Science.gov

Sample records for adaptive pressure support

  1. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Acceptance Testing for the Pressurized Mating Adapters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Pressurized Mating Adapters (PMAs) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of three subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). PMAs 1 and 2 flew to ISS on Flight 2A and Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA) 3 flew to ISS on Flight 3A. This paper provides a summary of the PMAs ECLS design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodologies utilized for the PMAs.

  2. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System: Verification for the Pressurized Mating Adapters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Pressurized Mating Adapters (PMAs) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of three subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). PMA 1 and PMA 2 flew to ISS on Flight 2A and PMA 3 flew to ISS on Flight 3A. This paper provides a summary of the PMAs ECLS design and the detailed Element Verification methodologies utilized during the Qualification phase for the PMAs.

  3. Pressurizer tank upper support

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Tod H.; Ott, Howard L.

    1994-01-01

    A pressurizer tank in a pressurized water nuclear reactor is mounted between structural walls of the reactor on a substructure of the reactor, the tank extending upwardly from the substructure. For bearing lateral loads such as seismic shocks, a girder substantially encircles the pressurizer tank at a space above the substructure and is coupled to the structural walls via opposed sway struts. Each sway strut is attached at one end to the girder and at an opposite end to one of the structural walls, and the sway struts are oriented substantially horizontally in pairs aligned substantially along tangents to the wall of the circular tank. Preferably, eight sway struts attach to the girder at 90.degree. intervals. A compartment encloses the pressurizer tank and forms the structural wall. The sway struts attach to corners of the compartment for maximum stiffness and load bearing capacity. A valve support frame carrying the relief/discharge piping and valves of an automatic depressurization arrangement is fixed to the girder, whereby lateral loads on the relief/discharge piping are coupled directly to the compartment rather than through any portion of the pressurizer tank. Thermal insulation for the valve support frame prevents thermal loading of the piping and valves. The girder is shimmed to define a gap for reducing thermal transfer, and the girder is free to move vertically relative to the compartment walls, for accommodating dimensional variation of the pressurizer tank with changes in temperature and pressure.

  4. Pressurizer tank upper support

    DOEpatents

    Baker, T.H.; Ott, H.L.

    1994-01-11

    A pressurizer tank in a pressurized water nuclear reactor is mounted between structural walls of the reactor on a substructure of the reactor, the tank extending upwardly from the substructure. For bearing lateral loads such as seismic shocks, a girder substantially encircles the pressurizer tank at a space above the substructure and is coupled to the structural walls via opposed sway struts. Each sway strut is attached at one end to the girder and at an opposite end to one of the structural walls, and the sway struts are oriented substantially horizontally in pairs aligned substantially along tangents to the wall of the circular tank. Preferably, eight sway struts attach to the girder at 90[degree] intervals. A compartment encloses the pressurizer tank and forms the structural wall. The sway struts attach to corners of the compartment for maximum stiffness and load bearing capacity. A valve support frame carrying the relief/discharge piping and valves of an automatic depressurization arrangement is fixed to the girder, whereby lateral loads on the relief/discharge piping are coupled directly to the compartment rather than through any portion of the pressurizer tank. Thermal insulation for the valve support frame prevents thermal loading of the piping and valves. The girder is shimmed to define a gap for reducing thermal transfer, and the girder is free to move vertically relative to the compartment walls, for accommodating dimensional variation of the pressurizer tank with changes in temperature and pressure. 10 figures.

  5. Mechanics and applications of pressure adaptive honeycomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vos, Roelof

    decrease with altitude. This option does require more infrastructure like tubing, valves, and supporting electronics from the cockpit. Applications of pressure adaptive honeycomb are tailored primarily towards low-bandwidth applications like secondary flight control. The most profound application is the morphing of an entire wing section, from leading to trailing edge, due to the adaptive honeycomb. On a smaller scale, other examples include a solid state pressure adaptive flap, a pressure adaptive droop nose, a pressure adaptive Gurney flap and a pressure adaptive engine inlet. Each of these applications is based on the same principle of stiffness alteration with pressure and can be used with either actuation option (constant mass or constant pressure). A model that relates the volumetric change of the honeycomb cells to the external blocked stress was shown to correlate well to experiments that were carried out on several test articles. Based on this model it was estimated that pressure adaptive honeycomb has a maximum mass-specific energy density of 12.4J/g, for the case of an externally applied CDP of 0.9MPa (can be supplied from a high-pressure compressor stage of a gas turbine). In addition, it was shown that a maximum strain of 76% can be achieved and that the maximum blocked stress amounts to 0.82MPa. In the case of a 40kPa drop in atmospheric pressure and constant mass of air in the pouches, the maximum mass specific energy amounts to 1.1J/g and a maximum blocked force of 70kPa can be attained. Pressure adaptive honeycomb was embedded into a 25%c adaptive flap on a NACA2412 wing section with a chord of 1.08m. Wind tunnel tests at Reynolds number of 1 million demonstrated a shift in the cl -- alpha curve upwards by an average of 0.3, thereby increasing the maximum lift coefficient from 1.27 to 1.52. This successfully demonstrated the application of pressure adaptive honeycomb embedded in a morphing aircraft structure.

  6. Pedagogical Support Components of Students' Social Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlasova, Vera K.; Simonova, Galina I.; Soleymani, Nassim

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of the problem stated in the article is caused by the need of pedagogical support of students' social adaptation on the basis of systematicity, which is achieved if we correctly define the components of the process. The aim of the article is to determine the pedagogical support components of students' social adaptation. The leading…

  7. Different Futures of Adaptive Collaborative Learning Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rummel, Nikol; Walker, Erin; Aleven, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    In this position paper we contrast a Dystopian view of the future of adaptive collaborative learning support (ACLS) with a Utopian scenario that--due to better-designed technology, grounded in research--avoids the pitfalls of the Dystopian version and paints a positive picture of the practice of computer-supported collaborative learning 25 years…

  8. Plant adaptation to low atmospheric pressures: potential molecular responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferl, Robert J.; Schuerger, Andrew C.; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Gurley, William B.; Corey, Kenneth; Bucklin, Ray

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing realization that it may be impossible to attain Earth normal atmospheric pressures in orbital, lunar, or Martian greenhouses, simply because the construction materials do not exist to meet the extraordinary constraints imposed by balancing high engineering requirements against high lift costs. This equation essentially dictates that NASA have in place the capability to grow plants at reduced atmospheric pressure. Yet current understanding of plant growth at low pressures is limited to just a few experiments and relatively rudimentary assessments of plant vigor and growth. The tools now exist, however, to make rapid progress toward understanding the fundamental nature of plant responses and adaptations to low pressures, and to develop strategies for mitigating detrimental effects by engineering the growth conditions or by engineering the plants themselves. The genomes of rice and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana have recently been sequenced in their entirety, and public sector and commercial DNA chips are becoming available such that thousands of genes can be assayed at once. A fundamental understanding of plant responses and adaptation to low pressures can now be approached and translated into procedures and engineering considerations to enhance plant growth at low atmospheric pressures. In anticipation of such studies, we present here the background arguments supporting these contentions, as well as informed speculation about the kinds of molecular physiological responses that might be expected of plants in low-pressure environments.

  9. Plant adaptation to low atmospheric pressures: potential molecular responses.

    PubMed

    Ferl, Robert J; Schuerger, Andrew C; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Gurley, William B; Corey, Kenneth; Bucklin, Ray

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing realization that it may be impossible to attain Earth normal atmospheric pressures in orbital, lunar, or Martian greenhouses, simply because the construction materials do not exist to meet the extraordinary constraints imposed by balancing high engineering requirements against high lift costs. This equation essentially dictates that NASA have in place the capability to grow plants at reduced atmospheric pressure. Yet current understanding of plant growth at low pressures is limited to just a few experiments and relatively rudimentary assessments of plant vigor and growth. The tools now exist, however, to make rapid progress toward understanding the fundamental nature of plant responses and adaptations to low pressures, and to develop strategies for mitigating detrimental effects by engineering the growth conditions or by engineering the plants themselves. The genomes of rice and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana have recently been sequenced in their entirety, and public sector and commercial DNA chips are becoming available such that thousands of genes can be assayed at once. A fundamental understanding of plant responses and adaptation to low pressures can now be approached and translated into procedures and engineering considerations to enhance plant growth at low atmospheric pressures. In anticipation of such studies, we present here the background arguments supporting these contentions, as well as informed speculation about the kinds of molecular physiological responses that might be expected of plants in low-pressure environments. PMID:11987308

  10. Bayesian Decision Support for Adaptive Lung Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McShan, Daniel; Luo, Yi; Schipper, Matt; TenHaken, Randall

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: A Bayesian Decision Network will be demonstrated to provide clinical decision support for adaptive lung response-driven treatment management based on evidence that physiologic metrics may correlate better with individual patient response than traditional (population-based) dose and volume-based metrics. Further, there is evidence that information obtained during the course of radiation therapy may further improve response predictions. Methods: Clinical factors were gathered for 58 patients including planned mean lung dose, and the bio-markers IL-8 and TGF-β1 obtained prior to treatment and two weeks into treatment along with complication outcomes for these patients. A Bayesian Decision Network was constructed using Netica 5.0.2 from Norsys linking these clinical factors to obtain a prediction of radiation induced lung disese (RILD) complication. A decision node was added to the network to provide a plan adaption recommendation based on the trade-off between the RILD prediction and complexity of replanning. A utility node provides the weighting cost between the competing factors. Results: The decision node predictions were optimized against the data for the 58 cases. With this decision network solution, one can consider the decision result for a new patient with specific findings to obtain a recommendation to adaptively modify the originally planned treatment course. Conclusions: A Bayesian approach allows handling and propagating probabilistic data in a logical and principled manner. Decision networks provide the further ability to provide utility-based trade-offs, reflecting non-medical but practical cost/benefit analysis. The network demonstrated illustrates the basic concept, but many other factors may affect these decisions and work on building better models are being designed and tested. Acknowledgement: Supported by NIH-P01-CA59827

  11. Cardiovascular adaptations supporting human exercise-heat acclimation.

    PubMed

    Périard, Julien D; Travers, Gavin J S; Racinais, Sébastien; Sawka, Michael N

    2016-04-01

    This review examines the cardiovascular adaptations along with total body water and plasma volume adjustments that occur in parallel with improved heat loss responses during exercise-heat acclimation. The cardiovascular system is well recognized as an important contributor to exercise-heat acclimation that acts to minimize physiological strain, reduce the risk of serious heat illness and better sustain exercise capacity. The upright posture adopted by humans during most physical activities and the large skin surface area contribute to the circulatory and blood pressure regulation challenge of simultaneously supporting skeletal muscle blood flow and dissipating heat via increased skin blood flow and sweat secretion during exercise-heat stress. Although it was traditionally held that cardiac output increased during exercise-heat stress to primarily support elevated skin blood flow requirements, recent evidence suggests that temperature-sensitive mechanisms may also mediate an elevation in skeletal muscle blood flow. The cardiovascular adaptations supporting this challenge include an increase in total body water, plasma volume expansion, better sustainment and/or elevation of stroke volume, reduction in heart rate, improvement in ventricular filling and myocardial efficiency, and enhanced skin blood flow and sweating responses. The magnitude of these adaptations is variable and dependent on several factors such as exercise intensity, duration of exposure, frequency and total number of exposures, as well as the environmental conditions (i.e. dry or humid heat) in which acclimation occurs. PMID:26905458

  12. Radiation effects on reactor pressure vessel supports

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.E.; Lipinski, R.E.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the findings from the work done in accordance with the Task Action Plan developed to resolve the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Generic Safety Issue No. 15, (GSI-15). GSI-15 was established to evaluate the potential for low-temperature, low-flux-level neutron irradiation to embrittle reactor pressure vessel (RPV) supports to the point of compromising plant safety. An evaluation of surveillance samples from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) had suggested that some materials used for RPV supports in pressurized-water reactors could exhibit higher than expected embrittlement rates. However, further tests designed to evaluate the applicability of the HFIR data to reactor RPV supports under operating conditions led to the conclusion that RPV supports could be evaluated using traditional method. It was found that the unique HFIR radiation environment allowed the gamma radiation to contribute significantly to the embrittlement. The shielding provided by the thick steel RPV shell ensures that degradation of RPV supports from gamma irradiation is improbable or minimal. The findings reported herein were used, in part, as the basis for technical resolution of the issue.

  13. Nuclear reactor pressure vessel support system

    DOEpatents

    Sepelak, George R.

    1978-01-01

    A support system for nuclear reactor pressure vessels which can withstand all possible combinations of stresses caused by a postulated core disrupting accident during reactor operation. The nuclear reactor pressure vessel is provided with a flange around the upper periphery thereof, and the flange includes an annular vertical extension formed integral therewith. A support ring is positioned atop of the support ledge and the flange vertical extension, and is bolted to both members. The plug riser is secured to the flange vertical extension and to the top of a radially outwardly extension of the rotatable plug. This system eliminates one joint through which fluids contained in the vessel could escape by making the fluid flow path through the joint between the flange and the support ring follow the same path through which fluid could escape through the plug risers. In this manner, the sealing means to prohibit the escape of contained fluids through the plug risers can also prohibit the escape of contained fluid through the securing joint.

  14. Adaptability and Life Satisfaction: The Moderating Role of Social Support.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mi; Lin, Weipeng

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderating role of social support in the relationship between adaptability and life satisfaction. Data were collected from 99 undergraduate freshmen in a Chinese university using a lagged design with a 1-month interval. Results demonstrated that social support moderated the relation between adaptability and life satisfaction, such that the positive relation between adaptability and life satisfaction was stronger for individuals with higher levels of social support than for individuals with lower levels of social support. The theoretical and practical implications of this result are discussed. PMID:27516753

  15. Adaptability and Life Satisfaction: The Moderating Role of Social Support

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Mi; Lin, Weipeng

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderating role of social support in the relationship between adaptability and life satisfaction. Data were collected from 99 undergraduate freshmen in a Chinese university using a lagged design with a 1-month interval. Results demonstrated that social support moderated the relation between adaptability and life satisfaction, such that the positive relation between adaptability and life satisfaction was stronger for individuals with higher levels of social support than for individuals with lower levels of social support. The theoretical and practical implications of this result are discussed. PMID:27516753

  16. Autotriggering during pressure support ventilation due to cardiogenic oscillations.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Ednan; Maguire, David P; Gratch, David

    2009-08-01

    Newer generation anesthesia machines are equipped with a pressure support mode of ventilation, which can be used to support spontaneous ventilation in anesthetized patients. The Drager Apollo anesthesia machine uses an inspiratory limb hot-wire flow sensor to measure inspiratory flow rates. Detected flow rates that exceed the pressure support flow trigger will trigger pressure support breaths (Internal communication document. Drager Medical, 2007). In the case we are presenting, cardiac oscillations produced inspiratory flow rates that exceeded the flow trigger and autotriggered pressure support breaths. Autotriggering could be suppressed by increasing the trigger threshold or the positive end-expiratory pressure setting. PMID:19608820

  17. Adaptations to pressure in the RBC metabolism of diving mammals.

    PubMed

    Castellini, M A; Castellini, J M; Rivera, P M

    2001-07-01

    Marine mammals are known to dive up to 2000 m and, therefore, tolerate as much as 200 atm. of hydrostatic pressure. To examine possible metabolic adaptations to these elevated pressures, fresh blood samples from marine and terrestrial mammals were incubated for 2 h at 37 degrees C under 136 atm (2000 psi) of hydrostatic pressure. The consumption of plasma glucose and the production of lactate over the 2-h period were used to assess glycolytic flux in the red cells. The results indicate that glycolytic flux as measured by lactate production under pressure can be significantly depressed in most terrestrial mammals and either not altered or accelerated in marine mammals. The data also suggest that there is a significant shift in the ratio of lactate produced to glucose consumed under pressure. Interestingly, human and dolphin blood do not react to pressure. These combined data imply a metabolic adaptation to pressure in marine mammal RBC that may not be necessary in human or dolphin cells due to their unique patterns of glucose metabolism.

  18. Evolvability is inevitable: increasing evolvability without the pressure to adapt.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Joel; Stanley, Kenneth O

    2013-01-01

    Why evolvability appears to have increased over evolutionary time is an important unresolved biological question. Unlike most candidate explanations, this paper proposes that increasing evolvability can result without any pressure to adapt. The insight is that if evolvability is heritable, then an unbiased drifting process across genotypes can still create a distribution of phenotypes biased towards evolvability, because evolvable organisms diffuse more quickly through the space of possible phenotypes. Furthermore, because phenotypic divergence often correlates with founding niches, niche founders may on average be more evolvable, which through population growth provides a genotypic bias towards evolvability. Interestingly, the combination of these two mechanisms can lead to increasing evolvability without any pressure to out-compete other organisms, as demonstrated through experiments with a series of simulated models. Thus rather than from pressure to adapt, evolvability may inevitably result from any drift through genotypic space combined with evolution's passive tendency to accumulate niches.

  19. Biometeorology - a science supporting adaptation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzarakis, A.; Cegnar, T.

    2010-09-01

    Biometeorology as an interdisciplinary science deals with the interactions between atmospheric processes and living organisms (plants, animals and humans). If and in what way weather and climate affect the well-being of all the living creatures? This is the most important question biometeorology is answering. The International Society of Biometeorology (ISB) has built an international forum for the promotion of interdisciplinary collaboration between meteorologists, health professionals, biologists, climatologists, ecologists and other scientists. The Society acts as a community of scientists with similar interests, and fulfills an important role in providing information, expertise and advice for international organizations requiring this assistance. The ISB represents the most comprehensive organization, which brings together people with expertise in these areas. Another specific aim of the ISB is the stimulation of research. Therefore, groups of members are working on several topics organized in commissions for specific targets. The recent five commissions are working in the several fields including climate change issues. Some of examples will be presented, which have been initiated by the members of the ISB and how they can be included as a solid scientific basis to develop efficient adaptation strategies. One such example is a project combining natural and social sciences (in the fields of cooperation processes, tourism analysis and strategy, weather and climate change analysis, information and communication and knowledge transfer) in a transdisciplinary approach that includes players from tourism policy and business and which focuses on the North Sea Coast and the Black Forest. The project "Climate trends and sustainable development of tourism in coastal and mountain range regions was divided into four phases - diagnosis, assessment, strategy/design of solutions, and evaluation - where scientific subprojects and practical partners meet regularly to discuss the

  20. Career Support for Migrants: Transformation or Adaptation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimrose, Jenny; McNair, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The complex interfaces created by migration not only challenge core beliefs about the purpose of career guidance and counseling but also about the precise nature and level of the support required for migrants. However, the issue has had little academic attention. While traditional theories informing the practice of career guidance and counseling…

  1. Adaptive Intelligent Support to Improve Peer Tutoring in Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Erin; Rummel, Nikol; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive collaborative learning support (ACLS) involves collaborative learning environments that adapt their characteristics, and sometimes provide intelligent hints and feedback, to improve individual students' collaborative interactions. ACLS often involves a system that can automatically assess student dialogue, model effective and…

  2. Temperature and pressure adaptation of the binding site of acetylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Hochachka, P W

    1974-12-01

    1. Studies with a carbon substrate analogue, 3,3-dimethylbutyl acetate, indicate that the hydrophobic contribution to binding at the anionic site of acetylcholinesterase is strongly disrupted at low temperatures and high pressures. 2. Animals living in different physical environments circumvent this problem by adjusting the enthalpic and entropic contributions to binding. 3. An extreme example of this adaptational strategy is supplied by brain acetylcholinesterase extracted from an abyssal fish living at 2 degrees C and up to several hundred atmospheres of pressure. This acetylcholinesterase appears to have a smaller hydrophobic binding region in the anionic site, playing a measurably decreased role in ligand binding. PMID:4462739

  3. Temperature and pressure adaptation of the binding site of acetylcholinesterase

    PubMed Central

    Hochachka, Peter W.

    1974-01-01

    1. Studies with a carbon substrate analogue, 3,3-dimethylbutyl acetate, indicate that the hydrophobic contribution to binding at the anionic site of acetylcholinesterase is strongly disrupted at low temperatures and high pressures. 2. Animals living in different physical environments circumvent this problem by adjusting the enthalpic and entropic contributions to binding. 3. An extreme example of this adaptational strategy is supplied by brain acetylcholinesterase extracted from an abyssal fish living at 2°C and up to several hundred atmospheres of pressure. This acetylcholinesterase appears to have a smaller hydrophobic binding region in the anionic site, playing a measurably decreased role in ligand binding. PMID:4462739

  4. Social Support, Assimilation and Biological Effective Blood Pressure Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Anthony; Walsh, Patricia Ann

    1987-01-01

    The twin processes of migration and assimilation are highly stressful. This stress can be manifested in elevated blood pressure. According to this study, immigrants receiving high levels of social support had significantly lower blood pressure levels than those receiving less social support. (VM)

  5. Pressure vessel sliding support unit and system using the sliding support unit

    DOEpatents

    Breach, Michael R.; Keck, David J.; Deaver, Gerald A.

    2013-01-15

    Provided is a sliding support and a system using the sliding support unit. The sliding support unit may include a fulcrum capture configured to attach to a support flange, a fulcrum support configured to attach to the fulcrum capture, and a baseplate block configured to support the fulcrum support. The system using the sliding support unit may include a pressure vessel, a pedestal bracket, and a plurality of sliding support units.

  6. Adaptations to Climate-Mediated Selective Pressures in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Feng-Hua; Agha, Saif; Kantanen, Juha; Colli, Licia; Stucki, Sylvie; Kijas, James W.; Joost, Stéphane; Li, Meng-Hua; Ajmone Marsan, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Following domestication, sheep (Ovis aries) have become essential farmed animals across the world through adaptation to a diverse range of environments and varied production systems. Climate-mediated selective pressure has shaped phenotypic variation and has left genetic “footprints” in the genome of breeds raised in different agroecological zones. Unlike numerous studies that have searched for evidence of selection using only population genetics data, here, we conducted an integrated coanalysis of environmental data with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variation. By examining 49,034 SNPs from 32 old, autochthonous sheep breeds that are adapted to a spectrum of different regional climates, we identified 230 SNPs with evidence for selection that is likely due to climate-mediated pressure. Among them, 189 (82%) showed significant correlation (P ≤ 0.05) between allele frequency and climatic variables in a larger set of native populations from a worldwide range of geographic areas and climates. Gene ontology analysis of genes colocated with significant SNPs identified 17 candidates related to GTPase regulator and peptide receptor activities in the biological processes of energy metabolism and endocrine and autoimmune regulation. We also observed high linkage disequilibrium and significant extended haplotype homozygosity for the core haplotype TBC1D12-CH1 of TBC1D12. The global frequency distribution of the core haplotype and allele OAR22_18929579-A showed an apparent geographic pattern and significant (P ≤ 0.05) correlations with climatic variation. Our results imply that adaptations to local climates have shaped the spatial distribution of some variants that are candidates to underpin adaptive variation in sheep. PMID:25249477

  7. Climate change adaptation among Tibetan pastoralists: challenges in enhancing local adaptation through policy support.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yao; Grumbine, R Edward; Wilkes, Andreas; Wang, Yun; Xu, Jian-Chu; Yang, Yong-Ping

    2012-10-01

    While researchers are aware that a mix of Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK), community-based resource management institutions, and higher-level institutions and policies can facilitate pastoralists' adaptation to climate change, policy makers have been slow to understand these linkages. Two critical issues are to what extent these factors play a role, and how to enhance local adaptation through government support. We investigated these issues through a case study of two pastoral communities on the Tibetan Plateau in China employing an analytical framework to understand local climate adaptation processes. We concluded that LEK and community-based institutions improve adaptation outcomes for Tibetan pastoralists through shaping and mobilizing resource availability to reduce risks. Higher-level institutions and policies contribute by providing resources from outside communities. There are dynamic interrelationships among these factors that can lead to support, conflict, and fragmentation. Government policy could enhance local adaptation through improvement of supportive relationships among these factors. While central government policies allow only limited room for overt integration of local knowledge/institutions, local governments often have some flexibility to buffer conflicts. In addition, government policies to support market-based economic development have greatly benefited adaptation outcomes for pastoralists. Overall, in China, there are still questions over how to create innovative institutions that blend LEK and community-based institutions with government policy making.

  8. Adaptive support vector regression for UAV flight control.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jongho; Jin Kim, H; Kim, Youdan

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores an application of support vector regression for adaptive control of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Unlike neural networks, support vector regression (SVR) generates global solutions, because SVR basically solves quadratic programming (QP) problems. With this advantage, the input-output feedback-linearized inverse dynamic model and the compensation term for the inversion error are identified off-line, which we call I-SVR (inversion SVR) and C-SVR (compensation SVR), respectively. In order to compensate for the inversion error and the unexpected uncertainty, an online adaptation algorithm for the C-SVR is proposed. Then, the stability of the overall error dynamics is analyzed by the uniformly ultimately bounded property in the nonlinear system theory. In order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive controller, numerical simulations are performed on the UAV model.

  9. Pressure regulation for earth pressure balance control on shield tunneling machine by using adaptive robust control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Haibo; Liu, Zhibin; Yang, Huayong

    2016-05-01

    Most current studies about shield tunneling machine focus on the construction safety and tunnel structure stability during the excavation. Behaviors of the machine itself are also studied, like some tracking control of the machine. Yet, few works concern about the hydraulic components, especially the pressure and flow rate regulation components. This research focuses on pressure control strategies by using proportional pressure relief valve, which is widely applied on typical shield tunneling machines. Modeling of a commercial pressure relief valve is done. The modeling centers on the main valve, because the dynamic performance is determined by the main valve. To validate such modeling, a frequency-experiment result of the pressure relief valve, whose bandwidth is about 3 Hz, is presented as comparison. The modeling and the frequency experimental result show that it is reasonable to regard the pressure relief valve as a second-order system with two low corner frequencies. PID control, dead band compensation control and adaptive robust control (ARC) are proposed and simulation results are presented. For the ARC, implements by using first order approximation and second order approximation are presented. The simulation results show that the second order approximation implement with ARC can track 4 Hz sine signal very well, and the two ARC simulation errors are within 0.2 MPa. Finally, experiment results of dead band compensation control and adaptive robust control are given. The results show that dead band compensation had about 30° phase lag and about 20% off of the amplitude attenuation. ARC is tracking with little phase lag and almost no amplitude attenuation. In this research, ARC has been tested on a pressure relief valve. It is able to improve the valve's dynamic performances greatly, and it is capable of the pressure control of shield machine excavation.

  10. Controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS) in high pressure environments.

    PubMed

    Thompson, B G

    1989-05-01

    Future space habitats may be constructed in high pressure environments. The biological components of any controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS) used in these habitats will have to be able to grow and metabolize normally for the CELSS to operate.

  11. Adaptive evolution: evaluating empirical support for theoretical predictions.

    PubMed

    Olson-Manning, Carrie F; Wagner, Maggie R; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Adaptive evolution is shaped by the interaction of population genetics, natural selection and underlying network and biochemical constraints. Variation created by mutation, the raw material for evolutionary change, is translated into phenotypes by flux through metabolic pathways and by the topography and dynamics of molecular networks. Finally, the retention of genetic variation and the efficacy of selection depend on population genetics and demographic history. Emergent high-throughput experimental methods and sequencing technologies allow us to gather more evidence and to move beyond the theory in different systems and populations. Here we review the extent to which recent evidence supports long-established theoretical principles of adaptation.

  12. Bacterial adaptation to extremes of low temperature and elevated pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Douglas

    The largest portion of Earth's biosphere is represented by low temperature, high pressure deepsea environments which are exposed to reduced and recalcitrant forms of organic carbon and which are far removed from sun light. Progress that has been made in recent years examining the biodiversity, genomics and genetics of microbial life at great ocean depths will be described. Particular focus will be given to the comparative genomics of members of Colwellia, Photobacterium, Moritella, Shewanella, Psychromonas and Carnobacterium genera. The genomes of piezophiles (high pressure adapted microbes) are characterized by possessing large intergenic regions, large numbers of rRNA operons, rRNA of a modified secondary structure, a reliance on unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids in their membrane lipids, a diversity of transport and physiological capabilities, and large numbers of transposable elements. Genetic studies in Photobacterium profundum have highlighted roles for extracellular polysaccharide production and DNA replication and protein synthesis in low temperature and high pressure growth. Recent advances in the cultivation of novel piezophiles from a deep-trench environment will also be described.

  13. Pressure adaptation is linked to thermal adaptation in salt-saturated marine habitats.

    PubMed

    Alcaide, María; Stogios, Peter J; Lafraya, Álvaro; Tchigvintsev, Anatoli; Flick, Robert; Bargiela, Rafael; Chernikova, Tatyana N; Reva, Oleg N; Hai, Tran; Leggewie, Christian C; Katzke, Nadine; La Cono, Violetta; Matesanz, Ruth; Jebbar, Mohamed; Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Yakimov, Michail M; Yakunin, Alexander F; Golyshin, Peter N; Golyshina, Olga V; Savchenko, Alexei; Ferrer, Manuel

    2015-02-01

    The present study provides a deeper view of protein functionality as a function of temperature, salt and pressure in deep-sea habitats. A set of eight different enzymes from five distinct deep-sea (3040-4908 m depth), moderately warm (14.0-16.5°C) biotopes, characterized by a wide range of salinities (39-348 practical salinity units), were investigated for this purpose. An enzyme from a 'superficial' marine hydrothermal habitat (65°C) was isolated and characterized for comparative purposes. We report here the first experimental evidence suggesting that in salt-saturated deep-sea habitats, the adaptation to high pressure is linked to high thermal resistance (P value = 0.0036). Salinity might therefore increase the temperature window for enzyme activity, and possibly microbial growth, in deep-sea habitats. As an example, Lake Medee, the largest hypersaline deep-sea anoxic lake of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, where the water temperature is never higher than 16°C, was shown to contain halopiezophilic-like enzymes that are most active at 70°C and with denaturing temperatures of 71.4°C. The determination of the crystal structures of five proteins revealed unknown molecular mechanisms involved in protein adaptation to poly-extremes as well as distinct active site architectures and substrate preferences relative to other structurally characterized enzymes.

  14. Solid-Supported Lipid Multilayers under High Hydrostatic Pressure.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Benedikt; Paulus, Michael; Nase, Julia; Salmen, Paul; Degen, Patrick; Wirkert, Florian J; Honkimäki, Veijo; Tolan, Metin

    2016-03-22

    In this work, the structure of solid-supported lipid multilayers exposed to increased hydrostatic pressure was studied in situ by X-ray reflectometry at the solid-liquid interface between silicon and an aqueous buffer solution. The layers' vertical structure was analyzed up to a maximum pressure of 4500 bar. The multilayers showed phase transitions from the fluid into different gel phases. With increasing pressure, a gradual filling of the sublayers between the hydrophilic head groups with water was observed. This process was inverted when the pressure was decreased, yielding finally smaller water layers than those in the initial state. As is commonly known, water has an abrasive effect on lipid multilayers by the formation of vesicles. We show that increasing pressure can reverse this process so that a controlled switching between multi- and bilayers is possible. PMID:26927365

  15. Observations to support adaptation: Principles, scales and decision-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulwarty, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    As has been long noted, a comprehensive, coordinated observing system is the backbone of any Earth information system. Demands are increasingly placed on earth observation and prediction systems and attendant services to address the needs of economically and environmentally vulnerable sectors and investments, including energy, water, human health, transportation, agriculture, fisheries, tourism, biodiversity, and national security. Climate services include building capacity to interpret information and recognize standards and limitations of data in the promotion of social and economic development in a changing climate. This includes improving the understanding of climate in the context of a variety of temporal and spatial scales (including the influence of decadal scale forcings and land surface feedbacks on seasonal forecast reliability). Climate data and information are central for developing decision options that are sensitive to climate-related uncertainties and the design of flexible adaptation pathways. Ideally monitoring should be action oriented to support climate risk assessment and adaptation including informing robust decision making to multiple risks over the long term. Based on the experience of global observations programs and empirical research we outline- Challenges in developing effective monitoring and climate information systems to support adaptation. The types of observations of critical importance needed for sector planning to enhance food, water and energy security, and to improve early warning for disaster risk reduction Observations needed for ecosystem-based adaptation including the identification of thresholds, maintenance of biological diversity and land degradation The benefits and limits of linking regional model output to local observations including analogs and verification for adaptation planning To support these goals a robust systems of integrated observations are needed to characterize the uncertainty surrounding emergent risks

  16. Adaptive evolution in locomotor performance: How selective pressures and functional relationships produce diversity.

    PubMed

    Scales, Jeffrey A; Butler, Marguerite A

    2016-01-01

    Despite the complexity of nature, most comparative studies of phenotypic evolution consider selective pressures in isolation. When competing pressures operate on the same system, it is commonly expected that trade-offs will occur that will limit the evolution of phenotypic diversity, however, it is possible that interactions among selective pressures may promote diversity instead. We explored the evolution of locomotor performance in lizards in relation to possible selective pressures using the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Here, we show that a combination of selection based on foraging mode and predator escape is required to explain variation in performance phenotypes. Surprisingly, habitat use contributed little explanatory power. We find that it is possible to evolve very different abilities in performance which were previously thought to be tightly correlated, supporting a growing literature that explores the many-to-one mapping of morphological design. Although we generally find the expected trade-off between maximal exertion and speed, this relationship surprisingly disappears when species experience selection for both performance types. We conclude that functional integration need not limit adaptive potential, and that an integrative approach considering multiple major influences on a phenotype allows a more complete understanding of adaptation and the evolution of diversity.

  17. Translating Knowledge into Action: Supporting Adaptation in Australia's Coastal Zone through Information Provision and Decision Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palutikof, J. P.; Rissik, D.; Tonmoy, F. N.; Boulter, S.

    2015-12-01

    Adaptation to risks from climate change and sea-level rise is particularly important in Australia, where 70% of the population live in major coastal cities and 85% within 50km of the coast. Adaptation activity focuses at local government level and, in the absence of strong leadership from central government, the extent to which local councils have taken action to adapt is highly variable across the nation. Also, although a number of councils have proceeded as far as identifying their exposure to risk and considering adaptation options, this fails to translate into action. A principal reason for this is concern over the response from coastal residents to actions which may affect property values, and fear of litigation. A project is underway to support councils to understand their risks, evaluate adaptation options and proceed to action. This support will consist of a three-pronged framework: provision of information, a tool to support decision-making, and a community forum. Delivery involves research to understand the barriers to adaptation and how these may be overcome, optimal methods for delivery of information, and the information needs of organizations, action-takers and communities. The presentation will focus on the results of consultation undertaken to understand users' information needs around content and delivery, and how understanding of these needs has translated into design of the framework. A strongly preference was expressed to learn from peers, and a challenge for the framework is to understand how to inject adaptation knowledge which is up-to-date and accurate into peer-to-peer conversations. The community forum is one mechanism to achieve this. The basic structure and delivery mechanisms of the framework are shown in the attached.

  18. Contingency support using adaptive telemetry extractor and expert system technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Thomas; Cruse, Bryant; Wende, Charles

    The 'telemetry analysis logic for operations support' prototype system constitutes an expert system that is charged with contingency planning for the NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST); this system has demonstrated the feasibility of using an adaptive telemetry extractor/reformatter that is integrated with an expert system. A test case generated by a simulator has demonstrated the reduction of the time required for analysis of a complex series of failures to a few minutes, from the hour usually required. The HST's telemetry extractor will be able to read real-time engineering telemetry streams and disk-based data. Telemetry format changes will be handled almost instantaneously.

  19. Understanding the Clausius-Clapeyron Equation by Employing an Easily Adaptable Pressure Cooker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galleano, Monica; Boveris, Alberto; Puntarulo, Susana

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a simple and inexpensive laboratory exercise developed to understand the effect of pressure on phase equilibrium as described by the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. The only piece of equipment required is a pressure cooker adapted with a pressure gauge and a thermometer in the lid, allowing the measurement of the pressure and…

  20. Fecundity increase supports adaptive radiation hypothesis in spider web evolution

    PubMed Central

    Coddington, Jonathan A; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2009-01-01

    Identifying the mechanisms driving adaptive radiations is key to explaining the diversity of life. The extreme reliance of spiders upon silk for survival provides an exceptional system in which to link patterns of diversification to adaptive changes in silk use. Most of the world’s 41,000 species of spiders belong to two apical lineages of spiders that exhibit quite different silk ecologies, distinct from their ancestors. Orb spiders spin highly stereotyped webs that are suspended in air and utilize a chemical glue to make them adhesive. RTA clade spiders mostly abandoned silk capture webs altogether. We recently proposed that these two clades present very different evolutionary routes of achieving the same key innovation—escape from the constraints imposed by spinning webs that contain a relatively costly type of physically adhesive cribellate silk. Here, we test the prediction that orb and RTA clade spiders are not only more diverse, but also have higher fecundity than other spiders. We show that RTA clade spiders average 23% higher fecundity and orb spiders average 123% higher fecundity than their ancestors. This supports a functional link between the adaptive escape from cribellate silk and increased resource allocation to reproduction in spiders. PMID:20195450

  1. Fecundity increase supports adaptive radiation hypothesis in spider web evolution.

    PubMed

    Blackledge, Todd A; Coddington, Jonathan A; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2009-11-01

    Identifying the mechanisms driving adaptive radiations is key to explaining the diversity of life. The extreme reliance of spiders upon silk for survival provides an exceptional system in which to link patterns of diversification to adaptive changes in silk use. Most of the world's 41,000 species of spiders belong to two apical lineages of spiders that exhibit quite different silk ecologies, distinct from their ancestors. Orb spiders spin highly stereotyped webs that are suspended in air and utilize a chemical glue to make them adhesive. RTA clade spiders mostly abandoned silk capture webs altogether. We recently proposed that these two clades present very different evolutionary routes of achieving the same key innovation-escape from the constraints imposed by spinning webs that contain a relatively costly type of physically adhesive cribellate silk. Here, we test the prediction that orb and RTA clade spiders are not only more diverse, but also have higher fecundity than other spiders. We show that RTA clade spiders average 23% higher fecundity and orb spiders average 123% higher fecundity than their ancestors. This supports a functional link between the adaptive escape from cribellate silk and increased resource allocation to reproduction in spiders.

  2. Integrated Decision Support for Global Environmental Change Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Cantrell, S.; Higgins, G. J.; Marshall, J.; VanWijngaarden, F.

    2011-12-01

    Environmental changes are happening now that has caused concern in many parts of the world; particularly vulnerable are the countries and communities with limited resources and with natural environments that are more susceptible to climate change impacts. Global leaders are concerned about the observed phenomena and events such as Amazon deforestation, shifting monsoon patterns affecting agriculture in the mountain slopes of Peru, floods in Pakistan, water shortages in Middle East, droughts impacting water supplies and wildlife migration in Africa, and sea level rise impacts on low lying coastal communities in Bangladesh. These environmental changes are likely to get exacerbated as the temperatures rise, the weather and climate patterns change, and sea level rise continues. Large populations and billions of dollars of infrastructure could be affected. At Northrop Grumman, we have developed an integrated decision support framework for providing necessary information to stakeholders and planners to adapt to the impacts of climate variability and change at the regional and local levels. This integrated approach takes into account assimilation and exploitation of large and disparate weather and climate data sets, regional downscaling (dynamic and statistical), uncertainty quantification and reduction, and a synthesis of scientific data with demographic and economic data to generate actionable information for the stakeholders and decision makers. Utilizing a flexible service oriented architecture and state-of-the-art visualization techniques, this information can be delivered via tailored GIS portals to meet diverse set of user needs and expectations. This integrated approach can be applied to regional and local risk assessments, predictions and decadal projections, and proactive adaptation planning for vulnerable communities. In this paper we will describe this comprehensive decision support approach with selected applications and case studies to illustrate how this

  3. [Spanish adaptation of a perceived Social Support Scale in sportspeople].

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Ignacio; García-Cueto, Eduardo; Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Pérez Sánchez, Blanca

    2012-01-01

    Social support is a variable that has a great influence in the sport context. In fact, this variable not only affects the athlete's performance but it has also shown to be related to psychological disorders such as Burnout Syndrome. The aim of this paper was to illustrate the Spanish adaptation of a social support scale in the sport context. The normative group who took part in the final version of the research was composed of 397 athletes aged between 13 and 64 years old (mean= 19.23 and standard deviation= 6.67). The scale shows: adequate factorial and construct validity, acceptable fit indexes (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin= 0.785, Root Mean Square Residual= 0.078; Kelly's criterion= 0.075), a negative correlation with the dimensions of burnout and no relationship with respect to self-esteem. In addition, it also shows high reliability (a= 0.88). Furthermore, statistically significant differences have been found in relation to genders - where women require greater social support. In contrast, males tend to display a lower level of social support with team players and international athletes. Moreover, differential item functioning (DIF) was carried out to explore sex bias, however, none of the items exhibit DIF problems.

  4. Local adaptation to parasite selective pressure: comparing three congeneric co-occurring hosts.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Carolyn L; Sanderson, Martha E; Byers, James E

    2016-01-01

    Local adaptation may optimize an organism's investment in defenses in response to the risk of infection by spatially heterogeneous parasites and other natural enemies. However, local adaptation may be constrained if recruitment is decoupled from selective pressure experienced by the parent generation. We predicted that the ability of three intertidal littorinid snail species to defend against trematode parasites would depend on prior levels of population exposure to parasites and on larval dispersal mode, a proxy for population openness. In a common garden experiment, for two snail species with direct development and localized recruitment (Littorina obtusata and Littorina saxatilis), hosts from sites with high trematode infection risk were less susceptible to infection than hosts from low-risk sites. However, this relationship was not apparent for a third host species with broadcast larvae (Littorina littorea), suggesting that broad larval dispersal can impede local adaptation; alternatively, the lack of response in this species could owe to other factors that limited experimental infection in this host. Our findings support that locally recruiting hosts can adapt their defenses to scale with localized infection risk.

  5. Local adaptation to parasite selective pressure: comparing three congeneric co-occurring hosts.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Carolyn L; Sanderson, Martha E; Byers, James E

    2016-01-01

    Local adaptation may optimize an organism's investment in defenses in response to the risk of infection by spatially heterogeneous parasites and other natural enemies. However, local adaptation may be constrained if recruitment is decoupled from selective pressure experienced by the parent generation. We predicted that the ability of three intertidal littorinid snail species to defend against trematode parasites would depend on prior levels of population exposure to parasites and on larval dispersal mode, a proxy for population openness. In a common garden experiment, for two snail species with direct development and localized recruitment (Littorina obtusata and Littorina saxatilis), hosts from sites with high trematode infection risk were less susceptible to infection than hosts from low-risk sites. However, this relationship was not apparent for a third host species with broadcast larvae (Littorina littorea), suggesting that broad larval dispersal can impede local adaptation; alternatively, the lack of response in this species could owe to other factors that limited experimental infection in this host. Our findings support that locally recruiting hosts can adapt their defenses to scale with localized infection risk. PMID:26440801

  6. Development of Designer Diamond Technology for High Pressure High Temperature Experiments in Support of Stockpile Stewardship Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vohra, Yogesh, K.

    2009-10-28

    The role of nitrogen in the fabrication of designer diamond was systematically investigated by adding controlled amount of nitrogen in hydrogen/methane/oxygen plasma. This has led to a successful recipe for reproducible fabrication of designer diamond anvils for high-pressure high-temperature research in support of stockpile stewardship program. In the three-year support period, several designer diamonds fabricated with this new growth chemistry were utilized in high-pressure experiments at UAB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The designer diamond anvils were utilized in high-pressure studies on heavy rare earth metals, high pressure melting studies on metals, and electrical resistance measurements on iron-based layered superconductors under high pressures. The growth chemistry developed under NNSA support can be adapted for commercial production of designer diamonds.

  7. Aortic pulse pressure homeostasis emerges from physiological adaptation of systemic arteries to local mechanical stresses.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuc H; Tuzun, Egemen; Quick, Christopher M

    2016-09-01

    Aortic pulse pressure arises from the interaction of the heart, the systemic arterial system, and peripheral microcirculations. The complex interaction between hemodynamics and arterial remodeling precludes the ability to experimentally ascribe changes in aortic pulse pressure to particular adaptive responses. Therefore, the purpose of the present work was to use a human systemic arterial system model to test the hypothesis that pulse pressure homeostasis can emerge from physiological adaptation of systemic arteries to local mechanical stresses. First, we assumed a systemic arterial system that had a realistic topology consisting of 121 arterial segments. Then the relationships of pulsatile blood pressures and flows in arterial segments were characterized by standard pulse transmission equations. Finally, each arterial segment was assumed to remodel to local stresses following three simple rules: 1) increases in endothelial shear stress increases radius, 2) increases in wall circumferential stress increases wall thickness, and 3) increases in wall circumferential stress decreases wall stiffness. Simulation of adaptation by iteratively calculating pulsatile hemodynamics, mechanical stresses, and vascular remodeling led to a general behavior in response to mechanical perturbations: initial increases in pulse pressure led to increased arterial compliances, and decreases in pulse pressure led to decreased compliances. Consequently, vascular adaptation returned pulse pressures back toward baseline conditions. This behavior manifested when modeling physiological adaptive responses to changes in cardiac output, changes in peripheral resistances, and changes in local arterial radii. The present work, thus, revealed that pulse pressure homeostasis emerges from physiological adaptation of systemic arteries to local mechanical stresses.

  8. Writing for publication: pressures, barriers and support strategies.

    PubMed

    Keen, Adam

    2007-07-01

    This paper details the increasing pressure that exists on academic and clinical staff to publish in the context of personal and professional development. Numerous barriers to writing for publication are considered along with suggested strategies for encouraging staff to work towards publication. Although the paper identifies a wealth of literature describing how to go about writing for publication, it is argued that this is of limited use in the support of individual authors, and that most authors learn academic writing skills through a process of trial and error. The paper is intended to encourage those wanting to write for publication, whilst trying to persuade those with influence on developing academic writing to think more broadly in regards to the support provided and need for research.

  9. How Language Supports Adaptive Teaching through a Responsive Learning Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Peter; Dozier, Cheryl; Smit, Julie

    2016-01-01

    For students to learn optimally, teachers must design classrooms that are responsive to the full range of student development. The teacher must be adaptive, but so must each student and the learning culture itself. In other words, adaptive teaching means constructing a responsive learning culture that accommodates and even capitalizes on diversity…

  10. Evaluation of the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model among Families Reporting Economic Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandsburger, Etty; Biggerstaff, Marilyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This research evaluates the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model (double ABCX model) examining the effects resiliency resources on family functioning when families experience economic pressure. Families (N = 128) with incomes at or below the poverty line from a rural area of a southern state completed measures of perceived economic pressure,…

  11. An Investigation of Adaptive Pen Pressure Discretization Method Based on Personal Pen Pressure Use Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yizhong; Ren, Xiangshi

    Continuous pen pressure can be used to operate multi-state widgets such as menus in pen based user interfaces. The number of levels into which the pen pressure space is divided determines the number of states in the multi-state widgets. To increase the optimal number of divisions of the pen pressure space and achieve greater pen pressure usability, we propose a new discretization method which divides the pen pressure space according to a personal pen pressure use profile. We present here four variations of the method: discretization according to personal/aggregation pen pressure use profile with/without visual feedback of uniform level widths and the traditional even discretization method. Two experiments were conducted respectively to investigate pen pressure use profile and to comparatively evaluate the performance of these methods. Results indicate that the subjects performed fastest and with the fewest errors when the pen pressure space was divided according to personal profile with visual feedback of uniform level widths (PU) and performed worst when the pen pressure space was divided evenly. With PU method, the optimal number of divisions of the pen pressure space was 8. Visual feedback of uniform level widths enhanced performance of uneven discretization. The findings of this study have implications for human-oriented pen pressure use in pen pressure based user interface designs.

  12. Oscillations of radiation pressure supported tori near black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, Grzegorz P.; Zanotti, Olindo; Sądowski, Aleksander; Mishra, Bhupendra; Kluźniak, Wlodek

    2016-03-01

    We study the dynamics of radiation pressure supported tori around Schwarzschild black holes, focusing on their oscillatory response to an external perturbation. Using KORAL, a general relativistic radiation-hydrodynamics code capable of modelling all radiative regimes from the optically thick to the optically thin, we monitor a sample of models at different initial temperatures and opacities, evolving them in two spatial dimensions for ˜165 orbital periods. The dynamics of models with high opacity is very similar to that of purely hydrodynamics models, and it is characterized by regular oscillations which are visible also in the light curves. As the opacity is decreased, the tori quickly and violently migrate towards the gas-pressure dominated regime, collapsing towards the equatorial plane. When the spectra of the L2 norm of the mass density are considered, high-frequency inertial-acoustic modes of oscillations are detected (with the fundamental mode at a frequency 68 M_BH^{-1} Hz), in close analogy to the phenomenology of purely hydrodynamic models. An additional mode of oscillation, at a frequency 129 M_BH^{-1} Hz, is also found, which can be unambiguously attributed to the radiation. The spectra extracted from the light curves are typically noisier, indicating that in a real observation such modes may not be easily detected.

  13. A User-Driven and Data-Driven Approach for Supporting Teachers in Reflection and Adaptation of Adaptive Tutorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Naim, Dror; Bain, Michael; Marcus, Nadine

    2009-01-01

    It has been recognized that in order to drive Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) into mainstream use by the teaching community, it is essential to support teachers through the entire ITS process: Design, Development, Deployment, Reflection and Adaptation. Although research has been done on supporting teachers through design to deployment of ITSs,…

  14. Exercise training - Blood pressure responses in subjects adapted to microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1991-01-01

    Conventional endurance exercise training that involves daily workouts of 1-2 hr duration during exposure to microgravity has not proven completely effective in ameliorating postexposure orthostatic hypotension. Single bouts of intense exercise have been shown to increase plasma volume and baroreflex sensitivity in ambulatory subjects through 24 hr postexercise and to reverse decrements in maximal oxygen uptake and syncopal episodes following exposure to simulated microgravity. These physiological adaptations to acute intense exercise were opposite to those observed following exposure to microgravity. These results suggest that the 'exercise training' stimulus used to prevent orthostatic hypotension induced by microgravity may be specific and should be redefined to include single bouts of maximal exercise which may provide an acute effective countermeasure against postflight hypotension.

  15. Designing Automated Adaptive Support to Improve Student Helping Behaviors in a Peer Tutoring Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Erin; Rummel, Nikol; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive collaborative learning support systems analyze student collaboration as it occurs and provide targeted assistance to the collaborators. Too little is known about how to design adaptive support to have a positive effect on interaction and learning. We investigated this problem in a reciprocal peer tutoring scenario, where two students take…

  16. Socio-Pedagogical Complex as a Pedagogical Support Technology of Students' Social Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadovaya, Victoriya V.; Simonova, Galina I.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the problem stated in the article is determined by the need of developing technological approaches to pedagogical support of students' social adaptation. The purpose of this paper is to position the technological sequence of pedagogical support of students' social adaptation in the activities of the socio-pedagogical complex. The…

  17. Designing a Semantic Bliki System to Support Different Types of Knowledge and Adaptive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Shiu-Li; Yang, Chia-Wei

    2009-01-01

    Though blogs and wikis have been used to support knowledge management and e-learning, existing blogs and wikis cannot support different types of knowledge and adaptive learning. A case in point, types of knowledge vary greatly in category and viewpoints. Additionally, adaptive learning is crucial to improving one's learning performance. This study…

  18. An Adaptive Testing System for Supporting Versatile Educational Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yueh-Min; Lin, Yen-Ting; Cheng, Shu-Chen

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid growth of computer and mobile technology, it is a challenge to integrate computer based test (CBT) with mobile learning (m-learning) especially for formative assessment and self-assessment. In terms of self-assessment, computer adaptive test (CAT) is a proper way to enable students to evaluate themselves. In CAT, students are…

  19. Adapting Progress Feedback and Emotional Support to Learner Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Matt; Masthoff, Judith; Mellish, Chris

    2016-01-01

    As feedback is an important part of learning and motivation, we investigate how to adapt the feedback of a conversational agent to learner personality (as well as to learner performance, as we expect an interaction effect between personality and performance on feedback). We investigate two aspects of feedback. Firstly, we investigate whether the…

  20. The adaptation of biological membranes to temperature and pressure: fish from the deep and cold.

    PubMed

    Cossins, A R; Macdonald, A G

    1989-02-01

    The homeostatic regulation of bilayer order is a property of functional importance. Arguably, it is best studied in those organisms which experience and must overcome disturbances in bilayer order which may be imposed by variations in temperature of hydrostatic pressure. This article reviews our recent work on the adaptations of order in brain membranes of those fish which acclimate to seasonal changes in temperature or which have evolved in extreme thermal or abyssal habitats. The effects of temperature and pressure upon hydrocarbon order and phase state are reviewed to indicate the magnitude of the disturbances experienced by animals in their environments over the seasonal or evolutionary timescale. Acclimation of fish to altered temperature leads to a partial correction of order, while comparison of fish from extreme cold environments with those from temperate or tropical waters reveals a more complete adaptation. Fish from the deep sea also display adaptations of bilayer order which largely overcome the ordering effects of pressure. PMID:2651424

  1. Structure-based analysis of high pressure adaptation of alpha-actin.

    PubMed

    Morita, Takami

    2003-07-25

    Deep-sea fishes occur to depths of several thousand meters, and at these abyssal depths encounter pressures that shallower living fishes cannot tolerate. Tolerance of abyssal pressures by deep-sea fish is likely to depend in part on adaptive modifications of proteins. However, the types of structural modifications to proteins that allow function at high pressure have not been discovered. To elucidate the mechanisms of protein adaptation to high pressure, we cloned the alpha-skeletal actin cDNAs from two abyssal Coryphaenoides species, C. armatus and C. yaquinae, and identified three amino acid substitutions, V54A or L67P, Q137K, and A155S, that distinguish these abyssal actins from orthologs of alpha-actin from non-abyssal Coryphaenoides. These substitutions, Q137K and A155S, prevent the dissociation reactions of ATP and Ca2+ from being influenced by high pressure. In particular, the lysine residue at position 137 results in a much smaller apparent volume change in the Ca2+ dissociation reaction. The V54A or L67P substitution reduces the volume change associated with actin polymerization and has a role in maintaining the DNase I activity of actin at high pressure. Together, these results indicate that a few amino acid substitutions in key functional positions can adaptively alter the pressure sensitivity of a protein. PMID:12740368

  2. High protein flexibility and reduced hydration water dynamics are key pressure adaptive strategies in prokaryotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, N.; Michoud, G.; Cario, A.; Ollivier, J.; Franzetti, B.; Jebbar, M.; Oger, P.; Peters, J.

    2016-09-01

    Water and protein dynamics on a nanometer scale were measured by quasi-elastic neutron scattering in the piezophile archaeon Thermococcus barophilus and the closely related pressure-sensitive Thermococcus kodakarensis, at 0.1 and 40 MPa. We show that cells of the pressure sensitive organism exhibit higher intrinsic stability. Both the hydration water dynamics and the fast protein and lipid dynamics are reduced under pressure. In contrast, the proteome of T. barophilus is more pressure sensitive than that of T. kodakarensis. The diffusion coefficient of hydration water is reduced, while the fast protein and lipid dynamics are slightly enhanced with increasing pressure. These findings show that the coupling between hydration water and cellular constituents might not be simply a master-slave relationship. We propose that the high flexibility of the T. barophilus proteome associated with reduced hydration water may be the keys to the molecular adaptation of the cells to high hydrostatic pressure.

  3. High protein flexibility and reduced hydration water dynamics are key pressure adaptive strategies in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Martinez, N; Michoud, G; Cario, A; Ollivier, J; Franzetti, B; Jebbar, M; Oger, P; Peters, J

    2016-01-01

    Water and protein dynamics on a nanometer scale were measured by quasi-elastic neutron scattering in the piezophile archaeon Thermococcus barophilus and the closely related pressure-sensitive Thermococcus kodakarensis, at 0.1 and 40 MPa. We show that cells of the pressure sensitive organism exhibit higher intrinsic stability. Both the hydration water dynamics and the fast protein and lipid dynamics are reduced under pressure. In contrast, the proteome of T. barophilus is more pressure sensitive than that of T. kodakarensis. The diffusion coefficient of hydration water is reduced, while the fast protein and lipid dynamics are slightly enhanced with increasing pressure. These findings show that the coupling between hydration water and cellular constituents might not be simply a master-slave relationship. We propose that the high flexibility of the T. barophilus proteome associated with reduced hydration water may be the keys to the molecular adaptation of the cells to high hydrostatic pressure. PMID:27595789

  4. High protein flexibility and reduced hydration water dynamics are key pressure adaptive strategies in prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, N.; Michoud, G.; Cario, A.; Ollivier, J.; Franzetti, B.; Jebbar, M.; Oger, P.; Peters, J.

    2016-01-01

    Water and protein dynamics on a nanometer scale were measured by quasi-elastic neutron scattering in the piezophile archaeon Thermococcus barophilus and the closely related pressure-sensitive Thermococcus kodakarensis, at 0.1 and 40 MPa. We show that cells of the pressure sensitive organism exhibit higher intrinsic stability. Both the hydration water dynamics and the fast protein and lipid dynamics are reduced under pressure. In contrast, the proteome of T. barophilus is more pressure sensitive than that of T. kodakarensis. The diffusion coefficient of hydration water is reduced, while the fast protein and lipid dynamics are slightly enhanced with increasing pressure. These findings show that the coupling between hydration water and cellular constituents might not be simply a master-slave relationship. We propose that the high flexibility of the T. barophilus proteome associated with reduced hydration water may be the keys to the molecular adaptation of the cells to high hydrostatic pressure. PMID:27595789

  5. Developing Adaptive Collaboration Support: The Example of an Effective Training for Collaborative Inferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deiglmayr, Anne; Spada, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Adaptive support for computer-mediated collaboration aims at supporting learners' collaboration in a way that is tailored to their actual needs and by fostering their self-regulation, leading to the acquisition of new collaboration skills. This review gives an example of developing support for a specific collaboration skill: the co-construction of…

  6. Using Selection Pressure as an Asset to Develop Reusable, Adaptable Software Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrick, Stephen; Lynnes, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) at NASA has over the years developed and honed several reusable architectural components for supporting large-scale data centers with a large customer base. These include a processing system (S4PM) and an archive system (S4PA) based upon a workflow engine called the Simple Scalable Script based Science Processor (S4P) and an online data visualization and analysis system (Giovanni). These subsystems are currently reused internally in a variety of combinations to implement customized data management on behalf of instrument science teams and other science investigators. Some of these subsystems (S4P and S4PM) have also been reused by other data centers for operational science processing. Our experience has been that development and utilization of robust interoperable and reusable software systems can actually flourish in environments defined by heterogeneous commodity hardware systems the emphasis on value-added customer service and the continual goal for achieving higher cost efficiencies. The repeated internal reuse that is fostered by such an environment encourages and even forces changes to the software that make it more reusable and adaptable. Allowing and even encouraging such selective pressures to software development has been a key factor In the success of S4P and S4PM which are now available to the open source community under the NASA Open source Agreement

  7. Adapting Math Instruction to Support Prospective Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeSage, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Elementary teachers' understanding of mathematics is a significant contributor to student success with mathematics. Consequently, teacher educators are frequently charged with the responsibility of supporting the development of prospective elementary teachers' mathematics content knowledge as they re-learn concepts in ways they are…

  8. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation interface adapted for postextubation continuous noninvasive ventilatory support.

    PubMed

    Bach, John R; Saporito, Louis Ralph

    2015-09-01

    The authors report that a new oral interface designed for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and use during anesthesia permitted the successful extubation of an "unweanable" 27-yr-old woman with nemaline rod myopathy to continuous noninvasive ventilatory support. She had failed two previous extubation attempts. Tracheotomy and institutional care were avoided as a result. PMID:26135377

  9. Swarm Intelligence: New Techniques for Adaptive Systems to Provide Learning Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Looi, Chee-Kit

    2012-01-01

    The notion of a system adapting itself to provide support for learning has always been an important issue of research for technology-enabled learning. One approach to provide adaptivity is to use social navigation approaches and techniques which involve analysing data of what was previously selected by a cluster of users or what worked for…

  10. Support Vector Machine Based on Adaptive Acceleration Particle Swarm Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Abdulameer, Mohammed Hasan; Othman, Zulaiha Ali

    2014-01-01

    Existing face recognition methods utilize particle swarm optimizer (PSO) and opposition based particle swarm optimizer (OPSO) to optimize the parameters of SVM. However, the utilization of random values in the velocity calculation decreases the performance of these techniques; that is, during the velocity computation, we normally use random values for the acceleration coefficients and this creates randomness in the solution. To address this problem, an adaptive acceleration particle swarm optimization (AAPSO) technique is proposed. To evaluate our proposed method, we employ both face and iris recognition based on AAPSO with SVM (AAPSO-SVM). In the face and iris recognition systems, performance is evaluated using two human face databases, YALE and CASIA, and the UBiris dataset. In this method, we initially perform feature extraction and then recognition on the extracted features. In the recognition process, the extracted features are used for SVM training and testing. During the training and testing, the SVM parameters are optimized with the AAPSO technique, and in AAPSO, the acceleration coefficients are computed using the particle fitness values. The parameters in SVM, which are optimized by AAPSO, perform efficiently for both face and iris recognition. A comparative analysis between our proposed AAPSO-SVM and the PSO-SVM technique is presented. PMID:24790584

  11. Adaptation of the Electra Radio to Support Multiple Receive Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satorius, Edgar H.; Shah, Biren N.; Bruvold, Kristoffer N.; Bell, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Proposed future Mars missions plan communication between multiple assets (rovers). This paper presents the results of a study carried out to assess the potential adaptation of the Electra radio to a multi-channel transceiver. The basic concept is a Frequency Division multiplexing (FDM) communications scheme wherein different receiver architectures are examined. Options considered include: (1) multiple IF slices, A/D and FPGAs each programmed with an Electra baseband modem; (2) common IF but multiple A/Ds and FPGAs and (3) common IF, single A/D and single or multiple FPGAs programmed to accommodate the FDM signals. These options represent the usual tradeoff between analog and digital complexity. Given the space application, a common IF is preferable; however, multiple users present dynamic range challenges (e.g., near-far constraints) that would favor multiple IF slices (Option 1). Vice versa, with a common IF and multiple A/Ds (Option 2), individual AGC control of the A/Ds would be an important consideration. Option 3 would require a common AGC control strategy and would entail multiple digital down conversion paths within the FPGA. In this paper, both FDM parameters as well as the different Electra design options will be examined. In particular, signal channel spacing as a function of user data rates and transmit powers will be evaluated. In addition, tradeoffs between the different Electra design options will be presented with the ultimate goal of defining an augmented Electra radio architecture for potential future missions.

  12. Support vector machine based on adaptive acceleration particle swarm optimization.

    PubMed

    Abdulameer, Mohammed Hasan; Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Norul Huda; Othman, Zulaiha Ali

    2014-01-01

    Existing face recognition methods utilize particle swarm optimizer (PSO) and opposition based particle swarm optimizer (OPSO) to optimize the parameters of SVM. However, the utilization of random values in the velocity calculation decreases the performance of these techniques; that is, during the velocity computation, we normally use random values for the acceleration coefficients and this creates randomness in the solution. To address this problem, an adaptive acceleration particle swarm optimization (AAPSO) technique is proposed. To evaluate our proposed method, we employ both face and iris recognition based on AAPSO with SVM (AAPSO-SVM). In the face and iris recognition systems, performance is evaluated using two human face databases, YALE and CASIA, and the UBiris dataset. In this method, we initially perform feature extraction and then recognition on the extracted features. In the recognition process, the extracted features are used for SVM training and testing. During the training and testing, the SVM parameters are optimized with the AAPSO technique, and in AAPSO, the acceleration coefficients are computed using the particle fitness values. The parameters in SVM, which are optimized by AAPSO, perform efficiently for both face and iris recognition. A comparative analysis between our proposed AAPSO-SVM and the PSO-SVM technique is presented. PMID:24790584

  13. Temperature and pressure adaptation of a sulfate reducer from the deep subsurface.

    PubMed

    Fichtel, Katja; Logemann, Jörn; Fichtel, Jörg; Rullkötter, Jürgen; Cypionka, Heribert; Engelen, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Microbial life in deep marine subsurface faces increasing temperatures and hydrostatic pressure with depth. In this study, we have examined growth characteristics and temperature-related adaptation of the Desulfovibrio indonesiensis strain P23 to the in situ pressure of 30 MPa. The strain originates from the deep subsurface of the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge (IODP Site U1301). The organism was isolated at 20°C and atmospheric pressure from ~61°C-warm sediments approximately 5 m above the sediment-basement interface. In comparison to standard laboratory conditions (20°C and 0.1 MPa), faster growth was recorded when incubated at in situ pressure and high temperature (45°C), while cell filamentation was induced by further compression. The maximum growth temperature shifted from 48°C at atmospheric pressure to 50°C under high-pressure conditions. Complementary cellular lipid analyses revealed a two-step response of membrane viscosity to increasing temperature with an exchange of unsaturated by saturated fatty acids and subsequent change from branched to unbranched alkyl moieties. While temperature had a stronger effect on the degree of fatty acid saturation and restructuring of main phospholipids, pressure mainly affected branching and length of side chains. The simultaneous decrease of temperature and pressure to ambient laboratory conditions allowed the cultivation of our moderately thermophilic strain. This may in turn be one key to a successful isolation of microorganisms from the deep subsurface adapted to high temperature and pressure. PMID:26500624

  14. Temperature and pressure adaptation of a sulfate reducer from the deep subsurface

    PubMed Central

    Fichtel, Katja; Logemann, Jörn; Fichtel, Jörg; Rullkötter, Jürgen; Cypionka, Heribert; Engelen, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Microbial life in deep marine subsurface faces increasing temperatures and hydrostatic pressure with depth. In this study, we have examined growth characteristics and temperature-related adaptation of the Desulfovibrio indonesiensis strain P23 to the in situ pressure of 30 MPa. The strain originates from the deep subsurface of the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge (IODP Site U1301). The organism was isolated at 20°C and atmospheric pressure from ~61°C-warm sediments approximately 5 m above the sediment–basement interface. In comparison to standard laboratory conditions (20°C and 0.1 MPa), faster growth was recorded when incubated at in situ pressure and high temperature (45°C), while cell filamentation was induced by further compression. The maximum growth temperature shifted from 48°C at atmospheric pressure to 50°C under high-pressure conditions. Complementary cellular lipid analyses revealed a two-step response of membrane viscosity to increasing temperature with an exchange of unsaturated by saturated fatty acids and subsequent change from branched to unbranched alkyl moieties. While temperature had a stronger effect on the degree of fatty acid saturation and restructuring of main phospholipids, pressure mainly affected branching and length of side chains. The simultaneous decrease of temperature and pressure to ambient laboratory conditions allowed the cultivation of our moderately thermophilic strain. This may in turn be one key to a successful isolation of microorganisms from the deep subsurface adapted to high temperature and pressure. PMID:26500624

  15. Temperature and pressure adaptation of a sulfate reducer from the deep subsurface.

    PubMed

    Fichtel, Katja; Logemann, Jörn; Fichtel, Jörg; Rullkötter, Jürgen; Cypionka, Heribert; Engelen, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Microbial life in deep marine subsurface faces increasing temperatures and hydrostatic pressure with depth. In this study, we have examined growth characteristics and temperature-related adaptation of the Desulfovibrio indonesiensis strain P23 to the in situ pressure of 30 MPa. The strain originates from the deep subsurface of the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge (IODP Site U1301). The organism was isolated at 20°C and atmospheric pressure from ~61°C-warm sediments approximately 5 m above the sediment-basement interface. In comparison to standard laboratory conditions (20°C and 0.1 MPa), faster growth was recorded when incubated at in situ pressure and high temperature (45°C), while cell filamentation was induced by further compression. The maximum growth temperature shifted from 48°C at atmospheric pressure to 50°C under high-pressure conditions. Complementary cellular lipid analyses revealed a two-step response of membrane viscosity to increasing temperature with an exchange of unsaturated by saturated fatty acids and subsequent change from branched to unbranched alkyl moieties. While temperature had a stronger effect on the degree of fatty acid saturation and restructuring of main phospholipids, pressure mainly affected branching and length of side chains. The simultaneous decrease of temperature and pressure to ambient laboratory conditions allowed the cultivation of our moderately thermophilic strain. This may in turn be one key to a successful isolation of microorganisms from the deep subsurface adapted to high temperature and pressure.

  16. [Systematic review of nutritional support in pressure ulcer].

    PubMed

    de Luis, D; Aller, R

    2007-07-01

    Pressure ulcer is an area of localised damage to the skin and underlying tissue caused by pressure, shear, friction and/or combination of these things. Prevalence of this entity is between 3 and 66%, depending of the patients and the pathology. Pressure ulcer is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. One of the most important risk factors to develop a pressure ulcer is nutritional status. We can use different interventional strategies, first of all (primary intervention) before the patient has developed a ulcer and secondly, the treatment of a established ulcer (secondary prevention). In the most important primary prevention study with 662 patients, two oral nutritional supplements per day were given to the patients. The incidence of pressure ulcer was 40% (118/295) in the interventional group and 48% (181/377) in control group. A relative risk to develop a pressure ulcer with supplementation of 0.83 (CI95%: 0.70 a 0.99). In the studies with secondary prevention, when we analyze in an individual way the different nutrients, zinc has not demonstrated the utility in an independent way. Vitamin C shows contradictory data in two randomized clinical trial with the same dose (500 mg each 12 hours). Recently, some randomized clinical trials have demonstrated an improvement in healing rates with enhanced enteral formulas (zinc, arginine, vitamin C). Oral supplementation without taking account micronutrients decreases risk of pressure ulcer. However, studies of secondary prevention due to heterogeneity have not let clear conclusions. However, enteral enhanced formula could improve ulcer healing.

  17. Balancing Fidelity and Adaptation in the Dissemination of Empirically-Supported Treatments: The Promise of Transdiagnostic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Murray, Heather W.; Barlow, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Assessing treatment fidelity is a core methodological consideration in the study of treatment outcome; it influences both the degree to which changes can be attributed to the intervention and the ability to replicate and disseminate the intervention. Efforts to increase access to evidence-based psychological treatments are receiving unprecedented support; but pressures exist to adapt treatments to service settings, running the risk of compromising fidelity. However, little evidence is available to inform the necessary conditions for the transportation of interventions to service provision settings, and the degree to which fidelity is even evaluated or emphasized in dissemination and implementation programs varies dramatically. Moreover, adaptation is associated with several benefits for dissemination efforts and may address relevant barriers to adoption. A particularly promising strategy for maximizing the benefits of both fidelity and adaptation is the use of transdiagnostic interventions. Such treatments allow for greater flexibility of the pacing and content of treatment, while still providing structure to facilitate testing and replication. Preliminary evidence supports the efficacy of this strategy, which may be particularly conducive to dissemination into service provision settings. At this time, further research is needed to evaluate the relationships among fidelity, adaptation, and outcome, and to determine the potential for transdiagnostic treatments to facilitate dissemination. PMID:19643395

  18. Balancing fidelity and adaptation in the dissemination of empirically-supported treatments: The promise of transdiagnostic interventions.

    PubMed

    McHugh, R Kathryn; Murray, Heather W; Barlow, David H

    2009-11-01

    Assessing treatment fidelity is a core methodological consideration in the study of treatment outcome; it influences both the degree to which changes can be attributed to the intervention and the ability to replicate and disseminate the intervention. Efforts to increase access to evidence-based psychological treatments are receiving unprecedented support; but pressures exist to adapt treatments to service settings, running the risk of compromising fidelity. However, little evidence is available to inform the necessary conditions for the transportation of interventions to service provision settings, and the degree to which fidelity is even evaluated or emphasized in dissemination and implementation programs varies dramatically. Moreover, adaptation is associated with several benefits for dissemination efforts and may address relevant barriers to adoption. A particularly promising strategy for maximizing the benefits of both fidelity and adaptation is the use of transdiagnostic interventions. Such treatments allow for greater flexibility of the pacing and content of treatment, while still providing structure to facilitate testing and replication. Preliminary evidence supports the efficacy of this strategy, which may be particularly conducive to dissemination into service provision settings. At this time, further research is needed to evaluate the relationships among fidelity, adaptation, and outcome, and to determine the potential for transdiagnostic treatments to facilitate dissemination.

  19. Mechanics of pressure-adaptive honeycomb and its application to wing morphing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vos, Roelof; Barrett, Ron

    2011-09-01

    Current, highly active classes of adaptive materials have been considered for use in many different aerospace applications. From adaptive flight control surfaces to wing surfaces, shape-memory alloy (SMA), piezoelectric and electrorheological fluids are making their way into wings, stabilizers and rotor blades. Despite the benefits which can be seen in many classes of aircraft, some profound challenges are ever present, including low power and energy density, high power consumption, high development and installation costs and outright programmatic blockages due to a lack of a materials certification database on FAR 23/25 and 27/29 certified aircraft. Three years ago, a class of adaptive structure was developed to skirt these daunting challenges. This pressure-adaptive honeycomb (PAH) is capable of extremely high performance and is FAA/EASA certifiable because it employs well characterized materials arranged in ways that lend a high level of adaptivity to the structure. This study is centered on laying out the mechanics, analytical models and experimental test data describing this new form of adaptive material. A directionally biased PAH system using an external (spring) force acting on the PAH bending structure was examined. The paper discusses the mechanics of pressure adaptive honeycomb and describes a simple reduced order model that can be used to simplify the geometric model in a finite element environment. The model assumes that a variable stiffness honeycomb results in an overall deformation of the honeycomb. Strains in excess of 50% can be generated through this mechanism without encountering local material (yield) limits. It was also shown that the energy density of pressure-adaptive honeycomb is akin to that of shape-memory alloy, while exhibiting strains that are an order of magnitude greater with an energy efficiency close to 100%. Excellent correlation between theory and experiment is demonstrated in a number of tests. A proof-of-concept wing section

  20. A Simple Adaptive Transfer Function for Deriving the Central Blood Pressure Waveform from a Radial Blood Pressure Waveform.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mingwu; Rose, William C; Fetics, Barry; Kass, David A; Chen, Chen-Huan; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Generalized transfer functions (GTFs) are available to compute the more relevant central blood pressure (BP) waveform from a more easily measured radial BP waveform. However, GTFs are population averages and therefore may not adapt to variations in pulse pressure (PP) amplification (ratio of radial to central PP). A simple adaptive transfer function (ATF) was developed. First, the transfer function is defined in terms of the wave travel time and reflection coefficient parameters of an arterial model. Then, the parameters are estimated from the radial BP waveform by exploiting the observation that central BP waveforms exhibit exponential diastolic decays. The ATF was assessed using the original data that helped popularize the GTF. These data included radial BP waveforms and invasive reference central BP waveforms from cardiac catheterization patients. The data were divided into low, middle, and high PP amplification groups. The ATF estimated central BP with greater accuracy than GTFs in the low PP amplification group (e.g., central systolic BP and PP root-mean-square-errors of 3.3 and 4.2 mm Hg versus 6.2 and 7.1 mm Hg; p ≤ 0.05) while showing similar accuracy in the higher PP amplification groups. The ATF may permit more accurate, non-invasive central BP monitoring in elderly and hypertensive patients. PMID:27624389

  1. A Simple Adaptive Transfer Function for Deriving the Central Blood Pressure Waveform from a Radial Blood Pressure Waveform

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Mingwu; Rose, William C.; Fetics, Barry; Kass, David A.; Chen, Chen-Huan; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Generalized transfer functions (GTFs) are available to compute the more relevant central blood pressure (BP) waveform from a more easily measured radial BP waveform. However, GTFs are population averages and therefore may not adapt to variations in pulse pressure (PP) amplification (ratio of radial to central PP). A simple adaptive transfer function (ATF) was developed. First, the transfer function is defined in terms of the wave travel time and reflection coefficient parameters of an arterial model. Then, the parameters are estimated from the radial BP waveform by exploiting the observation that central BP waveforms exhibit exponential diastolic decays. The ATF was assessed using the original data that helped popularize the GTF. These data included radial BP waveforms and invasive reference central BP waveforms from cardiac catheterization patients. The data were divided into low, middle, and high PP amplification groups. The ATF estimated central BP with greater accuracy than GTFs in the low PP amplification group (e.g., central systolic BP and PP root-mean-square-errors of 3.3 and 4.2 mm Hg versus 6.2 and 7.1 mm Hg; p ≤ 0.05) while showing similar accuracy in the higher PP amplification groups. The ATF may permit more accurate, non-invasive central BP monitoring in elderly and hypertensive patients. PMID:27624389

  2. Blood pressure measurement in noise intensive environments using adaptive interference cancellation.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Lisa; Dhanantwari, Amar; Wong, Winnie; Stergiopoulos, Stergios; Maris, Mike

    2002-05-01

    The traditional auscultatory technique and current methodologies for measuring human blood pressure are limited when used in situations where extreme vibration or acoustic noise is present. In this study, human subjects were used to establish the effectiveness of a novel adaptive blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) system in determining systolic-diastolic pressure in vibration and noise intense environments. To remove the effects of noise and vibration from the audible Korotkoff sounds, the proposed ABPM system employs two acoustic sensors in the pressure cuff. The primary acoustic sensor is placed on the brachial artery to record the Korotkoff sounds while the secondary acoustic sensor is placed away from the artery to record background noise and vibrations. The signals from the two acoustic sensors are provided to the input of an adaptive interference canceller to remove the noise effects in the signal of the primary acoustic sensor. In two phases of clinical testing, the ABPM system was first employed in a noiseless environment and then near and onboard search and rescue helicopters. The results from both phases deliver a successful demonstration of the ABPM system's capabilities to provide blood pressure estimates in noisy environments where the conventional auscultatory and other techniques have limited use.

  3. Refugee children and their families: supporting psychological well-being and positive adaptation following migration.

    PubMed

    Measham, Toby; Guzder, Jaswant; Rousseau, Cécile; Pacione, Laura; Blais-McPherson, Morganne; Nadeau, Lucie

    2014-08-01

    The support of refugee children and their families is a worldwide concern. This article will highlight models of mental health care for refugee children and their families, focusing on collaborative care with primary care providers. Case vignettes are provided to illustrate how collaborative care can support refugee children׳s psychological well-being and positive adaptation following migration.

  4. Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Spanish Version of the Supports Intensity Scale (SIS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdugo, Miguel-Angel; Arias, Benito; Ibanez, Alba; Schalock, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The Supports Intensity Scale (SIS) is used to determine the profile and intensity of the supports needed by a person to participate successfully in major life activities. With its publication into 13 languages, a need has arisen to document its reliability and validity across language and cultural groups. Here we explain the adaptation and the…

  5. Acculturation Strategies, Social Support, and Cross-Cultural Adaptation: A Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Ting Kin; Tsang, Kwok Kuen; Lian, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Previous acculturation research has established the influences of acculturation strategies and social support on cross-cultural adaptation. The present study attempted to elaborate these direct associations by proposing that social support and the use of the integration and marginalization strategies might affect psychological adaptation…

  6. Social Support Provisions as Differential Predictors of Adaptive Outcomes in Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jared S.; Jackson, Yo; Sifers, Sarah K.

    2009-01-01

    Social support provisions were examined in relation to negative life events, adaptive skills, hope, and grade point average in a sample of 103 inner-city youth (ages 11-14). Analyses focused on seven support provisions: social integration, attachment, guidance and information, reliable alliance, reassurance of worth, nurturance, and instrumental…

  7. Refugee children and their families: supporting psychological well-being and positive adaptation following migration.

    PubMed

    Measham, Toby; Guzder, Jaswant; Rousseau, Cécile; Pacione, Laura; Blais-McPherson, Morganne; Nadeau, Lucie

    2014-08-01

    The support of refugee children and their families is a worldwide concern. This article will highlight models of mental health care for refugee children and their families, focusing on collaborative care with primary care providers. Case vignettes are provided to illustrate how collaborative care can support refugee children׳s psychological well-being and positive adaptation following migration. PMID:25042433

  8. Support arrangement for optimizing a low pressure steam turbine inner cylinder structural performance

    SciTech Connect

    Groenendaal, J.C. Jr.; Anemone, J.J.

    1992-07-28

    This patent describes low pressure steam turbine apparatus having inner and outer cylinders, the outer cylinder having a support shelf, and inner cylinder support means for providing flexible support of the inner cylinder on the outer cylinder. It comprises: a horizontal joint flange and at least one support foot integrally connected thereto which projects substantially radially outward form the horizontal joint flange.

  9. New high quality adaptive mesh generator utilized in modelling plasma streamer propagation at atmospheric pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadakis, A. P.; Georghiou, G. E.; Metaxas, A. C.

    2008-12-01

    A new adaptive mesh generator has been developed and used in the analysis of high-pressure gas discharges, such as avalanches and streamers, reducing computational times and computer memory needs significantly. The new adaptive mesh generator developed, uses normalized error indicators, varying from 0 to 1, to guarantee optimal mesh resolution for all carriers involved in the analysis. Furthermore, it uses h- and r-refinement techniques such as mesh jiggling, edge swapping and node addition/removal to develop an element quality improvement algorithm that improves the mesh quality significantly and a fast and accurate algorithm for interpolation between meshes. Finally, the mesh generator is applied in the characterization of the transition from a single electron to the avalanche and streamer discharges in high-voltage, high-pressure gas discharges for dc 1 mm gaps, RF 1 cm point-plane gaps and parallel-plate 40 MHz configurations, in ambient atmospheric air.

  10. Does smooth muscle in an intact airway undergo length adaptation during a sustained change in transmural pressure?

    PubMed

    Ansell, Thomas K; McFawn, Peter K; McLaughlin, Robert A; Sampson, David D; Eastwood, Peter R; Hillman, David R; Mitchell, Howard W; Noble, Peter B

    2015-03-01

    In isolated airway smooth muscle (ASM) strips, an increase or decrease in ASM length away from its current optimum length causes an immediate reduction in force production followed by a gradual time-dependent recovery in force, a phenomenon termed length adaptation. In situ, length adaptation may be initiated by a change in transmural pressure (Ptm), which is a primary physiological determinant of ASM length. The present study sought to determine the effect of sustained changes in Ptm and therefore, ASM perimeter, on airway function. We measured contractile responses in whole porcine bronchial segments in vitro before and after a sustained inflation from a baseline Ptm of 5 cmH2O to 25 cmH2O, or deflation to -5 cmH2O, for ∼50 min in each case. In one group of airways, lumen narrowing and stiffening in response to electrical field stimulation (EFS) were assessed from volume and pressure signals using a servo-controlled syringe pump with pressure feedback. In a second group of airways, lumen narrowing and the perimeter of the ASM in situ were determined by anatomical optical coherence tomography. In a third group of airways, active tension was determined under isovolumic conditions. Both inflation and deflation reduced the contractile response to EFS. Sustained Ptm change resulted in a further decrease in contractile response, which returned to baseline levels upon return to the baseline Ptm. These findings reaffirm the importance of Ptm in regulating airway narrowing. However, they do not support a role for ASM length adaptation in situ under physiological levels of ASM lengthening and shortening. PMID:25729015

  11. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor BIBF1000 does not hamper right ventricular pressure adaptation in rats.

    PubMed

    de Raaf, Michiel Alexander; Herrmann, Franziska Elena; Schalij, Ingrid; de Man, Frances S; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton; Guignabert, Christophe; Wollin, Lutz; Bogaard, Harm Jan

    2016-09-01

    BIBF1000 is a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and is a powerful inhibitor of fibrogenesis. BIBF1000 is very similar to BIBF1120 (nintedanib), a drug recently approved for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). A safety concern pertaining to VEGFR, FGFR, and PDGFR inhibition is the possible interference with right ventricular (RV) responses to an increased afterload, which could adversely affect clinical outcome in patients with IPF who developed pulmonary hypertension. We tested the effect of BIBF1000 on the adaptation of the RV in rats subjected to mechanical pressure overload. BIBF1000 was administered for 35 days in pulmonary artery-banded (PAB) rats. RV adaptation was assessed by echocardiography, pressure volume loop analysis, histology, and determination of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) expression. BIBF1000 treatment resulted in growth attenuation but had no effects on RV function after PAB, given absence of changes in cardiac index, end-systolic elastance, connective tissue disposition, and capillary density. We conclude that, in this experimental model of increased afterload, combined VEGFR, FGFR, and PDGFR inhibition does not hamper RV adaptation to pressure overload. PMID:27342880

  12. Adaptive identification and interpretation of pressure transient tests of horizontal wells: challenges and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, V. L.; Van Hoang, Dong

    2016-09-01

    The paper deals with a topical issue of defining oil reservoir properties during transient tests of horizontal wells equipped with information-measuring systems and reducing well downtime. The aim is to consider challenges and perspectives of developing models and algorithms for adaptive identification and interpretation of transient tests in horizontal wells with pressure buildup curve analysis. The models and algorithms should allow analyzing flow behavior, defining oil reservoir properties and determining well test completion time, as well as reducing well downtime. The present paper is based on the previous theoretical and practical findings in the spheres of transient well testing, systems analysis, system identification, function optimization and linear algebra. Field data and results of transient well tests with pressure buildup curve analysis have also been considered. The suggested models and algorithms for adaptive interpretation of transient tests conducted in horizontal wells with resulting pressure buildup curve make it possible to analyze flow behavior, as well as define the reservoir properties and determine well test completion time. The algorithms for adaptive interpretation are based on the integrated system of radial flow PBC models with time- dependent variables, account of additional a priori information and estimates of radial flow permeability. Optimization problems are solved with the case study of PBC interpretation for five horizontal wells of the Verkhnechonsk field.

  13. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  14. Mechanical support of the pressure overloaded right ventricle: an acute feasibility study comparing low and high flow support.

    PubMed

    Verbelen, Tom; Verhoeven, Jelle; Goda, Motohiko; Burkhoff, Daniel; Delcroix, Marion; Rega, Filip; Meyns, Bart

    2015-08-15

    The objectives of this study were to assess the feasibility of low flow right ventricular support and to describe the hemodynamic effects of low versus high flow support in an animal model of acute right ventricular pressure overload. A Synergy Pocket Micro-pump (HeartWare International, Framingham, MA) was implanted in seven sheep. Blood was withdrawn from the right atrium to the pulmonary artery. Hemodynamics and pressure-volume loops were recorded in baseline conditions, after banding the pulmonary artery, and after ligating the right coronary artery in these banded sheep. End-organ perfusion (reflected by total cardiac output and arterial blood pressure) improved in all conditions. Intrinsic right ventricular contractility was not significantly impacted by support. Diastolic unloading of the pressure overloaded right ventricle (reflected by decreases in central venous pressure, end-diastolic pressure and volume, and ventricular capacitance) was successful, but with a concomitant and flow-dependent increase of the systolic afterload. This unloading diminished with right ventricular ischemia. Right ventricular mechanical support improves arterial blood pressure and cardiac output. It provides diastolic unloading of the right ventricle, but with a concomitant and right ventricular assist device flow-dependent increase of systolic afterload. These effects are most distinct in the pressure overloaded right ventricle without profound ischemic damage. We advocate the low flow strategy, which is potentially beneficial for the afterload sensitive right ventricle and has the advantage of avoiding excessive increases in pulmonary artery pressure when pulmonary hypertension exists. This might protect against the development of pulmonary edema and hemorrhage.

  15. Pheochromocytoma supporting blood pressure in the setting of cardiogenic shock.

    PubMed

    Ditkofsky, Noah; Workman, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Sixty-seven-year-old male presented with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and decreasing level of consciousness. He was tachycardic but not hypotensive. Computed tomography scan revealed a peripherally enhancing adrenal mass and evidence of low cardiac output state. He was admitted to the intensive care unit but expired within 12 h. Autopsy determined the cause of death as acute coronary insufficiency and identified the adrenal mass as a pheochromocytoma. The pheochromocytoma may have maintained blood pressure in the setting of cardiogenic shock and delayed diagnosis of myocardial infarction.

  16. Adaptive laboratory evolution of Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 for growth at high hydrostatic pressure

    PubMed Central

    Marietou, Angeliki; Nguyen, Alice T. T.; Allen, Eric E.; Bartlett, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    Much of microbial life on Earth grows and reproduces under the elevated hydrostatic pressure conditions that exist in deep-ocean and deep-subsurface environments. In this study adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) experiments were conducted to investigate the possible modification of the piezosensitive Escherichia coli for improved growth at high pressure. After approximately 500 generations of selection, a strain was isolated that acquired the ability to grow at pressure non-permissive for the parental strain. Remarkably, this strain displayed growth properties and changes in the proportion and regulation of unsaturated fatty acids that indicated the acquisition of multiple piezotolerant properties. These changes developed concomitantly with a change in the gene encoding the acyl carrier protein, which is required for fatty acid synthesis. PMID:25610434

  17. Ventilatory muscle loads and the frequency-tidal volume pattern during inspiratory pressure-assisted (pressure-supported) ventilation.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, N R; Leatherman, N E

    1990-02-01

    Pressure support ventilation (PSV) is a new form of mechanical ventilatory support that assists a patient's spontaneous ventilatory effort with a clinician-selected amount of inspiratory pressure. In order to assess the muscle unloading effect and the ventilatory pattern response to increasing levels of this inspiratory pressure assist, we first utilized a computer respiratory system model with variable alveolar ventilation demands and impedances. From this model, we calculated ventilatory muscle loads (expressed either as the work/min or as the pressure time index) during simulated, unassisted breathing and during simulated breathing with levels of inspiratory pressure assist up to that which resulted in a VT of 800 ml and no work being performed by the muscles (defined as PSVmax for the model conditions being studied). The optimal ventilatory pattern (i.e., frequency-tidal volume) under each ventilation and impedance condition was defined as that which resulted in minimal muscle load. Under these model conditions, we found that PSVmax ranged from 5 to 41 cm H2O and that as the level of inspiratory pressure assist was increased from zero to PSVmax, there was a biphasic response of both the ventilatory muscle loading and the ventilatory pattern. Specifically, at low levels of inspiratory pressure assist, the model predicted that the applied pressure would only partially unload the ventilatory muscles. Continued muscle energy expenditure would thus still be required, whereas the ventilatory pattern would change little. Conversely, at higher levels of inspiratory pressure assist, the model predicted that the applied pressure would be sufficient to completely unload the ventilatory muscles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Corporate Support of Higher Education. Pressure for a Realistic Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Hayden W.; And Others

    The texts of three speeches on corporate giving to higher education are presented. In "The Potentials for Corporate Support of Higher Education--Realism Revisited," Hayden W. Smith outlines current corporate giving to education and trends in giving since 1950, a period during which changes in the law have encouraged the practice. These trends are…

  19. Lunar Surface Scenarios: Habitation and Life Support Systems for a Pressurized Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly; Hanford, Anthony; Howard, Robert; Toups, Larry

    2006-01-01

    Pressurized rovers will be a critical component of successful lunar exploration to enable safe investigation of sites distant from the outpost location. A pressurized rover is a complex system with the same functions as any other crewed vehicle. Designs for a pressurized rover need to take into account significant constraints, a multitude of tasks to be performed inside and out, and the complexity of life support systems to support the crew. In future studies, pressurized rovers should be given the same level of consideration as any other vehicle occupied by the crew.

  20. Self-reported racism and social support predict blood pressure reactivity in Blacks.

    PubMed

    Clark, Rodney

    2003-01-01

    This study explored the effects of perceived racism and social support (quantity and quality) on blood pressure reactivity. In a college sample of 64 Blacks (M age = 22.69 years, SD =6.60), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were assessed before and during a standardized serial subtraction task. Perceptions of racism and the quantity and quality of social support were measured by self-report. Separate multiple regression analyses revealed that perceived racism and social support (neither quantity nor quality) were not independent predictors of SBP or DBP changes (ps >.05). These analyses did indicate that perceived racism interacted with the quantity of social support (p <.002, partial R2 =.175) and with the quality of social support (p <.0007, partial R2 =.195) to predict DBP changes. Perceived racism also interacted with the quantity of social support to predict changes in SBP (p <.02, partial R2 =.11). In general, whereas high social support was related to less marked blood pressure changes under conditions of low perceived racism, high social support was associated with exaggerated blood pressure changes under conditions of high perceived racism. These significant interaction effects persisted after statistically controlling for potential confounders. The findings highlight the importance of examining the joint contribution of real-world experiences and coping resources to blood pressure reactivity in Blacks.

  1. Using the adaptive SMA composite cylinder concept to reduce radial dilation in composite pressure vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paine, Jeffrey S.; Rogers, Craig A.

    1995-05-01

    Composite materials are widely used in the design of pressurized gas and fluid vessels for applications ranging from underground gasoline storage tanks to rocket motors for the space shuttle. In the design of a high pressure composite vessel (Pi > 12 Ksi), thick-wall (R/h < 15) vessels are required. For efficient material use in composite material vessels, the radial dilation (expansion or swelling) of the composite vessel can often approach values nearing 2 percent of the diameter. Over long periods of internal pressure loading over elevated temperatures, composite material cylinders may also experience substantial creep. The short term dilation and long term creep are not problematic for applications requiring only the containment of the pressurized fluid. In applications where metallic liners are required, however, substantial dilation and creep causes plastic yielding which leads to reduced fatigue life. To applications such as a hydraulic accumulator, where a piston is employed to fit and seal the fluid in the composite cylinder, the dilation and creep may allow leakage and pressure loss around the piston. A concept called the adaptive composite cylinder is experimentally presented. Shape memory alloy wire in epoxy resin is wrapped around or within polymer matrix composite cylinders to reduce radial dilation of the cylinder. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate the ability of the SMA wire layers to reduce radial dilation. Results from experimental testing of the recovery stress fatigue response of nitinol shape memory alloy wires is also presented.

  2. Measured and predicted pressure distributions on the AFTI/F-111 mission adaptive wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Lannie D.; Mccain, William E.; Rose, Lucinda A.

    1988-01-01

    Flight tests have been conducted using an F-111 aircraft modified with a mission adaptive wing (MAW). The MAW has variable-camber leading and trailing edge surfaces that can change the wing camber in flight, while preserving smooth upper surface contours. This paper contains wing surface pressure measurements obtained during flight tests at Dryden Flight Research Facility of NASA Ames Research Center. Upper and lower surface steady pressure distributions were measured along four streamwise rows of static pressure orifices on the right wing for a leading-edge sweep angle of 26 deg. The airplane, wing, instrumentation, and test conditions are discussed. Steady pressure results are presented for selected wing camber deflections flown at subsonic Mach numbers up to 0.90 and an angle-of-attack range of 5 to 12 deg. The Reynolds number was 26 million, based on the mean aerodynamic chord. The MAW flight data are compared to MAW wind tunnel data, transonic aircraft technology (TACT) flight data, and predicted pressure distributions. The results provide a unique database for a smooth, variable-camber, advanced supercritical wing.

  3. Concluding remarks: nutritional strategies to support the adaptive response to prolonged exercise training.

    PubMed

    van Loon, Luc J C; Tipton, Kevin D

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition plays a key role in allowing the numerous training hours to be translated into useful adaptive responses of various tissues in the individual athlete. Research over the last decade has shown many examples of the impact of dietary interventions to modulate the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged exercise training. Proper nutritional coaching should be applied throughout both training and competition, each with their specific requirements regarding nutrient provision. Such dietary support will improve exercise training efficiency and, as such, further increase performance capacity. Here, we provide an overview on the properties of various nutritional interventions that may be useful to support the adaptive response to exercise training and competition and, as such, to augment exercise training efficiency.

  4. Inner Space and Outer Space: Pressure Suits & Life Support Systems for Space Workers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webbon, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation presents an overview of work system requirements, extravehicular activity system evolution, key issues, future needs, and a summary. Key issues include pressure suits, life support systems, system integration, biomedical requirements, and work and mobility aids.

  5. When Are Mastery Goals More Adaptive? It Depends on Experiences of Autonomy Support and Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benita, Moti; Roth, Guy; Deci, Edward L.

    2014-01-01

    Mastery goals are generally considered the most adaptive achievement goals. In 2 studies, we tested whether, in line with self-determination theory, participants' experiences of autonomy support and autonomy would affect the relations between mastery goals and psychological outcomes. In Study 1 (an experiment), 117 college students, randomly…

  6. Supporting Preservice Elementary Teachers' Critique and Adaptation of Science Lesson Plans Using Educative Curriculum Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Carrie; Davis, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Critiquing and adapting curriculum materials are essential teaching practices but challenging for many preservice teachers. This study explores the use of educative curriculum materials--materials intended to support both teacher and student learning--to help preservice elementary teachers develop their pedagogical design capacity for critiquing…

  7. Family Quality of Life: Adaptation to Spanish Population of Several Family Support Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balcells-Balcells, A.; Gine, C.; Guardia-Olmos, J.; Summers, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The concept of family quality of life has emerged as a decisive construct in the last decades to improve the capabilities of families and to assess the outcomes of the services and supports they get. The goal of this research is to adapt three instruments to the Spanish population: the "Beach Center Family Quality of Life Scale", the…

  8. The Contributions of Emotional Intelligence and Social Support for Adaptive Career Progress among Italian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Kenny, Maureen E.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from career construction and positive youth development perspectives, this study explores, among 254 Italian high school students, the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and support from friends and teachers with indices of adaptive career development. Results from the full canonical correlational model revealed that…

  9. Talent Development Environment and Workplace Adaptation: The Mediating Effects of Organisational Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunasegaran, Mageswari; Ismail, Maimunah; Rasdi, Roziah Mohd; Ismail, Ismi Arif; Ramayah, T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the relationship between talent development environment (TDE) variables of job focus and long-term development with the workplace adaptation (WA) of Malaysian professional returnees as mediated by the organisational support. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 130 respondents who are Malaysian professional…

  10. Psychological and Pedagogical Support for Students' Adaptation to Learning Activity in High Science School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeleeva, Vera P.; Bykova, Svetlana S.; Varbanova, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the study is due to the importance of psychological and pedagogical support for students in university that would prevent difficulties in learning activities and increase adaptive capacity through the development of relevant personal traits. Therefore, this article is aimed at solving the problem of arranging psychological and…

  11. Ways and Means of Adapting Culture and Structure: Case Studies. Support Document 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Berwyn; Fisher, Thea; Harris, Roger; Bateman, Andrea; Brown, Mike

    2008-01-01

    The resource in this support document is a set of small case studies, offering insights into how a range of organisations have gone about adapting their organisational structure and/or culture to enhance their capability. Key elements of each case are presented with a particular emphasis on: (1) the principles that have underpinned each approach…

  12. Adaptive and Intelligent Systems for Collaborative Learning Support: A Review of the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnisalis, I.; Demetriadis, S.; Karakostas, A.

    2011-01-01

    This study critically reviews the recently published scientific literature on the design and impact of adaptive and intelligent systems for collaborative learning support (AICLS) systems. The focus is threefold: 1) analyze critical design issues of AICLS systems and organize them under a unifying classification scheme, 2) present research evidence…

  13. A Continuum of Paraeducator Support for Utilization in Adapted Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haegele, Justin A.; Kozub, Francis M.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes three different ways of using paraeducators during adapted physical education. (1.) Having paraeducators read a portion of the lesson plan that describes the desired support towards lesson objectives. Paraeducators then assist all students when needed. (2.) Assigning specific modifications for paraeducators through the IEP…

  14. The 12-foot pressure wind tunnel restoration project model support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasaki, Glen E.

    1992-01-01

    The 12 Foot Pressure Wind Tunnel is a variable density, low turbulence wind tunnel that operates at subsonic speeds, and up to six atmospheres total pressure. The restoration of this facility is of critical importance to the future of the U.S. aerospace industry. As part of this project, several state of the art model support systems are furnished to provide an optimal balance between aerodynamic and operational efficiency parameters. Two model support systems, the Rear Strut Model Support, and the High Angle of Attack Model Support are discussed. This paper covers design parameters, constraints, development, description, and component selection.

  15. High hydrostatic pressure adaptive strategies in an obligate piezophile Pyrococcus yayanosii

    PubMed Central

    Michoud, Grégoire; Jebbar, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Pyrococcus yayanosii CH1, as the first and only obligate piezophilic hyperthermophilic microorganism discovered to date, extends the physical and chemical limits of life on Earth. It was isolated from the Ashadze hydrothermal vent at 4,100 m depth. Multi-omics analyses were performed to study the mechanisms used by the cell to cope with high hydrostatic pressure variations. In silico analyses showed that the P. yayanosii genome is highly adapted to its harsh environment, with a loss of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathways and the high constitutive expression of the energy metabolism compared with other non-obligate piezophilic Pyrococcus species. Differential proteomics and transcriptomics analyses identified key hydrostatic pressure-responsive genes involved in translation, chemotaxis, energy metabolism (hydrogenases and formate metabolism) and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats sequences associated with Cellular apoptosis susceptibility proteins. PMID:27250364

  16. Alkyl ammonium cation stabilized biocidal polyiodides with adaptable high density and low pressure.

    PubMed

    He, Chunlin; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2014-05-26

    The effective application of biocidal species requires building the active moiety into a molecular back bone that can be delivered and decomposed on demand under conditions of low pressure and prolonged high-temperature detonation. The goal is to destroy storage facilities and their contents while utilizing the biocidal products arising from the released energy to destroy any remaining harmful airborne agents. Decomposition of carefully selected iodine-rich compounds can produce large amounts of the very active biocides, hydroiodic acid (HI) and iodine (I2). Polyiodide anions, namely, I3(-), I5(-), which are excellent sources of such biocides, can be stabilized through interactions with large, symmetric cations, such as alkyl ammonium salts. We have designed and synthesized suitable compounds of adaptable high density up to 3.33 g cm(-3) that are low-pressure polyiodides with various alkyl ammonium cations, deliverable iodine contents of which range between 58.0-90.9%.

  17. High hydrostatic pressure adaptive strategies in an obligate piezophile Pyrococcus yayanosii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michoud, Grégoire; Jebbar, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    Pyrococcus yayanosii CH1, as the first and only obligate piezophilic hyperthermophilic microorganism discovered to date, extends the physical and chemical limits of life on Earth. It was isolated from the Ashadze hydrothermal vent at 4,100 m depth. Multi-omics analyses were performed to study the mechanisms used by the cell to cope with high hydrostatic pressure variations. In silico analyses showed that the P. yayanosii genome is highly adapted to its harsh environment, with a loss of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathways and the high constitutive expression of the energy metabolism compared with other non-obligate piezophilic Pyrococcus species. Differential proteomics and transcriptomics analyses identified key hydrostatic pressure-responsive genes involved in translation, chemotaxis, energy metabolism (hydrogenases and formate metabolism) and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats sequences associated with Cellular apoptosis susceptibility proteins.

  18. Osmotic pressure-adaptive responses in the eye tissues of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax)

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Elizabeth; Paradis, Hélène; Haines, Lacey; Desjardins, Mariève; Short, Connie E.; Clow, Kathy A.; Driedzic, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), is a teleost fish, which avoids freezing by becoming virtually isosmotic with seawater. The effects that such massive changes in osmolarity have on both its visual system and its highly evolved and specialized circulation are not known. New knowledge about the osmotic adaptation of the rainbow smelt eye is highly relevant to the adaptation and survival of this species and to its ability to feed as a visual predator in the face of environmental pressures. Moreover, the molecular physiologic response of the smelt to osmotic stress might provide valuable insights into understanding and managing mammalian pathological hyperosmolarity conditions, such as diabetes. We undertook the present study to provide an initial assessment of gene expression in ocular vasculature during osmotic adaptation in rainbow smelt. Methods Immunohistochemistry with species cross reactive antibodies was used to assess blood vessel protein expression in paraffin sections. Western blotting was used to further verify antibody specificity for orthologs of mammalian blood vessel proteins in rainbow smelt. Thermal hysteresis and the analysis of glycerol concentrations in vitreous fluid were used to assess the physiologic adaptive properties of cold stressed eyes. Results Glycerol levels and osmotic pressure were significantly increased in the vitreal fluid of smelt maintained at <0.5 °C versus those maintained at 8–10 °C. Compared to the 8–10 °C adapted specimens, the rete mirabile blood vessels and connecting regions of the endothelial linings of the choroidal vessels of the <0.5 °C adapted specimens showed a higher expression level of Tubedown (Tbdn) protein, a marker of the endothelial transcellular permeability pathway. Expression of the zonula occludens protein ZO-1, a marker of the endothelial paracellular permeability pathway showed a reciprocal expression pattern and was downregulated in rete mirabile blood vessels and connecting

  19. Hearing in the African lungfish (Protopterus annectens): pre-adaptation to pressure hearing in tetrapods?

    PubMed

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Brandt, Christian; Wilson, Maria; Wahlberg, Magnus; Madsen, Peter T

    2011-02-23

    Lungfishes are the closest living relatives of the tetrapods, and the ear of recent lungfishes resembles the tetrapod ear more than the ear of ray-finned fishes and is therefore of interest for understanding the evolution of hearing in the early tetrapods. The water-to-land transition resulted in major changes in the tetrapod ear associated with the detection of air-borne sound pressure, as evidenced by the late and independent origins of tympanic ears in all of the major tetrapod groups. To investigate lungfish pressure and vibration detection, we measured the sensitivity and frequency responses of five West African lungfish (Protopterus annectens) using brainstem potentials evoked by calibrated sound and vibration stimuli in air and water. We find that the lungfish ear has good low-frequency vibration sensitivity, like recent amphibians, but poor sensitivity to air-borne sound. The skull shows measurable vibrations above 100 Hz when stimulated by air-borne sound, but the ear is apparently insensitive at these frequencies, suggesting that the lungfish ear is neither adapted nor pre-adapted for aerial hearing. Thus, if the lungfish ear is a model of the ear of early tetrapods, their auditory sensitivity was limited to very low frequencies on land, mostly mediated by substrate-borne vibrations.

  20. Microbial diversity and adaptation to high hydrostatic pressure in deep-sea hydrothermal vents prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Jebbar, Mohamed; Franzetti, Bruno; Girard, Eric; Oger, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Prokaryotes inhabiting in the deep sea vent ecosystem will thus experience harsh conditions of temperature, pH, salinity or high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) stress. Among the fifty-two piezophilic and piezotolerant prokaryotes isolated so far from different deep-sea environments, only fifteen (four Bacteria and eleven Archaea) that are true hyper/thermophiles and piezophiles have been isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents; these belong mainly to the Thermococcales order. Different strategies are used by microorganisms to thrive in deep-sea hydrothermal vents in which "extreme" physico-chemical conditions prevail and where non-adapted organisms cannot live, or even survive. HHP is known to impact the structure of several cellular components and functions, such as membrane fluidity, protein activity and structure. Physically the impact of pressure resembles a lowering of temperature, since it reinforces the structure of certain molecules, such as membrane lipids, and an increase in temperature, since it will also destabilize other structures, such as proteins. However, universal molecular signatures of HHP adaptation are not yet known and are still to be deciphered. PMID:26101015

  1. Microbial diversity and adaptation to high hydrostatic pressure in deep-sea hydrothermal vents prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Jebbar, Mohamed; Franzetti, Bruno; Girard, Eric; Oger, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Prokaryotes inhabiting in the deep sea vent ecosystem will thus experience harsh conditions of temperature, pH, salinity or high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) stress. Among the fifty-two piezophilic and piezotolerant prokaryotes isolated so far from different deep-sea environments, only fifteen (four Bacteria and eleven Archaea) that are true hyper/thermophiles and piezophiles have been isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents; these belong mainly to the Thermococcales order. Different strategies are used by microorganisms to thrive in deep-sea hydrothermal vents in which "extreme" physico-chemical conditions prevail and where non-adapted organisms cannot live, or even survive. HHP is known to impact the structure of several cellular components and functions, such as membrane fluidity, protein activity and structure. Physically the impact of pressure resembles a lowering of temperature, since it reinforces the structure of certain molecules, such as membrane lipids, and an increase in temperature, since it will also destabilize other structures, such as proteins. However, universal molecular signatures of HHP adaptation are not yet known and are still to be deciphered.

  2. Understanding Students' Adaptation to Graduate School: An Integration of Social Support Theory and Social Learning Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsay, Crystal Han-Huei

    2012-01-01

    The contemporary business world demands adaptive individuals (Friedman & Wyman, 2005). Adaptation is essential for any life transition. It often involves developing coping mechanisms, strategies, and seeking of social support. Adaptation occurs in many settings from moving to a new culture, taking a new job, starting or finishing an…

  3. Aircraft engine with inter-turbine engine frame supported counter rotating low pressure turbine rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seda, Jorge F. (Inventor); Dunbar, Lawrence W. (Inventor); Gliebe, Philip R. (Inventor); Szucs, Peter N. (Inventor); Brauer, John C. (Inventor); Johnson, James E. (Inventor); Moniz, Thomas (Inventor); Steinmetz, Gregory T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An aircraft gas turbine engine assembly includes an inter-turbine frame axially located between high and low pressure turbines. Low pressure turbine has counter rotating low pressure inner and outer rotors with low pressure inner and outer shafts which are at least in part rotatably disposed co-axially within a high pressure rotor. Inter-turbine frame includes radially spaced apart radially outer first and inner second structural rings disposed co-axially about a centerline and connected by a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart struts. Forward and aft sump members having forward and aft central bores are fixedly joined to axially spaced apart forward and aft portions of the inter-turbine frame. Low pressure inner and outer rotors are rotatably supported by a second turbine frame bearing mounted in aft central bore of aft sump member. A mount for connecting the engine to an aircraft is located on first structural ring.

  4. Bacterial adaptation to high pressure: a respiratory system in the deep-sea bacterium Shewanella violacea DSS12.

    PubMed

    Chikuma, Sayaka; Kasahara, Ryota; Kato, Chiaki; Tamegai, Hideyuki

    2007-02-01

    Shewanella violacea DSS12 is a psychrophilic facultative piezophile isolated from the deep sea. In a previous study, we have shown that the bacterium adapted its respiratory components to alteration in growth pressure. This appears to be one of the bacterial adaptation mechanisms to high pressures. In this study, we measured the respiratory activities of S. violacea grown under various pressures. There was no significant difference between the cells grown under atmospheric pressure and a high pressure of 50 MPa relative to oxygen consumption of the cell-free extracts and inhibition patterns in the presence of KCN and antimycin A. Antimycin A did not inhibit the activity completely regardless of growth pressure, suggesting that there were complex III-containing and -eliminating pathways operating in parallel. On the other hand, there was a difference in the terminal oxidase activities. Our results showed that an inhibitor- and pressure-resistant terminal oxidase was expressed in the cells grown under high pressure. This property should contribute to the high-pressure adaptation mechanisms of S. violacea. PMID:17166225

  5. Automation of a portable extracorporeal circulatory support system with adaptive fuzzy controllers.

    PubMed

    Mendoza García, A; Krane, M; Baumgartner, B; Sprunk, N; Schreiber, U; Eichhorn, S; Lange, R; Knoll, A

    2014-08-01

    The presented work relates to the procedure followed for the automation of a portable extracorporeal circulatory support system. Such a device may help increase the chances of survival after suffering from cardiogenic shock outside the hospital, additionally a controller can provide of optimal organ perfusion, while reducing the workload of the operator. Animal experiments were carried out for the acquisition of haemodynamic behaviour of the body under extracorporeal circulation. A mathematical model was constructed based on the experimental data, including a cardiovascular model, gas exchange and the administration of medication. As the base of the controller fuzzy logic was used allowing the easy integration of knowledge from trained perfusionists, an adaptive mechanism was included to adapt to the patient's individual response. Initial simulations show the effectiveness of the controller and the improvements of perfusion after adaptation.

  6. Supportive Communication to Facilitate Chinese Patients' Adaptation to a Permanent Colostomy: A Qualitative Case Study Approach.

    PubMed

    Tao, Hui; Songwathana, Praneed; Isaramalai, Sang-Arun; Wang, Qingxi

    2016-01-01

    This study, which is a part of action research, aims to explore how supportive communication can impact individuals' adaptation to a permanent colostomy in a Chinese cultural context. Two Chinese rectal cancer patients with complexity and difficulty in living with a permanent colostomy were selected using a qualitative case study approach. The researcher (H.T.) interacted with the participants along their journey from the preoperative period until the third postoperative month after discharge via face-to-face or telephone interviews. Content analysis was applied. Supportive communication was characterized by "communication as a supportive tool," which consisted of 4 elements: respect, description, empathy, and empowerment. The nursing strategies included (1) developing a collaborative relationship with patients and families; (2) understanding patients' concerns and problems; (3) discussing potential solutions; (4) encouraging patients to take action; (5) bringing out emotional expression; (6) normalizing negative emotions; and (7) protecting hope. The findings of this study informed that supportive communication is a valuable tool for nurses to provide informational and emotional support to Chinese patients in order to enhance their adaptation to living with a permanent colostomy. Developing an operational manual to enhance supportive communication for patients with colostomy is suggested. PMID:27684635

  7. Pressurized Testing of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Stacks with Advanced Electrode-Supported Cells

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. O'Brien; X. Zhang; G. K. Housley; K. DeWall; L. Moore-McAteer; G. Tao

    2012-06-01

    A new facility has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for pressurized testing of solid oxide electrolysis stacks. Pressurized operation is envisioned for large-scale hydrogen production plants, yielding higher overall efficiencies when the hydrogen product is to be delivered at elevated pressure for tank storage or pipelines. Pressurized operation also supports higher mass flow rates of the process gases with smaller components. The test stand can accommodate cell dimensions up to 8.5 cm x 8.5 cm and stacks of up to 25 cells. The pressure boundary for these tests is a water-cooled spool-piece pressure vessel designed for operation up to 5 MPa. The stack is internally manifolded and operates in cross-flow with an inverted-U flow pattern. Feed-throughs for gas inlets/outlets, power, and instrumentation are all located in the bottom flange. The entire spool piece, with the exception of the bottom flange, can be lifted to allow access to the internal furnace and test fixture. Lifting is accomplished with a motorized threaded drive mechanism attached to a rigid structural frame. Stack mechanical compression is accomplished using springs that are located inside of the pressure boundary, but outside of the hot zone. Initial stack heatup and performance characterization occurs at ambient pressure followed by lowering and sealing of the pressure vessel and subsequent pressurization. Pressure equalization between the anode and cathode sides of the cells and the stack surroundings is ensured by combining all of the process gases downstream of the stack. Steady pressure is maintained by means of a backpressure regulator and a digital pressure controller. A full description of the pressurized test apparatus is provided in this paper.

  8. Pressure Support in Galaxy Disks: Impact on Rotation Curves and Dark Matter Density Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Stilp, Adrienne M.

    2010-09-01

    Rotation curves constrain a galaxy's underlying mass density profile, under the assumption that the observed rotation produces a centripetal force that exactly balances the inward force of gravity. However, most rotation curves are measured using emission lines from gas, which can experience additional forces due to pressure. In realistic galaxy disks, the gas pressure declines with radius, providing additional radial support to the disk. The measured tangential rotation speed will therefore tend to lag the true circular velocity of a test particle. The gas pressure is dominated by turbulence, and we evaluate its likely amplitude from recent estimates of the gas velocity dispersion and surface density. We show that where the amplitude of the rotation curve is comparable to the characteristic velocities of the interstellar turbulence, pressure support may lead to underestimates of the mass density of the underlying dark matter halo and the inner slope of its density profile. These effects may be significant for galaxies with rotation speeds lsim75 km s-1 but are unlikely to be significant in higher-mass galaxies. We find that pressure support can be sustained over long timescales, because any reduction in support due to the conversion of gas into stars is compensated for by an inward flow of gas. However, we point to many uncertainties in assessing the importance of pressure support in real or simulated galaxies. Thus, while pressure support may help to alleviate possible tensions between rotation curve observations and ΛCDM on kiloparsec scales, it should not be viewed as a definitive solution at this time.

  9. PRESSURE SUPPORT IN GALAXY DISKS: IMPACT ON ROTATION CURVES AND DARK MATTER DENSITY PROFILES

    SciTech Connect

    Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Stilp, Adrienne M. E-mail: adrienne@astro.washington.ed

    2010-09-20

    Rotation curves constrain a galaxy's underlying mass density profile, under the assumption that the observed rotation produces a centripetal force that exactly balances the inward force of gravity. However, most rotation curves are measured using emission lines from gas, which can experience additional forces due to pressure. In realistic galaxy disks, the gas pressure declines with radius, providing additional radial support to the disk. The measured tangential rotation speed will therefore tend to lag the true circular velocity of a test particle. The gas pressure is dominated by turbulence, and we evaluate its likely amplitude from recent estimates of the gas velocity dispersion and surface density. We show that where the amplitude of the rotation curve is comparable to the characteristic velocities of the interstellar turbulence, pressure support may lead to underestimates of the mass density of the underlying dark matter halo and the inner slope of its density profile. These effects may be significant for galaxies with rotation speeds {approx}<75 km s{sup -1} but are unlikely to be significant in higher-mass galaxies. We find that pressure support can be sustained over long timescales, because any reduction in support due to the conversion of gas into stars is compensated for by an inward flow of gas. However, we point to many uncertainties in assessing the importance of pressure support in real or simulated galaxies. Thus, while pressure support may help to alleviate possible tensions between rotation curve observations and {Lambda}CDM on kiloparsec scales, it should not be viewed as a definitive solution at this time.

  10. LaPlace Transform1 Adaptive Control Law in Support of Large Flight Envelope Modeling Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Irene M.; Xargay, Enric; Cao, Chengyu; Hovakimyan, Naira

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results of a flight test of the L1 adaptive control architecture designed to directly compensate for significant uncertain cross-coupling in nonlinear systems. The flight test was conducted on the subscale turbine powered Generic Transport Model that is an integral part of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research system at the NASA Langley Research Center. The results presented are in support of nonlinear aerodynamic modeling and instrumentation calibration.

  11. Climate change information supporting adaptation in forestry and agriculture - results and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gálos, Borbála; Czimber, Kornél; Gribovszki, Zoltán; Bidló, András; Csáki, Péter; Kalicz, Péter; Haensler, Andreas; Jacob, Daniela; Mátyás, Csaba

    2015-04-01

    Recurrent droughts of the last decades have led to severe impacts in forestry and agriculture in the sensitive and vulnerable low-elevation regions of Southeast Europe. Observed impacts are very likely to occur with increasing probability under projected climate conditions throughout the 21st century. In order to suggest options for adaptation and mitigation, a GIS-based Decision Support System is under development in the frame of the joint EU-national research project "Agroclimate". Impact assessments and adaptation support services are based on the simulation results of 12 regional climate models (www.ensembles-eu.org) using the A1B emission scenario until 2100. The development of the Decision Support System requires the balancing of available climatic information and required data for research and economically relevant projection needs of the end users. Here, concrete examples of the development process will be shown for the stepwise analysis and comparison of the followings: 1. Provided climate services: • projected tendencies of temperature and precipitation means and extremes until the end of the 21st century, spread of the simulation results. 2. Required information for climate impact research: • types and characteristics of climate input data, • methods and functions for deriving possible climate change impacts in forestry and agriculture (e.g. on species distribution, growth, production, yield, soil water retention, ground water table, runoff, erosion, evapotranspiration and other ecosystem services and soil properties). 3. Required climate information from the end users' side for developing adaption strategies in the affected sectors: • types of climate indicators, • possible range of the expected impacts (in magnitude and probability). 4. Gaps between climate services and the needs of impact researchers and end users (e.g. spatial and temporal scales, interpretation techniques). Experiences of supporting climate change adaptation in forestry

  12. Stereo matching based on adaptive support-weight approach in RGB vector space.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yingnan; Zhao, Yan; Chen, Hexin

    2012-06-01

    Gradient similarity is a simple, yet powerful, data descriptor which shows robustness in stereo matching. In this paper, a RGB vector space is defined for stereo matching. Based on the adaptive support-weight approach, a matching algorithm, which uses the pixel gradient similarity, color similarity, and proximity in RGB vector space to compute the corresponding support-weights and dissimilarity measurements, is proposed. The experimental results are evaluated on the Middlebury stereo benchmark, showing that our algorithm outperforms other stereo matching algorithms and the algorithm with gradient similarity can achieve better results in stereo matching. PMID:22695592

  13. Optimized mirror supports, active primary mirrors and adaptive secondaries for the Optical Very Large Array (OVLA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Luc

    1994-06-01

    This article first deals with general aspects of optimizing mirror supports. A wide variety of support topologies have been optimized by Nelson et al for unobscured entrance pupils. Optical forces and locations of point supports have been calculated here for annular pupils. Efficient topologies introducing a small amount of defocusing are also proposed for unobscured and annular pupils. Support efficiencies are given for each topology. Wavefront errors are estimated in the case of a defective cell, in order to specify tolerances on forces and geometries. The OVLA active optics is then discussed. The very thin, meniscus-shaped primary will be actively supported by 29 actuators and 3 fixed points. Actuator locations and forces have been calculated to minimize the mirror deflection under its own weight but also to allow a good control of astigmatism. We finally present a study of a concave adaptive secondary for the OVLA telescopes. As an initial result, we propose a defocus adaptive corrector with a variable thickness distribution. Conditions of use are defined, and performances are evaluated.

  14. Local stereo matching with adaptive shape support window based cost aggregation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yafan; Zhao, Yan; Ji, Mengqi

    2014-10-10

    Cost aggregation is the most important step in a local stereo algorithm. In this work, a novel local stereo-matching algorithm with a cost-aggregation method based on adaptive shape support window (ASSW) is proposed. First, we compute the initial cost volume, which uses both absolute intensity difference and gradient similarity to measure dissimilarity. Second, we apply an ASSW-based cost-aggregation method to get the aggregated cost within the support window. There are two main parts: at first we construct a local support skeleton anchoring each pixel with four varying arm lengths decided on color similarity; as a result, the support window integral of multiple horizontal segments spanned by pixels in the neighboring vertical is established. Then we utilize extended implementation of guided filter to aggregate cost volume within the ASSW, which has better edge-preserving smoothing property than bilateral filter independent of the filtering kernel size. In this way, the number of bad pixels located in the incorrect depth regions can be effectively reduced through finding optimal support windows with an arbitrary shape and size adaptively. Finally, the initial disparity value of each pixel is selected using winner takes all optimization and post processing symmetrically, considering both the reference and the target image, is adopted. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm achieves outstanding matching performance compared with other existing local algorithms on the Middlebury stereo benchmark, especially in depth discontinuities and piecewise smooth regions. PMID:25322396

  15. Climate Services for Adaptation Support: Sectors, Regions, and Product Lines (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, T.; Shea, E. E.

    2009-12-01

    Environmental information for decision support must be user-focused, accurate, and actionable. As the deleterious impacts of a non-stationary climate system manifest themselves through loss of civil infrastructure, cultural, and natural resources, NOAA and other science agencies are restructuring their approach to decision support, moving from a climate perspectives-centric model to one that offers more nimble, granular, and timely product lines supporting a breadth of sectoral- and regionally-focused decisions. This talk outlines NOAA’s efforts to this end, including its framing of sectors and regions, its development of emerging product lines, and its reliance on technological advances to better disseminate information. Through its climate services efforts, NOAA’s climate data resources can be leveraged to support sound adaptation decision making for societal infrastructure development and in the stewardship of marine, ocean, coastal, and terrestrial natural resources.

  16. Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation of PRSEUS Pressure Cube Article in Support of Load Test to Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Patrick H.

    2013-01-01

    The PRSEUS Pressure Cube Test was a joint development effort between the Boeing Company and NASA Langley Research Center, sponsored in part by the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project and Boeing internal R&D. This Technical Memorandum presents the results of ultrasonic inspections in support of the PRSEUS Pressure Cube Test, and is a companion document with the NASA test report and a report on the acoustic emission measurements made during the test.

  17. Nanofiber supported thin-film composite membrane for pressure-retarded osmosis.

    PubMed

    Bui, Nhu-Ngoc; McCutcheon, Jeffrey R

    2014-04-01

    Sustainable energy can be harnessed from fluids of differing salinity using a process known as pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO). We address one of the critical challenges of advance PRO by introducing a novel electrospun nanofiber-supported thin-film composite PRO membrane platform. The support was tiered with layers of nanofibers of different diameters to better withstand hydraulic pressure. The membranes successfully withstood an applied hydraulic pressure of 11.5 bar and exhibited performance that would produce an equivalent peak power density near 8.0 W/m(2) under real conditions (using 0.5 M NaCl and deionized water as the draw and feed solutions, respectively). This result shows the immense promise of nanofiber supported thin-film composite membranes for use in PRO.

  18. The interplay of parental support, parental pressure and test anxiety--Gender differences in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ringeisen, Tobias; Raufelder, Diana

    2015-12-01

    This study examined gender-specific relationships between adolescents' perceptions of school-related support/pressure from their parents and test anxiety. A sample of German students (N = 845; Mage = 15.32; SD = .49) completed questionnaires that measured their perceived parental support/pressure (for mother and father separately) as well as the four main components of test anxiety (worry, interference, lack of confidence, and emotionality). Gender-specific relations were identified using multigroup structural equation modeling: For girls, perceived maternal pressure was positively associated with emotionality and interference; for boys, perceived father pressure and father support were positively associated with interference and worry, respectively. For both genders, perceived mother pressure and support were related to lack of confidence. Our findings suggest that adolescents' perceptions of maternal attitudes are associated with students' self-confidence irrespective of the child's gender, whereas the remaining facets of test anxiety follow same-sex trajectories between perceived parental attitudes and adolescents' test anxiety.

  19. A pressure distribution measurement system for supporting areas of wheelchair users.

    PubMed

    Arias, Sandra; Cardiel, Eladio; Garay, Laura; Tovar, Blanca; Pla, Michele; Rogeli, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Pressure ulcers are skin injuries caused by long term exposition to high pressures on support points that interrupt blood circulation reducing the transport of oxygen and nutrients to the cells. They mainly affect people with poor mobility that stay in seating position for long periods of time. In spite of the diversity of commercial prototypes of cushions, ulcers caused by pressure are still a problem for wheelchair users. This work describes the design of a measurement system of pressure distribution in sedentary position. The aim of the system is to record the pressure concentration in order to obtain specific information about the supporting areas, and with these data used as feedback, eventually to determine an efficient random stimulation sequence to provide, in the future, a system to prevent these referred injuries. The proposed system consists of a 12 air-cell division cushion. Each cell has a pressure sensor and an input for electro valves to inflate and deflate. The recording and control of the valves is carried out through a graphical interface designed in LabVIEW®. A calibration procedure for the designed cushion was made by comparing the greatest load values pressure with a commercial platform, similar results were obtained. PMID:24110796

  20. MOLAR: Modular Linux and Adaptive Runtime Support for HEC OS/R Research

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Mueller

    2009-02-05

    MOLAR is a multi-institution research effort that concentrates on adaptive, reliable,and efficient operating and runtime system solutions for ultra-scale high-end scientific computing on the next generation of supercomputers. This research addresses the challenges outlined by the FAST-OS - forum to address scalable technology for runtime and operating systems --- and HECRTF --- high-end computing revitalization task force --- activities by providing a modular Linux and adaptable runtime support for high-end computing operating and runtime systems. The MOLAR research has the following goals to address these issues. (1) Create a modular and configurable Linux system that allows customized changes based on the requirements of the applications, runtime systems, and cluster management software. (2) Build runtime systems that leverage the OS modularity and configurability to improve efficiency, reliability, scalability, ease-of-use, and provide support to legacy and promising programming models. (3) Advance computer reliability, availability and serviceability (RAS) management systems to work cooperatively with the OS/R to identify and preemptively resolve system issues. (4) Explore the use of advanced monitoring and adaptation to improve application performance and predictability of system interruptions. The overall goal of the research conducted at NCSU is to develop scalable algorithms for high-availability without single points of failure and without single points of control.

  1. Promoting parenting to support reintegrating military families: after deployment, adaptive parenting tools.

    PubMed

    Gewirtz, Abigail H; Pinna, Keri L M; Hanson, Sheila K; Brockberg, Dustin

    2014-02-01

    The high operational tempo of the current conflicts and the unprecedented reliance on National Guard and Reserve forces highlights the need for services to promote reintegration efforts for those transitioning back to civilian family life. Despite evidence that parenting has significant influence on children's functioning, and that parenting may be impaired during stressful family transitions, there is a dearth of empirically supported psychological interventions tailored for military families reintegrating after deployment. This article reports on the modification of an empirically supported parenting intervention for families in which a parent has deployed to war. A theoretical rationale for addressing parenting during reintegration after deployment is discussed. We describe the intervention, After Deployment, Adaptive Parenting Tools (ADAPT), and report early feasibility and acceptability data from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial of ADAPT, a 14-week group-based, Web-enhanced parenting training program. Among the first 42 families assigned to the intervention group, participation rates were high, and equal among mothers and fathers. Satisfaction was high across all 14 sessions. Implications for psychological services to military families dealing with the deployment process are discussed. PMID:24564441

  2. Farmer Health and Adaptive Capacity in the Face of Climate Change and Variability. Part 1: Health as a Contributor to Adaptive Capacity and as an Outcome from Pressures Coping with Climate Related Adversities

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Helen L.; Hogan, Anthony; Ng, Suan Peng; Parkinson, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the role farmers’ health plays as an element of adaptive capacity. The study examines which of twenty aspects of adaptation may be related to overall health outcomes, controlling for demographic and on-farm-factors in health problems. The analysis is based on 3,993 farmers’ responses to a national survey of climate risk and adaptation. Hierarchical linear regression modelling was used examine the extent to which, in a multivariate analysis, the use of adaptive practices was predictively associated with self-assessed health, taking into account the farmer’s rating of whether their health was a barrier to undertaking farm work. We present two models, one excluding pre-existing health (model 1) and one including pre-existing health (model 2). The first model accounted for 21% of the variance. In this model better health was most strongly predicted by an absence of on-farm risk, greater financial viability, greater debt pressures, younger age and a desire to continue farming. Social capital (trust and reciprocity) was moderately associated with health as was the intention to adopt more sustainable practices. The second model (including the farmers’ health as a barrier to undertaking farm work) accounted for 43% of the variance. Better health outcomes were most strongly explained, in order of magnitude, by the absence of pre-existing health problems, greater access to social support, greater financial viability, greater debt pressures, a desire to continue farming and the condition of on-farm resources. Model 2 was a more parsimonious model (only nine predictors, compared with 15 in model 1), and explained twice as much variance in health outcomes. These results suggest that (i) pre-existing health problems are a very important factor to consider when designing adaptation programs and policies and (ii) these problems may mediate or modify the relationship between adaptation and health. PMID:22073027

  3. Farmer health and adaptive capacity in the face of climate change and variability. Part 1: Health as a contributor to adaptive capacity and as an outcome from pressures coping with climate related adversities.

    PubMed

    Berry, Helen L; Hogan, Anthony; Ng, Suan Peng; Parkinson, Anne

    2011-10-01

    This paper examines the role farmers' health plays as an element of adaptive capacity. The study examines which of twenty aspects of adaptation may be related to overall health outcomes, controlling for demographic and on-farm-factors in health problems. The analysis is based on 3,993 farmers' responses to a national survey of climate risk and adaptation. Hierarchical linear regression modelling was used examine the extent to which, in a multivariate analysis, the use of adaptive practices was predictively associated with self-assessed health, taking into account the farmer's rating of whether their health was a barrier to undertaking farm work. We present two models, one excluding pre-existing health (model 1) and one including pre-existing health (model 2). The first model accounted for 21% of the variance. In this model better health was most strongly predicted by an absence of on-farm risk, greater financial viability, greater debt pressures, younger age and a desire to continue farming. Social capital (trust and reciprocity) was moderately associated with health as was the intention to adopt more sustainable practices. The second model (including the farmers' health as a barrier to undertaking farm work) accounted for 43% of the variance. Better health outcomes were most strongly explained, in order of magnitude, by the absence of pre-existing health problems, greater access to social support, greater financial viability, greater debt pressures, a desire to continue farming and the condition of on-farm resources. Model 2 was a more parsimonious model (only nine predictors, compared with 15 in model 1), and explained twice as much variance in health outcomes. These results suggest that (i) pre-existing health problems are a very important factor to consider when designing adaptation programs and policies and (ii) these problems may mediate or modify the relationship between adaptation and health.

  4. Comparative effects of pressure support ventilation and intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) in non-intubated healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Mancebo, J; Isabey, D; Lorino, H; Lofaso, F; Lemaire, F; Brochard, L

    1995-11-01

    We compared the efficacy of three devices delivering assisted non-invasive ventilation with different working mechanisms, during room air breathing and during CO2-induced hyperventilation. In seven healthy volunteers, breathing pattern, respiratory muscle activity and comfort were assessed: during unassisted spontaneous breathing through a mouth-piece (SB); during assisted breathing with a device delivering inspiratory pressure support (IPS); and with two devices delivering intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB), the Monaghan 505 (IPPB1), and the CPU 1 ventilator (IPPB2). All three devices were set at 10 cmH2O of maximal pressure. During room air breathing, the work of breathing expressed as power, was significantly greater with the two IPPB devices than with the two other modes (IPPB1 and IPPB2 7.3 +/- 5.2 and 7.2 +/- 6.2 J.min-1, respectively, versus SB and IPS 2.4 +/- 0.7 and 2.3 +/- 3.3 J.min-1, respectively). The difference did not reach the statistical significance for the pressure-time product (PTP). Discomfort was also greater during the IPPB modes. During CO2-induced hyperventilation, considerable differences in power of breathing were found between the two IPPB devices and the other two modes. The PTP was also much higher with IPPB. Transdiaphragmatic pressure was significantly smaller during IPS than during the three other modes (IPS 18 +/- 2.6 cmH2O versus SB 22 +/- 2.6, IPPB1 32 +/- 5.2, and IPPB2: 28 +/- 5.2). Maximal discomfort was observed during the IPPB modes and was correlated with the magnitude of transdiaphragmatic pressure (r = 0.60). Despite similarities in their operational principles, IPS and IPPB had very different effects on respiratory muscle activity in healthy non-intubated subjects. IPPB machines not only failed to reduce patient's effort but also induced a significant level of extra work by comparison to spontaneous ventilation at ambient pressure. Great caution is, therefore, needed in the use of patient-triggered devices

  5. Focal cartilage defect compromises fluid-pressure dependent load support in the knee joint.

    PubMed

    Dabiri, Yaghoub; Li, LePing

    2015-06-01

    A focal cartilage defect involves tissue loss or rupture. Altered mechanics in the affected joint may play an essential role in the onset and progression of osteoarthritis. The objective of the present study was to determine the compromised load support in the human knee joint during defect progression from the cartilage surface to the cartilage-bone interface. Ten normal and defect cases were simulated with a previously tested 3D finite element model of the knee. The focal defects were considered in both condyles within high load-bearing regions. Fluid pressurization, anisotropic fibril-reinforcement, and depth-dependent mechanical properties were considered for the articular cartilages and menisci. The results showed that a small cartilage defect could cause 25% reduction in the load support of the knee joint due to a reduced capacity of fluid pressurization in the defect cartilage. A partial-thickness defect could cause a fluid pressure decrease or increase in the remaining underlying cartilage depending on the defect depth. A cartilage defect also increased the shear strain at the cartilage-bone interface, which was more significant with a full-thickness defect. The effect of cartilage defect on the fluid pressurization also depended on the defect sites and contact conditions. In conclusion, a focal cartilage defect causes a fluid-pressure dependent load reallocation and a compromised load support in the joint, which depend on the defect depth, site, and contact condition.

  6. Focal cartilage defect compromises fluid-pressure dependent load support in the knee joint.

    PubMed

    Dabiri, Yaghoub; Li, LePing

    2015-06-01

    A focal cartilage defect involves tissue loss or rupture. Altered mechanics in the affected joint may play an essential role in the onset and progression of osteoarthritis. The objective of the present study was to determine the compromised load support in the human knee joint during defect progression from the cartilage surface to the cartilage-bone interface. Ten normal and defect cases were simulated with a previously tested 3D finite element model of the knee. The focal defects were considered in both condyles within high load-bearing regions. Fluid pressurization, anisotropic fibril-reinforcement, and depth-dependent mechanical properties were considered for the articular cartilages and menisci. The results showed that a small cartilage defect could cause 25% reduction in the load support of the knee joint due to a reduced capacity of fluid pressurization in the defect cartilage. A partial-thickness defect could cause a fluid pressure decrease or increase in the remaining underlying cartilage depending on the defect depth. A cartilage defect also increased the shear strain at the cartilage-bone interface, which was more significant with a full-thickness defect. The effect of cartilage defect on the fluid pressurization also depended on the defect sites and contact conditions. In conclusion, a focal cartilage defect causes a fluid-pressure dependent load reallocation and a compromised load support in the joint, which depend on the defect depth, site, and contact condition. PMID:25727068

  7. Support vector machine with adaptive composite kernel for hyperspectral image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Du, Qian

    2015-05-01

    With the improvement of spatial resolution of hyperspectral imagery, it is more reasonable to include spatial information in classification. The resulting spectral-spatial classification outperforms the traditional hyperspectral image classification with spectral information only. Among many spectral-spatial classifiers, support vector machine with composite kernel (SVM-CK) can provide superior performance, with one kernel for spectral information and the other for spatial information. In the original SVM-CK, the spatial information is retrieved by spatial averaging of pixels in a local neighborhood, and used in classifying the central pixel. Obviously, not all the pixels in such a local neighborhood may belong to the same class. Thus, we investigate the performance of Gaussian lowpass filter and an adaptive filter with weights being assigned based on the similarity to the central pixel. The adaptive filter can significantly improve classification accuracy while the Gaussian lowpass filter is less time-consuming and less sensitive to the window size.

  8. Runtime and Programming Support for Memory Adaptation in Scientific Applications via Local Disk and Remote Memory

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Richard T; Yue, Chuan; Andreas, Stathopoulos; Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios S

    2007-01-01

    The ever increasing memory demands of many scientific applications and the complexity of today's shared computational resources still require the occasional use of virtual memory, network memory, or even out-of-core implementations, with well known drawbacks in performance and usability. In Mills et al. (Adapting to memory pressure from within scientific applications on multiprogrammed COWS. In: International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, IPDPS, Santa Fe, NM, 2004), we introduced a basic framework for a runtime, user-level library, MMlib, in which DRAM is treated as a dynamic size cache for large memory objects residing on local disk. Application developers can specify and access these objects through MMlib, enabling their application to execute optimally under variable memory availability, using as much DRAM as fluctuating memory levels will allow. In this paper, we first extend our earlier MMlib prototype from a proof of concept to a usable, robust, and flexible library. We present a general framework that enables fully customizable memory malleability in a wide variety of scientific applications. We provide several necessary enhancements to the environment sensing capabilities of MMlib, and introduce a remote memory capability, based on MPI communication of cached memory blocks between 'compute nodes' and designated memory servers. The increasing speed of interconnection networks makes a remote memory approach attractive, especially at the large granularity present in large scientific applications. We show experimental results from three important scientific applications that require the general MMlib framework. The memory-adaptive versions perform nearly optimally under constant memory pressure and execute harmoniously with other applications competing for memory, without thrashing the memory system. Under constant memory pressure, we observe execution time improvements of factors between three and

  9. Reduced Pressure Atmosphere Impacts on Life Support and Internal Thermal Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly

    2006-01-01

    Selecting the appropriate atmosphere for a spacecraft and mission is a complicated problem. NASA has previously used atmospheres from Earth normal composition and pressure to pure oxygen at low pressures. Future exploration missions will likely strike a compromise somewhere between the two, trying to balance operation impacts on EVA, safety concerns for flammability and health risks, life science and physiology questions, and other issues. Life support systems and internal thermal control systems are areas that will have to respond to changes in the atmospheric composition and pressure away from the Earthlike conditions currently used on the International Space Station. This paper examines life support and internal thermal control technologies currently in use or in development to find what impacts in design, efficiency and performance, or feasibility might be expected. Understanding these changes should be helpful in producing better results during future trade studies or mission analyses.

  10. Invited review: Are adaptations present to support dairy cattle productivity in warm climates?

    PubMed

    Berman, A

    2011-05-01

    Environmental heat stress, present during warm seasons and warm episodes, severely impairs dairy cattle performance, particularly in warmer climates. It is widely viewed that warm climate breeds (Zebu and Sanga cattle) are adapted to the climate in which they evolved. Such adaptations might be exploited for increasing cattle productivity in warm climates and decrease the effect of warm periods in cooler climates. The literature was reviewed for presence of such adaptations. Evidence is clear for resistance to ticks and tick-transmitted diseases in Zebu and Sanga breeds as well as for a possible development of resistance to ticks in additional breeds. Development of resistance to ticks demands time; hence, it needs to be balanced with potential use of insecticides or vaccination. The presumption of higher sweating rates in Zebu-derived breeds, based upon morphological differences in sweat glands between breeds, has not been substantiated. Relatively few studies have examined hair coat characteristics and their responses to seasonal heat, particularly in temperate climate breeds. Recently, a gene for slick hair coat has been observed that improved heat tolerance when introduced into temperate climate breeds. No solid evidence exists that hair coat in these lines is lighter than in well-fed warm climate-adapted Holsteins. Warm climate breeds and their F1 crosses share as dominant characteristics lower maintenance requirements and milk yields, and limited response to improved feeding and management. These characteristics are not adaptations to a feed-limited environment but are constitutive and useful in serving survival when feed is scarce and seasonal and high temperatures prevail. The negative relationship between milk yield and fertility present in temperate climates breeds also prevails in Zebu cattle. Fertility impairment by warm conditions might be counteracted in advanced farming systems by extra corporeal early embryo culture. In general, adaptations found in

  11. Supporting UK adaptation: building services for the next set of UK climate projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Fai; Lowe, Jason

    2016-04-01

    As part of the Climate Change Act 2008, the UK Government sets out a national adaptation programme to address the risks and opportunities identified in a national climate change risk assessment (CCRA) every five years. The last risk assessment in 2012 was based on the probabilistic projections for the UK published in 2009 (UKCP09). The second risk assessment will also use information from UKCP09 alongside other evidence on climate projections. However, developments in the science of climate projeciton, and evolving user needs (based partly on what has been learnt about the diverse user requirements of the UK adaptation community from the seven years of delivering and managing UKCP09 products, market research and the peer-reviewed literature) suggest now is an appropriate time to update the projections and how they are delivered. A new set of UK climate projections are now being produced to upgrade UKCP09 to reflect the latest developments in climate science, the first phase of which will be delivered in 2018 to support the third CCRA. A major component of the work is the building of a tailored service to support users of the new projections during their development and to involve users in key decisions so that the projections are of most use. We will set out the plan for the new climate projections that seek to address the evolving user need. We will also present a framework which aims to (i) facilitate the dialogue between users, boundary organisations and producers, reflecting their different decision-making roles (ii) produce scientifically robust, user-relevant climate information (iii) provide the building blocks for developing further climate services to support adaptation activities in the UK.

  12. SLODAR turbulence monitors for real-time support of astronomical adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Richard; Butterley, Timothy; Sarazin, Marc; Lombardi, Gianluca; Chun, Mark; Benigni, Samuel; Weir, Donald; Avila, Remy; Aviles, Jose-Luis

    2008-07-01

    We describe the current status of the SLODAR optical turbulence monitors, developed at Durham University, for support of adaptive optics for astronomy. SLODAR systems have been installed and operated at the Cerro Paranal and Mauna Kea observatories, and a third will be deployed at the South African Astronomical Observatory in 2008. The instruments provide real-time measurements of the atmospheric turbulence strength, altitude and velocity. We summarize the capabilities of the systems and describe recent enhancements. Comparisons of contemporaneous data obtained with SLODAR, MASS and DIMM monitors at the ESO Paranal site are presented.

  13. Pressure injection of calcium both excites and adapts Limulus ventral photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Single pressure injections of 1-2 mM calcium aspartate into the light- sensitive region of Limulus ventral photoreceptors resulted in a rapid, 20-40-mV depolarization lasting approximately 2 s. The depolarization closely followed the rise in intracellular free calcium caused by the injection, as indicated by aequorin luminescence. The depolarization was followed by reversible desensitization (adaptation) of responses to both light and inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate. Similar single injections of calcium into the light-insensitive region of the receptor were essentially without effect, even though aequorin luminescence indicated a large, rapid rise in intracellular free calcium. The depolarization caused by injection of calcium arose from the activation of an inward current with rectification characteristics and a reversal potential between +10 and +20 mV that were similar to those of the light- activated conductance, which suggests that the same channels were activated by light and by calcium. The reversal potentials of the light- and calcium-activated currents shifted similarly when three-fourths of the extracellular sodium was replaced by sucrose, but were not affected by a similar replacement of sodium by lithium. The current activated by calcium was abolished by prior injection of a calcium buffer solution containing EGTA. The responses of the same cells to brief light flashes were slowed and diminished in amplitude, but were not abolished after the injection of calcium buffer. Light adaptation and prior injection of calcium diminished the calcium-activated current much less than they diminished the light-activated current. PMID:3734748

  14. Multigrid iterative method with adaptive spatial support for computed tomography reconstruction from few-view data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ping-Chang

    2014-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) plays a key role in modern medical system, whether it be for diagnosis or therapy. As an increased risk of cancer development is associated with exposure to radiation, reducing radiation exposure in CT becomes an essential issue. Based on the compressive sensing (CS) theory, iterative based method with total variation (TV) minimization is proven to be a powerful framework for few-view tomographic image reconstruction. Multigrid method is an iterative method for solving both linear and nonlinear systems, especially when the system contains a huge number of components. In medical imaging, image background is often defined by zero intensity, thus attaining spatial support of the image, which is helpful for iterative reconstruction. In the proposed method, the image support is not considered as a priori knowledge. Rather, it evolves during the reconstruction process. Based on the CS framework, we proposed a multigrid method with adaptive spatial support constraint. The simultaneous algebraic reconstruction (SART) with TV minimization is implemented for comparison purpose. The numerical result shows: 1. Multigrid method has better performance while less than 60 views of projection data were used, 2. Spatial support highly improves the CS reconstruction, and 3. When few views of projection data were measured, our method performs better than the SART+TV method with spatial support constraint.

  15. The importance of trabecular hypertrophy in right ventricular adaptation to chronic pressure overload.

    PubMed

    van de Veerdonk, Mariëlle C; Dusoswa, Sophie A; Marcus, J Tim; Bogaard, Harm-Jan; Spruijt, Onno; Kind, Taco; Westerhof, Nico; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton

    2014-02-01

    To assess the contribution of right ventricular (RV) trabeculae and papillary muscles (TPM) to RV mass and volumes in controls and patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Furthermore, to evaluate whether TPM shows a similar response as the RV free wall (RVFW) to changes in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) during follow-up. 50 patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and right heart catheterization at baseline and after one-year follow-up. Furthermore 20 controls underwent CMR. RV masses were assessed with and without TPM. TPM constituted a larger proportion of total RV mass and RV end-diastolic volume (RVEDV) in PAH than in controls (Mass: 35 ± 7 vs. 25 ± 5 %; p < 0.001; RVEDV: 17 ± 6 vs. 12 ± 6 %; p = 0.003). TPM mass was related to the RVFW mass in patients (baseline: R = 0.65; p < 0.001; follow-up: R = 0.80; p < 0.001) and controls (R = 0.76; p < 0.001). In PAH and controls, exclusion of TPM from the assessment resulted in altered RV mass, volumes and function than when included (all p < 0.01). Changes in RV TPM mass (β = 0.44; p = 0.004) but not the changes in RVFW mass (p = 0.095) were independently related to changes in PAP during follow-up. RV TPM showed a larger contribution to total RV mass in PAH (~35 %) compared to controls (~25 %). Inclusion of TPM in the analyses significantly influenced the magnitude of the RV volumes and mass. Furthermore, TPM mass was stronger related to changes in PAP than RVFW mass. Our results implicate that TPM are important contributors to RV adaptation during pressure overload and cannot be neglected from the RV assessment.

  16. Dynamic genetic linkage of intermediate blood pressure phenotypes during postural adaptations in a founder population

    PubMed Central

    Arenas, I. A.; Tremblay, J.; Deslauriers, B.; Sandoval, J.; Šeda, O.; Gaudet, D.; Merlo, E.; Kotchen, T.; Cowley, A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is a dynamic phenotype that varies rapidly to adjust to changing environmental conditions. Standing upright is a recent evolutionary trait, and genetic factors that influence postural adaptations may contribute to BP variability. We studied the effect of posture on the genetics of BP and intermediate BP phenotypes. We included 384 sib-pairs in 64 sib-ships from families ascertained by early-onset hypertension and dyslipidemia. Blood pressure, three hemodynamic and seven neuroendocrine intermediate BP phenotypes were measured with subjects lying supine and standing upright. The effect of posture on estimates of heritability and genetic covariance was investigated in full pedigrees. Linkage was conducted on 196 candidate genes by sib-pair analyses, and empirical estimates of significance were obtained. A permutation algorithm was implemented to study the postural effect on linkage. ADRA1A, APO, CAST, CORIN, CRHR1, EDNRB, FGF2, GC, GJA1, KCNB2, MMP3, NPY, NR3C2, PLN, TGFBR2, TNFRSF6, and TRHR showed evidence of linkage with any phenotype in the supine position and not upon standing, whereas AKR1B1, CD36, EDNRA, F5, MMP9, PKD2, PON1, PPARG, PPARGC1A, PRKCA, and RET were specifically linked to standing phenotypes. Genetic profiling was undertaken to show genetic interactions among intermediate BP phenotypes and genes specific to each posture. When investigators perform genetic studies exclusively on a single posture, important genetic components of BP are missed. Supine and standing BPs have distinct genetic signatures. Standardized maneuvers influence the results of genetic investigations into BP, thus reflecting its dynamic regulation. PMID:23269701

  17. An adaptive online learning approach for Support Vector Regression: Online-SVR-FID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jie; Zio, Enrico

    2016-08-01

    Support Vector Regression (SVR) is a popular supervised data-driven approach for building empirical models from available data. Like all data-driven methods, under non-stationary environmental and operational conditions it needs to be provided with adaptive learning capabilities, which might become computationally burdensome with large datasets cumulating dynamically. In this paper, a cost-efficient online adaptive learning approach is proposed for SVR by combining Feature Vector Selection (FVS) and Incremental and Decremental Learning. The proposed approach adaptively modifies the model only when different pattern drifts are detected according to proposed criteria. Two tolerance parameters are introduced in the approach to control the computational complexity, reduce the influence of the intrinsic noise in the data and avoid the overfitting problem of SVR. Comparisons of the prediction results is made with other online learning approaches e.g. NORMA, SOGA, KRLS, Incremental Learning, on several artificial datasets and a real case study concerning time series prediction based on data recorded on a component of a nuclear power generation system. The performance indicators MSE and MARE computed on the test dataset demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed online learning method.

  18. Incidence of Parental Support and Pressure on Their Children's Motivational Processes towards Sport Practice Regarding Gender.

    PubMed

    Amado, Diana; Sánchez-Oliva, David; González-Ponce, Inmaculada; Pulido-González, Juan José; Sánchez-Miguel, Pedro Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Grounded in Self-Determination Theory, structural equation modeling (SEM) with the aim of examining how parental support/pressure could influence their children´s motivational processes in sport was conducted, as well as the models´ differences in operability regarding gender. The sample size was 321 children ranging in age from 10 to 16 years old who were athletes from Extremadura, and 321 parents (included only the father or mother more involved with the sport of his or her child). 175 participants were male and 146 were female from individual (n = 130), and team sports (n=191). A questionnaire was conducted to assess parental perception of support/pressure and another questionnaire was conducted to measure satisfaction of basic psychological needs, type of motivation and enjoyment/boredom showed by their children towards sport practice. Results revealed that parental pressure negatively predicted satisfaction of the basic psychological needs. It also emerged as a strong positive predictor of intrinsic motivation and negative predictor of amotivation. Moreover, intrinsic motivation emerged as positive predictor of enjoyment and a negative predictor of boredom, whereas amotivation positively predicted boredom and negatively predicted enjoyment. Furthermore, results showed there were mean differences by gender: male athletes perceived greater parental pressure. Hence, it is necessary to decrease parental pressure towards their children in sport, with the aim of making them more motivated and enjoy, promoting positive consequences.

  19. An adaptive support driven reweighted L1-regularization algorithm for fluorescence molecular tomography.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junwei; Liu, Fei; Pu, Huangsheng; Zuo, Simin; Luo, Jianwen; Bai, Jing

    2014-11-01

    Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) is a promising in vivo functional imaging modality in preclinical study. When solving the ill-posed FMT inverse problem, L1 regularization can preserve the details and reduce the noise in the reconstruction results effectively. Moreover, compared with the regular L1 regularization, reweighted L1 regularization is recently reported to improve the performance. In order to realize the reweighted L1 regularization for FMT, an adaptive support driven reweighted L1-regularization (ASDR-L1) algorithm is proposed in this work. This algorithm has two integral parts: an adaptive support estimate and the iteratively updated weights. In the iteratively reweighted L1-minimization sub-problem, different weights are equivalent to different regularization parameters at different locations. Thus, ASDR-L1 can be considered as a kind of spatially variant regularization methods for FMT. Physical phantom and in vivo mouse experiments were performed to validate the proposed algorithm. The results demonstrate that the proposed reweighted L1-reguarization algorithm can significantly improve the performance in terms of relative quantitation and spatial resolution.

  20. Pressure adaptation of 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase from an extremely piezophilic bacterium is attributed to a single amino acid substitution.

    PubMed

    Hamajima, Yuki; Nagae, Takayuki; Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Ohmae, Eiji; Kato-Yamada, Yasuyuki; Kato, Chiaki

    2016-03-01

    3-Isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (IPMDH) from the extreme piezophile Shewanella benthica (SbIPMDH) is more pressure-tolerant than that from the atmospheric pressure-adapted Shewanella oneidensis (SoIPMDH). To understand the molecular mechanisms of this pressure tolerance, we analyzed mutated enzymes. The results indicate that only a single mutation at position 266, corresponding to Ala (SbIPMDH) and Ser (SoIPMDH), essentially affects activity under higher-pressure conditions. Structural analyses of SoIPMDH suggests that penetration of three water molecules into the cleft around Ser266 under high-pressure conditions could reduce the activity of the wild-type enzyme; however, no water molecule is observed in the Ala266 mutant. PMID:26847201

  1. Intermittent cardiac overload results in adaptive hypertrophy and provides protection against left ventricular acute pressure overload insult.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Gonçalves, Daniel; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago; Fonseca, Hélder; Ferreira, Rita; Padrão, Ana Isabel; Santa, Cátia; Vieira, Sara; Silva, Ana Filipa; Amado, Francisco; Leite-Moreira, Adelino; Duarte, José Alberto

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to test whether a chronic intermittent workload could induce an adaptive cardiac phenotype Chronic intermittent workload induced features of adaptive hypertrophy This was paralleled by protection against acute pressure overload insult The heart may adapt favourably to balanced demands, regardless of the nature of the stimuli. The present study aimed to test whether submitting the healthy heart to intermittent and tolerable amounts of workload, independently of its nature, could result in an adaptive cardiac phenotype. Male Wistar rats were subjected to treadmill running (Ex) (n = 20), intermittent cardiac overload with dobutamine (ITO) (2 mg kg(-1) , s.c.; n = 20) or placebo administration (Cont) (n = 20) for 5 days week(-1) for 8 weeks. Animals were then killed for histological and biochemical analysis or subjected to left ventricular haemodynamic evaluation under baseline conditions, in response to isovolumetric contractions and to sustained LV acute pressure overload (35% increase in peak systolic pressure maintained for 2 h). Baseline cardiac function was enhanced only in Ex, whereas the response to isovolumetric heartbeats was improved in both ITO and Ex. By contrast to the Cont group, in which rats developed diastolic dysfunction with sustained acute pressure overload, ITO and Ex showed increased tolerance to this stress test. Both ITO and Ex developed cardiomyocyte hypertrophy without fibrosis, no overexpression of osteopontin-1 or β-myosin heavy chain, and increased expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) protein. Regarding hypertrophic pathways, ITO and Ex showed activation of the protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway but not calcineurin. Mitochondrial complex IV and V activities were also increased in ITO and Ex. Chronic submission to controlled intermittent cardiac overload, independently of its nature, results in an adaptive cardiac phenotype. Features of the cardiac overload, such as the duration and

  2. Facilitating adaptive management in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed through the use of online decision support tools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullinx, Cassandra; Phillips, Scott; Shenk, Kelly; Hearn, Paul; Devereux, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP) is attempting to more strategically implement management actions to improve the health of the Nation’s largest estuary. In 2007 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) CBP office began a joint effort to develop a suite of Internetaccessible decision-support tools and to help meet the needs of CBP partners to improve water quality and habitat conditions in the Chesapeake Bay and its watersheds. An adaptive management framework is being used to provide a structured decision process for information and individual tools needed to implement and assess practices to improve the condition of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. The Chesapeake Online Adaptive Support Toolkit (COAST) is a collection of web-based analytical tools and information, organized in an adaptive management framework, intended to aid decisionmakers in protecting and restoring the integrity of the Bay ecosystem. The initial version of COAST is focused on water quality issues. During early and mid- 2008, initial ideas for COAST were shared and discussed with various CBP partners and other potential user groups. At these meetings, test cases were selected to help improve understanding of the types of information and analytical functionality that would be most useful for specific partners’ needs. These discussions added considerable knowledge about the nature of decisionmaking for Federal, State, local and nongovernmental partners. Version 1.0 of COAST, released in early winter of 2008, will be further reviewed to determine improvements needed to address implementation and assessment of water quality practices. Future versions of COAST may address other aspects of ecosystem restoration, including restoration of habitat and living resources and maintaining watershed health.

  3. Instabilities of bellows: Dependence on internal pressure, end supports, and interactions in accelerator magnet systems

    SciTech Connect

    Shutt, R.P.; Rehak, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    For superconducting magnets, one needs many bellows for connection of various helium cooling transfer lines in addition to beam tube bellows. There could be approximately 10,000 magnet interconnection bellows in the SSC exposed to an internal pressure. When axially compressed or internally pressurized, bellows can become unstable, leading to gross distortion or complete failure. If several bellows are contained in an assembly, failure modes might interact. If designed properly, large bellows can be a very feasible possibility for connecting the large tubular shells that support the magnet iron yokes and superconducting coils and contain supercritical helium for magnet cooling. We present here (1) a spring-supported bellows model, in order to develop necessary design features for bellows and end supports so that instabilities will not occur in the bellows pressure operating region, including some margin, (2) a model of three superconducting accelerator magnets connected by two large bellows, in order to ascertain that support requirements are satisfied and in order to study interaction effects between the two bellows. Reliability of bellows for our application will be stressed. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Self: an adaptive pressure arising from self-organization, chaotic dynamics, and neural Darwinism.

    PubMed

    Bruzzo, Angela Alessia; Vimal, Ram Lakhan Pandey

    2007-12-01

    In this article, we establish a model to delineate the emergence of "self" in the brain making recourse to the theory of chaos. Self is considered as the subjective experience of a subject. As essential ingredients of subjective experiences, our model includes wakefulness, re-entry, attention, memory, and proto-experiences. The stability as stated by chaos theory can potentially describe the non-linear function of "self" as sensitive to initial conditions and can characterize it as underlying order from apparently random signals. Self-similarity is discussed as a latent menace of a pathological confusion between "self" and "others". Our test hypothesis is that (1) consciousness might have emerged and evolved from a primordial potential or proto-experience in matter, such as the physical attractions and repulsions experienced by electrons, and (2) "self" arises from chaotic dynamics, self-organization and selective mechanisms during ontogenesis, while emerging post-ontogenically as an adaptive pressure driven by both volume and synaptic-neural transmission and influencing the functional connectivity of neural nets (structure).

  5. PACS—Realization of an adaptive concept using pressure actuated cellular structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramüller, B.; Boblenz, J.; Hühne, C.

    2014-10-01

    A biologically inspired concept is investigated which can be utilized to develop energy efficient, lightweight and applicational flexible adaptive structures. Building a real life morphing unit is an ambitious task as the numerous works in the particular field show. Summarizing fundamental demands and barriers regarding shape changing structures, the basic challenges of designing morphing structures are listed. The concept of Pressure Actuated Cellular Structures (PACS) is arranged within the recent morphing activities and it is shown that it complies with the underlying demands. Systematically divided into energy-related and structural subcomponents the working principle is illuminated and relationships between basic design parameters are expressed. The analytical background describing the physical mechanisms of PACS is presented in concentrated manner. This work focuses on the procedure of dimensioning, realizing and experimental testing of a single cell and a single row cantilever made of PACS. The experimental outcomes as well as the results from the FEM computations are used for evaluating the analytical methods. The functionality of the basic principle is thus validated and open issues are determined pointing the way ahead.

  6. Oscillometric measurement of arterial pulse pressure for patients supported by a rotary blood pump.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yih-Choung; Peterson, Anna

    2015-01-01

    A computer model has been developed to evaluate the accuracy of an oscillometric method to measure the arterial pulse pressure from a patient with a rotary ventricular assist device (VAD). This computer model consists of three major components: the cardiovascular system, the HeartMate II VAD, and the operation of an automated cuff. Simulation was performed to mimic failure, recovery, and normal cardiac functions of a patient, supported by the HeartMate II VAD at different levels from minimum to maximum. The oscillating cuff pressure, simulating the air pressure of a deflecting cuff, was obtained from simulation under different conditions to test the accuracy of an oscillometric algorithm in determining the arterial pulse pressure. The algorithm was able to detect the systolic and diastolic arterial pressure with the error within ±2 mmHg in most cases, except the cases when ventricular suction, induced by the VAD, occurred. The results from this study suggested that the oscillometric algorithm is capable to accurately detect the arterial pulse pressure for a rotary VAD patient if the algorithm is properly tuned.

  7. Preliminary study of the space adaptation of the MELiSSA life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mas-Albaigès, Joan L.; Duatis, Jordi; Podhajsky, Sandra; Guirado, Víctor; Poughon, Laurent

    MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is an European Space Agency (ESA) project focused on the development of a closed regenerative life support system to aid the development of technologies for future life support systems for long term manned planetary missions, e.g. a lunar base or missions to Mars. In order to understand the potential evolution of the MELiSSA concept towards its future use in the referred manned planetary mission context the MELiSSA Space Adaptation (MSA) activity has been undertaken. MSA's main objective is to model the different MELiSSA compartments using EcosimPro R , a specialized simulation tool for life support applications, in order to define a preliminary MELiSSA implementation for service in a man-tended lunar base scenario, with a four-member crew rotating in six-month increments, and performing the basic LSS functions of air revitalization, food production, and waste and water recycling. The MELiSSA EcosimPro R Model features a dedicated library for the different MELiSSA elements (bioreactors, greenhouse, crew, interconnecting elements, etc.). It is used to dimension the MELiSSA system in terms of major parameters like mass, volume and energy needs, evaluate the accuracy of the results and define the strategy for a progressive loop closure from the initial required performance (approx.100 The MELiSSA configuration(s) obtained through the EcosimPro R simulation are further analysed using the Advanced Life Support System Evaluation (ALISSE) metric, relying on mass, energy, efficiency, human risk, system reliability and crew time, for trade-off and optimization of results. The outcome of the MSA activity is, thus, a potential Life Support System architecture description, based on combined MELiSSA and other physico-chemical technologies, defining its expected performance, associated operational conditions and logistic needs.

  8. Design of high pressure oxygen filter for extravehicular activity life support system, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, B. A.

    1977-01-01

    The experience of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with extravehicular activity life support emergency oxygen supply subsystems has shown a large number of problems associated with particulate contamination. These problems have resulted in failures of high pressure oxygen component sealing surfaces. A high pressure oxygen filter was designed which would (a) control the particulate contamination level in the oxygen system to a five-micron glass bead rating, ten-micron absolute condition (b) withstand the dynamic shock condition resulting from the sudden opening of 8000 psi oxygen system shutoff valve. Results of the following program tasks are reported: (1) contaminant source identification tests, (2) dynamic system tests, (3) high pressure oxygen filter concept evaluation, (4) design, (5) fabrication, (6) test, and (7) application demonstration.

  9. Limit cycle stability analysis and adaptive control of a multi-compartment model for a pressure-limited respirator and lung mechanics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chellaboina, VijaySekhar; Haddad, Wassim M.; Li, Hancao; Bailey, James M.

    2010-05-01

    Acute respiratory failure due to infection, trauma or major surgery is one of the most common problems encountered in intensive care units, and mechanical ventilation is the mainstay of supportive therapy for such patients. In this article, we develop a general mathematical model for the dynamic behaviour of a multi-compartment respiratory system in response to an arbitrary applied inspiratory pressure. Specifically, we use compartmental dynamical system theory and Poincaré maps to model and analyse the dynamics of a pressure-limited respirator and lung mechanics system, and show that the periodic orbit generated by this system is globally asymptotically stable. Furthermore, we show that the individual compartmental volumes, and hence the total lung volume, converge to steady-state end-inspiratory and end-expiratory values. Finally, we develop a model reference direct adaptive controller framework for the multi-compartmental model of a pressure-limited respirator and lung mechanics system where the plant and reference model involve switching and time-varying dynamics. We then apply the proposed adaptive feedback controller framework to stabilise a given limit cycle corresponding to a clinically plausible respiratory pattern.

  10. [Research on Adaptive Balance Reaction for Gait Slippery Instability Events on Level Walk Based on Plantar Pressure and Gait Parameter Analysis].

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Junxia; Si, Ying

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, for gait instability phenomenon, many researches have been carried out at home and abroad. However, the relationship between plantar pressure and gait parameters in the process of balance adjustment is still unclear. This study describes the human body adaptive balance reaction during slip events on slippery level walk by plantar pressure and gait analysis. Ten healthy male subjects walked on a level path wearing shoes with two contrastive contaminants (dry, oil). The study collected and analyzed the change rule of spatiotemporal parameters, plantar pressure parameters, vertical ground reaction force (VGRF), etc. The results showed that the human body adaptive balance reaction during slip events on slippery level walk mainly included lighter touch at the heel strikes, tighter grip at the toe offs, a lower velocity, a shorter stride length and longer support time. These changes are used to maintain or recover body balance. These results would be able to explore new ideas and provide reference value for slip injury prevention, walking rehabilitation training design, research and development of walking assistive equipments, etc. PMID:27079090

  11. Lateral Pressure Dependence of the Phospholipid Transmembrane Diffusion Rate in Planar-Supported Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Anglin, Timothy C.; Conboy, John C.

    2008-01-01

    The dependence of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) flip-flop kinetics on the lateral membrane pressure in a phospholipid bilayer was investigated by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy. Planar-supported lipid bilayers were prepared on fused silica supports using the Langmuir-Blodgett/Langmuir-Schaeffer technique, which allows precise control over the lateral surface pressure and packing density of the membrane. The lipid bilayer deposition pressure was varied from 28 to 42 mN/m. The kinetics of lipid flip-flop in these membranes was measured by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy at 37°C. An order-of-magnitude difference in the rate constant for lipid translocation (10.9 × 10−4 s−1 to 1.03 × 10−4 s−1) was measured for membranes prepared at 28 mN/m and 42 mN/m, respectively. This change in rate results from only a 7.4% change in the packing density of the lipids in the bilayer. From the observed kinetics, the area of activation for native phospholipid flip-flop in a protein-free DPPC planar-supported lipid bilayer was determined to be 73 ± 12 Å2/molecule at 37°C. Significance of the observed activation area and potential future applications of the technique to the study of phospholipid flip-flop are discussed. PMID:18339755

  12. Importance of ammonia pressure in the kinetics of ammonia synthesis over supported Ru

    SciTech Connect

    Holzman, P.R.; Shiflett, W.K.; Dumesic, J.A.

    1980-03-01

    This study examines the ammonia dependence of the synthesis rate over supported (but unpromoted) ruthenium using data collected with a flow reactor coupled with effluent ammonia determination. Silica gel and ..gamma..-alumina powder were impregnated to Ca. 1.0 to 1.3 wt % ruthenium loading by incipient wetness using an aqueous solution of RuCl/sub 3/ . 3 H/sub 2/O. Following this impregnation, the samples were dried overnight in air at 380 K, and then a portion, 1.5 g in the case of the silica-supported sample and 2.2 g in the case of the alumina-supported sample, was loaded into a flow reactor for hydrogen reduction (at 700K for ca. 50h) and subsequent ammonia synthesis studies at atmospheric pressure (0.1 MPa). This study has yielded ammonia synthesis turnover frequencies and apparent activation energies at constant flow rate that are in good agreement with the results of Ozaki et al. This study has also shown that the rate of ammonia synthesis does indeed exhibit an ammonia dependence in the same range of ammonia pressures studied by Ozaki et al. Apparent activation energies calculated at constant ammonia pressure are greater than those determined at constant flow rate. 6 figures, 1 table. (DP)

  13. ORION Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Suit Loop and Pressure Control Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckhardt, Brad; Conger, Bruce; Stambaugh, Imelda C.

    2015-01-01

    Under NASA's ORION Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Project at Johnson Space Center's (JSC), the Crew and Thermal Systems Division has developed performance models of the air system using Thermal Desktop/FloCAD. The Thermal Desktop model includes an Air Revitalization System (ARS Loop), a Suit Loop, a Cabin Loop, and Pressure Control System (PCS) for supplying make-up gas (N2 and O2) to the Cabin and Suit Loop. The ARS and PCS are designed to maintain air quality at acceptable O2, CO2 and humidity levels as well as internal pressures in the vehicle Cabin and during suited operations. This effort required development of a suite of Thermal Desktop Orion ECLSS models to address the need for various simulation capabilities regarding ECLSS performance. An initial highly detailed model of the ARS Loop was developed in order to simulate rapid pressure transients (water hammer effects) within the ARS Loop caused by events such as cycling of the Pressurized Swing Adsorption (PSA) Beds and required high temporal resolution (small time steps) in the model during simulation. A second ECLSS model was developed to simulate events which occur over longer periods of time (over 30 minutes) where O2, CO2 and humidity levels, as well as internal pressures needed to be monitored in the cabin and for suited operations. Stand-alone models of the PCS and the Negative Pressure relief Valve (NPRV) were developed to study thermal effects within the PCS during emergency scenarios (Cabin Leak) and cabin pressurization during vehicle re-entry into Earth's atmosphere. Results from the Orion ECLSS models were used during Orion Delta-PDR (July, 2014) to address Key Design Requirements (KDR's) for Suit Loop operations for multiple mission scenarios.

  14. The Role of Internalized Stereotyping, Parental Pressure, and Parental Support on Asian Americans' Choice of College Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Frances C.

    2015-01-01

    The author explored the relationship between internalized stereotyping, parental pressure, and parental support on major choices among 315 Asian American undergraduate and graduate students. Results indicated that parental support, but not parental pressure, toward certain majors was associated with more stereotypical major choices. In addition,…

  15. Length adaptive pressure assessment (L.A.P.A.) of metal loss data

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, K.; Wheeler, T.

    1999-07-01

    Pipeline Integrity International has developed a method for the assessment of pipeline inspection tool data that will likely reduce the conservatism inherent in methods currently employed. This development has been undertaken in response to the industry's requirements for more accurate prioritization of anomalies and allows for precise excavation and repair of those defects that pose a threat to the integrity of the pipeline. Such analysis enables rehabilitation strategies to be developed on sound engineering principles rather than in reaction to codes that are recognized as being ultra-conservative. In recent years, the introduction of RSTRENG has led to a more precise way of assessing metal loss and therefore the actual strength of the remaining pipe wall. The use of RSTRENG has gained wide acceptance in the pipeline industry. However, it is a tool that must be used 'in the ditch' after the excavation has been performed. One can argue that once the costs of excavating the defect have been incurred, the value of RSTRENG as a cost saving tool is significantly diminished. What is needed then is a method for analyzing metal loss data collected by an accurate inspection tool, incorporating the benefits of RSTRENG'S more accurate evaluation of remaining pipe strength prior to incurring the costs of excavation. This document addresses the evolution of defect assessment methods and subsequent evolution of data processing and reporting techniques, a more specific overview of the RSTRENG method, and describes the new approach for assessing metal loss data from an inspection tool: Length Adaptive Pressure Assessment (LAPA). Pipeline operators who use LAPA have experienced lower populations of metal loss called out as 'significant'. Although the LAPA method is relatively new, the information the authors receive from clients indicates that the approach holds a great deal of promise for realistic prioritization of repairs while still maintaining a consistent and prudent safety

  16. Adapting a SSKIN bundle for carers to aid identification of pressure damage and ulcer risks in the community.

    PubMed

    McCoulough, Siobhan

    2016-06-01

    If pressure damage is identified and addressed at an early stage, it may be reversed. Otherwise, it may quickly progress into a serious deep tissue injury. In the community, most daily skin care is undertaken by formal and informal carers. They therefore need to know how to identify signs that pressure ulcers may develop and what immediate actions to take. NICE guidance on pressure ulcer prevention is too extensive to be a simple tool for carers, so a SSKIN bundle was adapted for community use. This ensures carers know how to prevent and identify pressure damage, and includes skin care, repositioning and use of equipment. Carers need training. This is the responsibility of all involved with the patient, including health-care and local authority services.

  17. Adapting a SSKIN bundle for carers to aid identification of pressure damage and ulcer risks in the community.

    PubMed

    McCoulough, Siobhan

    2016-06-01

    If pressure damage is identified and addressed at an early stage, it may be reversed. Otherwise, it may quickly progress into a serious deep tissue injury. In the community, most daily skin care is undertaken by formal and informal carers. They therefore need to know how to identify signs that pressure ulcers may develop and what immediate actions to take. NICE guidance on pressure ulcer prevention is too extensive to be a simple tool for carers, so a SSKIN bundle was adapted for community use. This ensures carers know how to prevent and identify pressure damage, and includes skin care, repositioning and use of equipment. Carers need training. This is the responsibility of all involved with the patient, including health-care and local authority services. PMID:27297573

  18. Modeling of variable speed refrigerated display cabinets based on adaptive support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhikun; Han, Hua; Gu, Bo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the adaptive support vector machine (ASVM) method is introduced to the field of intelligent modeling of refrigerated display cabinets and used to construct a highly precise mathematical model of their performance. A model for a variable speed open vertical display cabinet was constructed using preprocessing techniques for measured data, including the elimination of outlying data points by the use of an exponential weighted moving average (EWMA). Using dynamic loss coefficient adjustment, the adaptation of the SVM for use in this application was achieved. From there, the object function for energy use per unit of display area total energy consumption (TEC)/total display area (TDA) was constructed and solved using the ASVM method. When compared to the results achieved using a back-propagation neural network (BPNN) model, the ASVM model for the refrigerated display cabinet was characterized by its simple structure, fast convergence speed and high prediction accuracy. The ASVM model also has better noise rejection properties than that of original SVM model. It was revealed by the theoretical analysis and experimental results presented in this paper that it is feasible to model of the display cabinet built using the ASVM method.

  19. Workload-Matched Adaptive Automation Support of Air Traffic Controller Information Processing Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaber, David B.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Wright, Melanie C.; Clamann, Michael P.

    2002-01-01

    Adaptive automation (AA) has been explored as a solution to the problems associated with human-automation interaction in supervisory control environments. However, research has focused on the performance effects of dynamic control allocations of early stage sensory and information acquisition functions. The present research compares the effects of AA to the entire range of information processing stages of human operators, such as air traffic controllers. The results provide evidence that the effectiveness of AA is dependent on the stage of task performance (human-machine system information processing) that is flexibly automated. The results suggest that humans are better able to adapt to AA when applied to lower-level sensory and psychomotor functions, such as information acquisition and action implementation, as compared to AA applied to cognitive (analysis and decision-making) tasks. The results also provide support for the use of AA, as compared to completely manual control. These results are discussed in terms of implications for AA design for aviation.

  20. CALM: Complex Adaptive System (CAS)-Based Decision Support for Enabling Organizational Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, Richard M.; Koehn, David J.

    Guiding organizations through transformational changes such as restructuring or adopting new technologies is a daunting task. Such changes generate workforce uncertainty, fear, and resistance, reducing morale, focus and performance. Conventional project management techniques fail to mitigate these disruptive effects, because social and individual changes are non-mechanistic, organic phenomena. CALM (for Change, Adaptation, Learning Model) is an innovative decision support system for enabling change based on CAS principles. CALM provides a low risk method for validating and refining change strategies that combines scenario planning techniques with "what-if" behavioral simulation. In essence, CALM "test drives" change strategies before rolling them out, allowing organizations to practice and learn from virtual rather than actual mistakes. This paper describes the CALM modeling methodology, including our metrics for measuring organizational readiness to respond to change and other major CALM scenario elements: prospective change strategies; alternate futures; and key situational dynamics. We then describe CALM's simulation engine for projecting scenario outcomes and its associated analytics. CALM's simulator unifies diverse behavioral simulation paradigms including: adaptive agents; system dynamics; Monte Carlo; event- and process-based techniques. CALM's embodiment of CAS dynamics helps organizations reduce risk and improve confidence and consistency in critical strategies for enabling transformations.

  1. The research and application of visual saliency and adaptive support vector machine in target tracking field.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuantao; Xu, Weihong; Kuang, Fangjun; Gao, Shangbing

    2013-01-01

    The efficient target tracking algorithm researches have become current research focus of intelligent robots. The main problems of target tracking process in mobile robot face environmental uncertainty. They are very difficult to estimate the target states, illumination change, target shape changes, complex backgrounds, and other factors and all affect the occlusion in tracking robustness. To further improve the target tracking's accuracy and reliability, we present a novel target tracking algorithm to use visual saliency and adaptive support vector machine (ASVM). Furthermore, the paper's algorithm has been based on the mixture saliency of image features. These features include color, brightness, and sport feature. The execution process used visual saliency features and those common characteristics have been expressed as the target's saliency. Numerous experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and timeliness of the proposed target tracking algorithm in video sequences where the target objects undergo large changes in pose, scale, and illumination. PMID:24363779

  2. Genomic support for a moa-tinamou clade and adaptive morphological convergence in flightless ratites.

    PubMed

    Baker, Allan J; Haddrath, Oliver; McPherson, John D; Cloutier, Alison

    2014-07-01

    One of the most startling discoveries in avian molecular phylogenetics is that the volant tinamous are embedded in the flightless ratites, but this topology remains controversial because recent morphological phylogenies place tinamous as the closest relative of a monophyletic ratite clade. Here, we integrate new phylogenomic sequences from 1,448 nuclear DNA loci totaling almost 1 million bp from the extinct little bush moa, Chilean tinamou, and emu with available sequences from ostrich, elegant crested tinamou, four neognaths, and the green anole. Phylogenetic analysis using standard homogeneous models and heterogeneous models robust to common topological artifacts recovered compelling support for ratite paraphyly with the little bush moa closest to tinamous within ratites. Ratite paraphyly was further corroborated by eight independent CR1 retroposon insertions. Analysis of morphological characters reinterpreted on a 27-gene paleognath topology indicates that many characters are convergent in the ratites, probably as the result of adaptation to a cursorial life style. PMID:24825849

  3. Immigration patterns, social support, and adaptation among Korean immigrant women and Korean American women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y; Grant, D

    1997-01-01

    There are little empirical data available on the mental health and social functioning of Korean American Women (both native U.S. born and foreign Korean-born U.S. residents, inclusive). State-of-the-art research used to inform social work practice is exploratory descriptive. With the goal of contributing to the social work knowledge base regarding this understudied population, this article uses an emic understanding and approach to examine immigration patterns, social support networks, and issues around adaptation experienced by Korean American women. Issues examined include gender role disruption, limited use of social services, and evidence of depressive symptoms in Korean American women and subsequent risk of substance abuse, suicide, battering, loss of employment, deficits in parenting, and mental health problems. Focus on these areas of functioning suggests the need for development of culturally competent community, family, individual, and organizational-level intervention strategies. PMID:9409069

  4. Does a Measure of Support Needs Predict Funding Need Better Than a Measure of Adaptive and Maladaptive Behavior?

    PubMed

    Arnold, Samuel R C; Riches, Vivienne C; Stancliffe, Roger J

    2015-09-01

    Internationally, various approaches are used for the allocation of individualized funding. When using a databased approach, a key question is the predictive validity of adaptive behavior versus support needs assessment. This article reports on a subset of data from a larger project that allowed for a comparison of support needs and adaptive behavior assessments when predicting person-centered funding allocation. The first phase of the project involved a trial of the Inventory for Client and Agency Planning (ICAP) adaptive behavior and Instrument for the Classification and Assessment of Support Needs (I-CAN)-Brief Research version support needs assessments. Participants were in receipt of an individual support package allocated using a person-centered planning process, and were stable in their support arrangements. Regression analysis showed that the most useful items in predicting funding allocation came from the I-CAN-Brief Research. No additional variance could be explained by adding the ICAP, or using the ICAP alone. A further unique approach of including only items from the I-CAN-Brief Research marked as funded supports showed high predictive validity. It appears support need is more effective at determining resource need than adaptive behavior. PMID:26322387

  5. Use of Pressure-Redistributing Support Surfaces among Elderly Hip Fracture Patients across the Continuum of Care: Adherence to Pressure Ulcer Prevention Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgarten, Mona; Margolis, David; Orwig, Denise; Hawkes, William; Rich, Shayna; Langenberg, Patricia; Shardell, Michelle; Palmer, Mary H.; McArdle, Patrick; Sterling, Robert; Jones, Patricia S.; Magaziner, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the frequency of use of pressure-redistributing support surfaces (PRSS) among hip fracture patients and to determine whether higher pressure ulcer risk is associated with greater PRSS use. Design and Methods: Patients (n = 658) aged [greater than or equal] 65 years who had surgery for hip fracture were examined by research…

  6. Impact of practice guidelines on support surface selection, incidence of pressure ulcers, and fiscal dollars.

    PubMed

    Dukich, J; O'Connor, D

    2001-03-01

    Predicated on a need to control overall hospital costs and to integrate a Level 1 trauma center (Campus A) with a family practice based tertiary care hospital system (Campus B), expenditures associated with rental support surfaces were evaluated. Consistency and appropriateness of support surface selection is necessary to promote positive clinical outcomes, patient comfort, and a healthier bottom line, despite increasing costs. Clinical practice guidelines for therapeutic support surfaces were developed to decrease support surface expenditures and maintain prevalence rates below national averages. Utilizing the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research algorithm for managing tissue loads, along with other guidelines, criteria for prevention, comfort, and treatment were developed to assist nurses and physicians in support surface selections. A prevalence study was conducted before these criteria were implemented and repeated 1 year later. Expenditures for all rental support surfaces were assessed quarterly. Campus A, with a history of higher financial expenditures, was monitored weekly to assess whether support surfaces selections met guideline recommendations. Nursing staff reviewed hospital protocol regarding guidelines before implementation, and a self-administered review test was required during the first year post-implementation. One year later, a modest decrease in annual expenditures for rental support surfaces was noted. Campus A had a decrease in nosocomial pressure ulcers, while Campus B had an increased prevalence rate. Staff selection of support surfaces, within guideline recommendations, improved to 75% on medical/surgical units, and 98.8% in ICUs on Campus A. Although implementing support surface selection guidelines did not result in a significant reduction in cost, it created a framework for monitoring future related decisions. PMID:11889749

  7. Adaptability test of lettuce to soil-like substrate in bioregenerative life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Yan; Liu, Professor Hong; Wenting, Fu

    Plant cultivation using soil-like substrate (SLS) is considered to be a feasible option for building up matter for biological turnover in bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) by many researchers. The characteristics of SLS are different from those of true soil therefore it is very important to study the adaptability of candidate crop to SLS in BLSS. This study was carried out in three successive steps to test the adaptability of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) to rice straw SLS in BLSS of China. First, six Chinese specific lettuce cultivars which were selected for Chinese advanced life support system were planted into the same rice straw SLS, which was to determine the more suitable plant cultivar to do the next experiment. The results showed that Sharp Leaf lettuce and Red lettuce were more suitable for SLS than other cultivars. Second, the possibility of increasing the crop yield on the SLS was conducted by changing the soil depth and plant density. Sharp Leaf lettuce and Red lettuce were used into this experiment in order to obtain the highest yield under the smallest soil volume and weight at the same light intensity. Crop edible biomass, crop nutrition content and photosynthetic characteristics were estimated during the experiment. Red lettuce obtained higher biomass and photosynthesis capacity. Lastly, the stability of planting system of lettuce and SLS was evaluated in the closed controlled system. Red lettuce would be the test plant. In this experiment different age lettuce groups would be planted together and gas exchange would be measured. In all of these experiments soil physical and chemical characteristics were also be measured which will be the basal data for further research.

  8. Influence of lower body pressure support on the walking patterns of healthy children and adults.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Max J; Deffeyes, Joan E; Arpin, David J; Karst, Gregory M; Stuberg, Wayne A

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of a lower body positive pressure support system on the joint kinematics and activity of the lower extremity antigravity musculature of adults and children during walking. Adults (age = 25 ± 4 years) and children (age = 13 ± 2 years) walked at a preferred speed and a speed that was based on the Froude number, while 0-80% of their body weight was supported. Electrogoniometers were used to monitor knee and ankle joint kinematics. Surface electromyography was used to quantify the magnitude of the vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius muscle activity. There were three key findings: (1) The lower extremity joint angles and activity of the lower extremity antigravity muscles of children did not differ from those of adults. (2) The magnitude of the changes in the lower extremity joint motion and antigravity muscle activity was dependent upon an interaction between body weight support and walking speed. (3) Lower body positive pressure support resulted in reduced activation of the antigravity musculature, and reduced range of motion of the knee and ankle joints.

  9. Closed-loop control of respiratory drive using pressure-support ventilation: target drive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Spahija, Jadranka; Beck, Jennifer; de Marchie, Michel; Comtois, Alain; Sinderby, Christer

    2005-05-01

    By using diaphragm electrical activity (multiple-array esophageal electrode) as an index of respiratory drive, and allowing such activity above or below a preset target range to indicate an increased or reduced demand for ventilatory assistance (target drive ventilation), we evaluated whether the level of pressure-support ventilation can be automatically adjusted in response to exercise-induced changes in ventilatory demand. Eleven healthy individuals breathed through a circuit (18 cm H2O/L/second inspiratory resistance at 1 L/second flow; 0.5-1.0 L/second expiratory flow limitation) connected to a modified ventilator. Subjects breathed for 6-minute periods at rest and during 20 and 40 W of bicycle exercise, with and without target drive ventilation (the target was set to 60% of the increase in diaphragm electrical activity observed between rest and 20 W of unassisted exercise). With target drive ventilation during exercise, the level of pressure-support ventilation was automatically increased, reaching 13.3 +/- 4.0 and 20.3 +/- 2.8 cm H2O during 20- and 40-W exercise, respectively, whereas diaphragm electrical activity was reduced to a level within the target range. Both diaphragmatic pressure-time product and end-tidal CO2 were significantly reduced with target drive ventilation at the end of the 20- (p < 0.01) and 40-W (p < 0.001) exercise periods. Minute ventilation was not altered. These results demonstrate that target drive ventilation can automatically adjust pressure-support ventilation, maintaining a constant neural drive and compensating for changes in respiratory demand.

  10. Evaluation of genetic isolation within an island flora reveals unusually widespread local adaptation and supports sympatric speciation.

    PubMed

    Papadopulos, Alexander S T; Kaye, Maria; Devaux, Céline; Hipperson, Helen; Lighten, Jackie; Dunning, Luke T; Hutton, Ian; Baker, William J; Butlin, Roger K; Savolainen, Vincent

    2014-08-01

    It is now recognized that speciation can proceed even when divergent natural selection is opposed by gene flow. Understanding the extent to which environmental gradients and geographical distance can limit gene flow within species can shed light on the relative roles of selection and dispersal limitation during the early stages of population divergence and speciation. On the remote Lord Howe Island (Australia), ecological speciation with gene flow is thought to have taken place in several plant genera. The aim of this study was to establish the contributions of isolation by environment (IBE) and isolation by community (IBC) to the genetic structure of 19 plant species, from a number of distantly related families, which have been subjected to similar environmental pressures over comparable time scales. We applied an individual-based, multivariate, model averaging approach to quantify IBE and IBC, while controlling for isolation by distance (IBD). Our analyses demonstrated that all species experienced some degree of ecologically driven isolation, whereas only 12 of 19 species were subjected to IBD. The prevalence of IBE within these plant species indicates that divergent selection in plants frequently produces local adaptation and supports hypotheses that ecological divergence can drive speciation in sympatry.

  11. Evaluation of genetic isolation within an island flora reveals unusually widespread local adaptation and supports sympatric speciation

    PubMed Central

    Papadopulos, Alexander S. T.; Kaye, Maria; Devaux, Céline; Hipperson, Helen; Lighten, Jackie; Dunning, Luke T.; Hutton, Ian; Baker, William J.; Butlin, Roger K.; Savolainen, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    It is now recognized that speciation can proceed even when divergent natural selection is opposed by gene flow. Understanding the extent to which environmental gradients and geographical distance can limit gene flow within species can shed light on the relative roles of selection and dispersal limitation during the early stages of population divergence and speciation. On the remote Lord Howe Island (Australia), ecological speciation with gene flow is thought to have taken place in several plant genera. The aim of this study was to establish the contributions of isolation by environment (IBE) and isolation by community (IBC) to the genetic structure of 19 plant species, from a number of distantly related families, which have been subjected to similar environmental pressures over comparable time scales. We applied an individual-based, multivariate, model averaging approach to quantify IBE and IBC, while controlling for isolation by distance (IBD). Our analyses demonstrated that all species experienced some degree of ecologically driven isolation, whereas only 12 of 19 species were subjected to IBD. The prevalence of IBE within these plant species indicates that divergent selection in plants frequently produces local adaptation and supports hypotheses that ecological divergence can drive speciation in sympatry. PMID:24958917

  12. Guided Discovery Learning with Computer-Based Simulation Games: Effects of Adaptive and Non-Adaptive Instructional Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leutner, Detlev

    1993-01-01

    System-initiated adaptive advice and learner-requested nonadaptive background information were investigated in computer simulation game experiments with 64 seventh graders, 38 college students, and 80 seventh and eighth graders in Germany. Results are discussed in terms of theories of problem solving, intelligence, memory, and information…

  13. Prediction of pore-water pressure response to rainfall using support vector regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babangida, Nuraddeen Muhammad; Mustafa, Muhammad Raza Ul; Yusuf, Khamaruzaman Wan; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain

    2016-05-01

    Nonlinear complex behavior of pore-water pressure responses to rainfall was modelled using support vector regression (SVR). Pore-water pressure can rise to disturbing levels that may result in slope failure during or after rainfall. Traditionally, monitoring slope pore-water pressure responses to rainfall is tedious and expensive, in that the slope must be instrumented with necessary monitors. Data on rainfall and corresponding responses of pore-water pressure were collected from such a monitoring program at a slope site in Malaysia and used to develop SVR models to predict pore-water pressure fluctuations. Three models, based on their different input configurations, were developed. SVR optimum meta-parameters were obtained using k-fold cross validation and a grid search. Model type 3 was adjudged the best among the models and was used to predict three other points on the slope. For each point, lag intervals of 30 min, 1 h and 2 h were used to make the predictions. The SVR model predictions were compared with predictions made by an artificial neural network model; overall, the SVR model showed slightly better results. Uncertainty quantification analysis was also performed for further model assessment. The uncertainty components were found to be low and tolerable, with d-factor of 0.14 and 74 % of observed data falling within the 95 % confidence bound. The study demonstrated that the SVR model is effective in providing an accurate and quick means of obtaining pore-water pressure response, which may be vital in systems where response information is urgently needed.

  14. RADIATION PRESSURE-SUPPORTED ACCRETION DISKS: VERTICAL STRUCTURE, ENERGY ADVECTION, AND CONVECTIVE STABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Gu Weimin

    2012-07-10

    By taking into account the local energy balance per unit volume between the viscous heating and the advective cooling plus the radiative cooling, we investigate the vertical structure of radiation pressure-supported accretion disks in spherical coordinates. Our solutions show that the photosphere of the disk is close to the polar axis and therefore the disk seems to be extremely thick. However, the density profile implies that most of the accreted matter exists in a moderate range around the equatorial plane. We show that the well-known polytropic relation between the pressure and the density is unsuitable for describing the vertical structure of radiation pressure-supported disks. More importantly, we find that the energy advection is significant even for slightly sub-Eddington accretion disks. We argue that the non-negligible advection may help us understand why the standard thin disk model is likely to be inaccurate above {approx}0.3 Eddington luminosity, which was found by some works on black hole spin measurement. Furthermore, the solutions satisfy the Solberg-Hoiland conditions, which indicate the disk to be convectively stable. In addition, we discuss the possible link between our disk model and ultraluminous X-ray sources.

  15. Molecular chaperone accumulation as a function of stress evidences adaptation to high hydrostatic pressure in the piezophilic archaeon Thermococcus barophilus

    PubMed Central

    Cario, Anaïs; Jebbar, Mohamed; Thiel, Axel; Kervarec, Nelly; Oger, Phil M.

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of mannosyl-glycerate (MG), the salinity stress response osmolyte of Thermococcales, was investigated as a function of hydrostatic pressure in Thermococcus barophilus strain MP, a hyperthermophilic, piezophilic archaeon isolated from the Snake Pit site (MAR), which grows optimally at 40 MPa. Strain MP accumulated MG primarily in response to salinity stress, but in contrast to other Thermococcales, MG was also accumulated in response to thermal stress. MG accumulation peaked for combined stresses. The accumulation of MG was drastically increased under sub-optimal hydrostatic pressure conditions, demonstrating that low pressure is perceived as a stress in this piezophile, and that the proteome of T. barophilus is low-pressure sensitive. MG accumulation was strongly reduced under supra-optimal pressure conditions clearly demonstrating the structural adaptation of this proteome to high hydrostatic pressure. The lack of MG synthesis only slightly altered the growth characteristics of two different MG synthesis deletion mutants. No shift to other osmolytes was observed. Altogether our observations suggest that the salinity stress response in T. barophilus is not essential and may be under negative selective pressure, similarly to what has been observed for its thermal stress response. PMID:27378270

  16. Integrated numerical modeling of a landslide early warning system in a context of adaptation to future climatic pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khabarov, Nikolay; Huggel, Christian; Obersteiner, Michael; Ramírez, Juan Manuel

    2010-05-01

    Mountain regions are typically characterized by rugged terrain which is susceptible to different types of landslides during high-intensity precipitation. Landslides account for billions of dollars of damage and many casualties, and are expected to increase in frequency in the future due to a projected increase of precipitation intensity. Early warning systems (EWS) are thought to be a primary tool for related disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation to extreme climatic events and hydro-meteorological hazards, including landslides. An EWS for hazards such as landslides consist of different components, including environmental monitoring instruments (e.g. rainfall or flow sensors), physical or empirical process models to support decision-making (warnings, evacuation), data and voice communication, organization and logistics-related procedures, and population response. Considering this broad range, EWS are highly complex systems, and it is therefore difficult to understand the effect of the different components and changing conditions on the overall performance, ultimately being expressed as human lives saved or structural damage reduced. In this contribution we present a further development of our approach to assess a landslide EWS in an integral way, both at the system and component level. We utilize a numerical model using 6 hour rainfall data as basic input. A threshold function based on a rainfall-intensity/duration relation was applied as a decision criterion for evacuation. Damage to infrastructure and human lives was defined as a linear function of landslide magnitude, with the magnitude modelled using a power function of landslide frequency. Correct evacuation was assessed with a ‘true' reference rainfall dataset versus a dataset of artificially reduced quality imitating the observation system component. Performance of the EWS using these rainfall datasets was expressed in monetary terms (i.e. damage related to false and correct evacuation). We

  17. Pressure Induced Changes in Adaptive Immune Function in Belugas (Delphinapterus leucas); Implications for Dive Physiology and Health

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Laura A.; Romano, Tracy A.

    2016-01-01

    Increased pressure, associated with diving, can alter cell function through several mechanisms and has been shown to impact immune functions performed by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in humans. While marine mammals possess specific adaptations which protect them from dive related injury, it is unknown how their immune system is adapted to the challenges associated with diving. The purpose of this study was to measure PBMC activation (IL2R expression) and Concanavalin A induced lymphocyte proliferation (BrdU incorporation) in belugas following in vitro pressure exposures during baseline, Out of Water Examination (OWE) and capture/release conditions. Beluga blood samples (n = 4) were obtained from animals at the Mystic Aquarium and from free ranging animals in Alaska (n = 9). Human blood samples (n = 4) (Biological Specialty Corporation) were run for comparison. In vivo catecholamines and cortisol were measured in belugas to characterize the neuroendocrine response. Comparison of cellular responses between controls and pressure exposed cells, between conditions in belugas, between belugas and humans as well as between dive profiles, were run using mixed generalized linear models (α = 0.05). Cortisol was significantly higher in Bristol Bay belugas and OWE samples as compared with baseline for aquarium animals. Both IL2R expression and proliferation displayed significant pressure induced changes, and these responses varied between conditions in belugas. Both belugas and humans displayed increased IL2R expression, while lymphocyte proliferation decreased for aquarium animals and increased for humans and Bristol Bay belugas. Results suggest beluga PBMC function is altered during diving and changes may represent dive adaptation as the response differs from humans, a non-dive adapted mammal. In addition, characteristics of a dive (i.e., duration, depth) as well as neuroendocrine activity can alter the response of beluga cells, potentially impacting the

  18. Reasons for changes in the value of unit pressure of compression products supporting external treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, K.; Ilska, A.; Kłonowska, M.

    2016-07-01

    The paper presents the basics of modelling compression products with intended values of unit pressure for body circumferences with fixed and variable radius of curvature. The derived relationships referring to the dimensions of the fabric's circumferences in a relaxed state of the product were based on Laplace law, local values of the radius of curvature, and the characteristics of stretching and relaxing (deformation) of the knitted fabric, described by experimental relation for the stress and relaxation phase for the 6th hysteresis loop, taking into account confidence intervals. The article indicates the possibilities of using 3D scanning techniques of the human body to identify the radius of curvature of various circumference of the human silhouette, for which the intended value of the unit pressure is designed, and quantitative changes in the body deformation due to compression. Classic method of modelling and design of compression products, based on a cylindrical model of the human body does not provide in each case the intended value of unit pressure, according to specific normative requirements, because it neglects the effect of different values of the radius of curvature of the body circumference and the properties of the viscoelastic knitted fabrics. The model and experimental research allowed for a quantitative and qualitative assessment of the reasons for the changes in the value of unit pressure of compression products supporting the process of external treatment.

  19. Usability Testing and Adaptation of the Pediatric Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinical Decision Support Tool

    PubMed Central

    Furberg, Robert D; Bagwell, Jacqueline E; LaBresh, Kenneth A

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is 1 of the leading causes of death, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted years of life lost worldwide. CVD prevention for children and teens is needed, as CVD risk factors and behaviors beginning in youth contribute to CVD development. In 2012, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute released their “Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents” for clinicians, describing CVD risk factors they should address with patients at primary care preventative visits. However, uptake of new guidelines is slow. Clinical decision support (CDS) tools can improve guideline uptake. In this paper, we describe our process of testing and adapting a CDS tool to help clinicians evaluate patient risk, recommend behaviors to prevent development of risk, and complete complex calculations to determine appropriate interventions as recommended by the guidelines, using a user-centered design approach. Objective The objective of the study was to assess the usability of a pediatric CVD risk factor tool by clinicians. Methods The tool was tested using one-on-one in-person testing and a “think aloud” approach with 5 clinicians and by using the tool in clinical practice along with formal usability metrics with 14 pediatricians. Thematic analysis of the data from the in-person testing and clinical practice testing identified suggestions for change in 3 major areas: user experience, content refinement, and technical deployment. Descriptive statistical techniques were employed to summarize users’ overall experience with the tool. Results Data from testers showed that general reactions toward the CDS tool were positive. Clinical practice testers suggested revisions to make the application more user-friendly, especially for clinicians using the application on the iPhone, and called for refining recommendations to be more succinct and better tailored to the patient. Tester feedback was

  20. An Environmental Control and Life Support System Concept for a Pressurized Lunar Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagdigian, Robert M.; Stambaugh, Imelda

    2010-01-01

    Pressurized rovers can add many attractive capabilities to a human lunar exploration campaign, most notably by extending the reach of astronauts far beyond the immediate vicinities of lunar landers and fixed assets such as habitats. Effective campaigns will depend on an efficient allocation of environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) equipment amongst mobile rovers and fixed habitats such that widespread and sustainable exploration can be achieved. This paper will describe some of the key drivers that influence the design of an ECLSS for a pressurized lunar rover and a conceptual design that has been formulated to address those drivers. Opportunities to realize programmatic and operational efficiencies through commonality of rover ECLSS and extravehicular activity (EVA) equipment have also been explored and will be described. Plans for the inclusion of ECLSS functionality in prototype lunar rovers will be summarized

  1. Skeletal Adaptation to Intramedullary Pressure-Induced Interstitial Fluid Flow Is Enhanced in Mice Subjected to Targeted Osteocyte Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ronald Y.; Meays, Diana R.; Meilan, Alexander S.; Jones, Jeremiah; Miramontes, Rosa; Kardos, Natalie; Yeh, Jiunn-Chern; Frangos, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial fluid flow (IFF) is a potent regulatory signal in bone. During mechanical loading, IFF is generated through two distinct mechanisms that result in spatially distinct flow profiles: poroelastic interactions within the lacunar-canalicular system, and intramedullary pressurization. While the former generates IFF primarily within the lacunar-canalicular network, the latter generates significant flow at the endosteal surface as well as within the tissue. This gives rise to the intriguing possibility that loading-induced IFF may differentially activate osteocytes or surface-residing cells depending on the generating mechanism, and that sensation of IFF generated via intramedullary pressurization may be mediated by a non-osteocytic bone cell population. To begin to explore this possibility, we used the Dmp1-HBEGF inducible osteocyte ablation mouse model and a microfluidic system for modulating intramedullary pressure (ImP) to assess whether structural adaptation to ImP-driven IFF is altered by partial osteocyte depletion. Canalicular convective velocities during pressurization were estimated through the use of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and computational modeling. Following osteocyte ablation, transgenic mice exhibited severe losses in bone structure and altered responses to hindlimb suspension in a compartment-specific manner. In pressure-loaded limbs, transgenic mice displayed similar or significantly enhanced structural adaptation to Imp-driven IFF, particularly in the trabecular compartment, despite up to ∼50% of trabecular lacunae being uninhabited following ablation. Interestingly, regression analysis revealed relative gains in bone structure in pressure-loaded limbs were correlated with reductions in bone structure in unpressurized control limbs, suggesting that adaptation to ImP-driven IFF was potentiated by increases in osteoclastic activity and/or reductions in osteoblastic activity incurred independently of pressure loading

  2. Adapting an empirically supported intervention for a new population and setting: findings and lessons learned from Proyecto Puentes.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Mimi V; Hall, William J; Sisler, Laurel A G

    2014-01-01

    With an increasing emphasis on evidence-based practice, the need for social work researchers and practitioners to adapt empirically supported interventions for new populations and cultures is essential. However, social work suffers from a lack of guidance and detailed examples of intervention adaptations that may not proceed "by the book" and actually falter but recover. Many of these situations result from lack of attention to setting and context even when researchers believe they have full stakeholder buy-in. This article presents process evaluation findings from an intervention adaptation called Proyecto Puentes that allowed for self-correction and successful intervention development.

  3. Adapting an empirically supported intervention for a new population and setting: findings and lessons learned from Proyecto Puentes.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Mimi V; Hall, William J; Sisler, Laurel A G

    2014-01-01

    With an increasing emphasis on evidence-based practice, the need for social work researchers and practitioners to adapt empirically supported interventions for new populations and cultures is essential. However, social work suffers from a lack of guidance and detailed examples of intervention adaptations that may not proceed "by the book" and actually falter but recover. Many of these situations result from lack of attention to setting and context even when researchers believe they have full stakeholder buy-in. This article presents process evaluation findings from an intervention adaptation called Proyecto Puentes that allowed for self-correction and successful intervention development. PMID:24405130

  4. Internally supported flexible duct joint. [device for conducting fluids in high pressure systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, R. F., Jr. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    An internally supported, flexible duct joint for use in conducting fluids under relatively high pressures in systems where relatively large deflection angles must be accommodated is presented. The joint includes a flexible tubular bellows and an elongated base disposed within the bellows. The base is connected through radiating struts to the bellows near mid-portion and to each of the opposite end portions of the bellows through a pivotal connecting body. A motion-controlling linkage is provided for linking the connecting bodies, whereby angular displacement of the joint is controlled and uniformity in the instantaneous bend radius of the duct is achieved as deflection is imposed.

  5. Supporting adaptation decisions to address climate related impacts and hazards in the Caribbean (the CARIWIG project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Aidan

    2015-04-01

    Managers and policy makers from regional and national institutions in the Caribbean require knowledge of the likely impacts and hazards arising from the present and future climate that are specific to their responsibility and geographical range, and relevant to their planning time-horizons. Knowledge, experience and the political support to develop appropriate adaptation strategies are also required. However, the climate information available for the region is of limited use as: observational records are intermittent and typically of short duration; climate model projections of the weather suffer from scale and bias issues; and statistical downscaling to provide locally relevant unbiased climate change information remains sporadic. Tropical cyclone activity is a considerable sporadic hazard in the region and yet related weather information is limited to historic events. Further, there is a lack of guidance for managers and policy makers operating with very limited resources to utilize such information within their remit. The CARIWIG project (June 2012 - May 2015) will be presented, reflecting on stakeholder impact, best practice and lessons learned. This project seeks to address the climate service needs of the Caribbean region through a combination of capacity building and improved provision of climate information services. An initial workshop with regional-scale stakeholders initiated a dialogue to develop a realistic shared vision of the needed information services which could be provided by the project. Capacity building is then achieved on a number of levels: knowledge and expertise sharing between project partners; raising understanding and knowledge of resources that support national and regional institutions' adaptation decisions; developing case studies in key sectors to test and demonstrate the information services; training for stakeholder technical staff in the use of the provided services; the development of a support network within and out

  6. Pressure-adaptive differences in lactate dehydrogenases of three hagfishes: Eptatretus burgeri, Paramyxine atami and Eptatretus okinoseanus.

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, Yoshikazu; Miwa, Tetsuya; Abe, Fumiyoshi

    2008-05-01

    The tolerance of abyssal pressures likely depends on adaptive modifications of fish proteins. However, structural modifications of proteins which allow functioning at high pressure remain unclear. We compared the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), an important enzyme in glycolytic reaction, in three hagfishes inhabiting different depths under increased pressure. LDH in Eptatretus okinoseanus, found at a depth of 1,000 m, was highly active at high pressure of 100 MPa maintaining the activity at 70% of that at 0.1 MPa. In contrast, LDH activity in Paramyxine atami, found at 250-400 m, decreased to 55% at 15 MPa, and that in Eptatretus burgeri, found at 45-60 m, was completely absent at 5 MPa. The result suggests that subunit interaction of the LDH-tetramer is more stable in E. okinoseanus than that in P. atami and E. burgeri under high-pressure conditions. We found six amino acid substitutions between the three LDH primary structures. Accordingly, these amino acid residues are likely to contribute to the stability of the E. okinoseanus LDH under high-pressure conditions. PMID:18299796

  7. Usability of clinical decision support system as a facilitator for learning the assistive technology adaptation process.

    PubMed

    Danial-Saad, Alexandra; Kuflik, Tsvi; Weiss, Patrice L Tamar; Schreuer, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usability of Ontology Supported Computerized Assistive Technology Recommender (OSCAR), a Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) for the assistive technology adaptation process, its impact on learning the matching process, and to determine the relationship between its usability and learnability. Two groups of expert and novice clinicians (total, n = 26) took part in this study. Each group filled out system usability scale (SUS) to evaluate OSCAR's usability. The novice group completed a learning questionnaire to assess OSCAR's effect on their ability to learn the matching process. Both groups rated OSCAR's usability as "very good", (M [SUS] = 80.7, SD = 11.6, median = 83.7) by the novices, and (M [SUS] = 81.2, SD = 6.8, median = 81.2) by the experts. The Mann-Whitney results indicated that no significant differences were found between the expert and novice groups in terms of OSCAR's usability. A significant positive correlation existed between the usability of OSCAR and the ability to learn the adaptation process (rs = 0.46, p = 0.04). Usability is an important factor in the acceptance of a system. The successful application of user-centered design principles during the development of OSCAR may serve as a case study that models the significant elements to be considered, theoretically and practically in developing other systems. Implications for Rehabilitation Creating a CDSS with a focus on its usability is an important factor for its acceptance by its users. Successful usability outcomes can impact the learning process of the subject matter in general, and the AT prescription process in particular. The successful application of User-Centered Design principles during the development of OSCAR may serve as a case study that models the significant elements to be considered, theoretically and practically. The study emphasizes the importance of close collaboration between the developers and

  8. A Support Method with Changeable Training Strategies Based on Mutual Adaptation between a Ubiquitous Pet and a Learner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xianzhi; Jing, Lei; Kansen, Mizuo; Wang, Junbo; Ota, Kaoru; Cheng, Zixue

    With the progress of ubiquitous technology, ubiquitous learning presents new opportunities to learners. Situations of a learner can be grasped through analyzing the learner's actions collected by sensors, RF-IDs, or cameras in order to provide support at proper time, proper place, and proper situation. Training for acquiring skills and enhancing physical abilities through exercise and experience in the real world is an important domain in u-learning. A training program may last for several days and has one or more training units (exercises) for a day. A learner's performance in a unit is considered as short term state. The performance in a series of units may change with patterns: progress, plateau, and decline. Long term state in a series of units is accumulatively computed based on short term states. In a learning/training program, it is necessary to apply different support strategies to adapt to different states of the learner. Adaptation in learning support is significant, because a learner loses his/her interests easily without adaptation. Systems with the adaptive support usually provide stimulators to a learner, and a learner can have a great motivation in learning at beginning. However, when the stimulators reach some levels, the learner may lose his/her motivation, because the long term state of the learner changes dynamically, which means a progress state may change to a plateau state or a decline state. In different long term learning states, different types of stimulators are needed. However, the stimulators and advice provided by the existing systems are monotonic without changeable support strategies. We propose a mutual adaptive support. The mutual adaptation means each of the system and the learner has their own states. On one hand, the system tries to change its state to adapt to the learner's state for providing adaptive support. On the other hand, the learner can change its performance following the advice given based on the state of the system

  9. Decision Support from Local Data: Creating Adaptive Order Menus from Past Clinician Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Klann, Jeffrey G.; Szolovits, Peter; Downs, Stephen; Schadow, Gunther

    2014-01-01

    Objective Reducing care variability through guidelines has significantly benefited patients. Nonetheless, guideline-based clinical decision support (CDS) systems are not widely implemented or used, are frequently out-of-date, and cannot address complex care for which guidelines do not exist. Here, we develop and evaluate a complementary approach - using Bayesian network (BN) learning to generate adaptive, context-specific treatment menus based on local order-entry data. These menus can be used as a draft for expert review, in order to minimize development time for local decision support content. This is in keeping with the vision outlined in the US Health Information Technology Strategic Plan, which describes a healthcare system that learns from itself. Materials and Methods We used the Greedy Equivalence Search algorithm to learn four 50-node domain-specific BNs from 11,344 encounters: abdominal pain in the emergency department, inpatient pregnancy, hypertension in the urgent visit clinic, and altered mental state in the intensive care unit. We developed a system to produce situation-specific, rank-ordered treatment menus from these networks. We evaluated this system with a hospital-simulation methodology and computed Area Under the Receiver-Operator Curve (AUC) and average menu position at time of selection. We also compared this system with a similar association-rule-mining approach. Results A short order menu on average contained the next order (weighted average length 3.91–5.83 items). Overall predictive ability was good: average AUC above 0.9 for 25% of order types and overall average AUC .714–.844 (depending on domain). However, AUC had high variance (.50–.99). Higher AUC correlated with tighter clusters and more connections in the graphs, indicating importance of appropriate contextual data. Comparison with an association rule mining approach showed similar performance for only the most common orders with dramatic divergence as orders are less

  10. Predicted Sizes of Pressure-supported HI Clouds in the Outskirts of the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhart, Blakesley; Loeb, Abraham

    2016-06-01

    Using data from the ALFALFA AGES Arecibo HI survey of galaxies and the Virgo cluster X-ray pressure profiles from XMM-Newton, we investigate the possibility that starless dark HI clumps, also known as “dark galaxies,” are supported by external pressure in the surrounding intercluster medium. We find that the starless HI clump masses, velocity dispersions, and positions allow these clumps to be in pressure equilibrium with the X-ray gas near the virial radius of the Virgo cluster. We predict the sizes of these clumps to range from 1 to 10 kpc, in agreement with the range of sizes found for spatially resolved HI starless clumps outside of Virgo. Based on the predicted HI surface density of the Virgo sources, as well as a sample of other similar resolved ALFALFA HI dark clumps with follow-up optical/radio observations, we predict that most of the HI dark clumps are on the cusp of forming stars. These HI sources therefore mark the transition between starless HI clouds and dwarf galaxies with stars.

  11. Time pressure and coworker support mediate the curvilinear relationship between age and occupational well-being.

    PubMed

    Zacher, Hannes; Jimmieson, Nerina L; Bordia, Prashant

    2014-10-01

    As the proportion of older employees in the workforce is growing, researchers have become increasingly interested in the association between age and occupational well-being. The curvilinear nature of relationships between age and job satisfaction and between age and emotional exhaustion is well-established in the literature, with employees in their late 20s to early 40s generally reporting lower levels of occupational well-being than younger and older employees. However, the mechanisms underlying these curvilinear relationships are so far not well understood due to a lack of studies testing mediation effects. Based on an integration of role theory and research from the adult development and career literatures, this study examined time pressure, work-home conflict, and coworker support as mediators of the relationships between age and job satisfaction and between age and emotional exhaustion. Data came from 771 employees between 17 and 74 years of age in the construction industry. Results showed that employees in their late 20s to early 40s had lower job satisfaction and higher emotional exhaustion than younger and older employees. Time pressure and coworker support fully mediated both the U-shaped relationship between age and job satisfaction and the inversely U-shaped relationship between age and emotional exhaustion. These findings suggest that organizational interventions may help increase the relatively low levels of occupational well-being in certain age groups.

  12. Pressure support. Changes in ventilatory pattern and components of the work of breathing.

    PubMed

    Van de Graaff, W B; Gordey, K; Dornseif, S E; Dries, D J; Kleinman, B S; Kumar, P; Mathru, M

    1991-10-01

    To evaluate the interaction between patient and ventilator during widely varying levels of pressure support (PS) ventilation, we studied 33 patients who had undergone aortocoronary bypass. All patients were without preoperative evidence of lung disease and had left ventricular ejection fractions greater than 45 percent. We assessed both changes in ventilatory pattern and the use of an extension of the Campbell technique to determine the components of the mechanical work of breathing (WOB). Patients were placed on 0, 10, 20, and 30 cm H2O of PS. We found that increasing the pressure support level (PSL) did not change minute ventilation, PCO2, or pH despite large changes in both rate and depth of breathing. The inspiratory time fraction was consistently and progressively reduced as PS increased. Although mean inspiratory flow (MIF) increased by 75 +/- 9 (SE) percent as the PSL increased to 30 cm H2O, mean airway pressure rose only 3.5 +/- 0.1 cm H2O. Observed changes in the resistive and elastic components of WOB at PSL greater than 0 were consistent with values predicted from baseline observations and changes in VT and MIF demonstrating that the Campbell technique of separating resistive and elastic components of the patient's WOB during unassisted ventilation can be extended to the analysis of WOB during mechanical ventilation. We were surprised to observe that although inspiratory WOB fell 67 +/- 13 percent as the PSL increased to 30 cm H2O, postinspiratory work by the inspiratory muscles (WOBPIIM) did not show significant change. The persistence and substantial values of WOBPIIM in some patients suggested the presence of significant patient-ventilator dyssynchrony, especially at higher levels of PS. Total inspiratory WOB per minute, including both patient WOB and WOB by the ventilator, increased by 186 +/- 29 percent, demonstrating that PS results in a respiratory pattern requiring substantially greater total mechanical work.

  13. Rapidly-adapting receptor activity and intratracheal pressure in guinea pigs. I. Action of leukotriene C4.

    PubMed

    Bergren, D R; Myers, D L

    1984-11-01

    Leukotriene C4 (LTC4) is a major component of slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A) and is a potent bronchoconstrictor. In humans LTC4 results in bouts of coughing which suggests stimulation of pulmonary receptors involved in a reflex mechanism. Furthermore, atropine reduces the effect of both LTC4 and SRS-A. To test the hypothesis that LTC4 stimulates the rapidly-adapting or "irritant" receptor (RAR) of the airways, we administered LTC4 by both intravenous injection (10-1000 ng) and by aerosol delivery (1 microgram/ml) to the lungs of guinea pigs while recording arterial blood pressure, intratracheal pressure, and nerve activity from RARs. LTC4 (i.v.) concurrently increased both nerve activity and intratracheal pressure even at low doses in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, a direct action of LTC4 (i.v.) upon the RAR is difficult to conclude. The separation of peak tracheal pressure and peak nerve activity was apparent with aerosol delivery of LTC4. The pattern of RAR activity during LTC4 aerosol challenge was unrelated to respiratory phase. FPL 55712 blocks the effects of SRS-A. We challenged the lung with 500 ng LTC4 intravenously before and after FPL 55712 injection (2.5 mg/kg). FPL 55712 blocked the increases of both tracheal pressure and RAR activity.

  14. Effects of adaptive support ventilation and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation on peripheral circulation and blood gas markers of COPD patients with respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Han, Ling; Wang, Yingxiao; Gan, Yonghua; Xu, Lijun

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of adaptive support ventilation (ASV) and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) on peripheral circulation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with respiratory failure. 86 COPD patients with respiratory failure were recruited in this study. Self-control method was used to compare the effect of ASV and SIMV on the parameters of ventilation machine, heart rate, blood pressure, central venous pressure (CVP), and blood gas markers. When the patients in ASV and SIMV groups were compared, respiratory rate, tidal volume, and peak airway pressure (PIP) showed significant difference. When minute ventilation (MV) was compared, no significant difference was shown. When peripheral circulation parameters were compared, peripheral circulation heart rate, SBP, DBP, and CVP showed significant difference. Compared with SIMV group, PaO2, pH, and SaO2 values were remarkably increased (P < 0.01) while no significant difference was found for partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) when two groups were compared. In conclusion, when mechanical ventilation was used in COPD patients with respiratory failure, ASV can significantly improve clinical outcomes.

  15. A requirement for reduced pressure and modified atmosphere composition in lunar and martian biological life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Mike; Stasiak, Michael; Wehkamp, Cara Ann; Lawson, Jamie

    The Controlled Environment Systems Research Facility at the PlaceTypeUniversity of Place- NameGuelph (country-regionplaceCanada) represents an extensive collection of variable pressure plant growth chambers devoted to the study of biological systems including plants and microbes, in life support roles for space exploration. To simplify engineering requirements for plant growth structures on the Moon or Mars, lower pressures are required in order to reduce mass and decrease atmospheric leakage. Few facilities exist that can provide low pressure plant growth capabilities coupled with complete control over temperature, vapour pressure deficit (humidity), gas composition, nutrient delivery, and pressure. The Controlled Environment Systems Research Facility maintains five canopy-scale hypobaric plant growth chambers with capabilities ideally suited for low pressure advanced life support research. System performance evaluations during low pressure experiments on radish (Raphanus sativa L. cv. Cherry Bomb II) have demonstrated temperature control of +/- 0.5 ° C, vapour pressure deficit control of +/- 0.5 mb, CO2 injection control of +/- 20 ` ımol mol-1 , and leakage rates of less than 1% per day. Keywords: hypobaric, plant growth chamber, advanced life support, controlled environment, low pressure, atmospheric control

  16. Longitudinal Effects of Social Support and Adaptive Coping on the Emotional Well-Being of Survivors of Localized Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Eric S.; Penedo, Frank J.; Bustillo, Natalie E.; Benedict, Catherine; Rasheed, Mikal; Lechner, Suzanne; Soloway, Mark; Kava, Bruce R.; Schneiderman, Neil; Antoni, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Survivors of prostate cancer experience treatment-related physical side effects that can compromise emotional well-being for years post treatment. There is limited research investigating how social support and the use of coping may affect the emotional well-being of this population following treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate how social support and coping impact emotional well-being 2 years after treatment in survivors of localized prostate cancer who have received either radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy. Psychosocial and disease-specific measures were administered to an ethnically and demographically diverse sample of 180 men treated for localized prostate cancer at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. Regression analyses demonstrated that higher levels of social support at baseline predicted better emotional well-being 2 years later. Furthermore, higher levels of adaptive coping at baseline partially mediated the relationship between social support and emotional well-being. Supportive relationships may contribute to improved emotional well-being following treatment by facilitating the use of adaptive coping strategies. Attention should be given to strengthening social support networks and educating survivors of prostate cancer on adaptive coping techniques. PMID:21086876

  17. A Short Version of SIS (Support Intensity Scale): The Utility of the Application of Artificial Adaptive Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomiero, Tiziano; Croce, Luigi; Grossi, Enzo; Luc, De Vreese; Buscema, Massimo; Mantesso, Ulrico; De Bastiani, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a shortened version of the SIS (support intensity scale) obtained by the application of mathematical models and instruments, adopting special algorithms based on the most recent developments in artificial adaptive systems. All the variables of SIS applied to 1,052 subjects with ID (intellectual disabilities)…

  18. Gender-Specific Models of Work-Bound Korean Adolescents' Social Supports and Career Adaptability on Subsequent Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Hyojung; Rojewski, Jay W.

    2015-01-01

    A Korean national database, the High School Graduates Occupational Mobility Survey, was used to examine the influence of perceived social supports (family and school) and career adaptability on the subsequent job satisfaction of work-bound adolescents 4 months after their transition from high school to work. Structural equation modeling analysis…

  19. Examining the Theoretical Relationships between Support Needs and Adaptive Behavior: A Construct Analysis of Children with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obremski, Emily Shea

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is composed of four stand-alone yet linked chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the theoretical underpinnings of the constructs of adaptive behavior and support needs and their evolution throughout history. There is also a review of the limited literature available examining the relationship between the two constructs that…

  20. Introducing Adaptivity Features to a Regular Learning Management System to Support Creation of Advanced eLessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komlenov, Zivana; Budimac, Zoran; Ivanovic, Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve the learning process for students with different pre-knowledge, personal characteristics and preferred learning styles, a certain degree of adaptability must be introduced to online courses. In learning environments that support such kind of functionalities students can explicitly choose different paths through course contents…

  1. The Role of Decision Support in Adapting to Climate Change: Findings from Three Place-based Regional Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the methodologies and findings of three regional assessments and considers the role of decision support in assisting adaptation to climate change. Background. In conjunction with the US Global Change Research Program’s (USGCRP’s) National Assessment of ...

  2. High-Level Pressure Support Ventilation Attenuates Ventilator-Induced Diaphragm Dysfunction in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Huiqing; Xu, Peifeng; Zhu, Tao; Lu, Zhihua; Yuan, Yuehua; Zhou, Jiancang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Background: The effects of different modes of mechanical ventilation in the same ventilatory support level on ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction onset were assessed in healthy rabbits. Methods: Twenty New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 5 in each group). Group 1: no mechanical ventilation; group 2: controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) for 24 hours; group 3: assist/control ventilation (A/C) mode for 24 hours; group 4: high-level pressure support ventilation (PSV) mode for 24 hours. Heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, PH, partial pressure of arterial oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen and partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide were monitored and diaphragm electrical activity was analyzed in the 4 groups. Caspase-3 was evaluated by protein analysis and diaphragm ultra structure was assessed by electron microscopy. Results: The centroid frequency and the ratio of high frequency to low frequency were significantly reduced in the CMV, A/C and PSV groups (P < 0.001). The percent change in centroid frequency was significantly lower in the PSV group than in the CMV and A/C groups (P = 0.001 and P = 0.028, respectively). Electromyography of diaphragm integral amplitude decreased by 90% ± 1.48%, 67.8% ± 3.13% and 70.2% ± 4.72% in the CMV, A/C and PSV groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Caspase-3 protein activation was attenuated in the PSV group compared with the CMV and A/C groups (P = 0.035 and P = 0.033, respectively). Irregular swelling of mitochondria along with fractured and fuzzy cristae was observed in the CMV group, whereas mitochondrial cristae were dense and rich in the PSV group. The mitochondrial injury scores (Flameng scores) in the PSV group were the lowest among the 3 ventilatory groups (0.93 ± 0.09 in PSV versus 2.69 ± 0.05 in the CMV [P < 0.01] and PSV versus A/C groups [2.02 ± 0.08, P < 0.01]). Conclusions: The diaphragm myoelectric activity was reduced in the PSV group, although excessive oxidative

  3. Active load path adaption in a simple kinematic load-bearing structure due to stiffness change in the structure's supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehb, C. M.; Platz, R.; Melz, T.

    2016-09-01

    Load-bearing structures with kinematic functions enable and disable degrees of freedom and are part of many mechanical engineering applications. The relative movement between a wheel and the body of a car or a landing gear and an aircraft fuselage are examples for load-bearing systems with defined kinematics. In most cases, the load is transmitted through a predetermined load path to the structural support interfaces. However, unexpected load peaks or varying health condition of the system's supports, which means for example varying damping and stiffness characteristics, may require an active adjustment of the load path. However, load paths transmitted through damaged or weakened supports can be the reason for reduced comfort or even failure. In this paper a simplified 2D two mass oscillator with two supports is used to numerically investigate the potential of controlled adaptive auxiliary kinematic guidance elements in a load-bearing structure to adapt the load path depending on the stiffness change, representing damage of the supports. The aim is to provide additional forces in the auxiliary kinematic guidance elements for two reasons. On the one hand, one of the two supports that may become weaker through stiffness change will be relieved from higher loading. On the other hand, tilting due to different compliance in the supports will be minimized. Therefore, shifting load between the supports during operation could be an effective option.

  4. Decision support for hospital bed management using adaptable individual length of stay estimations and shared resources

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Elective patient admission and assignment planning is an important task of the strategic and operational management of a hospital and early on became a central topic of clinical operations research. The management of hospital beds is an important subtask. Various approaches have been proposed, involving the computation of efficient assignments with regard to the patients’ condition, the necessity of the treatment, and the patients’ preferences. However, these approaches are mostly based on static, unadaptable estimates of the length of stay and, thus, do not take into account the uncertainty of the patient’s recovery. Furthermore, the effect of aggregated bed capacities have not been investigated in this context. Computer supported bed management, combining an adaptable length of stay estimation with the treatment of shared resources (aggregated bed capacities) has not yet been sufficiently investigated. The aim of our work is: 1) to define a cost function for patient admission taking into account adaptable length of stay estimations and aggregated resources, 2) to define a mathematical program formally modeling the assignment problem and an architecture for decision support, 3) to investigate four algorithmic methodologies addressing the assignment problem and one base-line approach, and 4) to evaluate these methodologies w.r.t. cost outcome, performance, and dismissal ratio. Methods The expected free ward capacity is calculated based on individual length of stay estimates, introducing Bernoulli distributed random variables for the ward occupation states and approximating the probability densities. The assignment problem is represented as a binary integer program. Four strategies for solving the problem are applied and compared: an exact approach, using the mixed integer programming solver SCIP; and three heuristic strategies, namely the longest expected processing time, the shortest expected processing time, and random choice. A baseline approach

  5. Adaptation of a Filter Assembly to Assess Microbial Bioburden of Pressurant Within a Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benardini, James N.; Koukol, Robert C.; Schubert, Wayne W.; Morales, Fabian; Klatte, Marlin F.

    2012-01-01

    A report describes an adaptation of a filter assembly to enable it to be used to filter out microorganisms from a propulsion system. The filter assembly has previously been used for particulates greater than 2 micrometers. Projects that utilize large volumes of nonmetallic materials of planetary protection concern pose a challenge to their bioburden budget, as a conservative specification value of 30 spores per cubic centimeter is typically used. Helium was collected utilizing an adapted filtration approach employing an existing Millipore filter assembly apparatus used by the propulsion team for particulate analysis. The filter holder on the assembly has a 47-mm diameter, and typically a 1.2-5 micrometer pore-size filter is used for particulate analysis making it compatible with commercially available sterilization filters (0.22 micrometers) that are necessary for biological sampling. This adaptation to an existing technology provides a proof-of-concept and a demonstration of successful use in a ground equipment system. This adaptation has demonstrated that the Millipore filter assembly can be utilized to filter out microorganisms from a propulsion system, whereas in previous uses the filter assembly was utilized for particulates greater than 2 micrometers.

  6. Improving blood pressure control in end stage renal disease through a supportive educative nursing intervention.

    PubMed

    Kauric-Klein, Zorica

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension in patients on hemodialysis (HD) contributes significantly to their morbidity and mortality. This study examined whether a supportive nursing intervention incorporating monitoring, goal setting, and reinforcement can improve blood pressure (BP) control in a chronic HD population. A randomized controlled design was used and 118 participants were recruited from six HD units in the Detroit metro area. The intervention consisted of (1) BP education sessions; (2) a 12-week intervention, including monitoring, goal setting, and reinforcement; and (3) a 30-day post-intervention follow-up period. Participants in the treatment were asked to monitor their BP, sodium, and fluid intake weekly for 12 weeks in weekly logs. BP, fluid and sodium logs were reviewed weekly with the researcher to determine if goals were met or not met. Reinforcement was given for goals met and problem solving offered when goals were not met. The control group received standard care. Both systolic and diastolic BPs were significantly decreased in the treatment group.

  7. Deciphering the adaptation strategies of Desulfovibrio piezophilus to hydrostatic pressure through metabolic and transcriptional analyses.

    PubMed

    Amrani, Amira; van Helden, Jacques; Bergon, Aurélie; Aouane, Aicha; Ben Hania, Wajdi; Tamburini, Christian; Loriod, Béatrice; Imbert, Jean; Ollivier, Bernard; Pradel, Nathalie; Dolla, Alain

    2016-08-01

    Desulfovibrio piezophilus strain C1TLV30(T) is a mesophilic piezophilic sulfate-reducer isolated from Wood Falls at 1700 m depth in the Mediterranean Sea. In this study, we analysed the effect of the hydrostatic pressure on this deep-sea living bacterium at the physiologic and transcriptomic levels. Our results showed that lactate oxidation and energy metabolism were affected by the hydrostatic pressure. Especially, acetyl-CoA oxidation pathway and energy conservation through hydrogen and formate recycling would be more important when the hydrostatic pressure is above (26 MPa) than below (0.1 MPa) the optimal one (10 MPa). This work underlines also the role of the amino acid glutamate as a piezolyte for the Desulfovibrio genus. The transcriptomic analysis revealed 146 differentially expressed genes emphasizing energy production and conversion, amino acid transport and metabolism and cell motility and signal transduction mechanisms as hydrostatic pressure responding processes. This dataset allowed us to identify a sequence motif upstream of a subset of differentially expressed genes as putative pressure-dependent regulatory element. PMID:27264199

  8. Deciphering the adaptation strategies of Desulfovibrio piezophilus to hydrostatic pressure through metabolic and transcriptional analyses.

    PubMed

    Amrani, Amira; van Helden, Jacques; Bergon, Aurélie; Aouane, Aicha; Ben Hania, Wajdi; Tamburini, Christian; Loriod, Béatrice; Imbert, Jean; Ollivier, Bernard; Pradel, Nathalie; Dolla, Alain

    2016-08-01

    Desulfovibrio piezophilus strain C1TLV30(T) is a mesophilic piezophilic sulfate-reducer isolated from Wood Falls at 1700 m depth in the Mediterranean Sea. In this study, we analysed the effect of the hydrostatic pressure on this deep-sea living bacterium at the physiologic and transcriptomic levels. Our results showed that lactate oxidation and energy metabolism were affected by the hydrostatic pressure. Especially, acetyl-CoA oxidation pathway and energy conservation through hydrogen and formate recycling would be more important when the hydrostatic pressure is above (26 MPa) than below (0.1 MPa) the optimal one (10 MPa). This work underlines also the role of the amino acid glutamate as a piezolyte for the Desulfovibrio genus. The transcriptomic analysis revealed 146 differentially expressed genes emphasizing energy production and conversion, amino acid transport and metabolism and cell motility and signal transduction mechanisms as hydrostatic pressure responding processes. This dataset allowed us to identify a sequence motif upstream of a subset of differentially expressed genes as putative pressure-dependent regulatory element.

  9. Structural and Mechanical Adaptations of Right Ventricular Free Wall Myocardium to Pulmonary-Hypertension Induced Pressure Overload

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Michael R.; Simon, Marc A.; Valdez-Jasso, Daniela; Zhang, Will; Champion, Hunter C.; Sacks, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Right ventricular (RV) failure in response to pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a severe disease that remains poorly understood. PH-induced pressure overload leads to changes in the RV free wall (RVFW) that eventually results in RV failure. While the development of computational models can benefit our understanding of the onset and progression of PH-induced pressure overload, detailed knowledge of the underlying structural and biomechanical events remains limited. The goal of the present study was to elucidate the structural and biomechanical adaptations of RV myocardium subjected to sustained pressure overload in a rat model. Hemodynamically confirmed severe chronic RV pressure overload was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats via pulmonary artery banding. Extensive tissue-level biaxial mechanical and histomorphological analyses were conducted to assess the remodeling response in the RV free wall. Simultaneous myofiber hypertrophy and longitudinal re-orientation of myo- and collagen fibers was observed, with both fiber types becoming more highly aligned. Transmural myo- and collagen fiber orientations were co-aligned in both the normal and diseased state. The overall tissue stiffness increased, with larger increases in longitudinal versus circumferential stiffness. Interestingly, estimated myofiber stiffness increased while the collagen fiber stiffness remained unchanged. The latter was attributed to longitudinal fiber re-orientation, which increased the degree of anisotropy. Increased mechanical coupling between the two axes was attributed to the increased fiber alignment. The increased myofiber stiffness was consistent with clinical results showing titin-associated increased sarcomeric stiffening observed in PH patients. These results further our understanding of the underlying adaptive and maladaptive remodeling mechanisms and may lead to improved techniques for prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment for PH. PMID:25164124

  10. Evidence of viral adaptation to HLA class I-restricted immune pressure in chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Gaudieri, Silvana; Rauch, Andri; Park, Lawrence P; Freitas, Elizabeth; Herrmann, Susan; Jeffrey, Gary; Cheng, Wendy; Pfafferott, Katja; Naidoo, Kiloshni; Chapman, Russell; Battegay, Manuel; Weber, Rainer; Telenti, Amalio; Furrer, Hansjakob; James, Ian; Lucas, Michaela; Mallal, Simon A

    2006-11-01

    Cellular immune responses are an important correlate of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection outcome. These responses are governed by the host's human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type, and HLA-restricted viral escape mutants are a critical aspect of this host-virus interaction. We examined the driving forces of HCV evolution by characterizing the in vivo selective pressure(s) exerted on single amino acid residues within nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) by the HLA types present in two host populations. Associations between polymorphisms within NS3 and HLA class I alleles were assessed in 118 individuals from Western Australia and Switzerland with chronic hepatitis C infection, of whom 82 (69%) were coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus. The levels and locations of amino acid polymorphisms exhibited within NS3 were remarkably similar between the two cohorts and revealed regions under functional constraint and selective pressures. We identified specific HCV mutations within and flanking published epitopes with the correct HLA restriction and predicted escaped amino acid. Additional HLA-restricted mutations were identified that mark putative epitopes targeted by cell-mediated immune responses. This analysis of host-virus interaction reveals evidence of HCV adaptation to HLA class I-restricted immune pressure and identifies in vivo targets of cellular immune responses at the population level. PMID:17071929

  11. The Colorado Climate Preparedness Project: A Systematic Approach to Assessing Efforts Supporting State-Level Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, R.; Gordon, E.

    2010-12-01

    Scholars and policy analysts often contend that an effective climate adaptation strategy must entail "mainstreaming," or incorporating responses to possible climate impacts into existing planning and management decision frameworks. Such an approach, however, makes it difficult to assess the degree to which decisionmaking entities are engaging in adaptive activities that may or may not be explicitly framed around a changing climate. For example, a drought management plan may not explicitly address climate change, but the activities and strategies outlined in it may reduce vulnerabilities posed by a variable and changing climate. Consequently, to generate a strategic climate adaptation plan requires identifying the entire suite of activities that are implicitly linked to climate and may affect adaptive capacity within the system. Here we outline a novel, two-pronged approach, leveraging social science methods, to understanding adaptation throughout state government in Colorado. First, we conducted a series of interviews with key actors in state and federal government agencies, non-governmental organizations, universities, and other entities engaged in state issues. The purpose of these interviews was to elicit information about current activities that may affect the state’s adaptive capacity and to identify future climate-related needs across the state. Second, we have developed an interactive database cataloging organizations, products, projects, and people actively engaged in adaptive planning and policymaking that are relevant to the state of Colorado. The database includes a wiki interface, helping create a dynamic component that will enable frequent updating as climate-relevant information emerges. The results of this project are intended to paint a clear picture of sectors and agencies with higher and lower levels of adaptation awareness and to provide a roadmap for the next gubernatorial administration to pursue a more sophisticated climate adaptation agenda

  12. Signatures of environmental genetic adaptation pinpoint pathogens as the main selective pressure through human evolution.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Matteo; Sironi, Manuela; Pozzoli, Uberto; Ferrer-Admetlla, Anna; Ferrer-Admettla, Anna; Pattini, Linda; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2011-11-01

    Previous genome-wide scans of positive natural selection in humans have identified a number of non-neutrally evolving genes that play important roles in skin pigmentation, metabolism, or immune function. Recent studies have also shown that a genome-wide pattern of local adaptation can be detected by identifying correlations between patterns of allele frequencies and environmental variables. Despite these observations, the degree to which natural selection is primarily driven by adaptation to local environments, and the role of pathogens or other ecological factors as selective agents, is still under debate. To address this issue, we correlated the spatial allele frequency distribution of a large sample of SNPs from 55 distinct human populations to a set of environmental factors that describe local geographical features such as climate, diet regimes, and pathogen loads. In concordance with previous studies, we detected a significant enrichment of genic SNPs, and particularly non-synonymous SNPs associated with local adaptation. Furthermore, we show that the diversity of the local pathogenic environment is the predominant driver of local adaptation, and that climate, at least as measured here, only plays a relatively minor role. While background demography by far makes the strongest contribution in explaining the genetic variance among populations, we detected about 100 genes which show an unexpectedly strong correlation between allele frequencies and pathogenic environment, after correcting for demography. Conversely, for diet regimes and climatic conditions, no genes show a similar correlation between the environmental factor and allele frequencies. This result is validated using low-coverage sequencing data for multiple populations. Among the loci targeted by pathogen-driven selection, we found an enrichment of genes associated to autoimmune diseases, such as celiac disease, type 1 diabetes, and multiples sclerosis, which lends credence to the hypothesis that some

  13. Adaptive Control System of Hydraulic Pressure Based on The Mathematical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, A. V.; Pilipenko, A. P.; Kanatnikov, N. V.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the authors highlight the problem of replacing an old heavy industrial equipment, and offer the replacement of obsolete control systems on the modern adaptive control system, which takes into account changes in the hydraulic system of the press and compensates them with a corrective action. The proposed system can reduce a water hammer and thereby increase the durability of the hydraulic system and tools.

  14. Shifting habitats, morphology, and selective pressures: developmental polyphenism in an adaptive radiation of Hawaiian spiders.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Michael S; Carter, Rebecca A; Croucher, Peter J P; Gillespie, Rosemary G

    2015-01-01

    Particularly intriguing examples of adaptive radiation are those in which lineages show parallel or convergent evolution, suggesting utilization of similar genetic or developmental pathways. The current study focuses on an adaptive radiation of Hawaiian "spiny-leg" spiders in which diversification is associated with repeated convergent evolution leading to similar sets of ecomorphs on each island. However, two species on the oldest islands in the archipelago exhibit variability, occurring as two different ecomorphs. More derived species on the younger islands show much less variability, any one species displaying a single ecomorph. We measured ecomorphological features within individuals over time to determine the nature of the variability. Then, using transcriptomes, we conducted lineage-based tests for selection under varying models and analyses of gene tree versus species tree incongruencies. Our results provide strong evidence that variability in color in Tetragnatha kauaiensis and T. polychromata is associated with development within individuals (polyphenism). Moreover, a total of 28 loci showed a signature of selection associated with loss of the color-changing phenotype, and 37 loci showed a signature of selection associated with the colonization of a new environment. The results illustrate how developmental polyphenism might provide an avenue for the repeated evolution of ecomorphs during adaptive radiation.

  15. Stress inoculation training supported by physiology-driven adaptive virtual reality stimulation.

    PubMed

    Popović, Sinisa; Horvat, Marko; Kukolja, Davor; Dropuljić, Branimir; Cosić, Kresimir

    2009-01-01

    Significant proportion of psychological problems related to combat stress in recent large peacekeeping operations underscores importance of effective methods for strengthening the stress resistance of military personnel. Adaptive control of virtual reality (VR) stimulation, based on estimation of the subject's emotional state from physiological signals, may enhance existing stress inoculation training (SIT). Physiology-driven adaptive VR stimulation can tailor the progress of stressful stimuli delivery to the physiological characteristics of each individual, which is indicated for improvement in stress resistance. Therefore, following an overview of SIT and its applications in the military setting, generic concept of physiology-driven adaptive VR stimulation is presented in the paper. Toward the end of the paper, closed-loop adaptive control strategy applicable to SIT is outlined. PMID:19592729

  16. Nutritional strategies to support adaptation to high-intensity interval training in team sports.

    PubMed

    Gibala, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Team sports are characterized by intermittent high-intensity activity patterns. Typically, play consists of short periods of very intense or all-out efforts interspersed with longer periods of low-intensity activity. Fatigue is a complex, multi-factorial process, but intense intermittent exercise performance can potentially be limited by reduced availability of substrates stored in skeletal muscle and/or metabolic by-products associated with fuel breakdown. High-intensity interval training (HIT) has been shown to induce adaptations in skeletal muscle that enhance the capacity for both oxidative and non-oxidative metabolism. Nutrient availability is a potent modulator of many acute physiological responses to exercise, including various molecular signaling pathways that are believed to regulate cellular adaptation to training. Several nutritional strategies have also been reported to acutely alter metabolism and enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise performance. However, relatively little is known regarding the effect of chronic interventions, and whether supplementation over a period of weeks or months augments HIT-induced physiological remodeling and promotes greater performance adaptations. Theoretically, a nutritional intervention could augment HIT adaptation by improving energy metabolism during exercise, which could facilitate greater total work and an enhanced chronic training stimulus, or promoting some aspect of the adaptive response during recovery, which could lead to enhanced physiological adaptations over time.

  17. Average Volume-Assured Pressure Support in a 16-Year-Old Girl with Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vagiakis, Emmanouil; Koutsourelakis, Ioannis; Perraki, Eleni; Roussos, Charis; Mastora, Zafeiria; Zakynthinos, Spyros; Kotanidou, Anastasia

    2010-01-01

    Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is an uncommon disorder characterized by the absence of adequate autonomic control of respiration, which results in alveolar hypoventilation and decreased sensitivity to hypercarbia and hypoxemia, especially during sleep.1 Patients with CCHS need lifelong ventilatory support. The treatment options for CCHS include intermittent positive pressure ventilation administered via tracheostomy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation, negative-pressure ventilation by body chamber or cuirass, and phrenic nerve pacing.2 However, it may be necessary to alter the mode of ventilation according to age, psychosocial reasons, complications of therapy, and emergence of new modes of ventilation.3 We present a case of a 16-year-old girl with CCHS who was mechanically ventilated via tracheostomy for 16 years and was successfully transitioned to a new modality of noninvasive ventilation (average volume-assured pressure support [AVAPS]) that automatically adjusts the pressure support level in order to provide a consistent tidal volume. Citation: Vagiakis E; Koutsourelakis I; Perraki E; Roussos C; Mastora Z; Zakynthinos S; Kotanidou A. Average volume-assured pressure support in a 16-year-old girl with central congenital hypoventilation syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(6):609-612. PMID:21206552

  18. Blood Pressure and Hemodynamic Adaptations after a Training Program in Young Individuals with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Seron, Bruna Barboza; Goessler, Karla Fabiana; Modesto, Everaldo Lambert; Almeida, Eloise Werle; Greguol, Márcia

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases affect people worldwide. Individuals with Down Syndrome (DS) have an up to sixteen-time greater risk of mortality from cardiovascular diseases. Objective To evaluate the effects of aerobic and resistance exercises on blood pressure and hemodynamic variables of young individuals with DS. Methods A total of 29 young individuals with DS participated in the study. They were divided into two groups: aerobic training (AT) (n = 14), and resistance training (TR) (n = 15). Their mean age was 15.7 ± 2.82 years. The training program lasted 12 weeks, and had a frequency of three times a week for AT and twice a week for RT. AT was performed in treadmill/ bicycle ergometer, at an intensity between 50%-70% of the HR reserve. RT comprised nine exercises with three sets of 12 repetition-maximum. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean blood pressure (MBP) and hemodynamic variables were assessed beat-to-beat using the Finometer device before/after the training program. Descriptive analysis, the Shapiro-Wilk test to check the normality of data, and the two-way ANOVA for repeated measures were used to compare pre- and post-training variables. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient was calculated to correlate hemodynamic variables. The SPSS version 18.0 was used with the significance level set at p < 0.05. Results After twelve weeks of aerobic and/or resistance training, significant reductions in variables SBP, DBP and MBP were observed. Conclusion This study suggests a chronic hypotensive effect of moderate aerobic and resistance exercises on young individuals with DS. PMID:26131704

  19. Effects of age and blood pressure on the retinal arterial wall, analyzed using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.

    PubMed

    Arichika, Shigeta; Uji, Akihito; Ooto, Sotaro; Muraoka, Yuki; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2015-07-20

    The wall-to-lumen ratio (WLR) of the vasculature is a promising early marker of retinal microvascular changes. Recently, adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) enabled direct and noninvasive visualization of the arterial wall. Using AOSLO, we analyzed the correlation between age and WLR in 51 normal subjects. In addition, correlations between blood pressure and WLR were analyzed in 73 subjects (51 normal subjects and 22 hypertensive patients). WLR showed a strong correlation with age (r = 0.68, P < 0.0001), while outer diameter and inner diameter did not show significant correlation with age in the normal group (r = 0.13, P = 0.36 and r = -0.12, P =  .41, respectively). In the normal and hypertensive groups, WLR showed a strong correlation with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.60, P < 0.0001 and r = 0.65, P < 0.0001, respectively). In conclusion, AOSLO provided noninvasive and reproducible arterial measurements. WLR is an early marker of morphological changes in the retinal arteries due to age and blood pressure.

  20. Combined non-adaptive light and smell stimuli lowered blood pressure, reduced heart rate and reduced negative affect.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shan; Jacob, Tim J C

    2016-03-15

    Bright light therapy has been shown to have a positive impact on seasonal affective disorder (SAD), depression and anxiety. Smell has also has been shown to have effects on mood, stress, anxiety and depression. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the combination of light and smell in a non-adaptive cycle. Human subjects were given smell (lemon, lavender or peppermint) and light stimuli in a triangular wave (60scycle) for 15min. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored before and after each session for 5 consecutive days and a Profile of Mood States (POMS) test was administered before and after the sensory stimulation on days 1, 3 and 5. The light-smell stimulus lowered blood pressure, both systolic and diastolic, and reduced heart rate for all odours compared to control. Of the two sensory stimuli, the odour stimulus contributed most to this effect. The different aromas in the light-smell combinations could be distinguished by their different effects on the mood factors with lemon inducing the greatest mood changes in Dejection-Depression, Anger-Hostility, Tension-Anxiety. In conclusion, combined light and smell stimulation was effective in lowering blood pressure, reducing heart rate and improving mood. The combination was more effective than either smell or light stimuli alone, suggesting that a light-smell combination would be a more robust and efficacious alternative treatment for depression, anxiety and stress. PMID:26780148

  1. Combined non-adaptive light and smell stimuli lowered blood pressure, reduced heart rate and reduced negative affect.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shan; Jacob, Tim J C

    2016-03-15

    Bright light therapy has been shown to have a positive impact on seasonal affective disorder (SAD), depression and anxiety. Smell has also has been shown to have effects on mood, stress, anxiety and depression. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the combination of light and smell in a non-adaptive cycle. Human subjects were given smell (lemon, lavender or peppermint) and light stimuli in a triangular wave (60scycle) for 15min. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored before and after each session for 5 consecutive days and a Profile of Mood States (POMS) test was administered before and after the sensory stimulation on days 1, 3 and 5. The light-smell stimulus lowered blood pressure, both systolic and diastolic, and reduced heart rate for all odours compared to control. Of the two sensory stimuli, the odour stimulus contributed most to this effect. The different aromas in the light-smell combinations could be distinguished by their different effects on the mood factors with lemon inducing the greatest mood changes in Dejection-Depression, Anger-Hostility, Tension-Anxiety. In conclusion, combined light and smell stimulation was effective in lowering blood pressure, reducing heart rate and improving mood. The combination was more effective than either smell or light stimuli alone, suggesting that a light-smell combination would be a more robust and efficacious alternative treatment for depression, anxiety and stress.

  2. Database support for adaptation to climate change: An assessment of web-based portals across scales.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Hans; Hilden, Mikael; Russel, Duncan; Dessai, Suraje

    2016-10-01

    The widely recognized increase in greenhouse gas emissions is necessitating adaptation to a changing climate, and policies are being developed and implemented worldwide, across sectors, and between government scales globally. The aim of this article is to reflect on one of the major challenges: facilitating and sharing information on the next adaptation practices. Web portals (i.e., web sites) for disseminating information are important tools in meeting this challenge, and therefore, we assessed the characteristics of select major portals across multiple scales. We found that there is a rather limited number of case studies available in the portals-between 900 and 1000 in total-with 95 that include cost information and 195 that include the participation of stakeholders globally. Portals are rarely cited by researchers, suggesting a suboptimal connection between the practical, policy-related, and scientific development of adaptation. The government portals often lack links on search results between US and European Union (EU) web sites, for example. With significant investments and policy development emerging in both the United States and the European Union, there is great potential to share information via portals. Moreover, there is the possibility of better connecting the practical adaptation experience from bottom-up projects to the science of adaptation. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:627-631. © 2016 SETAC.

  3. Database support for adaptation to climate change: An assessment of web-based portals across scales.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Hans; Hilden, Mikael; Russel, Duncan; Dessai, Suraje

    2016-10-01

    The widely recognized increase in greenhouse gas emissions is necessitating adaptation to a changing climate, and policies are being developed and implemented worldwide, across sectors, and between government scales globally. The aim of this article is to reflect on one of the major challenges: facilitating and sharing information on the next adaptation practices. Web portals (i.e., web sites) for disseminating information are important tools in meeting this challenge, and therefore, we assessed the characteristics of select major portals across multiple scales. We found that there is a rather limited number of case studies available in the portals-between 900 and 1000 in total-with 95 that include cost information and 195 that include the participation of stakeholders globally. Portals are rarely cited by researchers, suggesting a suboptimal connection between the practical, policy-related, and scientific development of adaptation. The government portals often lack links on search results between US and European Union (EU) web sites, for example. With significant investments and policy development emerging in both the United States and the European Union, there is great potential to share information via portals. Moreover, there is the possibility of better connecting the practical adaptation experience from bottom-up projects to the science of adaptation. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:627-631. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:26771054

  4. Coolant pressure and airflow distribution in a strut-supported transpiration-cooled vane for a gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.; Poferl, D. J.; Richards, H. T.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis to predict pressure and flow distribution in a strut-supported wire-cloth vane was developed. Results were compared with experimental data obtained from room-temperature airflow tests conducted over a range of vane inlet airflow rates from 10.7 to 40.4 g/sec (0.0235 to 0.0890 lb/sec). The analytical method yielded reasonably accurate predictions of vane coolant flow rate and pressure distribution.

  5. Context Aware Multiparty Session Support for Adaptive Multicasting in Heterogeneous Mobile Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniou, Josephine; Riede, Christian; Pinto, Filipe Cabral; Pitsillides, Andreas

    The paper addresses the issue of achieving context-aware, adaptive multiparty sessions in a heterogeneous system by illustrating how to add elements of adaptivity and context-awareness to the session management functionality of such systems. The effective usage of situation/context information can lead to context-aware content casting, especially context-aware, adaptive multicasting. Therefore, regarding the multicast service, the key functionality of the enhanced session management is to create network subgroups based on network information as well as general user and environment context information to the extent that these are considered necessary for forming network-efficient groups, and in turn communicating the characteristics of these subgroups in the form of content stream descriptions to the media delivery function for obtaining the appropriate content for each subgroup.

  6. Changes in taste neurons support the emergence of an adaptive behavior in cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Silverman, Jules; Schal, Coby

    2013-05-24

    In response to the anthropogenic assault of toxic baits, populations of the German cockroach have rapidly evolved an adaptive behavioral aversion to glucose (a phagostimulant component of baits). We hypothesized that changes in the peripheral gustatory system are responsible for glucose aversion. In both wild-type and glucose-averse (GA) cockroaches, D-fructose and D-glucose stimulated sugar-gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs), whereas the deterrent caffeine stimulated bitter-GRNs. In contrast, in GA cockroaches, D-glucose also stimulated bitter-GRNs and suppressed the responses of sugar-GRNs. Thus, D-glucose is processed as both a phagostimulant and deterrent in GA cockroaches, and this newly acquired peripheral taste sensitivity underlies glucose aversion in multiple GA populations. The rapid emergence of this highly adaptive behavior underscores the plasticity of the sensory system to adapt to rapid environmental change.

  7. Real-Time Assessment of Autonomic Nerve Activity During Adaptive Servo-Ventilation Support or Waon Therapy.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Teruhiko; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Nitta, Daisuke; Komuro, Issei

    2016-07-27

    Adaptive servo-ventilation support and Waon therapy are recently developed non-pharmacological and noninvasive therapies for patients with heart failure refractory to guideline-directed medical therapy. These therapies decrease both preload and afterload, increase cardiac output, and appear to ameliorate autonomic nerve activity. However, the time course of autonomic nerve activity during these therapies remains unclear. We performed heart rate variability analysis using the MemCalc power spectral density method (MemCalc system; Suwa Trust Co, Tokyo) to assess autonomic nerve activity during adaptive servo-ventilation support and Waon therapy in two different cases and determined the time course of autonomic nerve activity during these therapies. During both therapies, we found a drastic increase in parasympathetic nerve activity and continuous suppression of sympathetic nerve activity. Heart rate variability analysis using the MemCalc method may be promising for the assessment of the efficacy of various treatments, including adaptive servo-ventilation support and Waon therapy, from the viewpoint of autonomic nerve activity. PMID:27385607

  8. The Carpe Diem West Academy: Connecting Water Resources Practitioners and Decision Support Tool Developers in Pursuit of Climate Change Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, H. C.; morino, K.; Wiltshire, K.

    2012-12-01

    Water resources practitioners face a confusing and often overwhelming plethora of evolving tools and methods for considering climate change in planning and management. Many tools require substantial investments in data gathering, analysis, or stakeholder engagement. Many address only pieces of the climate change adaptation challenge without clear interconnection. Additionally, there are few standards of practice in the application of these tools. The Carpe Diem West Academy provides knowledge sharing, community building, and collaboration among water resources practitioners and decision support tool developers to facilitate use of science in adaptation efforts. The technical core of the Academy is a web portal (carpediemwestacademy.org) that uses multiple frameworks, including iterative risk management, to organize an interactive compendium of over 150 tools and training resources developed by others, that are useful for water resources planning and management, including consideration of interconnections with other resources such as energy and ecosystem services. Academy users are supported through a variety of experimental approaches, including webinars and facilitated web discussion, for efficiently engaging water resources practitioners, at a scale that is practical to sustain, that fosters shared learning about tools and their application in adaptation efforts, and that can support establishment of best practices for incorporating uncertainty and climate change. The Academy has also been useful for identifying gaps where additional tools, methods, or professional development training are needed, and for providing feedback to tool developers. We report on key findings on the effectiveness of the Academy's multiple approaches.

  9. Is social support universally adaptive in diabetes? A correlational study in an Arabic-speaking population with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sukkarieh-Haraty, Ola; Howard, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between diabetes self-care, diabetes-specific emotional distress, and social support and glycemic control (hemoglobin A1C levels: HbA1c) among a sample of Lebanese adults with type 2 diabetes. A descriptive correlational design was adapted with descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regressions for analyses. A convenience sample of 140 adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes was recruited from 2 diabetes clinics in Greater Beirut. Participants were asked to complete 4 questionnaires in Arabic. Significant associations (P < .05) were found between following a general diet for more than 3.5 days per week and higher social support and HbA1c levels of 7% or more. Social support was positively associated with HbA1c levels such that participants with uncontrolled glycemic levels, as evidenced by higher values for HbA1c, received more support from their social network.

  10. Successful Intervention for Pressure Ulcer by Nutrition Support Team: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Inui, Shigeki; Konishi, Yuko; Yasui, Yoko; Harada, Toshiko; Itami, Satoshi

    2010-07-02

    A 23-year-old woman with heart failure developed pressure ulcer on her sacral area due to a long-term bed rest and impaired hemodynamics. The ulcer improved only slightly after 2 months with povidone-iodine sugar ointment because of severe nausea and anorexia. Then, the nutrition support team (NST) started intervention and estimated the patient's malnutrition from her body weight (30.1 kg), body mass index (BMI) (13.9), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) (3.5 mm), arm circumference (AC) (17.2 cm) and serum albumin (2.6 g/dl). The NST administrated an enteral nutrition formula through a nasogastric tube and tried to provide meals according to the patient's taste. Although DESIGN score improved to 7 (DESIGN: d2e1s2i1g1n0 = 7) 2 months later, severe nausea prevented the patient from taking any food perorally. However, after nasogastric decannulation, her appetite improved and 1 month later her body weight increased to 32.8 kg, her BMI to 15.2, TSF to 7.5 mm, AC to 19.7 cm and serum albumin to 4.1 g/dl, and the wound completely healed.

  11. Nondestructive Methods and Special Test Instrumentation Supporting NASA Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saulsberry, Regor; Greene, Nathanael; Cameron, Ken; Madaras, Eric; Grimes-Ledesma, Lorie; Thesken, John; Phoenix, Leigh; Murthy, Pappu; Revilock, Duane

    2007-01-01

    Many aging composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs), being used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are currently under evaluation to better quantify their reliability and clarify their likelihood of failure due to stress rupture and age-dependent issues. As a result, some test and analysis programs have been successfully accomplished and other related programs are still in progress at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) and other NASA centers, with assistance from the commercial sector. To support this effort, a group of Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) experts was assembled to provide NDE competence for pretest evaluation of test articles and for application of NDE technology to real-time testing. Techniques were required to provide assurance that the test article had adequate structural integrity and manufacturing consistency to be considered acceptable for testing and these techniques were successfully applied. Destructive testing is also being accomplished to better understand the physical and chemical property changes associated with progression toward "stress rupture" (SR) failure, and it is being associated with NDE response, so it can potentially be used to help with life prediction. Destructive work also includes the evaluation of residual stresses during dissection of the overwrap, laboratory evaluation of specimens extracted from the overwrap to evaluate physical property changes, and quantitative microscopy to inform the theoretical micromechanics.

  12. Energy efficient engine, high pressure turbine thermal barrier coating. Support technology report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duderstadt, E. C.; Agarwal, P.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes the work performed on a thermal barrier coating support technology task of the Energy Efficient Engine Component Development Program. A thermal barrier coating (TBC) system consisting of a Ni-Cr-Al-Y bond cost layer and ZrO2-Y2O3 ceramic layer was selected from eight candidate coating systems on the basis of laboratory tests. The selection was based on coating microstructure, crystallographic phase composition, tensile bond and bend test results, erosion and impact test results, furnace exposure, thermal cycle, and high velocity dynamic oxidation test results. Procedures were developed for applying the selected TBC to CF6-50, high pressure turbine blades and vanes. Coated HPT components were tested in three kinds of tests. Stage 1 blades were tested in a cascade cyclic test rig, Stage 2 blades were component high cycle fatigue tested to qualify thermal barrier coated blades for engine testing, and Stage 2 blades and Stage 1 and 2 vanes were run in factory engine tests. After completion of the 1000 cycle engine test, the TBC on the blades was in excellent condition over all of the platform and airfoil except at the leading edge above midspan on the suction side of the airfoil. The coating damage appeared to be caused by particle impingement; adjacent blades without TBC also showed evidence of particle impingement.

  13. High- and low-level pressure support during walking in people with severe kyphoscoliosis.

    PubMed

    Menadue, C; Alison, J A; Piper, A J; Wong, K K; Hollier, C; Ellis, E R

    2010-08-01

    To determine whether the level of pressure support (PS) provided during exercise influences endurance time in people with severe kyphoscoliosis, a double-blind randomised crossover study was performed. We hypothesised that high-level PS would be required to enhance endurance time in this population with high impedance to inflation. 13 participants with severe kyphoscoliosis performed four endurance treadmill tests in random order: unassisted; with sham PS; low-level PS of 10 cmH(2)O (PS 10); and high-level PS of 20 cmH(2)O (PS 20). Participants and assessors were blinded to the level of PS delivered during exercise. Endurance time was greater with PS 20 (median (interquartile range) 217 (168-424) s) compared with unassisted exercise (139 (111-189) s), sham PS (103 (88-155) s) and PS 10 (159 (131-206) s). In addition, isotime respiratory rate was decreased by 8 breaths x min(-1) (95% CI -11- -5 breaths x min(-1)) and isotime oxygen saturation increased by 4% (95% CI 1-7%) with PS 20 compared with unassisted exercise. People with severe kyphoscoliosis require high-level PS during walking to improve exercise performance. Investigation of high-level PS as an adjunct to exercise training or to assist in the performance of daily activities is warranted.

  14. Continuous positive airway pressure with pressure support ventilation is effective in treating acute-onset bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Leung, Yiuka; Fikry, Karim; Shah, Bhavika; Madapu, Manokanth; Gaz, Randall D; Leffert, Lisa R; Jiang, Yandong

    2015-06-01

    Acute bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve injury leading to acute vocal cord paralysis (VCP) is a serious complication of head and neck surgery, often requiring emergent surgical intervention. Although well documented, its presentation may be sudden and unexpected, occurring despite lack of obvious intraoperative nerve injury. There is limited literature on airway management strategies for patients with acute bilateral VCP before attaining a secure airway. We report a case of acute VCP that was successfully treated with continuous positive airway pressure via facemask ventilation. This effective temporizing strategy allowed clinicians to plan and prepare for tracheostomy, minimizing potential complications.

  15. Characterizing the Networks of Digital Information that Support Collaborative Adaptive Forest Management in Sierra Nevada Forests.

    PubMed

    Lei, Shufei; Iles, Alastair; Kelly, Maggi

    2015-07-01

    Some of the factors that can contribute to the success of collaborative adaptive management--such as social learning, open communication, and trust--are built upon a foundation of the open exchange of information about science and management between participants and the public. Despite the importance of information transparency, the use and flow of information in collaborative adaptive management has not been characterized in detail in the literature, and currently there exist opportunities to develop strategies for increasing the exchange of information, as well as to track information flow in such contexts. As digital information channels and networks have been increased over the last decade, powerful new information monitoring tools have also been evolved allowing for the complete characterization of information products through their production, transport, use, and monitoring. This study uses these tools to investigate the use of various science and management information products in a case study--the Sierra Nevada Adaptive Management Project--using a mixed method (citation analysis, web analytics, and content analysis) research approach borrowed from the information processing and management field. The results from our case study show that information technologies greatly facilitate the flow and use of digital information, leading to multiparty collaborations such as knowledge transfer and public participation in science research. We conclude with recommendations for expanding information exchange in collaborative adaptive management by taking advantage of available information technologies and networks. PMID:25877459

  16. Characterizing the Networks of Digital Information that Support Collaborative Adaptive Forest Management in Sierra Nevada Forests.

    PubMed

    Lei, Shufei; Iles, Alastair; Kelly, Maggi

    2015-07-01

    Some of the factors that can contribute to the success of collaborative adaptive management--such as social learning, open communication, and trust--are built upon a foundation of the open exchange of information about science and management between participants and the public. Despite the importance of information transparency, the use and flow of information in collaborative adaptive management has not been characterized in detail in the literature, and currently there exist opportunities to develop strategies for increasing the exchange of information, as well as to track information flow in such contexts. As digital information channels and networks have been increased over the last decade, powerful new information monitoring tools have also been evolved allowing for the complete characterization of information products through their production, transport, use, and monitoring. This study uses these tools to investigate the use of various science and management information products in a case study--the Sierra Nevada Adaptive Management Project--using a mixed method (citation analysis, web analytics, and content analysis) research approach borrowed from the information processing and management field. The results from our case study show that information technologies greatly facilitate the flow and use of digital information, leading to multiparty collaborations such as knowledge transfer and public participation in science research. We conclude with recommendations for expanding information exchange in collaborative adaptive management by taking advantage of available information technologies and networks.

  17. Skeleton-supported stochastic networks of organic memristive devices: Adaptations and learning

    SciTech Connect

    Erokhina, Svetlana; Sorokin, Vladimir; Erokhin, Victor

    2015-02-15

    Stochastic networks of memristive devices were fabricated using a sponge as a skeleton material. Cyclic voltage-current characteristics, measured on the network, revealed properties, similar to the organic memristive device with deterministic architecture. Application of the external training resulted in the adaptation of the network electrical properties. The system revealed an improved stability with respect to the networks, composed from polymer fibers.

  18. Characterizing the Networks of Digital Information that Support Collaborative Adaptive Forest Management in Sierra Nevada Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Shufei; Iles, Alastair; Kelly, Maggi

    2015-07-01

    Some of the factors that can contribute to the success of collaborative adaptive management—such as social learning, open communication, and trust—are built upon a foundation of the open exchange of information about science and management between participants and the public. Despite the importance of information transparency, the use and flow of information in collaborative adaptive management has not been characterized in detail in the literature, and currently there exist opportunities to develop strategies for increasing the exchange of information, as well as to track information flow in such contexts. As digital information channels and networks have been increased over the last decade, powerful new information monitoring tools have also been evolved allowing for the complete characterization of information products through their production, transport, use, and monitoring. This study uses these tools to investigate the use of various science and management information products in a case study—the Sierra Nevada Adaptive Management Project—using a mixed method (citation analysis, web analytics, and content analysis) research approach borrowed from the information processing and management field. The results from our case study show that information technologies greatly facilitate the flow and use of digital information, leading to multiparty collaborations such as knowledge transfer and public participation in science research. We conclude with recommendations for expanding information exchange in collaborative adaptive management by taking advantage of available information technologies and networks.

  19. Maternal supportive and interfering control as predictors of adaptive and social development in children with and without developmental delays

    PubMed Central

    Green, S.; Caplan, B.; Baker, B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Parents of children with developmental delays (DD) have been found to use more controlling behaviour with their children than parents of children with typical development (TD). While controlling behaviour is related to poorer developmental outcomes in TD children, there is little research on how it predicts outcomes in DD children. Furthermore, existing research tends to use inconsistent or non-specific definitions of controlling behaviour, often combining parent control which follows the child’s goal (e.g. supportive direction) and that which interferes with the child’s goal (e.g. interference). Methods Participants were 200 mother–child dyads observed at child age 3, with follow-up assessments of adaptive behaviour and social skills administered at child ages 5 and 6, respectively. We coded the frequency of both types of controlling behaviour based on mothers’ interactions with their children with TD (n = 113) or DD (n = 87) at age 3. Results Mothers in the DD group used more interfering but not more supportive directive acts compared to mothers in the TD group. Adaptive behaviour was assessed at child age 5 and social skills were assessed at age 6. Higher frequency of supportive directive acts predicted better adaptive functioning for the TD group and better social skills for the DD group. Higher frequency of interfering acts predicted lower adaptive and social skills for children with DD but not with TD. Conclusions Results are discussed in terms of the differential developmental needs of children with and without DD as well as implications for early intervention. PMID:23865770

  20. Active Pneumatic Vibration Control by Using Pressure and Velocity Measurements and Adaptive Fuzzy Sliding-Mode Controller

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung-Yi; Liang, Jin-Wei; Wu, Jia-Wei

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an intelligent control strategy to overcome nonlinear and time-varying characteristics of a diaphragm-type pneumatic vibration isolator (PVI) system. By combining an adaptive rule with fuzzy and sliding-mode control, the method has online learning ability when it faces the system's nonlinear and time-varying behaviors during an active vibration control process. Since the proposed scheme has a simple structure, it is easy to implement. To validate the proposed scheme, a composite control which adopts both chamber pressure and payload velocity as feedback signal is implemented. During experimental investigations, sinusoidal excitation at resonance and random-like signal are input on a floor base to simulate ground vibration. Performances obtained from the proposed scheme are compared with those obtained from passive system and PID scheme to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed intelligent control. PMID:23820746

  1. Payoffs, Not Tradeoffs, in the Adaptation of a Virus to Ostensibly Conflicting Selective Pressures

    PubMed Central

    McGee, Lindsey W.; Aitchison, Erick W.; Caudle, S. Brian; Morrison, Anneliese J.; Zheng, Lianqing; Yang, Wei; Rokyta, Darin R.

    2014-01-01

    The genetic architecture of many phenotypic traits is such that genes often contribute to multiple traits, and mutations in these genes can therefore affect multiple phenotypes. These pleiotropic interactions often manifest as tradeoffs between traits where improvement in one property entails a cost in another. The life cycles of many pathogens include periods of growth within a host punctuated with transmission events, such as passage through a digestive tract or a passive stage of exposure in the environment. Populations exposed to such fluctuating selective pressures are expected to acquire mutations showing tradeoffs between reproduction within and survival outside of a host. We selected for individual mutations under fluctuating selective pressures for a ssDNA microvirid bacteriophage by alternating selection for increased growth rate with selection on biophysical properties of the phage capsid in high-temperature or low-pH conditions. Surprisingly, none of the seven unique mutations identified showed a pleiotropic cost; they all improved both growth rate and pH or temperature stability, suggesting that single mutations even in a simple genetic system can simultaneously improve two distinct traits. Selection on growth rate alone revealed tradeoffs, but some mutations still benefited both traits. Tradeoffs were therefore prevalent when selection acted on a single trait, but payoffs resulted when multiple traits were selected for simultaneously. We employed a molecular-dynamics simulation method to determine the mechanisms underlying beneficial effects for three heat-shock mutations. All three mutations significantly enhanced the affinities of protein-protein interfacial bindings, thereby improving capsid stability. The ancestral residues at the mutation sites did not contribute to protein-protein interfacial binding, indicating that these sites acquired a new function. Computational models, such as those used here, may be used in future work not only as

  2. Payoffs, not tradeoffs, in the adaptation of a virus to ostensibly conflicting selective pressures.

    PubMed

    McGee, Lindsey W; Aitchison, Erick W; Caudle, S Brian; Morrison, Anneliese J; Zheng, Lianqing; Yang, Wei; Rokyta, Darin R

    2014-10-01

    The genetic architecture of many phenotypic traits is such that genes often contribute to multiple traits, and mutations in these genes can therefore affect multiple phenotypes. These pleiotropic interactions often manifest as tradeoffs between traits where improvement in one property entails a cost in another. The life cycles of many pathogens include periods of growth within a host punctuated with transmission events, such as passage through a digestive tract or a passive stage of exposure in the environment. Populations exposed to such fluctuating selective pressures are expected to acquire mutations showing tradeoffs between reproduction within and survival outside of a host. We selected for individual mutations under fluctuating selective pressures for a ssDNA microvirid bacteriophage by alternating selection for increased growth rate with selection on biophysical properties of the phage capsid in high-temperature or low-pH conditions. Surprisingly, none of the seven unique mutations identified showed a pleiotropic cost; they all improved both growth rate and pH or temperature stability, suggesting that single mutations even in a simple genetic system can simultaneously improve two distinct traits. Selection on growth rate alone revealed tradeoffs, but some mutations still benefited both traits. Tradeoffs were therefore prevalent when selection acted on a single trait, but payoffs resulted when multiple traits were selected for simultaneously. We employed a molecular-dynamics simulation method to determine the mechanisms underlying beneficial effects for three heat-shock mutations. All three mutations significantly enhanced the affinities of protein-protein interfacial bindings, thereby improving capsid stability. The ancestral residues at the mutation sites did not contribute to protein-protein interfacial binding, indicating that these sites acquired a new function. Computational models, such as those used here, may be used in future work not only as

  3. Brief report: pressure support ventilation during an ascent and on the summit of Mt. Everest? A theoretical approach.

    PubMed

    Kleinsasser, Axel; Loeckinger, Alex

    2002-01-01

    At extreme altitude, air has an almost identical composition compared to air at sea level, while its pressure is altitude-dependently lower. When supplementary oxygen is used to achieve an acceptable inspiratory pressure of oxygen (PI(O2)) during climbing, the barometric pressure difference to lower altitudes is not compensated for. In this report, we tried theoretically to apply pressure support ventilation (PSV) to partially compensate for low barometric pressures. PSV is widely used for respiratory home care and is applicable via a nasal mask. Since there are light-weight units with long battery lives on the market, we speculated that these units may to some extent replace bottled oxygen. PSV was in theory applied at barometric pressures of 400 torr (Everest Base Camp), 284 torr (South Col), and 253 torr (summit of Mt. Everest). We found that during PSV at a mean airway pressure of 16.5 torr on the summit of Mt. Everest, a fraction of inspired oxygen (FI(O2)) of 0.34 sufficed to achieve an alveolar partial pressure (PA(O2)) of 67 torr. PSV increases PI(O2) by 3.5 torr, which in theory elevates the maximum oxygen consumption (V(O2max)) by 218 mL.min(-1) in an acclimatized climber in this setting. An additional benefit of PSV at extreme altitude may come from the unloading of the respiratory muscles.

  4. Electromagnetic compatibility of WLAN adapters with life-supporting medical devices.

    PubMed

    Calcagnini, G; Mattei, E; Censi, F; Triventi, M; Lo Sterzo, R; Marchetta, E; Bartolini, P

    2011-05-01

    This paper investigates the electromagnetic compatibility of 45 critical care medical devices (infusion pumps, defibrillators, monitors, lung ventilators, anesthesia machines and external pacemakers) with various types of wireless local area network (WLAN, IEEE 802.11 b/g, 2.45 GHz, 100 mW) adapters. Interference is evaluated by performing ad-hoc tests according to the ANSI C63.18 recommended practice. The behavior of the devices during the tests was monitored using patient simulators/device testers specific for each device class. Electromagnetic interference cases were observed in three of 45 devices at a maximum distance of 5 cm. In two cases the interference caused malfunctions that may have clinical consequences for the patient. The authors' findings show that the use of these wireless local area network adapters can be considered reasonably safe, although interference may occur if they are operated at very close distance (<10 cm) to the medical devices. PMID:21451319

  5. Integrated decision support, sensor networks and adaptive control for wireless site-specific sprinkler irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of site-specific sprinkler irrigation water management systems will be a major factor in future efforts to improve the various efficiencies of water-use and to support a sustainable irrigated environment. The challenge is to develop fully integrated management systems with supporting...

  6. Integrated Decision Support, Sensor Networks and Adaptive Control for Wireless Site-specific Sprinkler Irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of site-specific sprinkler irrigation water management systems will be a major factor in future efforts to improve the various efficiencies of water-use and to support a sustainable irrigated environment. The challenge is to develop fully integrated management systems with supporting...

  7. Elementary School Teachers Adapt Their Instructional Support According to Students' Academic Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Leskinen, Esko; Torppa, Minna; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Niemi, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal associations between children's academic skills and the instructional support teachers gave individual students. A total of 253 Finnish children were tested on reading and math skills twice in the first grade and once in the second grade. The teachers of these children rated the instructional support that they…

  8. Teaching Case: Adapting the Access Northwind Database to Support a Database Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, John N.; Rogers, Camille

    2015-01-01

    A common problem encountered when teaching database courses is that few large illustrative databases exist to support teaching and learning. Most database textbooks have small "toy" databases that are chapter objective specific, and thus do not support application over the complete domain of design, implementation and management concepts…

  9. A Web Based Geographic Information Platform to Support Urban Adaptation to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Parish, Esther S

    2015-01-01

    The urban climate is changing rapidly. Therefore, climate change and its projected impacts on environmental conditions must be considered in assessing and comparing urban planning alternatives. In this paper, we present an integrated framework for urban climate adaptation tool (Urban-CAT) that will help cities to plan for, rather than react to, possible risks. Urban-CAT will be developed as a scenario planning tool that is locally relevant to existing urban decision-making processes.

  10. "Intelligent Ensemble" Projections of Precipitation and Surface Radiation in Support of Agricultural Climate Change Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Patrick C.; Baker, Noel C.

    2015-01-01

    Earth's climate is changing and will continue to change into the foreseeable future. Expected changes in the climatological distribution of precipitation, surface temperature, and surface solar radiation will significantly impact agriculture. Adaptation strategies are, therefore, required to reduce the agricultural impacts of climate change. Climate change projections of precipitation, surface temperature, and surface solar radiation distributions are necessary input for adaption planning studies. These projections are conventionally constructed from an ensemble of climate model simulations (e.g., the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5)) as an equal weighted average, one model one vote. Each climate model, however, represents the array of climate-relevant physical processes with varying degrees of fidelity influencing the projection of individual climate variables differently. Presented here is a new approach, termed the "Intelligent Ensemble, that constructs climate variable projections by weighting each model according to its ability to represent key physical processes, e.g., precipitation probability distribution. This approach provides added value over the equal weighted average method. Physical process metrics applied in the "Intelligent Ensemble" method are created using a combination of NASA and NOAA satellite and surface-based cloud, radiation, temperature, and precipitation data sets. The "Intelligent Ensemble" method is applied to the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 anthropogenic climate forcing simulations within the CMIP5 archive to develop a set of climate change scenarios for precipitation, temperature, and surface solar radiation in each USDA Farm Resource Region for use in climate change adaptation studies.

  11. Fibrin Networks Support Recurring Mechanical Loads by Adapting their Structure across Multiple Scales.

    PubMed

    Kurniawan, Nicholas A; Vos, Bart E; Biebricher, Andreas; Wuite, Gijs J L; Peterman, Erwin J G; Koenderink, Gijsje H

    2016-09-01

    Tissues and cells sustain recurring mechanical loads that span a wide range of loading amplitudes and timescales as a consequence of exposure to blood flow, muscle activity, and external impact. Both tissues and cells derive their mechanical strength from fibrous protein scaffolds, which typically have a complex hierarchical structure. In this study, we focus on a prototypical hierarchical biomaterial, fibrin, which is one of the most resilient naturally occurring biopolymers and forms the structural scaffold of blood clots. We show how fibrous networks composed of fibrin utilize irreversible changes in their hierarchical structure at different scales to maintain reversible stress stiffening up to large strains. To trace the origin of this paradoxical resilience, we systematically tuned the microstructural parameters of fibrin and used a combination of optical tweezers and fluorescence microscopy to measure the interactions of single fibrin fibers for the first time, to our knowledge. We demonstrate that fibrin networks adapt to moderate strains by remodeling at the network scale through the spontaneous formation of new bonds between fibers, whereas they adapt to high strains by plastic remodeling of the fibers themselves. This multiscale adaptation mechanism endows fibrin gels with the remarkable ability to sustain recurring loads due to shear flows and wound stretching. Our findings therefore reveal a microscopic mechanism by which tissues and cells can balance elastic nonlinearity and plasticity, and thus can provide microstructural insights into cell-driven remodeling of tissues. PMID:27602730

  12. HIV stigma and physical health symptoms: do social support, adaptive coping, and/or identity centrality act as resilience resources?

    PubMed

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Lang, Shawn M; Lippitt, Margaret; Jin, Harry; Chaudoir, Stephenie R

    2015-01-01

    Despite efforts to eliminate it at the societal level, HIV stigma persists and continues to threaten the health of people living with HIV (PLWH). We tested whether social support, adaptive coping, and/or HIV identity centrality act as resilience resources by buffering people from the negative impact of enacted and/or anticipated stigma on stress and ultimately HIV symptoms. Ninety-three PLWH completed a survey, and data analyses tested for evidence of mediation and moderation. Results demonstrated that instrumental social support, perceived community support, and HIV identity centrality buffered participants from the association between anticipated stigma and HIV symptoms. That is, anticipated stigma was associated with HIV symptoms via stress only at low levels of these resources. No resources buffered participants from the impact of enacted stigma. Identifying and enhancing resilience resources among PLWH is critical for protecting PLWH from the harmful effects of stigma.

  13. Adaptive Aft Signature Shaping of a Low-Boom Supersonic Aircraft Using Off-Body Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordaz, Irian; Li, Wu

    2012-01-01

    The design and optimization of a low-boom supersonic aircraft using the state-of-the- art o -body aerodynamics and sonic boom analysis has long been a challenging problem. The focus of this paper is to demonstrate an e ective geometry parameterization scheme and a numerical optimization approach for the aft shaping of a low-boom supersonic aircraft using o -body pressure calculations. A gradient-based numerical optimization algorithm that models the objective and constraints as response surface equations is used to drive the aft ground signature toward a ramp shape. The design objective is the minimization of the variation between the ground signature and the target signature subject to several geometric and signature constraints. The target signature is computed by using a least-squares regression of the aft portion of the ground signature. The parameterization and the deformation of the geometry is performed with a NASA in- house shaping tool. The optimization algorithm uses the shaping tool to drive the geometric deformation of a horizontal tail with a parameterization scheme that consists of seven camber design variables and an additional design variable that describes the spanwise location of the midspan section. The demonstration cases show that numerical optimization using the state-of-the-art o -body aerodynamic calculations is not only feasible and repeatable but also allows the exploration of complex design spaces for which a knowledge-based design method becomes less effective.

  14. Inspiratory pressure support compensates for the additional work of breathing caused by the endotracheal tube.

    PubMed

    Brochard, L; Rua, F; Lorino, H; Lemaire, F; Harf, A

    1991-11-01

    Breathing through an endotracheal tube and a demand valve may increase the work performed by the respiratory muscles. Inspiratory pressure support (PS) is known to reduce this work and might therefore compensate for this increased requirement. To test this hypothesis, we measured the work of breathing (WOB) in 11 patients whose tracheas were intubated. Five had no intrinsic lung disease, but six had chronic obstructive lung disease. We compared WOB measurements taken under several sets of conditions: during assisted breathing at four levels of PS, during unassisted breathing and connection to a T-piece, and after extubation of the trachea. During unassisted breathing via the ventilator circuit (PS set at 0 cmH20), the WOB per minute was greater than that after extubation, with a mean increase (+/- standard deviation) of 68 +/- 38% (10.3 +/- 5.1 vs. 6.5 +/- 3.7 J.min-1, P less than 0.01). While breathing through the T-piece, the WOB was 27 +/- 18% greater than after tracheal extubation (8.2 +/- 5.1 vs. 6.5 +/- 3.7 J.min-1, P less than 0.05). The principal reason why inspiratory work decreased after extubation was that the ventilatory requirement decreased. For each patient, we determined retrospectively, after extubation, the level of PS that had reduced WOB to its postextubation value and obtained levels ranging from 3.4 to 14.4 cmH2O. The PS level at which additional WOB was compensated for, was greater in patients with chronic lung disease than in those free of lung disease (12.0 +/- 1.9 vs. 5.7 +/- 1.5 cm H2O, P less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Evaluative Pressure in Mothers: Effects of Situation, Maternal, and Child Characteristics on Autonomy Supportive versus Controlling Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grolnick, Wendy S.; Price, Carrie E.; Beiswenger, Krista L.; Sauck, Christine C.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of situational pressure and maternal characteristics (social contingent self-worth, controlling parenting attitudes) on mothers' autonomy support versus control in the social domain. Sixty 4th-grade children and their mothers worked on a laboratory task in preparation for meeting new children, with mothers in either…

  16. A Novel Clinical Decision Support System Using Improved Adaptive Genetic Algorithm for the Assessment of Fetal Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Jambek, Asral Bahari; Neoh, Siew-Chin

    2015-01-01

    A novel clinical decision support system is proposed in this paper for evaluating the fetal well-being from the cardiotocogram (CTG) dataset through an Improved Adaptive Genetic Algorithm (IAGA) and Extreme Learning Machine (ELM). IAGA employs a new scaling technique (called sigma scaling) to avoid premature convergence and applies adaptive crossover and mutation techniques with masking concepts to enhance population diversity. Also, this search algorithm utilizes three different fitness functions (two single objective fitness functions and multi-objective fitness function) to assess its performance. The classification results unfold that promising classification accuracy of 94% is obtained with an optimal feature subset using IAGA. Also, the classification results are compared with those of other Feature Reduction techniques to substantiate its exhaustive search towards the global optimum. Besides, five other benchmark datasets are used to gauge the strength of the proposed IAGA algorithm. PMID:25793009

  17. Effect of home blood pressure telemonitoring with self-care support on uncontrolled systolic hypertension in diabetics.

    PubMed

    Logan, Alexander G; Irvine, M Jane; McIsaac, Warren J; Tisler, Andras; Rossos, Peter G; Easty, Anthony; Feig, Denice S; Cafazzo, Joseph A

    2012-07-01

    Lowering blood pressure reduces cardiovascular risk, yet hypertension is poorly controlled in diabetic patients. In a pilot study we demonstrated that a home blood pressure telemonitoring system, which provided self-care messages on the smartphone of hypertensive diabetic patients immediately after each reading, improved blood pressure control. Messages were based on care paths defined by running averages of transmitted readings. The present study tests the system's effectiveness in a randomized, controlled trial in diabetic patients with uncontrolled systolic hypertension. Of 244 subjects screened for eligibility, 110 (45%) were randomly allocated to the intervention (n = 55) or control (n = 55) group, and 105 (95.5%) completed the 1-year outcome visit. In the intention-to-treat analysis, mean daytime ambulatory systolic blood pressure, the primary end point, decreased significantly only in the intervention group by 9.1 ± 15.6 mmHg (SD; P < 0.0001), and the mean between-group difference was 7.1 ± 2.3 mmHg (SE; P < 0.005). Furthermore, 51% of intervention subjects achieved the guideline recommended target of <130/80 mmHg compared with 31% of control subjects (P < 0.05). These improvements were obtained without the use of more or different antihypertensive medications or additional clinic visits to physicians. Providing self-care support did not affect anxiety but worsened depression on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (baseline, 4.1 ± 3.76; exit, 5.2 ± 4.30; P = 0.014). This study demonstrated that home blood pressure telemonitoring combined with automated self-care support reduced the blood pressure of diabetic patients with uncontrolled systolic hypertension and improved hypertension control. Home blood pressure monitoring alone had no effect on blood pressure. Promoting patient self-care may have negative psychological effects.

  18. Flexible and self-powered temperature–pressure dual-parameter sensors using microstructure-frame-supported organic thermoelectric materials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fengjiao; Zang, Yaping; Huang, Dazhen; Di, Chong-an; Zhu, Daoben

    2015-01-01

    Skin-like temperature- and pressure-sensing capabilities are essential features for the next generation of artificial intelligent products. Previous studies of e-skin and smart elements have focused on flexible pressure sensors, whereas the simultaneous and sensitive detection of temperature and pressure with a single device remains a challenge. Here we report developing flexible dual-parameter temperature–pressure sensors based on microstructure-frame-supported organic thermoelectric (MFSOTE) materials. The effective transduction of temperature and pressure stimuli into two independent electrical signals permits the instantaneous sensing of temperature and pressure with an accurate temperature resolution of <0.1 K and a high-pressure-sensing sensitivity of up to 28.9 kPa−1. More importantly, these dual-parameter sensors can be self-powered with outstanding sensing performance. The excellent sensing properties of MFSOTE-based devices, together with their unique advantages of low cost and large-area fabrication, make MFSOTE materials possess promising applications in e-skin and health-monitoring elements. PMID:26387591

  19. Flexible and self-powered temperature-pressure dual-parameter sensors using microstructure-frame-supported organic thermoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fengjiao; Zang, Yaping; Huang, Dazhen; di, Chong-An; Zhu, Daoben

    2015-09-01

    Skin-like temperature- and pressure-sensing capabilities are essential features for the next generation of artificial intelligent products. Previous studies of e-skin and smart elements have focused on flexible pressure sensors, whereas the simultaneous and sensitive detection of temperature and pressure with a single device remains a challenge. Here we report developing flexible dual-parameter temperature-pressure sensors based on microstructure-frame-supported organic thermoelectric (MFSOTE) materials. The effective transduction of temperature and pressure stimuli into two independent electrical signals permits the instantaneous sensing of temperature and pressure with an accurate temperature resolution of <0.1 K and a high-pressure-sensing sensitivity of up to 28.9 kPa-1. More importantly, these dual-parameter sensors can be self-powered with outstanding sensing performance. The excellent sensing properties of MFSOTE-based devices, together with their unique advantages of low cost and large-area fabrication, make MFSOTE materials possess promising applications in e-skin and health-monitoring elements.

  20. Collaborative Software Development in Support of Fast Adaptive AeroSpace Tools (FAAST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleb, William L.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Park, Michael A.; Wood, William A.

    2003-01-01

    A collaborative software development approach is described. The software product is an adaptation of proven computational capabilities combined with new capabilities to form the Agency's next generation aerothermodynamic and aerodynamic analysis and design tools. To efficiently produce a cohesive, robust, and extensible software suite, the approach uses agile software development techniques; specifically, project retrospectives, the Scrum status meeting format, and a subset of Extreme Programming's coding practices are employed. Examples are provided which demonstrate the substantial benefits derived from employing these practices. Also included is a discussion of issues encountered when porting legacy Fortran 77 code to Fortran 95 and a Fortran 95 coding standard.

  1. Incidence of Parental Support and Pressure on Their Children’s Motivational Processes towards Sport Practice Regarding Gender

    PubMed Central

    Amado, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Grounded in Self-Determination Theory, structural equation modeling (SEM) with the aim of examining how parental support/pressure could influence their children´s motivational processes in sport was conducted, as well as the models´ differences in operability regarding gender. The sample size was 321 children ranging in age from 10 to 16 years old who were athletes from Extremadura, and 321 parents (included only the father or mother more involved with the sport of his or her child). 175 participants were male and 146 were female from individual (n = 130), and team sports (n=191). A questionnaire was conducted to assess parental perception of support/pressure and another questionnaire was conducted to measure satisfaction of basic psychological needs, type of motivation and enjoyment/boredom showed by their children towards sport practice. Results revealed that parental pressure negatively predicted satisfaction of the basic psychological needs. It also emerged as a strong positive predictor of intrinsic motivation and negative predictor of amotivation. Moreover, intrinsic motivation emerged as positive predictor of enjoyment and a negative predictor of boredom, whereas amotivation positively predicted boredom and negatively predicted enjoyment. Furthermore, results showed there were mean differences by gender: male athletes perceived greater parental pressure. Hence, it is necessary to decrease parental pressure towards their children in sport, with the aim of making them more motivated and enjoy, promoting positive consequences. PMID:26039062

  2. A Decision Support System for Climate Change Adaptation in Rainfed Sectors of Agriculture for Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mátyás, Csaba; Berki, Imre; Drüszler, Áron; Eredics, Attila; Gálos, Borbála; Illés, Gábor; Móricz, Norbert; Rasztovits, Ervin; Czimber, Kornél

    2013-04-01

    • Background and aims: Rainfed sectors of agriculture such as nature-close forestry, non-irrigated agriculture and animal husbandry on nature-close pastures are threatened by projected climate change especially in low-elevation regions in Southeast Europe, where precipitation is the limiting factor of production and ecosystem stability. Therefore the importance of complex, long term management planning and of land use optimization is increasing. The aim of the Decision Support System under development is to raise awareness and initiate preparation for frequency increase of extreme events, disasters and economic losses in the mentioned sectors. • Services provided: The Decision Support System provides GIS-supported information about the most important regional and local risks and mitigation options regarding climate change impacts, projected for reference periods until 2100 (e.g. land cover/use and expectable changes, potential production, water and carbon cycle, biodiversity and other ecosystem services, potential pests and diseases, tolerance limits etc.). The projections are referring first of all on biological production (natural produce), but the System includes also social and economic consequences. • Methods: In the raster based system, the latest image processing technology is used. We apply fuzzy membership functions, Support Vector Machine and Maximum Likelihood classifier. The System is developed in the first step for a reference area in SW Hungary (Zala county). • Novelty: The coherent, fine-scale regional system integrates the basic information about present and projected climates, extremes, hydrology and soil conditions and expected production potential for three sectors of agriculture as options for land use and conservation. • Funding: The development of the Decision Support System "Agrárklíma" is supported by TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV and 4.2.2.B-10/1-2010-0018 "Talentum" joint EU-national research projects. Keywords: climate change

  3. Radiation Pressure-supported Starburst Disks and Active Galactic Nucleus Fueling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Todd A.; Quataert, Eliot; Murray, Norman

    2005-09-01

    We consider the structure of marginally Toomre-stable starburst disks under the assumption that radiation pressure on dust grains provides the dominant vertical support against gravity. This assumption is particularly appropriate when the disk is optically thick to its own infrared radiation, as in the central regions of ULIRGs. We argue that because the disk radiates at its Eddington limit (for dust), the ``Schmidt law'' for star formation changes in the optically thick limit, with the star formation rate per unit area scaling as Σ˙*~Σg/κ, where Σg is the gas surface density and κ is the mean opacity of the disk. Our calculations further show that optically thick starburst disks have a characteristic flux, star formation rate per unit area, and dust effective temperature of F~1013 Lsolar kpc-2, Σ˙*~103 Msolar yr-1 kpc-2, and Teff~90 K, respectively. We compare our model predictions with observations of ULIRGs and find good agreement. We extend our model of starburst disks from many hundred parsec scales to subparsec scales and address the problem of fueling AGNs. We assume that angular momentum transport proceeds via global torques (e.g., spiral waves, winds, or a central bar) rather than a local viscosity. We consistently account for the radial depletion of gas due to star formation and find a strong bifurcation between two classes of disk models: (1) solutions with a starburst on large scales that consumes all of the gas with little or no fueling of a central AGN and (2) models with an outer large-scale starburst accompanied by a more compact starburst on 1-10 pc scales and a bright central AGN. The luminosity of the latter models is in many cases dominated by the AGN, although these disk solutions exhibit a broad mid- to far-infrared peak from star formation. We show that the vertical thickness of the starburst disk on parsec scales can approach h~r, perhaps accounting for the nuclear obscuration in some type 2 AGNs. We also argue that the disk of young

  4. Knowledge-Based Intelligent Software Support of Cellular Adaptation to Microgravity Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groleau, Nick; Grymes, Rosalind A.; Alizadeh, Babak; Friedland, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    One of the most significant new opportunities that the Space Station affords cell biologists is the ability to do long-term cultivation of cells in the space environment. This facility is essential for investigations that are primarily focused on effects requiring a longer timeline of observation than that provided by the STS (Space Transportation System) platform. Such work requires both very strong laboratory skills to properly and quickly interact with the hardware hosting the culture and deep knowledge of the cell biology domain in order to optimally react to unanticipated scientific developments. Such work can be enabled by advanced automation techniques that have recently been used in the STS-based Spacelab, and that are being readied for the Space Station. In this paper, we describe the adaptation of PI-in-a-Box, the first interactive space science assistant system, to the study of the effects of space flight on cell cycle progression and proliferation.

  5. Early Nonparental Care and Social Behavior in Elementary School: Support for a Social Group Adaptation Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Tremblay, Richard E; Vitaro, Frank; Japel, Christa; Boivin, Michel; Côté, Sylvana M

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of nonparental child-care services received during the preschool years to the development of social behavior between kindergarten and the end of elementary school with a birth cohort from Québec, Canada (N = 1,544). Mothers reported on the use of child-care services, while elementary school teachers rated children's shyness, social withdrawal, prosociality, opposition, and aggression. Children who received nonparental child-care services were less shy, less socially withdrawn, more oppositional, and more aggressive at school entry (age 6 years). However, these differences disappeared during elementary school as children who received exclusive parental care caught up with those who received nonparental care services. This "catch-up" effect from the perspective of children's adaptation to the social group is discussed.

  6. Multi-disciplinary assessments of climate change impacts on agriculture to support adaptation decision making in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisawa, Mariko; Kanamaru, Hideki

    2016-04-01

    Many existing climate change impact studies, carried out by academic researchers, are disconnected from decision making processes of stakeholders. On the other hand many climate change adaptation projects in developing countries lack a solid evidence base of current and future climate impacts as well as vulnerabilities assessment at different scales. In order to fill this information gap, FAO has developed and implemented a tool "MOSAICC (Modelling System for Agricultural Impacts of Climate Change)" in several developing countries such as Morocco, the Philippines and Peru, and recently in Malawi and Zambia. MOSAICC employs a multi-disciplinary assessment approach to addressing climate change impacts and adaptation planning in the agriculture and food security sectors, and integrates five components from different academic disciplines: 1. Statistical downscaling of climate change projections, 2. Yield simulation of major crops at regional scale under climate change, 3. Surface hydrology simulation model, 4. Macroeconomic model, and 5. Forestry model. Furthermore MOSAICC has been developed as a capacity development tool for the national scientists so that they can conduct the country assessment themselves, using their own data, and reflect the outcome into the national adaptation policies. The outputs are nation-wide coverage, disaggregated at sub-national level to support strategic planning, investments and decisions by national policy makers. MOSAICC is designed in such a way to promote stakeholders' participation and strengthen technical capacities in developing countries. The paper presents MOSAICC and projects that used MOSAICC as a tool with case studies from countries.

  7. Outcome Benchmarks for Adaptations of Research-Supported Treatments for Adult Traumatic Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Allen; Parrish, Danielle E.; Washburn, Micki

    2016-01-01

    This article provides benchmark data on within-group effect sizes from published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the efficacy of research-supported treatments (RSTs) for adult traumatic stress. Agencies can compare these benchmarks to their treatment group effect size to inform their decisions as to whether the way they are…

  8. An Adaptive Navigation Support System for Conducting Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning in Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiou, Chuang-Kai; Tseng, Judy C. R.; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Heller, Shelly

    2010-01-01

    In context-aware ubiquitous learning, students are guided to learn in the real world with personalized supports from the learning system. As the learning resources are realistic objects in the real world, certain physical constraints, such as the limitation of stream of people who visit the same learning object, the time for moving from one object…

  9. Towards an Agile Approach to Adapting Dynamic Collaboration Support to Student Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, David; Dyke, Gregory; Jang, Hyeju; Rosé, Carolyn Penstein

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of conversational agents to scaffold on-line collaborative learning discussions through an approach called Academically Productive Talk (APT). In contrast to past work on dynamic support for collaborative learning, where agents were used to elevate conceptual depth by leading students through directed lines of…

  10. Translation and Cultural Adaptation of the Supports Intensity Scale in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamoureux-Hebert, Melanie; Morin, Diane

    2009-01-01

    The Supports Intensity Scale (SIS) was translated into French. The French version was then validated using a sample of 245 persons with intellectual disabilities between the ages of 16 and 75 years. The internal consistency was excellent (0.98). Correlations with age and levels of intellectual disabilities were evidence of good construct validity.…

  11. Adapting Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports for Secure Juvenile Justice Settings: Improving Facility-Wide Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolivette, Kristine; Nelson, C. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The popularity and success of positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) in public schools across the United States has led professionals to advocate for its implementation in secure juvenile settings. Statewide implementation efforts have been mounted in several jurisdictions, and a number of secure facilities are applying it with…

  12. Adapting the Individual Placement and Support Model with Homeless Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Xie, Bin; Glynn, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prior research reveals high unemployment rates among homeless young adults. The literature offers many examples of using evidence-based supported employment models with vulnerable populations to assist them in obtaining and maintaining competitive employment; yet few examples exist to date with homeless young adults with mental…

  13. Adaptive evolution of a derived radius morphology in manakins (Aves, Pipridae) to support acrobatic display behavior.

    PubMed

    Friscia, Anthony; Sanin, Gloria D; Lindsay, Willow R; Day, Lainy B; Schlinger, Barney A; Tan, Josh; Fuxjager, Matthew J

    2016-06-01

    The morphology of the avian skeleton is often studied in the context of adaptations for powered flight. The effects of other evolutionary forces, such as sexual selection, on avian skeletal design are unclear, even though birds produce diverse behaviors that undoubtedly require a variety of osteological modifications. Here, we investigate this issue in a family of passerine birds called manakins (Pipridae), which have evolved physically unusual and elaborate courtship displays. We report that, in species within the genus Manacus, the shaft of the radius is heavily flattened and shows substantial solidification. Past work anecdotally notes this morphology and attributes it to the species' ability to hit their wings together above their heads to produce loud mechanical sonations. Our results show that this feature is unique to Manacus compared to the other species in our study, including a variety of taxa that produce other sonations through alternate wing mechanisms. At the same time, our data reveal striking similarities across species in total radius volume and solidification. Together, this suggests that supposedly adaptive alterations in radial morphology occur within a conserved framework of a set radius volume and solidness, which in turn is likely determined by natural selection. Further allometric analyses imply that the radius is less constrained by body size and the structural demands that underlie powered flight, compared to other forelimb bones that are mostly unmodified across taxa. These results are consistent with the idea that the radius is more susceptible to selective modification by sexual selection. Overall, this study provides some of the first insight into the osteological evolution of passerine birds, as well as the way in which opposing selective forces can shape skeletal design in these species. J. Morphol. 277:766-775, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27027525

  14. Bridging the climate-induced water gap in the twenty-first century: adaptation support based on water supply, demand, adaptation and financing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straatsma, Menno; Droogers, Peter; Brandsma, Jaïrus; Buytaert, Wouter; Karssenberg, Derek; Van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Vitolo, Claudia; Schmitz, Oliver; Meijer, Karen; Van Aalst, Maaike; Bierkens, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Water scarcity affects large parts of the world. Over the course of the twenty-first century, water demand is likely to increase due to population growth and associated food production, and increased economic activity, while water supply is projected to decrease in many regions due to climate change. Despite recent studies that analyze the effect of climate change on water scarcity, e.g. using climate projections under representative concentration pathways (RCP) of the fifth assessment report of the IPCC (AR5), decision support for closing the water gap between now and 2100 does not exist at a meaningful scale and with a global coverage. In this study, we aimed (i) to assess the joint impact of climatic and socio-economic change on water scarcity, (ii) to integrate impact and potential adaptation in one workflow, (iii) to prioritize adaptation options to counteract water scarcity based on their financial, regional socio-economic and environmental implications, and (iv) to deliver all this information in an integrated user-friendly web-based service. To enable the combination of global coverage with local relevance, we aggregated all results for 1604 water provinces (food producing units) delineated in this study, which is five times smaller than previous food producing units. Water supply was computed using the PCR-GLOBWB hydrological and water resources model, parameterized at 5 arcminutes for the whole globe, excluding Antarctica and Greenland. We ran PCR-GLOBWB with a daily forcing derived from five different GCM models from the CMIP5 (GFDL-ESM2M, Hadgem2-ES, IPSL-CMA5-LR, MIROC-ESM-CHEM, NorESM1-M) that were bias corrected using observation-based WATCH data between 1960-1999. For each of the models all four RCPs (RCP 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5) were run, producing the ensemble of 20 future projections. The blue water supply was aggregated per month and per water province. Industrial, domestic and irrigation water demands were computed for a limited number of

  15. Alternative Strategies for the Problem Learner: Student Support Team Strategies Manual. A Handbook collected and Adapted by the Georgia Learning Resources Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Learning Resources System/Child Serve, Columbus.

    The manual presents the framework of the Student Support Team (SST), an approach involving two or more professionals who develop alternative instructional strategies for students in lieu of special education placement. General considerations are offered for classroom management, curriculum adaptations, and adaptations for the visually and hearing…

  16. Muscle Activation and Estimated Relative Joint Force During Running with Weight Support on a Lower-Body Positive-Pressure Treadmill.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bente R; Hovgaard-Hansen, Line; Cappelen, Katrine L

    2016-08-01

    Running on a lower-body positive-pressure (LBPP) treadmill allows effects of weight support on leg muscle activation to be assessed systematically, and has the potential to facilitate rehabilitation and prevent overloading. The aim was to study the effect of running with weight support on leg muscle activation and to estimate relative knee and ankle joint forces. Runners performed 6-min running sessions at 2.22 m/s and 3.33 m/s, at 100%, 80%, 60%, 40%, and 20% body weight (BW). Surface electromyography, ground reaction force, and running characteristics were measured. Relative knee and ankle joint forces were estimated. Leg muscles responded differently to unweighting during running, reflecting different relative contribution to propulsion and antigravity forces. At 20% BW, knee extensor EMGpeak decreased to 22% at 2.22 m/s and 28% at 3.33 m/s of 100% BW values. Plantar flexors decreased to 52% and 58% at 20% BW, while activity of biceps femoris muscle remained unchanged. Unweighting with LBPP reduced estimated joint force significantly although less than proportional to the degree of weight support (ankle). It was concluded that leg muscle activation adapted to the new biomechanical environment, and the effect of unweighting on estimated knee force was more pronounced than on ankle force.

  17. Inhibiting PKMζ reveals dorsal lateral and dorsal medial striatum store the different memories needed to support adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Pauli, Wolfgang M; Clark, Alexandra D; Guenther, Heidi J; O'Reilly, Randall C; Rudy, Jerry W

    2012-06-20

    Evidence suggests that two regions of the striatum contribute differential support to instrumental response selection. The dorsomedial striatum (DMS) is thought to support expectancy-mediated actions, and the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) is thought to support habits. Currently it is unclear whether these regions store task-relevant information or just coordinate the learning and retention of these solutions by other brain regions. To address this issue, we developed a two-lever concurrent variable-interval reinforcement operant conditioning task and used it to assess the trained rat's sensitivity to contingency shifts. Consistent with the view that these two regions make different contributions to actions and habits, injecting the NMDA antagonist DL-AP5 into the DMS just prior to the shift impaired the rat's performance but enhanced performance when injected into the DLS. To determine if these regions support memory content, we first trained rats on a biased concurrent schedule (Lever 1: VI 40" and Lever 2: VI 10"). With the intent of "erasing" the memory content stored in striatum, after this training we inhibited the putative memory-maintenance protein kinase C isozyme protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ). Infusing zeta inhibitory peptide (ZIP) into the DLS enhanced the rat's ability to adapt to the contingency shift 2 d later, whereas injecting it into the DMS had the opposite effect. Infusing GluR2(3Y) into the DMS 1 h before ZIP infusions prevented ZIP from impairing the rat's sensitivity to the contingency shift. These results support the hypothesis that the DMS stores information needed to support actions and the DLS stores information needed to support habits.

  18. An environment-adaptive management algorithm for hearing-support devices incorporating listening situation and noise type classifiers.

    PubMed

    Yook, Sunhyun; Nam, Kyoung Won; Kim, Heepyung; Hong, Sung Hwa; Jang, Dong Pyo; Kim, In Young

    2015-04-01

    In order to provide more consistent sound intelligibility for the hearing-impaired person, regardless of environment, it is necessary to adjust the setting of the hearing-support (HS) device to accommodate various environmental circumstances. In this study, a fully automatic HS device management algorithm that can adapt to various environmental situations is proposed; it is composed of a listening-situation classifier, a noise-type classifier, an adaptive noise-reduction algorithm, and a management algorithm that can selectively turn on/off one or more of the three basic algorithms-beamforming, noise-reduction, and feedback cancellation-and can also adjust internal gains and parameters of the wide-dynamic-range compression (WDRC) and noise-reduction (NR) algorithms in accordance with variations in environmental situations. Experimental results demonstrated that the implemented algorithms can classify both listening situation and ambient noise type situations with high accuracies (92.8-96.4% and 90.9-99.4%, respectively), and the gains and parameters of the WDRC and NR algorithms were successfully adjusted according to variations in environmental situation. The average values of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), frequency-weighted segmental SNR, Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality, and mean opinion test scores of 10 normal-hearing volunteers of the adaptive multiband spectral subtraction (MBSS) algorithm were improved by 1.74 dB, 2.11 dB, 0.49, and 0.68, respectively, compared to the conventional fixed-parameter MBSS algorithm. These results indicate that the proposed environment-adaptive management algorithm can be applied to HS devices to improve sound intelligibility for hearing-impaired individuals in various acoustic environments. PMID:25284135

  19. An environment-adaptive management algorithm for hearing-support devices incorporating listening situation and noise type classifiers.

    PubMed

    Yook, Sunhyun; Nam, Kyoung Won; Kim, Heepyung; Hong, Sung Hwa; Jang, Dong Pyo; Kim, In Young

    2015-04-01

    In order to provide more consistent sound intelligibility for the hearing-impaired person, regardless of environment, it is necessary to adjust the setting of the hearing-support (HS) device to accommodate various environmental circumstances. In this study, a fully automatic HS device management algorithm that can adapt to various environmental situations is proposed; it is composed of a listening-situation classifier, a noise-type classifier, an adaptive noise-reduction algorithm, and a management algorithm that can selectively turn on/off one or more of the three basic algorithms-beamforming, noise-reduction, and feedback cancellation-and can also adjust internal gains and parameters of the wide-dynamic-range compression (WDRC) and noise-reduction (NR) algorithms in accordance with variations in environmental situations. Experimental results demonstrated that the implemented algorithms can classify both listening situation and ambient noise type situations with high accuracies (92.8-96.4% and 90.9-99.4%, respectively), and the gains and parameters of the WDRC and NR algorithms were successfully adjusted according to variations in environmental situation. The average values of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), frequency-weighted segmental SNR, Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality, and mean opinion test scores of 10 normal-hearing volunteers of the adaptive multiband spectral subtraction (MBSS) algorithm were improved by 1.74 dB, 2.11 dB, 0.49, and 0.68, respectively, compared to the conventional fixed-parameter MBSS algorithm. These results indicate that the proposed environment-adaptive management algorithm can be applied to HS devices to improve sound intelligibility for hearing-impaired individuals in various acoustic environments.

  20. The role of external pressure and support on teacher choices related to evolution curriculum in the secondary biology classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oschman, Scot

    The scientific community strongly and virtually universally supports the teaching of biological evolution in our public schools. However, there are many in the general public who object to the teaching of biological evolution in our nation's science classrooms. Groups such as Answers in Genesis and the Discovery Institute, along with parents, students, school boards, and school administrators are alleged by many in the scientific and science education communities to be pressuring teachers in a variety of ways regarding the teaching of evolution. The purpose of this study was to examine the sources of, extent of, and ways in which science teachers deal with external influences that attempt to alter their science curriculum related to the teaching of the theory of biological evolution in order to support it, deemphasize it or remove it from their classrooms. It also attempted to determine the impact these outside influences have on evolution education in the classroom. Internal influences were examined in order to ascertain other possible reasons why teachers might or might not de-emphasize, omit, or teach evidence contrary to evolution. Two thousand cover letters were sent out to high school biology teachers selected at random from three states in the U.S. Registry of Teachers, directing them to a web site where they could complete the questionnaire online. One hundred seventy eight teachers responded to the survey. The statistical analyses used in this study to examine the results included analysis of variance (ANOVA), independent samples t tests for means comparisons, as well as a variety of descriptive statistics. This study found that 59% of the teachers who responded had experienced some form of pressure related to their evolution curriculum, and that the majority of this pressure came from students, groups or individuals not affiliated with their school district, and parents. The most common manifestations of pressure were to teach that evolution was "only" a

  1. Impaired training-induced adaptation of blood pressure in COPD patients: implication of the muscle capillary bed

    PubMed Central

    Gouzi, Fares; Maury, Jonathan; Bughin, François; Blaquière, Marine; Ayoub, Bronia; Mercier, Jacques; Perez-Martin, Antonia; Pomiès, Pascal; Hayot, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Targeting the early mechanisms in exercise-induced arterial hypertension (which precedes resting arterial hypertension in its natural history) may improve cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in COPD patients. Capillary rarefaction, an early event in COPD before vascular remodeling, is a potential mechanism of exercise-induced and resting arterial hypertension. Impaired training-induced capillarization was observed earlier in COPD patients; thus, this study compares the changes in blood pressure (BP) during exercise in COPD patients and matches control subjects (CSs) after a similar exercise training program, in relationship with muscle capillarization. Methods Resting and maximal exercise diastolic pressure (DP) and systolic pressure (SP) were recorded during a standardized cardiopulmonary exercise test, and a quadriceps muscle biopsy was performed before and after training. Results A total of 35 CSs and 49 COPD patients (forced expiratory volume in 1 second =54%±22% predicted) completed a 6-week rehabilitation program and improved their symptom-limited maximal oxygen uptake (VO2SL: 25.8±6.1 mL/kg per minute vs 27.9 mL/kg per minute and 17.0±4.7 mL/kg per minute vs 18.3 mL/kg per minute; both P<0.001). The improvement in muscle capillary-to-fiber (C/F) ratio was significantly greater in CSs vs COPD patients (+11%±9% vs +23%±21%; P<0.05). Although maximal exercise BP was reduced in CSs (DP: 89±10 mmHg vs 85±9 mmHg; P<0.001/SP: 204±25 mmHg vs 196±27 mmHg; P<0.05), it did not change in COPD patients (DP: 94±14 mmHg vs 97±16 mmHg; P=0.46/SP: 202±27 mmHg vs 208±24 mmHg; P=0.13). The change in muscle C/F ratio was negatively correlated with maximal exercise SP in CSs and COPD patients (r=−0.41; P=0.02). Conclusion COPD patients showed impaired training-induced BP adaptation related to a change in muscle capillarization, suggesting the possibility of blunted angiogenesis. PMID:27703345

  2. The limits of poverty reduction in support of climate change adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Donald R.; Lemos, Maria Carmen; Eakin, Hallie; Lo, Yun-Jia

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between poverty and climate change vulnerability is complex and though not commensurate, the distinctions between the two are often blurred. There is widespread recognition of the need to better understand poverty-vulnerability dynamics in order to improve risk management and poverty reduction investments. This is challenging due to the latent nature of adaptive capacities, frequent lack of baseline data, and the need for high-resolution studies. Here we respond to these challenges by analyzing household-level data in Northeast Brazil to compare drought events 14 years apart. In the period between droughts, the government implemented an aggressive anti-poverty program that includes financial and human capital investments. Poverty declined significantly, but the expected reduction in vulnerability did not occur, in part because the households were not investing in risk management strategies. Our findings complement other research that shows that households make rational decisions that may not correspond with policymaker expectations. We emphasize the need for complementary investments to help channel increased household wealth into risk reduction, and to ensure that the public sector itself continues to prioritize the public functions of risk management, especially in areas where the social cost of climatic risk is high.

  3. Monitoring and evaluation to support adaptive co-management: Lessons learned from the Millennium Villages Project.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Sarah; Sullivan, Clare; Palm, Cheryl; Huynh, Uyen; Diru, William; Masira, Jessica

    2016-12-01

    This article focuses attention on monitoring and evaluation approaches that will help resource managers to manage for change and uncertainty in adaptive co-management (ACM). ACM is a learning-by-doing approach that aims to build flexible community-based natural resource governance systems through collaborative or otherwise participatory means. We describe the framework for monitoring and evaluation that we developed and applied in ten African countries, which includes fixed indicators and measures for co-management performance monitoring, a process evaluation element, a platform for repeat ecological surveillance, and a longitudinal household survey. We comment on the usefulness of this framework, and its applicability to a wide range of geographic contexts. We then present a four step model to assist managers in applying the framework to specific co-management problems. The model suggests a cascade approach to defining key evaluations questions at a systems, network, individual and synthesis level. We illustrate the application of our model and framework by means of a case study of a co-managed agroforestry program in western Kenya.

  4. An Adaptive Framework for Selecting Environmental Monitoring Protocols to Support Ocean Renewable Energy Development

    PubMed Central

    Shumchenia, Emily J.; Smith, Sarah L.; McCann, Jennifer; Carnevale, Michelle; Fugate, Grover; Kenney, Robert D.; King, John W.; Paton, Peter; Schwartz, Malia; Spaulding, Malcolm; Winiarski, Kristopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Offshore renewable energy developments (OREDs) are projected to become common in the United States over the next two decades. There are both a need and an opportunity to guide efforts to identify and track impacts to the marine ecosystem resulting from these installations. A monitoring framework and standardized protocols that can be applied to multiple types of ORED would streamline scientific study, management, and permitting at these sites. We propose an adaptive and reactive framework based on indicators of the likely changes to the marine ecosystem due to ORED. We developed decision trees to identify suites of impacts at two scales (demonstration and commercial) depending on energy (wind, tidal, and wave), structure (e.g., turbine), and foundation type (e.g., monopile). Impacts were categorized by ecosystem component (benthic habitat and resources, fish and fisheries, avian species, marine mammals, and sea turtles) and monitoring objectives were developed for each. We present a case study at a commercial-scale wind farm and develop a monitoring plan for this development that addresses both local and national environmental concerns. In addition, framework has provided a starting point for identifying global research needs and objectives for understanding of the potential effects of ORED on the marine environment. PMID:23319884

  5. Performance Evaluation of an Autonomous Adaptive Base Station that Supports Multiple Wireless Network Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akabane, Kazunori; Shiba, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Munehiro; Uehara, Kazuhiro

    Various wireless systems are being developed to meet users' needs, and the rapid increase in frequency demand that accompanies the increasing popularity of wireless services means that more effective use of frequency resources is urgently needed. However, existing base stations are making no effort to use frequency resources effectively, and cooperation among wireless system base stations is needed to use frequency resources more effectively. Base stations can cooperate more efficiently if they are able to use multiple channels of many wireless systems simultaneously. We propose an autonomous adaptive base station (AABS) that can switch among various wireless systems the way software defined radio (SDR) base stations do. AABS can autonomously select and use the most suitable wireless system on the basis of user traffic and its hardware resources. Moreover, frequency resources are used effectively because AABS prevents unnecessary radio wave transmission when the number of users in the wireless systems decreases. AABS is also suitable for “multi-link communication” because it can use multiple channels of multiple wireless systems simultaneously. We developed AABS prototype and evaluated its performance. Our experimental and computer simulation results show the performance of AABS and its efficiency.

  6. Monitoring and evaluation to support adaptive co-management: Lessons learned from the Millennium Villages Project.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Sarah; Sullivan, Clare; Palm, Cheryl; Huynh, Uyen; Diru, William; Masira, Jessica

    2016-12-01

    This article focuses attention on monitoring and evaluation approaches that will help resource managers to manage for change and uncertainty in adaptive co-management (ACM). ACM is a learning-by-doing approach that aims to build flexible community-based natural resource governance systems through collaborative or otherwise participatory means. We describe the framework for monitoring and evaluation that we developed and applied in ten African countries, which includes fixed indicators and measures for co-management performance monitoring, a process evaluation element, a platform for repeat ecological surveillance, and a longitudinal household survey. We comment on the usefulness of this framework, and its applicability to a wide range of geographic contexts. We then present a four step model to assist managers in applying the framework to specific co-management problems. The model suggests a cascade approach to defining key evaluations questions at a systems, network, individual and synthesis level. We illustrate the application of our model and framework by means of a case study of a co-managed agroforestry program in western Kenya. PMID:27589922

  7. An adaptive framework for selecting environmental monitoring protocols to support ocean renewable energy development.

    PubMed

    Shumchenia, Emily J; Smith, Sarah L; McCann, Jennifer; Carnevale, Michelle; Fugate, Grover; Kenney, Robert D; King, John W; Paton, Peter; Schwartz, Malia; Spaulding, Malcolm; Winiarski, Kristopher J

    2012-01-01

    Offshore renewable energy developments (OREDs) are projected to become common in the United States over the next two decades. There are both a need and an opportunity to guide efforts to identify and track impacts to the marine ecosystem resulting from these installations. A monitoring framework and standardized protocols that can be applied to multiple types of ORED would streamline scientific study, management, and permitting at these sites. We propose an adaptive and reactive framework based on indicators of the likely changes to the marine ecosystem due to ORED. We developed decision trees to identify suites of impacts at two scales (demonstration and commercial) depending on energy (wind, tidal, and wave), structure (e.g., turbine), and foundation type (e.g., monopile). Impacts were categorized by ecosystem component (benthic habitat and resources, fish and fisheries, avian species, marine mammals, and sea turtles) and monitoring objectives were developed for each. We present a case study at a commercial-scale wind farm and develop a monitoring plan for this development that addresses both local and national environmental concerns. In addition, framework has provided a starting point for identifying global research needs and objectives for understanding of the potential effects of ORED on the marine environment. PMID:23319884

  8. An adaptive framework for selecting environmental monitoring protocols to support ocean renewable energy development.

    PubMed

    Shumchenia, Emily J; Smith, Sarah L; McCann, Jennifer; Carnevale, Michelle; Fugate, Grover; Kenney, Robert D; King, John W; Paton, Peter; Schwartz, Malia; Spaulding, Malcolm; Winiarski, Kristopher J

    2012-01-01

    Offshore renewable energy developments (OREDs) are projected to become common in the United States over the next two decades. There are both a need and an opportunity to guide efforts to identify and track impacts to the marine ecosystem resulting from these installations. A monitoring framework and standardized protocols that can be applied to multiple types of ORED would streamline scientific study, management, and permitting at these sites. We propose an adaptive and reactive framework based on indicators of the likely changes to the marine ecosystem due to ORED. We developed decision trees to identify suites of impacts at two scales (demonstration and commercial) depending on energy (wind, tidal, and wave), structure (e.g., turbine), and foundation type (e.g., monopile). Impacts were categorized by ecosystem component (benthic habitat and resources, fish and fisheries, avian species, marine mammals, and sea turtles) and monitoring objectives were developed for each. We present a case study at a commercial-scale wind farm and develop a monitoring plan for this development that addresses both local and national environmental concerns. In addition, framework has provided a starting point for identifying global research needs and objectives for understanding of the potential effects of ORED on the marine environment.

  9. Edge Detection on Images of Pseudoimpedance Section Supported by Context and Adaptive Transformation Model Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawalec-Latała, Ewa

    2014-03-01

    Most of underground hydrocarbon storage are located in depleted natural gas reservoirs. Seismic survey is the most economical source of detailed subsurface information. The inversion of seismic section for obtaining pseudoacoustic impedance section gives the possibility to extract detailed subsurface information. The seismic wavelet parameters and noise briefly influence the resolution. Low signal parameters, especially long signal duration time and the presence of noise decrease pseudoimpedance resolution. Drawing out from measurement or modelled seismic data approximation of distribution of acoustic pseuoimpedance leads us to visualisation and images useful to stratum homogeneity identification goal. In this paper, the improvement of geologic section image resolution by use of minimum entropy deconvolution method before inversion is applied. The author proposes context and adaptive transformation of images and edge detection methods as a way to increase the effectiveness of correct interpretation of simulated images. In the paper, the edge detection algorithms using Sobel, Prewitt, Robert, Canny operators as well as Laplacian of Gaussian method are emphasised. Wiener filtering of image transformation improving rock section structure interpretation pseudoimpedance matrix on proper acoustic pseudoimpedance value, corresponding to selected geologic stratum. The goal of the study is to develop applications of image transformation tools to inhomogeneity detection in salt deposits.

  10. Strategies to support prevention, identification and management of pressure ulcers in the community.

    PubMed

    Payne, Drew

    2016-06-01

    Pressure ulcers are classified as serious incidents, cause pain and distress, and are a source of infection. Unlike patients in hospital, those in the community spend only a small amount of time with healthcare practitioners, so strategies are required to ensure they remain protected against pressure damage when community nurses are not with them. A risk assessment should be carried out to outline a patient's risks and used to develop a strategy for that person. Patients have different risks so prevention strategies need to be tailored individually. Strategies, which cover issues such as pressure-relieving equipment, mattress type, mobility aids and nutrition, should be monitored to ensure they continue to meet patients' needs, as their health, carers and other matters may change. Patients and their carers may need education on ulcers, including on myths, as it is essential they are involved. PMID:27297572

  11. A new approach to generate arbitrary pulsatile pressure wave forms in mechanical circulatory support systems.

    PubMed

    Aghababaei, Amin; Hexamer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Pulsatile pressure/flow wave forms reproduction of blood in mechanical circulatory systems are still an open topic. Regarding the periodic behavior of pulsatile hemodynamics, a repetitive control algorithm was adopted as a potential methodology for rotary blood pumps. The developed algorithm was tested on a mock system including an oxygenator, a resistance, and a compliance. The post-oxygenator pressure served as the feedback of the control system. Initially, a model of the whole system was developed in order to use repetitive control algorithm. Then the performance of the developed algorithm was evaluated in three different scenarios. The experimental results indicated that the proposed method was able to accurately reproduce any pattern of pulsatile pressure. Moreover, it demonstrated an acceptable robustness in terms of model uncertainty and nonlinearity.

  12. Towards a genetics-based adaptive agent to support flight testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cribbs, Henry Brown, III

    Although the benefits of aircraft simulation have been known since the late 1960s, simulation almost always entails interaction with a human test pilot. This "pilot-in-the-loop" simulation process provides useful evaluative information to the aircraft designer and provides a training tool to the pilot. Emulation of a pilot during the early phases of the aircraft design process might provide designers a useful evaluative tool. Machine learning might emulate a pilot in a simulated aircraft/cockpit setting. Preliminary work in the application of machine learning techniques, such as reinforcement learning, to aircraft maneuvering have shown promise. These studies used simplified interfaces between machine learning agent and the aircraft simulation. The simulations employed low order equivalent system models. High-fidelity aircraft simulations exist, such as the simulations developed by NASA at its Dryden Flight Research Center. To expand the applicational domain of reinforcement learning to aircraft designs, this study presents a series of experiments that examine a reinforcement learning agent in the role of test pilot. The NASA X-31 and F-106 high-fidelity simulations provide realistic aircraft for the agent to maneuver. The approach of the study is to examine an agent possessing a genetic-based, artificial neural network to approximate long-term, expected cost (Bellman value) in a basic maneuvering task. The experiments evaluate different learning methods based on a common feedback function and an identical task. The learning methods evaluated are: Q-learning, Q(lambda)-learning, SARSA learning, and SARSA(lambda) learning. Experimental results indicate that, while prediction error remain quite high, similar, repeatable behaviors occur in both aircraft. Similar behavior exhibits portability of the agent between aircraft with different handling qualities (dynamics). Besides the adaptive behavior aspects of the study, the genetic algorithm used in the agent is shown to

  13. Adaptations in placental phenotype support fetal growth during undernutrition of pregnant mice.

    PubMed

    Coan, P M; Vaughan, O R; Sekita, Y; Finn, S L; Burton, G J; Constancia, M; Fowden, A L

    2010-02-01

    Undernutrition during pregnancy reduces birth weight and programmes adult phenotype with consequences for life expectancy, but its effects on the phenotype of the placenta, responsible for supplying nutrients for fetal growth, remain largely unknown. Using molecular, morphological and functional analyses, placental phenotype was examined in mice during restriction of dietary intake to 80% of control from day 3 of pregnancy. At day 16, undernutrition reduced placental, but not fetal, weight in association with decreased junctional zone volume and placental expression of glucose transporter Slc2a1. At day 19, both placental and fetal weights were reduced in undernourished mice (91% and 87% of control, respectively, P < 0.01), as were the volume and surface area of the labyrinthine zone responsible for placental nutrient transfer (85% and 86%, respectively, P < 0.03). However, unidirectional materno-fetal clearance of tracer glucose was maintained and methyl-aminoisobutyric acid increased 166% (P < 0.005) per gram of undernourished placenta, relative to controls. This was associated with an 18% and 27% increased placental expression of glucose and system A amino acid transporters Slc2a1 and Slc38a2, respectively, at day 19 (P < 0.04). At both ages, undernutrition decreased expression of the placental specific transcript of the Igf2 gene by 35% (P < 0.01), although methylation of its promoter was unaffected. The placenta, therefore, adapts to help maintain fetal growth when its own growth is compromised by maternal undernutrition. Consequently, placental phenotype is responsive to environmental conditions and may help predict the risk of adult disease programmed in utero.

  14. p53 Loss in MYC-Driven Neuroblastoma Leads to Metabolic Adaptations Supporting Radioresistance.

    PubMed

    Yogev, Orli; Barker, Karen; Sikka, Arti; Almeida, Gilberto S; Hallsworth, Albert; Smith, Laura M; Jamin, Yann; Ruddle, Ruth; Koers, Alexander; Webber, Hannah T; Raynaud, Florence I; Popov, Sergey; Jones, Chris; Petrie, Kevin; Robinson, Simon P; Keun, Hector C; Chesler, Louis

    2016-05-15

    Neuroblastoma is the most common childhood extracranial solid tumor. In high-risk cases, many of which are characterized by amplification of MYCN, outcome remains poor. Mutations in the p53 (TP53) tumor suppressor are rare at diagnosis, but evidence suggests that p53 function is often impaired in relapsed, treatment-resistant disease. To address the role of p53 loss of function in the development and pathogenesis of high-risk neuroblastoma, we generated a MYCN-driven genetically engineered mouse model in which the tamoxifen-inducible p53ER(TAM) fusion protein was expressed from a knock-in allele (Th-MYCN/Trp53(KI)). We observed no significant differences in tumor-free survival between Th-MYCN mice heterozygous for Trp53(KI) (n = 188) and Th-MYCN mice with wild-type p53 (n = 101). Conversely, the survival of Th-MYCN/Trp53(KI/KI) mice lacking functional p53 (n = 60) was greatly reduced. We found that Th-MYCN/Trp53(KI/KI) tumors were resistant to ionizing radiation (IR), as expected. However, restoration of functional p53ER(TAM) reinstated sensitivity to IR in only 50% of Th-MYCN/Trp53(KI/KI) tumors, indicating the acquisition of additional resistance mechanisms. Gene expression and metabolic analyses indicated that the principal acquired mechanism of resistance to IR in the absence of functional p53 was metabolic adaptation in response to chronic oxidative stress. Tumors exhibited increased antioxidant metabolites and upregulation of glutathione S-transferase pathway genes, including Gstp1 and Gstz1, which are associated with poor outcome in human neuroblastoma. Accordingly, glutathione depletion by buthionine sulfoximine together with restoration of p53 activity resensitized tumors to IR. Our findings highlight the complex pathways operating in relapsed neuroblastomas and the need for combination therapies that target the diverse resistance mechanisms at play. Cancer Res; 76(10); 3025-35. ©2016 AACR.

  15. Pathogenic peptide deviations support a model of adaptive evolution of chordate cardiac performance by troponin mutations.

    PubMed

    Palpant, Nathan J; Houang, Evelyne M; Delport, Wayne; Hastings, Kenneth E M; Onufriev, Alexey V; Sham, Yuk Y; Metzger, Joseph M

    2010-07-01

    In cardiac muscle, the troponin (cTn) complex is a key regulator of myofilament calcium sensitivity because it serves as a molecular switch required for translating myocyte calcium fluxes into sarcomeric contraction and relaxation. Studies of several species suggest that ectotherm chordates have myofilaments with heightened calcium responsiveness. However, genetic polymorphisms in cTn that cause increased myofilament sensitivity to activating calcium in mammals result in cardiac disease including arrhythmias, diastolic dysfunction, and increased susceptibility to sudden cardiac death. We hypothesized that specific residue modifications in the regulatory arm of troponin I (TnI) were critical in mediating the observed decrease in myofilament calcium sensitivity within the mammalian taxa. We performed large-scale phylogenetic analysis, atomic resolution molecular dynamics simulations and modeling, and computational alanine scanning. This study provides evidence that a His to Ala substitution within mammalian cardiac TnI (cTnI) reduced the thermodynamic potential at the interface between cTnI and cardiac TnC (cTnC) in the calcium-saturated state by disrupting a strong intermolecular electrostatic interaction. This key residue modification reduced myofilament calcium sensitivity by making cTnI molecularly untethered from cTnC. To meet the requirements for refined mammalian adult cardiac performance, we propose that compensatory evolutionary pressures favored mutations that enhanced the relaxation properties of cTn by decreasing its sensitivity to activating calcium.

  16. Social Support Is Associated with Blood Pressure Responses in Parents Caring for Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Stephen; Whiteley, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    The present study tested whether parents caring for children with developmental disabilities would have higher blood pressure compared to parents of typically developing children (controls). It also examined the psychosocial factors underlying this observation. Thirty-five parents of children with developmental disability and thirty controls…

  17. Lack of support for adaptive superstructure NiPt7 : Experiment and first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönfeld, B.; Engelke, M.; Ruban, A. V.

    2009-02-01

    Order and effective interaction parameters on the Pt-rich side of solid Ni-Pt alloys have been investigated by experimental and first-principles theoretical techniques. Diffuse x-ray scattering was taken from single-crystalline Ni-87.8at.%Pt aged at 603 K to set up a state of thermal equilibrium. From the separated short-range order scattering, effective pair interaction parameters were determined. These experimentally deduced values do not produce the suggested NiPt7 superstructure at lower temperatures. Instead of that, phase separation into NiPt3 regions with L12 structure and a Pt-rich matrix is observed in Monte Carlo simulations and supported by x-ray scattering of Ni-75.2at.%Pt . First-principles calculations at 0 K also show that the suggested NiPt7 phase is unstable against decomposition into NiPt3 and Pt.

  18. Online fault adaptive control for efficient resource management in Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdelwahed, Sherif; Wu, Jian; Biswas, Gautam; Ramirez, John; Manders, Eric-J

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the design and implementation of a controller scheme for efficient resource management in Advanced Life Support Systems. In the proposed approach, a switching hybrid system model is used to represent the dynamics of the system components and their interactions. The operational specifications for the controller are represented by utility functions, and the corresponding resource management problem is formulated as a safety control problem. The controller is designed as a limited-horizon online supervisory controller that performs a limited forward search on the state-space of the system at each time step, and uses the utility functions to decide on the best action. The feasibility and accuracy of the online algorithm can be assessed at design time. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the scheme by running a set of experiments on the Reverse Osmosis (RO) subsystem of the Water Recovery System (WRS).

  19. Self-assembled and supported BLMs as an adaptive material for biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottova-Leitmannova, Angelica L.; Tvarozek, Vladimir; Hianik, T.; Zhou, Tiean; Ziegler, W.; Tien, H. Ti

    1996-02-01

    Cell membranes play a vital role in energy conversion, information processing and signal transduction. This is owing to the fact that most physiological activities involve lipid bilayer- based receptor-ligand interactions. Some of the outstanding examples are ATP synthesis, ion transport, antigen-antibody binding, and gated channels. One approach to study these interactions in vitro is facilitated by employing artificial BLMs (bilayer lipid membranes). Our current efforts have been focused on ion and/or molecular selectivity and specificity using recently available self-assembled BLMs on solid support (i.e. s-BLMs) which, with their enhanced stability, greatly aid in research areas of membrane biochemistry, biophysics, and cell biology as well as in biosensor designs and molecular devices development. In this report, our recent work along with the experiments done in collaboration with others on s-BLMs are presented.

  20. p53 Loss in MYC-Driven Neuroblastoma Leads to Metabolic Adaptations Supporting Radioresistance.

    PubMed

    Yogev, Orli; Barker, Karen; Sikka, Arti; Almeida, Gilberto S; Hallsworth, Albert; Smith, Laura M; Jamin, Yann; Ruddle, Ruth; Koers, Alexander; Webber, Hannah T; Raynaud, Florence I; Popov, Sergey; Jones, Chris; Petrie, Kevin; Robinson, Simon P; Keun, Hector C; Chesler, Louis

    2016-05-15

    Neuroblastoma is the most common childhood extracranial solid tumor. In high-risk cases, many of which are characterized by amplification of MYCN, outcome remains poor. Mutations in the p53 (TP53) tumor suppressor are rare at diagnosis, but evidence suggests that p53 function is often impaired in relapsed, treatment-resistant disease. To address the role of p53 loss of function in the development and pathogenesis of high-risk neuroblastoma, we generated a MYCN-driven genetically engineered mouse model in which the tamoxifen-inducible p53ER(TAM) fusion protein was expressed from a knock-in allele (Th-MYCN/Trp53(KI)). We observed no significant differences in tumor-free survival between Th-MYCN mice heterozygous for Trp53(KI) (n = 188) and Th-MYCN mice with wild-type p53 (n = 101). Conversely, the survival of Th-MYCN/Trp53(KI/KI) mice lacking functional p53 (n = 60) was greatly reduced. We found that Th-MYCN/Trp53(KI/KI) tumors were resistant to ionizing radiation (IR), as expected. However, restoration of functional p53ER(TAM) reinstated sensitivity to IR in only 50% of Th-MYCN/Trp53(KI/KI) tumors, indicating the acquisition of additional resistance mechanisms. Gene expression and metabolic analyses indicated that the principal acquired mechanism of resistance to IR in the absence of functional p53 was metabolic adaptation in response to chronic oxidative stress. Tumors exhibited increased antioxidant metabolites and upregulation of glutathione S-transferase pathway genes, including Gstp1 and Gstz1, which are associated with poor outcome in human neuroblastoma. Accordingly, glutathione depletion by buthionine sulfoximine together with restoration of p53 activity resensitized tumors to IR. Our findings highlight the complex pathways operating in relapsed neuroblastomas and the need for combination therapies that target the diverse resistance mechanisms at play. Cancer Res; 76(10); 3025-35. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197232

  1. Defining climate modeling user needs: which data are actually required to support impact analysis and adaptation policy development?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swart, R. J.; Pagé, C.

    2010-12-01

    Until recently, the policy applications of Earth System Models in general and climate models in particular were focusing mainly on the potential future changes in the global and regional climate and attribution of observed changes to anthropogenic activities. Is climate change real? And if so, why do we have to worry about it? Following the broad acceptance of the reality of the risks by the majority of governments, particularly after the publication of IPCC’s 4th Assessment Report and the increasing number of observations of changes in ecological and socio-economic systems that are consistent with the observed climatic changes, governments, companies and other societal groups have started to evaluate their own vulnerability in more detail and to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies. After an early focus on the most vulnerable developing countries, recently, an increasing number of industrialized countries have embarked on the design of adaptation and mitigation plans, or on studies to evaluate the level of climate resilience of their development plans and projects. Which climate data are actually required to effectively support these activities? This paper reports on the efforts of the IS-ENES project, the infrastructure project of the European Network for Earth System Modeling, to address this question. How do we define user needs and can the existing gap between the climate modeling and impact research communities be bridged in support of the ENES long-term strategy? In contrast from the climate modeling community, which has a relatively long history of collaboration facilitated by a relatively uniform subject matter, commonly agreed definitions of key terminology and some level of harmonization of methods, the climate change impacts research community is very diverse and fragmented, using a wide variety of data sources, methods and tools. An additional complicating factor is that researchers working on adaptation usually closely collaborate with non

  2. Glucocorticoid receptor haploinsufficiency causes hypertension and attenuates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and blood pressure adaptions to high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Michailidou, Z; Carter, R N; Marshall, E; Sutherland, H G; Brownstein, D G; Owen, E; Cockett, K; Kelly, V; Ramage, L; Al-Dujaili, E A S; Ross, M; Maraki, I; Newton, K; Holmes, M C; Seckl, J R; Morton, N M; Kenyon, C J; Chapman, K E

    2008-11-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones are critical to respond and adapt to stress. Genetic variations in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene alter hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and associate with hypertension and susceptibility to metabolic disease. Here we test the hypothesis that reduced GR density alters blood pressure and glucose and lipid homeostasis and limits adaption to obesogenic diet. Heterozygous GR(betageo/+) mice were generated from embryonic stem (ES) cells with a gene trap integration of a beta-galactosidase-neomycin phosphotransferase (betageo) cassette into the GR gene creating a transcriptionally inactive GR fusion protein. Although GR(betageo/+) mice have 50% less functional GR, they have normal lipid and glucose homeostasis due to compensatory HPA axis activation but are hypertensive due to activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). When challenged with a high-fat diet, weight gain, adiposity, and glucose intolerance were similarly increased in control and GR(betageo/+) mice, suggesting preserved control of intermediary metabolism and energy balance. However, whereas a high-fat diet caused HPA activation and increased blood pressure in control mice, these adaptions were attenuated or abolished in GR(betageo/+) mice. Thus, reduced GR density balanced by HPA activation leaves glucocorticoid functions unaffected but mineralocorticoid functions increased, causing hypertension. Importantly, reduced GR limits HPA and blood pressure adaptions to obesogenic diet. PMID:18697839

  3. Effect of tightening torque on the marginal adaptation of cement-retained implant-supported fixed dental prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbarzadeh, Jalil; Dashti, Hossin; Karamad, Reza; Alikhasi, Marzieh; Nakhaei, Mohammadreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: The final position of the abutment changes with the amount of tightening torque. This could eventually lead to loss of passivity and marginal misfit of prostheses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three different tightening torques on the marginal adaptation of 3-unit cement-retained implant-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). Materials and Methods: Two implants (Straumann) were inserted in an acrylic block so that one of the implants was placed vertically and the other at a 15° vertical angle. A straight abutment and a 15° angulated abutment were connected to the vertically and obliquely installed implants, respectively, so that the two abutments were parallel. Then, 10 cement-retained FDPs were waxed and cast. Abutments were tightened with 10, 20, and 35 Ncm torques, respectively. Following each tightening torque, FDPs were luted on respective abutments with temporary cement. The marginal adaptation of the retainers was evaluated using stereomicroscope. FDPs were then removed from the abutments and were sectioned at the connector sites. The retainers were luted again on their respective abutments. Luting procedures and marginal adaptation measurement were repeated. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and least significant difference tests (α = 0.05). After cutting the FDP connectors, the independent samples t-test was used to compare misfit values (α = 0.05). Results: Following 10, 20, and 35 Ncm tightening torques, the marginal discrepancy of the retainers of FDPs significantly increased (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the marginal discrepancies of these two retainers (P > 0.05). The marginal gap values of angulated abutment retainers (ANRs) were significantly higher than those of the straight abutment after cutting the connectors (P = 0.026). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, the marginal misfit of cement-retained FDPs increased continuously when the tightening torque increased. After

  4. CPAP Treatment Supported by Telemedicine Does Not Improve Blood Pressure in High Cardiovascular Risk OSA Patients: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mendelson, Monique; Vivodtzev, Isabelle; Tamisier, Renaud; Laplaud, David; Dias-Domingos, Sonia; Baguet, Jean-Philippe; Moreau, Laurent; Koltes, Christian; Chavez, Léonidas; De Lamberterie, Gilles; Herengt, Frédéric; Levy, Patrick; Flore, Patrice; Pépin, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with hypertension, which is one of the intermediary mechanisms leading to increased cardiovascular morbidity. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of a combination of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and telemedicine support on blood pressure (BP) reduction in high cardiovascular risk OSA patients. Design: A multi-center randomized controlled trial that compared standard CPAP care and CPAP care and a telemedicine intervention. Setting: Sleep clinics in France. Patients or Participants: 107 adult (18-65 years old) OSA patients (AHI > 15 events/h) with a high cardiovascular risk (cardiovascular SCORE > 5% or secondary prevention). Interventions: Patients were randomized to either standard care CPAP (n = 53) or CPAP and telemedicine (n = 54). Patients assigned to telemedicine were equipped with a smartphone for uploading BP measurements, CPAP adherence, sleepiness, and quality of life data; in return, they received pictograms containing health-related messages. Measurements: The main outcome was home self-measured BP and secondary outcomes were cardiovascular risk evolution, objective physical activity, CPAP adherence, sleepiness and quality of life. Results: Self-measured BP did not improve in either group (telemedicine or standard care). Patients in primary prevention showed greater BP reduction with CPAP treatment than those in secondary prevention. Conclusions: CPAP treatment supported by telemedicine alone did not improve blood pressure and cardiovascular risk in high cardiovascular risk OSA patients. This study emphasizes the need for diet and physical activity training programs in addition to CPAP when aiming at decreasing cardiometabolic risk factors in these patients. Clinical Trials Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01226641. Citation: Mendelson M, Vivodtzev I, Tamisier R, Laplaud D, Dias-Domingos S, Baguet JP, Moreau L, Koltes C, Chavez L, De Lamberterie G

  5. A decision support system for adaptive real-time management ofseasonal wetlands in California

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Hanna, W. Mark

    2001-10-16

    This paper describes the development of a comprehensive flow and salinity monitoring system and application of a decision support system (DSS) to improve management of seasonal wetlands in the San Joaquin Valley of California. The Environmental Protection Agency regulates salinity discharges from non-point sources to the San Joaquin River using a procedure known as the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) to allocate the assimilative capacity of the River for salt among watershed sources. Management of wetland sources of salt load will require the development of monitoring systems, more integrative management strategies and coordination with other entities. To obtain local cooperation the Grassland Water District, whose primary function is to supply surface water to private duck clubs and managed wetlands, needs to communicate to local landowners the likely impacts of salinity regulation on the long term health and function of wildfowl habitat. The project described in this paper will also provide this information. The models that form the backbone of the DSS develop salinity balances at both a regional and local scale. The regional scale concentrates on deliveries to and exports from the Grasland Water District while the local scale focuses on an individual wetland unit where more intensive monitoring is being conducted. The design of the DSS is constrained to meet the needs of busy wetland managers and is being designed from the bottom up utilizing tools and procedures familiar to these individuals.

  6. A Nonlinear Adaptive Beamforming Algorithm Based on Least Squares Support Vector Regression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lutao; Jin, Gang; Li, Zhengzhou; Xu, Hongbin

    2012-01-01

    To overcome the performance degradation in the presence of steering vector mismatches, strict restrictions on the number of available snapshots, and numerous interferences, a novel beamforming approach based on nonlinear least-square support vector regression machine (LS-SVR) is derived in this paper. In this approach, the conventional linearly constrained minimum variance cost function used by minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) beamformer is replaced by a squared-loss function to increase robustness in complex scenarios and provide additional control over the sidelobe level. Gaussian kernels are also used to obtain better generalization capacity. This novel approach has two highlights, one is a recursive regression procedure to estimate the weight vectors on real-time, the other is a sparse model with novelty criterion to reduce the final size of the beamformer. The analysis and simulation tests show that the proposed approach offers better noise suppression capability and achieve near optimal signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR) with a low computational burden, as compared to other recently proposed robust beamforming techniques.

  7. iRESM INITIATIVE UNDERSTANDING DECISION SUPPORT NEEDS FOR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION --US Midwest Region—

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Jennie S.; Runci, Paul J.; Moss, Richard H.; Anderson, Kate L.

    2010-10-01

    The impacts of climate change are already affecting human and environmental systems worldwide, yet many uncertainties persist in the prediction of future climate changes and impacts due to limitations in scientific understanding of relevant causal factors. In particular, there is mounting urgency to efforts to improve models of human and environmental systems at the regional scale, and to integrate climate, ecosystem and energy-economic models to support policy, investment, and risk management decisions related to climate change mitigation (i.e., reducing greenhouse gas emissions) and adaptation (i.e., responding to climate change impacts). The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a modeling framework, the integrated Regional Earth System Model (iRESM), to address regional human-environmental system interactions in response to climate change and the uncertainties therein. The framework will consist of a suite of integrated models representing regional climate change, regional climate policy, and the regional economy, with a focus on simulating the mitigation and adaptation decisions made over time in the energy, transportation, agriculture, and natural resource management sectors.

  8. Sisterhood in the oil field: informal support networks, gender roles and adaptation among women in the Oklahoma oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, A.C.

    1988-01-01

    The petroleum drilling industry exhibits a number of definitive characteristics, which combined with the most recent boom/bust drilling cycle, affect women in much the same manner as factors commonly associated with the eroding of women's social and economic positions within modernizing societies. Recognizing that modernization has a negative impact on women, this study focuses on strategies of adaptation employed by women associated both directly and indirectly with the petroleum drilling industry in an oil boom/bust town in western Oklahoma. Utilizing the traditional techniques of ethnographic interview and participant observation, it was shown that informal support networks formed by women enhanced women's adaptation by extending their resource base beyond the nuclear family and encouraging solidarity. Gender-based division of labor was also modified by western energy development. Boom times facilitated a rigid division of labor that gave way to a more flexible arrangement during bust times without a concomitant change in gender-based ideology. This was accounted for by differences in the rates of change for the underlying habits and values associated with the public and private sectors.

  9. Parameter identification of a rotor supported in a pressurized bearing lubricated with water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, John W.; Muszynska, Agnes; Bently, Donald E.

    1994-01-01

    A rig for testing an externally pressurized (hydrostatic), water-lubricated bearing was developed. Applying a nonsynchronous sweep frequency, rotating perturbation force with a constant amplitude as an input, rotor vibration response data was acquired in Bode and Dynamic Stiffness formats. Using this data, the parameters of the rotor/bearing system were identified. The rotor/bearing model was represented by the generalized (modal) parameters of the first lateral mode, with the rotational character of the fluid force taken into account.

  10. Artificial immune system based on adaptive clonal selection for feature selection and parameters optimisation of support vector machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadat Hashemipour, Maryam; Soleimani, Seyed Ali

    2016-01-01

    Artificial immune system (AIS) algorithm based on clonal selection method can be defined as a soft computing method inspired by theoretical immune system in order to solve science and engineering problems. Support vector machine (SVM) is a popular pattern classification method with many diverse applications. Kernel parameter setting in the SVM training procedure along with the feature selection significantly impacts on the classification accuracy rate. In this study, AIS based on Adaptive Clonal Selection (AISACS) algorithm has been used to optimise the SVM parameters and feature subset selection without degrading the SVM classification accuracy. Several public datasets of University of California Irvine machine learning (UCI) repository are employed to calculate the classification accuracy rate in order to evaluate the AISACS approach then it was compared with grid search algorithm and Genetic Algorithm (GA) approach. The experimental results show that the feature reduction rate and running time of the AISACS approach are better than the GA approach.

  11. Families of Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Taiwan: The Role of Social Support and Coping in Family Adaptation and Maternal Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ling-Yi; Orsmond, Gael I.; Coster, Wendy J.; Cohn, Ellen S.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we examined differences in social support and coping between mothers of adolescents and adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Taiwan and the United States and to investigate the effects of social support and coping strategies on family adaptation and maternal well-being. Participants were 76 Taiwanese mothers who had at…

  12. Sea Level Rise Decision Support Tools for Adaptation Planning in Vulnerable Coastal Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozum, J. S.; Marcy, D.

    2015-12-01

    NOAA is involved in a myriad of climate related research and projects that help decision makers and the public understand climate science as well as climate change impacts. The NOAA Office for Coastal Management (OCM) provides data, tools, trainings and technical assistance to coastal resource managers. Beginning in 2011, NOAA OCM began developing a sea level rise and coastal flooding impacts viewer which provides nationally consistent data sets and analyses to help communities with coastal management goals such as: understanding and communicating coastal flood hazards, performing vulnerability assessments and increasing coastal resilience, and prioritizing actions for different inundation/flooding scenarios. The Viewer is available on NOAA's Digital Coast platform: (coast.noaa.gov/ditgitalcoast/tools/slr). In this presentation we will share the lessons learned from our work with coastal decision-makers on the role of coastal flood risk data and tools in helping to shape future land use decisions and policies. We will also focus on a recent effort in California to help users understand the similarities and differences of a growing array of sea level rise decision support tools. NOAA staff and other partners convened a workshop entitled, "Lifting the Fog: Bringing Clarity to Sea Level Rise and Shoreline Change Models and Tools," which was attended by tool develops, science translators and coastal managers with the goal to create a collaborative communication framework to help California coastal decision-makers navigate the range of available sea level rise planning tools, and to inform tool developers of future planning needs. A sea level rise tools comparison matrix will be demonstrated. This matrix was developed as part of this effort and has been expanded to many other states via a partnership with NOAA, Climate Central, and The Nature Conservancy.

  13. The Search for Relevant Climate Change Information to Support Adaptation Decision Makers: Lessons from Reductionism, Emergence and the Past (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stainforth, D.; Harrison, S.; Smith, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    The reality of anthropogenic climate change is founded on well understood scientific principles and is now widely accepted. The need for international efforts to limit the extent of future changes in climate - climate change mitigation - is therefore clear. Since anthropogenic climate change is well underway, however, and the planet is committed to further changes based on past emissions alone, there will certainly be a need for global society to adapt to the consequences. The physical sciences are increasingly being looked to as sources of information and guidance on adaptation policy and decision making. Unlike mitigation efforts such decisions generally require information on local or regional scales. What is the source of such information? How can we tell when it is robust and fit for the purpose of supporting a specific decision? The availability of rapidly increasing computational resources has led to a steady increase in the resolution of global climate models and of embedded regional climate models. They are approaching a point where they can provide data at a resolution which may be usable in adaptation decision support. Yet models are not equivalent to reality and model errors are significant even at the global scale. By contrast scientific understanding of climatic processes now and in the past can provide information about plausible responses which are more qualitative but may be equally useful. This talk will focus on the relative roles of fundamentally reductionist, model approaches with alternatives based on observations and process understanding. The latter, although more qualitative, are able to inform us about emergent properties; properties which may be difficult or impossible to reproduce within a reductionist paradigm. The contrast between emergent and reductionist approaches has a long history in the physical sciences; a history which provides valuable lessons for the relationship between climate science and societal / policy decisions. Here

  14. Variation in body mass dynamics among sites in Black Brant Branta bernicla nigricans supports adaptivity of mass loss during moult

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fondell, Thomas F.; Flint, Paul L.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Schamber, Jason L.; Nicolai, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Birds employ varying strategies to accommodate the energetic demands of moult, one important example being changes in body mass. To understand better their physiological and ecological significance, we tested three hypotheses concerning body mass dynamics during moult. We studied Black Brant in 2006 and 2007 moulting at three sites in Alaska which varied in food availability, breeding status and whether geese undertook a moult migration. First we predicted that if mass loss during moult were simply the result of inadequate food resources then mass loss would be highest where food was least available. Secondly, we predicted that if mass loss during moult were adaptive, allowing birds to reduce activity during moult, then birds would gain mass prior to moult where feeding conditions allowed and mass loss would be positively related to mass at moult initiation. Thirdly, we predicted that if mass loss during moult were adaptive, allowing birds to regain flight sooner, then across sites and groups, mass at the end of the flightless period would converge on a theoretical optimum, i.e. the mass that permits the earliest possible return to flight. Mass loss was greatest where food was most available and thus our results did not support the prediction that mass loss resulted from inadequate food availability. Mass at moult initiation was positively related to both food availability and mass loss. In addition, among sites and years, variation in mass was high at moult initiation but greatly reduced at the end of the flightless period, appearing to converge. Thus, our results supported multiple predictions that mass loss during moult was adaptive and that the optimal moulting strategy was to gain mass prior to the flightless period, then through behavioural modifications use these body reserves to reduce activity and in so doing also reduce wing loading. Geese that undertook a moult migration initiated moult at the highest mass, indicating that they were more than able to

  15. Pressure effects on the chimeric 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenases of the deep-sea piezophilic Shewanella benthica and the atmospheric pressure-adapted Shewanella oneidensis.

    PubMed

    Hamajima, Yuki; Nagae, Takayuki; Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Kato-Yamada, Yasuyuki; Imai, Takeo; Kato, Chiaki

    2014-01-01

    The chimeric 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase enzymes were constructed from the deep-sea piezophilic Shewanella benthica and the shallow water Shewanella oneidensis genes. The properties of the enzymatic activities under pressure conditions indicated that the central region, which contained the active center and the dimer forming domains, was shown to be the most important region for pressure tolerance in the deep-sea enzyme.

  16. Health and Safety Benefits of Small Pressurized Suitport Rovers as EVA Surface Support Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.

    2008-01-01

    Pressurized safe-haven providing SPE protection and decompression sickness (DCS) treatment capabilities within 20 mins at all times. Up to 50% reduction in time spent in EVA suits (vs. Unpressurized Rovers) for equal or greater Boots-on-Surface EVA exploration time. Reduces suit-induced trauma and provides improved options for nutrition, hydration, and waste-management. Time spent inside SPR during long translations may be spent performing resistive and cardiovascular exercise. Multiple shorter EVAs versus single 8 hr EVAs increases DCS safety and decreases prebreathe requirements. SPRs also offer many potential operational, engineering and exploration benefits not addressed here.

  17. Impact of Teachers' Implicit Theories and Perceived Pressures on the Establishment of an Autonomy Supportive Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leroy, Nadia; Bressoux, Pascal; Sarrazin, Philippe; Trouilloud, David

    2007-01-01

    According to self-determination theory, when teachers establish an autonomy supportive climate in the classroom, students demonstrate high levels of self-determination and are intrinsically motivated. The aim of this study was to identify factors leading teachers (N=336) to report that they create such a climate. We conducted a path analysis in…

  18. Impact of radiation embrittlement on integrity of pressure vessel supports for two PWR plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cheverton, R.D.; Pennell, W.E.; Robinson, G.C.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    Recent data from the HFIR vessel surveillance program indicate a substantial radiation embrittlement rate effect at low irradiation temperatures (/approximately/120/degree/F) for A212-B, A350-LF3, A105-II, and corresponding welds. PWR vessel supports are fabricated of similar materials and are subjected to the same low temperatures and fast neutron fluxes (10/sup 8/ to 10/sup 9/ neutrons/cm/sup 2//center dot/s, E > 1.0 MeV) as those in the HFIR vessel. Thus, the embrittlement rate of these structures may be greater than previously anticipated. A study sponsored by the NRC is under way at ORNL to determine the impact of the rate effect on PWR vessel-support life expectancy. The scope includes the interpretation and application of the HFIR data, a survey of all light-water-reactor vessel support designs, and a structural and fracture-mechanics analysis of the supports for two specific PWR plants of particular interest with regard to a potential for support failure as a result of propagation of flaws. Calculations performed thus far indicate best-estimate critical flaw sizes, corresponding to 32 EFPY, of /approximately/0.2 in. for one plant and /approximately/0.4 in. for the other. These flaw sizes are small enough to be of concern. However, it appears that low-cycle fatigue is not a viable mechanism for creation of flaws of this size, and thus, presumably, such flaws would have to exist at the time of fabrication. 59 refs., 128 figs., 49 tabs.

  19. Reactivity of Au nanoparticles supported over SiO2 and TiO2 studiedby ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Herranz, Tirma; Deng, Xingyi; Cabot, Andreu; Alivisatos, Paul; Liu, Zhi; Soler-Illia, Galo; Salmeron, Miquel

    2009-04-15

    The influence of the metal cluster size and the identity of the support on the reactivity of gold based catalysts have been studied in the CO oxidation reaction. To overcome the structural complexity of the supported catalysts, gold nanoparticles synthesized from colloidal chemistry with precisely controlled size have been used. Those particles were supported over SiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} and their catalytic activity was measured in a flow reactor. The reaction rate was dependent on the particle size and the support, suggesting two reaction pathways in the CO oxidation reaction. In parallel, ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy (APPS) has been performed under reaction conditions using bidimensional model catalysts prepared upon supporting the Au nanoparticles over planar polycrystalline SiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} thin films by means of the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique to mimic the characteristic of the powder samples. In this way, the catalytically active surface was characterized under true reaction conditions, revealing that during CO oxidation gold remains in the metallic state.

  20. Measurement system support at the JAERI-CRT Facility: pressure transducers. [Containment Research Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Shay, W.M. Jr.; McCauley, E.W.

    1981-11-01

    As part of a continuing liaison between the US NRC and foreigh full scale containment research programs, measurements assistance in the form of the loan of 30 flush diaphram pressure transducers has been provided to the JAERI-CRT MK II research program at Tokai-Mura, Japan. Procedures developed earlier at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) under similar research work sponsored by the US NRC were used by LLNL to successfully complete final installation and in-situ end-to-end calibration of the transducers in the CRT facility. The results from this calibration showed a very close agreement between sensitivities and linearities calculated at LLNL and the ones calculated at JAERI and indicate the transducers should give valid data during future testing.

  1. Simulation and communication analysis of the monitoring system for hydraulic support pressure based on CAN bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Huawei; Luo, Ming; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In order to realize online real-time monitoring of the hydraulic bracket support, improve the existing communication system, and improve the reliability of data transmission, this paper set up the communication simulation system and platform to simulate the coal mine communication based CAN bus. Based on the design and analysis of system hardware and software, this paper completed the construction of the whole hardware and the debugging of communication system. The debug end can communicate simulate by the CAN protocol simulation device, and realized the work of the entire communication system. Experiments showed that the monitoring system can work reliably.

  2. Earth Observation in Support of the Development of the Adaptation Plans for Climate Change in Cities: An Application for the Thermal Environment in Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartalis, C.; Polydoros, A.; Mavrakou, Th.; Asimakopoulos, D. N.

    2014-11-01

    The development of adaptation plans for climate change in cities need to reflect how urban mechanisms are influenced by the transfer of heat and the reflection/emission of electromagnetic radiation. For doing so, a thorough knowledge of a number of urban parameters is needed, namely of the land surface albedo, the land surface emissivity and the land surface temperature. Furthermore, information on land use and land cover as well as a Digital Elevation Model of the area concerned are needed. In this paper, the potential of Earth Observation to support the extraction and spatial/temporal representation of the above parameters, in support of adaptation plans for climate change is examined.

  3. In vitro measurement of nucleus pulposus swelling pressure: A new technique for studies of spinal adaptation to gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.; Glover, M. G.; Mahmood, M. M.; Gott, S.; Garfin, S. R.; Ballard, R.; Murthy, G.; Brown, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    Swelling of the intervertebral disc nucleus pulposus is altered by posture and gravity. We have designed and tested a new osmometer for in vitro determination of nucleus pulposus swelling pressure. The functional principle of the osmometer involves compressing a sample of nucleus pulposus with nitrogen gas until saline pressure gradients across a 0.45 microns Millipore filter are eliminated. Swelling pressure of both pooled dog and pooled pig lumbar disc nucleus pulposus were measured on the new osmometer and compared to swelling pressures determined using the equilibrium dialysis technique. The osmometer measured swelling pressures comparable to those obtained by the dialysis technique. This osmometer provides a rapid, direct, and accurate measurement of swelling pressure of the nucleus pulposus.

  4. Use of the Adaptive LASSO Method to Identify PM2.5 Components Associated with Blood Pressure in Elderly Men: The Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Lingzhen; Koutrakis, Petros; Coull, Brent A.; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Schwartz, Joel D.

    2015-01-01

    Background PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm) has been associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, but it is unclear whether specific PM2.5 components, particularly metals, may be responsible for cardiovascular effects. Objectives We aimed to determine which PM2.5 components are associated with blood pressure in a longitudinal cohort. Methods We fit linear mixed-effects models with the adaptive LASSO penalty to longitudinal data from 718 elderly men in the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study, 1999–2010. We controlled for PM2.5 mass, age, body mass index, use of antihypertensive medication (ACE inhibitors, non-ophthalmic beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, and angiotensin receptor antagonists), smoking status, alcohol intake, years of education, temperature, and season as fixed effects in the models, and additionally applied the adaptive LASSO method to select PM2.5 components associated with blood pressure. Final models were identified by the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). Results For systolic blood pressure (SBP), nickel (Ni) and sodium (Na) were selected by the adaptive LASSO, whereas only Ni was selected for diastolic blood pressure (DBP). An interquartile range increase (2.5 ng/m3) in 7-day moving-average Ni was associated with 2.48-mmHg (95% CI: 1.45, 3.50 mmHg) increase in SBP and 2.22-mmHg (95% CI: 1.69, 2.75 mmHg) increase in DBP, respectively. Associations were comparable when the analysis was restricted to study visits with PM2.5 below the 75th percentile of the distribution (12 μg/m3). Conclusions Our study suggested that exposure to ambient Ni was associated with increased blood pressure independent of PM2.5 mass in our study population of elderly men. Further research is needed to confirm our findings, assess generalizability to other populations, and identify potential mechanisms for Ni effects. Citation Dai L, Koutrakis P, Coull BA, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, Schwartz JD. 2016. Use of the adaptive LASSO method to

  5. Application of flood risk modelling in a web-based geospatial decision support tool for coastal adaptation to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, P. J.; Prime, T.; Brown, J. M.; Morrissey, K.; Plater, A. J.

    2015-02-01

    A pressing problem facing coastal decision makers is the conversion of "high level" but plausible climate change assessments into an effective basis for climate change adaptation at the local scale. Here, we describe a web-based, geospatial decision-support tool (DST) that provides an assessment of the potential flood risk for populated coastal lowlands arising from future sea-level rise, coastal storms and high river flows. This DST has been developed to support operational and strategic decision making by enabling the user to explore the flood hazard from extreme events, changes in the extent of the flood-prone areas with sea-level rise, and thresholds of sea-level rise where current policy and resource options are no longer viable. The DST is built in an open source GIS that uses freely available geospatial data. Flood risk assessments from a combination of LISFLOOD-FP and SWAB models are embedded within the tool; the user interface enables interrogation of different combinations of coastal and river events under rising sea-level scenarios. Users can readily vary the input parameters (sea level, storms, wave height and river flow) relative to the present-day topography and infrastructure to identify combinations where significant regime shifts or "tipping points" occur. Two case studies are used to demonstrate the attributes of the DST with respect to the wider coastal community and the UK energy sector. Examples report on the assets at risk and illustrate the extent of flooding in relation to infrastructure access. This informs an economic assessment of potential losses due to climate change and thus provides local authorities and energy operators with essential information on the feasibility of investment for building resilience into vulnerable components of their area of responsibility.

  6. Application of flood risk modelling in a web-based geospatial decision support tool for coastal adaptation to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, P. J.; Prime, T.; Brown, J. M.; Morrissey, K.; Plater, A. J.

    2015-07-01

    A pressing problem facing coastal decision makers is the conversion of "high-level" but plausible climate change assessments into an effective basis for climate change adaptation at the local scale. Here, we describe a web-based, geospatial decision support tool (DST) that provides an assessment of the potential flood risk for populated coastal lowlands arising from future sea-level rise, coastal storms, and high river flows. This DST has been developed to support operational and strategic decision making by enabling the user to explore the flood hazard from extreme events, changes in the extent of the flood-prone areas with sea-level rise, and thresholds of sea-level rise where current policy and resource options are no longer viable. The DST is built in an open-source GIS that uses freely available geospatial data. Flood risk assessments from a combination of LISFLOOD-FP and SWAB (Shallow Water And Boussinesq) models are embedded within the tool; the user interface enables interrogation of different combinations of coastal and river events under rising-sea-level scenarios. Users can readily vary the input parameters (sea level, storms, wave height and river flow) relative to the present-day topography and infrastructure to identify combinations where significant regime shifts or "tipping points" occur. Two case studies demonstrate the attributes of the DST with respect to the wider coastal community and the UK energy sector. Examples report on the assets at risk and illustrate the extent of flooding in relation to infrastructure access. This informs an economic assessment of potential losses due to climate change and thus provides local authorities and energy operators with essential information on the feasibility of investment for building resilience into vulnerable components of their area of responsibility.

  7. Climate Change in Colorado: Developing a Synthesis of the Science to Support Water Resources Management and Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, A. J.; Barsugli, J. J.; Averyt, K. B.; Deheza, V.; Udall, B.

    2008-12-01

    In 2007 Colorado's Governor Ritter issued a Colorado Climate Action Plan, in response to the risks associated with climate change and sets a goal to adapt to those climate changes "that cannot be avoided." The Western Water Assessment, a NOAA funded RISA program, was commissioned to do a synthesis of the science on climate change aimed at planners, decisionmakers, and policymakers in water in Colorado. Changes in Colorado's climate and implications for water resources are occurring in a global context. The objective of the report is to communicate the state of the science regarding the physical aspects of climate change that are important for evaluating impacts on Colorado's water resources, and to support state efforts to develop a water adaptation plan. However, the identification of specific climate change impacts on water resources is beyond the scope of this report. Water managers have a long history of adapting to changing circumstances, including changes in economies and land use, environmental concerns, and population growth. Climate change will further affect the decisions made about use of water. However, current water management practices may not be robust enough to cope with this climate change. This presentation reports on the process of developing the report and challenges we faced. We developed the report based on ongoing interactions with the water management community and discussions with them about their decision processes and needs. A second presentation (see Barsugli et al) presents the synthesis findings from the report. We followed the IPCC WG1 model of observations, attribution, and projections. However, many published studies and datasets include information about Colorado, there are few climate studies that focus only on the state. Consequently, many important scientific analyses for Colorado have not been done, and Colorado- specific information is often imbedded in or averaged with studies of the larger Western U.S. We used findings from

  8. Time-Accurate Unsteady Flow Simulations Supporting the SRM T+68-Second Pressure Spike Anomaly Investigation (STS-54B)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dougherty, N. S.; Burnette, D. W.; Holt, J. B.; Matienzo, Jose

    1993-01-01

    Time-accurate unsteady flow simulations are being performed supporting the SRM T+68sec pressure 'spike' anomaly investigation. The anomaly occurred in the RH SRM during the STS-54 flight (STS-54B) but not in the LH SRM (STS-54A) causing a momentary thrust mismatch approaching the allowable limit at that time into the flight. Full-motor internal flow simulations using the USA-2D axisymmetric code are in progress for the nominal propellant burn-back geometry and flow conditions at T+68-sec--Pc = 630 psi, gamma = 1.1381, T(sub c) = 6200 R, perfect gas without aluminum particulate. In a cooperative effort with other investigation team members, CFD-derived pressure loading on the NBR and castable inhibitors was used iteratively to obtain nominal deformed geometry of each inhibitor, and the deformed (bent back) inhibitor geometry was entered into this model. Deformed geometry was computed using structural finite-element models. A solution for the unsteady flow has been obtained for the nominal flow conditions (existing prior to the occurrence of the anomaly) showing sustained standing pressure oscillations at nominally 14.5 Hz in the motor IL acoustic mode that flight and static test data confirm to be normally present at this time. Average mass flow discharged from the nozzle was confirmed to be the nominal expected (9550 lbm/sec). The local inlet boundary condition is being perturbed at the location of the presumed reconstructed anomaly as identified by interior ballistics performance specialist team members. A time variation in local mass flow is used to simulate sudden increase in burning area due to localized propellant grain cracks. The solution will proceed to develop a pressure rise (proportional to total mass flow rate change squared). The volume-filling time constant (equivalent to 0.5 Hz) comes into play in shaping the rise rate of the developing pressure 'spike' as it propagates at the speed of sound in both directions to the motor head end and nozzle. The

  9. PaCO2 in Surfactant, Positive Pressure, and Oxygenation Randomized Trial (SUPPORT)

    PubMed Central

    Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Wrage, Lisa A.; Das, Abhik; Laughon, Matthew; Cotten, C. Michael; Kennedy, Kathleen A.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Walsh, Michele C.; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of PaCO2 with severe intraventricular hemorrhage (sIVH), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at 18–22 months in premature infants. Design Secondary exploratory data analysis of SUPPORT. Setting Multiple referral NICUs. Patients 1316 infants 24 0/7 to 27 6/7 weeks gestation randomized to different oxygenation (SpO2 target 85–89% vs 91–95%) and ventilation strategies. Main Outcome Measures Blood gases from postnatal days 0–14 were analyzed. Five PaCO2 variables were defined: minimum [Min], maximum [Max], standard deviation, average (time-weighted), and a 4 level categorical variable (hypercapnic [highest quartile of Max PaCO2], hypocapnic [lowest quartile of Min PaCO2], fluctuators [both hypercapnia and hypocapnia], and normocapnic [middle two quartiles of Max and Min PaCO2]). PaCO2 variables were compared for infants with and without sIVH, BPD, and NDI (+/− death). Multivariable logistic regression models were developed for adjusted results. Results sIVH, BPD, and NDI (+/− death) were associated with hypercapnic infants and fluctuators. Association of Max PaCO2 and outcomes persisted after adjustment (Per 10 mmHg increase: sIVH/death: OR 1.27 [1.13–1.41]; BPD/death: OR 1.27 [1.12–1.44]; NDI/death: OR 1.23 [1.10–1.38], Death: OR 1.27 [1.12–1.44], all p <0.001). No interaction was found between PaCO2 category and SpO2 treatment group for sIVH/death, NDI/death, or death. Max PaCO2 was positively correlated with maximum FiO2 (rs0.55, p<0.0001) & ventilator days (rs0.61, p<0.0001). Conclusions Higher PaCO2 was an independent predictor of sIVH/death, BPD/death, and NDI/death. Further trials are needed to evaluate optimal PaCO2 targets for high risk infants. PMID:25425651

  10. Toolkit for Adapting Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS) or Supporting Students Exposed to Trauma (SSET) for Implementation with Youth in Foster Care. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Dana; Barnes-Proby, Dionne; Chandra, Anita; Jaycox, Lisa H.; Maher, Erin; Pecora, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS) was developed for use by school-based mental health professionals for any student with symptoms of distress following exposure to trauma. The Supporting Students Exposed to Trauma (SSET) was adapted from CBITS for use by any school personnel with the time and interest to work with…

  11. Adaptation of a zero-dimensional cylinder pressure model for diesel engines using the crankshaft rotational speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weißenborn, E.; Bossmeyer, T.; Bertram, T.

    2011-08-01

    Tighter emission regulations are driving the development of advanced engine control strategies relying on feedback information from the combustion chamber. In this context, it is especially seeked for alternatives to expensive in-cylinder pressure sensors. The present study addresses these issues by pursuing a simulation-based approach. It focuses on the extension of an empirical, zero-dimensional cylinder pressure model using the engine speed signal in order to detect cylinder-wise variations in combustion. As a special feature, only information available from the standard sensor configuration are utilized. Within the study, different methods for the model-based reconstruction of the combustion pressure including nonlinear Kalman filtering are compared. As a result, the accuracy of the cylinder pressure model can be enhanced. At the same time, the inevitable limitations of the proposed methods are outlined.

  12. Pressurized Martian-Like Pure CO2 Atmosphere Supports Strong Growth of Cyanobacteria, and Causes Significant Changes in their Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Murukesan, Gayathri; Leino, Hannu; Mäenpää, Pirkko; Ståhle, Kurt; Raksajit, Wuttinun; Lehto, Harry J; Allahverdiyeva-Rinne, Yagut; Lehto, Kirsi

    2016-03-01

    Surviving of crews during future missions to Mars will depend on reliable and adequate supplies of essential life support materials, i.e. oxygen, food, clean water, and fuel. The most economical and sustainable (and in long term, the only viable) way to provide these supplies on Martian bases is via bio-regenerative systems, by using local resources to drive oxygenic photosynthesis. Selected cyanobacteria, grown in adequately protective containment could serve as pioneer species to produce life sustaining substrates for higher organisms. The very high (95.3 %) CO2 content in Martian atmosphere would provide an abundant carbon source for photo-assimilation, but nitrogen would be a strongly limiting substrate for bio-assimilation in this environment, and would need to be supplemented by nitrogen fertilizing. The very high supply of carbon, with rate-limiting supply of nitrogen strongly affects the growth and the metabolic pathways of the photosynthetic organisms. Here we show that modified, Martian-like atmospheric composition (nearly 100 % CO2) under various low pressure conditions (starting from 50 mbar to maintain liquid water, up to 200 mbars) supports strong cellular growth. Under high CO2 / low N2 ratio the filamentous cyanobacteria produce significant amount of H2 during light due to differentiation of high amount of heterocysts.

  13. Supporting decision making and action selection under time pressure and uncertainty: the case of in-flight icing.

    PubMed

    Sarter, N B; Schroeder, B

    2001-01-01

    Operators in high-risk domains such as aviation often need to make decisions under time pressure and uncertainty. One way to support them in this task is through the introduction of decision support systems (DSSs). The present study examined the effectiveness of two different DSS implementations: status and command displays. Twenty-seven pilots (9 pilots each in a baseline, status, and command group) flew 20 simulated approaches involving icing encounters. Accuracy of the decision aid (a smart icing system), familiarity with the icing condition, timing of icing onset, and autopilot usage were varied within subjects. Accurate information from either decision aid led to improved handling of the icing encounter. However, when inaccurate information was presented, performance dropped below that of the baseline condition. The cost of inaccurate information was particularly high for command displays and in the case of unfamiliar icing conditions. Our findings suggest that unless perfect reliability of a decision aid can be assumed, status displays may be preferable to command displays in high-risk domains (e.g., space flight, medicine, and process control), as the former yield more robust performance benefits and appear less vulnerable to automation biases.

  14. Pressurized Martian-Like Pure CO2 Atmosphere Supports Strong Growth of Cyanobacteria, and Causes Significant Changes in their Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murukesan, Gayathri; Leino, Hannu; Mäenpää, Pirkko; Ståhle, Kurt; Raksajit, Wuttinun; Lehto, Harry J.; Allahverdiyeva-Rinne, Yagut; Lehto, Kirsi

    2016-03-01

    Surviving of crews during future missions to Mars will depend on reliable and adequate supplies of essential life support materials, i.e. oxygen, food, clean water, and fuel. The most economical and sustainable (and in long term, the only viable) way to provide these supplies on Martian bases is via bio-regenerative systems, by using local resources to drive oxygenic photosynthesis. Selected cyanobacteria, grown in adequately protective containment could serve as pioneer species to produce life sustaining substrates for higher organisms. The very high (95.3 %) CO2 content in Martian atmosphere would provide an abundant carbon source for photo-assimilation, but nitrogen would be a strongly limiting substrate for bio-assimilation in this environment, and would need to be supplemented by nitrogen fertilizing. The very high supply of carbon, with rate-limiting supply of nitrogen strongly affects the growth and the metabolic pathways of the photosynthetic organisms. Here we show that modified, Martian-like atmospheric composition (nearly 100 % CO2) under various low pressure conditions (starting from 50 mbar to maintain liquid water, up to 200 mbars) supports strong cellular growth. Under high CO2 / low N2 ratio the filamentous cyanobacteria produce significant amount of H2 during light due to differentiation of high amount of heterocysts.

  15. Pressurized Martian-Like Pure CO2 Atmosphere Supports Strong Growth of Cyanobacteria, and Causes Significant Changes in their Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Murukesan, Gayathri; Leino, Hannu; Mäenpää, Pirkko; Ståhle, Kurt; Raksajit, Wuttinun; Lehto, Harry J; Allahverdiyeva-Rinne, Yagut; Lehto, Kirsi

    2016-03-01

    Surviving of crews during future missions to Mars will depend on reliable and adequate supplies of essential life support materials, i.e. oxygen, food, clean water, and fuel. The most economical and sustainable (and in long term, the only viable) way to provide these supplies on Martian bases is via bio-regenerative systems, by using local resources to drive oxygenic photosynthesis. Selected cyanobacteria, grown in adequately protective containment could serve as pioneer species to produce life sustaining substrates for higher organisms. The very high (95.3 %) CO2 content in Martian atmosphere would provide an abundant carbon source for photo-assimilation, but nitrogen would be a strongly limiting substrate for bio-assimilation in this environment, and would need to be supplemented by nitrogen fertilizing. The very high supply of carbon, with rate-limiting supply of nitrogen strongly affects the growth and the metabolic pathways of the photosynthetic organisms. Here we show that modified, Martian-like atmospheric composition (nearly 100 % CO2) under various low pressure conditions (starting from 50 mbar to maintain liquid water, up to 200 mbars) supports strong cellular growth. Under high CO2 / low N2 ratio the filamentous cyanobacteria produce significant amount of H2 during light due to differentiation of high amount of heterocysts. PMID:26294358

  16. Design of the Electronic Brake Pressure Modulator Using a Direct Adaptive Fuzzy Controller in Commercial Vehicles for the Safety of Braking in Fail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hunmo

    In the brake systems, it is important to reduce the rear brake pressure in order to secure the safety of the vehicle in braking. So, there was some research that reduced and controlled the rear brake pressure exactly like a L. S. P. V and a E. L. S. P. V. However, the previous research has some weaknesses: the L. S. P. V is a mechanical system and its brake efficiency is lower than the efficiency of E. L. S. P. V. But, the cost of E. L. S. P. V is very higher so its application to the vehicle is very difficult. Additionally, when a fail appears in the circuit which controls the valves, the fail results in some wrong operation of the valves. But, the previous researchers didn't take the effect of fail into account. Hence, the efficiency of them is low and the safety of the vehicle is not confirmed. So, in this paper we develop a new economical pressure modulator that exactly controls brake pressure and confirms the safety of the vehicle in any case using a direct adaptive fuzzy controller.

  17. Interactive Genetic Algorithm - An Adaptive and Interactive Decision Support Framework for Design of Optimal Groundwater Monitoring Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babbar-Sebens, M.; Minsker, B. S.

    2006-12-01

    In the water resources management field, decision making encompasses many kinds of engineering, social, and economic constraints and objectives. Representing all of these problem dependant criteria through models (analytical or numerical) and various formulations (e.g., objectives, constraints, etc.) within an optimization- simulation system can be a very non-trivial issue. Most models and formulations utilized for discerning desirable traits in a solution can only approximate the decision maker's (DM) true preference criteria, and they often fail to consider important qualitative and incomputable phenomena related to the management problem. In our research, we have proposed novel decision support frameworks that allow DMs to actively participate in the optimization process. The DMs explicitly indicate their true preferences based on their subjective criteria and the results of various simulation models and formulations. The feedback from the DMs is then used to guide the search process towards solutions that are "all-rounders" from the perspective of the DM. The two main research questions explored in this work are: a) Does interaction between the optimization algorithm and a DM assist the system in searching for groundwater monitoring designs that are robust from the DM's perspective?, and b) How can an interactive search process be made more effective when human factors, such as human fatigue and cognitive learning processes, affect the performance of the algorithm? The application of these frameworks on a real-world groundwater long-term monitoring (LTM) case study in Michigan highlighted the following salient advantages: a) in contrast to the non-interactive optimization methodology, the proposed interactive frameworks were able to identify low cost monitoring designs whose interpolation maps respected the expected spatial distribution of the contaminants, b) for many same-cost designs, the interactive methodologies were able to propose multiple alternatives

  18. Collaboratively Architecting a Scalable and Adaptable Petascale Infrastructure to Support Transdisciplinary Scientific Research for the Australian Earth and Environmental Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyborn, L. A.; Evans, B. J. K.; Pugh, T.; Lescinsky, D. T.; Foster, C.; Uhlherr, A.

    2014-12-01

    The National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) at the Australian National University (ANU) is a partnership between CSIRO, ANU, Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) and Geoscience Australia. Recent investments in a 1.2 PFlop Supercomputer (Raijin), ~ 20 PB data storage using Lustre filesystems and a 3000 core high performance cloud have created a hybrid platform for higher performance computing and data-intensive science to enable large scale earth and climate systems modelling and analysis. There are > 3000 users actively logging in and > 600 projects on the NCI system. Efficiently scaling and adapting data and software systems to petascale infrastructures requires the collaborative development of an architecture that is designed, programmed and operated to enable users to interactively invoke different forms of in-situ computation over complex and large scale data collections. NCI makes available major and long tail data collections from both the government and research sectors based on six themes: 1) weather, climate and earth system science model simulations, 2) marine and earth observations, 3) geosciences, 4) terrestrial ecosystems, 5) water and hydrology and 6) astronomy, bio and social. Collectively they span the lithosphere, crust, biosphere, hydrosphere, troposphere, and stratosphere. Collections are the operational form for data management and access. Similar data types from individual custodians are managed cohesively. Use of international standards for discovery and interoperability allow complex interactions within and between the collections. This design facilitates a transdisciplinary approach to research and enables a shift from small scale, 'stove-piped' science efforts to large scale, collaborative systems science. This new and complex infrastructure requires a move to shared, globally trusted software frameworks that can be maintained and updated. Workflow engines become essential and need to integrate provenance, versioning, traceability, repeatability

  19. Comparison of high pressure-induced dissociation of single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB) from high pressure-sensitive and high pressure-adapted marine Shewanella species.

    PubMed

    Chilukuri, Lakshmi N; Bartlett, Douglas H; Fortes, P A George

    2002-10-01

    The effects of hydrostatic pressure on protein quaternary structure were compared for recombinant single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB) derived from piezosensitive, piezotolerant, and obligately piezophilic ("pressure-loving") marine Shewanella strains. The pressure-induced dissociation of the oligomeric SSB proteins was investigated using fluorescence anisotropy. The SSBs all exhibited striking similarity in the pressure-dependent behavior of the fluorescence intensity and emission spectrum as well as in their dissociation constants at atmospheric pressure. The free energies of subunit association into tetramers for all SSBs were between -27 and -30 kcal mol(-1). However, SSB from the piezosensitive Shewanella strain S. hanedai was more sensitive to pressure than that of the SSB proteins from the piezotolerant or piezophilic bacteria. The volume change of association obtained from the pressure dependence of dissociation at a fixed protein concentration (Delta V(p)) for SSB from S. hanedai was 394-402 ml mol(-1). The Delta V(p) values for SSB from the deeper-living Shewanellas were smaller and ranged from 253 to 307 ml mol(-1). Differences between the primary structures of the SSB proteins that could correlate with differences in sensitivity to pressure-induced dissociation were examined. PMID:12382113

  20. PRESSURE TRANSDUCER

    DOEpatents

    Sander, H.H.

    1959-10-01

    A pressure or mechanical force transducer particularly adaptable to miniature telemetering systems is described. Basically the device consists of a transistor located within a magnetic field adapted to change in response to mechanical force. The conduction characteristics of the transistor in turn vary proportionally with changes in the magnetic flux across the transistor such that the output (either frequency of amplitude) of the transistor circuit is proportional to mechanical force or pressure.

  1. Selective oxidation of glycerol by using a hydrotalcite-supported platinum catalyst under atmospheric oxygen pressure in water.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Akihiro; Rao, Kasanneni Tirumala Venkateswara; Nishimura, Shun; Takagaki, Atsushi; Ebitani, Kohki

    2011-04-18

    A hydrotalcite-supported platinum (Pt/HT) catalyst was found to be a highly active and selective heterogeneous catalyst for glycerol oxidation in pure water under atmospheric oxygen pressure in a high glycerol/metal molar ratio up to 3125. High selectivity toward glyceric acid (78 %) was obtained even at room temperature under air atmosphere. The Pt/HT catalyst selectively oxidized the primary hydroxyl group of 1,2-propandiol to give the corresponding carboxylic acid (lactic acid) as well as glycerol. The activity of the catalyst was greatly influenced by the Mg/Al ratio of hydrotalcite. Glycerol conversion increased with increasing the Mg/Al ratio of hydrotalcite (from trace to 56 %). X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements indicated that the catalytic oxidation activity was proportional to the metallic platinum concentration, and more than 35 % of metallic platinum was necessary for this reaction. TEM measurements and titration analysis by using benzoic acid suggested that the solid basicity of hydrotalcite plays important roles in the precise control of platinum size and metal concentration as well as the initial promotion of alcohol oxidation.

  2. Selective oxidation of glycerol by using a hydrotalcite-supported platinum catalyst under atmospheric oxygen pressure in water.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Akihiro; Rao, Kasanneni Tirumala Venkateswara; Nishimura, Shun; Takagaki, Atsushi; Ebitani, Kohki

    2011-04-18

    A hydrotalcite-supported platinum (Pt/HT) catalyst was found to be a highly active and selective heterogeneous catalyst for glycerol oxidation in pure water under atmospheric oxygen pressure in a high glycerol/metal molar ratio up to 3125. High selectivity toward glyceric acid (78 %) was obtained even at room temperature under air atmosphere. The Pt/HT catalyst selectively oxidized the primary hydroxyl group of 1,2-propandiol to give the corresponding carboxylic acid (lactic acid) as well as glycerol. The activity of the catalyst was greatly influenced by the Mg/Al ratio of hydrotalcite. Glycerol conversion increased with increasing the Mg/Al ratio of hydrotalcite (from trace to 56 %). X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements indicated that the catalytic oxidation activity was proportional to the metallic platinum concentration, and more than 35 % of metallic platinum was necessary for this reaction. TEM measurements and titration analysis by using benzoic acid suggested that the solid basicity of hydrotalcite plays important roles in the precise control of platinum size and metal concentration as well as the initial promotion of alcohol oxidation. PMID:21271683

  3. Photocatalytic reaction characteristics of the titanium dioxide supported on the long phosphorescent phosphor by a low pressure chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Sik; Kim, Seung-Woo; Jung, Sang-Chul

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the photocatalytic behavior of titanium dioxide (TiO2)-supported on the long phosphorescent materials. Nanocrystalline TiO2 was directly deposited on the plate of alkaline earth aluminate phosphor, CaAl2O4: Eu2+, Nd3+ by a low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD). Photocatalytic reaction performance was examined with the decomposition of benzene gas by using a gas chromatography (GC) system under ultraviolet and visible light (λ > 410 nm) irradiations. The LPCVD TiO2-coated phosphors showed active photocatalytic reaction under visible irradiation. The mechanism of the photocatalytic reactivity for the TiO,-coated phosphorescent phosphor was discussed in terms of the energy band structure and phosphorescence. The coupling of TiO2 with phosphor may result in energy band bending in the junction region, which makes the TiO, crystal at the interface to be photo-reactive under visible light irradiation. The fastest degradation of ben- zene gas occurred for the TiO,-coated phosphor prepared with 1 min deposition time (-150 nm thickness). The LPCVD TiO,-coated phosphor is also photo-reactive under darkness through the light photons emitted from the CaAl2O4 phosphor. In addition, the TiO2-coated phosphorescent phosphors were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  4. Photocatalytic reaction characteristics of the titanium dioxide supported on the long phosphorescent phosphor by a low pressure chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Sik; Kim, Seung-Woo; Jung, Sang-Chul

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the photocatalytic behavior of titanium dioxide (TiO2)-supported on the long phosphorescent materials. Nanocrystalline TiO2 was directly deposited on the plate of alkaline earth aluminate phosphor, CaAl2O4: Eu2+, Nd3+ by a low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD). Photocatalytic reaction performance was examined with the decomposition of benzene gas by using a gas chromatography (GC) system under ultraviolet and visible light (λ > 410 nm) irradiations. The LPCVD TiO2-coated phosphors showed active photocatalytic reaction under visible irradiation. The mechanism of the photocatalytic reactivity for the TiO,-coated phosphorescent phosphor was discussed in terms of the energy band structure and phosphorescence. The coupling of TiO2 with phosphor may result in energy band bending in the junction region, which makes the TiO, crystal at the interface to be photo-reactive under visible light irradiation. The fastest degradation of ben- zene gas occurred for the TiO,-coated phosphor prepared with 1 min deposition time (-150 nm thickness). The LPCVD TiO,-coated phosphor is also photo-reactive under darkness through the light photons emitted from the CaAl2O4 phosphor. In addition, the TiO2-coated phosphorescent phosphors were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PMID:25942860

  5. Inhibiting PKM[zeta] Reveals Dorsal Lateral and Dorsal Medial Striatum Store the Different Memories Needed to Support Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauli, Wolfgang M.; Clark, Alexandra D.; Guenther, Heidi J.; O'Reilly, Randall C.; Rudy, Jerry W.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that two regions of the striatum contribute differential support to instrumental response selection. The dorsomedial striatum (DMS) is thought to support expectancy-mediated actions, and the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) is thought to support habits. Currently it is unclear whether these regions store task-relevant information or…

  6. Could Insoles Offload Pressure? An Evaluation of the Effects of Arch-supported Functional Insoles on Plantar Pressure Distribution during Race Walking.

    PubMed

    Song, Qipeng; Xu, Kaisheng; Yu, Bing; Zhang, Cui; Sun, Wei; Mao, Dewei

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of functional insoles on plantar pressure distribution during race walking so as to reduce the high plantar pressure and force on race walkers, who tend to suffer from overuse injury. A total of 20 male race walkers aged 21.19 ± 3.66 years and with a mean height of 178.85 ± 14.07 cm were recruited as participants. Each participant completed a race walking with functional or normal insoles. Plantar pressure insoles were used to collect vertical plantar pressure data. A two-way analysis of variance with a mixed design was used to determine the difference between the two conditions. Results showed that the use of functional insoles reduces the peak pressure and the impulse in the metatarsophalangeal joints and heels and thus suggest that functional insoles reduce the overuse injury risks of these parts. The first ground reaction force peak also decreased. This result suggested that functional insoles reduce the risks of foot and leg injuries.

  7. Codon-substitution models to detect adaptive evolution that account for heterogeneous selective pressures among site classes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ziheng; Swanson, Willie J

    2002-01-01

    The nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rate ratio (omega = d(N)/d(S)) provides a sensitive measure of selective pressure at the protein level, with omega values <1, =1, and >1 indicating purifying selection, neutral evolution, and diversifying selection, respectively. Maximum likelihood models of codon substitution developed recently account for variable selective pressures among amino acid sites by employing a statistical distribution for the omega ratio among sites. Those models, called random-sites models, are suitable when we do not know a priori which sites are under what kind of selective pressure. Sometimes prior information (such as the tertiary structure of the protein) might be available to partition sites in the protein into different classes, which are expected to be under different selective pressures. It is then sensible to use such information in the model. In this paper, we implement maximum likelihood models for prepartitioned data sets, which account for the heterogeneity among site partitions by using different omega parameters for the partitions. The models, referred to as fixed-sites models, are also useful for combined analysis of multiple genes from the same set of species. We apply the models to data sets of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I alleles from human populations and of the abalone sperm lysin genes. Structural information is used to partition sites in MHC into two classes: those in the antigen recognition site (ARS) and those outside. Positive selection is detected in the ARS by the fixed-sites models. Similarly, sites in lysin are classified into the buried and solvent-exposed classes according to the tertiary structure, and positive selection was detected at the solvent-exposed sites. The random-sites models identified a number of sites under positive selection in each data set, confirming and elaborating the results of the fixed-sites models. The analysis demonstrates the utility of the fixed-sites models

  8. An Examination of the Role of Social Support, Coping Strategies, and Individual Characteristics in Students' Adaptation to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bejerano, Arleen R.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation, or adjustment, is a psycho-social process that occurs when an individual accepts and integrates into his or her life a transition from one situation to another situation (Schlossberg, 1981). Many individuals struggle with transitions because transitions involve changes in the environment, roles, routines, and/or ways of looking at the…

  9. Adaptive Driving Equipment: Selection and Major Considerations [and] Battery Powered Scooters and 3-Wheelers. Information Support Packets #1 and #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, John H.

    Two brief guides offer suggestions for persons with physical disabilities who are considering the purchase of adaptive driving equipment, battery-powered scooters, or three wheelers. The first guide offers guidelines for individuals considering purchase of special hand controls or other modifications or a van lift to enhance their independence in…

  10. Social support and the quality of parenting under economic pressure and workload in Finland: the role of family structure and parental gender.

    PubMed

    Leinonen, Jenni A; Solantaus, Tytti S; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2003-09-01

    This study focused on how factors outside the home affect the quality of mothering and fathering. Economic pressure and workload were evaluated along with the compensating role of social support on parenting. Information was gathered from 842 mothers and 573 fathers including 139 single-mother and 21 single-father families. The results showed that the nature of the strains, together with parental gender and family structure, influenced their effects on parenting. The results further revealed some gender- and strain-specific protective functions of social support on parenting. For example, economic pressure was related to increased punitive parenting, which was compensated by instrumental and emotional support among the mothers. Workload was related to less authoritative single fathering, which was compensated by instrumental support.

  11. One-Pot Template-Free Synthesis of Cu-MOR Zeolite toward Efficient Catalyst Support for Aerobic Oxidation of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural under Ambient Pressure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Xie, Jingyan; Hou, Wei; Liu, Yangqing; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Supported catalysts are widely studied, and exploring new promising supports is significant to access more applications. In this work, novel copper-containing MOR-type zeolites Cu-MOR were synthesized in a one-pot template-free route and served as efficient supports for vanadium oxide. In the heterogeneous oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF) with molecular oxygen (O2) under ambient pressure, the obtained catalyst demonstrated high yield (91.5%) and good reusability. Even under the ambient air pressure, it gave a DFF yield of 72.1%. Structure-activity relationship analysis indicated that the strong interaction between the framework Cu species and the guest V sites accounted for the remarkable performance. This work reveals that the Cu-MOR zeolite uniquely acts as the robust support toward well-performed non-noble metal heterogeneous catalyst for biomass conversion. PMID:27523255

  12. Lumbar postures, seat interface pressures and discomfort responses to a novel thoracic support for police officers during prolonged simulated driving exposures.

    PubMed

    Gruevski, Kristina M; Holmes, Michael W R; Gooyers, Chad E; Dickerson, Clark R; Callaghan, Jack P

    2016-01-01

    A high prevalence of low back pain has been reported among professional drivers, including mobile police officers. The purpose of this investigation was to develop and evaluate a novel thoracic support designed for mobile police officers. Fourteen participants (7 male, 7 female) attended two 120-min driving simulations using a Crown Victoria Interceptor seat and the same seat equipped with a surface mounted thoracic support. Time-varying spine postures, seat pressures and ratings of discomfort were measured. Averaged discomfort values were low (less than 10 mm of a possible 100 mm) for both seating conditions. The postures in the thoracic support condition were more similar to non-occupational driving without occupational equipment than the Crown Victoria seating condition. The reduction in pressure area at the low back with the thoracic support has the potential to reduce discomfort reporting in officers compared to a standard vehicle package.

  13. Lumbar postures, seat interface pressures and discomfort responses to a novel thoracic support for police officers during prolonged simulated driving exposures.

    PubMed

    Gruevski, Kristina M; Holmes, Michael W R; Gooyers, Chad E; Dickerson, Clark R; Callaghan, Jack P

    2016-01-01

    A high prevalence of low back pain has been reported among professional drivers, including mobile police officers. The purpose of this investigation was to develop and evaluate a novel thoracic support designed for mobile police officers. Fourteen participants (7 male, 7 female) attended two 120-min driving simulations using a Crown Victoria Interceptor seat and the same seat equipped with a surface mounted thoracic support. Time-varying spine postures, seat pressures and ratings of discomfort were measured. Averaged discomfort values were low (less than 10 mm of a possible 100 mm) for both seating conditions. The postures in the thoracic support condition were more similar to non-occupational driving without occupational equipment than the Crown Victoria seating condition. The reduction in pressure area at the low back with the thoracic support has the potential to reduce discomfort reporting in officers compared to a standard vehicle package. PMID:26360207

  14. Age-related changes in speed and accuracy during rapid targeted center of pressure movements near the posterior limit of the base of support

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Manuel E.; Ashton-Miller, James A.; Alexander, Neil B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Backward falls are often associated with injury, particularly among older women. An age-related increase occurs in center of pressure variability when standing and leaning. So, we hypothesized that, in comparison to young women, older women would display a disproportionate decrease of speed and accuracy in the primary center of pressure submovements as movement amplitude increases. Methods Ground reaction forces were recorded from thirteen healthy young and twelve older women while performing rapid, targeted, center of pressure movements of small and large amplitude in upright stance. Measures included center of pressure speed, the number of center of pressure submovements, and the incidence rate of primary center of pressure submovements undershooting the target. Findings In comparison to young women, older women used slower primary submovements, particularly as movement amplitude increased (P < 0.01). Even though older women achieved similar endpoint accuracy, they demonstrated a 2 to 5-fold increase in the incidence of primary submovement undershooting for large-amplitude movements (P < 0.01). Overall, posterior center of pressure movements of older women were 41% slower and exhibited 43% more secondary submovements than in young women (P < 0.01). Interpretations We conclude that the increased primary submovement undershoots and secondary center of pressure submovements in the older women reflect the use of a conservative control strategy near the posterior limit of their base of support. PMID:22770467

  15. Viability and adaptation potential of indigenous microorganisms from natural gas field fluids in high pressure incubations with supercritical CO2.

    PubMed

    Frerichs, Janin; Rakoczy, Jana; Ostertag-Henning, Christian; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-21

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is currently under debate as large-scale solution to globally reduce emissions of the greenhouse gas CO2. Depleted gas or oil reservoirs and saline aquifers are considered as suitable reservoirs providing sufficient storage capacity. We investigated the influence of high CO2 concentrations on the indigenous bacterial population in the saline formation fluids of a natural gas field. Bacterial community changes were closely examined at elevated CO2 concentrations under near in situ pressures and temperatures. Conditions in the high pressure reactor systems simulated reservoir fluids i) close to the CO2 injection point, i.e. saturated with CO2, and ii) at the outer boundaries of the CO2 dissolution gradient. During the incubations with CO2, total cell numbers remained relatively stable, but no microbial sulfate reduction activity was detected. After CO2 release and subsequent transfer of the fluids, an actively sulfate-respiring community was re-established. The predominance of spore-forming Clostridiales provided evidence for the resilience of this taxon against the bactericidal effects of supercritical (sc)CO2. To ensure the long-term safety and injectivity, the viability of fermentative and sulfate-reducing bacteria has to be considered in the selection, design, and operation of CCS sites.

  16. A dynamically collapsing core and a precursor of a core in a filament supported by turbulent and magnetic pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Furuya, Ray S.; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Shinnaga, Hiroko E-mail: kitamura@isas.jaxa.jp

    2014-10-01

    To study physical properties of the natal filament gas around the cloud core harboring an exceptionally young low-mass protostar GF 9-2, we carried out J = 1-0 line observations of {sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, and C{sup 18}O molecules using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. The mapping area covers ∼ one-fifth of the whole filament. Our {sup 13}CO and C{sup 18}O maps clearly demonstrate that the core formed at the local density maxima of the filament, and the internal motions of the filament gas are totally governed by turbulence with Mach number of ∼2. We estimated the scale height of the filament to be H = 0.3-0.7 pc, yielding the central density of n {sub c} = 800-4200 cm{sup –3}. Our analysis adopting an isothermal cylinder model shows that the filament is supported by the turbulent and magnetic pressures against the radial and axial collapse due to self-gravity. Since both the dissipation timescales of the turbulence and the transverse magnetic fields can be comparable to the free-fall time of the filament gas of 10{sup 6} yr, we conclude that the local decay of the supersonic turbulence and magnetic fields made the filament gas locally unstable, hence making the core collapse. Furthermore, we newly detected a gas condensation with velocity width enhancement to ∼0.3 pc southwest of the GF 9-2 core. The condensation has a radius of ∼0.15 pc and an LTE mass of ∼5 M {sub ☉}. Its internal motion is turbulent with Mach number of ∼3, suggesting a gravitationally unbound state. Considering the uncertainties in our estimates, however, we propose that the condensation is a precursor of a cloud core, which would have been produced by the collision of the two gas components identified in the filament.

  17. [Demographic pressure and extension of new cultures: difficult adaptation. The case of the wheat-growing culture of highland Byumba].

    PubMed

    Rutaganda, T

    1993-04-01

    Results of a 1990 survey are the basis for a discussion of the spread of wheat cultivation in the Byumba highlands of Rwanda. The highlands are among the most densely populated areas of Rwanda, with an estimated 370 persons per sq km compared to the national average of 272. The region offers ideal temperature and rainfall conditions for wheat cultivation. 76% of the cultivable lands of the region are considered suitable for wheat. Wheat is among crops that Rwanda would like to produce internally in greater quantity to reduce import requirements. Population pressure has led to division of plots, so that at present, 57.3% of households have less than 1 hectare of land. Dispersion of plots has also become a problem. A wide variety of crops in addition to wheat are cultivated in the Byumba highlands. The number of hectares devoted to wheat has increased from 140 in 1983 to 2902 in 1990. The increase is due to the growing number of cultivators growing a small amount of wheat rather than to increased size of production units. 68% of wheat cultivators harvested less than 200 kg in 1990. The subsistence nature of most agriculture in the Byumba highlands has limited the spread of wheat cultivation, as households seek to produce an adequate and varied food supply for their own consumption. The small size of holdings has limited the feasibility of technical advances in wheat cultivation for local growers. Many households devote space to crops such as sweet potatoes that do not produce well at their relatively high altitudes. Encouraging greater cultivation of wheat will require an improved marketing system and a sufficiently high price to allow growers to purchase the foodstuffs they forego planting. Steps should be taken to limit the division of land holdings and to improve cultivation techniques. It will be necessary as well to limit population growth through family planning in order to lessen demographic pressure on the limited cultivable lands.

  18. Support-sting interference on boattail pressure drag for Reynolds numbers up to 70 x 10 to the 6th

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloss, B. B.; Sewall, W. G.

    1983-01-01

    A model was tested in the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel to investigate the effects of Reynolds number on boattail pressure drag for a variety of sting shapes. The boattail pressure drag for constant Mach number increased linearly with Reynolds number over the Reynolds number range tested. The data indicated that, as the disturbance produced by the sting on the boattail increased, the boattail pressure drag became less sensitive to Reynolds number change. Also, it was found that the model base pressure versus Reynolds number curve reached a plateau within the Reynolds number range examined.

  19. (Un-)expected nocturnal activity in "Diurnal" Lemur catta supports cathemerality as one of the key adaptations of the lemurid radiation.

    PubMed

    Donati, Giuseppe; Santini, Luca; Razafindramanana, Josia; Boitani, Luigi; Borgognini-Tarli, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    The ability to operate during the day and at night (i.e., cathemerality) is common among mammals but has rarely been identified in primates. Adaptive hypotheses assume that cathemerality represents a stable adaptation in primates, while nonadaptive hypotheses propose that it is the result of an evolutionary disequilibrium arising from human impacts on natural habitats. Madagascar offers a unique opportunity to study the evolution of activity patterns as there we find a monophyletic primate radiation that shows nocturnal, diurnal, and cathemeral patterns. However, when and why cathemeral activity evolved in lemurs is the subject of intense debate. Thus far, this activity pattern has been regularly observed in only three lemurid genera but the actual number of lemur species exhibiting this activity is as yet unknown. Here we show that the ring-tailed lemur, Lemur catta, a species previously considered to be diurnal, can in fact be cathemeral in the wild. In neighboring but distinct forest areas these lemurs exhibited either mainly diurnal or cathemeral activity. We found that, as in other cathemeral lemurs, activity was entrained by photoperiod and masked by nocturnal luminosity. Our results confirm the relationship between transitional eye anatomy and physiology and 24-h activity, thus supporting the adaptive scenario. Also, on the basis of the most recent strepsirrhine phylogenetic reconstruction, using parsimony criterion, our findings suggest pushing back the emergence of cathemerality to stem lemurids. Flexible activity over 24-h could thus have been one of the key adaptations of the early lemurid radiation possibly driven by Madagascar's island ecology.

  20. Increasing Integrated Workplace Social Interactions: The Effects of Job Modification, Natural Supports, Adaptive Communication Instruction, and Job Coach Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mautz, Denise; Storey, Keith; Certo, Nick

    2001-01-01

    A study involving an adult with severe mental retardation and other disabilities found that the addition of a communication device, job coach social facilitation training, and eliciting co-worker support for social integration increased the social interactions of the employee in a supported employment setting. (Contains references.) (CR)

  1. [Adaptation to Spanish of the "Scale of perceived social support specific to the disease" of Revenson et al., 1991].

    PubMed

    Martos Méndez, María José; Pozo Muñoz, Carmen

    2011-11-01

    This study aims to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Scale of Perceived Social Support Specific to the Illness of Revenson et al. 1991. A sample of 202 patients with chronic conditions was used. After making several factor analysis of the scale on all four versions (partner, family, friends and doctors), it was found a structure formed by two factors involving positive social support and not functional or problematic social support. The results obtained with Cronbach's alpha show that all scales have acceptable and adequate internal consistency. In this sense, this scale may be appropriate to identify properly perceived social support for chronic patients on the four sources of support studied.

  2. Benefit of social support for resilience-building is contingent on social context: examining cardiovascular adaptation to recurrent stress in women.

    PubMed

    Howard, Siobhán; Hughes, Brian M

    2012-07-01

    Previous work on social support and stress tolerance using laboratory-based cardiovascular stress response paradigms has suggested that perceived social support may be effective in building resilience in recipients. However, such paradigms are often socially de-contextualized insofar as they fail to take account of the social aspects of stress itself. Using 90 healthy college women, the present study sought to examine the association between self-reported perceived social support and cardiovascular stress tolerance. Participants underwent two consecutive exposures to a mental arithmetic task. On second exposure to the stressor, participants completed the task under either social threat or control conditions. Social threat was manipulated using socially salient instructions, to create a high social context. Adaptation to stress was established in terms of comparisons between cardiovascular responses to successive exposures. Results showed that cardiovascular responses tended to habituate across time, with perceived social support associated with the degree of habituation, but only under certain contextual conditions; high perceived support was associated with effective habituation under control conditions only. This response pattern is consistent with the view that high perceived social support buffers against stress in healthful ways, but only in asocial contexts.

  3. Directed Evolution and In Silico Analysis of Reaction Centre Proteins Reveal Molecular Signatures of Photosynthesis Adaptation to Radiation Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Rea, Giuseppina; Lambreva, Maya; Polticelli, Fabio; Bertalan, Ivo; Antonacci, Amina; Pastorelli, Sandro; Damasso, Mario; Johanningmeier, Udo; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary mechanisms adopted by the photosynthetic apparatus to modifications in the Earth's atmosphere on a geological time-scale remain a focus of intense research. The photosynthetic machinery has had to cope with continuously changing environmental conditions and particularly with the complex ionizing radiation emitted by solar flares. The photosynthetic D1 protein, being the site of electron tunneling-mediated charge separation and solar energy transduction, is a hot spot for the generation of radiation-induced radical injuries. We explored the possibility to produce D1 variants tolerant to ionizing radiation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and clarified the effect of radiation-induced oxidative damage on the photosynthetic proteins evolution. In vitro directed evolution strategies targeted at the D1 protein were adopted to create libraries of chlamydomonas random mutants, subsequently selected by exposures to radical-generating proton or neutron sources. The common trend observed in the D1 aminoacidic substitutions was the replacement of less polar by more polar amino acids. The applied selection pressure forced replacement of residues more sensitive to oxidative damage with less sensitive ones, suggesting that ionizing radiation may have been one of the driving forces in the evolution of the eukaryotic photosynthetic apparatus. A set of the identified aminoacidic substitutions, close to the secondary plastoquinone binding niche and oxygen evolving complex, were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis in un-transformed strains, and their sensitivity to free radicals attack analyzed. Mutants displayed reduced electron transport efficiency in physiological conditions, and increased photosynthetic performance stability and oxygen evolution capacity in stressful high-light conditions. Finally, comparative in silico analyses of D1 aminoacidic sequences of organisms differently located in the evolution chain, revealed a higher ratio of residues more sensitive to

  4. The Effect of Sliding Speed on Film Thickness and Pressure Supporting Ability of a Point Contact Under Zero Entrainment Velocity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Peter M.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Jansen, Mark J.; Prahl, Joseph M.

    2000-01-01

    A unique tribometer is used to study film forming and pressure supporting abilities of point contacts at zero entrainment velocity (ZEV). Film thickness is determined using a capacitance technique, verified through comparisons of experimental results and theoretical elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) predictions for rolling contacts. Experiments are conducted using through hardened AISI 52 100 steel balls, Polyalphaolefin (PAO) 182 and Pentaerythritol Tetraheptanoate (PT) lubricants, and sliding speeds between 2.0 to 12.0 m/s. PAO 182 and PT are found to support pressures up to 1. 1 GPa and 0.67 GPa respectively. Protective lubricant films ranging in thickness between 90 to 2 10 nm for PAO 182 and 220 to 340 nm for PT are formed. Lubricants experience shear stresses between 14 to 22 MPa for PAO 182 and 7 to 16 MPa for PT at shear rates of 10(exp 7)/sec. The lubricant's pressure supporting ability most likely results from the combination of immobile films and its transition to a glassy solid at high pressures.

  5. Application of stakeholder-based and modelling approaches for supporting robust adaptation decision making under future climatic uncertainty and changing urban-agricultural water demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhave, Ajay; Dessai, Suraje; Conway, Declan; Stainforth, David

    2016-04-01

    agricultural water demand significantly affect downstream water availability. Water demand options demonstrate potential to improve environmental flow conditions and satisfy legal water supply requirements for downstream riparian states. On the other hand, currently planned large scale infrastructural projects demonstrate reduced value in certain scenarios, illustrating the impacts of lock-in effects of large scale infrastructure. From a methodological perspective, we find that while the stakeholder-driven approach revealed robust options in a resource-light manner and helped initiate much needed interaction amongst stakeholders, the modelling approach provides complementary quantitative information. The study reveals robust adaptation options for this important basin and provides a strong methodological basis for carrying out future studies that support adaptation decision making.

  6. Molecular Phylogeny Supports Repeated Adaptation to Burrowing within Small-Eared Shrews Genus of Cryptotis (Eulipotyphla, Soricidae).

    PubMed

    He, Kai; Woodman, Neal; Boaglio, Sean; Roberts, Mariel; Supekar, Sunjana; Maldonado, Jesús E

    2015-01-01

    Small-eared shrews of the New World genus Cryptotis (Eulipotyphla, Soricidae) comprise at least 42 species that traditionally have been partitioned among four or more species groups based on morphological characters. The Cryptotis mexicana species group is of particular interest, because its member species inhibit a subtly graded series of forelimb adaptations that appear to correspond to locomotory behaviors that range from more ambulatory to more fossorial. Unfortunately, the evolutionary relationships both among species in the C. mexicana group and among the species groups remain unclear. To better understand the phylogeny of this group of shrews, we sequenced two mitochondrial and two nuclear genes. To help interpret the pattern and direction of morphological changes, we also generated a matrix of morphological characters focused on the evolutionarily plastic humerus. We found significant discordant between the resulting molecular and morphological trees, suggesting considerable convergence in the evolution of the humerus. Our results indicate that adaptations for increased burrowing ability evolved repeatedly within the genus Cryptotis. PMID:26489020

  7. Molecular Phylogeny Supports Repeated Adaptation to Burrowing within Small-Eared Shrews Genus of Cryptotis (Eulipotyphla, Soricidae)

    PubMed Central

    He, Kai; Woodman, Neal; Boaglio, Sean; Roberts, Mariel; Supekar, Sunjana; Maldonado, Jesús E.

    2015-01-01

    Small-eared shrews of the New World genus Cryptotis (Eulipotyphla, Soricidae) comprise at least 42 species that traditionally have been partitioned among four or more species groups based on morphological characters. The Cryptotis mexicana species group is of particular interest, because its member species inhibit a subtly graded series of forelimb adaptations that appear to correspond to locomotory behaviors that range from more ambulatory to more fossorial. Unfortunately, the evolutionary relationships both among species in the C. mexicana group and among the species groups remain unclear. To better understand the phylogeny of this group of shrews, we sequenced two mitochondrial and two nuclear genes. To help interpret the pattern and direction of morphological changes, we also generated a matrix of morphological characters focused on the evolutionarily plastic humerus. We found significant discordant between the resulting molecular and morphological trees, suggesting considerable convergence in the evolution of the humerus. Our results indicate that adaptations for increased burrowing ability evolved repeatedly within the genus Cryptotis. PMID:26489020

  8. LandCaRe DSS--an interactive decision support system for climate change impact assessment and the analysis of potential agricultural land use adaptation strategies.

    PubMed

    Wenkel, Karl-Otto; Berg, Michael; Mirschel, Wilfried; Wieland, Ralf; Nendel, Claas; Köstner, Barbara

    2013-09-01

    Decision support to develop viable climate change adaptation strategies for agriculture and regional land use management encompasses a wide range of options and issues. Up to now, only a few suitable tools and methods have existed for farmers and regional stakeholders that support the process of decision-making in this field. The interactive model-based spatial information and decision support system LandCaRe DSS attempts to close the existing methodical gap. This system supports interactive spatial scenario simulations, multi-ensemble and multi-model simulations at the regional scale, as well as the complex impact assessment of potential land use adaptation strategies at the local scale. The system is connected to a local geo-database and via the internet to a climate data server. LandCaRe DSS uses a multitude of scale-specific ecological impact models, which are linked in various ways. At the local scale (farm scale), biophysical models are directly coupled with a farm economy calculator. New or alternative simulation models can easily be added, thanks to the innovative architecture and design of the DSS. Scenario simulations can be conducted with a reasonable amount of effort. The interactive LandCaRe DSS prototype also offers a variety of data analysis and visualisation tools, a help system for users and a farmer information system for climate adaptation in agriculture. This paper presents the theoretical background, the conceptual framework, and the structure and methodology behind LandCaRe DSS. Scenario studies at the regional and local scale for the two Eastern German regions of Uckermark (dry lowlands, 2600 km(2)) and Weißeritz (humid mountain area, 400 km(2)) were conducted in close cooperation with stakeholders to test the functionality of the DSS prototype. The system is gradually being transformed into a web version (http://www.landcare-dss.de) to ensure the broadest possible distribution of LandCaRe DSS to the public. The system will be continuously

  9. Is "the perfect model" really needed? - Analysis of the quality level of climate information necessary for supporting adaptation in agriculture and forestry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gálos, Borbála; Ostler, Wolf-Uwe; Csáki, Péter; Bidló, András; Panferov, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    Recent results of climate science (e.g. IPCC AR5, 2013) and statements of climate policy (e.g. Paris Agreement) confirm that climate change is an ongoing issue. The consequences will be noticeable for a long time even if the 2 Degree goal is reached. Therefore, action plans are necessary for adaptation and mitigation on national and international level. Forestry and agriculture are especially threatened by the probable increase of the frequency and/or intensity of climate extremes. Severe impacts of recurrent droughts/heat waves that were observed in the last decades in the sensitive and vulnerable ecosystems and regions are very likely to occur with increasing probability throughout the 21st century. For the adequate climate impact assessments, for adaptation strategies as well as for supporting decisions in the above mentioned sectors the reliable information on the long-term climate tendencies and on ecosystem responses are required. Here are the two major problems: on the one hand the information on current climate and future climate developments are highly uncertain. On the other hand, due to limited knowledge on ecosystem responses, it is difficult to define how certain or accurate the provided climate data should be for the plausible application in agricultural/forestry research and practice. Considering agriculture and forestry, our research is focusing on the following questions: • What is the climate information demand of practice and impact research in the two sectors? • What quality level of climate information is necessary for adaptation support? • How does the accuracy of climate input affect the results of the climate impact assessments? The agriculture and forestry operate at two very different time scales and have a different reaction times and adaptation capacities. Agriculture requires short-term information on current conditions and short-/medium-term weather forecast. To assess the degree of information accuracy required by practical

  10. Using an adaptive expertise lens to understand the quality of teachers' classroom implementation of computer-supported complex systems curricula in high school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Susan A.; Koehler-Yom, Jessica; Anderson, Emma; Lin, Joyce; Klopfer, Eric

    2015-05-01

    Background: This exploratory study is part of a larger-scale research project aimed at building theoretical and practical knowledge of complex systems in students and teachers with the goal of improving high school biology learning through professional development and a classroom intervention. Purpose: We propose a model of adaptive expertise to better understand teachers' classroom practices as they attempt to navigate myriad variables in the implementation of biology units that include working with computer simulations, and learning about and teaching through complex systems ideas. Sample: Research participants were three high school biology teachers, two females and one male, ranging in teaching experience from six to 16 years. Their teaching contexts also ranged in student achievement from 14-47% advanced science proficiency. Design and methods: We used a holistic multiple case study methodology and collected data during the 2011-2012 school year. Data sources include classroom observations, teacher and student surveys, and interviews. Data analyses and trustworthiness measures were conducted through qualitative mining of data sources and triangulation of findings. Results: We illustrate the characteristics of adaptive expertise of more or less successful teaching and learning when implementing complex systems curricula. We also demonstrate differences between case study teachers in terms of particular variables associated with adaptive expertise. Conclusions: This research contributes to scholarship on practices and professional development needed to better support teachers to teach through a complex systems pedagogical and curricular approach.

  11. Adaptation of an evidence-based intervention for Appalachian women: new STEPS (Strength Through Education, Physical fitness and Support) for breast health.

    PubMed

    Gallant, Nancy R; Corbin, Marilyn; Bencivenga, Marcyann M; Farnan, Michelle; Wiker, Nancy; Bressler, Andrea; Camacho, Fabian; Lengerich, Eugene J

    2013-06-01

    Appalachia is characterized by a high prevalence of individual-level risks for breast cancer, including physical inactivity and postmenopausal obesity. The availability of local, evidence-based programs to improve physical fitness is limited. We adapted an evidence-based intervention, StrongWomen, to improve physical fitness and increase breast cancer knowledge among women 40 years and older in Appalachian Pennsylvania. Utilizing a multi-site, community-based design, we tested the adapted 12-week, supervised program-New STEPS (Strength Through Education, Physical fitness and Support)-among 139 women. The completion rate was 67.6 %. Pre/post scores improved for each of six fitness assessments (P<0.01). We found differences in overall fitness by study site (P<0.001), but no differences by age (P=0.13) or by previous breast cancer diagnosis (P=0.73). New STEPS is an adapted, evidence-based program that can improve physical fitness and breast cancer awareness among women in Appalachian Pennsylvania. New STEPS may help fill a void in local fitness programs for Appalachian women at risk for breast cancer or breast cancer recurrence.

  12. Induced peroxidase and cytoprotective enzyme expressions support adaptation of HUVECs to sustain subsequent H2O2 exposure.

    PubMed

    Patel, Hemang; Chen, Juan; Kavdia, Mahendra

    2016-01-01

    H2O2 mediates autocrine and paracrine signaling in the vasculature and can propagate endothelial dysfunction. However, it is not clear how endothelial cells withstand H2O2 exposure and promote H2O2-induced vascular remodeling. To understand the innate ability of endothelial cells for sustaining excess H2O2 exposure, we investigated the genotypic and functional regulation of redox systems in primary HUVECs following an H2O2 treatment. Primary HUVECs were exposed to transient H2O2 exposure and consistent H2O2 exposure. Following H2O2 treatments for 24, 48 and 72 h, we measured O2(-) production, mitochondrial membrane polarization (MMP), and gene expressions of pro-oxidative enzymes, peroxidase enzymes, and cytoprotective intermediates. Our results showed that the 24 h H2O2 exposure significantly increased O2(-) levels, hyperpolarized MMP, and downregulated CAT, GPX1, TXNRD1, NFE2L2, ASK1, and ATF2 gene expression in HUVECs. At 72 h, HUVECs in both treatment conditions were shown to adapt to reduce O2(-) levels and normalize MMP. An upregulation of GPX1, TXNRD1, and HMOX1 gene expression and a recovery of NFE2L2 and PRDX1 gene expression to control levels were observed in both consistent and transient treatments at 48 and 72 h. The response of endothelial cells to excess levels of H2O2 involves a complex interaction amongst O2(-) levels, mitochondrial membrane polarization and anti- and pro-oxidant gene regulation. As a part of this response, HUVECs induce cytoprotective mechanisms including the expression of peroxidase and antioxidant enzymes along with the downregulation of pro-apoptotic genes. This adaptation assists HUVECs to withstand subsequent exposures to H2O2.

  13. (Un-)expected nocturnal activity in "Diurnal" Lemur catta supports cathemerality as one of the key adaptations of the lemurid radiation.

    PubMed

    Donati, Giuseppe; Santini, Luca; Razafindramanana, Josia; Boitani, Luigi; Borgognini-Tarli, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    The ability to operate during the day and at night (i.e., cathemerality) is common among mammals but has rarely been identified in primates. Adaptive hypotheses assume that cathemerality represents a stable adaptation in primates, while nonadaptive hypotheses propose that it is the result of an evolutionary disequilibrium arising from human impacts on natural habitats. Madagascar offers a unique opportunity to study the evolution of activity patterns as there we find a monophyletic primate radiation that shows nocturnal, diurnal, and cathemeral patterns. However, when and why cathemeral activity evolved in lemurs is the subject of intense debate. Thus far, this activity pattern has been regularly observed in only three lemurid genera but the actual number of lemur species exhibiting this activity is as yet unknown. Here we show that the ring-tailed lemur, Lemur catta, a species previously considered to be diurnal, can in fact be cathemeral in the wild. In neighboring but distinct forest areas these lemurs exhibited either mainly diurnal or cathemeral activity. We found that, as in other cathemeral lemurs, activity was entrained by photoperiod and masked by nocturnal luminosity. Our results confirm the relationship between transitional eye anatomy and physiology and 24-h activity, thus supporting the adaptive scenario. Also, on the basis of the most recent strepsirrhine phylogenetic reconstruction, using parsimony criterion, our findings suggest pushing back the emergence of cathemerality to stem lemurids. Flexible activity over 24-h could thus have been one of the key adaptations of the early lemurid radiation possibly driven by Madagascar's island ecology. PMID:23180596

  14. Exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana to hypobaric environments: implications for low-pressure bioregenerative life support systems for human exploration missions and terraforming on Mars.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jeffrey T; Corey, Kenneth A; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Ferl, Robert J; Wheeler, Raymond M; Schuerger, Andrew C

    2006-12-01

    Understanding how hypobaria can affect net photosynthetic (P (net)) and net evapotranspiration rates of plants is important for the Mars Exploration Program because low-pressured environments may be used to reduce the equivalent system mass of near-term plant biology experiments on landers or future bioregenerative advanced life support systems. Furthermore, introductions of plants to the surface of a partially terraformed Mars will be constrained by the limits of sustainable growth and reproduction of plants to hypobaric conditions. To explore the effects of hypobaria on plant physiology, a low-pressure growth chamber (LPGC) was constructed that maintained hypobaric environments capable of supporting short-term plant physiological studies. Experiments were conducted on Arabidopsis thaliana maintained in the LPGC with total atmospheric pressures set at 101 (Earth sea-level control), 75, 50, 25 or 10 kPa. Plants were grown in a separate incubator at 101 kPa for 6 weeks, transferred to the LPGC, and acclimated to low-pressure atmospheres for either 1 or 16 h. After 1 or 16 h of acclimation, CO(2) levels were allowed to drawdown from 0.1 kPa to CO(2) compensation points to assess P (net) rates under different hypobaric conditions. Results showed that P (net) increased as the pressures decreased from 101 to 10 kPa when CO(2) partial pressure (pp) values were below 0.04 kPa (i.e., when ppCO2 was considered limiting). In contrast, when ppCO(2) was in the nonlimiting range from 0.10 to 0.07 kPa, the P (net) rates were insensitive to decreasing pressures. Thus, if CO(2 )concentrations can be kept elevated in hypobaric plant growth modules or on the surface of a partially terraformed Mars, P (net) rates may be relatively unaffected by hypobaria. Results support the conclusions that (i) hypobaric plant growth modules might be operated around 10 kPa without undue inhibition of photosynthesis and (ii) terraforming efforts on Mars might require a surface pressure of at least 10

  15. Exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana to hypobaric environments: implications for low-pressure bioregenerative life support systems for human exploration missions and terraforming on Mars.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jeffrey T; Corey, Kenneth A; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Ferl, Robert J; Wheeler, Raymond M; Schuerger, Andrew C

    2006-12-01

    Understanding how hypobaria can affect net photosynthetic (P (net)) and net evapotranspiration rates of plants is important for the Mars Exploration Program because low-pressured environments may be used to reduce the equivalent system mass of near-term plant biology experiments on landers or future bioregenerative advanced life support systems. Furthermore, introductions of plants to the surface of a partially terraformed Mars will be constrained by the limits of sustainable growth and reproduction of plants to hypobaric conditions. To explore the effects of hypobaria on plant physiology, a low-pressure growth chamber (LPGC) was constructed that maintained hypobaric environments capable of supporting short-term plant physiological studies. Experiments were conducted on Arabidopsis thaliana maintained in the LPGC with total atmospheric pressures set at 101 (Earth sea-level control), 75, 50, 25 or 10 kPa. Plants were grown in a separate incubator at 101 kPa for 6 weeks, transferred to the LPGC, and acclimated to low-pressure atmospheres for either 1 or 16 h. After 1 or 16 h of acclimation, CO(2) levels were allowed to drawdown from 0.1 kPa to CO(2) compensation points to assess P (net) rates under different hypobaric conditions. Results showed that P (net) increased as the pressures decreased from 101 to 10 kPa when CO(2) partial pressure (pp) values were below 0.04 kPa (i.e., when ppCO2 was considered limiting). In contrast, when ppCO(2) was in the nonlimiting range from 0.10 to 0.07 kPa, the P (net) rates were insensitive to decreasing pressures. Thus, if CO(2 )concentrations can be kept elevated in hypobaric plant growth modules or on the surface of a partially terraformed Mars, P (net) rates may be relatively unaffected by hypobaria. Results support the conclusions that (i) hypobaric plant growth modules might be operated around 10 kPa without undue inhibition of photosynthesis and (ii) terraforming efforts on Mars might require a surface pressure of at least 10

  16. Exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana to Hypobaric Environments: Implications for Low-Pressure Bioregenerative Life Support Systems for Human Exploration Missions and Terraforming on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Jeffrey T.; Corey, Kenneth A.; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Ferl, Robert J.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Schuerger, Andrew C.

    2006-12-01

    Understanding how hypobaria can affect net photosynthetic (P net) and net evapotranspiration rates of plants is important for the Mars Exploration Program because low-pressured environments may be used to reduce the equivalent system mass of near-term plant biology experiments on landers or future bioregenerative advanced life support systems. Furthermore, introductions of plants to the surface of a partially terraformed Mars will be constrained by the limits of sustainable growth and reproduction of plants to hypobaric conditions. To explore the effects of hypobaria on plant physiology, a low-pressure growth chamber (LPGC) was constructed that maintained hypobaric environments capable of supporting short-term plant physiological studies. Experiments were conducted on Arabidopsis thaliana maintained in the LPGC with total atmospheric pressures set at 101 (Earth sea-level control), 75, 50, 25 or 10 kPa. Plants were grown in a separate incubator at 101 kPa for 6 weeks, transferred to the LPGC, and acclimated to low-pressure atmospheres for either 1 or 16 h. After 1 or 16 h of acclimation, CO2 levels were allowed to drawdown from 0.1 kPa to CO2 compensation points to assess P net rates under different hypobaric conditions. Results showed that P net increased as the pressures decreased from 101 to 10 kPa when CO2 partial pressure (pp) values were below 0.04 kPa (i.e., when ppCO2 was considered limiting). In contrast, when ppCO2 was in the nonlimiting range from 0.10 to 0.07 kPa, the P net rates were insensitive to decreasing pressures. Thus, if CO2 concentrations can be kept elevated in hypobaric plant growth modules or on the surface of a partially terraformed Mars, P net rates may be relatively unaffected by hypobaria. Results support the conclusions that (i) hypobaric plant growth modules might be operated around 10 kPa without undue inhibition of photosynthesis and (ii) terraforming efforts on Mars might require a surface pressure of at least 10 kPa (100 mb) for

  17. Chest compression with a higher level of pressure support ventilation: effects on secretion removal, hemodynamics, and respiratory mechanics in patients on mechanical ventilation*

    PubMed Central

    Naue, Wagner da Silva; Forgiarini, Luiz Alberto; Dias, Alexandre Simões; Vieira, Silvia Regina Rios

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of chest compression accompanied by a 10-cmH2O increase in baseline inspiratory pressure on pressure support ventilation, in comparison with that of aspiration alone, in removing secretions, normalizing hemodynamics, and improving respiratory mechanics in patients on mechanical ventilation. METHODS: This was a randomized crossover clinical trial involving patients on mechanical ventilation for more than 48 h in the ICU of the Porto Alegre Hospital de Clínicas, in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Patients were randomized to receive aspiration alone (control group) or compression accompanied by a 10-cmH2O increase in baseline inspiratory pressure on pressure support ventilation (intervention group). We measured hemodynamic parameters, respiratory mechanics parameters, and the amount of secretions collected. RESULTS: We included 34 patients. The mean age was 64.2 ± 14.6 years. In comparison with the control group, the intervention group showed a higher median amount of secretions collected (1.9 g vs. 2.3 g; p = 0.004), a greater increase in mean expiratory tidal volume (16 ± 69 mL vs. 56 ± 69 mL; p = 0.018), and a greater increase in mean dynamic compliance (0.1 ± 4.9 cmH2O vs. 2.8 ± 4.5 cmH2O; p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: In this sample, chest compression accompanied by an increase in pressure support significantly increased the amount of secretions removed, the expiratory tidal volume, and dynamic compliance. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:NCT01155648 [http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/]) PMID:24626270

  18. Adaptation of a Published Risk Model to Point-of-care Clinical Decision Support Tailored to Local Workflow.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Jeffrey L; Baker, Craig C; Levy, David; Cain, Carol H

    2015-01-01

    Electronic clinical decision support can bring newly published knowledge to the point of care. However, local organizational buy-in, support for team workflows, IT system ease of use and other sociotechnical factors are needed to promote adoption. We successfully implemented a multi-variate cardiac risk stratification model from another institution into ours. We recreated the model and integrated it into our workflow, accessing it from our EHR with patient-specific data and facilitating clinical documentation if the user accepts the model results. Our clinical leaders championed the change and led educational dissemination efforts. We describe the ad-hoc social and technical collaboration needed to build and deploy the tool. The tool complements a clinical initiative within a community of practice, and is correlated with appropriate use of nuclear imaging. PMID:26958255

  19. Carbothermal reduction of Ti-modified IRMOF-3: an adaptable synthetic method to support catalytic nanoparticles on carbon.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongsik; McNamara, Nicholas D; Her, Theresa H; Hicks, Jason C

    2013-11-13

    This work describes a novel method for the preparation of titanium oxide nanoparticles supported on amorphous carbon with nanoporosity (Ti/NC) via the post-synthetic modification of a Zn-based MOF with an amine functionality, IRMOF-3, with titanium isopropoxide followed by its carbothermal pyrolysis. This material exhibited high purity, high surface area (>1000 m(2)/g), and a high dispersion of metal oxide nanoparticles while maintaining a small particle size (~4 nm). The material was shown to be a promising catalyst for oxidative desulfurization of diesel using dibenzothiophene as a model compound as it exhibited enhanced catalytic activity as compared with titanium oxide supported on activated carbon via the conventional incipient wetness impregnation method. The formation mechanism of Ti/NC was also proposed based on results obtained when the carbothermal reduction temperature was varied. PMID:24111792

  20. ACT-R Electronic Bookshelf: An Adaptive System To Support Learning ACT-R on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusilovsky, Peter; Anderson, John

    This paper describes the electronic ACT-R Bookshelf, a system which supports learning ACT-R, a well-known theory in the field of cognitive psychology, over the World Wide Web. ACT-R Bookshelf is a collection of electronic books on various aspects of ACT-R. The primary role of ACT-R Bookshelf is to serve as a 24-hour information resource for…

  1. Experimental studies on the effects of a sting support on the pressure distribution around a spherical object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barna, P. S.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on a spherical object, 2.5 inches in diameter, to obtain the pressure distribution around its meridan plane. In most of the tests the sphere was provided with a tail consisting of a circular cylinder that was attached directly to the rear with its axis in alignment with the center of the sphere. In some tests the tail was removed and the sphere alone was tested for comparison purposes. The main object of the tests was to obtain information on tail interference with the pressure distribution. The results of the tests show that the pressure distribution was affected by the presence of the tail to a minor extent only, while major differences occurred with the variation of the Reynolds number. The experiments were performed both in an open as well as inside a closed wind tunnel under steady flow conditions at Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.91 to 2.6 x 100000.

  2. Linking family economic pressure and supportive parenting to adolescent health behaviors: two developmental pathways leading to health promoting and health risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Josephine A; Wickrama, K A S

    2014-07-01

    Adolescent health behaviors, especially health risk behaviors, have previously been linked to distal (i.e., family economic pressure) and proximal (i.e., parental support) contributors. However, few studies have examined both types of contributors along with considering health promoting and health risk behaviors separately. The present study investigated the influences of family economic hardship, supportive parenting as conceptualized by self-determination theory, and individual psychosocial and behavioral characteristics (i.e., mastery and delinquency, respectively) on adolescents' health promoting and health risk behaviors. We used structural equation modeling to analyze longitudinal data from a sample of Caucasian adolescent children and their mothers and fathers (N = 407, 54 % female) to examine direct and indirect effects, as well as gender symmetry and asymmetry. Findings suggest that family economic pressure contributed to adolescent mastery and delinquency through supportive parenting. Further, supportive parenting indirectly affected adolescent health risk behaviors only through delinquency, whereas supportive parenting indirectly influenced health promoting behaviors only through mastery, suggesting different developmental pathways for adolescent health risk and health promoting behaviors. Testing for gender symmetry of the full model showed that maternal and paternal parenting contributed to females' health risk behaviors directly, while maternal and paternal parenting contributed to males' health risk behaviors through delinquency. Gender symmetry was largely unsupported. The study highlights key direct and indirect pathways to adolescent health risk and health promoting behaviors within a family stress model and self-determination theory framework, and also highlights important gender differences in these developmental pathways.

  3. Flight Wing Surface Pressure and Boundary-Layer Data Report from the F-111 Smooth Variable-Camber Supercritical Mission Adaptive Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Sheryll Goecke; Webb, Lannie D.

    1997-01-01

    Flight tests were conducted using the advanced fighter technology integration F-111 (AFTI/F-111) aircraft modified with a variable-sweep supercritical mission adaptive wing (MAW). The MAW leading- and trailing-edge variable-camber surfaces were deflected in flight to provide a near-ideal wing camber shape for the flight condition. The MAW features smooth, flexible upper surfaces and fully enclosed lower surfaces, which distinguishes it from conventional flaps that have discontinuous surfaces and exposed or semi-exposed mechanisms. Upper and lower surface wing pressure distributions were measured along four streamwise rows on the right wing for cruise, maneuvering, and landing configurations. Boundary-layer measurements were obtained near the trailing edge for one of the rows. Cruise and maneuvering wing leading-edge sweeps were 26 deg for Mach numbers less than 1 and 45 deg or 58 deg for Mach numbers greater than 1. The landing wing sweep was 9 deg or 16 deg. Mach numbers ranged from 0.27 to 1.41, angles of attack from 2 deg to 13 deg, and Reynolds number per unit foot from 1.4 x 10(exp 6) to 6.5 x 10(exp 6). Leading-edge cambers ranged from O deg to 20 deg down, and trailing-edge cambers ranged from 1 deg up to 19 deg down. Wing deflection data for a Mach number of 0.85 are shown for three cambers. Wing pressure and boundary-layer data are given. Selected data comparisons are shown. Measured wing coordinates are given for three streamwise semispan locations for cruise camber and one spanwise location for maneuver camber.

  4. VALIDATION OF SPRING OPERATED PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE TIME TO FAILURE AND THE IMPORTANCE OF STATISTICALLY SUPPORTED MAINTENANCE INTERVALS

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, R; Stephen Harris, S

    2009-02-18

    The Savannah River Site operates a Relief Valve Repair Shop certified by the National Board of Pressure Vessel Inspectors to NB-23, The National Board Inspection Code. Local maintenance forces perform inspection, testing, and repair of approximately 1200 spring-operated relief valves (SORV) each year as the valves are cycled in from the field. The Site now has over 7000 certified test records in the Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS); a summary of that data is presented in this paper. In previous papers, several statistical techniques were used to investigate failure on demand and failure rates including a quantal response method for predicting the failure probability as a function of time in service. The non-conservative failure mode for SORV is commonly termed 'stuck shut'; industry defined as the valve opening at greater than or equal to 1.5 times the cold set pressure. Actual time to failure is typically not known, only that failure occurred some time since the last proof test (censored data). This paper attempts to validate the assumptions underlying the statistical lifetime prediction results using Monte Carlo simulation. It employs an aging model for lift pressure as a function of set pressure, valve manufacturer, and a time-related aging effect. This paper attempts to answer two questions: (1) what is the predicted failure rate over the chosen maintenance/ inspection interval; and do we understand aging sufficient enough to estimate risk when basing proof test intervals on proof test results?

  5. Performance of an adaptive mu-focusing Kirkpatrick-Baez system for high-pressure studies at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Signorato, R.; Hausermann, D.; Somayazulu, M.; Carre, J.-F.

    2004-06-04

    X-ray studies of materials in extreme conditions of pressure call for focusing optics able to deliver very clean micron-size focal spots of high energy X-rays with added stringent requirements of flexibility to accommodate different experimental geometries and fast focal spot size adjustment. These requirements are fully met by multi-electrode modular piezoelectric bimorph mirrors (PBMs) in Kirkpatrick-Baez configurations, and these optical systems have already been successfully used for several years at high brilliance 3rd generation synchrotron radiation facilities such as the ESRF and SPring-8. The optical characterization and in-situ X-ray performance of the first pair of modular PBMs installed at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne national laboratory is reported here. Metrology tests show that the mirrors are able to approximate an arbitrary surface described by a 9th order polynomial in shape with only 100 {angstrom}; rms shape error over their full optical surface. Full adaptive zonal control allows wave front correction, delivers optimum focal spot profiles (as small as 8.5 (H) x 5.0 (V) {micro}m{sup 2} FWHM at a focal distance of 1 m) and fully achieves the creep-free short and long term stability and repeatability required by the experimental program.

  6. Evidence for archaic adaptive introgression in humans

    PubMed Central

    Racimo, Fernando; Sankararaman, Sriram; Nielsen, Rasmus; Huerta-Sánchez, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    As modern and ancient DNA sequence data from diverse human populations accumulate1–4, evidence is increasing in support of the existence of beneficial variants acquired from archaic humans that may have accelerated adaptation and improved survival in new environments — a process, known as adaptive introgression (AI). Within the past couple of years, a series of studies5–8 have identified genomic regions showing strong evidence for archaic adaptive introgression. In this Review, we provide an overview of the statistical methods developed to identify archaic introgressed fragments in the genome sequences of modern humans, and to determine whether positive selection has acted on these fragments. We discuss recently reported examples of adaptive introgression and consider the level of supporting evidence for each, grouped by selection pressure. We discuss challenges and recommendations for inferring selection on introgressed regions. PMID:25963373

  7. Adaptive and Speculative Memory Consistency Support for Multi-core Architectures with On-Chip Local Memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vujic, Nikola; Alvarez, Lluc; Tallada, Marc Gonzalez; Martorell, Xavier; Ayguadé, Eduard

    Software cache has been showed as a robust approach in multi-core systems with no hardware support for transparent data transfers between local and global memories. Software cache provides the user with a transparent view of the memory architecture and considerably improves the programmability of such systems. But this software approach can suffer from poor performance due to considerable overheads related to software mechanisms to maintain the memory consistency. This paper presents a set of alternatives to smooth their impact. A specific write-back mechanism is introduced based on some degree of speculation regarding the number of threads actually modifying the same cache lines. A case study based on the Cell BE processor is described. Performance evaluation indicates that improvements due to the optimized software-cache structures combined with the proposed code-optimizations translate into 20% up to 40% speedup factors, compared to a traditional software cache approach.

  8. Combining support vector machines with linear quadratic regulator adaptation for the online design of an automotive active suspension system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiou, J.-S.; Liu, M.-T.

    2008-02-01

    As a powerful machine-learning approach to pattern recognition problems, the support vector machine (SVM) is known to easily allow generalization. More importantly, it works very well in a high-dimensional feature space. This paper presents a nonlinear active suspension controller which achieves a high level performance by compensating for actuator dynamics. We use a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) to ensure optimal control of nonlinear systems. An LQR is used to solve the problem of state feedback and an SVM is used to address the question of the estimation and examination of the state. These two are then combined and designed in a way that outputs feedback control. The real-time simulation demonstrates that an active suspension using the combined SVM-LQR controller provides passengers with a much more comfortable ride and better road handling.

  9. Pressure surge attenuator

    DOEpatents

    Christie, Alan M.; Snyder, Kurt I.

    1985-01-01

    A pressure surge attenuation system for pipes having a fluted region opposite crushable metal foam. As adapted for nuclear reactor vessels and heads, crushable metal foam is disposed to attenuate pressure surges.

  10. Adaptive Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop and demonstrate innovative adaptive seal technologies that can lead to dramatic improvements in engine performance, life, range, and emissions, and enhance operability for next generation gas turbine engines. This work is concentrated on the development of self-adaptive clearance control systems for gas turbine engines. Researchers have targeted the high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade tip seal location for following reasons: Current active clearance control (ACC) systems (e.g., thermal case-cooling schemes) cannot respond to blade tip clearance changes due to mechanical, thermal, and aerodynamic loads. As such they are prone to wear due to the required tight running clearances during operation. Blade tip seal wear (increased clearances) reduces engine efficiency, performance, and service life. Adaptive sealing technology research has inherent impact on all envisioned 21st century propulsion systems (e.g. distributed vectored, hybrid and electric drive propulsion concepts).

  11. Potential Danger of Pre-Pump Clamping on Negative Pressure-Associated Gaseous Microemboli Generation During Extracorporeal Life Support--An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shigang; Chin, Brian J; Gentile, Frank; Kunselman, Allen R; Palanzo, David; Ündar, Akif

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between revolution speed of a conventional centrifugal pump and negative pressure at the inlet of the pump by clamping the tubing upstream of the pump, and to verify whether negative pressure leads to gaseous microemboli (GME) production in a simulated adult extracorporeal life support (ECLS) system. The experimental circuit, including a Maquet Rotaflow centrifugal pump and a Medos Hilite 7000 LT polymethyl-pentene membrane oxygenator, was primed with packed red blood cells (hematocrit 35%). Negative pressure was created in the circuit by clamping the tubing upstream of the pump for 10 s, and then releasing the clamp. An emboli detection and classification quantifier was used to record GME volume and count at pre-oxygenator and post-oxygenator sites, and pressure and flow rate data were collected using a custom-based data acquisition system. All trials were conducted at 36°C at revolution speeds of 2000-4000 rpm (500 rpm increment). The flow rates were 1092.5-4708.4 mL/min at the revolution speeds of 2000-4000 rpm. Higher revolution speed generated higher negative pressure at the pre-pump site when clamping the tubing upstream of the pump (-108.3 ± 0.1 to -462.0 ± 0.5 mm Hg at 2000-4000 rpm). Moreover, higher negative pressure was associated with a larger number and volume of GME at pre-oxygenator site after de-clamp (GME count 10,573 ± 271 at pre-oxygenator site at 4000 rpm). The results showed that there was a potential danger of delivering GME to the patient when clamping pre-pump tubing during ECLS using a centrifugal pump. Our results warrant further clinical studies to investigate this phenomenon.

  12. Understanding Farmer Perspectives on Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Lois Wright; Hobbs, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is vulnerable to climate change and a source of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Farmers face pressures to adjust agricultural systems to make them more resilient in the face of increasingly variable weather (adaptation) and reduce GHG production (mitigation). This research examines relationships between Iowa farmers’ trust in environmental or agricultural interest groups as sources of climate information, climate change beliefs, perceived climate risks to agriculture, and support for adaptation and mitigation responses. Results indicate that beliefs varied with trust, and beliefs in turn had a significant direct effect on perceived risks from climate change. Support for adaptation varied with perceived risks, while attitudes toward GHG reduction (mitigation) were associated predominantly with variation in beliefs. Most farmers were supportive of adaptation responses, but few endorsed GHG reduction, suggesting that outreach should focus on interventions that have adaptive and mitigative properties (e.g., reduced tillage, improved fertilizer management). PMID:25983336

  13. An adaptive approach to invasive plant management on U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service-owned native prairies in the Prairie Pothole Region: decision support under uncertainity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannon, Jill J.; Moore, Clinton T.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Flanders-Wanner, Bridgette

    2011-01-01

    Much of the native prairie managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) is extensively invaded by the introduced cool-season grasses smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis). The central challenge to managers is selecting appropriate management actions in the face of biological and environmental uncertainties. We describe the technical components of a USGS management project, and explain how the components integrate and inform each other, how data feedback from individual cooperators serves to reduce uncertainty across the whole region, and how a successful adaptive management project is coordinated and maintained on a large scale. In partnership with the Service, the U.S. Geological Survey is developing an adaptive decision support framework to assist managers in selecting management actions under uncertainty and maximizing learning from management outcomes. The framework is built around practical constraints faced by refuge managers and includes identification of the management objective and strategies, analysis of uncertainty and construction of competing decision models, monitoring, and mechanisms for model feedback and decision selection. Nineteen Service field stations, spanning four states of the PPR, are participating in the project. They share a common management objective, available management strategies, and biological uncertainties. While the scope is broad, the project interfaces with individual land managers who provide refuge-specific information and receive updated decision guidance that incorporates understanding gained from the collective experience of all cooperators.

  14. Mobile Phone Text Messages to Support Treatment Adherence in Adults With High Blood Pressure (StAR): A Single-Blind, Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bobrow, Kirsten; Farmer, Andrew J; Springer, David; Shanyinde, Milensu; Yu, Ly-Mee; Brennan, Thomas; Rayner, Brian; Namane, Mosedi; Steyn, Krisela; Tarassenko, Lionel; Levitt, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Background We assessed the effect of automated treatment adherence support delivered via mobile-phone short message system (SMS) text-messages on blood pressure. Methods and Results In this pragmatic single-blind, three-arm randomized trial (StAR), undertaken in South Africa, patients treated for high blood pressure were randomly allocated in a 1:1:1 ratio to information-only or interactive SMS text-messaging, or usual care. The primary outcome was change in systolic blood pressure at 12-months from baseline measured with a validated oscillometric device. All trial staff were masked to treatment allocation. Analyses were intention to treat. Between June 26, 2012 and November 23, 2012, 1372 participants were randomized to receive information-only SMS text-messages (n=457), interactive SMS text-messages (n=458), or usual care (n=457). Primary outcome data were available for 1256 (92%) participants. At 12-months, the mean adjusted change (95% CI) in systolic blood pressure compared to usual care was −2.2 mm Hg (−4.4 to −0.04) with information-only SMS and −1.6 mm Hg (−3.7 to 0.6) with interactive SMS. Odds ratios (95% CI) for the proportion of participants with a blood pressure <140/90mm Hg were for information-only messaging 1.42 (1.03 to 1.95) and for interactive messaging 1.41 (1.02 to 1.95) compared to usual care. Conclusions In this randomized trial of an automated adherence support program delivered by SMS text-message in a general outpatient population of adults with high blood pressure, we found a small, reduction in systolic blood pressure control compared to usual care at 12-months. There was no evidence that an interactive intervention increased this effect. Clinical Trial Registration Information ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: South African National Clinical Trials Register number (SANCTR DOH-27-1212-386); Pan Africa Trial Register (PACTR201411000724141). PMID:26769742

  15. Polyimide capsules may hold high pressure DT fuel without cryogenic support for the National Ignition Facility indirect-drive targets

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, J.J.; Letts, S.A.

    1997-03-26

    New target designs for the Omega upgrade laser and ignition targets in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) require thick (80 - 100 {micro}m) cryogenic fuel layers. The Omega upgrade target will require cryogenic handling after initial fill because of the high fill pressures and the thin capsule walls. For the NIF indirectly driven targets, a larger capsule size and new materials offer hope that they can be built, filled and stored in a manner similar to the targets used in the Nova facility without requiring cryogenic handling.

  16. Pacific-Australia Climate Change Science and Adaptation Planning program: supporting climate science and enhancing climate services in Pacific Island Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuleshov, Yuriy; Jones, David; Hendon, Harry; Charles, Andrew; Shelton, Kay; de Wit, Roald; Cottrill, Andrew; Nakaegawa, Toshiyuki; Atalifo, Terry; Prakash, Bipendra; Seuseu, Sunny; Kaniaha, Salesa

    2013-04-01

    Over the past few years, significant progress in developing climate science for the Pacific has been achieved through a number of research projects undertaken under the Australian government International Climate Change Adaptation Initiative (ICCAI). Climate change has major impact on Pacific Island Countries and advancement in understanding past, present and futures climate in the region is vital for island nation to develop adaptation strategies to their rapidly changing environment. This new science is now supporting new services for a wide range of stakeholders in the Pacific through the National Meteorological Agencies of the region. Seasonal climate prediction is particularly important for planning in agriculture, tourism and other weather-sensitive industries, with operational services provided by all National Meteorological Services in the region. The interaction between climate variability and climate change, for example during droughts or very warm seasons, means that much of the early impacts of climate change are being felt through seasonal variability. A means to reduce these impacts is to improve forecasts to support decision making. Historically, seasonal climate prediction has been developed based on statistical past relationship. Statistical methods relate meteorological variables (e.g. temperature and rainfall) to indices which describe large-scale environment (e.g. ENSO indices) using historical data. However, with observed climate change, statistical approaches based on historical data are getting less accurate and less reliable. Recognising the value of seasonal forecasts, we have used outputs of a dynamical model POAMA (Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia), to develop web-based information tools (http://poama.bom.gov.au/experimental/pasap/index.shtml) which are now used by climate services in 15 partner countries in the Pacific for preparing seasonal climate outlooks. Initial comparison conducted during 2012 has shown that the

  17. Effects of Sting-Support Diameter on the Base Pressures of an Elliptic Cone at Mach Numbers from 0.60 to 1.40

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stivers, Louis S., Jr.; Levy, Lionel L., Jr.

    1961-01-01

    Measurements were made to determine the effects of sting-support diameter on the base pressures of an elliptic cone with ratio of cross-section thickness to width of 1/3 and a plan-form, semi-apex angle of 15 deg. The investigation was made for model angles of attack from -2 deg to +20 deg at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.40, and for a constant Reynolds number of 1.4 million, based on the length of the model. The results indicated that the sting interference decreased the base axial-force coefficients by substantial amounts up to a maximum of about one-third the value of the coefficient for no sting interference. There was no practical diameter of the sting for which the effects of the sting on the base pressures would be negligible throughout the Mach number and angle-of-attack ranges of the investigation.

  18. The Costs of Parental Pressure to Express Emotions: Conditional Regard and Autonomy Support as Predictors of Emotion Regulation and Intimacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Guy; Assor, Avi

    2012-01-01

    This research focuses on offspring's perceptions of their parents' usage of conditional regard and autonomy-supportive practices in response to the offspring's experiences of negative emotion. Participants were 174 college students (60% were females). As predicted from self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000), students' perceptions of parents…

  19. Social support buffering of the relation between low income and elevated blood pressure in at-risk African-American adults.

    PubMed

    Coulon, S M; Wilson, D K

    2015-10-01

    Socioeconomic disadvantage has been linked to elevated blood pressure (BP), and the purpose of this study was to assess whether interpersonal social supports buffer these adverse relations in African-American adults. In three communities matched demographically, a subsample of participants (N = 204) of the Positive Action for Today's Health trial provided measures of perceived social support, annual household income, and BP. Multiple regression analyses with cross-product interactions were conducted using follow-up data. The sample had a mean age of 52.8 years (SD = 15.1), and was predominantly female (66 %) with a high body mass index (M = 33.5, SD = 14.7). Results indicated an inverse relation between social support and diastolic BP (B = -.178, p = .005), and also an interaction with income (p = .046), such that higher social support related to lower diastolic BP in the lowest-income individuals (B = -1.05). The same direct (B = -.141, p = .025) and interacting (B = -1.42, p = .040) social support effects were present for systolic BP, however the omnibus model for systolic BP was not significant, F(6, 196) = 1.80, p = .09. The hypothesized buffering effect of social support on the adverse relation of income to BP was partially supported in at-risk African-American adults. Future prevention efforts for reducing the impact of socioeconomic stress on BP may aim to increase perceptions of social support. PMID:26156119

  20. Social support buffering of the relation between low income and elevated blood pressure in at-risk African-American adults.

    PubMed

    Coulon, S M; Wilson, D K

    2015-10-01

    Socioeconomic disadvantage has been linked to elevated blood pressure (BP), and the purpose of this study was to assess whether interpersonal social supports buffer these adverse relations in African-American adults. In three communities matched demographically, a subsample of participants (N = 204) of the Positive Action for Today's Health trial provided measures of perceived social support, annual household income, and BP. Multiple regression analyses with cross-product interactions were conducted using follow-up data. The sample had a mean age of 52.8 years (SD = 15.1), and was predominantly female (66 %) with a high body mass index (M = 33.5, SD = 14.7). Results indicated an inverse relation between social support and diastolic BP (B = -.178, p = .005), and also an interaction with income (p = .046), such that higher social support related to lower diastolic BP in the lowest-income individuals (B = -1.05). The same direct (B = -.141, p = .025) and interacting (B = -1.42, p = .040) social support effects were present for systolic BP, however the omnibus model for systolic BP was not significant, F(6, 196) = 1.80, p = .09. The hypothesized buffering effect of social support on the adverse relation of income to BP was partially supported in at-risk African-American adults. Future prevention efforts for reducing the impact of socioeconomic stress on BP may aim to increase perceptions of social support.

  1. 'Are you still on that stupid diet?': women's experiences of societal pressure and support regarding weight loss, and attitudes towards health policy intervention.

    PubMed

    Whale, Katie; Gillison, Fiona B; Smith, Paula C

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated how people's attitudes and motivations towards losing weight are influenced by societal pressures surrounding weight loss, their interaction with the obesogenic environment and individuals' attitudes and motivations towards weight. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 women currently attending commercial weight-loss programmes. Participants experienced conflicting messages regarding weight norms, with the media portraying powerful social norms relating to thinness and beauty, and changes to the food environment and interactions with family and friends commonly undermining weight-loss activities and promoting increased consumption. Providing social and environmental support for the behaviours needed to produce weight loss may need to be a primary focus for obesity policy.

  2. Leak test adapter for containers

    DOEpatents

    Hallett, Brian H.; Hartley, Michael S.

    1996-01-01

    An adapter is provided for facilitating the charging of containers and leak testing penetration areas. The adapter comprises an adapter body and stem which are secured to the container's penetration areas. The container is then pressurized with a tracer gas. Manipulating the adapter stem installs a penetration plug allowing the adapter to be removed and the penetration to be leak tested with a mass spectrometer. Additionally, a method is provided for using the adapter.

  3. Validation of indirect calorimetry for measurement of energy expenditure in healthy volunteers undergoing pressure controlled non-invasive ventilation support.

    PubMed

    Siirala, Waltteri; Noponen, Tommi; Olkkola, Klaus T; Vuori, Arno; Koivisto, Mari; Hurme, Saija; Aantaa, Riku

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this validation study was to assess the reliability of gas exchange measurement with indirect calorimetry among subjects who undergo non-invasive ventilation (NIV). Oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) were measured in twelve healthy volunteers. Respiratory quotient (RQ) and resting energy expenditure (REE) were then calculated from the measured VO2 and VCO2 values. During the measurement period the subjects were breathing spontaneously and ventilated using NIV. Two different sampling air flow values 40 and 80 l/min were used. The gas leakage from the measurement setup was assessed with a separate capnograph. The mean weight of the subjects was 93 kg. Their mean body mass index was 29 (range 22-40) kg/m2. There was no statistically significant difference in the measured values for VO2, VCO2, RQ and REE during NIV-supported breathing and spontaneous breathing. The change of sampling air flow had no statistically significant effect on any of the above parameters. We found that REE can be accurately measured with an indirect calorimeter also during NIV-supported breathing and the change of sampling air flow does not distort the gas exchange measurement. A higher sampling air flow in indirect calorimetry decreases the possibility for air leakages in the measurement system and increases the reliability of REE measurement. PMID:22207315

  4. Aerosol Formation from High-Pressure Sprays for Supporting the Safety Analysis for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Kurath, Dean E.; Daniel, Richard C.; Song, Chen

    2013-03-05

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at Hanford is being designed and built to pretreat and vitrify waste currently stored in underground tanks at Hanford. One of the postulated events in the hazard analysis for the WTP is a breach in process piping that produces a pressurized spray with small droplets that can be transported into ventilation systems. Literature correlations are currently used for estimating the generation rate and size distribution of aerosol droplets in postulated spray releases. These correlations, however, are based on results obtained from small engineered nozzles using Newtonian liquids that do not contain slurry particles and thus do not accurately represent the fluids and breaches in the WTP. A test program was developed to measure the generation rate of droplets suspended in a test chamber and droplet size distribution from a range of prototypic sprays. A novel test method was developed to allow measurement of sprays from small to very large breaches and also includes the effect of aerosol generation from splatter when the spray impacts on walls. Results show that the aerosol generation rate increases with increasing the orifice area, though with a weaker dependence on orifice area than the currently-used correlation. A comparison of water sprays to slurry sprays with 8 to 20 wt% gibbsite or boehmite particles shows that the presence of slurry particles depresses the release fraction compared to water for droplets above 10 μm and increases the release fraction below this droplet size.

  5. Capillary action-supported contactless atmospheric pressure ionization for the combined sampling and mass spectrometric analysis of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Cheng-Huan; Chang, Chia-Hsien; Urban, Pawel L; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2011-04-15

    It is proposed that a short tapered capillary can be utilized as a nanoliter-volume sampling tool and sample emitter for generation of gas-phase ions in front of the mass spectrometer, without the need for using an additional electric power supply, a gas supply, or a syringe pump. A wide range of molecules can be analyzed in pure solutions and complex matrixes (cell extract, urine, and plant tissue) with no or minimum sample preparation. Singly and multiply charged ions can be detected in either positive or negative-ion mode. Because of the nanoliter-volume sampling and low spectral background, the mass detection limit for bradykinin is in the low attomole range. Other advantages include simplicity, disposability, and low cost. The putative mechanism of the ion formation in this capillary-action supported contactless spray emitter is discussed.

  6. Automatic sampling and analysis of organics and biomolecules by capillary action-supported contactless atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Cheng-Huan; Meher, Anil Kumar; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2013-01-01

    Contactless atmospheric pressure ionization (C-API) method has been recently developed for mass spectrometric analysis. A tapered capillary is used as both the sampling tube and spray emitter in C-API. No electric contact is required on the capillary tip during C-API mass spectrometric analysis. The simple design of the ionization method enables the automation of the C-API sampling system. In this study, we propose an automatic C-API sampling system consisting of a capillary (∼1 cm), an aluminium sample holder, and a movable XY stage for the mass spectrometric analysis of organics and biomolecules. The aluminium sample holder is controlled by the movable XY stage. The outlet of the C-API capillary is placed in front of the orifice of a mass spectrometer, whereas the sample well on the sample holder is moved underneath the capillary inlet. The sample droplet on the well can be readily infused into the C-API capillary through capillary action. When the sample solution reaches the capillary outlet, the sample spray is readily formed in the proximity of the mass spectrometer applied with a high electric field. The gas phase ions generated from the spray can be readily monitored by the mass spectrometer. We demonstrate that six samples can be analyzed in sequence within 3.5 min using this automatic C-API MS setup. Furthermore, the well containing the rinsing solvent is alternately arranged between the sample wells. Therefore, the C-API capillary could be readily flushed between runs. No carryover problems are observed during the analyses. The sample volume required for the C-API MS analysis is minimal, with less than 1 nL of the sample solution being sufficient for analysis. The feasibility of using this setup for quantitative analysis is also demonstrated.

  7. Stroke patients and their attitudes toward mHealth monitoring to support blood pressure control and medication adherence

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Carolyn; Burkett, Nina-Sarena; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Mueller, Martina; Patel, Sachin; Brunner-Jackson, Brenda; Saulson, Raelle; Treiber, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobile health, or mHealth, has increasingly been signaled as an effective means to expedite communication and improve medical regimen adherence, especially for patients with chronic health conditions such as stroke. However, there is a lack of data on attitudes of stroke patients toward mHealth. Such information will aid in identifying key indicators for feasibility and optimal implementation of mHealth to prevent and/or decrease rates of secondary stroke. Our objective was to ascertain stroke patients’ attitudes toward using mobile phone enabled blood pressure (BP) monitoring and medication adherence and identify factors that modulate these attitudes. Methods Sixty stroke patients received a brief demonstration of mHealth devices to assist with BP control and medication adherence and a survey to evaluate willingness to use this technology. Results The 60 participants had a mean age of 57 years, were 43.3% male, and 53.3% were White. With respect to telecommunication prevalence, 93.3% owned a cellular device and 25% owned a smartphone. About 70% owned a working computer. Regarding attitudes, 85% felt comfortable with a doctor or nurse using mHealth technologies to monitor personal health information, 78.3% believed mHealth would help remind them to follow doctor’s directions, and 83.3% were confident that technology could effectively be used to communicate with health care providers for medical needs. Conclusions Mobile device use is high in stroke patients and they are amenable to mHealth for communication and assistance in adhering to their medical regimens. More research is needed to explore usefulness of this technology in larger stroke populations. PMID:27347490

  8. Automatic sampling and analysis of organics and biomolecules by capillary action-supported contactless atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Cheng-Huan; Meher, Anil Kumar; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2013-01-01

    Contactless atmospheric pressure ionization (C-API) method has been recently developed for mass spectrometric analysis. A tapered capillary is used as both the sampling tube and spray emitter in C-API. No electric contact is required on the capillary tip during C-API mass spectrometric analysis. The simple design of the ionization method enables the automation of the C-API sampling system. In this study, we propose an automatic C-API sampling system consisting of a capillary (∼1 cm), an aluminium sample holder, and a movable XY stage for the mass spectrometric analysis of organics and biomolecules. The aluminium sample holder is controlled by the movable XY stage. The outlet of the C-API capillary is placed in front of the orifice of a mass spectrometer, whereas the sample well on the sample holder is moved underneath the capillary inlet. The sample droplet on the well can be readily infused into the C-API capillary through capillary action. When the sample solution reaches the capillary outlet, the sample spray is readily formed in the proximity of the mass spectrometer applied with a high electric field. The gas phase ions generated from the spray can be readily monitored by the mass spectrometer. We demonstrate that six samples can be analyzed in sequence within 3.5 min using this automatic C-API MS setup. Furthermore, the well containing the rinsing solvent is alternately arranged between the sample wells. Therefore, the C-API capillary could be readily flushed between runs. No carryover problems are observed during the analyses. The sample volume required for the C-API MS analysis is minimal, with less than 1 nL of the sample solution being sufficient for analysis. The feasibility of using this setup for quantitative analysis is also demonstrated. PMID:23762484

  9. Development of Designer Diamond Anvils for High Pressure-High-Temperature Experiments in Support of the Stockpile Stewardship Program

    SciTech Connect

    Yogesh K. Vohra

    2005-05-12

    The focus of this program at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) is to develop the next generation of designer diamond anvils that can perform simultaneous joule heating and temperature profile measurements in a diamond anvil cell. A series of tungsten-rhenium thermocouples will be fabricated onto to the anvil and encapsulated by a chemical vapor deposited diamond layer to allow for a complete temperature profile measurement across the anvil. The tip of the diamond anvil will be engineered to reduce the thermal conductivity so that the tungsten-heating coils can be deposited on top of this layer. Several different approaches will be investigated to engineer the tip of the diamond anvil for reduction in thermal conductivity (a) isotopic mixture of 12C and 13C in the diamond layer, (b) doping of diamond with impurities (nitrogen and/or boron), and (c) growing diamond in a higher concentration of methane in hydrogen plasma. Under this academic alliance with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), PI and his graduate students will use the lithographic and diamond polishing facility at LLNL. This proposed next generation of designer diamond anvils will allow multi-tasking capability with the ability to measure electrical, magnetic, structural and thermal data on actinide materials with unparallel sensitivity in support of the stockpile stewardship program.

  10. Application of least square support vector machine and multivariate adaptive regression spline models in long term prediction of river water pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisi, Ozgur; Parmar, Kulwinder Singh

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the accuracy of least square support vector machine (LSSVM), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) and M5 model tree (M5Tree) in modeling river water pollution. Various combinations of water quality parameters, Free Ammonia (AMM), Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), Water Temperature (WT), Total Coliform (TC), Fecal Coliform (FC) and Potential of Hydrogen (pH) monitored at Nizamuddin, Delhi Yamuna River in India were used as inputs to the applied models. Results indicated that the LSSVM and MARS models had almost same accuracy and they performed better than the M5Tree model in modeling monthly chemical oxygen demand (COD). The average root mean square error (RMSE) of the LSSVM and M5Tree models was decreased by 1.47% and 19.1% using MARS model, respectively. Adding TC input to the models did not increase their accuracy in modeling COD while adding FC and pH inputs to the models generally decreased the accuracy. The overall results indicated that the MARS and LSSVM models could be successfully used in estimating monthly river water pollution level by using AMM, TKN and WT parameters as inputs.

  11. Modeling the Effects of Moisture-Related Skin-Support Friction on the Risk for Superficial Pressure Ulcers during Patient Repositioning in Bed.

    PubMed

    Shaked, Eliav; Gefen, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Patient repositioning when the skin is moist, e.g., due to sweat or urine may cause skin breakdown since wetness increases the skin-support coefficient of friction (COF) and hence also the shear stresses that are generated in the skin when the patient is being moved. This everyday hospital scenario was never studied systematically however. The aim of this study was to simulate such interactions using a biomechanical computational model which is the first of its kind, in order to quantitatively describe the effects of repositioning on the pathomechanics of moisture-related tissue damage. We designed a finite element model to analyze skin stresses under a weight-bearing bony prominence while this region of interest slides frictionally over the support surface, as occurs during repositioning. Our results show, expectedly, that maximal effective stresses in the skin increase as the moisture-contents-related COF between the skin and the mattress rises. Interestingly however, the rise in stresses for a wet interface became more prominent when the skin tissue was stiffer - which represented aging or diabetes. This finding demonstrates how the aged/diabetic skin is more fragile than a young-adult skin when repositioning in a moist environment. The modeling used herein can now be extended to test effects of different moisturizers, creams, lubricants, or possibly other interventions at the skin-support interface for testing their potential in protecting the skin from superficial pressure ulcers in a standard, objective, and quantitative manner.

  12. Restricted Complexity Framework for Nonlinear Adaptive Control in Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Rube B.

    2004-02-01

    Control law adaptation that includes implicit or explicit adaptive state estimation, can be a fundamental underpinning for the success of intelligent control in complex systems, particularly during subsystem failures, where vital system states and parameters can be impractical or impossible to measure directly. A practical algorithm is proposed for adaptive state filtering and control in nonlinear dynamic systems when the state equations are unknown or are too complex to model analytically. The state equations and inverse plant model are approximated by using neural networks. A framework for a neural network based nonlinear dynamic inversion control law is proposed, as an extrapolation of prior developed restricted complexity methodology used to formulate the adaptive state filter. Examples of adaptive filter performance are presented for an SSME simulation with high pressure turbine failure to support extrapolations to adaptive control problems.

  13. Restricted Complexity Framework for Nonlinear Adaptive Control in Complex Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Rube B.

    2004-02-04

    Control law adaptation that includes implicit or explicit adaptive state estimation, can be a fundamental underpinning for the success of intelligent control in complex systems, particularly during subsystem failures, where vital system states and parameters can be impractical or impossible to measure directly. A practical algorithm is proposed for adaptive state filtering and control in nonlinear dynamic systems when the state equations are unknown or are too complex to model analytically. The state equations and inverse plant model are approximated by using neural networks. A framework for a neural network based nonlinear dynamic inversion control law is proposed, as an extrapolation of prior developed restricted complexity methodology used to formulate the adaptive state filter. Examples of adaptive filter performance are presented for an SSME simulation with high pressure turbine failure to support extrapolations to adaptive control problems.

  14. Cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.; Watenpaugh, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews recent flight and ground-based studies of cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight. Prominent features of microgravity exposure include loss of gravitational pressures, relatively low venous pressures, headward fluid shifts, plasma volume loss, and postflight orthostatic intolerance and reduced exercise capacity. Many of these short-term responses to microgravity extend themselves during long-duration microgravity exposure and may be explained by altered pressures (blood and tissue) and fluid balance in local tissues nourished by the cardiovascular system. In this regard, it is particularly noteworthy that tissues of the lower body (e.g., foot) are well adapted to local hypertension on Earth, whereas tissues of the upper body (e.g., head) are not as well adapted to increase in local blood pressure. For these and other reasons, countermeasures for long-duration flight should include reestablishment of higher, Earth-like blood pressures in the lower body.

  15. 'Are you still on that stupid diet?': women's experiences of societal pressure and support regarding weight loss, and attitudes towards health policy intervention.

    PubMed

    Whale, Katie; Gillison, Fiona B; Smith, Paula C

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated how people's attitudes and motivations towards losing weight are influenced by societal pressures surrounding weight loss, their interaction with the obesogenic environment and individuals' attitudes and motivations towards weight. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 women currently attending commercial weight-loss programmes. Participants experienced conflicting messages regarding weight norms, with the media portraying powerful social norms relating to thinness and beauty, and changes to the food environment and interactions with family and friends commonly undermining weight-loss activities and promoting increased consumption. Providing social and environmental support for the behaviours needed to produce weight loss may need to be a primary focus for obesity policy. PMID:23928985

  16. An adaptive technique for multiscale approximate entropy (MAEbin) threshold (r) selection: application to heart rate variability (HRV) and systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV) under postural stress.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amritpal; Saini, Barjinder Singh; Singh, Dilbag

    2016-06-01

    Multiscale approximate entropy (MAE) is used to quantify the complexity of a time series as a function of time scale τ. Approximate entropy (ApEn) tolerance threshold selection 'r' is based on either: (1) arbitrary selection in the recommended range (0.1-0.25) times standard deviation of time series (2) or finding maximum ApEn (ApEnmax) i.e., the point where self-matches start to prevail over other matches and choosing the corresponding 'r' (rmax) as threshold (3) or computing rchon by empirically finding the relation between rmax, SD1/SD2 ratio and N using curve fitting, where, SD1 and SD2 are short-term and long-term variability of a time series respectively. None of these methods is gold standard for selection of 'r'. In our previous study [1], an adaptive procedure for selection of 'r' is proposed for approximate entropy (ApEn). In this paper, this is extended to multiple time scales using MAEbin and multiscale cross-MAEbin (XMAEbin). We applied this to simulations i.e. 50 realizations (n = 50) of random number series, fractional Brownian motion (fBm) and MIX (P) [1] series of data length of N = 300 and short term recordings of HRV and SBPV performed under postural stress from supine to standing. MAEbin and XMAEbin analysis was performed on laboratory recorded data of 50 healthy young subjects experiencing postural stress from supine to upright. The study showed that (i) ApEnbin of HRV is more than SBPV in supine position but is lower than SBPV in upright position (ii) ApEnbin of HRV decreases from supine i.e. 1.7324 ± 0.112 (mean ± SD) to upright 1.4916 ± 0.108 due to vagal inhibition (iii) ApEnbin of SBPV increases from supine i.e. 1.5535 ± 0.098 to upright i.e. 1.6241 ± 0.101 due sympathetic activation (iv) individual and cross complexities of RRi and systolic blood pressure (SBP) series depend on time scale under consideration (v) XMAEbin calculated using ApEnmax is correlated with cross-MAE calculated using ApEn (0.1-0.26) in steps of 0

  17. Post-Revolution Egypt: The Roy Adaptation Model in Community.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Britton S; Buckner, Ellen B

    2015-10-01

    The 2011 Arab Spring swept across the Middle East creating profound instability in Egypt, a country already challenged with poverty and internal pressures. To respond to this crisis, Catholic Relief Services led a community-based program called "Egypt Works" that included community improvement projects and psychosocial support. Following implementation, program outcomes were analyzed using the middle-range theory of adaptation to situational life events, based on the Roy adaptation model. The comprehensive, community-based approach facilitated adaptation, serving as a model for applying theory in post-crisis environments. PMID:26396214

  18. An observational cohort study to determine efficacy, adherence and outcome of the early initiation of pressure support ventilation during mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Glover, Guy; Connolly, Bronwen; Di Gangi, Stefania; Ayers, Lisa; Terblanche, Marius; Beale, Richard; Hart, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Background Timely initiation of weaning from mechanical ventilation (MV) is important. Non-validated screening criteria may delay weaning if too prescriptive. This study observed physician-led utilisation of pressure support ventilation (PSV), referenced to four reported conventional screening criteria hypothesising that these criteria would have delayed the weaning progress. Methods A prospective observational cohort study of adult patients receiving MV in a 30-bed university hospital intensive care unit (ICU). Logistic regression analysis identified factors associated with PSV failure. Outcome is reported according to adherence to the screening criteria. Results 209 patients were included (age 62.6±15.9 years, male:female 115:94, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II 16.7±6.1). Median (IQR) time to initiate PSV was 11.0 (5.0–22.0) h, and duration of weaning to extubation was 43.0 (13.0–121.5) h. PSV weaning was initiated despite significant hypoxia (partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2:FiO2) 35.8±15.9 kPa), moderate positive end-expiratory pressure levels (7.5±2.5 cm H2O), deep sedation (44% Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale (RASS) ≤−3) and cardiovascular instability (48.8%). At PSV initiation, 85% of patients violated at least one screening criterion, yet 74.6% of patients remained stable for 24 h and 25.4% of patients were successfully extubated within 12 h. There was no association between individual screening criteria and PSV failure. Failure to sustain a PSV trial was associated with ventilation >7 days (RR=2.12 (1.33 to 3.38), p=0.002) and ICU mortality (RR=2.94 (1.46 to 5.94), p=0.002). Conclusions Physician-led transition to PSV and weaning was often initiated early and successfully before patients fulfilled conventional screening criteria. Failure to sustain a PSV trial could be an early indicator of prolonged MV and ICU mortality and warrants further

  19. Bayesian integrated testing strategy (ITS) for skin sensitization potency assessment: a decision support system for quantitative weight of evidence and adaptive testing strategy.

    PubMed

    Jaworska, Joanna S; Natsch, Andreas; Ryan, Cindy; Strickland, Judy; Ashikaga, Takao; Miyazawa, Masaaki

    2015-12-01

    The presented Bayesian network Integrated Testing Strategy (ITS-3) for skin sensitization potency assessment is a decision support system for a risk assessor that provides quantitative weight of evidence, leading to a mechanistically interpretable potency hypothesis, and formulates adaptive testing strategy for a chemical. The system was constructed with an aim to improve precision and accuracy for predicting LLNA potency beyond ITS-2 (Jaworska et al., J Appl Toxicol 33(11):1353-1364, 2013) by improving representation of chemistry and biology. Among novel elements are corrections for bioavailability both in vivo and in vitro as well as consideration of the individual assays' applicability domains in the prediction process. In ITS-3 structure, three validated alternative assays, DPRA, KeratinoSens and h-CLAT, represent first three key events of the adverse outcome pathway for skin sensitization. The skin sensitization potency prediction is provided as a probability distribution over four potency classes. The probability distribution is converted to Bayes factors to: 1) remove prediction bias introduced by the training set potency distribution and 2) express uncertainty in a quantitative manner, allowing transparent and consistent criteria to accept a prediction. The novel ITS-3 database includes 207 chemicals with a full set of in vivo and in vitro data. The accuracy for predicting LLNA outcomes on the external test set (n = 60) was as follows: hazard (two classes)-100 %, GHS potency classification (three classes)-96 %, potency (four classes)-89 %. This work demonstrates that skin sensitization potency prediction based on data from three key events, and often less, is possible, reliable over broad chemical classes and ready for practical applications.

  20. A comparative study of artificial neural network, adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system and support vector machine for forecasting river flow in the semiarid mountain region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhibin; Wen, Xiaohu; Liu, Hu; Du, Jun

    2014-02-01

    Data driven models are very useful for river flow forecasting when the underlying physical relationships are not fully understand, but it is not clear whether these data driven models still have a good performance in the small river basin of semiarid mountain regions where have complicated topography. In this study, the potential of three different data driven methods, artificial neural network (ANN), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and support vector machine (SVM) were used for forecasting river flow in the semiarid mountain region, northwestern China. The models analyzed different combinations of antecedent river flow values and the appropriate input vector has been selected based on the analysis of residuals. The performance of the ANN, ANFIS and SVM models in training and validation sets are compared with the observed data. The model which consists of three antecedent values of flow has been selected as the best fit model for river flow forecasting. To get more accurate evaluation of the results of ANN, ANFIS and SVM models, the four quantitative standard statistical performance evaluation measures, the coefficient of correlation (R), root mean squared error (RMSE), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NS) and mean absolute relative error (MARE), were employed to evaluate the performances of various models developed. The results indicate that the performance obtained by ANN, ANFIS and SVM in terms of different evaluation criteria during the training and validation period does not vary substantially; the performance of the ANN, ANFIS and SVM models in river flow forecasting was satisfactory. A detailed comparison of the overall performance indicated that the SVM model performed better than ANN and ANFIS in river flow forecasting for the validation data sets. The results also suggest that ANN, ANFIS and SVM method can be successfully applied to establish river flow with complicated topography forecasting models in the semiarid mountain regions.

  1. Bayesian integrated testing strategy (ITS) for skin sensitization potency assessment: a decision support system for quantitative weight of evidence and adaptive testing strategy.

    PubMed

    Jaworska, Joanna S; Natsch, Andreas; Ryan, Cindy; Strickland, Judy; Ashikaga, Takao; Miyazawa, Masaaki

    2015-12-01

    The presented Bayesian network Integrated Testing Strategy (ITS-3) for skin sensitization potency assessment is a decision support system for a risk assessor that provides quantitative weight of evidence, leading to a mechanistically interpretable potency hypothesis, and formulates adaptive testing strategy for a chemical. The system was constructed with an aim to improve precision and accuracy for predicting LLNA potency beyond ITS-2 (Jaworska et al., J Appl Toxicol 33(11):1353-1364, 2013) by improving representation of chemistry and biology. Among novel elements are corrections for bioavailability both in vivo and in vitro as well as consideration of the individual assays' applicability domains in the prediction process. In ITS-3 structure, three validated alternative assays, DPRA, KeratinoSens and h-CLAT, represent first three key events of the adverse outcome pathway for skin sensitization. The skin sensitization potency prediction is provided as a probability distribution over four potency classes. The probability distribution is converted to Bayes factors to: 1) remove prediction bias introduced by the training set potency distribution and 2) express uncertainty in a quantitative manner, allowing transparent and consistent criteria to accept a prediction. The novel ITS-3 database includes 207 chemicals with a full set of in vivo and in vitro data. The accuracy for predicting LLNA outcomes on the external test set (n = 60) was as follows: hazard (two classes)-100 %, GHS potency classification (three classes)-96 %, potency (four classes)-89 %. This work demonstrates that skin sensitization potency prediction based on data from three key events, and often less, is possible, reliable over broad chemical classes and ready for practical applications. PMID:26612363

  2. Joint Applications Pilot of the National Climate Predictions and Projections Platform and the North Central Climate Science Center: Delivering climate projections on regional scales to support adaptation planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, A. J.; Ojima, D. S.; Morisette, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    The DOI North Central Climate Science Center (NC CSC) and the NOAA/NCAR National Climate Predictions and Projections (NCPP) Platform and have initiated a joint pilot study to collaboratively explore the "best available climate information" to support key land management questions and how to provide this information. NCPP's mission is to support state of the art approaches to develop and deliver comprehensive regional climate information and facilitate its use in decision making and adaptation planning. This presentation will describe the evolving joint pilot as a tangible, real-world demonstration of linkages between climate science, ecosystem science and resource management. Our joint pilot is developing a deliberate, ongoing interaction to prototype how NCPP will work with CSCs to develop and deliver needed climate information products, including translational information to support climate data understanding and use. This pilot also will build capacity in the North Central CSC by working with NCPP to use climate information used as input to ecological modeling. We will discuss lessons to date on developing and delivering needed climate information products based on this strategic partnership. Four projects have been funded to collaborate to incorporate climate information as part of an ecological modeling project, which in turn will address key DOI stakeholder priorities in the region: Riparian Corridors: Projecting climate change effects on cottonwood and willow seed dispersal phenology, flood timing, and seedling recruitment in western riparian forests. Sage Grouse & Habitats: Integrating climate and biological data into land management decision models to assess species and habitat vulnerability Grasslands & Forests: Projecting future effects of land management, natural disturbance, and CO2 on woody encroachment in the Northern Great Plains The value of climate information: Supporting management decisions in the Plains and Prairie Potholes LCC. NCCSC's role in

  3. The Adaptation of Four Year Undergraduate Colleges to Current Fiscal and Enrollment Pressures: An Exploration of Critical Event Cycles at Seventeen Campuses. ASHE 1983 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelstein, Martin; Farrar, David

    The results of analyzing institutional change profiles for 17 four-year undergraduate colleges are discussed. Using critical event cycles as a unit of analysis, attention was focused on distinctive patterns of institutional adaptation. Based on site visits, a list of 33 critical events at the 17 campuses was developed, from which 13 critical event…

  4. Estimation of breast percent density in raw and processed full field digital mammography images via adaptive fuzzy c-means clustering and support vector machine segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Brad M.; Nathan, Diane L.; Wang Yan; Zheng Yuanjie; Gee, James C.; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: The amount of fibroglandular tissue content in the breast as estimated mammographically, commonly referred to as breast percent density (PD%), is one of the most significant risk factors for developing breast cancer. Approaches to quantify breast density commonly focus on either semiautomated methods or visual assessment, both of which are highly subjective. Furthermore, most studies published to date investigating computer-aided assessment of breast PD% have been performed using digitized screen-film mammograms, while digital mammography is increasingly replacing screen-film mammography in breast cancer screening protocols. Digital mammography imaging generates two types of images for analysis, raw (i.e., 'FOR PROCESSING') and vendor postprocessed (i.e., 'FOR PRESENTATION'), of which postprocessed images are commonly used in clinical practice. Development of an algorithm which effectively estimates breast PD% in both raw and postprocessed digital mammography images would be beneficial in terms of direct clinical application and retrospective analysis. Methods: This work proposes a new algorithm for fully automated quantification of breast PD% based on adaptive multiclass fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering and support vector machine (SVM) classification, optimized for the imaging characteristics of both raw and processed digital mammography images as well as for individual patient and image characteristics. Our algorithm first delineates the breast region within the mammogram via an automated thresholding scheme to identify background air followed by a straight line Hough transform to extract the pectoral muscle region. The algorithm then applies adaptive FCM clustering based on an optimal number of clusters derived from image properties of the specific mammogram to subdivide the breast into regions of similar gray-level intensity. Finally, a SVM classifier is trained to identify which clusters within the breast tissue are likely fibroglandular, which are then

  5. A GIS-based Adaptive Management Decision Support System to Develop a Multi-Objective Framework: A case study utilizing GIS technologies and physically-based models to archieve improved decision making for site management.

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Andre M.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Lane, Leonard J.; Tagestad, Jerry D.; Roberts, Damon

    2008-06-26

    The notion of Adaptive Management (AM) allows for the realization and adjustment of management practices in response to elements of uncertainty. In terms of natural resource management, this will typically integrate monitoring, databases, simulation modeling, decision theory, and expert judgment to evaluate management alternatives and adapt them as necessary to continually improve the natural resource condition as defined by the stakeholders. Natural resource management scenarios can often be expressed, viewed, and understood as a spatial and temporal problem. The integration of Geographic Information System (GIS) technologies and physically-based models provide an effective state-of-the-art solution for deriving, understanding, and applying AM scenarios for land use and remediation. A recently developed GIS-based adaptive management decision support system is presented for the U.S. Department of Defense Yakima Training Center near Yakima, Washington.

  6. An atmospheric-pressure plasma-treated titanium surface potentially supports initial cell adhesion, growth, and differentiation of cultured human prenatal-derived osteoblastic cells.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Takaaki; Minbu, Hiromi; Kamiya, Mana; Oda, Masafumi; Hara, Toshiaki

    2014-08-01

    An atmospheric-pressure plasma (APP) treatment was recently reported to render titanium (Ti) surfaces more suitable for osteoblastic cell proliferation and osteogenesis. However, the mechanism of action remains to be clearly demonstrated. In this study, we focused on cell adhesion and examined the effects of the APP treatment on the initial responses of human prenatal-derived osteoblastic cells incubated on chemically polished commercially pure Ti (CP-cpTi) plates. In the medium containing 1% fetal bovine serum, the initial cell adhesion and the actin polymerization were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. The expression of cell adhesion-related molecules and osteoblast markers at the messenger RNA level was assessed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Although the cells on the APP-treated CP-cpTi surface developed fewer cytoskeletal actin fibers, they attached with higher affinity and consequently proliferated more actively (1.46-fold over control at 72 h). However, most of the cell adhesion molecule genes were significantly downregulated (from 40 to 85% of control) in the cells incubated on the APP-treated CP-cpTi surface at 24 h. Similarly, the osteoblast marker genes were significantly downregulated (from 49 to 63% of control) at 72 h. However, the osteoblast marker genes were drastically upregulated (from 197 to 296% of control) in these cells by dexamethasone and β-glycerophosphate treatment. These findings suggest that the APP treatment improves the ability of the CP-cpTi surface to support osteoblastic proliferation by enhancing the initial cell adhesion and supports osteoblastic differentiation when immature osteoblasts begin the differentiation process.

  7. Neutron radiation embrittlement studies in support of continued operation, and validation by sampling of Magnox reactor steel pressure vessels and components

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.B.; Bolton, C.J.

    1997-02-01

    Magnox steel reactor pressure vessels differ significantly from US LWR vessels in terms of the type of steel used, as well as their operating environment (dose level, exposure temperature range, and neutron spectra). The large diameter ferritic steel vessels are constructed from C-Mn steel plates and forgings joined together with manual metal and submerged-arc welds which are stress-relieved. All Magnox vessels are now at least thirty years old and their continued operation is being vigorously pursued. Vessel surveillance and other programmes are summarized which support this objective. The current understanding of the roles of matrix irradiation damage, irradiation-enhanced copper impurity precipitation and intergranular embrittlement effects is described in so far as these influence the form of the embrittlement and hardening trend curves for each material. An update is given on the influence of high temperature exposure, and on the role of differing neutron spectra. Finally, the validation offered by the results of an initial vessel sampling exercise is summarized together with the objectives of a more extensive future sampling programme.

  8. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference pressurized water reactor power station: Technical support for decommissioning matters related to preparation of the final decommissioning rule

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.; Smith, R.I.

    1988-07-01

    Preparation of the final Decommissioning Rule by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has been assisted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff familiar with decommissioning matters. These efforts have included updating previous cost estimates developed during the series of studies on conceptually decommissioning reference licensed nuclear facilities for inclusion in the Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement (FGEIS) on decommissioning; documenting the cost updates; evaluating the cost and dose impacts of post-TMI-2 backfits on decommissioning; developing a revised scaling formula for estimating decommissioning costs for reactor plants different in size from the reference pressurized water reactor (PWR) described in the earlier study; defining a formula for adjusting current cost estimates to reflect future escalation in labor, materials, and waste disposal costs; and completing a study of recent PWR steam generator replacements to determine realistic estimates for time, costs and doses associated with steam generator removal during decommissioning. This report presents the results of recent PNL studies to provide supporting information in four areas concerning decommissioning of the reference PWR: updating the previous cost estimates to January 1986 dollars; assessing the cost and dose impacts of post-TMI-2 backfits; assessing the cost and dose impacts of recent steam generator replacements; and developing a scaling formula for plants different in size than the reference plant and an escalation formula for adjusting current cost estimates for future escalation.

  9. Forest climate change Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment in Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitale, V. S.; Shrestha, H. L.; Agarwal, N. K.; Choudhurya, D.; Gilani, H.; Dhonju, H. K.; Murthy, M. S. R.

    2014-11-01

    Forests offer an important basis for creating and safeguarding more climate-resilient communities over Hindu Kush Himalayan region. The forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment to climate change and developing knowledge base to identify and support relevant adaptation strategies is realized as an urgent need. The multi scale adaptation strategies portray increasing complexity with the increasing levels in terms of data requirements, vulnerability understanding and decision making to choose a particular adaptation strategy. We present here how such complexities could be addressed and adaptation decisions could be either directly supported by open source remote sensing based forestry products or geospatial analysis and modelled products. The forest vulnerability assessment under climate change scenario coupled with increasing forest social dependence was studied using IPCC Landscape scale Vulnerability framework in Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape (CHAL) situated in Nepal. Around twenty layers of geospatial information on climate, forest biophysical and forest social dependence data was used to assess forest vulnerability and associated adaptation needs using self-learning decision tree based approaches. The increase in forest fires, evapotranspiration and reduction in productivity over changing climate scenario was observed. The adaptation measures on enhancing productivity, improving resilience, reducing or avoiding pressure with spatial specificity are identified to support suitable decision making. The study provides spatial analytical framework to evaluate multitude of parameters to understand vulnerabilities and assess scope for alternative adaptation strategies with spatial explicitness.

  10. Using an Adaptive Expertise Lens to Understand the Quality of Teachers' Classroom Implementation of Computer-Supported Complex Systems Curricula in High School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Susan A.; Koehler-Yom, Jessica; Anderson, Emma; Lin, Joyce; Klopfer, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background: This exploratory study is part of a larger-scale research project aimed at building theoretical and practical knowledge of complex systems in students and teachers with the goal of improving high school biology learning through professional development and a classroom intervention. Purpose: We propose a model of adaptive expertise to…

  11. Evidence of Convergent Evolution in Humans and Macaques Supports an Adaptive Role for Copy Number Variation of the β-Defensin-2 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ottolini, Barbara; Hornsby, Michael J.; Abujaber, Razan; MacArthur, Jacqueline A.L.; Badge, Richard M.; Schwarzacher, Trude; Albertson, Donna G.; Bevins, Charles L.; Solnick, Jay V.; Hollox, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    β-defensins are a family of important peptides of innate immunity, involved in host defense, immunomodulation, reproduction, and pigmentation. Genes encoding β-defensins show evidence of birth-and-death evolution, adaptation by amino acid sequence changes, and extensive copy number variation (CNV) within humans and other species. The role of CNV in the adaptation of β-defensins to new functions remains unclear, as does the adaptive role of CNV in general. Here, we fine-map CNV of a cluster of β-defensins in humans and rhesus macaques. Remarkably, we found that the structure of the CNV is different between primates, with distinct mutational origins and CNV boundaries defined by retroviral long terminal repeat elements. Although the human β-defensin CNV region is 322 kb and encompasses several genes, including β-defensins, a long noncoding RNA gene, and testes-specific zinc-finger transcription factors, the orthologous region in the rhesus macaque shows CNV of a 20-kb region, containing only a single gene, the ortholog of the human β-defensin-2 gene. Despite its independent origins, the range of gene copy numbers in the rhesus macaque is similar to humans. In addition, the rhesus macaque gene has been subject to divergent positive selection at the amino acid level following its initial duplication event between 3 and 9.5 Ma, suggesting adaptation of this gene as the macaque successfully colonized novel environments outside Africa. Therefore, the molecular phenotype of β-defensin-2 CNV has undergone convergent evolution, and this gene shows evidence of adaptation at the amino acid level in rhesus macaques. PMID:25349268

  12. Evidence of convergent evolution in humans and macaques supports an adaptive role for copy number variation of the β-defensin-2 gene.

    PubMed

    Ottolini, Barbara; Hornsby, Michael J; Abujaber, Razan; MacArthur, Jacqueline A L; Badge, Richard M; Schwarzacher, Trude; Albertson, Donna G; Bevins, Charles L; Solnick, Jay V; Hollox, Edward J

    2014-01-01

    β-defensins are a family of important peptides of innate immunity, involved in host defense, immunomodulation, reproduction, and pigmentation. Genes encoding β-defensins show evidence of birth-and-death evolution, adaptation by amino acid sequence changes, and extensive copy number variation (CNV) within humans and other species. The role of CNV in the adaptation of β-defensins to new functions remains unclear, as does the adaptive role of CNV in general. Here, we fine-map CNV of a cluster of β-defensins in humans and rhesus macaques. Remarkably, we found that the structure of the CNV is different between primates, with distinct mutational origins and CNV boundaries defined by retroviral long terminal repeat elements. Although the human β-defensin CNV region is 322 kb and encompasses several genes, including β-defensins, a long noncoding RNA gene, and testes-specific zinc-finger transcription factors, the orthologous region in the rhesus macaque shows CNV of a 20-kb region, containing only a single gene, the ortholog of the human β-defensin-2 gene. Despite its independent origins, the range of gene copy numbers in the rhesus macaque is similar to humans. In addition, the rhesus macaque gene has been subject to divergent positive selection at the amino acid level following its initial duplication event between 3 and 9.5 Ma, suggesting adaptation of this gene as the macaque successfully colonized novel environments outside Africa. Therefore, the molecular phenotype of β-defensin-2 CNV has undergone convergent evolution, and this gene shows evidence of adaptation at the amino acid level in rhesus macaques. PMID:25349268

  13. Adaptation Driven by Spatial Heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermsen, Rutger

    2011-03-01

    Biological evolution and ecology are intimately linked, because the reproductive success or ``fitness'' of an organism depends crucially on its ecosystem. Yet, most models of evolution (or population genetics) consider homogeneous, fixed-size populations subjected to a constant selection pressure. To move one step beyond such ``mean field'' descriptions, we discuss stochastic models of evolution driven by spatial heterogeneity. We imagine a population whose range is limited by a spatially varying environmental parameter, such as a temperature or the concentration of an antibiotic drug. Individuals in the population replicate, die and migrate stochastically. Also, by mutation, they can adapt to the environmental stress and expand their range. This way, adaptation and niche expansion go hand in hand. This mode of evolution is qualitatively different from the usual notion of a population climbing a fitness gradient. We analytically calculate the rate of adaptation by solving a first passage time problem. Interestingly, the joint effects of reproduction, death, mutation and migration result in two distinct parameter regimes depending on the relative time scales of mutation and migration. We argue that the proposed scenario may be relevant for the rapid evolution of antibiotic resistance. This work was supported by the Center for Theoretical Biological Physics sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF) (Grant PHY-0822283).

  14. Synthesizing within-host and population-level selective pressures on viral populations: the impact of adaptive immunity on viral immune escape

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Igor; Pepin, Kim M.; Lloyd-Smith, James O.; Banavar, Jayanth R.; Grenfell, Bryan T.

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of viruses to escape prevailing host immunity involves selection at multiple integrative scales, from within-host viral and immune kinetics to the host population level. In order to understand how viral immune escape occurs, we develop an analytical framework that links the dynamical nature of immunity and viral variation across these scales. Our epidemiological model incorporates within-host viral evolutionary dynamics for a virus that causes acute infections (e.g. influenza and norovirus) with changes in host immunity in response to genetic changes in the virus population. We use a deterministic description of the within-host replication dynamics of the virus, the pool of susceptible host cells and the host adaptive immune response. We find that viral immune escape is most effective at intermediate values of immune strength. At very low levels of immunity, selection is too weak to drive immune escape in recovered hosts, while very high levels of immunity impose such strong selection that viral subpopulations go extinct before acquiring enough genetic diversity to escape host immunity. This result echoes the predictions of simpler models, but our formulation allows us to dissect the combination of within-host and transmission-level processes that drive immune escape. PMID:20335194

  15. Inter-Module Ventilation Changes to the International Space Station Vehicle to Support Integration of the International Docking Adapter and Commercial Crew Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Balistreri, Steven F., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) is continuing to evolve in the post-Space Shuttle era. The ISS vehicle configuration that is in operation was designed for docking of a Space Shuttle vehicle, and designs currently under development for commercial crew vehicles require different interfaces. The ECLSS Temperature and Humidity Control Subsystem (THC) Inter-Module Ventilation (IMV) must be modified in order to support two docking interfaces at the forward end of ISS, to provide the required air exchange. Development of a new higher-speed IMV fan and extensive ducting modifications are underway to support the new Commercial Crew Vehicle interfaces. This paper will review the new ECLSS IMV development requirements, component design and hardware status, subsystem analysis and testing performed to date, and implementation plan to support Commercial Crew Vehicle docking.

  16. Adaptivity in ProPer: An Adaptive SCORM Compliant LMS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanidis, Ioannis; Satratzemi, Maya

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive Educational Hypermedia Systems provide personalized educational content to learners. However most of them do not support the functionality of Learning Management Systems (LMS) and the reusability of their courses is hard work. On the other hand some LMS support SCORM specifications but do not provide adaptive features. This article…

  17. Seasonal Prediction of Hydro-Climatic Extremes in the Greater Horn of Africa Under Evolving Climate Conditions to Support Adaptation Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadesse, T.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Habib, S.; Funk, C. C.; Senay, G. B.; Dinku, T.; Policelli, F. S.; Block, P.; Baigorria, G. A.; Beyene, S.; Wardlow, B.; Hayes, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The development of effective strategies to adapt to changes in the character of droughts and floods in Africa will rely on improved seasonal prediction systems that are robust to an evolving climate baseline and can be integrated into disaster preparedness and response. Many efforts have been made to build models to improve seasonal forecasts in the Greater Horn of Africa region (GHA) using satellite and climate data, but these efforts and models must be improved and translated into future conditions under evolving climate conditions. This has considerable social significance, but is challenged by the nature of climate predictability and the adaptability of coupled natural and human systems facing exposure to climate extremes. To address these issues, work is in progress under a project funded by NASA. The objectives of the project include: 1) Characterize and explain large-scale drivers in the ocean-atmosphere-land system associated with years of extreme flood or drought in the GHA. 2) Evaluate the performance of state-of-the-art seasonal forecast methods for prediction of decision-relevant metrics of hydrologic extremes. 3) Apply seasonal forecast systems to prediction of socially relevant impacts on crops, flood risk, and economic outcomes, and assess the value of these predictions to decision makers. 4) Evaluate the robustness of seasonal prediction systems to evolving climate conditions. The National Drought Mitigation Center (University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA) is leading this project in collaboration with the USGS, Johns Hopkins University, University of Wisconsin-Madison, the International Research Institute for Climate and Society, NASA, and GHA local experts. The project is also designed to have active engagement of end users in various sectors, university researchers, and extension agents in GHA through workshops and/or webinars. This project is expected improve and implement new and existing climate- and remote sensing-based agricultural

  18. Advanced Adaptive Optics Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S

    2001-09-18

    The NSF Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) is supporting research on advanced adaptive optics technologies. CfAO research activities include development and characterization of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) deformable mirror (DM) technology, as well as development and characterization of high-resolution adaptive optics systems using liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulator (SLM) technology. This paper presents an overview of the CfAO advanced adaptive optics technology development activities including current status and future plans.

  19. Insights in public health: Building support for an evidence-based teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection prevention program adapted for foster youth.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tamara; Clark, Judith F; Nigg, Claudio R

    2015-01-01

    Hawai'i Youth Services Network (HYSN) was founded in 1980 and is incorporated as a 501(c) (3) organization. HYSN plays a key role in the planning, creation, and funding of local youth services. One of HYSN's focuses is teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevention among foster youth. Foster youth are at a greater risk for teen pregnancy and STI due to a variety of complex factors including instability, trauma, and emancipation from the foster care system. This article highlights how HYSN is leveraging both federal and local funding, as well as other resources, in order to implement an evidence-based teen pregnancy and STI prevention program adapted for foster youth.

  20. The Effect of an Adaptive Online Learning Support in an Undergraduate Computer Course: An Exploration of Self-Regulation in Blended Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Chia-Yin

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with Zimmerman's self-regulated learning model, the proposed online learning tool in the current study was designed to support students in learning a challenging subject. The Self-Check List, Formative Self-Assessment, and Structured Online Discussion served goal-setting, self-monitoring, and self-reflective purposes. The…

  1. Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Self-Efficacy/Social Support for Activity for Persons with Intellectual Disability Scale (SE/SS-AID) in a Spanish Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio Ignacio; Paz-Lourido, Berta; Lee, Miyoung; Peterson-Besse, Jana J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In this study we aimed to develop a Spanish version of the Self-Efficacy/Social Support Scales for Activity for persons with Intellectual Disability (SE/SS-AID). Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 117 individuals with intellectual disability (ID). The SE/SS-AID scales were translated into Spanish and their…

  2. Science to support adaptive habitat management: Overton Bottoms North Unit, Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge, Missouri [Volumes 1-6

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    Extensive efforts are underway along the Lower Missouri River to rehabilitate ecosystem functions in the channel and flood plain. Considerable uncertainty inevitably accompanies ecosystem restoration efforts, indicating the benefits of an adaptive management approach in which management actions are treated as experiments, and results provide information to feed back into the management process. The Overton Bottoms North Unit of the Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge is a part of the Missouri River Fish and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation Project. The dominant management action at the Overton Bottoms North Unit has been excavation of a side-channel chute to increase hydrologic connectivity and to enhance shallow, slow current-velocity habitat. The side-channel chute also promises to increase hydrologic gradients, and may serve to alter patterns of wetland inundation and vegetation community growth in undesired ways. The U.S. Geological Survey's Central Region Integrated Studies Program (CRISP) undertook interdisciplinary research at the Overton Bottoms North Unit in 2003 to address key areas of scientific uncertainty that were highly relevant to ongoing adaptive management of the site, and to the design of similar rehabilitation projects on the Lower Missouri River. This volume presents chapters documenting the surficial geologic, topographic, surface-water, and ground-water framework of the Overton Bottoms North Unit. Retrospective analysis of vegetation community trends over the last 10 years is used to evaluate vegetation responses to reconnection of the Overton Bottoms North Unit to the river channel. Quasi-experimental analysis of cottonwood growth rate variation along hydrologic gradients is used to evaluate sensitivity of terrestrial vegetation to development of aquatic habitats. The integrated, landscape-specific understanding derived from these studies illustrates the value of scientific information in design and management of rehabilitation projects.

  3. Evolution of adaptation mechanisms: Adaptation energy, stress, and oscillating death.

    PubMed

    Gorban, Alexander N; Tyukina, Tatiana A; Smirnova, Elena V; Pokidysheva, Lyudmila I

    2016-09-21

    In 1938, Selye proposed the notion of adaptation energy and published 'Experimental evidence supporting the conception of adaptation energy.' Adaptation of an animal to different factors appears as the spending of one resource. Adaptation energy is a hypothetical extensive quantity spent for adaptation. This term causes much debate when one takes it literally, as a physical quantity, i.e. a sort of energy. The controversial points of view impede the systematic use of the notion of adaptation energy despite experimental evidence. Nevertheless, the response to many harmful factors often has general non-specific form and we suggest that the mechanisms of physiological adaptation admit a very general and nonspecific description. We aim to demonstrate that Selye׳s adaptation energy is the cornerstone of the top-down approach to modelling of non-specific adaptation processes. We analyze Selye׳s axioms of adaptation energy together with Goldstone׳s modifications and propose a series of models for interpretation of these axioms. Adaptation energy is considered as an internal coordinate on the 'dominant path' in the model of adaptation. The phenomena of 'oscillating death' and 'oscillating remission' are predicted on the base of the dynamical models of adaptation. Natural selection plays a key role in the evolution of mechanisms of physiological adaptation. We use the fitness optimization approach to study of the distribution of resources for neutralization of harmful factors, during adaptation to a multifactor environment, and analyze the optimal strategies for different systems of factors.

  4. Quantifying the Adaptive Cycle.

    PubMed

    Angeler, David G; Allen, Craig R; Garmestani, Ahjond S; Gunderson, Lance H; Hjerne, Olle; Winder, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994-2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems. PMID:26716453

  5. Quantifying the adaptive cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Hjerne, Olle; Winder, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994–2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  6. Quantifying the Adaptive Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Hjerne, Olle; Winder, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994–2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems. PMID:26716453

  7. Adaptive Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive managem...

  8. A clade in the QUASIMODO2 family evolved with vascular plants and supports a role for cell wall composition in adaptation to environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Sara; Pires, Nuno; Østergaard, Lars

    2010-08-01

    The evolution of plant vascular tissue is tightly linked to the evolution of specialised cell walls. Mutations in the QUASIMODO2 (QUA2) gene from Arabidopsis thaliana were previously shown to result in cell adhesion defects due to reduced levels of the cell wall component homogalacturonic acid. In this study, we provide additional information about the role of QUA2 and its closest paralogues, QUASIMODO2 LIKE1 (QUL1) and QUL2. Within the extensive QUA2 family, our phylogenetic analysis shows that these three genes form a clade that evolved with vascular plants. Consistent with a possible role of this clade in vasculature development, QUA2 is highly expressed in the vascular tissue of embryos and inflorescence stems and overexpression of QUA2 resulted in temperature-sensitive xylem collapse. Moreover, in-depth characterisation of qua2 qul1 qul2 triple mutant and 35S::QUA2 overexpression plants revealed contrasting temperature-dependent stem development with dramatic effects on stem width. Taken together, our results suggest that the QUA2-specific clade contributed to the evolution of vasculature and illustrate the important role that modification of cell wall composition plays in the adaptation to changing environmental conditions, including changes in temperature.

  9. Variation in photosynthetic performance and hydraulic architecture across European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations supports the case for local adaptation to water stress.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Ismael; Cano, Francisco Javier; Gascó, Antonio; Cochard, Hervé; Nardini, Andrea; Mancha, Jose Antonio; López, Rosana; Sánchez-Gómez, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide new insights into how intraspecific variability in the response of key functional traits to drought dictates the interplay between gas-exchange parameters and the hydraulic architecture of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Considering the relationships between hydraulic and leaf functional traits, we tested whether local adaptation to water stress occurs in this species. To address these objectives, we conducted a glasshouse experiment in which 2-year-old saplings from six beech populations were subjected to different watering treatments. These populations encompassed central and marginal areas of the range, with variation in macro- and microclimatic water availability. The results highlight subtle but significant differences among populations in their functional response to drought. Interpopulation differences in hydraulic traits suggest that vulnerability to cavitation is higher in populations with higher sensitivity to drought. However, there was no clear relationship between variables related to hydraulic efficiency, such as xylem-specific hydraulic conductivity or stomatal conductance, and those that reflect resistance to xylem cavitation (i.e., Ψ(12), the water potential corresponding to a 12% loss of stem hydraulic conductivity). The results suggest that while a trade-off between photosynthetic capacity at the leaf level and hydraulic function of xylem could be established across populations, it functions independently of the compromise between safety and efficiency of the hydraulic system with regard to water use at the interpopulation level.

  10. Fireplace adapters

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, R.L.

    1983-12-27

    An adapter is disclosed for use with a fireplace. The stove pipe of a stove standing in a room to be heated may be connected to the flue of the chimney so that products of combustion from the stove may be safely exhausted through the flue and outwardly of the chimney. The adapter may be easily installed within the fireplace by removing the damper plate and fitting the adapter to the damper frame. Each of a pair of bolts has a portion which hooks over a portion of the damper frame and a threaded end depending from the hook portion and extending through a hole in the adapter. Nuts are threaded on the bolts and are adapted to force the adapter into a tight fit with the adapter frame.

  11. A North American H7N3 Influenza Virus Supports Reassortment with 2009 Pandemic H1N1 and Induces Disease in Mice without Prior Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Graham D.; Pinto, Amelia K.; Doll, Brittany

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reassortment between H5 or H9 subtype avian and mammalian influenza A viruses (IAV) can generate a novel virus that causes disease and transmits between mammals. Such information is currently not available for H7 subtype viruses. We evaluated the ability of a low-pathogenicity North American avian H7N3 virus (A/shorebird/Delaware/22/2006) to reassort with mammalian or avian viruses using a plasmid-based competition assay. In addition to genome segments derived from an avian H7N9 virus, the H7N3 virus reassorted efficiently with the PB2, NA, and M segments from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (PH1N1) virus. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the H7N3:PH1N1 (7 + 1) reassortant viruses revealed that the PB2, NA, or M segments from PH1N1 largely do not attenuate the H7N3 virus, whereas the PB1, PA, NP, or NS genome segments from PH1N1 do. Additionally, we assessed the functionality of the H7N3:PH1N1 7 + 1 reassortant viruses by measuring the inflammatory response in vivo. We found that infection with wild-type H7N3 resulted in increased inflammatory cytokine production relative to that seen with the PH1N1 strain and that the increase was further exacerbated by substitution of PH1N1 PB2 but not NA or M. Finally, we assessed if any adaptations occurred in the individually substituted segments after in vivo inoculation and found no mutations, suggesting that PH1N1 PB2, NA, and M are genetically stable in the background of this H7N3 virus. Taking the data together, we demonstrate that a North American avian H7N3 IAV is genetically and functionally compatible with multiple gene segments from the 2009 pandemic influenza virus strain without prior adaptation. IMPORTANCE The 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus continues to circulate and reassort with other influenza viruses, creating novel viruses with increased replication and transmission potential in humans. Previous studies have found that this virus can also reassort with H5N1 and H9N2 avian influenza viruses. We now show that

  12. 2-DE proteomics analysis of drought treated seedlings of Quercus ilex supports a root active strategy for metabolic adaptation in response to water shortage

    PubMed Central

    Simova-Stoilova, Lyudmila P.; Romero-Rodríguez, Maria C.; Sánchez-Lucas, Rosa; Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael M.; Medina-Aunon, J. Alberto; Jorrín-Novo, Jesús V.

    2015-01-01

    Holm oak is a dominant tree in the western Mediterranean region. Despite being well adapted to dry hot climate, drought is the main cause of mortality post-transplanting in reforestation programs. An active response to drought is critical for tree establishment and survival. Applying a gel-based proteomic approach, dynamic changes in root proteins of drought treated Quercus ilex subsp. Ballota [Desf.] Samp. seedlings were followed. Water stress was applied on 20 day-old holm oak plantlets by water limitation for a period of 10 and 20 days, each followed by 10 days of recovery. Stress was monitored by changes in water status, plant growth, and electrolyte leakage. Contrary to leaves, holm oak roots responded readily to water shortage at physiological level by growth inhibition, changes in water status and membrane stability. Root proteins were extracted using trichloroacetate/acetone/phenol protocol and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Coomassie colloidal stained gel images were analyzed and spot intensity data subjected to multivariate statistical analysis. Selected consistent spots in three biological replicas, presenting significant changes under stress, were subjected to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (peptide mass fingerprinting and MS/MS). For protein identification, combined search was performed with MASCOT search engine over NCBInr Viridiplantae and Uniprot databases. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002484. Identified proteins were classified into functional groups: metabolism, protein biosynthesis and proteolysis, defense against biotic stress, cellular protection against abiotic stress, intracellular transport. Several enzymes of the carbohydrate metabolism decreased in abundance in roots under drought stress while some related to ATP synthesis and secondary metabolism increased. Results point at active metabolic adjustment and mobilization of the defense system in roots to actively counteract drought stress. PMID

  13. 2-DE proteomics analysis of drought treated seedlings of Quercus ilex supports a root active strategy for metabolic adaptation in response to water shortage.

    PubMed

    Simova-Stoilova, Lyudmila P; Romero-Rodríguez, Maria C; Sánchez-Lucas, Rosa; Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael M; Medina-Aunon, J Alberto; Jorrín-Novo, Jesús V

    2015-01-01

    Holm oak is a dominant tree in the western Mediterranean region. Despite being well adapted to dry hot climate, drought is the main cause of mortality post-transplanting in reforestation programs. An active response to drought is critical for tree establishment and survival. Applying a gel-based proteomic approach, dynamic changes in root proteins of drought treated Quercus ilex subsp. Ballota [Desf.] Samp. seedlings were followed. Water stress was applied on 20 day-old holm oak plantlets by water limitation for a period of 10 and 20 days, each followed by 10 days of recovery. Stress was monitored by changes in water status, plant growth, and electrolyte leakage. Contrary to leaves, holm oak roots responded readily to water shortage at physiological level by growth inhibition, changes in water status and membrane stability. Root proteins were extracted using trichloroacetate/acetone/phenol protocol and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Coomassie colloidal stained gel images were analyzed and spot intensity data subjected to multivariate statistical analysis. Selected consistent spots in three biological replicas, presenting significant changes under stress, were subjected to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (peptide mass fingerprinting and MS/MS). For protein identification, combined search was performed with MASCOT search engine over NCBInr Viridiplantae and Uniprot databases. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002484. Identified proteins were classified into functional groups: metabolism, protein biosynthesis and proteolysis, defense against biotic stress, cellular protection against abiotic stress, intracellular transport. Several enzymes of the carbohydrate metabolism decreased in abundance in roots under drought stress while some related to ATP synthesis and secondary metabolism increased. Results point at active metabolic adjustment and mobilization of the defense system in roots to actively counteract drought stress. PMID

  14. Colocalization of Inflammatory Response with B7-H1 Expression in Human Melanocytic Lesions Supports an Adaptive Resistance Mechanism of Immune Escape

    PubMed Central

    Taube, Janis M.; Anders, Robert A.; Young, Geoffrey D.; Xu, Haiying; Sharma, Rajni; McMiller, Tracee L.; Chen, Shuming; Klein, Alison P.; Pardoll, Drew M.; Topalian, Suzanne L.; Chen, Lieping

    2013-01-01

    Although many human cancers such as melanoma express tumor antigens recognized by T cells, host immune responses often fail to control tumor growth for as yet unexplained reasons. Here, we found a strong association between melanocyte expression of B7-H1 (PD-L1), an immune-inhibitory molecule, and the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in human melanocytic lesions: 98% of B7-H1+ tumors were associated with TILs compared with only 28% of B7-H1− tumors. Indeed, B7-H1+ melanocytes were almost always localized immediately adjacent to TILs. B7-H1/TIL colocalization was identified not only in melanomas but also in inflamed benign nevi, indicating that B7-H1 expression may represent a host response to tissue inflammation. Interferon-γ, a primary inducer of B7-H1 expression, was detected at the interface of B7-H1+ tumors and TILs, whereas none was found in B7-H1− tumors. Therefore, TILs may actually trigger their own inhibition by secreting cytokines that drive tumor B7-H1 expression. Consistent with this hypothesis, overall survival of patients with B7-H1+ metastatic melanoma was significantly prolonged compared with that of patients with B7-H1− metastatic melanoma. Therefore, induction of the B7-H1/PD-1 pathway may represent an adaptive immune resistance mechanism exerted by tumor cells in response to endogenous antitumor activity and may explain how melanomas escape immune destruction despite endogenous antitumor immune responses. These observations suggest that therapies that block this pathway may benefit patients with B7-H1+ tumors. PMID:22461641

  15. Shock experiments in support of the Lithopanspermia theory: The influence of host rock composition, temperature, and shock pressure on the survival rate of endolithic and epilithic microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Cornelia; Fritz, Jörg; Misgaiski, Martin; Stäffler, Dieter; Artemieva, Natalia A.; Hornemann, Ulrich; Moeller, Ralf; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Cockell, Charles; Horneck, Gerda; Ott, Sieglinde; Rabbow, Elke

    2011-05-01

    Shock recovery experiments were performed with an explosive set-up in which three types of microorganisms embedded in various types of host rocks were exposed to strong shock waves with pressure pulse lengths of lower than 0.5 μs: spores of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis, Xanthoria elegans lichens, and cells of the cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis sp. 029. In these experiments, three fundamental parameters were systematically varied (1) shock pressures ranging from 5 to 50 GPa, (2) preshock ambient temperature of 293, 233 and 193 K, and (3) the type of host rock, including nonporous igneous rocks (gabbro and dunite as analogs for the Martian shergottites and chassignites, respectively), porous sandstone, rock salt (halite), and a clay-rich mineral mixture as porous analogs for dry and water-saturated Martian regolith. The results show that the three parameters have a strong influence on the survival rates of the microorganisms. The most favorable conditions for the impact ejection from Mars for microorganisms would be (1) low porosity host rocks, (2) pressures <10-20 GPa, and (3) low ambient temperature of target rocks during impact. All tested microorganisms were capable of surviving to a certain extent impact ejection in different geological materials under distinct conditions.

  16. Pressure pulse detection apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Claycomb, J.R.

    1981-04-14

    A pressure pulse detection apparatus is disclosed which is adapted to receive small signals from downhole measuring while drilling apparatus which signals are propogated as pressure pulses traveling upstream in a column of drilling mud, which signals are obscured by mud pump pressure and velocity variations traveling downstream and which are significantly larger. The preferred embodiment incorporates a transient pressure transducer and an ultrasonic fluid velocity detector, the two forming output signals which are conditioned, amplified and offset against one another. They cancel (When properly calibrated) so that pressure and velocity variations from the mud pump upstream are nulled to zero. They reinforce so that pressure and velocity variations from the downhole signal generator are enhanced, thereby forming an output signal of downhole variations of interest.

  17. Blood pressure

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... called diastole. Normal blood pressure is considered to be a systolic blood pressure of 115 millimeters of ... pressure reading of 140 over 90, he would be evaluated for having high blood pressure. If left ...

  18. High-resolution numerical simulation and analysis of Mach reflection structures in detonation waves in low-pressure H2 - O2 - Ar mixtures: a summary of results obtained with the adaptive mesh refinement framework AMROC

    SciTech Connect

    Deiterding, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Numerical simulation can be key to the understanding of the multi-dimensional nature of transient detonation waves. However, the accurate approximation of realistic detonations is demanding as a wide range of scales needs to be resolved. This paper describes a successful solution strategy that utilizes logically rectangular dynamically adaptive meshes. The hydrodynamic transport scheme and the treatment of the non-equilibrium reaction terms are sketched. A ghost fluid approach is integrated into the method to allow for embedded geometrically complex boundaries. Large-scale parallel simulations of unstable detonation structures of Chapman-Jouguet detonations in low-pressure hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures demonstrate the efficiency of the described techniques in practice. In particular, computations of regular cellular structures in two and three space dimensions and their development under transient conditions, i.e. under diffraction and for propagation through bends are presented. Some of the observed patterns are classified by shock polar analysis and a diagram of the transition boundaries between possible Mach reflection structures is constructed.

  19. High-Resolution Numerical Simulation and Analysis of Mach Reflection Structures in Detonation Waves in Low-Pressure H 2 –O 2 –Ar Mixtures: A Summary of Results Obtained with the Adaptive Mesh Refinement Framework AMROC

    DOE PAGES

    Deiterding, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Numerical simulation can be key to the understanding of the multidimensional nature of transient detonation waves. However, the accurate approximation of realistic detonations is demanding as a wide range of scales needs to be resolved. This paper describes a successful solution strategy that utilizes logically rectangular dynamically adaptive meshes. The hydrodynamic transport scheme and the treatment of the nonequilibrium reaction terms are sketched. A ghost fluid approach is integrated into the method to allow for embedded geometrically complex boundaries. Large-scale parallel simulations of unstable detonation structures of Chapman-Jouguet detonations in low-pressure hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures demonstrate the efficiency of the described techniquesmore » in practice. In particular, computations of regular cellular structures in two and three space dimensions and their development under transient conditions, that is, under diffraction and for propagation through bends are presented. Some of the observed patterns are classified by shock polar analysis, and a diagram of the transition boundaries between possible Mach reflection structures is constructed.« less

  20. Transformational adaptation when incremental adaptations to climate change are insufficient

    PubMed Central

    Kates, Robert W.; Travis, William R.; Wilbanks, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    All human–environment systems adapt to climate and its natural variation. Adaptation to human-induced change in climate has largely been envisioned as increments of these adaptations intended to avoid disruptions of systems at their current locations. In some places, for some systems, however, vulnerabilities and risks may be so sizeable that they require transformational rather than incremental adaptations. Three classes of transformational adaptations are those that are adopted at a much larger scale, that are truly new to a particular region or resource system, and that transform places and shift locations. We illustrate these with examples drawn from Africa, Europe, and North America. Two conditions set the stage for transformational adaptation to climate change: large vulnerability in certain regions, populations, or resource systems; and severe climate change that overwhelms even robust human use systems. However, anticipatory transformational adaptation may be difficult to implement because of uncertainties about climate change risks and adaptation benefits, the high costs of transformational actions, and institutional and behavioral actions that tend to maintain existing resource systems and policies. Implementing transformational adaptation requires effort to initiate it and then to sustain the effort over time. In initiating transformational adaptation focusing events and multiple stresses are important, combined with local leadership. In sustaining transformational adaptation, it seems likely that supportive social contexts and the availability of acceptable options and resources for actions are key enabling factors. Early steps would include incorporating transformation adaptation into risk management and initiating research to expand the menu of innovative transformational adaptations. PMID:22509036

  1. Transformational adaptation when incremental adaptations to climate change are insufficient.

    PubMed

    Kates, Robert W; Travis, William R; Wilbanks, Thomas J

    2012-05-01

    All human-environment systems adapt to climate and its natural variation. Adaptation to human-induced change in climate has largely been envisioned as increments of these adaptations intended to avoid disruptions of systems at their current locations. In some places, for some systems, however, vulnerabilities and risks may be so sizeable that they require transformational rather than incremental adaptations. Three classes of transformational adaptations are those that are adopted at a much larger scale, that are truly new to a particular region or resource system, and that transform places and shift locations. We illustrate these with examples drawn from Africa, Europe, and North America. Two conditions set the stage for transformational adaptation to climate change: large vulnerability in certain regions, populations, or resource systems; and severe climate change that overwhelms even robust human use systems. However, anticipatory transformational adaptation may be difficult to implement because of uncertainties about climate change risks and adaptation benefits, the high costs of transformational actions, and institutional and behavioral actions that tend to maintain existing resource systems and policies. Implementing transformational adaptation requires effort to initiate it and then to sustain the effort over time. In initiating transformational adaptation focusing events and multiple stresses are important, combined with local leadership. In sustaining transformational adaptation, it seems likely that supportive social contexts and the availability of acceptable options and resources for actions are key enabling factors. Early steps would include incorporating transformation adaptation into risk management and initiating research to expand the menu of innovative transformational adaptations.

  2. Adaptive SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Freed, Melanie; Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Clarkson, Eric; Whitaker, Meredith K.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive imaging systems alter their data-acquisition configuration or protocol in response to the image information received. An adaptive pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system might acquire an initial scout image to obtain preliminary information about the radiotracer distribution and then adjust the configuration or sizes of the pinholes, the magnifications, or the projection angles in order to improve performance. This paper briefly describes two small-animal SPECT systems that allow this flexibility and then presents a framework for evaluating adaptive systems in general, and adaptive SPECT systems in particular. The evaluation is in terms of the performance of linear observers on detection or estimation tasks. Expressions are derived for the ideal linear (Hotelling) observer and the ideal linear (Wiener) estimator with adaptive imaging. Detailed expressions for the performance figures of merit are given, and possible adaptation rules are discussed. PMID:18541485

  3. Adaptive Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, William

    1999-01-01

    Provides information on various adaptive technology resources available to people with disabilities. (Contains 19 references, an annotated list of 129 websites, and 12 additional print resources.) (JOW)

  4. Contour adaptation.

    PubMed

    Anstis, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    It is known that adaptation to a disk that flickers between black and white at 3-8 Hz on a gray surround renders invisible a congruent gray test disk viewed afterwards. This is contrast adaptation. We now report that adapting simply to the flickering circular outline of the disk can have the same effect. We call this "contour adaptation." This adaptation does not transfer interocularly, and apparently applies only to luminance, not color. One can adapt selectively to only some of the contours in a display, making only these contours temporarily invisible. For instance, a plaid comprises a vertical grating superimposed on a horizontal grating. If one first adapts to appropriate flickering vertical lines, the vertical components of the plaid disappears and it looks like a horizontal grating. Also, we simulated a Cornsweet (1970) edge, and we selectively adapted out the subjective and objective contours of a Kanisza (1976) subjective square. By temporarily removing edges, contour adaptation offers a new technique to study the role of visual edges, and it demonstrates how brightness information is concentrated in edges and propagates from them as it fills in surfaces.

  5. How Many Teachers Does It Take to Support a Student? Examining the Relationship between Teacher Support and Adverse Health Outcomes in High-Performing, Pressure-Cooker High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Jerusha O.; Miles, Sarah B.; Pope, Denise C.

    2014-01-01

    Although considerable research has demonstrated the importance of supportive teacher-student relationships to students' academic and nonacademic outcomes, few studies have explored these relationships in the context of high-performing high schools. Hierarchical linear modeling with a sample of 5,557 students from 14 different high-performing…

  6. The effect of an adaptive online learning support in an undergraduate computer course: An exploration of self-regulation in blended contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Chia-Yin

    In accordance with Zimmerman's self-regulated learning model, the proposed online learning tool in the current study was designed to support students in learning a challenging subject. The Self-Check List, Formative Self-Assessment, and Structured Online Discussion served goal-setting, self-monitoring, and self-reflective purposes. The primary aim of the study was to assist students in becoming self-regulated learners. Moreover, this study was intended to investigate whether self-efficacy for learning and performance, metacognitive self-regulation, time and study environment management, and computer self-efficacy were predictive of success in a blended learning context. A quasi-experimental control group design was used for this study. Eighty-nine university students were randomly assigned to two experimental groups and one control group. Both experimental groups were provided the complete online self-regulated tool, but only one of the groups received the additional teacher feedback. The control group used only part of the self-regulated online tool. MANCOVA, multiple regression, and one-way ANCOVA were used to answer relevant research questions. The results indicated that self-efficacy for learning and performance as well as time and study environment management significantly related to student academic performance, both together accounting for 21.2% of the variance in student final grades. In addition, students in both experimental groups produced better academic achievements than students in the control group, but no significant difference in student academic achievement was found between the two experimental groups. The findings in this study confirmed that the complete self-regulated learning cycle has a greater potential for scaffolding students effectively. Although the computer trace data were not used to answer any research questions, they provided further information for understanding how students deployed their self-regulatory behaviors in the course of

  7. Climate adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinzig, Ann P.

    2015-03-01

    This paper is intended as a brief introduction to climate adaptation in a conference devoted otherwise to the physics of sustainable energy. Whereas mitigation involves measures to reduce the probability of a potential event, such as climate change, adaptation refers to actions that lessen the impact of climate change. Mitigation and adaptation differ in other ways as well. Adaptation does not necessarily have to be implemented immediately to be effective; it only needs to be in place before the threat arrives. Also, adaptation does not necessarily require global, coordinated action; many effective adaptation actions can be local. Some urban communities, because of land-use change and the urban heat-island effect, currently face changes similar to some expected under climate change, such as changes in water availability, heat-related morbidity, or changes in disease patterns. Concern over those impacts might motivate the implementation of measures that would also help in climate adaptation, despite skepticism among some policy makers about anthropogenic global warming. Studies of ancient civilizations in the southwestern US lends some insight into factors that may or may not be important to successful adaptation.

  8. Preventing Pressure Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... how is it treated? What's the most important thing to do to prevent pressure sores? A spinal cord injury affects the entire family FacingDisability is designed to provide Internet-based information and support for people with spinal ...

  9. Contemporary programs in support of traditional ways: Inuit perspectives on community freezers as a mechanism to alleviate pressures of wild food access in Nain, Nunatsiavut.

    PubMed

    Organ, Jennifer; Castleden, Heather; Furgal, Chris; Sheldon, Tom; Hart, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    Rapid socio-cultural, economic, and environmental changes are challenging wild food access and thus food security for Inuit in the Canadian Arctic. In response to the continued value and practice of harvesting wild foods, communities are establishing "wild food support" initiatives. This study evaluated how one such initiative, a community freezer, in Nain, Nunatsiavut supported wild food access for community members. Data were collected through: interviews and focus groups with users, freezer managers, and active harvesters; participant observation; and document analysis. Results indicated that the community freezer supported socio-cultural, economic and local access to wild foods. However, there were issues associated with supply, dependency, social exclusion, and tension between feasibility and traditional values and practices. Communities, governments, and policymakers are urged to consider social and physical location as factors when investing in and monitoring such initiatives. The Nunatsiavut Government and the Nain Inuit Community Government have since worked together to modify this early freezer initiative due, in part, to this study's findings. PMID:25460908

  10. Blood pressure regulation V: in vivo mechanical properties of precapillary vessels as affected by long-term pressure loading and unloading.

    PubMed

    Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B; Kölegård, Roger

    2014-03-01

    Recent studies are reviewed, concerning the in vivo wall stiffness of arteries and arterioles in healthy humans, and how these properties adapt to iterative increments or sustained reductions in local intravascular pressure. A novel technique was used, by which arterial and arteriolar stiffness was determined as changes in arterial diameter and flow, respectively, during graded increments in distending pressure in the blood vessels of an arm or a leg. Pressure-induced increases in diameter and flow were smaller in the lower leg than in the arm, indicating greater stiffness in the arteries/arterioles of the leg. A 5-week period of intermittent intravascular pressure elevations in one arm reduced pressure distension and pressure-induced flow in the brachial artery by about 50%. Conversely, prolonged reduction of arterial/arteriolar pressure in the lower body by 5 weeks of sustained horizontal bedrest, induced threefold increases of the pressure-distension and pressure-flow responses in a tibial artery. Thus, the wall stiffness of arteries and arterioles are plastic properties that readily adapt to changes in the prevailing local intravascular pressure. The discussion concerns mechanisms underlying changes in local arterial/arteriolar stiffness as well as whether stiffness is altered by changes in myogenic tone and/or wall structure. As regards implications, regulation of local arterial/arteriolar stiffness may facilitate control of arterial pressure in erect posture and conditions of exaggerated intravascular pressure gradients. That increased intravascular pressure leads to increased arteriolar wall stiffness also supports the notion that local pressure loading may constitute a prime mover in the development of vascular changes in hypertension.

  11. An Adaptive Course Generation Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Frederick W. B.; Lau, Rynson W. H.; Dharmendran, Parthiban

    2010-01-01

    Existing adaptive e-learning methods are supported by student (user) profiling for capturing student characteristics, and course structuring for organizing learning materials according to topics and levels of difficulties. Adaptive courses are then generated by extracting materials from the course structure to match the criteria specified in the…

  12. Aerosol Formation from High-Pressure Sprays for Supporting the Safety Analysis for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - 13183

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Mahoney, L.A.; Schonewill, P.P.; Bontha, J.R.; Blanchard, J.; Kurath, D.E.; Daniel, R.C.; Song, C.

    2013-07-01

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at Hanford is being designed and built to pretreat and vitrify waste currently stored in underground tanks at Hanford. One of the postulated events in the hazard analysis for the WTP is a breach in process piping that produces a pressurized spray with small droplets that can be transported into ventilation systems. Literature correlations are currently used for estimating the generation rate and size distribution of aerosol droplets in postulated releases. These correlations, however, are based on results obtained from small engineered nozzles using Newtonian liquids that do not contain slurry particles and thus do not represent the fluids and breaches in the WTP. A test program was developed to measure the generation rate, and the release fraction which is the ratio of generation rate to spray flow rate, of droplets suspended in a test chamber and droplet size distribution from prototypic sprays. A novel test method was developed to allow measurement of sprays from small to large breaches and also includes the effect of aerosol generation from splatter when the spray impacts on walls. Results show that the release fraction decreases with increasing orifice area, though with a weaker dependence on orifice area than the currently-used correlation. A comparison of water sprays to slurry sprays with 8 to 20 wt% gibbsite or boehmite particles shows that the presence of slurry particles depresses the release fraction compared to water for droplets above 10 μm and increases the release fraction below this droplet size. (authors)

  13. Reaction profiling by ultra high-pressure liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry in support of the synthesis of DNA-encoded libraries.

    PubMed

    Hargiss, Leonard O; Zipp, G Greg; Jessop, Theodore C; Sun, Xuejun; Keyes, Philip; Rawlins, David B; Liang, Zhi; Park, Kum Joo; Gu, Huizhong

    2014-11-15

    An ultra high-pressure liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS) separation and analysis method has been devised for open access analysis of synthetic reactions used in the production of DNA-encoded chemical libraries. The aqueous mobile phase is 100mM hexafluoroisopropanol and 8.6mM triethylamine; the organic mobile phase is methanol. The UHPLC separation uses a C18 OST column (50mm×2.1mm×1.7μm) at 60°C, with a flow rate of 0.6mL/min. Gradient concentration is from 10 to 40% B in 1.0min, increasing to 95% B at 1.2min. Cycle time was about 5min. This method provides a detection limit of a 20-mer oligonucleotide by mass spectrometry of better than 1pmol on-column. Linear UV response for 20-mer extends from 2 to 200pmol/μL in concentration, same-day relative average deviations are less than 5% and bias (observed minus expected) is less than 10%. Deconvoluted mass spectra are generated for components in the predicted mass range using a maximum entropy algorithm. Mass accuracy of deconvoluted spectra is typically 20ppm or better for isotopomers of oligonucleotides up to 7000Da.

  14. Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol to 1,3-propanediol under Low Hydrogen Pressure over WOx -Supported Single/Pseudo-Single Atom Pt Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Zhao, Xiaochen; Lei, Nian; Li, Lin; Zhang, Leilei; Xu, Shutao; Miao, Shu; Pan, Xiaoli; Wang, Aiqin; Zhang, Tao

    2016-04-21

    Single/pseudo-single atom Pt catalyst was prepared on mesoporous WOx . The large surface area and abundant oxygen vacancies of WOx improve the Pt dispersion and stabilize the Pt isolation. This newly prepared catalyst exhibited outstanding hydrogenolysis activity under 1 MPa H2 pressure with a very high space-time yield towards 1,3-propanediol (3.78 g gPt (-1)  h(-1) ) in Pt-W catalysts. The highly isolated Pt structure is thought to contribute to the excellent H2 dissociation capacity over Pt/WOx . The high selectivity towards 1,3-propanediol is attributed to the heterolytic dissociation of H2 at the interface of Pt and WOx (providing specific Brønsted acid sites and the concerted dehydration-hydrogenation reaction) and the bond formation between glycerol and WOx , which favors/stabilizes the formation of a secondary carbocation intermediate as well as triggers the redox cycle of the W species (W(6+) ⇄W(5+) ). PMID:26914368

  15. Toothbrush Adaptations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Suggestions are presented for helping disabled individuals learn to use or adapt toothbrushes for proper dental care. A directory lists dental health instructional materials available from various organizations. (CB)

  16. Adaptive Sampling using Support Vector Machines

    SciTech Connect

    D. Mandelli; C. Smith

    2012-11-01

    Reliability/safety analysis of stochastic dynamic systems (e.g., nuclear power plants, airplanes, chemical plants) is currently performed through a combination of Event-Tress and Fault-Trees. However, these conventional methods suffer from certain drawbacks: • Timing of events is not explicitly modeled • Ordering of events is preset by the analyst • The modeling of complex accident scenarios is driven by expert-judgment For these reasons, there is currently an increasing interest into the development of dynamic PRA methodologies since they can be used to address the deficiencies of conventional methods listed above.

  17. Environmental Control and Life Support System Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieland, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) evolution are presented. The Space Station Freedom ECLSS will have to accommodate the changes to Freedom as it evolves over the design life of 30 years or more. Requirements will change as pressurized modules are added, crew numbers increase, and as the tasks to be performed change. This evolution will result in different demands on the ECLSS and the numbers ECLSS will have to adapt. Technologies other than the baselined ones may be better able to perform the various tasks and technological advances will result in improved life support hardware having better performance, increased reliability, reduced power consumption, weight, and volume, greater autonomy, and fewer resupply requirements. A preliminary study was performed to look at alternative technologies for life support and evaluate them for their integration requirements.

  18. Multiresidue determination of sulfonamides in a variety of biological matrices by supported liquid membrane with high pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Msagati, Titus A M; Nindi, Mathew Muzi

    2004-09-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS) was used for a simultaneous determination of 16 sulfonamide compounds spiked in water, urine, milk, and bovine liver and kidney tissues. Supported liquid membrane (SLM) made up of 5% tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) dissolved in hexyl amine was used as a sample clean-up and/or enrichment technique. The sulfonamides mixture was made up of 5-sulfaminouracil, sulfaguanidine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfamerazine, sulfamethizole, sulfamethazine (sulfadimidine), sulfacetamide, sulfapyridine, sulfabenzamide, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfamonomethoxine, sulfadimethoxine sulfasalazine, sulfaquinoxaline, sulfadiazine, and sulfathiazole. Some of these compounds, such as, sulfaquinoxaline, sulfadiazine, sulfabenzamide, sulfathiazole and sulfapyridine failed to be trapped efficiently by the same liquid membrane (5% TOPO in hexylamine). The detection limits (DL) obtained were 1.8ppb for sulfaguanidine and sulfamerazine and between 3.3 and 10ppb in bovine liver and kidney tissues for the other sulfonamides that were successfully enriched with SLM; 2.1ppb for sulfaguanidine and sulfamerazine and between 7.5 and 15ppb in cow's urine, whereas the DL values in milk were 12.4ppb for sulfaguanidine and sulfamerazine and between 16.8 and 24.3 for the other compounds that were successfully enriched by the membrane. Several factors affecting the extraction efficiency during SLM enrichment, such as donor pH, acceptor pH, enrichment time and the membrane solvent were studied. PMID:18969572

  19. Pressure vessel flex joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Jon B. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An airtight, flexible joint is disclosed for the interfacing of two pressure vessels such as between the Space Station docking tunnel and the Space Shuttle Orbiter bulkhead adapter. The joint provides for flexibility while still retaining a structural link between the two vessels required due to the loading created by the internal/external pressure differential. The joint design provides for limiting the axial load carried across the joint to a specific value, a function returned in the Orbiter/Station tunnel interface. The flex joint comprises a floating structural segment which is permanently attached to one of the pressure vessels through the use of an inflatable seal. The geometric configuration of the joint causes the tension between the vessels created by the internal gas pressure to compress the inflatable seal. The inflation pressure of the seal is kept at a value above the internal/external pressure differential of the vessels in order to maintain a controlled distance between the floating segment and pressure vessel. The inflatable seal consists of either a hollow torus-shaped flexible bladder or two rolling convoluted diaphragm seals which may be reinforced by a system of straps or fabric anchored to the hard structures. The joint acts as a flexible link to allow both angular motion and lateral displacement while it still contains the internal pressure and holds the axial tension between the vessels.

  20. A multicentre, randomised controlled, non-inferiority trial, comparing high flow therapy with nasal continuous positive airway pressure as primary support for preterm infants with respiratory distress (the HIPSTER trial): study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Calum T; Owen, Louise S; Manley, Brett J; Donath, Susan M; Davis, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    Introduction High flow (HF) therapy is an increasingly popular mode of non-invasive respiratory support for preterm infants. While there is now evidence to support the use of HF to reduce extubation failure, there have been no appropriately designed and powered studies to assess the use of HF as primary respiratory support soon after birth. Our hypothesis is that HF is non-inferior to the standard treatment—nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP)— as primary respiratory support for preterm infants. Methods and analysis The HIPSTER trial is an unblinded, international, multicentre, randomised, non-inferiority trial. Eligible infants are preterm infants of 28–36+6 weeks’ gestational age (GA) who require primary non-invasive respiratory support for respiratory distress in the first 24 h of life. Infants are randomised to treatment with either HF or NCPAP. The primary outcome is treatment failure within 72 h after randomisation, as determined by objective oxygenation, blood gas, and apnoea criteria, or the need for urgent intubation and mechanical ventilation. Secondary outcomes include the incidence of intubation, pneumothorax, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, nasal trauma, costs associated with hospital care and parental stress. With a specified non-inferiority margin of 10%, using a two-sided 95% CI and 90% power, the study requires 375 infants per group (total 750 infants). Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been granted by the relevant human research ethics committees at The Royal Women's Hospital (13/12), The Royal Children's Hospital (33144A), The Mercy Hospital for Women (R13/34), and the South-Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority (2013/1657). The trial is currently recruiting at 9 centres in Australia and Norway. The trial results will be published in peer-reviewed international journals, and presented at national and international conferences. Trial registration number Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ID: ACTRN