies to overcome photobleaching in algorithm-based adaptive optics for nonlinear in-vivo imaging.

    PubMed

    Caroline Müllenbroich, M; McGhee, Ewan J; Wright, Amanda J; Anderson, Kurt I; Mathieson, Keith

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a nonlinear adaptive optics microscope utilizing a deformable membrane mirror (DMM) and demonstrated its use in compensating for system- and sample-induced aberrations. The optimum shape of the DMM was determined with a random search algorithm optimizing on either two photon fluorescence or second harmonic signals as merit factors. We present here several strategies to overcome photobleaching issues associated with lengthy optimization routines by adapting the search algorithm and the experimental methodology. Optimizations were performed on extrinsic fluorescent dyes, fluorescent beads loaded into organotypic tissue cultures and the intrinsic second harmonic signal of these cultures. We validate the approach of using these preoptimized mirror shapes to compile a robust look-up table that can be applied for imaging over several days and through a variety of tissues. In this way, the photon exposure to the fluorescent cells under investigation is limited to imaging. Using our look-up table approach, we show signal intensity improvement factors ranging from 1.7 to 4.1 in organotypic tissue cultures and freshly excised mouse tissue. Imaging zebrafish in vivo, we demonstrate signal improvement by a factor of 2. This methodology is easily reproducible and could be applied to many photon starved experiments, for example fluorescent life time imaging, or when photobleaching is a concern.

  4. Wind speed variability and adaptation strategies in coastal areas of the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Bradford

    Overall, previous wind speed studies in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) present conflicting results for wind speed trends (both increasing and decreasing) in relation to climate drivers. This study fills a gap in the understanding of PNW wind behaviour by: determining if relationships exist between wind speed distributions, ocean/atmospheric climate indices, and monitoring station-specific attributes; assessing the robustness of relationships for forecasting wind speeds within the study area; and presenting adaptation strategies to wind damage. Analyzing the quantiles of the strongly skewed (non-normal) wind speed distributions reveals different behaviours for average and extreme wind speeds and significantly stronger winds at coastal locations compared with sites further inland. Coast locations appear to follow a nine-year cyclic pattern, while mainland sites have a downward wind speed trend. This finding has important implications for wind research and infrastructure or ecosystem planning in areas such as wind energy feasibility studies and timing management activities. Keywords: Wind speed; Pacific Northwest; Quantiles; Linear mixed-effects model; Variability; Adaptation; Climate change.

  5. Climate Variability, Andean Livelihood Strategies, Development and Adaptation in the Andean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia, C.; Quiroz, R.; Zorogastua, P.; Baigorrea, G.

    2002-05-01

    Development programs in the Andes have failed to recognize climate variability as an element that is crucial to the adoption of new alternatives. Dairy, potatoes, improved sheep, forages are all part of the history of development in this region. A combination of climate variability, changes in the economy, the political environment, and land tenure reform shape rural livelihoods and welfare. Diversification, linking to markets, and networking are some elements that contribute to the resilience of families in the Andes. Strategies change, are flexible, and may incorporate non-agricultural activities. While some farmers are able to improve their welfare through the life cycle, others become poorer. Climate variability increases the vulnerability of some groups; in other cases, because of diversification and assets, households build economic portfolios that are more resilient to the elements. The many projects provide insights into how in the long run households improve their environment, hinting at mechanisms to adapt to climate change. In order to understand changing composition of portfolios in future scenarios of spatial heterogeneous areas such as mountains (Andes), estimates of models predicting climate change at a global scale are not useful because their resolution. Therefore, downscaling tools are useful. Spatial heterogeneity is assessed through agroecozoning. Both production and the impact on some environmental indicators are simulated through process-based models, for the Ilave-Huenque watershed in Peru that help in discussing scenarios of adaptation.

  6. Recruiting hard-to-reach United States population sub-groups via adaptations of snowball sampling strategy

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; Lee, Hau-Chen; Seung-Hwan Lim, Rod; Fullerton, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Nurse researchers and educators often engage in outreach to narrowly defined populations. This article offers examples of how variations on the snowball sampling recruitment strategy can be applied in the creation of culturally appropriate, community-based information dissemination efforts related to recruitment to health education programs and research studies. Examples from the primary author’s program of research are provided to demonstrate how adaptations of snowball sampling can be effectively used in the recruitment of members of traditionally underserved or vulnerable populations. The adaptation of snowball sampling techniques, as described in this article, helped the authors to gain access to each of the more vulnerable population groups of interest. The use of culturally sensitive recruitment strategies is both appropriate and effective in enlisting the involvement of members of vulnerable populations. Adaptations of snowball sampling strategies should be considered when recruiting participants for education programs or subjects for research studies when recruitment of a population based sample is not essential. PMID:20727089

  7. Effect of a large gaming neighborhood and a strategy adaptation neighborhood for bolstering network reciprocity in a prisoner's dilemma game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogasawara, Takashi; Tanimoto, Jun; Fukuda, Eriko; Hagishima, Aya; Ikegaya, Naoki

    2014-12-01

    In 2 × 2 prisoner's dilemma (PD) games, network reciprocity is one mechanism for adding social viscosity, leading to a cooperative equilibrium. In this paper, we explain how gaming neighborhoods and strategy-adaptation neighborhoods affect network reciprocity independently in spatial PD games. We explore an appropriate range of strategy adaptation neighborhoods as opposed to the conventional method of making the gaming and strategy adaptation neighborhoods coincide to enhance the level of cooperation. In cases of expanding gaming neighborhoods, network reciprocity falls to a low level relative to the conventional setting. In the discussion below, which is based on the results of our simulation, we explore how these enhancements come about. Essentially, varying the range of the neighborhoods influences how cooperative clusters form and expand in the evolutionary process.

  8. An Integrated Framework for Assessing Vulnerability to Climate Change and Developing Adaptation Strategies for Coffee Growing Families in Mesoamerica

    PubMed Central

    Baca, María; Läderach, Peter; Haggar, Jeremy; Schroth, Götz; Ovalle, Oriana

    2014-01-01

    The Mesoamerican region is considered to be one of the areas in the world most vulnerable to climate change. We developed a framework for quantifying the vulnerability of the livelihoods of coffee growers in Mesoamerica at regional and local levels and identify adaptation strategies. Following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concepts, vulnerability was defined as the combination of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. To quantify exposure, changes in the climatic suitability for coffee and other crops were predicted through niche modelling based on historical climate data and locations of coffee growing areas from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. Future climate projections were generated from 19 Global Circulation Models. Focus groups were used to identify nine indicators of sensitivity and eleven indicators of adaptive capacity, which were evaluated through semi-structured interviews with 558 coffee producers. Exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity were then condensed into an index of vulnerability, and adaptation strategies were identified in participatory workshops. Models predict that all target countries will experience a decrease in climatic suitability for growing Arabica coffee, with highest suitability loss for El Salvador and lowest loss for Mexico. High vulnerability resulted from loss in climatic suitability for coffee production and high sensitivity through variability of yields and out-migration of the work force. This was combined with low adaptation capacity as evidenced by poor post harvest infrastructure and in some cases poor access to credit and low levels of social organization. Nevertheless, the specific contributors to vulnerability varied strongly among countries, municipalities and families making general trends difficult to identify. Flexible strategies for adaption are therefore needed. Families need the support of government and institutions specialized in impacts of climate change and

  9. An integrated framework for assessing vulnerability to climate change and developing adaptation strategies for coffee growing families in Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Baca, María; Läderach, Peter; Haggar, Jeremy; Schroth, Götz; Ovalle, Oriana

    2014-01-01

    The Mesoamerican region is considered to be one of the areas in the world most vulnerable to climate change. We developed a framework for quantifying the vulnerability of the livelihoods of coffee growers in Mesoamerica at regional and local levels and identify adaptation strategies. Following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concepts, vulnerability was defined as the combination of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. To quantify exposure, changes in the climatic suitability for coffee and other crops were predicted through niche modelling based on historical climate data and locations of coffee growing areas from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. Future climate projections were generated from 19 Global Circulation Models. Focus groups were used to identify nine indicators of sensitivity and eleven indicators of adaptive capacity, which were evaluated through semi-structured interviews with 558 coffee producers. Exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity were then condensed into an index of vulnerability, and adaptation strategies were identified in participatory workshops. Models predict that all target countries will experience a decrease in climatic suitability for growing Arabica coffee, with highest suitability loss for El Salvador and lowest loss for Mexico. High vulnerability resulted from loss in climatic suitability for coffee production and high sensitivity through variability of yields and out-migration of the work force. This was combined with low adaptation capacity as evidenced by poor post harvest infrastructure and in some cases poor access to credit and low levels of social organization. Nevertheless, the specific contributors to vulnerability varied strongly among countries, municipalities and families making general trends difficult to identify. Flexible strategies for adaption are therefore needed. Families need the support of government and institutions specialized in impacts of climate change and

  10. Disturbance observer based active and adaptive synchronization of energy resource chaotic system.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Meng; Li, Donghai; Zuo, Min; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, synchronization of a three-dimensional energy resource chaotic system is considered. For the sake of achieving the synchronization between the drive and response systems, two different nonlinear control approaches, i.e. active control with known parameters and adaptive control with unknown parameters, have been designed. In order to guarantee the transient performance, finite-time boundedness (FTB) and finite-time stability (FTS) are introduced in the design of active control and adaptive control, respectively. Simultaneously, in view of the existence of disturbances, a new disturbance observer is proposed to estimate the disturbance. The conditions of the asymptotic stability for the closed-loop system are obtained. Numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the proposed approaches.

  11. Improve earthquake hypocenter using adaptive simulated annealing inversion in regional tectonic, volcano tectonic, and geothermal observation

    SciTech Connect

    Ry, Rexha Verdhora; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2015-04-24

    Observation of earthquakes is routinely used widely in tectonic activity observation, and also in local scale such as volcano tectonic and geothermal activity observation. It is necessary for determining the location of precise hypocenter which the process involves finding a hypocenter location that has minimum error between the observed and the calculated travel times. When solving this nonlinear inverse problem, simulated annealing inversion method can be applied to such global optimization problems, which the convergence of its solution is independent of the initial model. In this study, we developed own program codeby applying adaptive simulated annealing inversion in Matlab environment. We applied this method to determine earthquake hypocenter using several data cases which are regional tectonic, volcano tectonic, and geothermal field. The travel times were calculated using ray tracing shooting method. We then compared its results with the results using Geiger’s method to analyze its reliability. Our results show hypocenter location has smaller RMS error compared to the Geiger’s result that can be statistically associated with better solution. The hypocenter of earthquakes also well correlated with geological structure in the study area. Werecommend using adaptive simulated annealing inversion to relocate hypocenter location in purpose to get precise and accurate earthquake location.

  12. Improve earthquake hypocenter using adaptive simulated annealing inversion in regional tectonic, volcano tectonic, and geothermal observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ry, Rexha Verdhora; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2015-04-01

    Observation of earthquakes is routinely used widely in tectonic activity observation, and also in local scale such as volcano tectonic and geothermal activity observation. It is necessary for determining the location of precise hypocenter which the process involves finding a hypocenter location that has minimum error between the observed and the calculated travel times. When solving this nonlinear inverse problem, simulated annealing inversion method can be applied to such global optimization problems, which the convergence of its solution is independent of the initial model. In this study, we developed own program codeby applying adaptive simulated annealing inversion in Matlab environment. We applied this method to determine earthquake hypocenter using several data cases which are regional tectonic, volcano tectonic, and geothermal field. The travel times were calculated using ray tracing shooting method. We then compared its results with the results using Geiger's method to analyze its reliability. Our results show hypocenter location has smaller RMS error compared to the Geiger's result that can be statistically associated with better solution. The hypocenter of earthquakes also well correlated with geological structure in the study area. Werecommend using adaptive simulated annealing inversion to relocate hypocenter location in purpose to get precise and accurate earthquake location.

  13. The effects of vehicular gap changes with memory on traffic flow in cooperative adaptive cruise control strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shaowei; Shi, Zhongke

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the impacts of new influence factor in cooperative adaptive cruise control strategy on the dynamic characteristics of traffic flow, an improved cooperative car-following model considering multiple vehicular gap changes with memory is developed to study the influences of multiple vehicular gap changes with memory on each car's speed, acceleration and relative distance. Some numerical simulations are carried out and the results show that considering multiple vehicular gap changes with memory in designing the cooperative adaptive cruise control strategy can improve the stability of traffic flow and reduce the accidental probability.

  14. The Active Side of Stereopsis: Fixation Strategy and Adaptation to Natural Environments

    PubMed Central

    Gibaldi, Agostino; Canessa, Andrea; Sabatini, Silvio P.

    2017-01-01

    Depth perception in near viewing strongly relies on the interpretation of binocular retinal disparity to obtain stereopsis. Statistical regularities of retinal disparities have been claimed to greatly impact on the neural mechanisms that underlie binocular vision, both to facilitate perceptual decisions and to reduce computational load. In this paper, we designed a novel and unconventional approach in order to assess the role of fixation strategy in conditioning the statistics of retinal disparity. We integrated accurate realistic three-dimensional models of natural scenes with binocular eye movement recording, to obtain accurate ground-truth statistics of retinal disparity experienced by a subject in near viewing. Our results evidence how the organization of human binocular visual system is finely adapted to the disparity statistics characterizing actual fixations, thus revealing a novel role of the active fixation strategy over the binocular visual functionality. This suggests an ecological explanation for the intrinsic preference of stereopsis for a close central object surrounded by a far background, as an early binocular aspect of the figure-ground segregation process. PMID:28317909

  15. An adaptive strategy for reducing Feral Cat predation on endangered hawaiian birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, S.C.; Banko, P.C.; Hansen, H.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the long history of Feral Cats Felis catus in Hawai'i, there has been little research to provide strategies to improve control programmes and reduce depredation on endangered species. Our objective Was to develop a predictive model to determine how landscape features on Mauna Kea, such as habitat, elevation, and proximity to roads, may affect the number of Feral Cats captured at each trap. We used log-link generalized linear models and QAIC c model ranking criteria to determine the effect of these factors. We found that The number of cats captured per trap Was related to effort, habitat type, and Whether traps Were located on The West or North Slope of Mauna Kea. We recommend an adaptive management strategy to minimize trapping interference by non-target Small Indian Mongoose Herpestes auropunctatus with toxicants, to focus trapping efforts in M??mane Sophora chrysophylla habitat on the West slope of Mauna Kea, and to cluster traps near others that have previously captured multiple cats.

  16. [Strategies and mechanisms of soil springtails in adapting lower temperature environment: research progress].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Wang, Yun-Biao; Wu, Dong-Hui

    2012-12-01

    Low temperature and drought are the main environmental factors threatening the animals living in arctic area and cold temperate regions. To adapt the severe environment, the animals should adopt appropriate strategies. As a group of arthopods with freeze-avoiding strategy, soil springtails have the similar ecological mechanisms and modes of cold resistance/tolerance as insects, manifesting in the cold acclimation and drought tolerance to decrease the damage of ice crystal formation. During cold acclimation, there are a rapid increase of glycerol, a rapid decrease of fucose and glucose, and the production of anti-freeze proteins (AFP) , and exists the inter-transformation of different kinds of lipids to improve the flow of cell membrane to protect the cell from low temperature injury. In addition, soil springtails have their own specific modes and mechanisms to tolerate low temperature stress, mainly the vertical migration under the protection of snow cover and the excretion of ice nucleator from haemolymph, illustrating that it's of significance to research the cryobiology of soil springtails. This paper summarized the modes and mechanisms of soil springtails in tolerating low temperature environment, reviewed the research progress on the eco-physiology of the springtails, discussed the existing problems of the researches on the low temperature tolerance of the springtails, and prospected the research directions of the springtails low temperature ecology under the background of global change.

  17. Land use and management change under climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies: a U.S. case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mu, Jianhong E.; Wein, Anne; McCarl, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We examine the effects of crop management adaptation and climate mitigation strategies on land use and land management, plus on related environmental and economic outcomes. We find that crop management adaptation (e.g. crop mix, new species) increases Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 1.7 % under a more severe climate projection while a carbon price reduces total forest and agriculture GHG annual flux by 15 % and 9 %, respectively. This shows that trade-offs are likely between mitigation and adaptation. Climate change coupled with crop management adaptation has small and mostly negative effects on welfare; mitigation, which is implemented as a carbon price starting at $15 per metric ton carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent with a 5 % annual increase rate, bolsters welfare carbon payments. When both crop management adaptation and carbon price are implemented the effects of the latter dominates.

  18. Development of a viewing strategy during adaptation to an artificial central scotoma.

    PubMed

    Varsori, Michael; Perez-Fornos, Angelica; Safran, Avinoam B; Whatham, Andrew R

    2004-10-01

    without guided training; (2) two distinctly separate retinal areas can be used in an integrated manner during reading; (4) stimulus position in visual space can influence viewing strategy; (5) in general, reading encourages a preference for the inferior over the superior visual field, but not the left over right visual field. Letter/word/text recognition and reading speeds increased progressively across sessions, even after scotoma lateralisation appeared stabilised suggesting that multiple mechanism are involved in adaptive changes.

  19. Concurrent Validity of the Classroom Strategies Scale for Elementary School--Observer Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Dudek, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study is an initial investigation of the concurrent validity of a new assessment, the Classroom Strategies Scale (CSS version 2.0) for Elementary School--Observer Form. The CSS assesses teachers' use of instructional and behavioral management strategies. In the present study, the CSS is compared to the Classroom Assessment Scoring…

  20. Factors Associated with South Korean Early Childhood Educators' Observed Behavior Support Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yeon Ha; Stormont, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    This study was an exploratory study of 34 South Korean early childhood educators' strategies for addressing behavior problems in natural settings. Factors related to teachers' strategy implementation were also explored. Four specific teacher behaviors were observed: precorrection, behavioral-specific praise, redirection, and reprimand/punishment.…

  1. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  2. Binary stars observed with adaptive optics at the starfire optical range

    SciTech Connect

    Drummond, Jack D.

    2014-03-01

    In reviewing observations taken of binary stars used as calibration objects for non-astronomical purposes with adaptive optics on the 3.5 m Starfire Optical Range telescope over the past 2 years, one-fifth of them were found to be off-orbit. In order to understand such a high number of discrepant position angles and separations, all previous observations in the Washington Double Star Catalog for these rogue binaries were obtained from the Naval Observatory. Adding our observations to these yields new orbits for all, resolving the discrepancies. We have detected both components of γ Gem for the first time, and we have shown that 7 Cam is an optical pair, not physically bound.

  3. Analysis prediction of Indonesian banks (BCA, BNI, MANDIRI) using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and investment strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trianto, Andriantama Budi; Hadi, I. M.; Liong, The Houw; Purqon, Acep

    2015-09-01

    Indonesian economical development is growing well. It has effect for their invesment in Banks and the stock market. In this study, we perform prediction for the three blue chips of Indonesian bank i.e. BCA, BNI, and MANDIRI by using the method of Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) with Takagi-Sugeno rules and Generalized bell (Gbell) as the membership function. Our results show that ANFIS perform good prediction with RMSE for BCA of 27, BNI of 5.29, and MANDIRI of 13.41, respectively. Furthermore, we develop an active strategy to gain more benefit. We compare between passive strategy versus active strategy. Our results shows that for the passive strategy gains 13 million rupiah, while for the active strategy gains 47 million rupiah in one year. The active investment strategy significantly shows gaining multiple benefit than the passive one.

  4. Biological control of crystal texture: A widespread strategy for adapting crystal properties to function

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, A.; Leiserowitz, L.; Weiner, S.; Addadi, L. ); Hanson, J.; Koetzle, T.F. )

    1993-02-05

    Textures of calcite crystals from a variety of mineralized tissues belong to organisms from four phyla were examined with high-resolution synchrotron x-ray radiation. Significant differences in coherence length and angular spread were observed between taxonomic groups. Crystals from polycrystalline skeletal ensembles were more perfect than those that function as single-crystal elements. Different anistropic effects on crystal texture were observed for sea urchin and mollusk calcite crystals, whereas none was found for the foraminifer, Patellina, and the control calcite crystals. These results show that the manipulation of crystal texture in different organisms is under biological control and that crystal textures in some tissues are adapted to function. A better understanding of this apparently widespread biological phenomenon may provide new insights for improving synthetic crystal-containing materials. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Adaptation strategies for health impacts of climate change in Western Australia: Application of a Health Impact Assessment framework

    SciTech Connect

    Spickett, Jeffery T.; Brown, Helen L.; Katscherian, Dianne

    2011-04-15

    Climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing the globe and there is substantial evidence that this will result in a number of health impacts, regardless of the level of greenhouse gas mitigation. It is therefore apparent that a combined approach of mitigation and adaptation will be required to protect public health. While the importance of mitigation is recognised, this project focused on the role of adaptation strategies in addressing the potential health impacts of climate change. The nature and magnitude of these health impacts will be determined by a number of parameters that are dependent upon the location. Firstly, climate change will vary between regions. Secondly, the characteristics of each region in terms of population and the ability to adapt to changes will greatly influence the extent of the health impacts that are experienced now and into the future. Effective adaptation measures therefore need to be developed with these differences in mind. A Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework was used to consider the implications of climate change on the health of the population of Western Australia (WA) and to develop a range of adaptive responses suited to WA. A broad range of stakeholders participated in the HIA process, providing informed input into developing an understanding of the potential health impacts and potential adaptation strategies from a diverse sector perspective. Potential health impacts were identified in relation to climate change predictions in WA in the year 2030. The risk associated with each of these impacts was assessed using a qualitative process that considered the consequences and the likelihood of the health impact occurring. Adaptations were then developed which could be used to mitigate the identified health impacts and provide responses which could be used by Government for future decision making. The periodic application of a HIA framework is seen as an ideal tool to develop appropriate adaptation strategies to

  6. Development of adaptation strategies of marshland water management to regional climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, Helge; Frank, Ahlhorn; Luise, Giani; Kirsten, Klaassen; Thomas, Klenke

    2010-05-01

    Since many centuries, low lying areas at the German North Sea coast are intensively managed by water boards and dike boards. Sophisticated water management systems have been developed in order to keep the water out of the low lying areas in wet periods, while in some regions additional water is needed in dry periods for agricultural and ecological purposes. For example in the Wesermarsch region, a water management system has been developed in historical times, draining the landscape in winter time by means of channels, ditches, gates, sluices and pumping stations. In contrast, in summer time water is conducted from Weser River into the Wesermarsch region to serve watering of animals, fencing grazing areas and ensuring a continuous flow in the marsh watercourses. Doing so, maintaining soil fertility is guaranteed for agriculture as well as protection against floods, sustaining river ecology and traditional livestock farming. Due to climate variability and river engineering, the water management of the Wesermarsch already runs into problems because watering in summer cannot be assured any longer in sufficient water quality. During high tides, salt water from the North Sea is flowing upstream into the Weser estuary, generating brackish conditions in the lower Weser River. In addition, soil subsidence and soil mineralization of marsh and peat soils as well as the sea level rise increase the necessary pumping frequency and the emerging energy costs. The expected future climate change will further aggravate those problems and require an adaptation of the current management system. This presentation introduces the concept behind and preliminary results of an integrative and participatory project, aiming at the development of a new water management strategy adapted to the regional climate change likely to occur until year 2050. In close cooperation with a number of regional stakeholders and based on the priorities with respect to the future development of the region

  7. Water supply sustainability and adaptation strategies under anthropogenic and climatic changes of a meso-scale Mediterranean catchment.

    PubMed

    Collet, Lila; Ruelland, Denis; Estupina, Valérie Borrell; Dezetter, Alain; Servat, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Assessing water supply sustainability is crucial to meet stakeholders' needs, notably in the Mediterranean. This region has been identified as a climate change hot spot, and as a region where water demand is continuously increasing due to population growth and the expansion of irrigated areas. The Hérault River catchment (2500 km2, France) is a typical example and a negative trend in discharge has been observed since the 1960s. In this context, local stakeholders need to evaluate possible future changes in water allocation capacity in the catchment, using climate change, dam management and water use scenarios. A modelling framework that was already calibrated and validated on this catchment over the last 50 years was used to assess whether water resources could meet water demands at the 2030 horizon for the domestic, agricultural and environmental sectors. Water supply sustainability was evaluated at the sub-basin scale according to priority allocations using a water supply capacity index, frequency of unsatisfactory years as well as the reliability, resilience and sustainability metrics. Water use projections were based on the evolution of population, per-unit water demand, irrigated areas, water supply network efficiency, as well as on the evaluation of a biological flow. Climate projections were based on an increase in temperature up to 2°C and a decrease in daily precipitation by 20%. Adaptation strategies considered reducing per-unit water demand for the domestic sector and the importation of water volume for the agricultural sector. The dissociated effects of water use and climatic constraints on water supply sustainability were evaluated. Results showed that the downstream portions would be the more impacted as they are the most exploited ones. In the domestic sector, sustainability indicators would be more degraded by climate change scenarios than water use constraints. In the agricultural sector the negative impact of water use scenarios would be

  8. Chemotactic signal transduction and phosphate metabolism as adaptive strategies during citrus canker induction by Xanthomonas citri.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Leandro Marcio; Facincani, Agda Paula; Ferreira, Cristiano Barbalho; Ferreira, Rafael Marine; Ferro, Maria Inês Tiraboshi; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; de Oliveira, Julio Cezar Franco; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido; Soares, Márcia Regina

    2015-03-01

    The genome of Xanthomonas citri subsp. Citri strain 306 pathotype A (Xac) was completely sequenced more than 10 years; to date, few studies involving functional genomics Xac and its host compatible have been developed, specially related to adaptive events that allow the survival of Xac within the plant. Proteomic analysis of Xac showed that the processes of chemotactic signal transduction and phosphate metabolism are key adaptive strategies during the interaction of a pathogenic bacterium with its plant host. The results also indicate the importance of a group of proteins that may not be directly related to the classical virulence factors, but that are likely fundamental to the success of the initial stages of the infection, such as methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (Mcp) and phosphate specific transport (Pst). Furthermore, the analysis of the mutant of the gene pstB which codifies to an ABC phosphate transporter subunit revealed a complete absence of citrus canker symptoms when inoculated in compatible hosts. We also conducted an in silico analysis which established the possible network of genes regulated by two-component systems PhoPQ and PhoBR (related to phosphate metabolism), and possible transcriptional factor binding site (TFBS) motifs of regulatory proteins PhoB and PhoP, detaching high degree of conservation of PhoB TFBS in 84 genes of Xac genome. This is the first time that chemotaxis signal transduction and phosphate metabolism were therefore indicated to be fundamental to the process of colonization of plant tissue during the induction of disease associated with Xanthomonas genus bacteria.

  9. Ecological fitness and strategies of adaptation of Bartonella species to their hosts and vectors☆

    PubMed Central

    Chomel, Bruno B.; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Birtles, Richard J.; Koehler, Jane E.; Dehio, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause characteristic host-restricted hemotropic infections in mammals and are typically transmitted by blood-sucking arthropods. In the mammalian reservoir, these bacteria initially infect a yet unrecognized primary niche, which seeds organisms into the blood stream leading to the establishment of a long-lasting intra-erythrocytic bacteremia as the hall-mark of infection. Bacterial type IV secretion systems, which are supra-molecular transporters ancestrally related to bacterial conjugation systems, represent crucial pathogenicity factors that have contributed to a radial expansion of the Bartonella lineage in nature by facilitating adaptation to unique mammalian hosts. On the molecular level, the type IV secretion system VirB/VirD4 is known to translocate a cocktail of different effector proteins into host cells, which subvert multiple cellular functions to the benefit of the infecting pathogen. Furthermore, bacterial adhesins mediate a critical, early step in the pathogenesis of the bartonellae by binding to extracellular matrix components of host cells, which leads to firm bacterial adhesion to the cell surface as a prerequisite for the efficient translocation of type IV secretion effector proteins. The best-studied adhesins in bartonellae are the orthologous trimeric autotransporter adhesins, BadA in Bartonella henselae and the Vomp family in Bartonella quintana. Genetic diversity and strain variability also appear to enhance the ability of bartonellae to invade not only specific reservoir hosts, but also accidental hosts, as shown for B. henselae. Bartonellae have been identified in many different blood-sucking arthropods, in which they are typically found to cause extracellular infections of the mid-gut epithelium. Adaptation to specific vectors and reservoirs seems to be a common strategy of bartonellae for transmission and host diversity. However, knowledge regarding arthropod specificity

  10. Graded-threshold parametric response maps: towards a strategy for adaptive dose painting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lausch, A.; Jensen, N.; Chen, J.; Lee, T. Y.; Lock, M.; Wong, E.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To modify the single-threshold parametric response map (ST-PRM) method for predicting treatment outcomes in order to facilitate its use for guidance of adaptive dose painting in intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Methods: Multiple graded thresholds were used to extend the ST-PRM method (Nat. Med. 2009;15(5):572-576) such that the full functional change distribution within tumours could be represented with respect to multiple confidence interval estimates for functional changes in similar healthy tissue. The ST-PRM and graded-threshold PRM (GT-PRM) methods were applied to functional imaging scans of 5 patients treated for hepatocellular carcinoma. Pre and post-radiotherapy arterial blood flow maps (ABF) were generated from CT-perfusion scans of each patient. ABF maps were rigidly registered based on aligning tumour centres of mass. ST-PRM and GT-PRM analyses were then performed on overlapping tumour regions within the registered ABF maps. Main findings: The ST-PRMs contained many disconnected clusters of voxels classified as having a significant change in function. While this may be useful to predict treatment response, it may pose challenges for identifying boost volumes or for informing dose-painting by numbers strategies. The GT-PRMs included all of the same information as ST-PRMs but also visualized the full tumour functional change distribution. Heterogeneous clusters in the ST-PRMs often became more connected in the GT-PRMs by voxels with similar functional changes. Conclusions: GT-PRMs provided additional information which helped to visualize relationships between significant functional changes identified by ST-PRMs. This may enhance ST-PRM utility for guiding adaptive dose painting.

  11. Local Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change and Local Adaptive Strategies: A Case Study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, Tibet, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunyan; Tang, Ya; Luo, Han; Di, Baofeng; Zhang, Liyun

    2013-10-01

    Climate change affects the productivity of agricultural ecosystems. Farmers cope with climate change based on their perceptions of changing climate patterns. Using a case study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, we present a new research framework that uses questionnaire and interview methods to compare local farmers' perceptions of climate change with the adaptive farming strategies they adopt. Most farmers in the valley believed that temperatures had increased in the last 30 years but did not note any changes in precipitation. Most farmers also reported sowing and harvesting hulless barley 10-15 days earlier than they were 20 years ago. In addition, farmers observed that plants were flowering and river ice was melting earlier in the season, but they did not perceive changes in plant germination, herbaceous vegetation growth, or other spring seasonal events. Most farmers noticed an extended fall season signified by delays in the freezing of rivers and an extended growing season for grassland vegetation. The study results showed that agricultural practices in the study area are still traditional; that is, local farmers' perceptions of climate change and their strategies to mitigate its impacts were based on indigenous knowledge and their own experiences. Adaptive strategies included adjusting planting and harvesting dates, changing crop species, and improving irrigation infrastructure. However, the farmers' decisions could not be fully attributed to their concerns about climate change. Local farming systems exhibit high adaptability to climate variability. Additionally, off-farm income has reduced the dependence of the farmers on agriculture, and an agricultural subsidy from the Chinese Central Government has mitigated the farmers' vulnerability. Nevertheless, it remains necessary for local farmers to build a system of adaptive climate change strategies that combines traditional experience and indigenous knowledge with scientific research and government

  12. Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Testing: Adaptation of the A-Stratified Strategy in Item Selection with Content Balancing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huo, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Variable-length computerized adaptive testing (CAT) can provide examinees with tailored test lengths. With the fixed standard error of measurement ("SEM") termination rule, variable-length CAT can achieve predetermined measurement precision by using relatively shorter tests compared to fixed-length CAT. To explore the application of…

  13. Exploring the Interplay of Adaptive and Maladaptive Strategies: Prevalence and Functionality of Anger Regulation Profiles in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otterpohl, Nantje; Schwinger, Malte; Wild, Elke

    2016-01-01

    In emotion regulation research, it is common to distinguish adaptive from maladaptive emotion regulation strategies. However, little is known about their interactional impact (compensational or interfering effects) on adolescents' adjustment. We collected longitudinal, multiple informant questionnaire data from N = 608 adolescents and their…

  14. Understanding the Acculturation Experience of Chinese Adolescent Students: Sociocultural Adaptation Strategies and a Positive Bicultural and Bilingual Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Virginia M.

    2014-01-01

    The acculturation of Chinese immigrant high school students was examined as it relates to students' level of interaction with teachers and peers and participation in American school activities. Findings from a regression analysis revealed five variables (sociocultural adaptation strategies) that facilitate students' adjustment process:…

  15. Expanding Acculturation Theory: Are Acculturation Models and the Adaptiveness of Acculturation Strategies Generalizable in a Colonial Context?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung-Blunden, Violet L.; Juang, Linda P.

    2008-01-01

    Most acculturation research has been conducted in immigrant settings. The present study examined the generalizability of acculturation models and the adaptiveness of acculturation strategies in another bicultural environment--a colonial setting. The sample included 138 girls (M = 13.8 years) and their parents from Hong Kong, a former British…

  16. Flexible Description and Adaptive Processing of Earth Observation Data through the BigEarth Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorgan, Dorian; Bacu, Victor; Stefanut, Teodor; Nandra, Cosmin; Mihon, Danut

    2016-04-01

    The Earth Observation data repositories extending periodically by several terabytes become a critical issue for organizations. The management of the storage capacity of such big datasets, accessing policy, data protection, searching, and complex processing require high costs that impose efficient solutions to balance the cost and value of data. Data can create value only when it is used, and the data protection has to be oriented toward allowing innovation that sometimes depends on creative people, which achieve unexpected valuable results through a flexible and adaptive manner. The users need to describe and experiment themselves different complex algorithms through analytics in order to valorize data. The analytics uses descriptive and predictive models to gain valuable knowledge and information from data analysis. Possible solutions for advanced processing of big Earth Observation data are given by the HPC platforms such as cloud. With platforms becoming more complex and heterogeneous, the developing of applications is even harder and the efficient mapping of these applications to a suitable and optimum platform, working on huge distributed data repositories, is challenging and complex as well, even by using specialized software services. From the user point of view, an optimum environment gives acceptable execution times, offers a high level of usability by hiding the complexity of computing infrastructure, and supports an open accessibility and control to application entities and functionality. The BigEarth platform [1] supports the entire flow of flexible description of processing by basic operators and adaptive execution over cloud infrastructure [2]. The basic modules of the pipeline such as the KEOPS [3] set of basic operators, the WorDeL language [4], the Planner for sequential and parallel processing, and the Executor through virtual machines, are detailed as the main components of the BigEarth platform [5]. The presentation exemplifies the development

  17. Impact of climate change and adaptation strategies on crop production in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mereu, V.; Gallo, A.; Carboni, G.; Spano, D.

    2012-04-01

    The vulnerability of agricultural to climate change is of particular interest to policy makers because the high social and economical importance of agriculture sector in Nigeria, which contributes approximately 40 percent to total GDP and support 70 percent of the population. It is necessary to investigate the potential climate change impacts in order to identify specific agricultural sectors and Agro-Ecological Zones that will be more vulnerable to changes in climatic conditions and implement and develop the most appropriate policies to cope with these changes. In this framework, this study aimed to assess the climate change impacts on Nigerian agricultural sector and to explore some of potential adaptation strategies for the most important crops in the food basket of the Country. The analysis was made using the DSSAT-CSM (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer - Cropping System Model) software, version 4.5. Crop simulation models included in DSSAT are tools that allows to simulate physiological process of crop growth, development and production, by combining genetic crop characteristics and environmental (soil and weather) conditions. In this analysis, for each selected crop, the models included into DSSAT-CSM software were ran, after a calibration phase, to evaluate climate change impacts on crop production. The climate data used for the analysis are derived by the Regional Circulation Model COSMO-CLM, from 1971 to 2065, at 8 km of spatial resolution. The RCM model output were "perturbed" with 10 Global Climate Models in order to have a wide variety of possible climate projections for impact analysis. Multiple combinations of soils and climate conditions, crop management and varieties were considered for each Agro-Ecological Zone of Nigeria. The climate impact assessment was made by comparing the yield obtained with the climate data for the present period and the yield obtainable under future changed climate conditions. The models ran by keeping

  18. Using AQUACROP to model the impacts of future climates on crop production and possible adaptation strategies in Sardinia and Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Neil; Benabdallah, Sihem; Gouda, Nadine; Hummel, Franz; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Meyer, Swen; Soddu, Antonino; Woess-Gallasch, Susanne

    2014-05-01

    A work package in the FP-7 funded CLIMB Project - Climate Induced Changes on the Hydrology of Mediterranean Basins Reducing Uncertainty and Quantifying Risk through an Integrated Monitoring and Modeling System had the goal of assessing socioeconomic vulnerability in two super-sites in future climates (2040-2070). The work package had deliverables to describe of agricultural adaptation measures appropriate to each site under future water availability scenarios and assess the risk of income losses due to water shortages in agriculture. The FAO model AQUACROP was used to estimate losses of agricultural productivity and indicate possible adaptation strategies. The presentation will focus on two interesting crops which show extreme vulnerability to expected changes in climate; irrigated lettuce in Sardinia and irrigated tomatoes in Tunisia. Modelling methodology, results and possible adaptation strategies will be presented.

  19. Adaptive Optics Observations of Titan from the W.M. Keck Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbard, S. G.; Macintosh, B.; Max, C. E.; Roe, H.; de Pater, I.; Young, E. F.; McKay, C. P.

    2000-10-01

    Saturn's largest moon Titan is the only satellite in the solar system with a substantial atmosphere. Photolysis of methane creates a hydrocarbon haze in Titan's atmosphere that is opaque to visible light. The new adaptive optics system on the 10-meter W.M. Keck Telescope enables us to observe Titan with a resolution of 0.04 arcseconds, or 20 resolution elements across the disk. By observing at near-infrared wavelengths that are methane band windows, we can see through Titan's hydrocarbon haze to the surface beneath. We will report on adaptive optics images of Titan taken in 1999, including broadband engineering images taken in February, August, and September, and broadband K and narrowband J and H band images taken in October. The narrowband filters have been chosen to selectively probe Titan's surface or atmosphere. Using this data combined with atmospheric modeling, we are able to determine surface Titan's surface albedo and properties of its hydrocarbon haze layer. This research was supported in part by the STC Program of the National Science Foundation under Agreement No. AST-9876783, and in part under the auspices of the US Department of Energy at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Univ. of Calif. under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  20. Extended observer based on adaptive second order sliding mode control for a fixed wing UAV.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Herman; Salas-Peña, Oscar S; León-Morales, Jesús de

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the design of attitude and airspeed controllers for a fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicle. An adaptive second order sliding mode control is proposed for improving performance under different operating conditions and is robust in presence of external disturbances. Moreover, this control does not require the knowledge of disturbance bounds and avoids overestimation of the control gains. Furthermore, in order to implement this controller, an extended observer is designed to estimate unmeasurable states as well as external disturbances. Additionally, sufficient conditions are given to guarantee the closed-loop stability of the observer based control. Finally, using a full 6 degree of freedom model, simulation results are obtained where the performance of the proposed method is compared against active disturbance rejection based on sliding mode control.

  1. Combined use of leaf size and economics traits allows direct comparison of hydrophyte and terrestrial herbaceous adaptive strategies

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Simon; Brusa, Guido; Sartori, Matteo; Cerabolini, Bruno E. L.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Hydrophytes generally exhibit highly acquisitive leaf economics. However, a range of growth forms is evident, from small, free-floating and rapidly growing Lemniden to large, broad-leaved Nymphaeiden, denoting variability in adaptive strategies. Traits used to classify adaptive strategies in terrestrial species, such as canopy height, are not applicable to hydrophytes. We hypothesize that hydrophyte leaf size traits and economics exhibit sufficient overlap with terrestrial species to allow a common classification of plant functional types, sensu Grime's CSR theory. Methods Leaf morpho-functional traits were measured for 61 species from 47 water bodies in lowland continental, sub-alpine and alpine bioclimatic zones in southern Europe and compared against the full leaf economics spectrum and leaf size range of terrestrial herbs, and between hydrophyte growth forms. Key Results Hydrophytes differed in the ranges and mean values of traits compared with herbs, but principal components analysis (PCA) demonstrated that both groups shared axes of trait variability: PCA1 encompassed size variation (area and mass), and PCA2 ranged from relatively dense, carbon-rich leaves to nitrogen-rich leaves of high specific leaf area (SLA). Most growth forms exhibited trait syndromes directly equivalent to herbs classified as R adapted, although Nymphaeiden ranged between C and SR adaptation. Conclusions Our findings support the hypothesis that hydrophyte adaptive strategy variation reflects fundamental trade-offs in economics and size that govern all plants, and that hydrophyte adaptive strategies can be directly compared with terrestrial species by combining leaf economics and size traits. PMID:22337079

  2. The evolutionary strategies of plant defenses have a dynamic impact on the adaptations and interactions of vectors and pathogens.

    PubMed

    Huot, Ordom Brian; Nachappa, Punya; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia

    2013-06-01

    Plants have evolved and diversified to reduce the damages imposed by infectious pathogens and herbivorous insects. Living in a sedentary lifestyle, plants are constantly adapting to their environment. They employ various strategies to increase performance and fitness. Thus, plants developed cost-effective strategies to defend against specific insects and pathogens. Plant defense, however, imposes selective pressure on insects and pathogens. This selective pressure provides incentives for pathogens and insects to diversify and develop strategies to counter plant defense. This results in an evolutionary arms race among plants, pathogens and insects. The ever-changing adaptations and physiological alterations among these organisms make studying plant-vector-pathogen interactions a challenging and fascinating field. Studying plant defense and plant protection requires knowledge of the relationship among organisms and the adaptive strategies each organism utilize. Therefore, this review focuses on the integral parts of plant-vector-pathogen interactions in order to understand the factors that affect plant defense and disease development. The review addresses plant-vector-pathogen co-evolution, plant defense strategies, specificity of plant defenses and plant-vector-pathogen interactions. Improving the comprehension of these factors will provide a multi-dimensional perspective for the future research in pest and disease management.

  3. Avoided Heat-Related Mortality through Climate Adaptation Strategies in Three US Cities

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Brian; Vargo, Jason; Liu, Peng; Habeeb, Dana; DeLucia, Anthony; Trail, Marcus; Hu, Yongtao; Russell, Armistead

    2014-01-01

    Heat-related mortality in US cities is expected to more than double by the mid-to-late 21st century. Rising heat exposure in cities is projected to result from: 1) climate forcings from changing global atmospheric composition; and 2) local land surface characteristics responsible for the urban heat island effect. The extent to which heat management strategies designed to lessen the urban heat island effect could offset future heat-related mortality remains unexplored in the literature. Using coupled global and regional climate models with a human health effects model, we estimate changes in the number of heat-related deaths in 2050 resulting from modifications to vegetative cover and surface albedo across three climatically and demographically diverse US metropolitan areas: Atlanta, Georgia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Phoenix, Arizona. Employing separate health impact functions for average warm season and heat wave conditions in 2050, we find combinations of vegetation and albedo enhancement to offset projected increases in heat-related mortality by 40 to 99% across the three metropolitan regions. These results demonstrate the potential for extensive land surface changes in cities to provide adaptive benefits to urban populations at risk for rising heat exposure with climate change. PMID:24964213

  4. Evolution of the fruit endocarp: molecular mechanisms underlying adaptations in seed protection and dispersal strategies

    PubMed Central

    Dardick, Chris; Callahan, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Plant evolution is largely driven by adaptations in seed protection and dispersal strategies that allow diversification into new niches. This is evident by the tremendous variation in flowering and fruiting structures present both across and within different plant lineages. Within a single plant family a staggering variety of fruit types can be found such as fleshy fruits including berries, pomes, and drupes and dry fruit structures like achenes, capsules, and follicles. What are the evolutionary mechanisms that enable such dramatic shifts to occur in a relatively short period of time? This remains a fundamental question of plant biology today. On the surface it seems that these extreme differences in form and function must be the consequence of very different developmental programs that require unique sets of genes. Yet as we begin to decipher the molecular and genetic basis underlying fruit form it is becoming apparent that simple genetic changes in key developmental regulatory genes can have profound anatomical effects. In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of fruit endocarp tissue differentiation that have contributed to species diversification within three plant lineages. PMID:25009543

  5. Avoided heat-related mortality through climate adaptation strategies in three US cities.

    PubMed

    Stone, Brian; Vargo, Jason; Liu, Peng; Habeeb, Dana; DeLucia, Anthony; Trail, Marcus; Hu, Yongtao; Russell, Armistead

    2014-01-01

    Heat-related mortality in US cities is expected to more than double by the mid-to-late 21st century. Rising heat exposure in cities is projected to result from: 1) climate forcings from changing global atmospheric composition; and 2) local land surface characteristics responsible for the urban heat island effect. The extent to which heat management strategies designed to lessen the urban heat island effect could offset future heat-related mortality remains unexplored in the literature. Using coupled global and regional climate models with a human health effects model, we estimate changes in the number of heat-related deaths in 2050 resulting from modifications to vegetative cover and surface albedo across three climatically and demographically diverse US metropolitan areas: Atlanta, Georgia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Phoenix, Arizona. Employing separate health impact functions for average warm season and heat wave conditions in 2050, we find combinations of vegetation and albedo enhancement to offset projected increases in heat-related mortality by 40 to 99% across the three metropolitan regions. These results demonstrate the potential for extensive land surface changes in cities to provide adaptive benefits to urban populations at risk for rising heat exposure with climate change.

  6. Pseudomonas aeruginosa adapts its iron uptake strategies in function of the type of infections.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Pierre; Dingemans, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative γ-Proteobacterium which is known for its capacity to colonize various niches, including some invertebrate and vertebrate hosts, making it one of the most frequent bacteria causing opportunistic infections. P. aeruginosa is able to cause acute as well as chronic infections and it uses different colonization and virulence factors to do so. Infections range from septicemia, urinary infections, burn wound colonization, and chronic colonization of the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. Like the vast majority of organisms, P. aeruginosa needs iron to sustain growth. P. aeruginosa utilizes different strategies to take up iron, depending on the type of infection it causes. Two siderophores are produced by this bacterium, pyoverdine and pyochelin, characterized by high and low affinities for iron respectively. P. aeruginosa is also able to utilize different siderophores from other microorganisms (siderophore piracy). It can also take up heme from hemoproteins via two different systems. Under microaerobic or anaerobic conditions, P. aeruginosa is also able to take up ferrous iron via its Feo system using redox-cycling phenazines. Depending on the type of infection, P. aeruginosa can therefore adapt by switching from one iron uptake system to another as we will describe in this short review.

  7. Design and analysis of self-adapted task scheduling strategies in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenzhong; Xiong, Naixue; Chao, Han-Chieh; Hussain, Sajid; Chen, Guolong

    2011-01-01

    In a wireless sensor network (WSN), the usage of resources is usually highly related to the execution of tasks which consume a certain amount of computing and communication bandwidth. Parallel processing among sensors is a promising solution to provide the demanded computation capacity in WSNs. Task allocation and scheduling is a typical problem in the area of high performance computing. Although task allocation and scheduling in wired processor networks has been well studied in the past, their counterparts for WSNs remain largely unexplored. Existing traditional high performance computing solutions cannot be directly implemented in WSNs due to the limitations of WSNs such as limited resource availability and the shared communication medium. In this paper, a self-adapted task scheduling strategy for WSNs is presented. First, a multi-agent-based architecture for WSNs is proposed and a mathematical model of dynamic alliance is constructed for the task allocation problem. Then an effective discrete particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm for the dynamic alliance (DPSO-DA) with a well-designed particle position code and fitness function is proposed. A mutation operator which can effectively improve the algorithm's ability of global search and population diversity is also introduced in this algorithm. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed solution can achieve significant better performance than other algorithms.

  8. Assessment of impact of climate change and adaptation strategies on maize production in Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikoyo, Duncan A.; Nobert, Joel

    2016-06-01

    Globally, various climatic studies have estimated a reduction of crop yields due to changes in surface temperature and precipitation especially for the developing countries which is heavily dependent on agriculture and lacks resources to counter the negative effects of climate change. Uganda's economy and the wellbeing of its populace depend on rain-fed agriculture which is susceptible to climate change. This study quantified the impacts of climate change and variability in Uganda and how coping strategies can enhance crop production against climate change and/or variability. The study used statistical methods to establish various climate change and variability indicators across the country, and uses the FAO AquaCrop model to simulate yields under possible future climate scenarios with and without adaptation strategies. Maize, the most widely grown crop was used for the study. Meteorological, soil and crop data were collected for various districts representing the maize growing ecological zones in the country. Based on this study, it was found that temperatures have increased by up to 1 °C across much of Uganda since the 1970s, with rates of warming around 0.3 °C per decade across the country. High altitude, low rainfall regions experience the highest level of warming, with over 0.5 °C/decade recorded in Kasese. Rainfall is variable and does not follow a specific significant increasing or decreasing trend. For both future climate scenarios, Maize yields will reduce in excess of 4.7% for the fast warming-low rainfall climates but increase on average by 3.5% for slow warming-high rainfall regions, by 2050. Improved soil fertility can improve yields by over 50% while mulching and use of surface water management practices improve yields by single digit percentages. The use of fertilizer application needs to go hand in hand with other water management strategies since more yields as a result of the improved soil fertility leads to increased water stress, especially

  9. Private adaptation strategies and implementation in flood risk management: why people do nothing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Thaler, Thomas; Maris, Fotios; Paparrizos, Spyros; Fuchs, Sven

    2015-04-01

    In the past decades, vulnerability assessment has emerged as an important field of research in flood risk management, in particular with respect to climate change and necessary adaptation strategies for the society. Probably starting with Chamber's seminal article on vulnerability, coping and policy (Chambers 1989), and further developed as the causal structure of vulnerability by Bohle (2001) and others, at least two research paradigms exist: an internal side focusing on societal resilience and coping capacities, and an external side targeted at a reduction of negative effects in terms of loss reduction (Fuchs 2009). Despite considerable research effects, however, different definitions and concepts still dominate the debate; it is surely that different scientific disciplines are working with this term: natural scientists, engineers, social scientists or economists, to name just a few. Each discipline defines vulnerability in a way which fits to their disciplinary purposes (Fuchs et al. 2011). But why has there been so little progress in our ability to adapt to flood hazards? White et al. (2001) summarised this paradox in an article with the title "Knowing better and losing even more - the use of knowledge in hazard management". One of the fundamental reasons for the lack of progress is the continuing separation of research on natural processes and socio-economic processes without considering interaction between these systems (Fuchs & Keiler 2013), as well as between scientific research results and the policy implementation (Medd & Marvin 2005). Moreover, as many studies were focused on the vulnerability of least developed societies to natural hazards (O'Brien et al. 2008), there is a particular lack in studies targeted at an implementation of existing adaptation frameworks at the level of highly-developed countries (Field et al. 2012; Scolobig et al. 2012). This gap results in a challenge for attempts to develop formal models into practical application and policy

  10. Optimal strategies for observation of active galactic nuclei variability with Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giomi, Matteo; Gerard, Lucie; Maier, Gernot

    2016-07-01

    Variable emission is one of the defining characteristic of active galactic nuclei (AGN). While providing precious information on the nature and physics of the sources, variability is often challenging to observe with time- and field-of-view-limited astronomical observatories such as Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs). In this work, we address two questions relevant for the observation of sources characterized by AGN-like variability: what is the most time-efficient way to detect such sources, and what is the observational bias that can be introduced by the choice of the observing strategy when conducting blind surveys of the sky. Different observing strategies are evaluated using simulated light curves and realistic instrument response functions of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), a future gamma-ray observatory. We show that strategies that makes use of very small observing windows, spread over large periods of time, allows for a faster detection of the source, and are less influenced by the variability properties of the sources, as compared to strategies that concentrate the observing time in a small number of large observing windows. Although derived using CTA as an example, our conclusions are conceptually valid for any IACTs facility, and in general, to all observatories with small field of view and limited duty cycle.

  11. The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy Strategies Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Bryce D.; Weisz, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Most everyday child and adolescent psychotherapy does not follow manuals that document the procedures. Consequently, usual clinical care has remained poorly understood and rarely studied. The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy-Strategies scale (TPOCS-S) is an observational measure of youth psychotherapy procedures…

  12. New analytical expressions of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect adapted to different observation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boué, G.; Montalto, M.; Boisse, I.; Oshagh, M.; Santos, N. C.

    2013-02-01

    The Rossiter-McLaughlin (hereafter RM) effect is a key tool for measuring the projected spin-orbit angle between stellar spin axes and orbits of transiting planets. However, the measured radial velocity (RV) anomalies produced by this effect are not intrinsic and depend on both instrumental resolution and data reduction routines. Using inappropriate formulas to model the RM effect introduces biases, at least in the projected velocity Vsini⋆ compared to the spectroscopic value. Currently, only the iodine cell technique has been modeled, which corresponds to observations done by, e.g., the HIRES spectrograph of the Keck telescope. In this paper, we provide a simple expression of the RM effect specially designed to model observations done by the Gaussian fit of a cross-correlation function (CCF) as in the routines performed by the HARPS team. We derived a new analytical formulation of the RV anomaly associated to the iodine cell technique. For both formulas, we modeled the subplanet mean velocity vp and dispersion βp accurately taking the rotational broadening on the subplanet profile into account. We compare our formulas adapted to the CCF technique with simulated data generated with the numerical software SOAP-T and find good agreement up to Vsini⋆ ≲ 20 km s-1. In contrast, the analytical models simulating the two different observation techniques can disagree by about 10σ in Vsini⋆ for large spin-orbit misalignments. It is thus important to apply the adapted model when fitting data. A public code implementing the expressions derived in this paper is available at http://www.astro.up.pt/resources/arome. A copy of the code is also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/550/A53

  13. Comparison of Item Targeting Strategies for Pass/Fail Computer Adaptive Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergstrom, Betty A.; Gershon, Richard

    The most useful method of item selection for making pass-fail decisions with a Computerized Adaptive Test (CAT) was studied. Medical technology students (n=86) took a computer adaptive test in which items were targeted to the ability of the examinee. The adaptive algorithm that selected items and estimated person measures used the Rasch model and…

  14. Subaru Telescope adaptive optics observations of gravitationally lensed quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, Cristian E.; Oguri, Masamune; Minowa, Yosuke; Iye, Masanori; Inada, Naohisa; Oya, Shin; Kayo, Issha; Hayano, Yutaka; Hattori, Masayuki; Saito, Yoshihiko; Ito, Meguru; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Terada, Hiroshi; Takami, Hideki; Watanabe, Makoto

    2016-05-01

    We present the results of an imaging observation campaign conducted with the Subaru Telescope adaptive optics system (IRCS+AO188) on 28 gravitationally lensed quasars and candidates (23 doubles, 1 quad, 1 possible triple, and 3 candidates) from the SDSS Quasar Lens Search. We develop a novel modelling technique that fits analytical and hybrid point spread functions (PSFs), while simultaneously measuring the relative astrometry, photometry, as well as the lens galaxy morphology. We account for systematics by simulating the observed systems using separately observed PSF stars. The measured relative astrometry is comparable with that typically achieved with the Hubble Space Telescope, even after marginalizing over the PSF uncertainty. We model for the first time the quasar host galaxies in five systems, without a priori knowledge of the PSF, and show that their luminosities follow the known correlation with the mass of the supermassive black hole. For each system, we obtain mass models far more accurate than those previously published from low-resolution data, and we show that in our sample of lensing galaxies the observed light profile is more elliptical than the mass, for ellipticity ≳0.25. We also identify eight doubles for which the sources of external and internal shear are more reliably separated, and should therefore be prioritized in monitoring campaigns aimed at measuring time delays in order to infer the Hubble constant.

  15. Adaptive marker-free registration using a multiple point strategy for real-time and robust endoscope electromagnetic navigation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiongbiao; Wan, Ying; He, Xiangjian; Mori, Kensaku

    2015-02-01

    Registration of pre-clinical images to physical space is indispensable for computer-assisted endoscopic interventions in operating rooms. Electromagnetically navigated endoscopic interventions are increasingly performed at current diagnoses and treatments. Such interventions use an electromagnetic tracker with a miniature sensor that is usually attached at an endoscope distal tip to real time track endoscope movements in a pre-clinical image space. Spatial alignment between the electromagnetic tracker (or sensor) and pre-clinical images must be performed to navigate the endoscope to target regions. This paper proposes an adaptive marker-free registration method that uses a multiple point selection strategy. This method seeks to address an assumption that the endoscope is operated along the centerline of an intraluminal organ which is easily violated during interventions. We introduce an adaptive strategy that generates multiple points in terms of sensor measurements and endoscope tip center calibration. From these generated points, we adaptively choose the optimal point, which is the closest to its assigned the centerline of the hollow organ, to perform registration. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed adaptive strategy significantly reduced the target registration error from 5.32 to 2.59 mm in static phantoms validation, as well as from at least 7.58 mm to 4.71 mm in dynamic phantom validation compared to current available methods.

  16. Regional and Household Adaptation Strategies to Climate Extremes: the Case Study of the Beava River Basin, the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duží, Barbora; Stojanov, Robert; Vikhrov, Dmytro

    2013-04-01

    We investigate regional and household adaptation strategies in the region affected by climate extremes, focusing on floods occurrence during past 15 years period. The main research question is: What is the overall state of adaptation measurements to climate extremes on the Bečva river basin? Target area is located along upper and middle part of the Bečva river basin in the east of the Czech Republic. The main theoretical concepts draw from differentiations between coping/adaptation strategies to climate extremes and theory of focusing event as a starter of changes in attention and agenda of problem solution. We apply mixed empirical research and case study approach. First we use qualitative research to serve as an initial entrance to the issue, to find out the perception of adaptation progress and preparedness to climate extremes on regional level. We conducted deep interviews (N=20) with relevant stakeholders. We proceed with quantitative research through the conducting face-to face questionnaires with household residents (N=305) in no, low and no risk area in relation to flood occurrence. We designed set of questions to find out relation among experiences with flood, the level of damages and applied emergency and adaptation measurements.

  17. Adaptation strategies of endolithic chlorophototrophs to survive the hyperarid and extreme solar radiation environment of the Atacama Desert

    PubMed Central

    Wierzchos, Jacek; DiRuggiero, Jocelyne; Vítek, Petr; Artieda, Octavio; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Škaloud, Pavel; Tisza, Michel; Davila, Alfonso F.; Vílchez, Carlos; Garbayo, Inés; Ascaso, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The Atacama Desert, northern Chile, is one of the driest deserts on Earth and, as such, a natural laboratory to explore the limits of life and the strategies evolved by microorganisms to adapt to extreme environments. Here we report the exceptional adaptation strategies of chlorophototrophic and eukaryotic algae, and chlorophototrophic and prokaryotic cyanobacteria to the hyperarid and extremely high solar radiation conditions occurring in this desert. Our approach combined several microscopy techniques, spectroscopic analytical methods, and molecular analyses. We found that the major adaptation strategy was to avoid the extreme environmental conditions by colonizing cryptoendolithic, as well as, hypoendolithic habitats within gypsum deposits. The cryptoendolithic colonization occurred a few millimeters beneath the gypsum surface and showed a succession of organized horizons of algae and cyanobacteria, which has never been reported for endolithic microbial communities. The presence of cyanobacteria beneath the algal layer, in close contact with sepiolite inclusions, and their hypoendolithic colonization suggest that occasional liquid water might persist within these sub-microhabitats. We also identified the presence of abundant carotenoids in the upper cryptoendolithic algal habitat and scytonemin in the cyanobacteria hypoendolithic habitat. This study illustrates that successful lithobiontic microbial colonization at the limit for microbial life is the result of a combination of adaptive strategies to avoid excess solar irradiance and extreme evapotranspiration rates, taking advantage of the complex structural and mineralogical characteristics of gypsum deposits—conceptually called “rock's habitable architecture.” Additionally, self-protection by synthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites likely produces a shielding effect that prevents photoinhibition and lethal photooxidative damage to the chlorophototrophs, representing another level of

  18. A disturbance observer-based adaptive control approach for flexure beam nano manipulators.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yangming; Yan, Peng; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic modeling and control methodology for a two-dimensional flexure beam-based servo stage supporting micro/nano manipulations. Compared with conventional mechatronic systems, such systems have major control challenges including cross-axis coupling, dynamical uncertainties, as well as input saturations, which may have adverse effects on system performance unless effectively eliminated. A novel disturbance observer-based adaptive backstepping-like control approach is developed for high precision servo manipulation purposes, which effectively accommodates model uncertainties and coupling dynamics. An auxiliary system is also introduced, on top of the proposed control scheme, to compensate the input saturations. The proposed control architecture is deployed on a customized-designed nano manipulating system featured with a flexure beam structure and voice coil actuators (VCA). Real time experiments on various manipulating tasks, such as trajectory/contour tracking, demonstrate precision errors of less than 1%.

  19. An Adaptation Strategy to Address Sea Level Rise Along Coastal Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    understanding of acceptable levels of risks, a strategy encompassing the near-term, mid-term, and long term was developed for the projects. Immovable structures such as buildings and vital infrastructure will be raised to above the conservative levels of identified sea level rise. Perimeter improvements would be built to mid-term values with adaptation strategies incorporated into the project documents.

  20. Adaptation to hot climate and strategies to alleviate heat stress in livestock production.

    PubMed

    Renaudeau, D; Collin, A; Yahav, S; de Basilio, V; Gourdine, J L; Collier, R J

    2012-05-01

    Despite many challenges faced by animal producers, including environmental problems, diseases, economic pressure, and feed availability, it is still predicted that animal production in developing countries will continue to sustain the future growth of the world's meat production. In these areas, livestock performance is generally lower than those obtained in Western Europe and North America. Although many factors can be involved, climatic factors are among the first and crucial limiting factors of the development of animal production in warm regions. In addition, global warming will further accentuate heat stress-related problems. The objective of this paper was to review the effective strategies to alleviate heat stress in the context of tropical livestock production systems. These strategies can be classified into three groups: those increasing feed intake or decreasing metabolic heat production, those enhancing heat-loss capacities, and those involving genetic selection for heat tolerance. Under heat stress, improved production should be possible through modifications of diet composition that either promotes a higher intake or compensates the low feed consumption. In addition, altering feeding management such as a change in feeding time and/or frequency, are efficient tools to avoid excessive heat load and improve survival rate, especially in poultry. Methods to enhance heat exchange between the environment and the animal and those changing the environment to prevent or limit heat stress can be used to improve performance under hot climatic conditions. Although differences in thermal tolerance exist between livestock species (ruminants > monogastrics), there are also large differences between breeds of a species and within each breed. Consequently, the opportunity may exist to improve thermal tolerance of the animals using genetic tools. However, further research is required to quantify the genetic antagonism between adaptation and production traits to evaluate

  1. Human Vulnerability to Climate Variability in the Sahel: Farmers' Adaptation Strategies in Northern Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, Bruno; Yacouba, Hamma; Karambiri, Harouna; Zoromé, Malick; Somé, Blaise

    2009-05-01

    In this study, the authors investigate farmers’ vulnerability to climate variability and evaluate local adoption of technology and farmers’ perceptions of adaptation strategies to rainfall variability and policies. A survey was conducted in a community in northern Burkina Faso following the crop failure of 2004. In 2006, following a better harvest, another survey was conducted to compare farmers’ actions and reactions during two contrasted rainy seasons. The results confirm that farmers from this community have substantially changed their practices during the last few decades. They have adopted a wide range of techniques that are intended to simultaneously increase crop yield and reduce yield variability. Micro water harvesting (Zaï) techniques have been widely adopted (41%), and a majority of fields have been improved with stone lines (60%). Hay (48%) and sorghum residues are increasingly stored to feed animals during the dry season, making bull and sheep fattening now a common practice. Dry season vegetable production also involves a majority of the population (60%). According to farmers, most of the new techniques have been adopted because of growing land scarcity and new market opportunities, rather than because of climate variability. Population pressure has reached a critical threshold, while land scarcity, declining soil fertility and reduced animal mobility have pushed farmers to intensify agricultural production. These techniques reduce farmers’ dependency on rainfall but are still insufficient to reduce poverty and vulnerability. Thirty-nine percent of the population remains vulnerable after a good rainy season. Despite farmers’ desire to remain in their own communities, migrations are likely to remain a major source of regular income and form of recourse in the event of droughts.

  2. A novel kernel extreme learning machine algorithm based on self-adaptive artificial bee colony optimisation strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chao; Ouyang, Jihong; Chen, Hui-Ling; Ji, Jin-Chao

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel learning algorithm, named SABC-MKELM, based on a kernel extreme learning machine (KELM) method for single-hidden-layer feedforward networks. In SABC-MKELM, the combination of Gaussian kernels is used as the activate function of KELM instead of simple fixed kernel learning, where the related parameters of kernels and the weights of kernels can be optimised by a novel self-adaptive artificial bee colony (SABC) approach simultaneously. SABC-MKELM outperforms six other state-of-the-art approaches in general, as it could effectively determine solution updating strategies and suitable parameters to produce a flexible kernel function involved in SABC. Simulations have demonstrated that the proposed algorithm not only self-adaptively determines suitable parameters and solution updating strategies learning from the previous experiences, but also achieves better generalisation performances than several related methods, and the results show good stability of the proposed algorithm.

  3. Enhancing adaptive sparse grid approximations and improving refinement strategies using adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates

    DOE PAGES

    Jakeman, J. D.; Wildey, T.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an algorithm for adaptive sparse grid approximations of quantities of interest computed from discretized partial differential equations. We use adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates of the interpolation error in the sparse grid to enhance the sparse grid approximation and to drive adaptivity. We show that utilizing these error estimates provides significantly more accurate functional values for random samples of the sparse grid approximation. We also demonstrate that alternative refinement strategies based upon a posteriori error estimates can lead to further increases in accuracy in the approximation over traditional hierarchical surplus based strategies. Throughout this papermore » we also provide and test a framework for balancing the physical discretization error with the stochastic interpolation error of the enhanced sparse grid approximation.« less

  4. Enhancing adaptive sparse grid approximations and improving refinement strategies using adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Jakeman, J. D.; Wildey, T.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an algorithm for adaptive sparse grid approximations of quantities of interest computed from discretized partial differential equations. We use adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates of the interpolation error in the sparse grid to enhance the sparse grid approximation and to drive adaptivity. We show that utilizing these error estimates provides significantly more accurate functional values for random samples of the sparse grid approximation. We also demonstrate that alternative refinement strategies based upon a posteriori error estimates can lead to further increases in accuracy in the approximation over traditional hierarchical surplus based strategies. Throughout this paper we also provide and test a framework for balancing the physical discretization error with the stochastic interpolation error of the enhanced sparse grid approximation.

  5. Identity Transformation During the Transition to Parenthood Among Same-Sex Couples: An Ecological, Stress-Strategy-Adaptation Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Hongjian; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Wood, Claire; Fine, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the current research on the potential stressors associated with identity transformation experienced by same-sex couples during the transition to parenthood and the coping strategies they employ. By integrating disparate findings into an ecological, stress-strategy-adaptation framework, we demonstrate that the identity transformation experiences among same-sex couples during the transition to parenthood (a) involve various adaptive processes of navigating different stressors via their human agency within multiple nested contexts; (b) are products of the intersections of individual characteristics, relational dynamics, LGBT community culture, and heterosexual sociostructural norms; and (c) are complicated by social contextual factors such as social class, race/ethnicity, family structure, and the sociocultural environment associated with geographic location. Last, several avenues for future inquiry are suggested. PMID:27458482

  6. Identity Transformation During the Transition to Parenthood Among Same-Sex Couples: An Ecological, Stress-Strategy-Adaptation Perspective.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hongjian; Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Wood, Claire; Fine, Mark A

    2016-03-01

    This article reviews the current research on the potential stressors associated with identity transformation experienced by same-sex couples during the transition to parenthood and the coping strategies they employ. By integrating disparate findings into an ecological, stress-strategy-adaptation framework, we demonstrate that the identity transformation experiences among same-sex couples during the transition to parenthood (a) involve various adaptive processes of navigating different stressors via their human agency within multiple nested contexts; (b) are products of the intersections of individual characteristics, relational dynamics, LGBT community culture, and heterosexual sociostructural norms; and (c) are complicated by social contextual factors such as social class, race/ethnicity, family structure, and the sociocultural environment associated with geographic location. Last, several avenues for future inquiry are suggested.

  7. The Core of NGC 6240 from Keck Adaptive Optics and HST NICMOS Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Max, C E; Canalizo, G; Macintosh, B A; Raschke, L; Whysong, D; Antonucci, R; Schneider, G

    2004-11-19

    We present results of near infrared imaging of the disk-galaxy-merger NGC 6240 using adaptive optics on the Keck II Telescope and reprocessed archival data from NICMOS on the Hubble Space Telescope. Both the North and South nuclei of NGC 6240 are clearly elongated, with considerable sub-structure within each nucleus. In K' band there are at least two point-sources within the North nucleus; we tentatively identify the south-western point-source within the North nucleus as the position of one of the two AGNs. Within the South nucleus, the northern subnucleus is more highly reddened. Based upon the nuclear separation measured at 5 GHz, we suggest that the AGN in the South nucleus is still enshrouded in dust at K' band, and is located slightly to the north of the brightest point in K' band. Within the South nucleus there is strong H{sub 2} 1-0 S(1) line emission from the northern sub-nucleus, contrary to the conclusions of previous seeing-limited observations. Narrowband H{sub 2} emission-line images show that a streamer or ribbon of excited molecular hydrogen connects the North and South nuclei. We suggest that this linear feature corresponds to a bridge of gas connecting the two nuclei, as seen in computer simulations of mergers. Many any point-like regions are seen around the two nuclei. These are most prominent at 1.1 microns with NICMOS, and in K'-band with Keck adaptive optics. We suggest that these point-sources represent young star clusters formed in the course of the merger.

  8. The Core of NGC 6240 from Keck Adaptive Optics and HST NICMOS Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Max, C E; Canalizo, G; Macintosh, B A; Raschke, L; Whysong, D; Antonucci, R; Schneider, G

    2004-06-28

    We present results of near infrared imaging of the disk-galaxy-merger NGC 6240 using adaptive optics on the Keck II Telescope and reprocessed archival data from NICMOS on the Hubble Space Telescope. Both the North and South nuclei of NGC 6240 are clearly elongated, with considerable sub-structure within each nucleus. In K' band there are at least two point-sources within the North nucleus; we tentatively identify the south-western point-source within the North nucleus as the position of one of the two AGNs. Within the South nucleus, the northern subnucleus is more highly reddened. Based upon the nuclear separation measured at 5 GHz, we suggest that the AGN in the South nucleus is still enshrouded in dust at K' band, and is located slightly to the north of the brightest point in K' band. Within the South nucleus there is strong H{sub 2} 1-0 S(1) line emission from the northern sub-nucleus, contrary to the conclusions of previous seeing-limited observations. Narrowband H{sub 2} emission-line images show that a streamer or ribbon of excited molecular hydrogen connects the North and South nuclei. We suggest that this linear feature corresponds to a bridge of gas connecting the two nuclei, as seen in computer simulations of mergers. Many point-like regions are seen around the two nuclei. These are most prominent at 1.1 microns with NICMOS, and in K'-band with Keck adaptive optics. We suggest that these point-sources represent star clusters formed in the course of the merger.

  9. Maximum-Likelihood Adaptive Filter for Partially Observed Boolean Dynamical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imani, Mahdi; Braga-Neto, Ulisses M.

    2017-01-01

    Partially-observed Boolean dynamical systems (POBDS) are a general class of nonlinear models with application in estimation and control of Boolean processes based on noisy and incomplete measurements. The optimal minimum mean square error (MMSE) algorithms for POBDS state estimation, namely, the Boolean Kalman filter (BKF) and Boolean Kalman smoother (BKS), are intractable in the case of large systems, due to computational and memory requirements. To address this, we propose approximate MMSE filtering and smoothing algorithms based on the auxiliary particle filter (APF) method from sequential Monte-Carlo theory. These algorithms are used jointly with maximum-likelihood (ML) methods for simultaneous state and parameter estimation in POBDS models. In the presence of continuous parameters, ML estimation is performed using the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm; we develop for this purpose a special smoother which reduces the computational complexity of the EM algorithm. The resulting particle-based adaptive filter is applied to a POBDS model of Boolean gene regulatory networks observed through noisy RNA-Seq time series data, and performance is assessed through a series of numerical experiments using the well-known cell cycle gene regulatory model.

  10. Dosimetric and geometric evaluation of a hybrid strategy of offline adaptive planning and online image guidance for prostate cancer radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Han; Wu, Qiuwen

    2011-08-07

    For prostate cancer patients, online image-guided (IG) radiotherapy has been widely used in clinic to correct the translational inter-fractional motion at each treatment fraction. For uncertainties that cannot be corrected online, such as rotation and deformation of the target volume, margins are still required to be added to the clinical target volume (CTV) for the treatment planning. Offline adaptive radiotherapy has been implemented to optimize the treatment for each individual patient based on the measurements at early stages of treatment process. It has been shown that offline adaptive radiotherapy can effectively reduce the required margin. Recently a hybrid strategy of offline adaptive replanning and online IG was proposed and the geometric evaluation was performed. It was found that the planning margins can further be reduced by 1-2 mm compared to online IG only strategy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dosimetric benefits of such a hybrid strategy on the target and organs at risk. A total of 420 repeated helical computed tomography scans from 28 patients were included in the study. Both low-risk patients (LRP, CTV = prostate) and intermediate-risk patients (IRP, CTV = prostate + seminal vesicles, SV) were included in the simulation. Two registration methods, based on center-of-mass shift of prostate only and prostate plus SV, were performed for IRP. The intensity-modulated radiotherapy was used in the simulation. Criteria on both cumulative and fractional doses were evaluated. Furthermore, the geometric evaluation was extended to investigate the optimal number of fractions necessary to construct the internal target volume (ITV) for the hybrid strategy. The dosimetric margin improvement was smaller than its geometric counterpart and was in the range of 0-1 mm. The optimal number of fractions necessary for the ITV construction is 2 for LRPs and 3-4 for IRPs in a hypofractionation protocol. A new cumulative index of target volume was proposed

  11. Dosimetric and geometric evaluation of a hybrid strategy of offline adaptive planning and online image guidance for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Han; Wu, Qiuwen

    2011-08-01

    For prostate cancer patients, online image-guided (IG) radiotherapy has been widely used in clinic to correct the translational inter-fractional motion at each treatment fraction. For uncertainties that cannot be corrected online, such as rotation and deformation of the target volume, margins are still required to be added to the clinical target volume (CTV) for the treatment planning. Offline adaptive radiotherapy has been implemented to optimize the treatment for each individual patient based on the measurements at early stages of treatment process. It has been shown that offline adaptive radiotherapy can effectively reduce the required margin. Recently a hybrid strategy of offline adaptive replanning and online IG was proposed and the geometric evaluation was performed. It was found that the planning margins can further be reduced by 1-2 mm compared to online IG only strategy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dosimetric benefits of such a hybrid strategy on the target and organs at risk. A total of 420 repeated helical computed tomography scans from 28 patients were included in the study. Both low-risk patients (LRP, CTV = prostate) and intermediate-risk patients (IRP, CTV = prostate + seminal vesicles, SV) were included in the simulation. Two registration methods, based on center-of-mass shift of prostate only and prostate plus SV, were performed for IRP. The intensity-modulated radiotherapy was used in the simulation. Criteria on both cumulative and fractional doses were evaluated. Furthermore, the geometric evaluation was extended to investigate the optimal number of fractions necessary to construct the internal target volume (ITV) for the hybrid strategy. The dosimetric margin improvement was smaller than its geometric counterpart and was in the range of 0-1 mm. The optimal number of fractions necessary for the ITV construction is 2 for LRPs and 3-4 for IRPs in a hypofractionation protocol. A new cumulative index of target volume was proposed

  12. Cost-efficient measurement strategies for posture observations based on video recordings.

    PubMed

    Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Liv, Per; Wahlström, Jens

    2013-07-01

    Assessment of working postures by observation is a common practice in ergonomics. The present study investigated whether monetary resources invested in a video-based posture observation study should preferably be spent in collecting many video recordings of the work and have them observed once by one observer, or in having multiple observers rate postures repeatedly from fewer videos. The study addressed this question from a practitioner's perspective by focusing two plausible scenarios: documenting the mean exposure of one individual, and of a specific occupational group. Using a data set of observed working postures among hairdressers, empirical values of posture variability, observer variability, and costs for recording and observing one video were entered into equations expressing the total cost of data collection and the information (defined as 1/SD) provided by the resulting estimates of two variables: percentage time with the arm elevated <15° and >90°. Sixteen measurement strategies involving 1-4 observers repeating their posture ratings 1-4 times were examined for budgets up to €2000. For both posture variables and in both the individual and group scenario, the most cost-efficient strategy at any specific budget was to engage 3-4 observers and/or having observer(s) rate postures multiple times each. Between 17% and 34% less information was produced when using the commonly practiced approach of having one observer rate a number of video recordings one time each. We therefore recommend observational posture assessment to be based on video recordings of work, since this allows for multiple observations; and to allocate monetary resources to repeated observations rather than many video recordings.

  13. Sustainability of forest management under changing climatic conditions in the southern United States: adaptation strategies, economic rents and carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Susaeta, Andres; Carter, Douglas R; Adams, Damian C

    2014-06-15

    The impacts of climate change on profitability and carbon storage in even-aged forest stands of two dominant commercial pine species, loblolly and slash pine, in the southern United States were assessed under alternative assumptions about the impact of climate change on forest productivity and catastrophic disturbance rates. Potential adaptation strategies to reduce losses from disturbance included: 1) alternative planting densities, and 2) planting slash pine instead of loblolly pine. In addition, the amount of sequestered carbon was used to develop an index of economic efficiency for carbon sequestration, which further helps rank the suitability of alternative adaptation strategies. Our results indicate that greater economic rents from forests occur with lower planting densities and the substitution of slash pine for high density loblolly pine. However, less carbon is sequestered by low density loblolly pine compared to slash pine and high density loblolly pine. Both adaptation strategies are economically more effective in terms of carbon sequestration compared to the baseline since they generate more economic revenues per Mg of sequestered carbon.

  14. Observing System Simulation Experiments for the assessment of temperature sampling strategies in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raicich, F.; Rampazzo, A.

    2003-01-01

    For the first time in the Mediterranean Sea various temperature sampling strategies are studied and compared to each other by means of the Observing System Simulation Experiment technique. Their usefulness in the framework of the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) is assessed by quantifying their impact in a Mediterranean General Circulation Model in numerical twin experiments via univariate data assimilation of temperature profiles in summer and winter conditions. Data assimilation is performed by means of the optimal interpolation algorithm implemented in the SOFA (System for Ocean Forecasting and Analysis) code. The sampling strategies studied here include various combinations of eXpendable BathyThermograph (XBT) profiles collected along Volunteer Observing Ship (VOS) tracks, Airborne XBTs (AXBTs) and sea surface temperatures. The actual sampling strategy adopted in the MFS Pilot Project during the Targeted Operational Period (TOP, winter-spring 2000) is also studied.

  15. Research on space-based optical surveillance's observation strategy of geostationary-orbit's pitch point region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue-ying; An, Wei; Wu, Yu-hao; Li, Jun

    2015-03-01

    In order to surveillance the geostationary (GEO) objects, including man-made satellites and space debris, more efficiently, a space-based optical surveillance system was designed in this paper. A strategy to observe the pinch point region was selected because of the GEO objects' dynamics features. That strategy affects the surveillance satellites orbital type and sensor pointing strategy. In order to minimize total surveillance satellites and the revisit time for GEO objects, a equation was set. More than 700 GEO objects' TLE from NASA's website are used for simulation. Results indicate that the revisit time of the surveillance system designed in this paper is less than 24 hours, more than 95% GEO objects can be observed by the designed system.

  16. Proteomics-inferred genome typing (PIGT) demonstrates inter-populationrecombination as a strategy for environmental adaptation

    SciTech Connect

    Denef, Vincent; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Shah, Manesh B; Abraham, Paul E; Lefsrud, Mark G; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of ecological and evolutionary processes that shape microbial consortia are facilitated by comprehensive studies of ecosystems with low species richness. In the current study we evaluated the role of recombination in altering the fitness of chemoautotrophic bacteria in their natural environment. Proteomics-inferred genome typing (PIGT) was used to determine the genomic make-up of Leptospirillum group II populations in 27 biofilms sampled from six locations in the Richmond Mine acid mine drainage system (Iron Mountain, CA) over a four-year period. We observed six distinct genotypes that are recombinants comprised of segments from two parental genotypes. Community genomic analyses revealed additional low abundance recombinant variants. The dominance of some genotypes despite a larger available genome pool, and patterns of spatiotemporal distribution within the ecosystem, indicate selection for distinct recombinants. Genes involved in motility, signal transduction and transport were overrepresented in the tens to hundreds of kilobase recombinant blocks, whereas core metabolic functions were significantly underrepresented. Our findings demonstrate the power of PIGT and reveal that recombination is a mechanism for fine-scale adaptation in this system.

  17. Changing Minds with the Story of Adaptation: Strategies for Teaching Young Children about Natural Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmons, Natalie; Smith, Hayley; Kelemen, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Educational guidelines recommend a delayed, piecemeal approach to instruction on adaptation by natural selection. This approach is questionable given suggestions that older students' pervasive misunderstandings about adaptation are rooted in cognitive biases that develop early. In response to this, Kelemen et al. (2014) recently…

  18. Adaption strategies to the effect of climate change on a coastal area in Northwest Germany with different land management scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graeff, Thomas; Krause, Stefan; Maier, Martin; Oswald, Sascha

    2015-04-01

    Coastal areas are highly vulnerable to the impact of climate change and handling is difficult. Adaption to two different situations has to be taken into account. On the one hand, increasing global sea level in combination with increased precipitation and higher storm surge frequency has to be handled. On the other hand, in summer periods due to the increase of temperature, enhanced evapotranspiration and an increase of salty seawater intrusion into groundwater have to be managed. In this study we present different landuse management scenarios on a coastal area in Northwest Germany, East Frisia, and their effect on the hydrological response. Landuse is dominated by dairy farming and intensive crop farming. 30 percent of the area lies below sea level. A dense channel network in combination with several pumping stations allows permeant drainage. The soils are characterised by marsh soils and impermeable layers which prevent an interaction with the confined brackish aquifer. Observations in those areas indicate a high salinity with concentrations peaking during the summer period. The landuse strategies include a scenario that the technological level of the management will be adapted to rainfall and sea level but without additional drainage from the hinterland to reduce salt water concentration. A second scenario includes the adaptation to increasing precipitation and the sea level with a polder system and wetland areas designated as potential buffer for winter storm surges and inland floods and as freshwater storage for dry summer periods. Two scenarios use large polder areas in the future as potential buffer for winter storm surges and inland floods and as freshwater storage for dry summer periods, additional usage for nature conservation and as the storage of carbon sequestration or extensive farming are planned. Also, stakeholders have developed a system of several smaller polders in combination with an intensification of the water resource management, and this is

  19. Development and Construct Validity of the Classroom Strategies Scale-Observer Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A.; Fabiano, Gregory; Dudek, Christopher M.; Hsu, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Research on progress monitoring has almost exclusively focused on student behavior and not on teacher practices. This article presents the development and validation of a new teacher observational assessment (Classroom Strategies Scale) of classroom instructional and behavioral management practices. The theoretical underpinnings and empirical…

  20. Learning the Rules: Observation and Imitation of a Sorting Strategy by 36-Month-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Rebecca A.; Jaswal, Vikram K.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were used to investigate the scope of imitation by testing whether 36-month-olds can learn to produce a categorization strategy through observation. After witnessing an adult sort a set of objects by a visible property (their color; Experiment 1) or a nonvisible property (the particular sounds produced when the objects were shaken;…

  1. Translation, cultural adaptation and content re-validation of the observational teamwork assessment for surgery tool.

    PubMed

    Amaya Arias, Ana Carolina; Barajas, Rocío; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier H; Wheelock, Ana; Gaitán Duarte, Hernando; Hull, Louise; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-12-01

    Background. Poor teamwork and nontechnical skill performance are increasingly recognized as important contributing factors to errors and adverse events in the operating room. Assessment of these safety critical skills is important to facilitate improvement, however there are no tools available to assess these safety skills in Latin America. This study aimed to translate, culturally adapt and content validate the Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery (OTAS) tool for use in Latin America. Methods. A multi-phase, multi-method study was conducted: Phase 1: translation and back-translation; Phase 2: content validity assessed via expert consensus; Phase 3: inter-rater reliability assessed via real-time observation in 98 general surgical procedures using OTAS-S. Results. The first change in OTAS-S, was to distinguish between the surgical nurses and scrub technicians (both OR team members are captured in the nursing sub-team in the original OTAS). OTAS-S consists of 168 exemplar behaviors: 60/114 identical to the exemplars listed in the original OTAS tool, 48/114 original exemplars underwent minor modifications, 13 were duplicated (to account for the additional sub-team distinguished in OTAS-S), 6 original exemplars were removed, and 47 new exemplar behaviors were added. Inter-observer agreement was substantial (KW = 0.602; IC: 0.581-0.620). The calculated KW by phase, behaviors and teams were between 0.534 and 0.678. Conclusions. The study provides a content validated teamwork assessment tool for use within Colombian operating rooms and potentially Latin-American. OTAS-S can be used to assess the quality of teamwork in ORs, facilitate structured debriefing and thus improve patient safety and reduce team-related errors.

  2. Renewable energy to develop adaptation strategies to the climate change conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servadio, Pieranna; Bergonzoli, Simone

    2013-04-01

    Changes in land use and combustion of fossil fuels have been largest human impact on the global carbon cycle and without a complete accounting of net greenhouse-gas (GHG) fluxes, developing and evaluating adaptation strategies are not possible. The major source of GHG fluxes associated with crop production are soil N2O emissions, soil CO2 and methane (CH4) fluxes, and CO2 emission associated with agricultural inputs and farm equipment operation. This study points out the main principles which are at the base of solar energy use for sustainability of irrigated agriculture. Field tests were carried out in order to compare crop yield and solar pump plant performance, for the photovoltaic conversion of solar energy, connected to drip irrigation and sprinkler system plants during the irrigation season. The system mainly consists of the parts listed here: set of flat photovoltaic panels consisting of 150 panels for a total of 3000 W peak value once installed, connected in serial-parallel to obtain a 120 Vdc operating voltage rating. The panels utilize 36 serially connected single-crystal silicon cells providing a 12 V voltage rating. The serial connection of 10 panels generates the system's operating voltage rating (120 Vdc). The total 3000 W peak value power is obtained by connecting in parallel 15 serial-strings. When the circuit is open, the voltage at the ends of the panels can reach 210 Volts. The photovoltaic system supplies, through an inverter, a three-phase 1.6 kW canned pump located in the artesian well. The relevant hydraulic line connects this pump to the various utilities. The hydraulic capacity of the helium pump has been used during the irrigation season in order to meet the water needs of a corn crop. Therefore, along with the solar pump was used a dispersing wing type drip irrigation system with double chamber hosing (70 kPa operating pressure), with external holes spaced 0.3 m apart, 0.75 m distance between the wings, wing length 120 m and placed

  3. VIII. The observational strategy: What are the issues; What must be done?

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-03-01

    Throughout its development, the observational strategy of the Earth Observing System (EOS) and its precursor programs has been consistent with that of the Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) to detect and quantify climate change, document natural climate variability, understand variation and change, determine the causes and impacts of stratospheric ozone depletion, determine the impact of change on ecosystems and mitigate them. Space based observation can contribute significantly to each of these objectives, although its contribution will have to be carefully integrated with aircraft, in situ, international and other contributions and carefully transitioned to long-term operational observations to achieve its maximum potential impact. The interaction between space ad in situ can be in calibration, in interpretation, or in suggesting ways to make important new measurements from space. In atmospheric chemistry is largely involves calibration and global surveys. In ecosystems it involves calibration of EOS and improved sensors. In seasonal to interannual change it involves the testing and calibration of new sensors. In decadal to century change it requires the invention of new sensors. These roles are complementary and reinforcing. Taking full advantage of the synergisms and tradeoffs between space- and ground-based measurements is a potential vehicle for major savings in what is effectively a constant resource program. This paper presents a discussion of the principles guiding the space-based observational strategy, and the interplay between spaced-based and in situ measurements. The paper then discusses international issues, how they might be addressed, and integrated space-based observational strategy.

  4. Future tendencies of climate indicators important for adaptation and mitigation strategies in forestry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galos, Borbala; Hänsler, Andreas; Gulyas, Krisztina; Bidlo, Andras; Czimber, Kornel

    2014-05-01

    impact analyses and build an important basis of the future adaptation strategies in forestry, agriculture and water management. Funding: The research is supported by the TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0013 and TÁMOP-4.1.1.C-12/1/KONV-2012-0012 (ZENFE) joint EU-national research projects. Keywords: climate indices, climate change impacts, forestry, regional climate modelling

  5. Water Reserves Program. An adaptation strategy to balance water in nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Perez, M.; Barrios, E.; Salinas-Rodriguez, S.; Wickel, B.; Villon, R. A.

    2013-05-01

    -allocation takes place. The strategy is to identify and protect basins with an availability of water that is close to their natural flow regime and that also have a high conservation value (based on prior national conservation priority definitions such as protected areas, and biodiversity conservation gap analyses) in order to implement legal restrictions on water resource development. With such protection, these systems will be best positioned to adjust and respond to water shortages, and regime shifts. To date, 189 basins around the country were identified as potential water reserves. The next step will be the nomination of these water reserves to be integrated in the National Water Reserves Program. This program forms the core of the official Mexican government adaptation strategy towards climate prepared water management, which recognizes that water reserves are the buffer society needs to face uncertainty, and reduce water scarcity risk. The development of activities that alter the natural flow regime such as dams and levees are closely examined, and would potentially be restricted.

  6. Water Reserves Program. An adaptation strategy to prevent imbalance of water in nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas-Rodriguez, S. A.; López Pérez, M.; Barrios Ordóñez, J.; Wickel, B.; Villón Bracamonte, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    allocated, and where the flow regime is then protected before over-allocation takes place. The strategy has been to identify and protect basins with an availability of water that is close to their natural flow regime and that also have a high conservation value (based on prior national conservation priority definitions such as protected areas, and biodiversity conservation gap analyses) in order to implement legal restrictions on water resource development. With such protection, these systems will be best positioned to adjust and respond to water shortages, and regime shifts. To date, 189 basins around the country were identified as potential water reserves. The next step will be the nomination of these water reserves to be integrated in the National Water Reserves Program. This program forms the core of the official Mexican government adaptation strategy towards climate prepared water management, which recognizes that water reserves are the buffer society needs to face uncertainty, imbalance of the man-made, global changes, and thus to reduce water scarcity risk. The development of activities that alter the natural flow regime such as dams and levees are closely examined, and would potentially be restricted.

  7. Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change and the Role of Planning Instruments - The Example of the Dresden Region (Saxony/Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, J.; Juta, K.; Nobis, A.

    2009-04-01

    In the past, identifying anthropogenic influences on climate change, scenario analyses and issues of climate change mitigation were predominant approaches in climate change research (IPCC 2007). Currently, for instance in Germany, climate impact research on regional level comes to the forefront of research and policy making. Climate change has become an important topic on the agenda of politicians, administration and planning. In order to counteract the (unavoidable) climate change and its impacts it is necessary to develop adaptation strategies. At present, such strategies and guidelines are formulated on international, supranational and national level. The initial point was the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 1992 where the contracting states obligated themselves to develop national (and regional) programmes for adaptation. In 2007 the European Commission published its Green Paper called Adaptation to Climate Change in Europe. The paper states that adaptation efforts have to be intensified at different (spatial) levels (local, regional, national, and so forth). Furthermore, coordinating these efforts is of high importance. With the recent agreement on the German Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change (DAS 2008) in December 2008, federal government tries to accomplish this task. The German strategy mainly focuses on two elements: decreasing vulnerability and increasing adaptability. While the above mentioned strategies have presented information and policies concerning climate change and adaptation on international, supranational and national level, such documents dońt yet exist on regional level. However, because of their close link to the local level the regions are of high importance for adaptation strategies. Therefore, the Leibniz-Institute of Ecological and Regional Development developed a transdisciplinary project to formulate and implement the so-called Integrated Regional Climate Adaptation Programme (IRCAP) for the Model Region

  8. CNOP-based sensitive areas identification for tropical cyclone adaptive observations with PCAGA method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin-Lin; Yuan, Shi-Jin; Mu, Bin; Zhou, Fei-Fan

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP) was investigated to identify sensitive areas for tropical cyclone adaptive observations with principal component analysis based genetic algorithm (PCAGA) method and two tropical cyclones, Fitow (2013) and Matmo (2014), were studied with a 120 km resolution using the fifth-generation Mesoscale Model (MM5). To verify the effectiveness of PCAGA method, CNOPs were also calculated by an adjoint-based method as a benchmark for comparison on patterns, energies, and vertical distributions of temperatures. Comparing with the benchmark, the CNOPs obtained from PCAGA had similar patterns for Fitow and a little different for Matmo; the vertically integrated energies were located closer to the verification areas and the initial tropical cyclones. Experimental results also presented that the CNOPs of PCAGA had a more positive impact on the forecast improvement, which gained from the reductions of the CNOPs in the whole domain containing sensitive areas. Furthermore, the PCAGA program was executed 40 times for each case and all the averages of benefits were larger than the benchmark. This also proved the validity and stability of the PCAGA method. All results showed that the PCAGA method could approximately solve CNOP of complicated models without computing adjoint models, and obtain more benefits of reducing the CNOPs in the whole domain.

  9. RADIO GALAXY 3C 230 OBSERVED WITH GEMINI LASER ADAPTIVE-OPTICS INTEGRAL-FIELD SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Steinbring, Eric

    2011-11-15

    The Altair laser-guide-star adaptive optics facility combined with the near-infrared integral-field spectrometer on Gemini North have been employed to study the morphology and kinematics of 3C 230 at z = 1.5, the first such observations of a high-redshift radio galaxy. These suggest a bi-polar outflow spanning 0.''9 ({approx}16 kpc projected distance for a standard {Lambda} CDM cosmology) reaching a mean relative velocity of 235 km s{sup -1} in redshifted H{alpha} +[N II] and [S II] emission. Structure is resolved to 0.''1 (0.8 kpc), which is well correlated with optical images from the Hubble Space Telescope and Very Large Array radio maps obtained at similar spatial resolution. Line diagnostics suggest that over the 10{sup 7} yr to 10{sup 8} yr duration of its active galactic nucleus activity, gas has been ejected into bright turbulent lobes at rates comparable to star formation, although constituting perhaps only 1% of the baryonic mass in the galaxy.

  10. Assessment of cerebrospinal fluid outflow conductance using an adaptive observer--experimental and clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Andersson, K; Manchester, I R; Andersson, N; Shiriaev, A; Malm, J; Eklund, A

    2007-11-01

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) patients have a disturbance in the dynamics of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) system. The outflow conductance, C, of the CSF system has been suggested to be prognostic for positive outcome after treatment with a CSF shunt. All current methods for estimation of C have drawbacks; these include lack of information on the accuracy and relatively long investigation times. Thus, there is a need for improved methods. To accomplish this, the theoretical framework for a new adaptive observer (OBS) was developed which provides real-time estimation of C. The aim of this study was to evaluate the OBS method and to compare it with the constant pressure infusion (CPI) method. The OBS method was applied to data from infusion investigations performed with the CPI method. These consisted of repeated measurements on an experimental set-up and 30 patients with suspected INPH. There was no significant difference in C between the CPI and the OBS method for the experimental set-up. For the patients there was a significant difference, -0.84+/-1.25 microl (s kPa)(-1), mean +/- SD (paired sample t-test, p<0.05). However, such a difference is within clinically acceptable limits. This encourages further development of this new real-time approach for estimation of the outflow conductance.

  11. Near-Infrared Observations of Neptune's Tropospheric Cloud Layer with the Lick Observatory Adaptive Optics System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roe, Henry G.; Gavel, Donald; Max, Claire; de Pater, Imke; Gibbard, Seran; Macintosh, Bruce; Baines, Kevin H.

    2001-09-01

    We provide one of the first constraints on the combined infrared single-scattering albedo and opacity of Neptune's upper tropospheric cloud layer. For the observations, we used the adaptive optics system on the Lick Observatory's 3 m Shane Telescope (Mount Hamilton, California). The cloud layer is thought to be composed of H2S and extend up to 3.5-4.5 bars. Previously, the single-scattering albedo was measured in the range 0.2-0.94 μm and found to be extremely high (>0.8), but decreasing with increasing wavelength. Assuming an optically thick cloud, we find the best-fit single-scattering albedo of a 3.5 bar layer to be 0.23+0.07-0.08 at 1.27 μm and 0.18+0.03-0.04 at 1.56 μm. Uncertainties in the column density of haze above the cloud layer, and from deconvolution to remove contaminating light scattered by the point-spread function from infrared-bright features, indicate that the cloud could be even darker, but it is unlikely to be brighter than we report. The cloud particles could be brighter than we report if the total near-infrared opacity of the cloud is very low or the cloud's scattering phase function is significantly more forward-scattering at 1.2-1.6 μm than at 0.75 μm.

  12. The Jakobsonian One-Stem Analysis of the Russian Verb: Adaptations and Pedagogical Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Billie D.

    1982-01-01

    The evolution of one-stem verb theory since Roman Jakobson's 1948 study of Russian conjugation is outlined, and adaptations of his one-stem conjugation methodology for current classroom use are discussed and compared. (MSE)

  13. Adapting agriculture to climate change in Kenya: household strategies and determinants.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Elizabeth; Ringler, Claudia; Okoba, Barrack; Roncoli, Carla; Silvestri, Silvia; Herrero, Mario

    2013-01-15

    Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa are particularly vulnerable to climate change, given dependence on agricultural production and limited adaptive capacity. Based on farm household and Participatory Rural Appraisal data collected from districts in various agroecological zones in Kenya, this paper examines farmers' perceptions of climate change, ongoing adaptation measures, and factors influencing farmers' decisions to adapt. The results show that households face considerable challenges in adapting to climate change. While many households have made small adjustments to their farming practices in response to climate change (in particular, changing planting decisions), few households are able to make more costly investments, for example in agroforestry or irrigation, although there is a desire to invest in such measures. This emphasizes the need for greater investments in rural and agricultural development to support the ability of households to make strategic, long-term decisions that affect their future well-being.

  14. Developing DNP students as adaptive leaders: a key strategy in transforming health care.

    PubMed

    Kendall-Gallagher, Deborah; Breslin, Eileen

    2013-01-01

    The success of graduates with a doctor of nursing practice (DNP) degree in transforming health care will depend significantly on their leadership ability to think strategically, innovate, and engage stakeholders in meaningful system improvement. Known as adaptive work, these graduates will need a portfolio of adaptive leadership skills that prepare them to move health care from a volume-driven to value-based system. This article describes development of a core DNP leadership course in a postmaster's point of entry DNP program at an academic health science center school of nursing. The course, designed as DNP students' initial step on their professional development journey to becoming adaptive leaders capable of driving transformative change, created an alternative lens for students to undertake strategic adaptive change initiatives within themselves and their organizations.

  15. A Dynamic Scheduling Method of Earth-Observing Satellites by Employing Rolling Horizon Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Dishan, Qiu; Chuan, He; Jin, Liu; Manhao, Ma

    2013-01-01

    Focused on the dynamic scheduling problem for earth-observing satellites (EOS), an integer programming model is constructed after analyzing the main constraints. The rolling horizon (RH) strategy is proposed according to the independent arriving time and deadline of the imaging tasks. This strategy is designed with a mixed triggering mode composed of periodical triggering and event triggering, and the scheduling horizon is decomposed into a series of static scheduling intervals. By optimizing the scheduling schemes in each interval, the dynamic scheduling of EOS is realized. We also propose three dynamic scheduling algorithms by the combination of the RH strategy and various heuristic algorithms. Finally, the scheduling results of different algorithms are compared and the presented methods in this paper are demonstrated to be efficient by extensive experiments. PMID:23690742

  16. A dynamic scheduling method of Earth-observing satellites by employing rolling horizon strategy.

    PubMed

    Dishan, Qiu; Chuan, He; Jin, Liu; Manhao, Ma

    2013-01-01

    Focused on the dynamic scheduling problem for earth-observing satellites (EOS), an integer programming model is constructed after analyzing the main constraints. The rolling horizon (RH) strategy is proposed according to the independent arriving time and deadline of the imaging tasks. This strategy is designed with a mixed triggering mode composed of periodical triggering and event triggering, and the scheduling horizon is decomposed into a series of static scheduling intervals. By optimizing the scheduling schemes in each interval, the dynamic scheduling of EOS is realized. We also propose three dynamic scheduling algorithms by the combination of the RH strategy and various heuristic algorithms. Finally, the scheduling results of different algorithms are compared and the presented methods in this paper are demonstrated to be efficient by extensive experiments.

  17. Long term post-flood damage assessments to analyze the strategies of adaptation at individual scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brémond, Pauline; Bonte, Bruno; Erdlenbruch, Katrin; Grelot, Frédéric; Richert, Claire

    2015-04-01

    RETINA is a project which studies the opportunity for adaptation in the aftermath of flood events. To handle this research question, we consider adaptation to flood risk at individual and collective scale as well as the influence of the urban planning regulation (Flood risk mapping). For the purpose of this research, collective adaptation means actions that are undertaken at collective scale such as dikes, relocation of collective infrastructures (roads, treatment plant...) and individual adaptation means actions decided at individual level (households, enterprises or farmers) such as relocation, elevation of critical components, new organization.... In this presentation, we focus on individual adaptation and analyse which are the mechanisms that incite or constrain the adaptation to flood risk of individual assets considering their own trajectory. The originality of our approach is to carry out long term post-flood assessments and comprehensive interviews at individual scale. To catch the drivers of adaptation, we sequenced the interview guide in three periods: 1/ the situation before the reference event occurred, 2/ what happened during and just after the flood event, 3/ what happened from the flood event until the moment of the interview. Two case studies have been chosen. The first case study is the Aude department where an exceptional flooding occurred in 1999. The second case study is the Var department where more recent and frequent flood events occurred in 2010, 2011, 2014. On each case study, we plan to conduct about fifty interviews including households and economic activities. In this presentation, we will develop methodological aspects on long term post-flood damage assessments. Carrying out a long term post-flood assessment enabled us to consider adaptation to flood risk among the whole of strategic decisions a household or an enterprise has to take. Moreover, we found out that contrary to what is usually assumed, the fact that the reference event was

  18. COREDAR: COmmunicating Risk of sea level rise and Engaging stakeholDers in framing community based Adaptation stRategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amsad Ibrahim Khan, S. K.; Chen, R. S.; de Sherbinin, A. M.; Andimuthu, R.; Kandasamy, P.

    2015-12-01

    Accelerated sea-level rise (SLR) is a major long term outcome of climate change leading to increased inundation of low-lying areas. Particularly, global cities that are located on or near the coasts are often situated in low lying areas and these locations put global cities at greater risk to SLR. Localized flooding will profoundly impact vulnerable communities located in high-risk urban areas. Building community resilience and adapting to SLR is increasingly a high priority for cities. On the other hand, Article 6 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change addresses the importance of climate change communication and engaging stakeholders in decision making process. Importantly, Community Based Adaptation (CBA) experiences emphasize that it is important to understand a community's unique perceptions of their adaptive capacities to identify useful solutions and that scientific and technical information on anticipated coastal climate impacts needs to be translated into a suitable language and format that allows people to be able to participate in adaptation planning. To address this challenge, this study has put forth three research questions from the lens of urban community engagement in SLR adaptation, (1) What, if any, community engagement in addressing SLR occurring in urban areas; (2) What information do communities need and how does it need to be communicated, in order to be better prepared and have a greater sense of agency? and (3) How can government agencies from city to federal levels facilitate community engagement and action?. To answer these questions this study has evolved a framework "COREDAR" (COmmunicating Risk of sea level rise and Engaging stakeholDers in framing community based Adaptation StRategies) to communicate and transfer complex climate data and information such as projected SLR under different scenarios of IPCC AR5, predicted impact of SLR, prioritizing vulnerability, etc. to concerned stakeholders and local communities

  19. Job-Search Strategies and Reemployment Quality: The Impact of Career Adaptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koen, Jessie; Klehe, Ute-Christine; Van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; Zikic, Jelena; Nauta, Aukje

    2010-01-01

    Past job-search research has focused on how hard unemployed people search for a job, but we still know little about the strategies that people use during their search and how we can predict the quality of the reemployment found. The first aim of this study was to predict the use of different job-search strategies via job-seekers' career…

  20. Arctic Climate and Water Change: Model and Observation Relevance for Assessment and Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bring, Arvid; Destouni, Georgia

    2014-05-01

    The Arctic is subject to growing economic and political interest. Meanwhile, its climate and water systems are in rapid transformation. In this paper, we review and extend a set of studies on climate model results, hydro-climatic change, and hydrological monitoring systems. Results indicate that general circulation model (GCM) projections of drainage basin temperature and precipitation have improved between two model generations. However, some inaccuracies remain for precipitation projections. When considering geographical priorities for monitoring or adaptation efforts, our results indicate that future projections by GCMs and recent observations diverge regarding the basins where temperature and precipitation changes currently are the most pronounced and where they will be so in the future. Regarding late twentieth-century discharge changes in major Arctic rivers, data generally show excess of water relative to precipitation changes. This indicates a possible contribution to sea-level rise of river water that was previously stored in permafrost or groundwater. The river contribution to the increasing Arctic Ocean freshwater inflow is similar in magnitude to the separate contribution from glaciers, which underlines the importance of considering all possible sources of freshwater when assessing sea-level change. We further investigate monitoring systems and find a lack of harmonized water chemistry data, which limits the ability to understand the origin and transport of nutrients, carbon and sediment to the sea. To provide adequate information for research and policy, Arctic hydrological and hydrochemical monitoring needs to be extended, better integrated and made more accessible. Further water-focused data and modeling efforts are required to resolve the source of excess discharge in Arctic rivers. Finally, improvements in climate model parameterizations are needed, in particular for precipitation projections.

  1. "Meatless days" or "less but better"? Exploring strategies to adapt Western meat consumption to health and sustainability challenges.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Joop; Schösler, Hanna; Aiking, Harry

    2014-05-01

    Adapting Western meat consumption to health and sustainability challenges requires an overall reduction of industrially produced animal proteins plus a partial replacement by plant proteins. Combining insights on food, environment, and consumers, this paper aims to explore change strategies that may help to meet these challenges, such as promoting smaller portions of meat ("less"), smaller portions using meat raised in a more sustainable manner ("less but better"), smaller portions and eating more vegetable protein ("less and more varied"), and meatless meals with or without meat substitutes ("veggie-days"). The underlying logic of the strategies was clarified by analyzing dietary choices. A nationwide sample of 1083 Dutch consumers provided information on current eating practices and potential changes. The results show that strategies to change meat eating frequencies and meat portion sizes will appeal to overlapping but partly different segments of consumers and that these strategies can be applied to address consumers in terms of their own preferences. The strategies appeared to have different strengths and weaknesses, making them complementary pathways to facilitate step-by-step changes in the amounts and the sources of protein consumed.

  2. Modification, translation and adaptation of questionnaires: should copyright laws be observed?

    PubMed

    Juniper, Elizabeth F

    2009-06-01

    This commentary is intended to start a discussion about whether people should be allowed to modify, translate, adapt or sell copyrighted questionnaires without the permission of the developer (copyright-holder).

  3. Simultaneously selecting appropriate partners for gaming and strategy adaptation to enhance network reciprocity in the prisoner's dilemma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Network reciprocity is one mechanism for adding social viscosity, which leads to cooperative equilibrium in 2 × 2 prisoner's dilemma games. Previous studies have shown that cooperation can be enhanced by using a skewed, rather than a random, selection of partners for either strategy adaptation or the gaming process. Here we show that combining both processes for selecting a gaming partner and an adaptation partner further enhances cooperation, provided that an appropriate selection rule and parameters are adopted. We also show that this combined model significantly enhances cooperation by reducing the degree of activity in the underlying network; we measure the degree of activity with a quantity called effective degree. More precisely, during the initial evolutionary stage in which the global cooperation fraction declines because initially allocated cooperators becoming defectors, the model shows that weak cooperative clusters perish and only a few strong cooperative clusters survive. This finding is the most important key to attaining significant network reciprocity.

  4. Simultaneously selecting appropriate partners for gaming and strategy adaptation to enhance network reciprocity in the prisoner's dilemma.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Network reciprocity is one mechanism for adding social viscosity, which leads to cooperative equilibrium in 2 × 2 prisoner's dilemma games. Previous studies have shown that cooperation can be enhanced by using a skewed, rather than a random, selection of partners for either strategy adaptation or the gaming process. Here we show that combining both processes for selecting a gaming partner and an adaptation partner further enhances cooperation, provided that an appropriate selection rule and parameters are adopted. We also show that this combined model significantly enhances cooperation by reducing the degree of activity in the underlying network; we measure the degree of activity with a quantity called effective degree. More precisely, during the initial evolutionary stage in which the global cooperation fraction declines because initially allocated cooperators becoming defectors, the model shows that weak cooperative clusters perish and only a few strong cooperative clusters survive. This finding is the most important key to attaining significant network reciprocity.

  5. Concluding remarks: nutritional strategies to support the adaptive response to prolonged exercise training.

    PubMed

    van Loon, Luc J C; Tipton, Kevin D

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition plays a key role in allowing the numerous training hours to be translated into useful adaptive responses of various tissues in the individual athlete. Research over the last decade has shown many examples of the impact of dietary interventions to modulate the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged exercise training. Proper nutritional coaching should be applied throughout both training and competition, each with their specific requirements regarding nutrient provision. Such dietary support will improve exercise training efficiency and, as such, further increase performance capacity. Here, we provide an overview on the properties of various nutritional interventions that may be useful to support the adaptive response to exercise training and competition and, as such, to augment exercise training efficiency.

  6. An adaptive time-stepping strategy for solving the phase field crystal model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhengru; Ma, Yuan; Qiao, Zhonghua

    2013-09-15

    In this work, we will propose an adaptive time step method for simulating the dynamics of the phase field crystal (PFC) model. The numerical simulation of the PFC model needs long time to reach steady state, and then large time-stepping method is necessary. Unconditionally energy stable schemes are used to solve the PFC model. The time steps are adaptively determined based on the time derivative of the corresponding energy. It is found that the use of the proposed time step adaptivity cannot only resolve the steady state solution, but also the dynamical development of the solution efficiently and accurately. The numerical experiments demonstrate that the CPU time is significantly saved for long time simulations.

  7. Conservation strategies to adapt to projected climate change impacts in Malawi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is potential for climate change to have negative effects on agricultural production via extreme events (Pruski and Nearing, 2002b; Zhang et al., 2012; Walthall 2012), and there is a need to implement conservation practices for climate change adaptation (Delgado et al. 2011; 2013). Recent repo...

  8. Strategies for Adapting WebQuests for Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skylar, Ashley A.; Higgins, Kyle; Boone, Randall

    2007-01-01

    WebQuests are gaining popularity as teachers explore using the Internet for guided learning activities. A WebQuest involves students working on a task that is broken down into clearly defined steps. Students often work in groups to actively conduct the research. This article suggests a variety of methods for adapting WebQuests for students with…

  9. [The impact of religious coping on adaptation strategy among the sick].

    PubMed

    Debout, Christophe

    2015-10-01

    The influence of religious practice on sick people's adaptation processes has been demonstrated in many studies. It is important for the clinical reasoning implemented by caregivers to integrate this aspect in a context defined by the principle of "laïcité" as understood in France.

  10. Group-Work in the Design of Complex Adaptive Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavroudi, Anna; Hadzilacos, Thanasis

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a case study where twelve graduate students undertook the demanding role of the adaptive e-course developer and worked collaboratively on an authentic and complex design task in the context of open and distance tertiary education. The students had to work in groups in order to conceptualise and design a learning scenario for…

  11. Behaviorally Mediated, Warm Adaptation: A Physiological Strategy When Mice Are Allowed to Behaviorally Thermoregulate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory mice housed under standard vivarium conditions with an ambient temperature (Ta) of -22°C are likely to be cold stressed because this Ta is below their thermoneutral zone (TNZ). Mice raised at Tas within the TNZ adapt to the warmer temperatures, developing smaller int...

  12. Investigating Purposeful Science Curriculum Adaptation as a Strategy to Improve Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debarger, Angela Haydel; Penuel, William R.; Moorthy, Savitha; Beauvineau, Yves; Kennedy, Cathleen A.; Boscardin, Christy Kim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the potential and conditions for using curriculum adaptation to support reform of science teaching and learning. With each wave of reform in science education, curriculum has played a central role and the contemporary wave focused on implementation of the principles and vision of the "Framework for K-12 Science…

  13. Play Therapy for Bereaved Children: Adapting Strategies to Community, School, and Home Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Nancy Boyd

    2011-01-01

    Play therapy is a highly adaptable treatment method that can be modified according to children's ages, circumstances, and settings in which counseling occurs. Play therapy may be used in schools, community settings, and homes to help children following the death of a significant other. After reviewing basic developmental factors that affect…

  14. Learner Control versus Program Control as Adaptive Strategies for Selection of Instructional Support on Math Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Steven M.; Rakow, Ernest A.

    1981-01-01

    Subjects completed a self-paced lesson on math rules in which the number of supporting examples was adapted to pretest scores through program control, selected through learner control, or kept constant (nonadaptive). Program control means were consistently highest while learner control means were lowest. (Author/BW)

  15. Towards an integrated agenda for adaptation research: theory, practice, and policy: Strategy paper

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, Thomas J; Patwardhan, Anand; Downing, Tom; Leary, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation to the adverse impacts of climate change has been recognized as a priority area for national and international policy. The findings of the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC have reemphasized the urgency of action and the scale of response needed to cope with climate change outcomes. The scientific community has an important role to play in advancing the information and knowledge base that would help in identifying, developing and implementing effective responses to enhance adaptive capacity and reduce vulnerability. This paper examines the way in which science and research could advance the adaptation agenda. To do so, we pose a number of questions aimed at identifying the knowledge gaps and research needs. We argue that in order to address these science and research needs, an integrated approach is necessary, one that combines new knowledge with new approaches for knowledge generation, and where research and practice co-evolve; and that such a learning-by-doing approach is essential to rapidly scale up and implement concrete adaptation actions.

  16. The Adaptive Basis of Psychosocial Acceleration: Comment on beyond Mental Health, Life History Strategies Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettle, Daniel; Frankenhuis, Willem E.; Rickard, Ian J.

    2012-01-01

    Four of the articles published in this special section of "Developmental Psychology" build on and refine psychosocial acceleration theory. In this short commentary, we discuss some of the adaptive assumptions of psychosocial acceleration theory that have not received much attention. Psychosocial acceleration theory relies on the behavior of…

  17. An Adaptive Testing Strategy for Mastery Decisions. Research Report 79-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsbury, G. Gage; Weiss, David J.

    The theory and technology of item characteristic curve (ICC) response theory and adaptive testing were applied to judging individuals' competencies against a prespecified mastery level to determine whether each individual is a "master" or "nonmaster" of a specified content domain. Items from two conventionally administered mastery tests…

  18. Self-Regulation Strategies and Technologies for Adaptive Learning Management Systems for Web-based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heo, Heeok; Joung, Sunyoung

    2004-01-01

    The current study identifies the potential problems of current web-based instruction and learning management systems in terms of its lack of flexibility and customization required for individual learners? different goals, backgrounds, knowledge levels, and learning capabilities. Advanced adaptive learning management system technologies are able to…

  19. Using Multiple Adaptively-Weighted Strategies for the Resolution of Demonstratives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-10

    proper binding for an anaphor . Its main strategies are extended versions of Wilks’ Preference Semantics [46,47) and Sidner’s anaphor resolution rules...different types. The successful chains thus bind one or more anaphors to candidate antecedents. Carter gives the outline of the overall processing...12. Possible Enhancements 87 12.1. Intrasentential Demonstrative References 87 12.2. Anaphoric Pronouns and NPs 87 12.3. Additional Strategies 88 12.4

  20. Exploiting the Interplay between Innate and Adaptive Immunity to Improve Immunotherapeutic Strategies for Epstein-Barr-Virus-Driven Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Martorelli, Debora; Muraro, Elena; Merlo, Anna; Turrini, Riccardo; Faè, Damiana Antonia; Rosato, Antonio; Dolcetti, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    The recent demonstration that immunotherapeutic approaches may be clinically effective for cancer patients has renewed the interest for this strategy of intervention. In particular, clinical trials using adoptive T-cell therapies disclosed encouraging results, particularly in the context of Epstein-Barr-virus- (EBV-) related tumors. Nevertheless, the rate of complete clinical responses is still limited, thus stimulating the development of more effective therapeutic protocols. Considering the relevance of innate immunity in controlling both infections and cancers, innovative immunotherapeutic approaches should take into account also this compartment to improve clinical efficacy. Evidence accumulated so far indicates that innate immunity effectors, particularly NK cells, can be exploited with therapeutic purposes and new targets have been recently identified. We herein review the complex interactions between EBV and innate immunity and summarize the therapeutic strategies involving both adaptive and innate immune system, in the light of a fruitful integration between these immunotherapeutic modalities for a better control of EBV-driven tumors. PMID:22319542

  1. Plans, Projections and Practitioners: Engaging with Communities to Explore Adaptation Strategies for Transportation Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picketts, I. M.

    2015-12-01

    Transportation infrastructure is a significant climate change adaptation concern because it is: costly; designed for long operational lives; susceptible to both episodic and seasonal deterioration; and a significant safety concern. While examples of adaptation exist in transportation design, many communities do not have the capacity to incorporate climate change considerations into infrastructure planning and management. This presentation will overview the process and outcomes of research conducted in collaboration with the communities of Prince George and Squamish, both located in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Previous research in Prince George (in northern BC) involved applying downscaled climate projection information to assess local climate impacts, and identified transportation infrastructure as the top priority for ongoing study. In Prince George the adaptation process was oriented toward determining how the City could plan, design, and maintain roads and other structures to account for climate change. A local steering committee was formed, and created and evaluated 23 potential research topics. Two focus areas were selected for further investigation and explored during a workshop with practitioners, researchers, consultants and other representatives. The workshop precipitated additional modelling of projected impacts of climate change on road maintenance and road safety, and plans to explore the viability of alternative paving techniques. Outcomes of the case study provide insights regarding how researchers can 'combine' top down and bottom up approaches by using modelling information as part of an engagement process with local experts to explore adaptation. Ongoing research in Squamish seeks to apply lessons learned from the Prince George case study (both related to process and the application of modelling information) to a more temperate coastal region with a more climate-concerned population. In Squamish there also lies an opportunity to explicitly focus

  2. Design and Inference for the Intent to Treat Principle using Adaptive Treatment Strategies and Sequential Randomization

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Ree; Lavori, Philip W.

    2015-01-01

    Nonadherence to assigned treatment jeopardizes the power and interpretability of intent-to-treat comparisons from clinical trial data and continues to be an issue for effectiveness studies, despite their pragmatic emphasis. We posit that new approaches to design need to complement developments in methods for causal inference to address nonadherence, in both experimental and practice settings. This paper considers the conventional study design for psychiatric research and other medical contexts, in which subjects are randomized to treatments that are fixed throughout the trial and presents an alternative that converts the fixed treatments into an adaptive intervention that reflects best practice. The key element is the introduction of an adaptive decision point midway into the study to address a patient's reluctance to remain on treatment before completing a full-length trial of medication. The clinical uncertainty about the appropriate adaptation prompts a second randomization at the new decision point to evaluate relevant options. Additionally, the standard ‘all-or-none’ principal stratification (PS) framework is applied to the first stage of the design to address treatment discontinuation that occurs too early for a mid-trial adaptation. Drawing upon the adaptive intervention features, we develop assumptions to identify the PS causal estimand and introduce restrictions on outcome distributions to simplify Expectation-Maximization calculations. We evaluate the performance of the PS setup, with particular attention to the role played by a binary covariate. The results emphasize the importance of collecting covariate data for use in design and analysis. We consider the generality of our approach beyond the setting of psychiatric research. PMID:25581413

  3. Scientific Implications of the Modified Observing Strategy of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEnery, Julie E.; Fermi-LAT Collaboration; Fermi-GBM Team

    2014-01-01

    Near the end of 2013 the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission plans to change to a modified observing strategy designed to favor the Galactic center while maintaining full sky-survey capabilities. This change would have important implications for the science of the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT). In particular, this change will 1) substantially increase the Fermi-LAT sensitivity to young pulsars in the inner Galaxy, 2) provide simultaneous observations of the Galactic center with a suite of other instruments that have extended observing campaigns of the expected disruption of the G2 gas cloud complex (see https://wiki.mpe.mpg.de/gascloud/ProposalList) , 3) double the rate of improvement of statistical power for of searches for spectral lines from the Galactic center. In this contribution we discuss these topics. We also investigate ways in which the modified observing strategy can induce systematic biases, and discuss how those biases can be studied and mitigated with studies of control samples of LAT data.

  4. The effect of learner's control of self-observation strategies on learning of front crawl.

    PubMed

    Marques, Priscila Garcia; Corrêa, Umberto Cesar

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of learner's control of self-observation strategies on motor skill learning. For this purpose, beginner and intermediate learner swimmers practised the front crawl. Seventy college students took part in this experiment. They comprised 40 novice learners, both male (n=19) and female (n=21), with an average age of 20.7 years (±0.44), and 30 intermediate learners, both male (n=17) and female (n=13), with an average age of 21.1 years (±0.86). The design involved a pretest (one day), four acquisition sessions (four days), and a retention test (one day). They were divided into three groups: (1) choice, which could choose to watch a video with their best or overall performance during practise; (2) yoked, which were paired to those of the choice group; and (3) control (did not watch any video). The measures included the performance of front crawl and self-efficacy. The results showed that: (1) beginners who chose a type of observation strategy had superior motor skill learning; (2) for intermediate learners, self-observation promoted better motor learning, regardless of the control of choices; (3) self-observation improved self-efficacy beliefs.

  5. An Alternative Evacuation Framework to Improve Protective-action Strategies Following a Nuclear Power Accident: The Adaptive Protective Action Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Gregory D.

    Within the U.S. current protective-action strategies to safeguard the public following a nuclear power accident have remained largely unchanged since their implementation in the early 1980s. In the past thirty years, new technologies have been introduced allowing faster computations, better modeling of predicted radiological consequences, and improved accident mapping with geographic information systems (GIS). Utilizing these new technologies, we evaluate the efficacy of alternative strategies, called adaptive protective action zones (APAZs), that use site-specific and event-specific data to dynamically determine evacuation boundaries with simple heuristics in order to better inform protective action decisions (rather than relying on pre-event regulatory bright lines). Several candidate APAZs were developed and then compared to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's keyhole evacuation strategy (and full evacuation of the emergency planning zone). Two of the APAZs were better on average than existing NRC strategies at reducing either the radiological exposure, the population evacuated, or both. These APAZs are especially effective for larger radioactive plumes and at high population sites; one of them is better at reducing radiation exposure, while the other is better at reducing the population evacuated. However, should policy makers decide that the benefits of APAZs outweigh the costs of implementation, APAZ adoption by U.S. regulatory agencies should be accompanied by a revision to the nuclear-power plant emergency planning basis, and revisions to local nuclear power emergency response planning areas.

  6. The Gars Programme And The Integrated Global Observing Strategy For Geohazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, S.; Paganini, M.; Missotten, R.; Palazzo, F.

    UNESCO and the IUGS have funded the Geological Applications of Remote Sensing Programme (GARS) since 1984. Its aim is to assess the value and utility of remotely sensed data for geoscience, whilst at the same time building capacity in developing countries. It has run projects in Africa on geological mapping, in Latin America on landslide hazards and in Asia on volcanic hazards. It is a main sponsor of the Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS) for Geohazards. The societal impact of geological and related geophysical hazards is enormous. Every year volcanoes, earthquakes, landslides and subsidence claim thousands of lives, injure thousands more, devastate homes and destroy livelihoods. Damaged infrastructure and insurance premiums increase these costs. As population increases, more people live in hazardous areas and the impact grows. The World Summit on Sustainable Development recognised that systematic, joint international observations under initiatives like the Integrated Global Observing Strategy form the basis for an integrated approach to hazard mitigation and preparedness. In this context, the IGOS Partners developed this geohazards theme. Its goal is to integrate disparate, multidisciplinary, applied research into global, operational systems by filling gaps in organisation, observation and knowledge. It has four strategic objectives; building global capacity to mitigate geohazards; improving mapping, monitoring and forecasting, based on satellite and ground-based observations; increasing preparedness, using integrated geohazards information products and improved geohazards models; and promoting global take-up of local best practice in geohazards management. Gaps remain between what is known and the knowledge required to answer citizen's questions, what is observed and what must be observed to provide the necessary information for hazard mitigation and current data integration and the integration needed to make useful geohazard information products. An

  7. A Topology Control Strategy with Reliability Assurance for Satellite Cluster Networks in Earth Observation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing; Zhang, Jinxiu; Hu, Ze

    2017-02-23

    This article investigates the dynamic topology control problemof satellite cluster networks (SCNs) in Earth observation (EO) missions by applying a novel metric of stability for inter-satellite links (ISLs). The properties of the periodicity and predictability of satellites' relative position are involved in the link cost metric which is to give a selection criterion for choosing the most reliable data routing paths. Also, a cooperative work model with reliability is proposed for the situation of emergency EO missions. Based on the link cost metric and the proposed reliability model, a reliability assurance topology control algorithm and its corresponding dynamic topology control (RAT) strategy are established to maximize the stability of data transmission in the SCNs. The SCNs scenario is tested through some numeric simulations of the topology stability of average topology lifetime and average packet loss rate. Simulation results show that the proposed reliable strategy applied in SCNs significantly improves the data transmission performance and prolongs the average topology lifetime.

  8. Adaptive radiation with regard to nutrient sequestration strategies in the carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes.

    PubMed

    Pavlovič, Andrej

    2012-02-01

    Carnivorous pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes have evolved a great diversity of pitcher morphologies. Selective pressures for maximizing nutrient uptake have driven speciation and diversification of the genus in a process known as adaptive radiation. This leads to the evolution of pitchers adapted to specific and often bizarre source of nutrients, which are not strictly animal-derived. One example is Nepenthes ampullaria with unusual growth pattern and pitcher morphology what enables the plant to capture a leaf litter from the canopy above. We showed that the plant benefits from nitrogen uptake by increased rate of photosynthesis and growth what may provide competitive advantage over others co-habiting plants. A possible impact of such specialization toward hybridization, an important mechanism in speciation, is discussed.

  9. Regional Collaborations to Combat Climate Change: The Climate Science Centers as Strategies for Climate Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, T. L.; Palmer, R. N.

    2014-12-01

    The Department of Interior Northeast Climate Science Center (NE CSC) is part of a federal network of eight Climate Science Centers created to provide scientific information, tools, and techniques that managers and other parties interested in land, water, wildlife and cultural resources can use to anticipate, monitor, and adapt to climate change. The consortium approach taken by the CSCs allows the academic side of the Centers to gather expertise across departments, disciplines, and even institutions. This interdisciplinary approach is needed for successfully meeting regional needs for climate impact assessment, adaptive management, education, and stakeholder outreach. Partnership with the federal government facilitates interactions with the key on-the-ground stakeholders who are able to operationalize the results and conclusions of that research, monitor the progress of management actions, and provide feedback to refine future methodology and decisions as new information on climate impacts is discovered. For example, NE CSC researchers are analyzing the effect of climate change on the timing and volume of seasonal and annual streamflows and the concomitant effects on ecological and cultural resources; developing techniques to monitor tree range dynamics as affected by natural disturbances which can enable adaptation of projected climate impacts; studying the effects of changes in the frequency and magnitude of drought and stream temperature on brook trout habitats, spatial distribution and population persistence; and conducting assessments of northeastern regional climate projections and high-resolution downscaling. Project methods are being developed in collaboration with stakeholders and results are being shared broadly with federal, state, and other partners to implement and refine effective and adaptive management actions.

  10. Adaptation of Decoy Fusion Strategy for Existing Multi-Stage Search Workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Mark V.; Levitsky, Lev I.; Gorshkov, Mikhail V.

    2016-09-01

    A number of proteomic database search engines implement multi-stage strategies aiming at increasing the sensitivity of proteome analysis. These approaches often employ a subset of the original database for the secondary stage of analysis. However, if target-decoy approach (TDA) is used for false discovery rate (FDR) estimation, the multi-stage strategies may violate the underlying assumption of TDA that false matches are distributed uniformly across the target and decoy databases. This violation occurs if the numbers of target and decoy proteins selected for the second search are not equal. Here, we propose a method of decoy database generation based on the previously reported decoy fusion strategy. This method allows unbiased TDA-based FDR estimation in multi-stage searches and can be easily integrated into existing workflows utilizing popular search engines and post-search algorithms.

  11. Tuning of patient-specific deformable models using an adaptive evolutionary optimization strategy.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Franck P; Villard, Pierre-Frédéric; Lutton, Evelyne

    2012-10-01

    We present and analyze the behavior of an evolutionary algorithm designed to estimate the parameters of a complex organ behavior model. The model is adaptable to account for patient's specificities. The aim is to finely tune the model to be accurately adapted to various real patient datasets. It can then be embedded, for example, in high fidelity simulations of the human physiology. We present here an application focused on respiration modeling. The algorithm is automatic and adaptive. A compound fitness function has been designed to take into account for various quantities that have to be minimized. The algorithm efficiency is experimentally analyzed on several real test cases: 1) three patient datasets have been acquired with the "breath hold" protocol, and 2) two datasets corresponds to 4-D CT scans. Its performance is compared with two traditional methods (downhill simplex and conjugate gradient descent): a random search and a basic real-valued genetic algorithm. The results show that our evolutionary scheme provides more significantly stable and accurate results.

  12. Adaptive Strategies for Controls of Flexible Arms. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, Bau-San

    1989-01-01

    An adaptive controller for a modern manipulator has been designed based on asymptotical stability via the Lyapunov criterion with the output error between the system and a reference model used as the actuating control signal. Computer simulations were carried out to test the design. The combination of the adaptive controller and a system vibration and mode shape estimator show that the flexible arm should move along a pre-defined trajectory with high-speed motion and fast vibration setting time. An existing computer-controlled prototype two link manipulator, RALF (Robotic Arm, Large Flexible), with a parallel mechanism driven by hydraulic actuators was used to verify the mathematical analysis. The experimental results illustrate that assumed modes found from finite element techniques can be used to derive the equations of motion with acceptable accuracy. The robust adaptive (modal) control is implemented to compensate for unmodelled modes and nonlinearities and is compared with the joint feedback control in additional experiments. Preliminary results show promise for the experimental control algorithm.

  13. Future droughts in Global Climate Models and adaptation strategies from regional present-day analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlowsky, B.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2012-04-01

    Droughts are among the most impacting phenomena of a changing climate, affecting agricultural productivity and human health. They can furthermore interact with and amplify other climatic extreme events such as heat waves. Our analysis of the CMIP5 ensemble of GCM simulations identifies several hot spots of aggravating droughts in coming decades, such as the Mediterranean, parts of the Southern US and North East Brazil, which also compare well with increasing stress from heat waves. However, as we show by a comparison of drought indices, the exact pattern can substantially depend on the index choice. In some regions of the developing world which are particularly vulnerable to droughts, e.g. Central Africa, this uncertainty is further increased by a high disagreement between the GCMs. In a second step, we perform an analogue search which, for a given target region, identifies regions which under present-day climate show drought conditions that are similar to the projected future drought conditions of the target region. For example, the future conditions in the Mediterranean are found to be analogue to the present-day conditions in parts of the US, Central Asia or Australia. Information from web resources on climate change adaptation and agricultural practices for the identified similar regions are then assessed in the context of the target region as potential guidelines for adaptation. Thus combining the temporal and spatial dimension helps to transfer local climate adaptation knowledge to other regions, where it is expected to become relevant in the future.

  14. Effectuation of adaptive stability and postural alignment strategies are decreased by alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Hafström, A; Modig, F; Magnusson, M; Fransson, P A

    2014-06-01

    Human stability control is a complex process comprising contributions from several partly independent mechanisms such as coordination, feedback and feed-forward control, and adaptation. Acute alcohol intoxication impairs these functions and is recognized as a major contributor to fall traumas. The study aimed to investigate how alcohol intoxication at .06% and .10% blood alcohol concentration (BAC) affected the movement spans and control of posture alignment. The angular positions of the head, shoulder, hip and knees relative to the ankles were measured with a 3D motion analysis system in 25 healthy adults during standing with eyes open or closed and with or without vibratory balance perturbations. Alcohol intoxication significantly increased the movement spans of the head, shoulders, hip and knees in anteroposterior and lateral directions during quiet stance (p < or = .047 and p < or = .003) and balance perturbations (p<.001, both directions). Alcohol intoxication also decreased the ability to reduce the movement spans through adaptation in both anteroposterior (p < or = .011) and lateral (p < or = .004) directions. When sober and submitted to balance perturbations, the subjects aligned the head, shoulders, hip and knees more forward relative to the ankle joint (p < .001), hence adopting a more resilient posture increasing the safety margin for backward falls. Alcohol intoxication significantly delayed this forward realignment (p < or = .022). Alcohol intoxication did not cause any significant posture realignment in the lateral direction. Thus, initiation of adaptive posture realignments to alcohol or other disruptions might be context dependent and associated with reaching a certain level of stability threats.

  15. Adaptive Capacity in Tanzanian Maasailand: Changing strategies to cope with drought in fragmented landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Riosmena, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the ways in which the adaptive capacity of households to climatic events varies within communities and is mediated by institutional and landscape changes. We present qualitative and quantitative data from two Maasai communities differentially exposed to the devastating drought of 2009 in Northern Tanzania. We show how rangeland fragmentation combined with the decoupling of institutions and landscapes are affecting pastoralists ability to cope with drought. Our data highlight that mobility remains a key coping mechanism for pastoralists to avoid cattle loss during a drought. However, mobility is now happening in new ways that require not only large amounts of money but new forms of knowledge and connections outside of customary reciprocity networks. Those least affected by the drought, in terms of cattle lost, were those with large herds who were able to sell some of their cattle and to pay for private access to pastures outside of Maasai areas. Drawing on an entitlements framework, we argue that the new coping mechanisms are not available to all, could be making some households more vulnerable to climate change, and reduce the adaptive capacity of the overall system as reciprocity networks and customary institutions are weakened. As such, we posit that adaptive capacity to climate change is uneven within and across communities, is scale-dependent, and is intimately tied to institutional and landscape changes. PMID:25400331

  16. Can Impacts of Climate Change and Agricultural Adaptation Strategies Be Accurately Quantified if Crop Models Are Annually Re-Initialized?

    PubMed

    Basso, Bruno; Hyndman, David W; Kendall, Anthony D; Grace, Peter R; Robertson, G Philip

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of climate change impacts on global food production are generally based on statistical or process-based models. Process-based models can provide robust predictions of agricultural yield responses to changing climate and management. However, applications of these models often suffer from bias due to the common practice of re-initializing soil conditions to the same state for each year of the forecast period. If simulations neglect to include year-to-year changes in initial soil conditions and water content related to agronomic management, adaptation and mitigation strategies designed to maintain stable yields under climate change cannot be properly evaluated. We apply a process-based crop system model that avoids re-initialization bias to demonstrate the importance of simulating both year-to-year and cumulative changes in pre-season soil carbon, nutrient, and water availability. Results are contrasted with simulations using annual re-initialization, and differences are striking. We then demonstrate the potential for the most likely adaptation strategy to offset climate change impacts on yields using continuous simulations through the end of the 21st century. Simulations that annually re-initialize pre-season soil carbon and water contents introduce an inappropriate yield bias that obscures the potential for agricultural management to ameliorate the deleterious effects of rising temperatures and greater rainfall variability.

  17. When climate change is a fact! Adaptive strategies for drinking water production in a changing natural environment.

    PubMed

    Meuleman, A F M; Cirkel, G; Zwolsman, G J J

    2007-01-01

    Climate change increases water system dynamics through temperature changes, changes in precipitation patterns, evaporation, and water quality and water storage in ice packs. Water system dependent economical stakeholders, such as drinking water companies in the Netherlands, have to cope with consequences of climate change, e.g. floods and water shortages in river systems, upcoming of brackish ground water, salt water intrusion, increasing peak demands and microbiological activity due to temperature rise. In the past decades, however, both water systems and drinking water production have become more and more inflexible; water systems have been heavily regulated aiming at maximum security and economic functions and the drinking water supply in the Netherlands has grown into an inflexible, but cheap and reliable, system. At a water catchment scale, flexibility and adaptation are solutions to overcome climate change related consequences. Flexible adaptive strategies for drinking water production comprise new sources for drinking water production, application of storage concepts in the short term, and a redesign of large centralized systems, including flexible treatment plants, in the long term. Transition to flexible concepts will take decades because investment depreciation periods of assets are long. These strategies must be based on thorough knowledge of current assets to seize opportunities for change.

  18. A Framework Approach to Evaluate Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Public Engagement Strategies for Radioactive Waste Management - 13430

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, Laura

    2013-07-01

    The complex interplay of politics, economics and culture undermines attempts to define universal best practices for public engagement in the management of nuclear materials. In the international context, communicators must rely on careful adaptation and creative execution to make standard communication techniques succeed in their local communities. Nuclear professionals need an approach to assess and adapt culturally specific public engagement strategies to meet the demands of their particular political, economic and social structures. Using participant interviews and public sources, the Potomac Communications Group reviewed country-specific examples of nuclear-related communication efforts to provide insight into a proposed approach. The review considered a spectrum of cultural dimensions related to diversity, authority, conformity, proximity and time. Comparisons help to identify cross-cultural influences of various public engagement tactics and to inform a framework for communicators. While not prescriptive in its application, the framework offers a way for communicators to assess the salience of outreach tactics in specific situations. The approach can guide communicators to evaluate and tailor engagement strategies to achieve localized public outreach goals. (authors)

  19. Stakeholder perspectives on land-use strategies for adapting to climate-change-enhanced coastal hazards: Sarasota, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frazier, Tim G.; Wood, Nathan; Yarnal, Brent

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable land-use planning requires decision makers to balance community growth with resilience to natural hazards. This balance is especially difficult in many coastal communities where planners must grapple with significant growth projections, the persistent threat of extreme events (e.g., hurricanes), and climate-change-driven sea level rise that not only presents a chronic hazard but also alters the spatial extent of sudden-onset hazards such as hurricanes. We examine these stressors on coastal, long-term land-use planning by reporting the results of a one-day community workshop held in Sarasota County, Florida that included focus groups and participatory mapping exercises. Workshop participants reflected various political agendas and socioeconomic interests of five local knowledge domains: business, environment, emergency management and infrastructure, government, and planning. Through a series of alternating domain-specific focus groups and interactive plenary sessions, participants compared the county 2050 comprehensive land-use plan to maps of contemporary hurricane storm-surge hazard zones and projected storm-surge hazard zones enlarged by sea level rise scenarios. This interactive, collaborative approach provided each group of domain experts the opportunity to combine geographically-specific, scientific knowledge on natural hazards and climate change with local viewpoints and concerns. Despite different agendas, interests, and proposed adaptation strategies, there was common agreement among participants for the need to increase community resilience to contemporary hurricane storm-surge hazards and to explore adaptation strategies to combat the projected, enlarged storm-surge hazard zones.

  20. Can Impacts of Climate Change and Agricultural Adaptation Strategies Be Accurately Quantified if Crop Models Are Annually Re-Initialized?

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Bruno; Hyndman, David W.; Kendall, Anthony D.; Grace, Peter R.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of climate change impacts on global food production are generally based on statistical or process-based models. Process-based models can provide robust predictions of agricultural yield responses to changing climate and management. However, applications of these models often suffer from bias due to the common practice of re-initializing soil conditions to the same state for each year of the forecast period. If simulations neglect to include year-to-year changes in initial soil conditions and water content related to agronomic management, adaptation and mitigation strategies designed to maintain stable yields under climate change cannot be properly evaluated. We apply a process-based crop system model that avoids re-initialization bias to demonstrate the importance of simulating both year-to-year and cumulative changes in pre-season soil carbon, nutrient, and water availability. Results are contrasted with simulations using annual re-initialization, and differences are striking. We then demonstrate the potential for the most likely adaptation strategy to offset climate change impacts on yields using continuous simulations through the end of the 21st century. Simulations that annually re-initialize pre-season soil carbon and water contents introduce an inappropriate yield bias that obscures the potential for agricultural management to ameliorate the deleterious effects of rising temperatures and greater rainfall variability. PMID:26043188

  1. Developing and Testing Adaptive Treatment Strategies Using Substance-Induced Psychosis as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Ree; Green, Alan I.; Drake, Robert E.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Schanzer, Bella; Lavori, Philip W.

    2009-01-01

    Decisions concerning treatment changes pervade the management of chronic psychiatric disorders that resist definitive cure, yet empirical evidence for the comparative clinical effectiveness of treatment strategies remains underdeveloped. In this paper we exploit the example of psychosis following substance use to illustrate some new developments in clinical trials design that can provide the most solid evidence base for defining successful strategies. The intent is to explore the strengths and limitations of the methodological approach through a meaningful clinical example, with an emphasis on concepts and issues. Both methodology and clinical science are overviewed. PMID:18779776

  2. Current strategies to create tailored and risk-adapted therapies for CLL patients.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Paula; Eichhorst, Barbara; Reinhardt, Hans Christian; Hallek, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Given the current dynamics in the development of novel agents for CLL therapy, the task to find optimal, non-toxic combinations has become the primary goal. This article gives an update of the most interesting novel drugs. The strategy of the German CLL Study Group to use these agents in combinations is described in detail, highlighting the strategy and first results of a recently started series of phase II combination trials, the BXX series using agents such as bendamustine, idelalisib, ibrutinib, obinutuzumab, ofatumumab and venetoclax.

  3. Developing and testing adaptive treatment strategies using substance-induced psychosis as an example.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Ree; Green, Alan I; Drake, Robert E; McGlashan, Thomas H; Schanzer, Bella; Lavori, Philip W

    2008-01-01

    Decisions concerning treatment changes pervade the management of chronic psychiatric disorders that resist definitive cure, yet empirical evidence for the comparative clinical effectiveness of treatment strategies remains underdeveloped. In this paper we exploit the example of psychosis following substance use to illustrate some new developments in clinical trials design that can provide the most solid evidence base for defining successful strategies. The intent is to explore the strengths and limitations of the methodological approach through a meaningful clinical example, with an emphasis on concepts and issues. Both methodology and clinical science are overviewed.

  4. Developing Coastal Adaptation to Climate Change in the New York City Infrastructure-Shed: Process, Approach, Tools, and Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Solecki, William D.; Blake, Reginald; Bowman, Malcolm; Faris, Craig; Gornitz, Vivien; Horton, Radley; Jacob, Klaus; LeBlanc, Alice; Leichenko, Robin; Linkin, Megan; Major, David; O'Grady, Megan; Patrick, Lesley; Sussman, Edna; Yohe, Gary; Zimmerman, Rae

    2010-01-01

    While current rates of sea level rise and associated coastal flooding in the New York City region appear to be manageable by stakeholders responsible for communications, energy, transportation, and water infrastructure, projections for sea level rise and associated flooding in the future, especially those associated with rapid icemelt of the Greenland and West Antarctic Icesheets, may be beyond the range of current capacity because an extreme event might cause flooding and inundation beyond the planning and preparedness regimes. This paper describes the comprehensive process, approach, and tools developed by the New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC) in conjunction with the region s stakeholders who manage its critical infrastructure, much of which lies near the coast. It presents the adaptation approach and the sea-level rise and storm projections related to coastal risks developed through the stakeholder process. Climate change adaptation planning in New York City is characterized by a multi-jurisdictional stakeholder-scientist process, state-of-the-art scientific projections and mapping, and development of adaptation strategies based on a risk-management approach.

  5. Bone Microstructure of the Stereospondyl Lydekkerina Huxleyi Reveals Adaptive Strategies to the Harsh Post Permian-Extinction Environment.

    PubMed

    Canoville, Aurore; Chinsamy, Anusuya

    2015-07-01

    The small-bodied stereospondyl Lydekkerina huxleyi, dominated the amphibian fauna of the South African Lower Triassic. Even though the anatomy of this amphibian has been well described, its growth strategies and lifestyle habits have remained controversial. Previous studies attributed the relative uniformity in skull sizes to a predominance of subadult and adult specimens recovered in the fossil record. Anatomical and taphonomic data suggested that the relatively small body-size of this genus, as compared to its Permo-Triassic relatives, could be linked to a shortened, rapid developmental period as an adaptation to maintain successful breeding populations under harsh environmental conditions. Moreover, Lydekkerina's habitat has been hypothesized to be either aquatic or mainly terrestrial. The current study, utilizes bone microstructure to reassess previous hypotheses pertaining to the biology and ecology of Lydekkerina. Various skeletal elements of different-sized specimens are analyzed to understand its growth dynamics, intraskeletal variability, and lifestyle adaptations. Bone histology revealed that our sample comprises individuals at different ontogenetic stages i.e., juveniles to mature individuals. Our results show that these amphibians, despite exhibiting plasticity in growth, experienced an overall faster growth during early ontogeny (thereby attaining sexual maturity sooner), as compared to most other temnospondyls. The microanatomy of the long bones with their thick bone walls and distinctive medullary cavity suggests that Lydekkerina may have been amphibious with a tendency to be more terrestrial. Our study concludes that Lydekkerina employed a peculiar growth strategy and lifestyle adaptations, which enabled it to endure the harsh, dry conditions of the Early Triassic.

  6. Tradeoff Analysis Between Economic Development and Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for River Nile Basin Water Resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) briefings have declared that the growing population in the Nile river basin region (about 160 million, or 57% of the entire population of the basin’s ten riparian countries) is at risk of water scarcity. Adjustment strategies in response to cl...

  7. A Methodology for the Transition from National Strategy to Adaptive Force Packaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-03

    military, economic , political/diplomatic, informational and humanitarian. Examination of the environment of military operations, traditionally termed... economic , political/diplomatic, informational and humanitarian. Examination of the environment of military operations, traditionally termed "battle...development of national strategy requires an appropriate blend of all instruments of power- economic , diplomatic, informational, military and

  8. The Effect of Adaptive, Advisement, and Linear CAI Control Strategies on the Learning of Mathematics Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetzfried, Leslie; Hannafin, Michael

    This study examined the effects of the locus of three computer assisted instruction (CAI) strategies on the accuracy and efficiency of mathematics rule and application learning of 47 low-achieving seventh grade students in remedial mathematics classes. The instructional task was a mathematics rule lesson concerning divisibility by the numbers two,…

  9. A Rationale and Strategy for Adapting Dialogic Reading for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: RECALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalon, Kelly; Delano, Monica; Hanline, Mary Frances

    2013-01-01

    As the number of children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) continues to rise, more children with ASD are accessing early childhood services. Early childhood educators need strategies that benefit a variety of learners served in these settings including those diagnosed with ASD. Shared reading is one routine that is typically used…

  10. Adaptive Flexibility and Maladaptive Routines in Selecting Fast and Frugal Decision Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broder, Arndt; Schiffer, Stefanie

    2006-01-01

    Decision routines unburden the cognitive capacity of the decision maker. In changing environments, however, routines may become maladaptive. In 2 experiments with a hypothetical stock market game (n = 241), the authors tested whether decision routines tend to persist at the level of decision strategies rather than at the level of options in…

  11. Multi-scale hydrometeorological observation and modelling strategy for flash-flood understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braud, Isabelle

    2014-05-01

    Flash floods are a major natural hazard, especially in the Mediterranean region, but their predictability remains low due to high non-linearity in the hydrological response related to threshold effects and structured-heterogeneity at all scales. In this paper, we propose a coupled observation and modelling strategy aiming at improving the understanding of processes triggering flash floods. This strategy is illustrated for the Mediterranean area using two French catchments (Gard and Ardèche) larger than 2000 km². The experimental approach is based on the monitoring of nested spatial scales: 1/ the hillslope scale, where processes influencing the runoff generation and its concentration can be tackled; 2/ the small to medium catchment scale (1-100 km²) where the impact of the network structure and of the spatial variability of rainfall, landscape and initial soil moisture can be quantified; 3/ the larger scale (100-1000 km²) where the river routing and flooding processes become important. These observations are part of the HyMeX (Hydrological Cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment) Enhanced Observation Period (EOP) and lasts four years (2012-2015). In terms of hydrological modelling the objective is to set up models at the regional scale, while addressing small and generally ungauged catchments, which is the scale of interest for flooding risk assessment. Top-down and bottom-up approaches are combined and the models are used as "hypothesis testing" tools by coupling model development with data analyses, in order to incrementally evaluate the validity of model hypotheses. The paper focuses on the presentation of the experimental strategy and the instrumentation, with first results obtained during the first years of the experiment. The perspectives in terms of modelling are also presented.

  12. Supporting Greenhouse Gas Management Strategies with Observations and Analysis - Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, J. H.; Tarasova, O. A.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-change challenges facing society in the 21st century require an improved understanding of the global carbon-cycle and of the impacts and feedbacks of past, present, and future emissions of carbon-cycle gases. Global society faces a major challenge of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to virtually zero, most notably those of CO2, while at the same time facing variable and potentially overwhelming Earth System feedbacks. How it goes about this will depend upon the nature of impending international agreements, national laws, regional strategies, and social and economic forces. The challenge to those making observations to support, inform, or verify these reduction efforts, or to address potential Earth System feedbacks, lies in harmonizing a diverse array of observations and observing systems. Doing so is not trivial. Providing coherent, regional-scale information from these observations also requires improved modelling and ensemble reanalysis, but in the end such information must be relevant and reasonably certain. The challenge to us is to ensure a globally coherent observing and analysis system to supply the information that society will need to succeed. Policy-makers, scientists, government agencies, and businesses will need the best information available for decision-making and any observing and analysis system ultimately must be able to provide a coherent story over decades.

  13. Self-selected conscious strategies do not modulate motor cortical output during action observation

    PubMed Central

    Obhi, Sukhvinder S.

    2015-01-01

    The human motor system is active not only when actions are performed but also when they are observed. Experimenters often manipulate aspects of the action or context to examine factors that influence this “mirror” response. However, little is known about the role of the observer's own top-down intentions and motivation. In this exploratory study, we investigated whether observers are able to exert conscious control over their mirror response, when they are explicitly instructed to either increase or decrease mirroring. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to elicit motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in a thumb abductor muscle as participants (n = 13) watched a video of a hand squeezing a rubber ball. The size of these MEPs, relative to the size of MEPs elicited during fixation cross observation, was taken as an index of mirroring. In an initial block of trials, participants were instructed to merely observe the actions presented. After the first block, the concept of mirroring was explained to the participants, and in the second and third blocks participants were instructed to either increase or decrease their mirror response. We did not instruct them about how to achieve this increase or decrease. Our results showed no difference in either facilitation or absolute motor excitability (i.e., nonnormalized MEP size) between the three blocks, indicating that individuals do not seem to be able to exert control over motor excitability during action observation, at least in the absence of a specific and maintained strategy. PMID:26311182

  14. Mid-Cretaceous charred fossil flowers reveal direct observation of arthropod feeding strategies

    PubMed Central

    Hartkopf-Fröder, Christoph; Rust, Jes; Wappler, Torsten; Friis, Else Marie; Viehofen, Agnes

    2012-01-01

    Although plant–arthropod relationships underpin the dramatic rise in diversity and ecological dominance of flowering plants and their associated arthropods, direct observations of such interactions in the fossil record are rare, as these ephemeral moments are difficult to preserve. Three-dimensionally preserved charred remains of Chloranthistemon flowers from the Late Albian to Early Cenomanian of Germany preserve scales of mosquitoes and an oribatid mite with mouthparts inserted into the pollen sac. Mosquitoes, which today are frequent nectar feeders, and the mite were feeding on pollen at the time wildfire consumed the flowers. These findings document directly arthropod feeding strategies and their role in decomposition. PMID:21900310

  15. [Feeding strategies of mothers of malnourished and eutrophic children: a qualitative study through videotaped observations].

    PubMed

    Perosa, Gimol Benzaquen; Carvalhaes, Maria Antonieta de Barros Leite; Benício, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Silveira, Flávia Cristina Pereira

    2011-11-01

    The scope of this study was to identify and compare maternal feeding strategies and characteristics of the interaction between mothers of malnourished and eutrophic children. Eight pairs of mother/malnourished child and eight pairs of mother/eutrophic child (aged between 9 to 24 months) living in poor inner areas, were videotaped during meals, at home. Through analysis of the videos, the strategies were identified and episodes qualitatively analyzed, according to the peculiar characteristics of the interaction, especially maternal responsivity. There were no significant differences in strategies used by the mothers of both groups. The observations of the episodes have shown that feeding a child is a highly interactive process, dependent upon the abilities and characteristics of both partners. The success of feeding appears to be associated with contextual conditions, maternal responsivity and also to the appetite and flexibility of the child. It is suggested that, in projects geared to malnourished children, besides supplements and feeding orientation, special attention be given to maternal self esteem and in helping mothers to deal with children suffering from loss of appetite.

  16. Strategies for competitiveness and sustainability: adaptation of a Brazilian subsidiary of a Swedish multinational corporation.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rita; Wennersten, Ronald; Oliva, Eduardo B L; Leal Filho, Walter

    2009-09-01

    The competitiveness, in terms of macro and micro levels of an enterprise, is often dictated by its capacity to innovate, ability to respond to the needs of the market, and resilience to challenges from competition. This paper reviews the literature on the adaptation of research and development (R&D) units in subsidiaries of multinational corporations. It focuses mainly on the impact of the technological dynamic on sustainability performance of the Brazilian subsidiary of the Swedish multinational Ericsson. Through a conceptual framework, it explores information and communication technologies (ICT) towards a transversal and comprehensive vision of levels of innovation and sustainability.

  17. Field Phenotyping Strategies and Breeding for Adaptation of Rice to Drought†

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Ken S.; Fukai, Shu; Kumar, Arvind; Leung, Hei; Jongdee, Boonrat

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a section of the book “Drought phenotyping in crops: from theory to practice” (Monneveux Philippe and Ribaut Jean-Marcel eds, published by CGIAR Generation Challenge Programme. Texcoco, Mexico). The section describes recent experience in drought phenotyping in rice which is one of the most drought-susceptible crops. The section contains genetic and genomic resources for drought adaptation and methods for selection of drought-resistant varieties in rice. In appendix, there is experience from Thailand on integration of direct selection for grain yield and physiological traits to confer drought resistance. PMID:22934036

  18. Changes in Ecosystem Services and related Livelihoods in the Mekong Delta: vulnerabilities and adaptation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebesvari, Z.; Renaud, F. G.

    2014-12-01

    The Mekong Delta (Vietnam) is highly vulnerable to the many impacts of global environmental change as well as to the accelerating anthropogenic changes in the catchment and in the delta itself. Today the delta is an agricultural landscape controlled by engineering structures such as channels, dykes, embankments, and sluice gates. These structures have been constructed gradually over the last 200 years mainly for irrigation and flood control in the upper part of the delta and to control saline intrusion in the coastal areas. Recent changes in the hydrology mainly driven by upstream hydropower development on the mainstream and the tributaries of the Mekong will likely have far reaching impacts on the delta´s social-ecological systems through changes in e.g. sedimentation processes, nutrient transport as well as the health of aquatic ecosystems. Further threats to the delta include sea level rise and an increase in seasonal rainfall variability leading to an increase in flood variability. These changes affect the lives of millions of low-income inhabitants who depend on the ecosystem services provided by the Mekong for their livelihoods and sustenance. Since the changes in ecosystem service provision are occurring relatively fast while the resource dependency of the delta population is very high, adaptation becomes a challenge. An assessment of livelihood dependencies on ecosystem services requires an understanding of ecosystem services affected by different drivers of change, as well as of the types of livelihoods likely to be jeopardized as a result of these changes. We will present main ecosystem services supporting specific livelihoods, discuss how they are threatened, and analyse the merits of potential solutions. Options based solely on grey infrastructure might be problematic on the long term while an integration of ecosystem based solution such as a (re)adaptation of agricultural production systems to floods in the upper delta might be a more sustainable

  19. Adaptive Optics at the Big Bear Solar Observatory: Instrument Description and First Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, Carsten; Tritschler, Alexandra; Rimmele, Thomas R.; Richards, Kit; Hegwer, Steve L.; Wöger, Friedrich

    2007-02-01

    In 2004 January, the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) was equipped with a high-order adaptive optics (AO) system built in collaboration with the National Solar Observatory (NSO) at Sacramento Peak. The hardware is almost identical to the AO system operated at the NSO Dunn Solar Tower (DST), incorporating a 97 actuator deformable mirror, a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor with 76 subapertures, and an off-the-shelf digital signal processor system. However, the BBSO optical design is quite different. It had to be adapted to the 65 cm vacuum reflector and the downstream postfocus instrumentation. In this paper, we describe the optical design, demonstrate the AO performance, and use image restoration techniques to illustrate the image quality that can be achieved with the new AO system.

  20. Ribosome profiling reveals an adaptation strategy of reduced bacterium to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Fisunov, Gleb Y; Evsyutina, Daria V; Garanina, Irina A; Arzamasov, Alexander A; Butenko, Ivan O; Altukhov, Ilya A; Nikitina, Anastasia S; Govorun, Vadim M

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria of class Mollicutes (mycoplasmas) feature significant genome reduction which makes them good model organisms for systems biology studies. Previously we demonstrated, that drastic transcriptional response of mycoplasmas to stress results in a very limited response on the level of protein. In this study we used heat stress model of M. gallisepticum and ribosome profiling to elucidate the process of genetic information transfer under stress. We found that under heat stress ribosomes demonstrate selectivity towards mRNA binding. We identified that heat stress response may be divided into two groups on the basis of absolute transcript abundance and fold-change in the translatome. One represents a noise-like response and another is likely an adaptive one. The latter include ClpB chaperone, cell division cluster, homologs of immunoblocking proteins and short ORFs with unknown function. We found that previously identified read-through of terminators contributes to the upregulation of transcripts in the translatome as well. In addition we identified that ribosomes of M. gallisepticum undergo reorganization under the heat stress. The most notable event is decrease of the amount of associated HU protein. In conclusion, only changes of few adaptive transcripts significantly impact translatome, while widespread noise-like transcription plays insignificant role in translation during stress.

  1. The Evolution of Two-Component Systems in Bacteria RevealsDifferent Strategies for Niche Adaptation

    SciTech Connect

    Alm, Eric; Huang, Katherine; Arkin, Adam

    2006-09-13

    Two-component systems including histidine protein kinasesrepresent the primary signal transduction paradigm in prokaryoticorganisms. To understand how these systems adapt to allow organisms todetect niche-specific signals, we analyzed the phylogenetic distributionof nearly 5000 histidine protein kinases from 207 sequenced prokaryoticgenomes. We found that many genomes carry a large repertoire of recentlyevolved signaling genes, which may reflect selective pressure to adapt tonew environmental conditions. Both lineage-specific gene family expansionand horizontal gene transfer play major roles in the introduction of newhistidine kinases into genomes; however, there are differences in howthese two evolutionary forces act. Genes imported via horizontal transferare more likely to retain their original functionality as inferred from asimilar complement of signaling domains, while gene family expansionaccompanied by domain shuffling appears to be a major source of novelgenetic diversity. Family expansion is the dominantsource of newhistidine kinase genes in the genomes most enriched in signalingproteins, and detailed analysis reveals that divergence in domainstructure and changes in expression patterns are hallmarks of recentexpansions. Finally, while these two modes of gene acquisition arewidespread across bacterial taxa, there are clear species-specificpreferences for which mode is used.

  2. Adaptational strategy of a tropical shrub Carissa Carandas L. to urban air pollution.

    PubMed

    Pandey, J; Pandey, U

    1996-12-01

    This paper reports the adaptational response of a tropical shrub Carissa Carandas L. to urban air pollution stress in Varanasi, India. Saplings of C. carandas were grown at a density of one per pot and kept for two years at 25 selected sites in the urban environment. Different sites received different levels of air pollution input. Changes in vegetative growth pattern (leafing and branching), in morphological features and in the distribution of biomass to above and below ground structures were considered in relation to the ambient air quality.Different levels of air pollution input produced different sets of harmful effects. Although the air pollution level at Varanasi reduced the plant height, basal diameter, canopy area, leaf area and total plant biomass of C. carandas, this species retained a major fraction of its photosynthate to above-ground plant parts where foliage assumes predominance. Since carbon gain is dependent not only on the rate of carbon acquisition per unit leaf tissue but also on the amount of photosynthetic tissue present, a shift in relative contribution of photosynthate to leaf production and shoot growth appears to be a pollution-induced adaptive response in C. carandas.

  3. Micro practices of coordination based on complex adaptive systems: user needs and strategies for coordinating public health in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Wittrup, Inge; Burau, Viola

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Many highly formalised approaches to coordination poorly fit public health and recent studies call for coordination based on complex adaptive systems. Our contribution is two-fold. Empirically, we focus on public health, and theoretically we build on the patient perspective and treat coordination as a process of contingent, two-level negotiations of user needs. Theory and Methods The paper draws on the concept of user needs-based coordination and sees coordination as a process, whereby needs emerging from the life world of the user are made amenable to the health system through negotiations. The analysis is based on an explorative case study of a health promotion initiative in Denmark. It adopts an anthropological qualitative approach and uses a range of qualitative data. Results The analysis identifies four strategies of coordination: the coordinator focusing on the individual user or on relations with other professionals; and the manager coaching the coordinator or providing structural support. Crucially, the coordination strategies by management remain weak as they do not directly relate to specific user needs. Discussion In process of bottom-up negotiations user needs become blurred and this is especially a challenge for management. The study therefore calls for an increased focus on the level nature of negotiations to bridge the gap that currently weakens coordination strategies by management. PMID:26528097

  4. Adaptive and Maladaptive Coping Strategies in Adult Pathological Gamblers and Their Mediating Role with Anxious-Depressive Symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, Paula; Onaindia, Jaione; Estévez, Ana

    2017-02-08

    Coping plays a central role in the appearance and persistence of pathological gambling. Anxious and depressive symptomatology also influence pathological gambling and are related to coping. This study aimed to analyze pathological gamblers' coping strategies and styles, as well as associated anxious and depressive symptomatology. The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Measures of gambling, coping, and anxious and depressive symptomatology were used. Results showed that pathological gamblers' scored higher in all the maladaptive coping strategies, problem- and emotion-focused disengagement, and disengagement subscales. These subscales also correlated with pathological gambling, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Pathological gamblers also scored higher in emotional expression and emotion-focused engagement, with no differences in the rest of the adaptive coping strategies. Coping was also found to predict pathological gambling and anxious and depressive symptomatology. It was found that coping mediated the relationship between pathological gambling and anxious symptomatology when controlling for the effect of age. Specifically, social withdrawal and disengagement stood out as mediators. These results provide practical information for use in clinical settings with people diagnosed with pathological gambling.

  5. Irregular Enemies and the Essence of Strategy: Can the American Way of War Adapt?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    consequence was Herman Kahn, On Escalation: Metaphors and Scenarios, New York: Praeger, 1965. 63. Huntington, American Military Strategy, p. 16. 64...sacrifice mandated by a public culture of unpreparedness is well told in Charles E. Heller and William A. Stofft, eds., America’s First Battles, 1776... Herman Hattaway and Archer Jones, How the North Won: A Military History of the Civil War, Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1983, p. 720, for

  6. Solution of nonlinear finite difference ocean models by optimization methods with sensitivity and observational strategy analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeter, Jens; Wunsch, Carl

    1986-01-01

    The paper studies with finite difference nonlinear circulation models the uncertainties in interesting flow properties, such as western boundary current transport, potential and kinetic energy, owing to the uncertainty in the driving surface boundary condition. The procedure is based upon nonlinear optimization methods. The same calculations permit quantitative study of the importance of new information as a function of type, region of measurement and accuracy, providing a method to study various observing strategies. Uncertainty in a model parameter, the bottom friction coefficient, is studied in conjunction with uncertain measurements. The model is free to adjust the bottom friction coefficient such that an objective function is minimized while fitting a set of data to within prescribed bounds. The relative importance of the accuracy of the knowledge about the friction coefficient with respect to various kinds of observations is then quantified, and the possible range of the friction coefficients is calculated.

  7. Development and construct validity of the Classroom Strategies Scale-Observer Form.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory; Dudek, Christopher M; Hsu, Louis

    2013-12-01

    Research on progress monitoring has almost exclusively focused on student behavior and not on teacher practices. This article presents the development and validation of a new teacher observational assessment (Classroom Strategies Scale) of classroom instructional and behavioral management practices. The theoretical underpinnings and empirical basis for the instructional and behavioral management scales are presented. The Classroom Strategies Scale (CSS) evidenced overall good reliability estimates including internal consistency, interrater reliability, test-retest reliability, and freedom from item bias on important teacher demographics (age, educational degree, years of teaching experience). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) of CSS data from 317 classrooms were carried out to assess the level of empirical support for (a) a 4 first-order factor theory concerning teachers' instructional practices, and (b) a 4 first-order factor theory concerning teachers' behavior management practice. Several fit indices indicated acceptable fit of the (a) and (b) CFA models to the data, as well as acceptable fit of less parsimonious alternative CFA models that included 1 or 2 second-order factors. Information-theory-based indices generally suggested that the (a) and (b) CFA models fit better than some more parsimonious alternative CFA models that included constraints on relations of first-order factors. Overall, CFA first-order and higher order factor results support the CSS-Observer Total, Composite, and subscales. Suggestions for future measurement development efforts are outlined.

  8. Climate trends and projections for the Andean Altiplano and strategies for adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia, C.; Thibeault, J.; Gilles, J. L.; García, M.; Seth, A.

    2013-04-01

    Climate variability and change impact production in rainfed agricultural systems of the Bolivian highlands. Maximum temperature trends are increasing for the Altiplano. Minimum temperature increases are significant in the northern region, and decreases are significant in the southern region. Producers' perceptions of climate hazards are high in the central region, while concerns with changing climate and unemployment are high in the north. Similar high-risk perceptions involve pests and diseases in both regions. Altiplano climate projections for end-of-century highlights include increases in temperature, extreme event frequency, change in the timing of rainfall, and reduction of soil humidity. Successful adaptation to these changes will require the development of links between the knowledge systems of producers and scientists. Two-way participatory approaches to develop capacity and information that involve decision makers and scientists are appropriate approaches in this context of increased risk, uncertainty and vulnerability.

  9. A novel photosynthetic strategy for adaptation to low-iron aquatic environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chauhan, D.; Folea, I.M.; Jolley, C.C.; Kouril, R.; Lubner, C.E.; Lin, S.; Kolber, D.; Wolfe-Simon, Felisa; Golbeck, J.H.; Boekema, E.J.; Fromme, P.

    2011-01-01

    Iron (Fe) availability is a major limiting factor for primary production in aquatic environments. Cyanobacteria respond to Fe deficiency by derepressing the isiAB operon, which encodes the antenna protein IsiA and flavodoxin. At nanomolar Fe concentrations, a PSI-IsiA supercomplex forms, comprising a PSI trimer encircled by two complete IsiA rings. This PSI-IsiA supercomplex is the largest photosynthetic membrane protein complex yet isolated. This study presents a detailed characterization of this complex using transmission electron microscopy and ultrafast fluorescence spectroscopy. Excitation trapping and electron transfer are highly efficient, allowing cyanobacteria to avoid oxidative stress. This mechanism may be a major factor used by cyanobacteria to successfully adapt to modern low-Fe environments. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  10. High protein flexibility and reduced hydration water dynamics are key pressure adaptive strategies in prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, N.; Michoud, G.; Cario, A.; Ollivier, J.; Franzetti, B.; Jebbar, M.; Oger, P.; Peters, J.

    2016-01-01

    Water and protein dynamics on a nanometer scale were measured by quasi-elastic neutron scattering in the piezophile archaeon Thermococcus barophilus and the closely related pressure-sensitive Thermococcus kodakarensis, at 0.1 and 40 MPa. We show that cells of the pressure sensitive organism exhibit higher intrinsic stability. Both the hydration water dynamics and the fast protein and lipid dynamics are reduced under pressure. In contrast, the proteome of T. barophilus is more pressure sensitive than that of T. kodakarensis. The diffusion coefficient of hydration water is reduced, while the fast protein and lipid dynamics are slightly enhanced with increasing pressure. These findings show that the coupling between hydration water and cellular constituents might not be simply a master-slave relationship. We propose that the high flexibility of the T. barophilus proteome associated with reduced hydration water may be the keys to the molecular adaptation of the cells to high hydrostatic pressure. PMID:27595789

  11. High protein flexibility and reduced hydration water dynamics are key pressure adaptive strategies in prokaryotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, N.; Michoud, G.; Cario, A.; Ollivier, J.; Franzetti, B.; Jebbar, M.; Oger, P.; Peters, J.

    2016-09-01

    Water and protein dynamics on a nanometer scale were measured by quasi-elastic neutron scattering in the piezophile archaeon Thermococcus barophilus and the closely related pressure-sensitive Thermococcus kodakarensis, at 0.1 and 40 MPa. We show that cells of the pressure sensitive organism exhibit higher intrinsic stability. Both the hydration water dynamics and the fast protein and lipid dynamics are reduced under pressure. In contrast, the proteome of T. barophilus is more pressure sensitive than that of T. kodakarensis. The diffusion coefficient of hydration water is reduced, while the fast protein and lipid dynamics are slightly enhanced with increasing pressure. These findings show that the coupling between hydration water and cellular constituents might not be simply a master-slave relationship. We propose that the high flexibility of the T. barophilus proteome associated with reduced hydration water may be the keys to the molecular adaptation of the cells to high hydrostatic pressure.

  12. [Night sleep structural alteration as a function of individual strategy of adapting to 520-isolation].

    PubMed

    Zavalko, I M; Boritko, Ya S; Kovrov, G V; Vinokhodova, A G; Chekalina, A I; Smoleevsky, A E

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the work was to establish a relationship between trends in sleep alteration and individual adaptation to the stress-factors in the 520-day isolation study. Psychological evaluations using a battery of motivation tests and L. Sobchik's modification of the Luscher personality test, and Mirror coordinograph enabled to differentiate groups reacting to the stress on the pattern of "control" (G-1) or "search" (G-2) manifested in individual styles of behavior and operator's activity. The 2 groups showed different dynamics of the night sleep structure. Difficulties with falling asleep in G-1 arose on the eve of "landing onto Mars" and end of the experiment, whereas in G-2 they were evident prior to the end only. Besides, the micro- and segmental sleep structures were more stable in G-1 suggesting the integrity of somnogenic mechanisms despite difficult sleep initiation.

  13. High hydrostatic pressure adaptive strategies in an obligate piezophile Pyrococcus yayanosii

    PubMed Central

    Michoud, Grégoire; Jebbar, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Pyrococcus yayanosii CH1, as the first and only obligate piezophilic hyperthermophilic microorganism discovered to date, extends the physical and chemical limits of life on Earth. It was isolated from the Ashadze hydrothermal vent at 4,100 m depth. Multi-omics analyses were performed to study the mechanisms used by the cell to cope with high hydrostatic pressure variations. In silico analyses showed that the P. yayanosii genome is highly adapted to its harsh environment, with a loss of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathways and the high constitutive expression of the energy metabolism compared with other non-obligate piezophilic Pyrococcus species. Differential proteomics and transcriptomics analyses identified key hydrostatic pressure-responsive genes involved in translation, chemotaxis, energy metabolism (hydrogenases and formate metabolism) and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats sequences associated with Cellular apoptosis susceptibility proteins. PMID:27250364

  14. High hydrostatic pressure adaptive strategies in an obligate piezophile Pyrococcus yayanosii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michoud, Grégoire; Jebbar, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    Pyrococcus yayanosii CH1, as the first and only obligate piezophilic hyperthermophilic microorganism discovered to date, extends the physical and chemical limits of life on Earth. It was isolated from the Ashadze hydrothermal vent at 4,100 m depth. Multi-omics analyses were performed to study the mechanisms used by the cell to cope with high hydrostatic pressure variations. In silico analyses showed that the P. yayanosii genome is highly adapted to its harsh environment, with a loss of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathways and the high constitutive expression of the energy metabolism compared with other non-obligate piezophilic Pyrococcus species. Differential proteomics and transcriptomics analyses identified key hydrostatic pressure-responsive genes involved in translation, chemotaxis, energy metabolism (hydrogenases and formate metabolism) and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats sequences associated with Cellular apoptosis susceptibility proteins.

  15. Moving Past Curricula and Strategies: Language and the Development of Adaptive Pedagogy for Immersive Learning Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, Brian; Cavagnetto, Andy; Chen, Ying-Chih; Park, Soonhye

    2016-04-01

    Given current concerns internationally about student performance in science and the need to shift how science is being learnt in schools, as a community, we need to shift how we approach the issue of learning and teaching in science. In the future, we are going to have to close the gap between how students construct and engage with knowledge in a media-rich environment, and how school classroom environments engage them. This is going to require a shift to immersive environments where attention is paid to the knowledge bases and resources students bring into the classroom. Teachers will have to adopt adaptive pedagogical approaches that are framed around a more nuanced understanding of epistemological orientation, language and the nature of prosocial environments.

  16. Adapting biomodulatory strategies for treatment in new contexts: pancreatic and oral cancers (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbil, Sriram R.; Rizvi, Imran; Khan, Amjad P.; Celli, Jonathan P.; Maytin, Edward V.; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2016-03-01

    Biomodulation of cancer cell metabolism represents a promising approach to overcome tumor heterogeneity and poor selectivity, which contribute significantly to treatment resistance. To date, several studies have demonstrated that modulation of cell metabolism including the heme synthesis pathway serves as an elegant approach to improve the efficacy of aminolevulinic acid (ALA) based photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, the ability of biomodulation-enhanced PDT to improve outcomes in low resource settings and to address challenges in treating lethal tumors with exogenous photosensitizers remains underexplored. The ability of vitamin D or methotrexate to enhance PDT efficacy in a carcinogen-induced hamster cheek pouch model of oral squamous cell carcinoma and in 3D cell-based models for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is evaluated. Challenges associated with adapting PDT regimens to low resource settings, understanding the effects of biomodulatory agents on the metabolism of cancer cells, and the differential effects of biomodulatory agents on tumor and stromal cells will be discussed.

  17. Tumour-adapted Reduction Mammoplasty – a New (Old) Breast Conserving Strategy: Review

    PubMed Central

    Eichbaum, M.; Dietrich, A.; Reinhard, J.; Steinwasser, R.; Eichbaum, C.

    2016-01-01

    Today over 70 % of patients treated for primary breast carcinoma in certified breast centres are managed with breast conserving surgery. The classical semicircular incision directly above the tumour, though in many cases easily carried out and associated with good cosmetic results, does have limitations. Unsatisfactory aesthetic results often occur when tumour location is unfavourable or when there is unfavourable tumour size relative to breast size. Distortion of the nipple, changes to breast shape and retraction of skin overlying surgical defects can occur. Tumour-adapted reduction mammoplasty/mastopexy or the “modified B technique” offer excellent chances of combining the oncological demands of breast surgery with satisfactory symmetrical cosmetic results. This article reviews a traditional, old operative technique that has been re-embraced in various new forms. PMID:26855438

  18. The acquisition of phototrophy: adaptive strategies of hosting endosymbionts and organelles.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew D

    2011-01-01

    Many non-photosynthetic species of protists and metazoans are capable of hosting viable algal endosymbionts or their organelles through adaptations of phagocytic pathways. A form of mixotrophy combining phototrophy and heterotrophy, acquired phototrophy (AcPh) encompasses a suite of endosymbiotic and organelle retention interactions, that range from facultative to obligate. AcPh is a common phenomenon in aquatic ecosystems, with endosymbiotic associations generally more prevalent in nutrient poor environments, and organelle retention typically associated with more productive ones. All AcPhs benefit from enhanced growth due to access to photosynthetic products; however, the degree of metabolic integration and dependency in the host varies widely. AcPh is found in at least four of the major eukaryotic supergroups, and is the driving force in the evolution of secondary and tertiary plastid acquisitions. Mutualistic resource partitioning characterizes most algal endosymbiotic interactions, while organelle retention is a form of predation, characterized by nutrient flow (i.e., growth) in one direction. AcPh involves adaptations to recognize specific prey or endosymbionts and to house organelles or endosymbionts within the endomembrane system but free from digestion. In many cases, hosts depend upon AcPh for the production of essential nutrients, many of which remain obscure. The practice of AcPh has led to multiple independent secondary and tertiary plastid acquisition events among several eukaryote lineages, giving rise to the diverse array of algae found in modern aquatic ecosystems. This article highlights those AcPhs that are model research organisms for both metazoans and protists. Much of the basic biology of AcPhs remains enigmatic, particularly (1) which essential nutrients or factors make certain forms of AcPh obligatory, (2) how hosts regulate and manipulate endosymbionts or sequestered organelles, and (3) what genomic imprint, if any, AcPh leaves on non

  19. Genetic exchange of fimbrial alleles exemplifies the adaptive virulence strategy of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jennifer E; Abramian, Jared R; Dao, Doan-Hieu V; Rigney, Todd W; Fritz, Jamie; Pham, Tan; Gay, Isabel; Parthasarathy, Kavitha; Wang, Bing-yan; Zhang, Wenjian; Tribble, Gena D

    2014-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a gram-negative anaerobic bacterium, a member of the human oral microbiome, and a proposed "keystone" pathogen in the development of chronic periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of the gingiva. P. gingivalis is a genetically diverse species, and is able to exchange chromosomal DNA between strains by natural competence and conjugation. In this study, we investigate the role of horizontal DNA transfer as an adaptive process to modify behavior, using the major fimbriae as our model system, due to their critical role in mediating interactions with the host environment. We show that P. gingivalis is able to exchange fimbrial allele types I and IV into four distinct strain backgrounds via natural competence. In all recombinants, we detected a complete exchange of the entire fimA allele, and the rate of exchange varies between the different strain backgrounds. In addition, gene exchange within other regions of the fimbrial genetic locus was identified. To measure the biological implications of these allele swaps we compared three genotypes of fimA in an isogenic background, strain ATCC 33277. We demonstrate that exchange of fimbrial allele type results in profound phenotypic changes, including the quantity of fimbriae elaborated, membrane blebbing, auto-aggregation and other virulence-associated phenotypes. Replacement of the type I allele with either the type III or IV allele resulted in increased invasion of gingival fibroblast cells relative to the isogenic parent strain. While genetic variability is known to impact host-microbiome interactions, this is the first study to quantitatively assess the adaptive effect of exchanging genes within the pan genome cloud. This is significant as it presents a potential mechanism by which opportunistic pathogens may acquire the traits necessary to modify host-microbial interactions.

  20. Genetic Exchange of Fimbrial Alleles Exemplifies the Adaptive Virulence Strategy of Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Jennifer E.; Abramian, Jared R.; Dao, Doan-Hieu V.; Rigney, Todd W.; Fritz, Jamie; Pham, Tan; Gay, Isabel; Parthasarathy, Kavitha; Wang, Bing-yan; Zhang, Wenjian; Tribble, Gena D.

    2014-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a gram–negative anaerobic bacterium, a member of the human oral microbiome, and a proposed “keystone” pathogen in the development of chronic periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of the gingiva. P. gingivalis is a genetically diverse species, and is able to exchange chromosomal DNA between strains by natural competence and conjugation. In this study, we investigate the role of horizontal DNA transfer as an adaptive process to modify behavior, using the major fimbriae as our model system, due to their critical role in mediating interactions with the host environment. We show that P. gingivalis is able to exchange fimbrial allele types I and IV into four distinct strain backgrounds via natural competence. In all recombinants, we detected a complete exchange of the entire fimA allele, and the rate of exchange varies between the different strain backgrounds. In addition, gene exchange within other regions of the fimbrial genetic locus was identified. To measure the biological implications of these allele swaps we compared three genotypes of fimA in an isogenic background, strain ATCC 33277. We demonstrate that exchange of fimbrial allele type results in profound phenotypic changes, including the quantity of fimbriae elaborated, membrane blebbing, auto-aggregation and other virulence-associated phenotypes. Replacement of the type I allele with either the type III or IV allele resulted in increased invasion of gingival fibroblast cells relative to the isogenic parent strain. While genetic variability is known to impact host-microbiome interactions, this is the first study to quantitatively assess the adaptive effect of exchanging genes within the pan genome cloud. This is significant as it presents a potential mechanism by which opportunistic pathogens may acquire the traits necessary to modify host-microbial interactions. PMID:24626479

  1. NOTE: Titan's Atmosphere in Late Southern Spring Observed with Adaptive Optics on the W. M. Keck II 10-Meter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roe, Henry G.; de Pater, Imke; Macintosh, Bruce A.; Gibbard, Seran G.; Max, Claire E.; McKay, Chris P.

    2002-05-01

    Using adaptive optics on the W. M. Keck II telescope, we imaged Titan several times during 1999 to 2001 in narrowband near-infrared filters selected to probe Titan's stratosphere and upper troposphere. We observed a bright feature around the south pole, possibly a collar of haze or clouds. Further, we find that solar phase angle explains most of the observed east-west brightness asymmetry of Titan's atmosphere, although the data do not preclude the presence of a "morning fog" effect at small solar phase angle.

  2. Adaptive Optics Observations of Arcturus using the Mount Wilson 100 Inch Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Nils H.; ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Mason, Brian D.

    1999-05-01

    Upon inspection of the multiple-star results in the Hipparcos catalog, the flag for entry number 69673 particularly stands out; it is Arcturus, for which no companion has been reported previously. The Hipparcos companion is reported to be at a separation of 0.255"+/-0.039" with a magnitude difference in a broadband filter (peaked near 460 nm) of 3.33+/-0.31. We present recent results using the natural guide star adaptive optics system on the Mount Wilson 100 inch telescope showing Arcturus to be a single star.

  3. Natural Variation of Arabidopsis Root Architecture Reveals Complementing Adaptive Strategies to Potassium Starvation1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kellermeier, Fabian; Chardon, Fabien; Amtmann, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Root architecture is a highly plastic and environmentally responsive trait that enables plants to counteract nutrient scarcities with different foraging strategies. In potassium (K) deficiency (low K), seedlings of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) reference accession Columbia (Col-0) show a strong reduction of lateral root elongation. To date, it is not clear whether this is a direct consequence of the lack of K as an osmoticum or a triggered response to maintain the growth of other organs under limiting conditions. In this study, we made use of natural variation within Arabidopsis to look for novel root architectural responses to low K. A comprehensive set of 14 differentially responding root parameters were quantified in K-starved and K-replete plants. We identified a phenotypic gradient that links two extreme strategies of morphological adaptation to low K arising from a major tradeoff between main root (MR) and lateral root elongation. Accessions adopting strategy I (e.g. Col-0) maintained MR growth but compromised lateral root elongation, whereas strategy II genotypes (e.g. Catania-1) arrested MR elongation in favor of lateral branching. K resupply and histochemical staining resolved the temporal and spatial patterns of these responses. Quantitative trait locus analysis of K-dependent root architectures within a Col-0 × Catania-1 recombinant inbred line population identified several loci each of which determined a particular subset of root architectural parameters. Our results indicate the existence of genomic hubs in the coordinated control of root growth in stress conditions and provide resources to facilitate the identification of the underlying genes. PMID:23329148

  4. NASA's NI-SAR Observing Strategy and Data Availability for Agricultural Monitoring and Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira, P.; Dubayah, R.; Kellndorfer, J. M.; Saatchi, S. S.; Chapman, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    The monitoring and characterization of global crop development by remote sensing is a complex task, in part, because of the time varying nature of the target and the diversity of crop types and agricultural practices that vary worldwide. While some of these difficulties are overcome with the availability of national and market-derived resources (e.g. publication of crop statistics by the USDA and FAO), monitoring by remote sensing has the ability of augmenting those resources to better identify changes over time, and to provide timely assessments for the current year's production. Of the remote sensing techniques that are used for agricultural applications, optical observations of NDVI from Landsat, AVHRR, MODIS and similar sensors have historically provided the majority of data that is used by the community. In addition, radiometer and radar sensors, are often used for estimating soil moisture and structural information for these agricultural regions. The combination of these remote sensing datasets and national resources constitutes the state of the art for crop monitoring and yield forecasts. To help improve these crop monitoring efforts in the future, the joint NASA-ISRO SAR mission known as NI-SAR is being planned for launch in 2020, and will have L- and S-band fully polarimetric radar systems, a fourteen day repeat period, and a swath width on the order of several hundred kilometers. To address the needs of the science and applications communities that NI-SAR will support, the systems observing strategy is currently being planned such that data rate and the system configuration will address the needs of the community. In this presentation, a description of the NI-SAR system will be given along with the currently planned observing strategy and derived products that will be relevant to the overall GEOGLAM initiative.

  5. Understanding Inequalities of Maternal Smoking—Bridging the Gap with Adapted Intervention Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Julie; Konkle, Anne T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Women who are generally part of socially disadvantaged and economically marginalized groups are especially susceptible to smoking during pregnancy but smoking rates are underreported in both research and interventions. While there is evidence to support the short-term efficacy of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) use in pregnancy, long-term abstinence rates are modest. Current health strategies and interventions designed to diminish smoking in pregnancy have adopted a simplified approach to maternal smoking—one that suggests that they have a similar degree of choice to non-pregnant smokers regarding the avoidance of risk factors, and overlooks individual predictors of non-adherence. As a result, interventions have been ineffective among this high-risk group. For this reason, this paper addresses the multiple and interacting determinants that must be considered when developing and implementing effective strategies that lead to successful smoking cessation: socioeconomic status (SES), nicotine dependence, social support, culture, mental health, and health services. Based on our review of the literature, we conclude that tailoring cessation programs for pregnant smokers may ultimately optimize NRT efficacy and reduce the prevalence of maternal smoking. PMID:26959037

  6. [Strategies of Adaption, coping reactions and attempts of self-cure in Schizophrenes].

    PubMed

    Lange, H U

    1981-07-01

    Though already Kraepelin started to consider coping behavior, there has not been much interest in it. Besides a summary of the literature, evidence of the study of 616 patient histories and the exploration of 94 schizophrenes is reported. Whereas often speculative interpretations of the patients' behaviour from the sight of the therapists have predominated in publications as yet, here it is preferred - with the danger of listing rationalizations - to outline defense reactions the patients themselves mention. The coping behaviour is classified in groups of symptoms: global strategies, disorders of perception, delusion, disorders of self-awareness, cognitive, affective, and motorial disorders. The discrimination of primary psychotic and "defect" symptoms, however, is often difficult. Some problems of the evaluation of coping behaviour are discussed. Defense reactions are presumably present in all schizophrenic types at least sometimes in the course of the illness. The more abrupt the disease starts, the more inadequate the coping behaviour seems to be. A further investigation of these strategies might be worth while for theoretical und therapeutical reasons.

  7. Dimorphic tusks and adaptive strategies in a new species of walrus-like dolphin (Odobenocetopsidae) from the Pliocene of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Muizon, Christian; Domning, Daryl P.; Parrish, Mary

    1999-09-01

    Three new specimens of the walrus-like dolphin Odobenocetops from the Pliocene of Peru, shed new light on the anatomy and adaptive strategies of this unique Cetacean. Odobenocetops leptodon nov. sp. is represented by a skull, which bears a 1 35-cm-long needle-like right tusk and a small 25-cm-long left tusk the apex of which was erupted. The long tusk was probably held almost parallel to the axis of the body when swimming. In contrast to O. peruvianus, O. leptodon probably had a small melon and, therefore, echolocation ability, but had reduced (or no) binocular vision. A skull of O. peruvianus with two small tusks similar in size is referred to a female.

  8. Enhancing Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm with Self-Adaptive Searching Strategy and Artificial Immune Network Operators for Global Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tinggui; Xiao, Renbin

    2014-01-01

    Artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm, inspired by the intelligent foraging behavior of honey bees, was proposed by Karaboga. It has been shown to be superior to some conventional intelligent algorithms such as genetic algorithm (GA), artificial colony optimization (ACO), and particle swarm optimization (PSO). However, the ABC still has some limitations. For example, ABC can easily get trapped in the local optimum when handing in functions that have a narrow curving valley, a high eccentric ellipse, or complex multimodal functions. As a result, we proposed an enhanced ABC algorithm called EABC by introducing self-adaptive searching strategy and artificial immune network operators to improve the exploitation and exploration. The simulation results tested on a suite of unimodal or multimodal benchmark functions illustrate that the EABC algorithm outperforms ACO, PSO, and the basic ABC in most of the experiments. PMID:24772023

  9. GestAqua.AdaPT - Mediterranean river basin modeling and reservoir operation strategies for climate change adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandre Diogo, Paulo; Nunes, João Pedro; Marco, Machado; Aal, Carlo; Carmona Rodrigues, António; Beça, Pedro; Casanova Lino, Rafael; Rocha, João; Carvalho Santos, Cláudia

    2016-04-01

    Climate change (CC) scenarios for the Mediterranean region include an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events such as drought periods. higher average temperatures and evapotranspiration, combined with the decrease of annual precipitation may strongly affect the sustainability of water resources. In face of these risks, improving water management actions? by anticipating necessary operational measures is required to insure water quantity and quality according to the needs of the populations and irrigation in agriculture. This is clearly the case of the Alentejo region, southern Portugal, where present climatic conditions already pose significant challenges to water resources stakeholders, mainly from the agricultural and the urban supply sectors. With this in mind, the GestAqua.AdaPT project is underway during 2015 and 2016, aiming at analyzing CC impacts until 2100 and develop operational procedures to ensure water needs are adequately satisfied in the Monte Novo and Vigia reservoirs, which supply water for the city of Évora and nearby irrigation systems. Specific project objectives include: a) defining management and operational adaptation strategies aiming to ensure resource sustainability, both quantitatively and qualitatively; b) evaluate future potential costs and available alternatives to the regional water transfer infrastructure linked with the large Alqueva reservoir implemented in 2011; c) defining CC adaptation strategies to reduce irrigation water needs and d) identification of CC adaptation strategies which can be suitable also to other similar water supply systems. The methodology is centered on the implementation of a cascade of modeling tools, allowing the integrated simulation of the multiple variables under analysis. The project is based on CC scenarios resulting from the CORDEX project for 10 combinations of Global and regional climate models (GCMs and RCMs). The study follows by using two of these combinations

  10. More Water Resources but Less for Irrigation: Adaptation Strategy of the Yellow River in a Changing Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Q.; Yin, Y. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Yellow River is the primary source of freshwater to the northern China. Increasing population and socio-economic development have put great pressure on water resources of the river basin. The anticipated climate and socio-economic changes may further increase water stress. Development of adaptation strategies would have significant implications for water and food security of this region. In this study, the outputs of multiple hydrological models forced with the bias-corrected climatic variables from multiple global climate models were used to assess the change in renewable water resources of the river basin in the 21st century. The outputs of multiple crop models were used to assess the change in agricultural water demand. The domestic and industrial water demands were estimated based on the future socio-economic conditions under the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs). Besides basic ecosystem needs for water which must be met, the water use in domestic and industrial sectors is considered to have a higher priority than the agricultural water use when water is insufficient. The results show that the renewable water resources of the basin would increase as global mean temperature increases while the water demand would grow much more rapidly, largely due to water demand increase in domestic and industrial sectors. In most of the sub-basins of the Yellow River basin, the available water resources can not sustain all the water use sectors starting from the next a few decades. As more water resources would be appropriated by domestic and industrial sectors, a part of irrigated area had to be converted to rainfed agriculture which led to a large reduction in food production. This study highlights the linked water and food security in a changing environment and suggests that the trade-off should be considered when developing regional adaptation strategies.

  11. Bromo volcano area as human-environment system: interaction of volcanic eruption, local knowledge, risk perception and adaptation strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachri, Syamsul; Stötter, Johann; Sartohadi, Junun

    2013-04-01

    People in the Bromo area (located within Tengger Caldera) have learn to live with the threat of volcanic hazard since this volcano is categorized as an active volcano in Indonesia. During 2010, the eruption intensity increased yielding heavy ash fall and glowing rock fragments. A significant risk is also presented by mass movement which reaches areas up to 25 km from the crater. As a result of the 2010 eruption, 12 houses were destroyed, 25 houses collapsed and there were severe also effects on agriculture and the livestock sector. This paper focuses on understanding the interaction of Bromo volcanic eruption processes and their social responses. The specific aims are to 1) identify the 2010 eruption of Bromo 2) examine the human-volcano relationship within Bromo area in general, and 3) investigate the local knowledge related to hazard, risk perception and their adaptation strategies in specific. In-depth interviews with 33 informants from four districts nearest to the crater included local people and authorities were carried out. The survey focused on farmers, key persons (dukun), students and teachers in order to understand how people respond to Bromo eruption. The results show that the eruption in 2010 was unusual as it took continued for nine months, the longest period in Bromo history. The type of eruption was phreatomagmatic producing material dominated by ash to fine sand. This kind of sediment typically belongs to Tengger mountain eruptions which had produced vast explosions in the past. Furthermore, two years after the eruption, the interviewed people explained that local knowledge and their experiences with volcanic activity do not influence their risk perception. Dealing with this eruption, people in the Bromo area applied 'lumbung desa' (traditional saving systems) and mutual aid activity for surviving the volcanic eruption. Keywords: Human-environment system, local knowledge, risk perception, adaptation strategies, Bromo Volcano Indonesia

  12. Chaos control of the micro-electro-mechanical resonator by using adaptive dynamic surface technology with extended state observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Shaohua; Sun, Quanping; Cheng, Wei

    2016-04-01

    This paper addresses chaos control of the micro-electro- mechanical resonator by using adaptive dynamic surface technology with extended state observer. To reveal the mechanism of the micro- electro-mechanical resonator, the phase diagrams and corresponding time histories are given to research the nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior, and Homoclinic and heteroclinic chaos which relate closely with the appearance of chaos are presented based on the potential function. To eliminate the effect of chaos, an adaptive dynamic surface control scheme with extended state observer is designed to convert random motion into regular motion without precise system model parameters and measured variables. Putting tracking differentiator into chaos controller solves the `explosion of complexity' of backstepping and poor precision of the first-order filters. Meanwhile, to obtain high performance, a neural network with adaptive law is employed to approximate unknown nonlinear function in the process of controller design. The boundedness of all the signals of the closed-loop system is proved in theoretical analysis. Finally, numerical simulations are executed and extensive results illustrate effectiveness and robustness of the proposed scheme.

  13. The FIGS (Focused Identification of Germplasm Strategy) Approach Identifies Traits Related to Drought Adaptation in Vicia faba Genetic Resources

    PubMed Central

    Khazaei, Hamid; Street, Kenneth; Bari, Abdallah; Mackay, Michael; Stoddard, Frederick L.

    2013-01-01

    Efficient methods to explore plant agro-biodiversity for climate change adaptive traits are urgently required. The focused identification of germplasm strategy (FIGS) is one such approach. FIGS works on the premise that germplasm is likely to reflect the selection pressures of the environment in which it developed. Environmental parameters describing plant germplasm collection sites are used as selection criteria to improve the probability of uncovering useful variation. This study was designed to test the effectiveness of FIGS to search a large faba bean (Vicia faba L.) collection for traits related to drought adaptation. Two sets of faba bean accessions were created, one from moisture-limited environments, and the other from wetter sites. The two sets were grown under well watered conditions and leaf morpho-physiological traits related to plant water use were measured. Machine-learning algorithms split the accessions into two groups based on the evaluation data and the groups created by this process were compared to the original climate-based FIGS sets. The sets defined by trait data were in almost perfect agreement to the FIGS sets, demonstrating that ecotypic differentiation driven by moisture availability has occurred within the faba bean genepool. Leaflet and canopy temperature as well as relative water content contributed more than other traits to the discrimination between sets, indicating that their utility as drought-tolerance selection criteria for faba bean germplasm. This study supports the assertion that FIGS could be an effective tool to enhance the discovery of new genes for abiotic stress adaptation. PMID:23667581

  14. Genomic Expression Analysis Reveals Strategies of Burkholderia cenocepacia to Adapt to Cystic Fibrosis Patients' Airways and Antimicrobial Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mira, Nuno P.; Madeira, Andreia; Moreira, Ana Sílvia; Coutinho, Carla P.; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary colonization of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with Burkholderia cenocepacia or other bacteria of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is associated with worse prognosis and increased risk of death. During colonization, the bacteria may evolve under the stressing selection pressures exerted in the CF lung, in particular, those resulting from challenges of the host immune defenses, antimicrobial therapy, nutrient availability and oxygen limitation. Understanding the adaptive mechanisms that promote successful colonization and long-term survival of B. cenocepacia in the CF lung is essential for an improved therapeutic outcome of chronic infections. To get mechanistic insights into these adaptive strategies a transcriptomic analysis, based on DNA microarrays, was explored in this study. The genomic expression levels in two clonal variants isolated during long-term colonization of a CF patient who died from the cepacia syndrome were compared. One of the isolates examined, IST439, is the first B. cenocepacia isolate retrieved from the patient and the other isolate, IST4113, was obtained three years later and is more resistant to different classes of antimicrobials. Approximately 1000 genes were found to be differently expressed in the two clonal variants reflecting a marked reprogramming of genomic expression. The up-regulated genes in IST4113 include those involved in translation, iron uptake (in particular, in ornibactin biosynthesis), efflux of drugs and in adhesion to epithelial lung tissue and to mucin. Alterations related with adaptation to the nutritional environment of the CF lung and to an oxygen-limited environment are also suggested to be a key feature of transcriptional reprogramming occurring during long-term colonization, antibiotic therapy and the progression of the disease. PMID:22216120

  15. Molecular diversity of vasotocin-dependent aquaporins closely associated with water adaptation strategy in anuran amphibians.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, M; Tanaka, S

    2010-05-01

    Anuran amphibians represent the first vertebrates that adapted to terrestrial environments, and are successfully distributed around the world, even to forests and arid deserts. Many adult anurans have specialised osmoregulatory organs, in addition to the kidney (i.e. the ventral pelvic skin to absorb water from the external environments and a urinary bladder that stores water and reabsorbs it in times of need). Aquaporin (AQP), a water channel protein, plays a fundamental role in these water absorption/reabsorption processes. The anuran AQP family consists of at least AQP0-AQP5, AQP7-AQP10 and two anuran-specific types, designated as AQPa1 and AQPa2. For the three osmoregulatory organs, AQP3 is constitutively located in the basolateral membrane of the tight-junctioned epithelial cells, allowing water transport between the cytoplasm of these cells and the neighbouring tissue fluid at all times. On the other hand, AQPs at the apical side of the tight epithelial cells are different among these organs, and are named kidney-type AQP2, ventral pelvic skin-type AQPa2 and urinary bladder-type AQPa2. All of them show translocation from the cytoplasmic pool to the apical plasma membrane in response to arginine vasotocin, thereby regulating water transport independently in each osmoregulatory organ. It was further revealed that, in terrestrial and arboreal anurans, the bladder-type AQPa2 is expressed in the pelvic skin, together with the pelvic skin-type AQPa2, potentially facilitating water absorption from the pelvic skin. By contrast, Xenopus has lost the ability to efficiently produce pelvic skin-type AQPa2 (AQP-x3) because Cys-273 of AQP-x3 and/or Cys-273-coding region of AQPx3 mRNA attenuate gene expression at a post-transcriptional step, presumably leading to the prevention of excessive water influx in this aquatic species. Collectively, the acquisition of two forms of AQPa2 and the diversified regulation of their gene expression appears to provide the necessary

  16. Performance adaptive training control strategy for recovering wrist movements in stroke patients: a preliminary, feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In the last two decades robot training in neuromotor rehabilitation was mainly focused on shoulder-elbow movements. Few devices were designed and clinically tested for training coordinated movements of the wrist, which are crucial for achieving even the basic level of motor competence that is necessary for carrying out ADLs (activities of daily life). Moreover, most systems of robot therapy use point-to-point reaching movements which tend to emphasize the pathological tendency of stroke patients to break down goal-directed movements into a number of jerky sub-movements. For this reason we designed a wrist robot with a range of motion comparable to that of normal subjects and implemented a self-adapting training protocol for tracking smoothly moving targets in order to facilitate the emergence of smoothness in the motor control patterns and maximize the recovery of the normal RoM (range of motion) of the different DoFs (degrees of Freedom). Methods The IIT-wrist robot is a 3 DoFs light exoskeleton device, with direct-drive of each DoF and a human-like range of motion for Flexion/Extension (FE), Abduction/Adduction (AA) and Pronation/Supination (PS). Subjects were asked to track a variable-frequency oscillating target using only one wrist DoF at time, in such a way to carry out a progressive splinting therapy. The RoM of each DoF was angularly scanned in a staircase-like fashion, from the "easier" to the "more difficult" angular position. An Adaptive Controller evaluated online performance parameters and modulated both the assistance and the difficulty of the task in order to facilitate smoother and more precise motor command patterns. Results Three stroke subjects volunteered to participate in a preliminary test session aimed at verify the acceptability of the device and the feasibility of the designed protocol. All of them were able to perform the required task. The wrist active RoM of motion was evaluated for each patient at the beginning and at the end

  17. Interim decision-making strategies in adaptive designs for population selection using time-to-event endpoints.

    PubMed

    Uozumi, Ryuji; Hamada, Chikuma

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive designs in oncology clinical trials with interim analyses for population selection could be used in the development of targeted therapies if a predefined biomarker hypothesis exists. In this article, we consider an interim analysis using overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and both OS and PFS, to determine whether the whole population or only the biomarker-positive population should continue into the subsequent stage of the trial, whereas the final decision is made based on OS data only. In order to increase the probability of selecting the most appropriate population at the interim analysis, we propose an interim decision-making strategy in adaptive designs with correlated endpoints considering the post-progression survival (PPS) magnitudes. In our approach, the interim decision is made on the basis of predictive power by incorporating information on OS as well as PFS to supplement the incomplete OS data. Simulation studies assuming a targeted therapy demonstrated that our interim decision-making procedure performs well in terms of selecting the proper population, especially under a scenario in which PPS affects the correlation between OS and PFS.

  18. Endopolyploidy as a potential alternative adaptive strategy for Arabidopsis leaf size variation in response to UV-B.

    PubMed

    Gegas, Vasilis C; Wargent, Jason J; Pesquet, Edouard; Granqvist, Emma; Paul, Nigel D; Doonan, John H

    2014-06-01

    The extent of endoreduplication in leaf growth is group- or even species-specific, and its adaptive role is still unclear. A survey of Arabidopsis accessions for variation at the level of endopolyploidy, cell number, and cell size in leaves revealed extensive genetic variation in endopolyploidy level. High endopolyploidy is associated with increased leaf size, both in natural and in genetically unstructured (mapping) populations. The underlying genes were identified as quantitative trait loci that control endopolyploidy in nature by modulating the progression of successive endocycles during organ development. This complex genetic architecture indicates an adaptive mechanism that allows differential organ growth over a broad geographic range and under stressful environmental conditions. UV-B radiation was identified as a significant positive climatic predictor for high endopolyploidy. Arabidopsis accessions carrying the increasing alleles for endopolyploidy also have enhanced tolerance to UV-B radiation. UV-absorbing secondary metabolites provide an additional protective strategy in accessions that display low endopolyploidy. Taken together, these results demonstrate that high constitutive endopolyploidy is a significant predictor for organ size in natural populations and is likely to contribute to sustaining plant growth under high incident UV radiation. Endopolyploidy may therefore form part of the range of UV-B tolerance mechanisms that exist in natural populations.

  19. A Bim-targeting strategy overcomes adaptive bortezomib resistance in myeloma through a novel link between autophagy and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuang; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Liang; Leng, Yun; Lin, Hui; Kmieciak, Maciej; Pei, Xin-Yan; Jones, Richard; Orlowski, Robert Z; Dai, Yun; Grant, Steven

    2014-10-23

    Bim contributes to resistance to various standard and novel agents. Here we demonstrate that Bim plays a functional role in bortezomib resistance in multiple myeloma (MM) cells and that targeting Bim by combining histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) with BH3 mimetics (eg, ABT-737) overcomes bortezomib resistance. BH3-only protein profiling revealed high Bim levels (Bim(hi)) in most MM cell lines and primary CD138(+) MM samples. Whereas short hairpin RNA Bim knockdown conferred bortezomib resistance in Bim(hi) cells, adaptive bortezomib-resistant cells displayed marked Bim downregulation. HDACI upregulated Bim and, when combined with ABT-737, which released Bim from Bcl-2/Bcl-xL, potently killed bortezomib-resistant cells. These events were correlated with Bim-associated autophagy attenuation, whereas Bim knockdown sharply increased autophagy in Bim(hi) cells. In Bim(low) cells, autophagy disruption by chloroquine (CQ) was required for HDACI/ABT-737 to induce Bim expression and lethality. CQ also further enhanced HDACI/ABT-737 lethality in bortezomib-resistant cells. Finally, HDACI failed to diminish autophagy or potentiate ABT-737-induced apoptosis in bim(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Thus, Bim deficiency represents a novel mechanism of adaptive bortezomib resistance in MM cells, and Bim-targeting strategies combining HDACIs (which upregulate Bim) and BH3 mimetics (which unleash Bim from antiapoptotic proteins) overcomes such resistance, in part by disabling cytoprotective autophagy.

  20. Flood risk and adaptation strategies under climate change and urban expansion: A probabilistic analysis using global data.

    PubMed

    Muis, Sanne; Güneralp, Burak; Jongman, Brenden; Aerts, Jeroen C J H; Ward, Philip J

    2015-12-15

    An accurate understanding of flood risk and its drivers is crucial for effective risk management. Detailed risk projections, including uncertainties, are however rarely available, particularly in developing countries. This paper presents a method that integrates recent advances in global-scale modeling of flood hazard and land change, which enables the probabilistic analysis of future trends in national-scale flood risk. We demonstrate its application to Indonesia. We develop 1000 spatially-explicit projections of urban expansion from 2000 to 2030 that account for uncertainty associated with population and economic growth projections, as well as uncertainty in where urban land change may occur. The projections show that the urban extent increases by 215%-357% (5th and 95th percentiles). Urban expansion is particularly rapid on Java, which accounts for 79% of the national increase. From 2000 to 2030, increases in exposure will elevate flood risk by, on average, 76% and 120% for river and coastal floods. While sea level rise will further increase the exposure-induced trend by 19%-37%, the response of river floods to climate change is highly uncertain. However, as urban expansion is the main driver of future risk, the implementation of adaptation measures is increasingly urgent, regardless of the wide uncertainty in climate projections. Using probabilistic urban projections, we show that spatial planning can be a very effective adaptation strategy. Our study emphasizes that global data can be used successfully for probabilistic risk assessment in data-scarce countries.

  1. Reliable Adaptive Data Aggregation Route Strategy for a Trade-off between Energy and Lifetime in WSNs

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wenzhong; Hong, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Yuzhong; Xiong, Naixue

    2014-01-01

    Mobile security is one of the most fundamental problems in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The data transmission path will be compromised for some disabled nodes. To construct a secure and reliable network, designing an adaptive route strategy which optimizes energy consumption and network lifetime of the aggregation cost is of great importance. In this paper, we address the reliable data aggregation route problem for WSNs. Firstly, to ensure nodes work properly, we propose a data aggregation route algorithm which improves the energy efficiency in the WSN. The construction process achieved through discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) saves node energy costs. Then, to balance the network load and establish a reliable network, an adaptive route algorithm with the minimal energy and the maximum lifetime is proposed. Since it is a non-linear constrained multi-objective optimization problem, in this paper we propose a DPSO with the multi-objective fitness function combined with the phenotype sharing function and penalty function to find available routes. Experimental results show that compared with other tree routing algorithms our algorithm can effectively reduce energy consumption and trade off energy consumption and network lifetime. PMID:25215944

  2. A Study of the Relationships Between Perceived and Observed Science Teaching Strategies and Selected Classroom and Teacher Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeany, Russell H., Jr.; Cosgriff, Stephen J.

    Described is a study to determine the degree of relationship between selected classroom and teacher variables and science teaching strategies. The perceived strategies were recorded and measured by the Class Activity Checklist (CAC) which is a modification of the Science Class Activities Checklist (SCAC), (Yeany, 1974). The observed teacher…

  3. Cerebellar and Prefrontal Cortex Contributions to Adaptation, Strategies, and Reinforcement Learning

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jordan A.; Ivry, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, motor learning has been studied as an implicit learning process, one in which movement errors are used to improve performance in a continuous, gradual manner. The cerebellum figures prominently in this literature given well-established ideas about the role of this system in error-based learning and the production of automatized skills. Recent developments have brought into focus the relevance of multiple learning mechanisms for sensorimotor learning. These include processes involving repetition, reinforcement learning, and strategy utilization. We examine these developments, considering their implications for understanding cerebellar function and how this structure interacts with other neural systems to support motor learning. Converging lines of evidence from behavioral, computational, and neuropsychological studies suggest a fundamental distinction between processes that use error information to improve action execution or action selection. While the cerebellum is clearly linked to the former, its role in the latter remains an open question. PMID:24916295

  4. Cerebellar and prefrontal cortex contributions to adaptation, strategies, and reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jordan A; Ivry, Richard B

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, motor learning has been studied as an implicit learning process, one in which movement errors are used to improve performance in a continuous, gradual manner. The cerebellum figures prominently in this literature given well-established ideas about the role of this system in error-based learning and the production of automatized skills. Recent developments have brought into focus the relevance of multiple learning mechanisms for sensorimotor learning. These include processes involving repetition, reinforcement learning, and strategy utilization. We examine these developments, considering their implications for understanding cerebellar function and how this structure interacts with other neural systems to support motor learning. Converging lines of evidence from behavioral, computational, and neuropsychological studies suggest a fundamental distinction between processes that use error information to improve action execution or action selection. While the cerebellum is clearly linked to the former, its role in the latter remains an open question.

  5. Adaptive Control for Buck Power Converter Using Fixed Point Inducting Control and Zero Average Dynamics Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyos Velasco, Fredy Edimer; García, Nicolás Toro; Garcés Gómez, Yeison Alberto

    In this paper, the output voltage of a buck power converter is controlled by means of a quasi-sliding scheme. The Fixed Point Inducting Control (FPIC) technique is used for the control design, based on the Zero Average Dynamics (ZAD) strategy, including load estimation by means of the Least Mean Squares (LMS) method. The control scheme is tested in a Rapid Control Prototyping (RCP) system based on Digital Signal Processing (DSP) for dSPACE platform. The closed loop system shows adequate performance. The experimental and simulation results match. The main contribution of this paper is to introduce the load estimator by means of LMS, to make ZAD and FPIC control feasible in load variation conditions. In addition, comparison results for controlled buck converter with SMC, PID and ZAD-FPIC control techniques are shown.

  6. Self adaptive solution strategies: Locally bound constrained Newton Raphson solution algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padovan, Joe

    1991-01-01

    A summary is given of strategies which enable the automatic adjustment of the constraint surfaces recently used to extend the range and numerical stability/efficiency of nonlinear finite element equation solvers. In addition to handling kinematic and material induced nonlinearity, both pre-and postbuckling behavior can be treated. The scheme employs localized bounds on various hierarchical partitions of the field variables. These are used to resize, shape, and orient the global constraint surface, thereby enabling essentially automatic load/deflection incrementation. Due to the generality of the approach taken, it can be implemented in conjunction with the constraints of an arbitrary functional type. To benchmark the method, several numerical experiments are presented. These include problems involving kinematic and material nonlinearity, as well as pre- and postbuckling characteristics. Also included is a list of papers published in the course of the work.

  7. Haiti and the Dominican Republic - same island - different climate adaptation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, C. D.; Webersik, C.

    2010-12-01

    The two Caribbean states, Haiti and the Dominican Republic, have experienced similar natural forces since the 18th century, such as for instance, hurricanes and earthquakes. Despite this fact, Haiti tends to be more vulnerable to natural forces than the Dominican Republic, while environmental management strategies have been very different in both countries throughout the 19th century. Research findings show that neither atmospheric nor seismic hazards, which directly hit the territory of Haiti, have significant impacts on long-term population densities and growth rates. Conversely, uncontrolled and unregulated urbanization in Haiti between 1850 and 2009 has systematically exposed more people to natural forces. Thus, Haiti is willing to take increasing human security risks, because, it finally matters where people settle. Population growth versus storm occurrence/frequency in different departments/provinces on Hispaniola island between 1850 and 2009.

  8. Water flux management and phytoplankton communities in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon. Part II: Mixotrophy of dinoflagellates as an adaptive strategy?

    PubMed

    Cecchi, P; Garrido, M; Collos, Y; Pasqualini, V

    2016-07-15

    Dinoflagellate proliferation is common in coastal waters, and trophic strategies are often advanced to explain the success of these organisms. The Biguglia lagoon is a Mediterranean brackish ecosystem where eutrophication has long been an issue, and where dominance of dinoflagellates has persisted for several years. Monthly monitoring of fluorescence-based properties of phytoplankton communities carried out in 2010 suggested that photosynthesis alone could not support the observed situation all year round. Contrasting food webs developed depending on the hydrological season, with a gradual shift from autotrophy to heterotrophy. Progressively, microphytoplankton assemblages became unequivocally dominated by a Prorocentrum minimum bloom, which exhibited very weak effective photosynthetic performance, whereas paradoxically its theoretical capacities remained fully operational. Different environmental hypotheses explaining this discrepancy were examined, but rejected. We conclude that P. minimum bloom persistence is sustained by mixotrophic strategies, with complex compromises between phototrophy and phagotrophy, as evidenced by fluorescence-based observations.

  9. Imaging of non-Hodgkin lymphomas: diagnosis and response-adapted strategies.

    PubMed

    El-Galaly, Tarec Christoffer; Hutchings, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Optimal lymphoma management requires accurate pretreatment staging and reliable assessment of response, both during and after therapy. Positron emission tomography with computerized tomography (PET/CT) combines functional and anatomical imaging and provides the most sensitive and accurate methods for lymphoma imaging. New guidelines for lymphoma imaging and recently revised criteria for lymphoma staging and response assessment recommend PET/CT staging, treatment monitoring, and response evaluation in all FDG-avid lymphomas, while CT remains the method of choice for non-FDG-avid histologies. Since interim PET imaging has high prognostic value in lymphoma, a number of trials investigate PET-based, response-adapted therapy for non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). PET response is the main determinant of response according to the new response criteria, but PET/CT has little or no role in routine surveillance imaging, the value which is itself questionable. This review presents from a clinical point of view the evidence for the use of imaging and primarily PET/CT in NHL before, during, and after therapy. The reader is given an overview of the current PET-based interventional NHL trials and an insight into possible future developments in the field, including new PET tracers.

  10. Climate change and waterborne diarrhoea in northern India: impacts and adaptation strategies.

    PubMed

    Moors, Eddy; Singh, Tanya; Siderius, Christian; Balakrishnan, Sneha; Mishra, Arabinda

    2013-12-01

    Although several studies show the vulnerability of human health to climate change, a clear comprehensive quantification of the increased health risks attributable to climate change is lacking. Even more complicated are assessments of adaptation measures for this sector. We discuss the impact of climate change on diarrhoea as a representative of a waterborne infectious disease affecting human health in the Ganges basin of northern India. A conceptual framework is presented for climate exposure response relationships based on studies from different countries, as empirical studies and appropriate epidemiological data sets for India are lacking. Four climate variables are included: temperature, increased/extreme precipitation, decreased precipitation/droughts and relative humidity. Applying the conceptual framework to the latest regional climate projections for northern India shows increases between present and future (2040s), varying spatially from no change to an increase of 21% in diarrhoea incidences, with 13.1% increase on average for the Ganges basin. We discuss three types of measures against diarrhoeal disease: reactive actions, preventive actions and national policy options. Preventive actions have the potential to counterbalance this expected increase. However, given the limited progress in reducing incidences over the past decade consorted actions and effective implementation and integration of existing policies are needed.

  11. Stunt or elongate? Two opposite strategies by which rice adapts to floods.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Keisuke; Hattori, Yoko; Ashikari, Motoyuki

    2010-05-01

    Expansion of habitat is important for the perpetuation of species. In particular, plants which are sedentary must evolve specialized functions to adapt itself to new environment. Deepwater rice is cultivated mainly in the lowland areas of South and Southeast Asia that are flooded during the rainy season. The internodes of deepwater rice elongates in response to increasing water level to keep its leaves above the water surface and avoid anoxia. This elongation is stimulated by ethylene-regulated genes, Snorkel1 and Snorkel2. In contrast, when a flash flood occurs at the seedling stage, submergence-tolerant rice, which carries Submergence-1A, remains stunted and survives in water for a few weeks to avoid the energy consumption associated with plant elongation, and restarts its growth using its conserved energy after the water recedes. Interestingly, both Snorkel genes and Submergence-1A encode ethylene-responsive factor-type transcription factor and are connected to gibberellin biosynthesis or signal transduction. However, deepwater and submergence-tolerant rice seem to have opposite flooding response; namely, escape by elongation or remain stunted under water until flood recedes.

  12. Comparative and quantitative proteomics reveal the adaptive strategies of oyster larvae to ocean acidification.