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Sample records for adaptive radiotherapy art

  1. Risk-adaptive radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yusung

    Currently, there is great interest in integrating biological information into intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment planning with the aim of boosting high-risk tumor subvolumes. Selective boosting of tumor subvolumes can be accomplished without violating normal tissue complication constraints using information from functional imaging. In this work we have developed a risk-adaptive optimization-framework that utilizes a nonlinear biological objective function. Employing risk-adaptive radiotherapy for prostate cancer, it is possible to increase the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) by up to 35.4 Gy in tumor subvolumes having the highest risk classification without increasing normal tissue complications. Subsequently, we have studied the impact of functional imaging accuracy, and found on the one hand that loss in sensitivity had a large impact on expected local tumor control, which was maximal when a low-risk classification for the remaining low risk PTV was chosen. While on the other hand loss in specificity appeared to have a minimal impact on normal tissue sparing. Therefore, it appears that in order to improve the therapeutic ratio a functional imaging technique with a high sensitivity, rather than specificity, is needed. Last but not least a comparison study between selective boosting IMRT strategies and uniform-boosting IMRT strategies yielding the same EUD to the overall PTV was carried out, and found that selective boosting IMRT considerably improves expected TCP compared to uniform-boosting IMRT, especially when lack of control of the high-risk tumor subvolumes is the cause of expected therapy failure. Furthermore, while selective boosting IMRT, using physical dose-volume objectives, did yield similar rectal and bladder sparing when compared its equivalent uniform-boosting IMRT plan, risk-adaptive radiotherapy, utilizing biological objective functions, did yield a 5.3% reduction in NTCP for the rectum. Hence, in risk-adaptive radiotherapy the

  2. [Head and neck adaptive radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Graff, P; Huger, S; Kirby, N; Pouliot, J

    2013-10-01

    Onboard volumetric imaging systems can provide accurate data of the patient's anatomy during a course of head and neck radiotherapy making it possible to assess the actual delivered dose and to evaluate the dosimetric impact of complex daily positioning variations and gradual anatomic changes such as geometric variations of tumors and normal tissues or shrinkage of external contours. Adaptive radiotherapy is defined as the correction of a patient's treatment planning to adapt for individual variations observed during treatment. Strategies are developed to selectively identify patients that require replanning because of an intolerable dosimetric drift. Automated tools are designed to limit time consumption. Deformable image registration algorithms are the cornerstones of these strategies, but a better understanding of their limits of validity is required before adaptive radiotherapy can be safely introduced to daily practice. Moreover, strict evaluation of the clinical benefits is yet to be proven.

  3. SU-E-J-179: Assessment of Tumor Volume Change and Movement During Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) for Lung Cancer: Is Adaptive Radiation Therapy (ART) Necessary?

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C; Lee, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Delineation of gross tumor volumes (GTVs) is important for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). However, tumor volume changes during treatment response. Here, we have investigated tumor volume changes and movement during SBRT for lung cancer, as a means of examining the need for adaptive radiation therapy (ART). Methods: Fifteen tumors in 15 patients with lung cancer were treated with SBRT (total dose: 60 Gy in 4 fractions). GTVs were obtained from cone-beam computed tomography scans (CBCT1–4) taken before each of the 4 fractions was administered. GTVs were delineated and measured by radiation oncologists using a treatment planning system. Variance in the tumor position was assessed between the planning CT and the CBCT images. To investigate the dosimetric effects of tumor volume changes, planning CT and CBCT4 treatment plans were compared using the conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), and Paddick’s index (PCI). Results: The GTV on CBCT1 was employed as a baseline for comparisons. GTV had decreased by a mean of 20.4% (range: 0.7% to 47.2%) on CBCT4. Most patients had smaller GTVs on CBCT4 than on CBCT1. The interfractional shifts of the tumor position between the planning CT and CBCT1–4 were as follows: right-left, −0.4 to 1.3 mm; anterior-posterior, −0.8 to 0.5 mm; and superiorinferior, −0.9 to 1.1 mm. Indices for plans from the planning CT and CBCT4 were as follows: CI = 0.94±0.02 and 1.11±0.03; HI= 1.1±0.02 and 1.10±0.03; and PCI = 1.35±0.16 and 1.11±0.02, respectively. Conclusion: CI, HI, and PCI did not differ between the planning CT and CBCTs. However, daily CBCT revealed a significant decrease in the GTV during lung SBRT. Furthermore, there was an obvious interfractional shift in tumor position. Using ART could potentially lead to a reduced GTV margin and improved regional tumor control for lung cancer patients with significantly decreased GTV.

  4. Adapting radiotherapy to hypoxic tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinen, Eirik; Søvik, Åste; Hristov, Dimitre; Bruland, Øyvind S.; Rune Olsen, Dag

    2006-10-01

    In the current work, the concepts of biologically adapted radiotherapy of hypoxic tumours in a framework encompassing functional tumour imaging, tumour control predictions, inverse treatment planning and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were presented. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCEMRI) of a spontaneous sarcoma in the nasal region of a dog was employed. The tracer concentration in the tumour was assumed related to the oxygen tension and compared to Eppendorf histograph measurements. Based on the pO2-related images derived from the MR analysis, the tumour was divided into four compartments by a segmentation procedure. DICOM structure sets for IMRT planning could be derived thereof. In order to display the possible advantages of non-uniform tumour doses, dose redistribution among the four tumour compartments was introduced. The dose redistribution was constrained by keeping the average dose to the tumour equal to a conventional target dose. The compartmental doses yielding optimum tumour control probability (TCP) were used as input in an inverse planning system, where the planning basis was the pO2-related tumour images from the MR analysis. Uniform (conventional) and non-uniform IMRT plans were scored both physically and biologically. The consequences of random and systematic errors in the compartmental images were evaluated. The normalized frequency distributions of the tracer concentration and the pO2 Eppendorf measurements were not significantly different. 28% of the tumour had, according to the MR analysis, pO2 values of less than 5 mm Hg. The optimum TCP following a non-uniform dose prescription was about four times higher than that following a uniform dose prescription. The non-uniform IMRT dose distribution resulting from the inverse planning gave a three times higher TCP than that of the uniform distribution. The TCP and the dose-based plan quality depended on IMRT parameters defined in the inverse planning procedure (fields

  5. [Adaptative radiotherapy: The case for MRI-guided radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Maingon, P

    2016-10-01

    The concept of image-guided radiotherapy benefits from the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) associated with different capacities of tissue analyses such as spectroscopy or diffusion analysis. The production of devices allowing the repositioning of patients through MRI represents a strong added value without delivering any additional dose to the patient while the optimization of the adaptative strategies are facilitated by a better contrast of the soft tissues compared to the scanner. The advantages of MRI are well demonstrated for brain tumours, head and neck carcinomas, pelvic tumors, mediastinal malignancies, gastrointestinal tract diseases. Adaptative radiotherapy inaugurates a new area of radiotherapy with different modalities. Several technological solutions are provided or discussed allowing the patients to benefit from thses new technologies as soon as possible.

  6. [Adaptative radiotherapy: The case for MRI-guided radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Maingon, P

    2016-10-01

    The concept of image-guided radiotherapy benefits from the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) associated with different capacities of tissue analyses such as spectroscopy or diffusion analysis. The production of devices allowing the repositioning of patients through MRI represents a strong added value without delivering any additional dose to the patient while the optimization of the adaptative strategies are facilitated by a better contrast of the soft tissues compared to the scanner. The advantages of MRI are well demonstrated for brain tumours, head and neck carcinomas, pelvic tumors, mediastinal malignancies, gastrointestinal tract diseases. Adaptative radiotherapy inaugurates a new area of radiotherapy with different modalities. Several technological solutions are provided or discussed allowing the patients to benefit from thses new technologies as soon as possible. PMID:27599686

  7. Adaptive radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer: A feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Pos, Floris J. . E-mail: f.pos@nki.nl; Hulshof, Maarten; Lebesque, Joos; Lotz, Heidi; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Moonen, Luc; Remeijer, Peter

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of adaptive radiotherapy (ART) in combination with a partial bladder irradiation. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients with solitary T1-T4 N0M0 bladder cancer were treated to the bladder tumor + 2 cm margin planning target volume (PTV{sub CONV}). During the first treatment week, five daily computed tomography (CT) scans were made immediately before or after treatment. In the second week, a volume was constructed encompassing the gross tumor volumes (GTVs) on the planning scan and the five CT scans (GTV{sub ART}). The GTV{sub ART} was expanded with a 1 cm margin for the construction of a PTV{sub ART}. Starting in the third week, patients were treated to PTV{sub ART}. Repeat CT scans were used to evaluate treatment accuracy. Results: On 5 of 91 repeat CT scans (5%), the GTV was not adequately covered by the PTV{sub ART}. On treatment planning, there was only one scan in which the GTV was not adequately covered by the 95% isodose. On average, the treatment volumes were reduced by 40% when comparing PTV{sub ART} with PTV{sub CONV} (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The adaptive strategy for bladder cancer is an effective way to deal with treatment errors caused by variations in bladder tumor position and leads to a substantial reduction in treatment volumes.

  8. Adapting Arts Activities or Success for All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Gary R.

    It is possible to adapt art activity to meet the needs of any student regardless of physical and medical challenges. Art activities should allow any child to participate with success. This handbook is about tools and devices adapted for and used by physically handicapped and health impaired students for art activities. The handbook also works on…

  9. Stereotactic Image-Guided Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy Using the HI-ART II Helical Tomotherapy System

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Timothy W. Hudes, Richard; Dziuba, Sylwester; Kazi, Abdul; Hall, Mark; Dawson, Dana

    2008-07-01

    The highly integrated adaptive radiation therapy (HI-ART II) helical tomotherapy unit is a new radiotherapy machine designed to achieve highly precise and accurate treatments at all body sites. The precision and accuracy of the HI-ART II is similar to that provided by stereotactic radiosurgery systems, hence the historical distinction between external beam radiotherapy and stereotactic procedures based on differing precision requirements is removed for this device. The objectives of this work are: (1) to describe stereotactic helical tomotherapy processes (SRS, SBRT); (2) to show that the precision and accuracy of the HI-ART meet the requirements defined for SRS and SBRT; and (3) to describe the clinical implementation of a stereotactic image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) system that incorporates optical motion management.

  10. Online Adaptive Replanning Method for Prostate Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ahunbay, Ergun E.; Peng Cheng; Holmes, Shannon; Godley, Andrew; Lawton, Colleen; Li, X. Allen

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: To report the application of an adaptive replanning technique for prostate cancer radiotherapy (RT), consisting of two steps: (1) segment aperture morphing (SAM), and (2) segment weight optimization (SWO), to account for interfraction variations. Methods and Materials: The new 'SAM+SWO' scheme was retroactively applied to the daily CT images acquired for 10 prostate cancer patients on a linear accelerator and CT-on-Rails combination during the course of RT. Doses generated by the SAM+SWO scheme based on the daily CT images were compared with doses generated after patient repositioning using the current planning target volume (PTV) margin (5 mm, 3 mm toward rectum) and a reduced margin (2 mm), along with full reoptimization scans based on the daily CT images to evaluate dosimetry benefits. Results: For all cases studied, the online replanning method provided significantly better target coverage when compared with repositioning with reduced PTV (13% increase in minimum prostate dose) and improved organ sparing when compared with repositioning with regular PTV (13% decrease in the generalized equivalent uniform dose of rectum). The time required to complete the online replanning process was 6 {+-} 2 minutes. Conclusion: The proposed online replanning method can be used to account for interfraction variations for prostate RT with a practically acceptable time frame (5-10 min) and with significant dosimetric benefits. On the basis of this study, the developed online replanning scheme is being implemented in the clinic for prostate RT.

  11. Comparison of adaptive radiotherapy techniques for external radiation therapy of canine bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Nieset, Jessica R; Harmon, Joseph F; Johnson, Thomas E; Larue, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    Daily bladder variations make it difficult to utilize standard radiotherapy as a primary treatment option for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Our purpose was to develop a model comparing dose distributions of image-guided and adaptive radiotherapy (ART) techniques for canine bladder cancer. Images were obtained retrospectively from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans used for daily positioning of four dogs undergoing fractionated image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). Four different treatment plans were modeled for each dog, and dosimetric data were compared. Two plans were developed using planning target volumes based on planning computed tomography (CT) bladder volume. These plans then used bony anatomy or soft tissue anatomy for daily positioning and dosimetric modeling. The third plan type was a hybrid IGRT and ART technique utilizing a library of premade anisotropic planning target volumes using bladder wall motion data and selection of a "plan-of-the-day" determined from positioning CBCT bladder volumes. The fourth plan was an ART technique that constructed a new planning target volume each day based on daily bladder volume as determined by pretreatment CBCT. Dose volume histograms were generated for each plan type and dose distribution for the bladder and rectum were compared between plan types. Irradiated rectal volume decreased and irradiated bladder volume increased as plan conformality increased. ART provided the greatest rectal sparing, with lowest irradiated rectal volume (P < 0.001), and largest bladder volume receiving 95% of the prescription dose (P < 0.001). In our model, adaptive radiotherapy techniques for canine bladder cancer showed significant reduction in rectal volume irradiated when compared to nonadaptive techniques, while maintaining appropriate bladder coverage.

  12. Radiotherapy Adapted to Spatial and Temporal Variability in Tumor Hypoxia

    SciTech Connect

    Sovik, Aste; Malinen, Eirik . E-mail: emalinen@fys.uio.no; Skogmo, Hege K.; Bentzen, Soren M.; Bruland, Oyvind S.; Olsen, Dag Rune

    2007-08-01

    Purpose: To explore the feasibility and clinical potential of adapting radiotherapy to temporal and spatial variations in tumor oxygenation. Methods and Materials: Repeated dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance (DCEMR) images were taken of a canine sarcoma during the course of fractionated radiation therapy. The tumor contrast enhancement was assumed to represent the oxygen distribution. The IMRT plans were retrospectively adapted to the DCEMR images by employing tumor dose redistribution. Optimized nonuniform tumor dose distributions were calculated and compared with a uniform dose distribution delivering the same integral dose to the tumor. Clinical outcome was estimated from tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) modeling. Results: The biologically adapted treatment was found to give a substantial increase in TCP compared with conventional radiotherapy, even when only pretreatment images were used as basis for the treatment planning. The TCP was further increased by repeated replanning during the course of treatment, and replanning twice a week was found to give near optimal TCP. Random errors in patient positioning were found to give a small decrease in TCP, whereas systematic errors were found to reduce TCP substantially. NTCP for the adapted treatment was similar to or lower than for the conventional treatment, both for parallel and serial normal tissue structures. Conclusion: Biologically adapted radiotherapy is estimated to improve treatment outcome of tumors having spatial and temporal variations in radiosensitivity.

  13. Process-based quality management for clinical implementation of adaptive radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, Camille E.; Santanam, Lakshmi; Parikh, Parag J.; Mutic, Sasa

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Intensity-modulated adaptive radiotherapy (ART) has been the focus of considerable research and developmental work due to its potential therapeutic benefits. However, in light of its unique quality assurance (QA) challenges, no one has described a robust framework for its clinical implementation. In fact, recent position papers by ASTRO and AAPM have firmly endorsed pretreatment patient-specific IMRT QA, which limits the feasibility of online ART. The authors aim to address these obstacles by applying failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) to identify high-priority errors and appropriate risk-mitigation strategies for clinical implementation of intensity-modulated ART. Methods: An experienced team of two clinical medical physicists, one clinical engineer, and one radiation oncologist was assembled to perform a standard FMEA for intensity-modulated ART. A set of 216 potential radiotherapy failures composed by the forthcoming AAPM task group 100 (TG-100) was used as the basis. Of the 216 failures, 127 were identified as most relevant to an ART scheme. Using the associated TG-100 FMEA values as a baseline, the team considered how the likeliness of occurrence (O), outcome severity (S), and likeliness of failure being undetected (D) would change for ART. New risk priority numbers (RPN) were calculated. Failures characterized by RPN ≥ 200 were identified as potentially critical. Results: FMEA revealed that ART RPN increased for 38% (n = 48/127) of potential failures, with 75% (n = 36/48) attributed to failures in the segmentation and treatment planning processes. Forty-three of 127 failures were identified as potentially critical. Risk-mitigation strategies include implementing a suite of quality control and decision support software, specialty QA software/hardware tools, and an increase in specially trained personnel. Conclusions: Results of the FMEA-based risk assessment demonstrate that intensity-modulated ART introduces different (but not necessarily

  14. Dysphagia after radiotherapy: state of the art and prevention.

    PubMed

    Servagi-Vernat, S; Ali, D; Roubieu, C; Durdux, C; Laccourreye, O; Giraud, P

    2015-02-01

    Adjuvant radiotherapy after surgery or exclusive radiotherapy, with or without concurrent chemotherapy is a valuable treatment option in the great majority of patients with head and neck cancer. Recent technical progress in radiotherapy has resulted in a decreased incidence of xerostomia. Another common toxicity of radiotherapy is dysphagia, which alters the nutritional status and quality of life of patients in remission. The objective of this review is to describe the physiology of swallowing function, the pathophysiology of radiation-induced dysphagia and the various strategies currently available to prevent this complication.

  15. Dosimetric evaluation of a three-phase adaptive radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma using helical tomotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, Winky Wing Ki; Wu, Vincent Wing Cheung; Teo, Peter Man Lung

    2012-04-01

    Adaptive radiotherapy (ART) has been introduced to correct the radiation-induced anatomic changes in head and neck cases during a treatment course. This study evaluated the potential dosimetric benefits of applying a 3-phase adaptive radiotherapy protocol in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients compared with the nonadaptive single-phase treatment protocol. Ten NPC patients previously treated with this 3-phase radiation protocol using Hi-Art Tomotherapy were recruited. Two new plans, PII-ART and PIII-ART, were generated based on the up-to-date computed tomography (CT) images and contours and were used for treatment in phase two (PII; after 25th fraction) and phase three (PIII; after 35th fraction), respectively. To simulate the situation of no replanning, 2 hybrid plans denoted as PII-NART and PIII-NART were generated using the original contours pasted on the PII- and PIII-CT sets by CT-CT fusion. Dosimetric comparisons were made between the NART plans and the corresponding ART plans. In both PII- and PIII-NART plans, the doses to 95% of all the target volumes (D{sub 95}) were increased with better dose uniformity, whereas the organs at risk (OARs) received higher doses compared with the corresponding ART plans. Without replanning, the total dose to 1% of brainstem and spinal cord (D{sub 1}) significantly increased 7.87 {+-} 7.26% and 10.69 {+-} 6.72%, respectively (P = 0.011 and 0.001, respectively), in which 3 patients would have these structures overdosed when compared with those with two replannings. The total maximum doses to the optic chiasm and pituitary gland and the mean doses to the left and right parotid glands were increased by 10.50 {+-} 10.51%, 8.59 {+-} 6.10%, 3.03 {+-} 4.48%, and 2.24 {+-} 3.11%, respectively (P = 0.014, 0.003, 0.053, and 0.046, respectively). The 3-phase radiotherapy protocol showed improved dosimetric results to the critical structures while keeping satisfactory target dose coverage, which demonstrated the advantages of ART in

  16. Art therapy using famous painting appreciation maintains fatigue levels during radiotherapy in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Koom, Woong Sub; Choi, Mi Yeon; Lee, Jeongshim; Park, Eun Jung; Kim, Ju Hye; Kim, Sun-Hyun; Kim, Yong Bae

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of art therapy to control fatigue in cancer patients during course of radiotherapy and its impact on quality of life (QoL). Materials and Methods: Fifty cancer patients receiving radiotherapy received weekly art therapy sessions using famous painting appreciation. Fatigue and QoL were assessed using the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) Scale and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) at baseline before starting radiotherapy, every week for 4 weeks during radiotherapy, and at the end of radiotherapy. Mean changes of scores over time were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model. Results: Of the 50 patients, 34 (68%) participated in 4 sessions of art therapy. Generalized linear mixed models testing for the effect of time on mean score changes showed no significant changes in scores from baseline for the BFI and FACIT-F. The mean BFI score and FACIT-F total score changed from 3.1 to 2.7 and from 110.7 to 109.2, respectively. Art therapy based on the appreciation of famous paintings led to increases in self-esteem by increasing self-realization and forming social relationships. Conclusion: Fatigue and QoL in cancer patients with art therapy do not deteriorate during a period of radiotherapy. Despite the single-arm small number of participants and pilot design, this study provides a strong initial demonstration that art therapy of appreciation for famous painting is worthy of further study for fatigue and QoL improvement. Further, it can play an important role in routine practice in cancer patients during radiotherapy. PMID:27306778

  17. SU-E-J-206: Adaptive Radiotherapy for Gynecological Malignancies with MRIGuided Cobolt-60 Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, J; Kamrava, M; Agazaryan, N; Cao, M; Low, D; Thomas, D; Yang, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Even in the IMRT era, bowel toxicity and bone marrow irradiation remain concerns with pelvic irradiation. We examine the potential gain from an adaptive radiotherapy workflow for post-operative gynecological patients treated to pelvic targets including lymph nodes using MRI-guided Co-60 radiation therapy. Methods: An adaptive workflow was developed with the intent of minimizing time overhead of adaptive planning. A pilot study was performed using retrospectively analyzed images from one patient’s treatment. The patient’s treated plan was created using conventional PTV margins. Adaptive treatment was simulated on the patient’s first three fractions. The daily PTV was created by removing non-target tissue, including bone, muscle and bowel, from the initial PTV based on the daily MRI. The number of beams, beam angles, and optimization parameters were kept constant, and the plan was re-optimized. Normal tissue contours were not adjusted for the re-optimization, but were adjusted for evaluation of plan quality. Plan quality was evaluated based on PTV coverage and normal tissue DVH points per treatment protocol. Bowel was contoured as the entire bowel bag per protocol at our institution. Pelvic bone marrow was contoured per RTOG protocol 1203. Results: For the clinically treated plan, the volume of bowel receiving 45 Gy was 380 cc, 53% of the rectum received 30 Gy, 35% of the bladder received 45 Gy, and 28% of the pelvic bone marrow received 40 Gy. For the adaptive plans, the volume of bowel receiving 45 Gy was 175–201 cc, 55–62% of the rectum received 30 Gy, 21– 27% of the bladder received 45 Gy, and 13–17% of the pelvic bone marrow received 40 Gy. Conclusion: Adaptive planning led to a large reduction of bowel and bone marrow dose in this pilot study. Further study of on-line adaptive techniques for the radiotherapy of pelvic lymph nodes is warranted. Dr. Low is a member of the scientific advisory board of ViewRay, Inc.

  18. Adaptive Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: Initial Clinical Outcomes From a Prospective Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, David L.; Garden, Adam S.; Thomas, Jimmy; Chen Yipei; Zhang Yongbin; Lewin, Jan; Chambers, Mark S.; Dong, Lei

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To present pilot toxicity and survival outcomes for a prospective trial investigating adaptive radiotherapy (ART) for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: A total of 24 patients were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved clinical trial; data for 22 of these patients were analyzed. Daily CT-guided setup and deformable image registration permitted serial mapping of clinical target volumes and avoidance structures for ART planning. Primary site was base of tongue in 15 patients, tonsil in 6 patient, and glossopharyngeal sulcus in 1 patient. Twenty patients (91%) had American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Stage IV disease. T stage distribution was 2 T1, 12 T2, 3 T3, 5 T4. N stage distribution was 1 N0, 2 N1, 5 N2a, 12 N2b, and 2 N2c. Of the patients, 21 (95%) received systemic therapy. Results: With a 31-month median follow-up (range, 13-45 months), there has been no primary site failure and 1 nodal relapse, yielding 100% local and 95% regional disease control at 2 years. Baseline tumor size correlated with absolute volumetric treatment response (p = 0.018). Parotid volumetric change correlated with duration of feeding tube placement (p = 0.025). Acute toxicity was comparable to that observed with conventional intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Chronic toxicity and functional outcomes beyond 1 year were tabulated. Conclusion: This is the first prospective evaluation of morbidity and survival outcomes in patients with locally advanced head-and-neck cancer treated with automated adaptive replanning. ART can provide dosimetric benefit with only one or two mid-treatment replanning events. Our preliminary clinical outcomes document functional recovery and preservation of disease control at 1-year follow-up and beyond.

  19. A theoretical stochastic control framework for adapting radiotherapy to hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saberian, Fatemeh; Ghate, Archis; Kim, Minsun

    2016-10-01

    Hypoxia, that is, insufficient oxygen partial pressure, is a known cause of reduced radiosensitivity in solid tumors, and especially in head-and-neck tumors. It is thus believed to adversely affect the outcome of fractionated radiotherapy. Oxygen partial pressure varies spatially and temporally over the treatment course and exhibits inter-patient and intra-tumor variation. Emerging advances in non-invasive functional imaging offer the future possibility of adapting radiotherapy plans to this uncertain spatiotemporal evolution of hypoxia over the treatment course. We study the potential benefits of such adaptive planning via a theoretical stochastic control framework using computer-simulated evolution of hypoxia on computer-generated test cases in head-and-neck cancer. The exact solution of the resulting control problem is computationally intractable. We develop an approximation algorithm, called certainty equivalent control, that calls for the solution of a sequence of convex programs over the treatment course; dose-volume constraints are handled using a simple constraint generation method. These convex programs are solved using an interior point algorithm with a logarithmic barrier via Newton’s method and backtracking line search. Convexity of various formulations in this paper is guaranteed by a sufficient condition on radiobiological tumor-response parameters. This condition is expected to hold for head-and-neck tumors and for other similarly responding tumors where the linear dose-response parameter is larger than the quadratic dose-response parameter. We perform numerical experiments on four test cases by using a first-order vector autoregressive process with exponential and rational-quadratic covariance functions from the spatiotemporal statistics literature to simulate the evolution of hypoxia. Our results suggest that dynamic planning could lead to a considerable improvement in the number of tumor cells remaining at the end of the treatment course

  20. Adaptive prediction of respiratory motion for motion compensation radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Qing; Nishioka, Seiko; Shirato, Hiroki; Berbeco, Ross I.

    2007-11-01

    One potential application of image-guided radiotherapy is to track the target motion in real time, then deliver adaptive treatment to a dynamic target by dMLC tracking or respiratory gating. However, the existence of a finite time delay (or a system latency) between the image acquisition and the response of the treatment system to a change in tumour position implies that some kind of predictive ability should be included in the real-time dynamic target treatment. If diagnostic x-ray imaging is used for the tracking, the dose given over a whole image-guided radiotherapy course can be significant. Therefore, the x-ray beam used for motion tracking should be triggered at a relatively slow pulse frequency, and an interpolation between predictions can be used to provide a fast tracking rate. This study evaluates the performance of an autoregressive-moving average (ARMA) model based prediction algorithm for reducing tumour localization error due to system latency and slow imaging rate. For this study, we use 3D motion data from ten lung tumour cases where the peak-to-peak motion is greater than 8 mm. Some strongly irregular traces with variation in amplitude and phase were included. To evaluate the prediction accuracy, the standard deviations between predicted and actual motion position are computed for three system latencies (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 s) at several imaging rates (1.25-10 Hz), and compared against the situation of no prediction. The simulation results indicate that the implementation of the prediction algorithm in real-time target tracking can improve the localization precision for all latencies and imaging rates evaluated. From a common initial setting of model parameters, the predictor can quickly provide an accurate prediction of the position after collecting 20 initial data points. In this retrospective analysis, we calculate the standard deviation of the predicted position from the twentieth position data to the end of the session at 0.1 s interval. For both

  1. A deformable head and neck phantom with in-vivo dosimetry for adaptive radiotherapy quality assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, Yan Jiang; Smith, Arthur-Allen; Mcilvena, David; Manilay, Zherrina; Lai, Yuet Kong; Rice, Roger; Mell, Loren; Cerviño, Laura E-mail: steve.jiang@utsouthwestern.edu; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B. E-mail: steve.jiang@utsouthwestern.edu

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Patients’ interfractional anatomic changes can compromise the initial treatment plan quality. To overcome this issue, adaptive radiotherapy (ART) has been introduced. Deformable image registration (DIR) is an important tool for ART and several deformable phantoms have been built to evaluate the algorithms’ accuracy. However, there is a lack of deformable phantoms that can also provide dosimetric information to verify the accuracy of the whole ART process. The goal of this work is to design and construct a deformable head and neck (HN) ART quality assurance (QA) phantom with in vivo dosimetry. Methods: An axial slice of a HN patient is taken as a model for the phantom construction. Six anatomic materials are considered, with HU numbers similar to a real patient. A filled balloon inside the phantom tissue is inserted to simulate tumor. Deflation of the balloon simulates tumor shrinkage. Nonradiopaque surface markers, which do not influence DIR algorithms, provide the deformation ground truth. Fixed and movable holders are built in the phantom to hold a diode for dosimetric measurements. Results: The measured deformations at the surface marker positions can be compared with deformations calculated by a DIR algorithm to evaluate its accuracy. In this study, the authors selected a Demons algorithm as a DIR algorithm example for demonstration purposes. The average error magnitude is 2.1 mm. The point dose measurements from the in vivo diode dosimeters show a good agreement with the calculated doses from the treatment planning system with a maximum difference of 3.1% of prescription dose, when the treatment plans are delivered to the phantom with original or deformed geometry. Conclusions: In this study, the authors have presented the functionality of this deformable HN phantom for testing the accuracy of DIR algorithms and verifying the ART dosimetric accuracy. The authors’ experiments demonstrate the feasibility of this phantom serving as an end

  2. Adaptive Industrial Arts: Meeting the Needs of the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Dennis; McFadden, Lorraine

    1982-01-01

    An industrial arts program was adapted to help handicapped high school students gain independent living skills, including exposure to tool use, woodworking techniques, basic measurement concepts, and safety. Special educators worked with industrial arts teachers to plan and implement the program, which has met with success. (CL)

  3. SU-E-J-153: MRI Based, Daily Adaptive Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer: Contour Adaptation

    SciTech Connect

    Kleijnen, J; Burbach, M; Verbraeken, T; Weggers, R; Zoetelief, A; Reerink, O; Lagendijk, J; Raaymakers, B; Asselen, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A major hurdle in adaptive radiotherapy is the adaptation of the planning MRI's delineations to the daily anatomy. We therefore investigate the accuracy and time needed for online clinical target volume (CTV) adaptation by radiation therapists (RTT), to be used in MRI-guided adaptive treatments on a MRI-Linac (MRL). Methods: Sixteen patients, diagnosed with early stage rectal cancer, underwent a T2-weighted MRI prior to each fraction of short-course radiotherapy, resulting in 4–5 scans per patient. On these scans, the CTV was delineated according to guidelines by an experienced radiation oncologist (RO) and considered to be the gold standard. For each patient, the first MRI was considered as the planning MRI and matched on bony anatomy to the 3–4 daily MRIs. The planning MRI's CTV delineation was rigidly propagated to the daily MRI scans as a proposal for adaptation. Three RTTs in training started the adaptation of the CTV conform guidelines, after a two hour training lecture and a two patient (n=7) training set. To assess the inter-therapist variation, all three RTTs altered delineations of 3 patients (n=12). One RTT altered the CTV delineations (n=53) of the remaining 11 patients. Time needed for adaptation of the CTV to guidelines was registered.As a measure of agreement, the conformity index (CI) was determined between the RTTs' delineations as a group. Dice similarity coefficients were determined between delineations of the RTT and the RO. Results: We found good agreement between RTTs' and RO's delineations (average Dice=0.91, SD=0.03). Furthermore, the inter-observer agreement between the RTTs was high (average CI=0.94, SD=0.02). Adaptation time reduced from 10:33 min (SD= 3:46) to 2:56 min (SD=1:06) between the first and last ten delineations, respectively. Conclusion: Daily CTV adaptation by RTTs, seems a feasible and safe way to introduce daily, online MRI-based plan adaptation for a MRL.

  4. [Adaptive radiotherapy in routine: The radiation oncologist's point of view].

    PubMed

    Henriques de Figueiredo, B; Petit, A; Sargos, P; Kantor, G; Pouypoudat, C; Saut, O; Zacharatou, C; Antoine, M

    2015-10-01

    Adaptive radiotherapy is defined as all processes leading to the modification of a treatment plan on the basis of patient-specific variations observed during the course of a treatment. This concept is currently of particular relevance due to the development of onboard volumetric imaging systems, which allow for daily viewing of variations in both tumour and organs at risk in terms of position, shape or volume. However, its application in routine clinical practice is limited due to the demanding nature of the processes involved (re-delineation and replanning) and increased dependence on available human resources. Even if "online" strategies, based on deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms, could lead to a reduction in both work and calculation time, for the moment their use is limited to the research field due to uncertainties surrounding the validity of results gathered. Other strategies without DIR can be used as "offline" or "hybrid offline-online" strategies that seem to offer a compromise between time consumption and therapeutic gain for the patient. PMID:26337475

  5. [Adaptive radiotherapy in routine: The radiation oncologist's point of view].

    PubMed

    Henriques de Figueiredo, B; Petit, A; Sargos, P; Kantor, G; Pouypoudat, C; Saut, O; Zacharatou, C; Antoine, M

    2015-10-01

    Adaptive radiotherapy is defined as all processes leading to the modification of a treatment plan on the basis of patient-specific variations observed during the course of a treatment. This concept is currently of particular relevance due to the development of onboard volumetric imaging systems, which allow for daily viewing of variations in both tumour and organs at risk in terms of position, shape or volume. However, its application in routine clinical practice is limited due to the demanding nature of the processes involved (re-delineation and replanning) and increased dependence on available human resources. Even if "online" strategies, based on deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms, could lead to a reduction in both work and calculation time, for the moment their use is limited to the research field due to uncertainties surrounding the validity of results gathered. Other strategies without DIR can be used as "offline" or "hybrid offline-online" strategies that seem to offer a compromise between time consumption and therapeutic gain for the patient.

  6. Adaptive radiotherapy in lung cancer: dosimetric benefits and clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    Kataria, T; Bisht, S S; Goyal, S; Pushpan, L; Abhishek, A; Govardhan, HB; Kumar, V; Sharma, K; Jain, S; Basu, T; Srivastava, A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Anatomical changes during radiotherapy (RT) might introduce discrepancies between planned and delivered doses. This study evaluates the need for adaptive treatment in lung cancer RT. Methods: 15 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, undergoing radical RT with or without concurrent chemotherapy, consecutively underwent planning CT scans at baseline and after 44–46 Gy. Target volumes were delineated on both scans. Phase I delivered 44–46 Gy to the initial planning target volume (PTV). Two Phase II plans for 16–20 Gy were developed on initial and mid-treatment scans, the treatment being delivered with the mid-treatment plan. The second CT structure set was fused with the initial scan data set using dose wash. Volumetric and dosimetric changes in target volumes and critical structures were assessed. Results: There was significant reduction in primary gross tumour volume (34.00%; p = 0.02) and PTV (34.70%; p < 0.01) in the second scan. In Plan 2, delivering the same dose to the initial PTV would have resulted in a significantly higher dose to the lung PTV (V20, 52.18%; V5, 21.76%; mean, 23.93%), contralateral lung (mean, 29.43%), heart (V10, 81.47%; V5, 56.62%; mean, 35.21%) and spinal cord (maximum dose, 37.53%). Conclusion: Treatment replanning can account for anatomical changes during RT and thereby enable better normal tissue sparing, while allowing radical target doses with the possibility of maximizing local control. Advances in knowledge: This study supports the sparse dosimetric data regarding the quantitative tumour volume reduction, re-emphasizing the need for adaptive replanning for minimizing normal tissue toxicity without compromising local control, and adds to the existing body of literature. PMID:24628269

  7. Adaptive Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer: Initial Clinical Outcomes from a Prospective Trial

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, David L.; Garden, Adam S.; Thomas, Jimmy; Chen, Yipei; Zhang, Yongbin; Lewin, Jan; Chambers, Mark S.; Dong, Lei

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To present pilot toxicity and survival outcomes for a prospective trial investigating adaptive radiotherapy (ART) for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods Twenty-four patients enrolled onto an IRB-approved clinical trial. Twenty-two patients were analyzed. Daily CT-guided setup and deformable image registration permitted serial mapping of CTVs and avoidance structures for ART planning. Primary site was base of tongue in 15 patients, tonsil in 6, and glossopharyngeal sulcus in 1. Twenty (91%) patients had AJCC stage IV disease. T stage distribution was 2 T1, 12 T2, 3 T3, 5 T4 and N stage distribution was 1 N0, 2 N1, 5 N2a, 12 N2b, and 2 N2c. Twenty-one (95%) patients received systemic therapy. Results With 31 month median follow up (range: 13-45), there has been no primary site failure and 1 nodal relapse, yielding 100% local and 95% regional disease control at 2 years. Baseline tumor size correlated with absolute volumetric treatment response (p = 0.018). Parotid volumetric change correlated with duration of feeding tube placement (p = 0.025). Acute toxicity was comparable to conventional IMRT results. Chronic toxicity and functional outcomes beyond 1 year were tabulated. Discussion This is the first prospective evaluation of morbidity and survival outcomes in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer treated with automated adaptive replanning. ART can provide dosimetric benefit with only 1 or 2 mid-treatment replanning events. Our preliminary clinical outcomes document functional recovery and preservation of disease control at one-year follow-up and beyond. PMID:22138459

  8. A DVH-guided IMRT optimization algorithm for automatic treatment planning and adaptive radiotherapy replanning

    SciTech Connect

    Zarepisheh, Masoud; Li, Nan; Long, Troy; Romeijn, H. Edwin; Tian, Zhen; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a novel algorithm that incorporates prior treatment knowledge into intensity modulated radiation therapy optimization to facilitate automatic treatment planning and adaptive radiotherapy (ART) replanning. Methods: The algorithm automatically creates a treatment plan guided by the DVH curves of a reference plan that contains information on the clinician-approved dose-volume trade-offs among different targets/organs and among different portions of a DVH curve for an organ. In ART, the reference plan is the initial plan for the same patient, while for automatic treatment planning the reference plan is selected from a library of clinically approved and delivered plans of previously treated patients with similar medical conditions and geometry. The proposed algorithm employs a voxel-based optimization model and navigates the large voxel-based Pareto surface. The voxel weights are iteratively adjusted to approach a plan that is similar to the reference plan in terms of the DVHs. If the reference plan is feasible but not Pareto optimal, the algorithm generates a Pareto optimal plan with the DVHs better than the reference ones. If the reference plan is too restricting for the new geometry, the algorithm generates a Pareto plan with DVHs close to the reference ones. In both cases, the new plans have similar DVH trade-offs as the reference plans. Results: The algorithm was tested using three patient cases and found to be able to automatically adjust the voxel-weighting factors in order to generate a Pareto plan with similar DVH trade-offs as the reference plan. The algorithm has also been implemented on a GPU for high efficiency. Conclusions: A novel prior-knowledge-based optimization algorithm has been developed that automatically adjust the voxel weights and generate a clinical optimal plan at high efficiency. It is found that the new algorithm can significantly improve the plan quality and planning efficiency in ART replanning and automatic treatment

  9. The "Juggler" algorithm: a hybrid deformable image registration algorithm for adaptive radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Junyi; Chen, Yunmei; Samant, Sanjiv S.

    2007-03-01

    Fast deformable registration can potentially facilitate the clinical implementation of adaptive radiation therapy (ART), which allows for daily organ deformations not accounted for in radiotherapy treatment planning, which typically utilizes a static organ model, to be incorporated into the fractionated treatment. Existing deformable registration algorithms typically utilize a specific diffusion model, and require a large number of iterations to achieve convergence. This limits the online applications of deformable image registration for clinical radiotherapy, such as daily patient setup variations involving organ deformation, where high registration precision is required. We propose a hybrid algorithm, the "Juggler", based on a multi-diffusion model to achieve fast convergence. The Juggler achieves fast convergence by applying two different diffusion models: i) one being optimized quickly for matching high gradient features, i.e. bony anatomies; and ii) the other being optimized for further matching low gradient features, i.e. soft tissue. The regulation of these 2 competing criteria is achieved using a threshold of a similarity measure, such as cross correlation or mutual information. A multi-resolution scheme was applied for faster convergence involving large deformations. Comparisons of the Juggler algorithm were carried out with demons method, accelerated demons method, and free-form deformable registration using 4D CT lung imaging from 5 patients. Based on comparisons of difference images and similarity measure computations, the Juggler produced a superior registration result. It achieved the desired convergence within 30 iterations, and typically required <90sec to register two 3D image sets of size 256×256×40 using a 3.2 GHz PC. This hybrid registration strategy successfully incorporates the benefits of different diffusion models into a single unified model.

  10. Adaptive Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer Using Kilovoltage Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: First Clinical Results

    SciTech Connect

    Nijkamp, Jasper; Pos, Floris J. Nuver, Tonnis T.; Jong, Rianne de; Remeijer, Peter; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Lebesque, Joos V.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the first clinical results of an off-line adaptive radiotherapy (ART) protocol for prostate cancer using kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in combination with a diet and mild laxatives. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three patients began treatment with a planning target volume (PTV) margin of 10 mm. The CBCT scans acquired during the first six fractions were used to generate an average prostate clinical target volume (AV-CTV), and average rectum (AV-Rect). Using these structures, a new treatment plan was generated with a 7-mm PTV margin. Weekly CBCT scans were used to monitor the CTV coverage. A diet and mild laxatives were introduced to improve image quality and reduce prostate motion. Results: Twenty patients were treated with conform ART protocol. For these patients, 91% of the CBCT scans could be used to calculate the AV-CTV and AV-Rect. In 96% of the follow-up CBCT scans, the CTV was located within the average PTV. In the remaining 4%, the prostate extended the PTV by a maximum of 1 mm. Systematic and random errors for organ motion were reduced by a factor of two compared with historical data without diet and laxatives. An average PTV reduction of 29% was achieved. The volume of the AV-Rect that received >65 Gy was reduced by 19%. The mean dose to the anal wall was reduced on average by 4.8 Gy. Conclusions: We safely reduced the high-dose region by 29%. The reduction in irradiated volume led to a significant reduction in the dose to the rectum. The diet and laxatives improved the image quality and tended to reduce prostate motion.

  11. SU-E-J-245: Is Off-Line Adaptive Radiotherapy Sufficient for Head and Neck Cancer with IGRT?

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z; Shang, Q; Liu, H; Greskovich, J; Koyfman, S; Xia, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation doses delivered to patients with head and neck cancer (HN) may deviate from the planned doses because of variations in patient setup and anatomy. This study was to evaluate whether off-line Adaptive Radiotherapy (ART) is sufficient. Methods: Ten HN patients, who received IMRT under daily imaging guidance using CT-on-rail/KV-CBCT, were randomly selected for this study. For each patient, the daily treatment setup was corrected with translational only directions. Sixty weekly verification CTs were retrospectively analyzed. On these weekly verification CTs, the tumor volumes and OAR contours were manually delineated by a physician. With the treatment iso-center placed on the verification CTs, according to the recorded clinical shifts, the treatment beams from the original IMRT plans were then applied to these CTs to calculate the delivered doses. The electron density of the planning CTs and weekly CTs were overridden to 1 g/cm3. Results: Among 60 fractions, D99 of the CTVs in 4 fractions decreased more than 5% of the planned doses. The maximum dose of the spinal cord exceeded 10% of the planned values in 2 fractions. A close examination indicated that the dose discrepancy in these 6 fractions was due to patient rotations, especially shoulder rotations. After registering these 6 CTs with the planning CT allowing six degree of freedoms, the maximum rotations around 3 axes were > 1.5° for these fractions. With rotation setup errors removed, 4 out of 10 patients still required off-line ART to accommodate anatomical changes. Conclusion: A significant shoulder rotations were observed in 10% fractions, requiring patient re-setup. Off-line ART alone is not sufficient to correct for random variations of patient position, although ART is effective to adapt to patients' gradual anatomic changes. Re-setup or on-line ART may be considered for patients with large deviations detected early by daily IGRT images. The study is supported in part by Siemens Medical

  12. MRI-guided prostate adaptive radiotherapy - A systematic review.

    PubMed

    McPartlin, A J; Li, X A; Kershaw, L E; Heide, U; Kerkmeijer, L; Lawton, C; Mahmood, U; Pos, F; van As, N; van Herk, M; Vesprini, D; van der Voort van Zyp, J; Tree, A; Choudhury, A

    2016-06-01

    Dose escalated radiotherapy improves outcomes for men with prostate cancer. A plateau for benefit from dose escalation using EBRT may not have been reached for some patients with higher risk disease. The use of increasingly conformal techniques, such as step and shoot IMRT or more recently VMAT, has allowed treatment intensification to be achieved whilst minimising associated increases in toxicity to surrounding normal structures. To support further safe dose escalation, the uncertainties in the treatment target position will need be minimised using optimal planning and image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). In particular the increasing usage of profoundly hypo-fractionated stereotactic therapy is predicated on the ability to confidently direct treatment precisely to the intended target for the duration of each treatment. This article reviews published studies on the influences of varies types of motion on daily prostate position and how these may be mitigated to improve IGRT in future. In particular the role that MRI has played in the generation of data is discussed and the potential role of the MR-Linac in next-generation IGRT is discussed. PMID:27162159

  13. A hybrid strategy of offline adaptive planning and online image guidance for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yu; Wu, Qiuwen

    2010-04-01

    Offline adaptive radiotherapy (ART) has been used to effectively correct and compensate for prostate motion and reduce the required margin. The efficacy depends on the characteristics of the patient setup error and interfraction motion through the whole treatment; specifically, systematic errors are corrected and random errors are compensated for through the margins. In online image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of prostate cancer, the translational setup error and inter-fractional prostate motion are corrected through pre-treatment imaging and couch correction at each fraction. However, the rotation and deformation of the target are not corrected and only accounted for with margins in treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the offline ART strategy is necessary for an online IGRT protocol and to evaluate the benefit of the hybrid strategy. First, to investigate the rationale of the hybrid strategy, 592 cone-beam-computed tomography (CBCT) images taken before and after each fraction for an online IGRT protocol from 16 patients were analyzed. Specifically, the characteristics of prostate rotation were analyzed. It was found that there exist systematic inter-fractional prostate rotations, and they are patient specific. These rotations, if not corrected, are persistent through the treatment fraction, and rotations detected in early fractions are representative of those in later fractions. These findings suggest that the offline adaptive replanning strategy is beneficial to the online IGRT protocol with further margin reductions. Second, to quantitatively evaluate the benefit of the hybrid strategy, 412 repeated helical CT scans from 25 patients during the course of treatment were included in the replanning study. Both low-risk patients (LRP, clinical target volume, CTV = prostate) and intermediate-risk patients (IRP, CTV = prostate + seminal vesicles) were included in the simulation. The contours of prostate and seminal vesicles were

  14. High performance computing for deformable image registration: towards a new paradigm in adaptive radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Samant, Sanjiv S; Xia, Junyi; Muyan-Ozcelik, Pinar; Owens, John D

    2008-08-01

    The advent of readily available temporal imaging or time series volumetric (4D) imaging has become an indispensable component of treatment planning and adaptive radiotherapy (ART) at many radiotherapy centers. Deformable image registration (DIR) is also used in other areas of medical imaging, including motion corrected image reconstruction. Due to long computation time, clinical applications of DIR in radiation therapy and elsewhere have been limited and consequently relegated to offline analysis. With the recent advances in hardware and software, graphics processing unit (GPU) based computing is an emerging technology for general purpose computation, including DIR, and is suitable for highly parallelized computing. However, traditional general purpose computation on the GPU is limited because the constraints of the available programming platforms. As well, compared to CPU programming, the GPU currently has reduced dedicated processor memory, which can limit the useful working data set for parallelized processing. We present an implementation of the demons algorithm using the NVIDIA 8800 GTX GPU and the new CUDA programming language. The GPU performance will be compared with single threading and multithreading CPU implementations on an Intel dual core 2.4 GHz CPU using the C programming language. CUDA provides a C-like language programming interface, and allows for direct access to the highly parallel compute units in the GPU. Comparisons for volumetric clinical lung images acquired using 4DCT were carried out. Computation time for 100 iterations in the range of 1.8-13.5 s was observed for the GPU with image size ranging from 2.0 x 10(6) to 14.2 x 10(6) pixels. The GPU registration was 55-61 times faster than the CPU for the single threading implementation, and 34-39 times faster for the multithreading implementation. For CPU based computing, the computational time generally has a linear dependence on image size for medical imaging data. Computational efficiency is

  15. Molecular PET imaging for biology-guided adaptive radiotherapy of head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Hoeben, Bianca A W; Bussink, Johan; Troost, Esther G C; Oyen, Wim J G; Kaanders, Johannes H A M

    2013-10-01

    Integration of molecular imaging PET techniques into therapy selection strategies and radiation treatment planning for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) can serve several purposes. First, pre-treatment assessments can steer decisions about radiotherapy modifications or combinations with other modalities. Second, biology-based objective functions can be introduced to the radiation treatment planning process by co-registration of molecular imaging with planning computed tomography (CT) scans. Thus, customized heterogeneous dose distributions can be generated with escalated doses to tumor areas where radiotherapy resistance mechanisms are most prevalent. Third, monitoring of temporal and spatial variations in these radiotherapy resistance mechanisms early during the course of treatment can discriminate responders from non-responders. With such information available shortly after the start of treatment, modifications can be implemented or the radiation treatment plan can be adapted tailing the biological response pattern. Currently, these strategies are in various phases of clinical testing, mostly in single-center studies. Further validation in multicenter set-up is needed. Ultimately, this should result in availability for routine clinical practice requiring stable production and accessibility of tracers, reproducibility and standardization of imaging and analysis methods, as well as general availability of knowledge and expertise. Small studies employing adaptive radiotherapy based on functional dynamics and early response mechanisms demonstrate promising results. In this context, we focus this review on the widely used PET tracer (18)F-FDG and PET tracers depicting hypoxia and proliferation; two well-known radiation resistance mechanisms.

  16. The Radio Language Arts Project: adapting the radio mathematics model.

    PubMed

    Christensen, P R

    1985-01-01

    Kenya's Radio Language Arts Project, directed by the Academy for Educational Development in cooperation with the Kenya Institute of Education in 1980-85, sought to teach English to rural school children in grades 1-3 through use of an intensive, radio-based instructional system. Daily 1/2 hour lessons are broadcast throughout the school year and supported by teachers and print materials. The project further was aimed at testing the feasibility of adaptation of the successful Nicaraguan Radio Math Project to a new subject area. Difficulties were encountered in articulating a language curriculum with the precision required for a media-based instructional system. Also a challenge was defining the acceptable regional standard for pronunciation and grammar; British English was finally selected. An important modification of the Radio Math model concerned the role of the teacher. While Radio Math sought to reduce the teacher's responsibilities during the broadcast, Radio Language Arts teachers played an important instructional role during the English lesson broadcasts by providing translation and checks on work. Evaluations of the Radio language Arts Project suggest significant gains in speaking, listening, and reading skills as well as high levels of satisfaction on the part of parents and teachers.

  17. Potential of Adaptive Radiotherapy to Escalate the Radiation Dose in Combined Radiochemotherapy for Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Guckenberger, Matthias; Wilbert, Juergen; Richter, Anne; Baier, Kurt; Flentje, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential of adaptive radiotherapy (ART) for advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in terms of lung sparing and dose escalation. Methods and Materials: In 13 patients with locally advanced NSCLC, weekly CT images were acquired during radio- (n = 1) or radiochemotherapy (n = 12) for simulation of ART. Three-dimensional (3D) conformal treatment plans were generated: conventionally fractionated doses of 66 Gy were prescribed to the planning target volume without elective lymph node irradiation (Plan{sub 3}D). Using a surface-based algorithm of deformable image registration, accumulated doses were calculated in the CT images acquired during the treatment course (Plan{sub 4}D). Field sizes were adapted to tumor shrinkage once in week 3 or 5 and twice in weeks 3 and 5. Results: A continuous tumor regression of 1.2% per day resulted in a residual gross tumor volume (GTV) of 49% {+-} 15% after six weeks of treatment. No systematic differences between Plan{sub 3}D and Plan{sub 4}D were observed regarding doses to the GTV, lung, and spinal cord. Plan adaptation to tumor shrinkage resulted in significantly decreased lung doses without compromising GTV coverage: single-plan adaptation in Week 3 or 5 and twice-plan adaptation in Weeks 3 and 5 reduced the mean lung dose by 5.0% {+-} 4.4%, 5.6% {+-} 2.9% and 7.9% {+-} 4.8%, respectively. This lung sparing with twice ART allowed an iso-mean lung dose escalation of the GTV dose from 66.8 Gy {+-} 0.8 Gy to 73.6 Gy {+-} 3.8 Gy. Conclusions: Adaptation of radiotherapy to continuous tumor shrinkage during the treatment course reduced doses to the lung, allowed significant dose escalation and has the potential of increased local control.

  18. Online Adaptive Radiotherapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Results of a Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Foroudi, Farshad; Wong, Jacky; Kron, Tomas; Rolfo, Aldo; Haworth, Annette; Roxby, Paul; Thomas, Jessica; Herschtal, A.; Pham, Daniel; Williams, Scott; Tai, Keen Hun; Duchesne, Gillian

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the advantages and disadvantages of daily online adaptive image-guided radiotherapy (RT) compared with conventional RT for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty-seven patients with T2-T4 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder were treated with daily online adaptive image-guided RT using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). From day 1 daily soft tissue-based isocenter positioning was performed using CBCT images acquired before treatment. Using a composite of the initial planning CT and the first five daily CBCT scans, small, medium, and large adaptive plans were created. Each of these adaptive plans used a 0.5-cm clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume expansion. For Fractions 8-32, treatment involved daily soft tissue-based isocenter positioning and selection of suitable adaptive plan of the day. Treating radiation therapists completed a credentialing program, and one radiation oncologist performed all the contouring. Comparisons were made between adaptive and conventional treatment on the basis of CTV coverage and normal tissue sparing. Results: All 27 patients completed treatment per protocol. Bladder volume decreased with time or fraction number (p < 0.0001). For the adaptive component (Fractions 8-32) the small, medium, large, and conventional plans were used in 9.8%, 49.2%, 39.5%, and 1.5% of fractions, respectively. For the adaptive strategy, 2.7% of occasions resulted in a CTV V95 <99%, compared with 4.8% of occasions for the conventional approach (p = 0.42). Mean volume of normal tissue receiving a dose >45 Gy was 29% (95% confidence interval, 24-35%) less with adaptive RT compared with conventional RT. The mean volume of normal tissue receiving >5 Gy was 15% (95% confidence interval, 11-18%) less with adaptive RT compared with conventional RT. Conclusions: Online adaptive radiotherapy is feasible in an academic radiotherapy center. The volume of normal tissue irradiated can be significantly

  19. Adaptive Radiotherapy Planning on Decreasing Gross Tumor Volumes as Seen on Megavoltage Computed Tomography Images

    SciTech Connect

    Woodford, Curtis; Yartsev, Slav Dar, A. Rashid; Bauman, Glenn; Van Dyk, Jake

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate gross tumor volume (GTV) changes for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer by using daily megavoltage (MV) computed tomography (CT) studies acquired before each treatment fraction on helical tomotherapy and to relate the potential benefit of adaptive image-guided radiotherapy to changes in GTV. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients were prescribed 30 fractions of radiotherapy on helical tomotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer at London Regional Cancer Program from Dec 2005 to March 2007. The GTV was contoured on the daily MVCT studies of each patient. Adapted plans were created using merged MVCT-kilovoltage CT image sets to investigate the advantages of replanning for patients with differing GTV regression characteristics. Results: Average GTV change observed over 30 fractions was -38%, ranging from -12 to -87%. No significant correlation was observed between GTV change and patient's physical or tumor features. Patterns of GTV changes in the 17 patients could be divided broadly into three groups with distinctive potential for benefit from adaptive planning. Conclusions: Changes in GTV are difficult to predict quantitatively based on patient or tumor characteristics. If changes occur, there are points in time during the treatment course when it may be appropriate to adapt the plan to improve sparing of normal tissues. If GTV decreases by greater than 30% at any point in the first 20 fractions of treatment, adaptive planning is appropriate to further improve the therapeutic ratio.

  20. SU-E-J-68: Adaptive Radiotherapy of Head and Neck Cancer: Re-Planning Based On Prior Dose

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, N; Padgett, K; Evans, J; Sleeman, W; Song, S; Fatyga, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Adaptive Radiotherapy (ART) with frequent CT imaging has been used to improve dosimetric accuracy by accounting for anatomical variations, such as primary tumor shrinkage and/or body weight loss, in Head and Neck (H&N) patients. In most ART strategies, the difference between the planned and the delivered dose is estimated by generating new plans on repeated CT scans using dose-volume constraints used with the initial planning CT without considering already delivered dose. The aim of this study was to assess the dosimetric gains achieved by re-planning based on prior dose by comparing them to re-planning not based-on prior dose for H&N patients. Methods: Ten locally-advanced H&N cancer patients were selected for this study. For each patient, six weekly CT imaging were acquired during the course of radiotherapy. PTVs, parotids, cord, brainstem, and esophagus were contoured on both planning and six weekly CT images. ART with weekly re-plans were done by two strategies: 1) Generating a new optimized IMRT plan without including prior dose from previous fractions (NoPriorDose) and 2) Generating a new optimized IMRT plan based on the prior dose given from previous fractions (PriorDose). Deformable image registration was used to accumulate the dose distributions between planning and six weekly CT scans. The differences in accumulated doses for both strategies were evaluated using the DVH constraints for all structures. Results: On average, the differences in accumulated doses for PTV1, PTV2 and PTV3 for NoPriorDose and PriorDose strategies were <2%. The differences in Dmean to the cord and brainstem were within 3%. The esophagus Dmean was reduced by 2% using PriorDose. PriorDose strategy, however, reduced the left parotid D50 and Dmean by 15% and 14% respectively. Conclusion: This study demonstrated significant parotid sparing, potentially reducing xerostomia, by using ART with IMRT optimization based on prior dose for weekly re-planning of H&N cancer patients.

  1. Adaptive trial of personalized radiotherapy for intrahepatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Charlie; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Lawrence, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    Primary liver cancer is a major health problem worldwide, with more than 500,000 new cases diagnosed yearly. Preliminary results suggest excellent local control rates of intrahepatic malignancies treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), but some patients have experienced life-threatening toxicity because the current approaches cannot accurately estimate residual liver function after treatment. An early-phase trial of SBRT in hepatocellular carcinoma patients, including those with compromised liver function, is described. Patients are treated with three fractions of SBRT, then treatment is paused for 4 weeks and liver function is evaluated by means of an indocyanine green assay. The size of the final two fractions of SBRT is determined based on the patient’s indocyanine green assay after the first three fractions, so that the therapy is personalized to each patient’s sensitivity to radiation. The sensitivity to the liver of the final two fractions of SBRT, compared with the first three fractions, is re-estimated using a Bayesian model throughout the trial, so this is an adaptive trial. The operating characteristics of the trial are described by Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:20448804

  2. CTV to PTV in cervical cancer: From static margins to adaptive radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sun, R; Mazeron, R; Chargari, C; Barillot, I

    2016-10-01

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is increasingly used in order to minimize the gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and hematological toxicity in cervical and uterine cancers. However, the benefit of this high-precision approach is detracted by the margins applied to the clinical target volume (CTV) to generate the planning tumor volume (PTV), taking into account tumor and surrounding organs movements, deformations, and volume changes. Adequate PTV margins should be large enough to prevent geographical misses, but not excessive, which might end the benefit from IMRT. The objectives of this review were: (a) to present the evidence available for the determination of CTV-PTV margin for uterine cancers; (b) to highlight the impact of these margins in the context of adaptive radiotherapy; and (c) to discuss the role of the PTV concept in intracavitary brachytherapy.

  3. SU-E-J-145: Geometric Uncertainty in CBCT Extrapolation for Head and Neck Adaptive Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C; Kumarasiri, A; Chetvertkov, M; Gordon, J; Chetty, I; Siddiqui, F; Kim, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: One primary limitation of using CBCT images for H'N adaptive radiotherapy (ART) is the limited field of view (FOV) range. We propose a method to extrapolate the CBCT by using a deformed planning CT for the dose of the day calculations. The aim was to estimate the geometric uncertainty of our extrapolation method. Methods: Ten H'N patients, each with a planning CT (CT1) and a subsequent CT (CT2) taken, were selected. Furthermore, a small FOV CBCT (CT2short) was synthetically created by cropping CT2 to the size of a CBCT image. Then, an extrapolated CBCT (CBCTextrp) was generated by deformably registering CT1 to CT2short and resampling with a wider FOV (42mm more from the CT2short borders), where CT1 is deformed through translation, rigid, affine, and b-spline transformations in order. The geometric error is measured as the distance map ||DVF|| produced by a deformable registration between CBCTextrp and CT2. Mean errors were calculated as a function of the distance away from the CBCT borders. The quality of all the registrations was visually verified. Results: Results were collected based on the average numbers from 10 patients. The extrapolation error increased linearly as a function of the distance (at a rate of 0.7mm per 1 cm) away from the CBCT borders in the S/I direction. The errors (μ±σ) at the superior and inferior boarders were 0.8 ± 0.5mm and 3.0 ± 1.5mm respectively, and increased to 2.7 ± 2.2mm and 5.9 ± 1.9mm at 4.2cm away. The mean error within CBCT borders was 1.16 ± 0.54mm . The overall errors within 4.2cm error expansion were 2.0 ± 1.2mm (sup) and 4.5 ± 1.6mm (inf). Conclusion: The overall error in inf direction is larger due to more large unpredictable deformations in the chest. The error introduced by extrapolation is plan dependent. The mean error in the expanded region can be large, and must be considered during implementation. This work is supported in part by Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA.

  4. Dose Escalation for Locally Advanced Lung Cancer using Adaptive Radiotherapy with Simultaneous Integrated Volume-Adapted Boost

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Elisabeth; Fatyga, Mirek; Wu, Yan; Dogan, Nesrin; Balik, Salim; Sleeman, William; Hugo, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Test the feasibility of a planned phase I study of image-guided adaptive radiotherapy in locally advanced lung cancer. Methods and Materials Weekly 4D FBCTs of ten lung cancer patients undergoing concurrent radiochemotherapy were used to simulate adaptive radiotherapy: After an initial IMRT plan (0–30 Gy/2 Gy), adaptive replanning was performed on week 2 (30 to 50 Gy/2 Gy) and week 4 scans (50 to 66 Gy/2 Gy) to adjust for volume and shape changes of primary tumors and lymph nodes. Week 2 and 4 clinical target volumes (CTV) were deformably warped from the initial planning scan to adjust for anatomical changes. On week 4 scan a simultaneous integrated volume-adapted boost was created to the shrunken PT with dose increases in five 0.4 Gy steps from 66 Gy to 82 Gy in two scenarios: Plan A. lung isotoxicity and B. normal tissue tolerance. Cumulative dose was assessed by deformably mapping and accumulating biologically equivalent dose normalized to 2 Gy-fractions (EQD2). Results The 82 Gy level was achieved in 1/10 patients in scenario A resulting in a 13.4 Gy EQD2 increase and a 22.1% increase in tumor control probability (TCP) compared to the 66 Gy plan. In scenario B, 2 patients reached the 82 Gy level with a 13.9 Gy EQD2 and 23.4% TCP increase. Conclusions The tested IGART strategy enabled relevant increases in EQD2 and TCP. Normal tissue was often dose limiting, indicating a need to modify the present study design prior to clinical implementation. PMID:23523321

  5. SU-E-J-267: Weekly Volumetric and Dosimetric Changes in Adaptive Conformal Radiotherapy of Non-Small-Cell-Lung Cancer Using 4D CT and Gating

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z; Shang, Q; Xiong, F; Zhang, X; Zhang, Q; Fu, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This study was to evaluate the significance of weekly imageguided patient setup and to assess the volumetric and dosimetric changes in no-small-cell-lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with adaptive conformal radiotherapy (CRT). Methods: 9 NSCLC patients treated with 3D CRT underwent 4D CT-on-rail every five fractions. ITV was generated from three phases of the 4DCT (the end of exhalation, 25% before and after the end of exhalation). The margin of ITV to PTV is 5mm. 6 weekly CTs were acquired for each patient. The weekly CTs were fused with the planning CT by vertebrae. The couch shift was recorded for each weekly CT to evaluate the setup error. The gross tumor volumes (GTVs) were contoured on weekly CT images by a physician. Beams from the original plans were applied to weekly CTs to calculate the delivered doses. All patients underwent replanning after 20 fractions. Results: Among the total 54 CTs, the average setup error was 2.0± 1.7, 2.6± 2.1, 2.7± 2.2 mm in X, Y, and Z direction, respectively. The average volume of the primary GTV was reduced from 42.45 cc to 22.78 cc (47.04%) after 6 weeks. The maximal volume regression occurred between 15 and 20 fractions. Adaptive radiation therapy (ART) reduced the V20 and V5 of the lung by 33.5% and 16.89%, respectively. ART also reduced Dmean and D1/3 of the heart by 31.7% and 32.32%, respectively. Dmax of the spinal cord did not vary much during the treatment course. Conclusion: 5 mm margin is sufficient for 4D weekly CTguided radiotherapy in lung cancer. Tumor regression was observed in the majority of patients. ART significantly reduced the OARs dose. Our preliminary results indicated that an off-line ART approach is appropriate in clinical practice.

  6. SU-E-J-81: Adaptive Radiotherapy for IMRT Head & Neck Patient in AKUH

    SciTech Connect

    Yousuf, A; Qureshi, B; Qadir, A; Abbasi, N; Hussain, A

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In this study we proposed Adaptive radiotherapy for IMRT patients which will brought an additional dimension to the management of patients with H&N cancer in Aga Khan University Hospital. Methods: In this study 5 Head and Neck (H&N) patients plan where selected, who’s Re-CT were done during the course of their treatment, they were simulated with IMRT technique to learn the consequence of anatomical changes that may occur during the treatment, as they are more dramatic changes can occur as compare to conventional treatment. All the organ at risk were drawn according RTOG guidelines and doses were checked as per NCCN guidelines. Results: The reduction in size of Planning target volume (PTV) is more than 20% in all the cases which leads to 3 to 5 % overdose to normal tissues and Organ at Risk. Conclusion: Through this study we would like to emphasis the importance of Adaptive Radiotherapy practice in all IMRT (H&N) patients, although prospective studies are required with larger sample sizes to address the safety and the clinical effect of such approaches on patient outcome, also one need to develop protocols before implementation of this technique in practice.

  7. Investigation of the robustness of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for tracking moving tumors in external radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Torshabi, Ahmad Esmaili

    2014-12-01

    In external radiotherapy of dynamic targets such as lung and breast cancers, accurate correlation models are utilized to extract real time tumor position by means of external surrogates in correlation with the internal motion of tumors. In this study, a correlation method based on the neuro-fuzzy model is proposed to correlate the input external motion data with internal tumor motion estimation in real-time mode, due to its robustness in motion tracking. An initial test of the performance of this model was reported in our previous studies. In this work by implementing some modifications it is resulted that ANFIS is still robust to track tumor motion more reliably by reducing the motion estimation error remarkably. After configuring new version of our ANFIS model, its performance was retrospectively tested over ten patients treated with Synchrony Cyberknife system. In order to assess the performance of our model, the predicted tumor motion as model output was compared with respect to the state of the art model. Final analyzed results show that our adaptive neuro-fuzzy model can reduce tumor tracking errors more significantly, as compared with ground truth database and even tumor tracking methods presented in our previous works. PMID:25412886

  8. Image-guided adaptive gating of lung cancer radiotherapy: a computer simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristophanous, Michalis; Rottmann, Joerg; Park, Sang-June; Nishioka, Seiko; Shirato, Hiroki; Berbeco, Ross I.

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect that image-guided adaptation of the gating window during treatment could have on the residual tumor motion, by simulating different gated radiotherapy techniques. There are three separate components of this simulation: (1) the 'Hokkaido Data', which are previously measured 3D data of lung tumor motion tracks and the corresponding 1D respiratory signals obtained during the entire ungated radiotherapy treatments of eight patients, (2) the respiratory gating protocol at our institution and the imaging performed under that protocol and (3) the actual simulation in which the Hokkaido Data are used to select tumor position information that could have been collected based on the imaging performed under our gating protocol. We simulated treatments with a fixed gating window and a gating window that is updated during treatment. The patient data were divided into different fractions, each with continuous acquisitions longer than 2 min. In accordance to the imaging performed under our gating protocol, we assume that we have tumor position information for the first 15 s of treatment, obtained from kV fluoroscopy, and for the rest of the fractions the tumor position is only available during the beam-on time from MV imaging. The gating window was set according to the information obtained from the first 15 s such that the residual motion was less than 3 mm. For the fixed gating window technique the gate remained the same for the entire treatment, while for the adaptive technique the range of the tumor motion during beam-on time was measured and used to adapt the gating window to keep the residual motion below 3 mm. The algorithm used to adapt the gating window is described. The residual tumor motion inside the gating window was reduced on average by 24% for the patients with regular breathing patterns and the difference was statistically significant (p-value = 0.01). The magnitude of the residual tumor motion depended on the

  9. Organizational Adaptation of Liberal Arts Colleges during the Great Recession of 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilbun, Ashlie Junot; Mamiseishvili, Ketevan

    2016-01-01

    The study we report here explored how private liberal arts colleges adapted to the Great Recession of 2007. We examined institutional changes at three private liberal arts colleges and their effects on the institutions' operations. For this multiple-case study we analyzed data from three colleges in the southeastern region of the United States;…

  10. An automatic dose verification system for adaptive radiotherapy for helical tomotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Xiaohu; Chen, Mingli; Parnell, Donald; Olivera, Gustavo; Galmarini, Daniel; Lu, Weiguo

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: During a typical 5-7 week treatment of external beam radiotherapy, there are potential differences between planned patient's anatomy and positioning, such as patient weight loss, or treatment setup. The discrepancies between planned and delivered doses resulting from these differences could be significant, especially in IMRT where dose distributions tightly conforms to target volumes while avoiding organs-at-risk. We developed an automatic system to monitor delivered dose using daily imaging. Methods: For each treatment, a merged image is generated by registering the daily pre-treatment setup image and planning CT using treatment position information extracted from the Tomotherapy archive. The treatment dose is then computed on this merged image using our in-house convolution-superposition based dose calculator implemented on GPU. The deformation field between merged and planning CT is computed using the Morphon algorithm. The planning structures and treatment doses are subsequently warped for analysis and dose accumulation. All results are saved in DICOM format with private tags and organized in a database. Due to the overwhelming amount of information generated, a customizable tolerance system is used to flag potential treatment errors or significant anatomical changes. A web-based system and a DICOM-RT viewer were developed for reporting and reviewing the results. Results: More than 30 patients were analysed retrospectively. Our in-house dose calculator passed 97% gamma test evaluated with 2% dose difference and 2mm distance-to-agreement compared with Tomotherapy calculated dose, which is considered sufficient for adaptive radiotherapy purposes. Evaluation of the deformable registration through visual inspection showed acceptable and consistent results, except for cases with large or unrealistic deformation. Our automatic flagging system was able to catch significant patient setup errors or anatomical changes. Conclusions: We developed an automatic dose

  11. Dosimetric benefit of adaptive re-planning in pancreatic cancer stereotactic body radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongbao; Hoisak, Jeremy D P; Li, Nan; Jiang, Carrie; Tian, Zhen; Gautier, Quentin; Zarepisheh, Masoud; Wu, Zhaoxia; Liu, Yaqiang; Jia, Xun; Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona; Mell, Loren K; Jiang, Steve; Murphy, James D

    2015-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) shows promise in unresectable pancreatic cancer, though this treatment modality has high rates of normal tissue toxicity. This study explores the dosimetric utility of daily adaptive re-planning with pancreas SBRT. We used a previously developed supercomputing online re-planning environment (SCORE) to re-plan 10 patients with pancreas SBRT. Tumor and normal tissue contours were deformed from treatment planning computed tomographies (CTs) and transferred to daily cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans before re-optimizing each daily treatment plan. We compared the intended radiation dose, the actual radiation dose, and the optimized radiation dose for the pancreas tumor planning target volume (PTV) and the duodenum. Treatment re-optimization improved coverage of the PTV and reduced dose to the duodenum. Within the PTV, the actual hot spot (volume receiving 110% of the prescription dose) decreased from 4.5% to 0.5% after daily adaptive re-planning. Within the duodenum, the volume receiving the prescription dose decreased from 0.9% to 0.3% after re-planning. It is noteworthy that variation in the amount of air within a patient׳s stomach substantially changed dose to the PTV. Adaptive re-planning with pancreas SBRT has the ability to improve dose to the tumor and decrease dose to the nearby duodenum, thereby reducing the risk of toxicity. PMID:26002122

  12. SU-E-J-74: Dosimetric Advantages of Adaptive Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer Are Confirmed with Weekly CBCT Images

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, Q; Li, Z; Qu, H; Ward, M; Greskovich, J; Koyfman, S; Xia, P

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Our previous study showed that weekly dose monitoring using cone-beam CT (CBCT) images can guide the timing and need for adaptive re-planning during the treatment of head and neck (HN) cancer. Here we aim to confirm the dosimetric improvement of adaptive radiotherapy (ART) using weekly CBCTs. Methods: We randomly selected seven HN patients treated with ART due to noticeable anatomic changes. Twenty weekly images acquired during the second treatment course were included. These CBCTs were aligned with both the initial and re-planning simulation CTs according to the clinical shifts. Daily doses were re-calculated for both the initial and adaptive plans. Contours of the tumor and organs-at-risk (OARs) were manually delineated by a physician on the re-planning CT and then were transferred to the CBCTs for plan evaluation. Contour modifications were made based on the daily anatomic changes observed on CBCTs. All patients were treated with 70Gy to the primary tumor and 56Gy to the elective lymph nodes. Results: Volumetric changes of the tumor (range — 43.9%∼+15.9%) were observed. The average D99 to the primary tumor was (70.1±2.0)Gy (range 62.2∼72.5Gy) for the adaptive plan and (66.0±5.5)Gy (range 50.9∼70.7Gy) for the initial plan(p<<0.01). The average D99 to the elective neck was (56.3±1.3)Gy (range 52.8∼59.2Gy) for the adaptive plan and (52.4±7.0)Gy (range 37.7∼58.6Gy) for the initial plan(p=0.01). The parotid decreased in volume during the treatment course (range 7.3%∼42.2%). The average D-mean to the spared parotid decreased by 15.3% (p=0.002) for the adaptive plan when compared to the original. With ART, 4 out of 7 patients experienced better sparing of the spinal cord (D-max reduced by 2.5%∼10.2%) and the oral cavity (D-mean reduced by 3.5%∼20.1%). Conclusion: Weekly CBCT dosimetry confirms that ART is an effective method to accommodate on-treatment anatomic changes. In select patients, tumor coverage and OAR sparing may be improved

  13. Adaptation effects to attractiveness of face photographs and art portraits are domain-specific

    PubMed Central

    Hayn-Leichsenring, Gregor U.; Kloth, Nadine; Schweinberger, Stefan R.; Redies, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    We studied the neural coding of facial attractiveness by investigating effects of adaptation to attractive and unattractive human faces on the perceived attractiveness of veridical human face pictures (Experiment 1) and art portraits (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 revealed a clear pattern of contrastive aftereffects. Relative to a pre-adaptation baseline, the perceived attractiveness of faces was increased after adaptation to unattractive faces, and was decreased after adaptation to attractive faces. Experiment 2 revealed similar aftereffects when art portraits rather than face photographs were used as adaptors and test stimuli, suggesting that effects of adaptation to attractiveness are not restricted to facial photographs. Additionally, we found similar aftereffects in art portraits for beauty, another aesthetic feature that, unlike attractiveness, relates to the properties of the image (rather than to the face displayed). Importantly, Experiment 3 showed that aftereffects were abolished when adaptors were art portraits and face photographs were test stimuli. These results suggest that adaptation to facial attractiveness elicits aftereffects in the perception of subsequently presented faces, for both face photographs and art portraits, and that these effects do not cross image domains. PMID:24349690

  14. Utilising pseudo-CT data for dose calculation and plan optimization in adaptive radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Brendan; Kumar, Shivani; Dowling, Jason; Begg, Jarrad; Lambert, Jonathan; Lim, Karen; Vinod, Shalini K; Greer, Peter B; Holloway, Lois

    2015-12-01

    To quantify the dose calculation error and resulting optimization uncertainty caused by performing inverse treatment planning on inaccurate electron density data (pseudo-CT) as needed for adaptive radiotherapy and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) based treatment planning. Planning Computer Tomography (CT) data from 10 cervix cancer patients was used to generate 4 pseudo-CT data sets. Each pseudo-CT was created based on an available method of assigning electron density to an anatomic image. An inversely modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plan was developed on each planning CT. The dose calculation error caused by each pseudo-CT data set was quantified by comparing the dose calculated each pseudo-CT data set with that calculated on the original planning CT for the same IMRT plan. The optimization uncertainty introduced by the dose calculation error was quantified by re-optimizing the same optimization parameters on each pseudo-CT data set and comparing against the original planning CT. Dose differences were quantified by assessing the Equivalent Uniform Dose (EUD) for targets and relevant organs at risk. Across all pseudo-CT data sets and all organs, the absolute mean dose calculation error was 0.2 Gy, and was within 2 % of the prescription dose in 98.5 % of cases. Then absolute mean optimisation error was 0.3 Gy EUD, indicating that that inverse optimisation is impacted by the dose calculation error. However, the additional uncertainty introduced to plan optimisation is small compared the sources of variation which already exist. Use of inaccurate electron density data for inverse treatment planning results in a dose calculation error, which in turn introduces additional uncertainty into the plan optimization process. In this study, we showed that both of these effects are clinically acceptable for cervix cancer patients using four different pseudo-CT data sets. Dose calculation and inverse optimization on pseudo-CT is feasible for this patient cohort.

  15. Tumor Volume-Adapted Dosing in Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy of Lung Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Trakul, Nicholas; Chang, Christine N.; Harris, Jeremy; Chapman, Christopher; Rao, Aarti; Shen, John; Quinlan-Davidson, Sean; Filion, Edith J.; Wakelee, Heather A.; Colevas, A. Dimitrios; Whyte, Richard I.; and others

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Current stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) protocols for lung tumors prescribe a uniform dose regimen irrespective of tumor size. We report the outcomes of a lung tumor volume-adapted SABR dosing strategy. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes in 111 patients with a total of 138 primary or metastatic lung tumors treated by SABR, including local control, regional control, distant metastasis, overall survival, and treatment toxicity. We also performed subset analysis on 83 patients with 97 tumors treated with a volume-adapted dosing strategy in which small tumors (gross tumor volume <12 mL) received single-fraction regimens with biologically effective doses (BED) <100 Gy (total dose, 18-25 Gy) (Group 1), and larger tumors (gross tumor volume {>=}12 mL) received multifraction regimens with BED {>=}100 Gy (total dose, 50-60 Gy in three to four fractions) (Group 2). Results: The median follow-up time was 13.5 months. Local control for Groups 1 and 2 was 91.4% and 92.5%, respectively (p = 0.24) at 12 months. For primary lung tumors only (excluding metastases), local control was 92.6% and 91.7%, respectively (p = 0.58). Regional control, freedom from distant metastasis, and overall survival did not differ significantly between Groups 1 and 2. Rates of radiation pneumonitis, chest wall toxicity, and esophagitis were low in both groups, but all Grade 3 toxicities developed in Group 2 (p = 0.02). Conclusion: A volume-adapted dosing approach for SABR of lung tumors seems to provide excellent local control for both small- and large-volume tumors and may reduce toxicity.

  16. Practical Method of Adaptive Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer Using Real-Time Electromagnetic Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Jeffrey R.; Noel, Camille E.; Baker, Kenneth; Santanam, Lakshmi; Michalski, Jeff M.; Parikh, Parag J.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: We have created an automated process using real-time tracking data to evaluate the adequacy of planning target volume (PTV) margins in prostate cancer, allowing a process of adaptive radiotherapy with minimal physician workload. We present an analysis of PTV adequacy and a proposed adaptive process. Methods and Materials: Tracking data were analyzed for 15 patients who underwent step-and-shoot multi-leaf collimation (SMLC) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with uniform 5-mm PTV margins for prostate cancer using the Calypso Registered-Sign Localization System. Additional plans were generated with 0- and 3-mm margins. A custom software application using the planned dose distribution and structure location from computed tomography (CT) simulation was developed to evaluate the dosimetric impact to the target due to motion. The dose delivered to the prostate was calculated for the initial three, five, and 10 fractions, and for the entire treatment. Treatment was accepted as adequate if the minimum delivered prostate dose (D{sub min}) was at least 98% of the planned D{sub min}. Results: For 0-, 3-, and 5-mm PTV margins, adequate treatment was obtained in 3 of 15, 12 of 15, and 15 of 15 patients, and the delivered D{sub min} ranged from 78% to 99%, 96% to 100%, and 99% to 100% of the planned D{sub min}. Changes in D{sub min} did not correlate with magnitude of prostate motion. Treatment adequacy during the first 10 fractions predicted sufficient dose delivery for the entire treatment for all patients and margins. Conclusions: Our adaptive process successfully used real-time tracking data to predict the need for PTV modifications, without the added burden of physician contouring and image analysis. Our methods are applicable to other uses of real-time tracking, including hypofractionated treatment.

  17. Evolution of motion uncertainty in rectal cancer: implications for adaptive radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleijnen, Jean-Paul J. E.; van Asselen, Bram; Burbach, Johannes P. M.; Intven, Martijn; Philippens, Marielle E. P.; Reerink, Onne; Lagendijk, Jan J. W.; Raaymakers, Bas W.

    2016-01-01

    Reduction of motion uncertainty by applying adaptive radiotherapy strategies depends largely on the temporal behavior of this motion. To fully optimize adaptive strategies, insight into target motion is needed. The purpose of this study was to analyze stability and evolution in time of motion uncertainty of both the gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) for patients with rectal cancer. We scanned 16 patients daily during one week, on a 1.5 T MRI scanner in treatment position, prior to each radiotherapy fraction. Single slice sagittal cine MRIs were made at the beginning, middle, and end of each scan session, for one minute at 2 Hz temporal resolution. GTV and CTV motion were determined by registering a delineated reference frame to time-points later in time. The 95th percentile of observed motion (dist95%) was taken as a measure of motion. The stability of motion in time was evaluated within each cine-MRI separately. The evolution of motion was investigated between the reference frame and the cine-MRIs of a single scan session and between the reference frame and the cine-MRIs of several days later in the course of treatment. This observed motion was then converted into a PTV-margin estimate. Within a one minute cine-MRI scan, motion was found to be stable and small. Independent of the time-point within the scan session, the average dist95% remains below 3.6 mm and 2.3 mm for CTV and GTV, respectively 90% of the time. We found similar motion over time intervals from 18 min to 4 days. When reducing the time interval from 18 min to 1 min, a large reduction in motion uncertainty is observed. A reduction in motion uncertainty, and thus the PTV-margin estimate, of 71% and 75% for CTV and tumor was observed, respectively. Time intervals of 15 and 30 s yield no further reduction in motion uncertainty compared to a 1 min time interval.

  18. Evolution of motion uncertainty in rectal cancer: implications for adaptive radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kleijnen, Jean-Paul J E; van Asselen, Bram; Burbach, Johannes P M; Intven, Martijn; Philippens, Marielle E P; Reerink, Onne; Lagendijk, Jan J W; Raaymakers, Bas W

    2016-01-01

    Reduction of motion uncertainty by applying adaptive radiotherapy strategies depends largely on the temporal behavior of this motion. To fully optimize adaptive strategies, insight into target motion is needed. The purpose of this study was to analyze stability and evolution in time of motion uncertainty of both the gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) for patients with rectal cancer. We scanned 16 patients daily during one week, on a 1.5 T MRI scanner in treatment position, prior to each radiotherapy fraction. Single slice sagittal cine MRIs were made at the beginning, middle, and end of each scan session, for one minute at 2 Hz temporal resolution. GTV and CTV motion were determined by registering a delineated reference frame to time-points later in time. The 95th percentile of observed motion (dist95%) was taken as a measure of motion. The stability of motion in time was evaluated within each cine-MRI separately. The evolution of motion was investigated between the reference frame and the cine-MRIs of a single scan session and between the reference frame and the cine-MRIs of several days later in the course of treatment. This observed motion was then converted into a PTV-margin estimate. Within a one minute cine-MRI scan, motion was found to be stable and small. Independent of the time-point within the scan session, the average dist95% remains below 3.6 mm and 2.3 mm for CTV and GTV, respectively 90% of the time. We found similar motion over time intervals from 18 min to 4 days. When reducing the time interval from 18 min to 1 min, a large reduction in motion uncertainty is observed. A reduction in motion uncertainty, and thus the PTV-margin estimate, of 71% and 75% for CTV and tumor was observed, respectively. Time intervals of 15 and 30 s yield no further reduction in motion uncertainty compared to a 1 min time interval.

  19. Dosimetric and geometric evaluation of a hybrid strategy of offline adaptive planning and online image guidance for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Han; Wu, Qiuwen

    2011-08-01

    For prostate cancer patients, online image-guided (IG) radiotherapy has been widely used in clinic to correct the translational inter-fractional motion at each treatment fraction. For uncertainties that cannot be corrected online, such as rotation and deformation of the target volume, margins are still required to be added to the clinical target volume (CTV) for the treatment planning. Offline adaptive radiotherapy has been implemented to optimize the treatment for each individual patient based on the measurements at early stages of treatment process. It has been shown that offline adaptive radiotherapy can effectively reduce the required margin. Recently a hybrid strategy of offline adaptive replanning and online IG was proposed and the geometric evaluation was performed. It was found that the planning margins can further be reduced by 1-2 mm compared to online IG only strategy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dosimetric benefits of such a hybrid strategy on the target and organs at risk. A total of 420 repeated helical computed tomography scans from 28 patients were included in the study. Both low-risk patients (LRP, CTV = prostate) and intermediate-risk patients (IRP, CTV = prostate + seminal vesicles, SV) were included in the simulation. Two registration methods, based on center-of-mass shift of prostate only and prostate plus SV, were performed for IRP. The intensity-modulated radiotherapy was used in the simulation. Criteria on both cumulative and fractional doses were evaluated. Furthermore, the geometric evaluation was extended to investigate the optimal number of fractions necessary to construct the internal target volume (ITV) for the hybrid strategy. The dosimetric margin improvement was smaller than its geometric counterpart and was in the range of 0-1 mm. The optimal number of fractions necessary for the ITV construction is 2 for LRPs and 3-4 for IRPs in a hypofractionation protocol. A new cumulative index of target volume was proposed

  20. A dosimetric comparison of real-time adaptive and non-adaptive radiotherapy: A multi-institutional study encompassing robotic, gimbaled, multileaf collimator and couch tracking

    PubMed Central

    Colvill, Emma; Booth, Jeremy; Nill, Simeon; Fast, Martin; Bedford, James; Oelfke, Uwe; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Poulsen, Per; Worm, Esben; Hansen, Rune; Ravkilde, Thomas; Scherman Rydhög, Jonas; Pommer, Tobias; Munck af Rosenschold, Per; Lang, Stephanie; Guckenberger, Matthias; Groh, Christian; Herrmann, Christian; Verellen, Dirk; Poels, Kenneth; Wang, Lei; Hadsell, Michael; Sothmann, Thilo; Blanck, Oliver; Keall, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A study of real-time adaptive radiotherapy systems was performed to test the hypothesis that, across delivery systems and institutions, the dosimetric accuracy is improved with adaptive treatments over non-adaptive radiotherapy in the presence of patient-measured tumor motion. Methods and materials Ten institutions with robotic(2), gimbaled(2), MLC(4) or couch tracking(2) used common materials including CT and structure sets, motion traces and planning protocols to create a lung and a prostate plan. For each motion trace, the plan was delivered twice to a moving dosimeter; with and without real-time adaptation. Each measurement was compared to a static measurement and the percentage of failed points for γ-tests recorded. Results For all lung traces all measurement sets show improved dose accuracy with a mean 2%/2 mm γ-fail rate of 1.6% with adaptation and 15.2% without adaptation (p < 0.001). For all prostate the mean 2%/2 mm γ-fail rate was 1.4% with adaptation and 17.3% without adaptation (p < 0.001). The difference between the four systems was small with an average 2%/2 mm γ-fail rate of <3% for all systems with adaptation for lung and prostate. Conclusions The investigated systems all accounted for realistic tumor motion accurately and performed to a similar high standard, with real-time adaptation significantly outperforming non-adaptive delivery methods. PMID:27016171

  1. Accurate respiration measurement using DC-coupled continuous-wave radar sensor for motion-adaptive cancer radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gu, Changzhan; Li, Ruijiang; Zhang, Hualiang; Fung, Albert Y C; Torres, Carlos; Jiang, Steve B; Li, Changzhi

    2012-11-01

    Accurate respiration measurement is crucial in motion-adaptive cancer radiotherapy. Conventional methods for respiration measurement are undesirable because they are either invasive to the patient or do not have sufficient accuracy. In addition, measurement of external respiration signal based on conventional approaches requires close patient contact to the physical device which often causes patient discomfort and undesirable motion during radiation dose delivery. In this paper, a dc-coupled continuous-wave radar sensor was presented to provide a noncontact and noninvasive approach for respiration measurement. The radar sensor was designed with dc-coupled adaptive tuning architectures that include RF coarse-tuning and baseband fine-tuning, which allows the radar sensor to precisely measure movement with stationary moment and always work with the maximum dynamic range. The accuracy of respiration measurement with the proposed radar sensor was experimentally evaluated using a physical phantom, human subject, and moving plate in a radiotherapy environment. It was shown that respiration measurement with radar sensor while the radiation beam is on is feasible and the measurement has a submillimeter accuracy when compared with a commercial respiration monitoring system which requires patient contact. The proposed radar sensor provides accurate, noninvasive, and noncontact respiration measurement and therefore has a great potential in motion-adaptive radiotherapy.

  2. A biological modeling based comparison of two strategies for adaptive radiotherapy of urinary bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Lutkenhaus, L J; Vestergaard, A; Bel, A; Høyer, M; Hulshof, M C C M; van Leeuwen, C M; Casares-Magaz, O; Petersen, J B; Søndergaard, J; Muren, L P

    2016-08-01

    Background Adaptive radiotherapy is introduced in the management of urinary bladder cancer to account for day-to-day anatomical changes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an adaptive plan selection strategy using either the first four cone beam computed tomography scans (CBCT-based strategy) for plan creation, or the interpolation of bladder volumes on pretreatment CT scans (CT-based strategy), is better in terms of tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue sparing while taking the clinically applied fractionation schedules also into account. Material and methods With the CT-based strategy, a library of five plans was created. Patients received 55 Gy to the bladder tumor and 40 Gy to the non-involved bladder and lymph nodes, in 20 fractions. With the CBCT-based strategy, a library of three plans was created, and patients received 70 Gy to the tumor, 60 Gy to the bladder and 48 Gy to the lymph nodes, in 30-35 fractions. Ten patients were analyzed for each adaptive plan selection strategy. TCP was calculated applying the clinically used fractionation schedules, as well as a rescaling of the dose from 55 to 70 Gy for the CT-based strategy. For rectum and bowel, equivalent doses in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2) were calculated. Results The CBCT-based strategy resulted in a median TCP of 75%, compared to 49% for the CT-based strategy, the latter improving to 72% upon rescaling the dose to 70 Gy. A median rectum V30Gy (EQD2) of 26% [interquartile range (IQR): 8-52%] was found for the CT-based strategy, compared to 58% (IQR: 55-73%) for the CBCT-based strategy. Also the bowel doses were lower with the CT-based strategy. Conclusions Whereas the higher total bladder TCP for the CBCT-based strategy is due to prescription differences, the adaptive strategy based on CT scans results in the lowest rectum and bowel cavity doses.

  3. Art as an Evolutionary Adaptation: Inspiration from the Visible Supernovae of AD 1054 and AD 3054

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbally, C. J.; Rappaport, M. B.

    2016-01-01

    The authors, an astronomer/priest and an anthropologist/biologist, describe their use of the dramatic arts at the INSAP VIII meeting in their performance of two short skits on the sighting of a supernova in AD 1054 (creating the beautiful Crab Nebula) and a future “Rho Cas” stellar explosion in the constellation Cassiopeia, in AD 3054. They speculate on the emergence of science, religion, and art as bona fide adaptations, responding to natural selection, which served early hominins well in their struggle for existence. They draw parallels to the continued functions of science, religion, and art in modern society.

  4. Automatic treatment plan re-optimization for adaptive radiotherapy guided with the initial plan DVHs.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Zarepisheh, Masoud; Uribe-Sanchez, Andres; Moore, Kevin; Tian, Zhen; Zhen, Xin; Graves, Yan Jiang; Gautier, Quentin; Mell, Loren; Zhou, Linghong; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve

    2013-12-21

    Adaptive radiation therapy (ART) can reduce normal tissue toxicity and/or improve tumor control through treatment adaptations based on the current patient anatomy. Developing an efficient and effective re-planning algorithm is an important step toward the clinical realization of ART. For the re-planning process, manual trial-and-error approach to fine-tune planning parameters is time-consuming and is usually considered unpractical, especially for online ART. It is desirable to automate this step to yield a plan of acceptable quality with minimal interventions. In ART, prior information in the original plan is available, such as dose-volume histogram (DVH), which can be employed to facilitate the automatic re-planning process. The goal of this work is to develop an automatic re-planning algorithm to generate a plan with similar, or possibly better, DVH curves compared with the clinically delivered original plan. Specifically, our algorithm iterates the following two loops. An inner loop is the traditional fluence map optimization, in which we optimize a quadratic objective function penalizing the deviation of the dose received by each voxel from its prescribed or threshold dose with a set of fixed voxel weighting factors. In outer loop, the voxel weighting factors in the objective function are adjusted according to the deviation of the current DVH curves from those in the original plan. The process is repeated until the DVH curves are acceptable or maximum iteration step is reached. The whole algorithm is implemented on GPU for high efficiency. The feasibility of our algorithm has been demonstrated with three head-and-neck cancer IMRT cases, each having an initial planning CT scan and another treatment CT scan acquired in the middle of treatment course. Compared with the DVH curves in the original plan, the DVH curves in the resulting plan using our algorithm with 30 iterations are better for almost all structures. The re-optimization process takes about 30 s using

  5. Automatic treatment plan re-optimization for adaptive radiotherapy guided with the initial plan DVHs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nan; Zarepisheh, Masoud; Uribe-Sanchez, Andres; Moore, Kevin; Tian, Zhen; Zhen, Xin; Jiang Graves, Yan; Gautier, Quentin; Mell, Loren; Zhou, Linghong; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve

    2013-12-01

    Adaptive radiation therapy (ART) can reduce normal tissue toxicity and/or improve tumor control through treatment adaptations based on the current patient anatomy. Developing an efficient and effective re-planning algorithm is an important step toward the clinical realization of ART. For the re-planning process, manual trial-and-error approach to fine-tune planning parameters is time-consuming and is usually considered unpractical, especially for online ART. It is desirable to automate this step to yield a plan of acceptable quality with minimal interventions. In ART, prior information in the original plan is available, such as dose-volume histogram (DVH), which can be employed to facilitate the automatic re-planning process. The goal of this work is to develop an automatic re-planning algorithm to generate a plan with similar, or possibly better, DVH curves compared with the clinically delivered original plan. Specifically, our algorithm iterates the following two loops. An inner loop is the traditional fluence map optimization, in which we optimize a quadratic objective function penalizing the deviation of the dose received by each voxel from its prescribed or threshold dose with a set of fixed voxel weighting factors. In outer loop, the voxel weighting factors in the objective function are adjusted according to the deviation of the current DVH curves from those in the original plan. The process is repeated until the DVH curves are acceptable or maximum iteration step is reached. The whole algorithm is implemented on GPU for high efficiency. The feasibility of our algorithm has been demonstrated with three head-and-neck cancer IMRT cases, each having an initial planning CT scan and another treatment CT scan acquired in the middle of treatment course. Compared with the DVH curves in the original plan, the DVH curves in the resulting plan using our algorithm with 30 iterations are better for almost all structures. The re-optimization process takes about 30 s using

  6. Fuzzy ART and Fuzzy ARTMAP with adaptively weighted distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charalampidis, Dimitrios; Anagnostopoulos, Georgios C.; Georgiopoulos, Michael; Kasparis, Takis

    2002-03-01

    In this paper, we introduce a modification of the Fuzzy ARTMAP (FAM) neural network, namely, the Fuzzy ARTMAP with adaptively weighted distances (FAMawd) neural network. In FAMawd we substitute the regular L1-norm with a weighted L1-norm to measure the distances between categories and input patterns. The distance-related weights are a function of a category's shape and allow for bias in the direction of a category's expansion during learning. Moreover, the modification to the distance measurement is proposed in order to study the capability of FAMawd in achieving more compact knowledge representation than FAM, while simultaneously maintaining good classification performance. For a special parameter setting FAMawd simplifies to the original FAM, thus, making FAMawd a generalization of the FAM architecture. We also present an experimental comparison between FAMawd and FAM on two benchmark classification problems in terms of generalization performance and utilization of categories. Our obtained results illustrate FAMawd's potential to exhibit low memory utilization, while maintaining classification performance comparable to FAM.

  7. Can Approaches to Research in Art and Design Be Beneficially Adapted for Research into Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trowler, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the research practices in Art and Design that are distinctively different from those common in research into higher education outside those fields. It considers whether and what benefit could be derived from their adaptation by the latter. The paper also examines the factors that are conducive and obstructive to adaptive…

  8. Artisticc: An Art and Science Integration Project to Enquire into Community Level Adaptation to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderlinden, J. P.; Baztan, J.

    2014-12-01

    The prupose of this paper is to present the "Adaptation Research a Transdisciplinary community and policy centered appoach" (ARTisticc) project. ARTisticc's goal is to apply innovative standardized transdisciplinary art and science integrative approaches to foster robust, socially, culturally and scientifically, community centred adaptation to climate change. The approach used in the project is based on the strong understanding that adaptation is: (a) still "a concept of uncertain form"; (b) a concept dealing with uncertainty; (c) a concept that calls for an analysis that goes beyond the traditional disciplinary organization of science, and; (d) an unconventional process in the realm of science and policy integration. The project is centered on case studies in France, Greenland, Russia, India, Canada, Alaska, and Senegal. In every site we jointly develop artwork while we analyzing how natural science, essentially geosciences can be used in order to better adapt in the future, how society adapt to current changes and how memories of past adaptations frames current and future processes. Artforms are mobilized in order to share scientific results with local communities and policy makers, this in a way that respects cultural specificities while empowering stakeholders, ARTISTICC translates these "real life experiments" into stories and artwork that are meaningful to those affected by climate change. The scientific results and the culturally mediated productions will thereafter be used in order to co-construct, with NGOs and policy makers, policy briefs, i.e. robust and scientifically legitimate policy recommendations regarding coastal adaptation. This co-construction process will be in itself analysed with the goal of increasing arts and science's performative functions in the universe of evidence-based policy making. The project involves scientists from natural sciences, the social sciences and the humanities, as well as artitis from the performing arts (playwriters

  9. The adaptation of megavoltage cone beam CT for use in standard radiotherapy treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, T. Hannah Mary; Devakumar, D.; Purnima, S.; Ravindran, B. Paul

    2009-04-01

    Potential areas where megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) could be used are second- and third-phase treatment planning in 3D conformal radiotherapy and IMRT, adaptive radiation therapy, single fraction palliative treatment and for the treatment of patients with metal prostheses. A feasibility study was done on using MV cone beam CT (CBCT) images generated by proprietary 3D reconstruction software based on the FDK algorithm for megavoltage treatment planning. The reconstructed images were converted to a DICOM file set. The pixel values of megavoltage cone beam computed tomography (MV CBCT) were rescaled to those of kV CT for use with a treatment planning system. A calibration phantom was designed and developed for verification of geometric accuracy and CT number calibration. The distance measured between two marker points on the CBCT image and the physical dimension on the phantom were in good agreement. Point dose verification for a 10 cm × 10 cm beam at a gantry angle of 0° and SAD of 100 cm were performed for a 6 MV beam for both kV and MV CBCT images. The point doses were found to vary between ±6.1% of the dose calculated from the kV CT image. The isodose curves for 6 MV for both kV CT and MV CBCT images were within 2% and 3 mm distance-to-agreement. A plan with three beams was performed on MV CBCT, simulating a treatment plan for cancer of the pituitary. The distribution obtained was compared with those corresponding to that obtained using the kV CT. This study has shown that treatment planning with MV cone beam CT images is feasible.

  10. An adaptive fuzzy prediction model for real time tumor tracking in radiotherapy via external surrogates.

    PubMed

    Esmaili Torshabi, Ahmad; Riboldi, Marco; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali; Modarres Mosalla, Seyed Mehdi; Baroni, Guido

    2013-01-07

    In the radiation treatment of moving targets with external surrogates, information on tumor position in real time can be extracted by using accurate correlation models. A fuzzy environment is proposed here to correlate input surrogate data with tumor motion estimates in real time. In this study, two different data clustering approaches were analyzed due to their substantial effects on the fuzzy modeler performance. Moreover, a comparative investigation was performed on two fuzzy-based and one neuro-fuzzy-based inference systems with respect to state-of-the-art models. Finally, due to the intrinsic interpatient variability in fuzzy models' performance, a model selectivity algorithm was proposed to select an adaptive fuzzy modeler on a case-by-case basis. The performance of multiple and adaptive fuzzy logic models were retrospectively tested in 20 patients treated with CyberKnife real-time tumor tracking. Final results show that activating adequate model selection of our fuzzy-based modeler can significantly reduce tumor tracking errors.

  11. Radiotherapy for non-malignant disorders: state of the art and update of the evidence-based practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Seegenschmiedt, M H; Micke, O; Muecke, R

    2015-07-01

    Every year in Germany about 50,000 patients are referred and treated by radiotherapy (RT) for "non-malignant disorders". This highly successful treatment is applied only for specific indications such as preservation or recovery of the quality of life by means of pain reduction or resolution and/or an improvement of formerly impaired physical body function owing to specific disease-related symptoms. Since 1995, German radiation oncologists have treated non-malignant disorders according to national consensus guidelines; these guidelines were updated and further developed over 3 years by implementation of a systematic consensus process to achieve national upgraded and accepted S2e clinical practice guidelines. Throughout this process, international standards of evaluation were implemented. This review summarizes most of the generally accepted indications for the application of RT for non-malignant diseases and presents the special treatment concepts. The following disease groups are addressed: painful degenerative skeletal disorders, hyperproliferative disorders and symptomatic functional disorders. These state of the art guidelines may serve as a platform for daily clinical work; they provide a new starting point for quality assessment, future clinical research, including the design of prospective clinical trials, and outcome research in the underrepresented and less appreciated field of RT for non-malignant disorders. PMID:25955230

  12. Radiotherapy for non-malignant disorders: state of the art and update of the evidence-based practice guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Micke, O; Muecke, R

    2015-01-01

    Every year in Germany about 50,000 patients are referred and treated by radiotherapy (RT) for “non-malignant disorders”. This highly successful treatment is applied only for specific indications such as preservation or recovery of the quality of life by means of pain reduction or resolution and/or an improvement of formerly impaired physical body function owing to specific disease-related symptoms. Since 1995, German radiation oncologists have treated non-malignant disorders according to national consensus guidelines; these guidelines were updated and further developed over 3 years by implementation of a systematic consensus process to achieve national upgraded and accepted S2e clinical practice guidelines. Throughout this process, international standards of evaluation were implemented. This review summarizes most of the generally accepted indications for the application of RT for non-malignant diseases and presents the special treatment concepts. The following disease groups are addressed: painful degenerative skeletal disorders, hyperproliferative disorders and symptomatic functional disorders. These state of the art guidelines may serve as a platform for daily clinical work; they provide a new starting point for quality assessment, future clinical research, including the design of prospective clinical trials, and outcome research in the underrepresented and less appreciated field of RT for non-malignant disorders. PMID:25955230

  13. Automatic Delineation of On-Line Head-And-Neck Computed Tomography Images: Toward On-Line Adaptive Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Tiezhi . E-mail: tiezhi.zhang@beaumont.edu; Chi Yuwei; Meldolesi, Elisa; Yan Di

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: To develop and validate a fully automatic region-of-interest (ROI) delineation method for on-line adaptive radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: On-line adaptive radiotherapy requires a robust and automatic image segmentation method to delineate ROIs in on-line volumetric images. We have implemented an atlas-based image segmentation method to automatically delineate ROIs of head-and-neck helical computed tomography images. A total of 32 daily computed tomography images from 7 head-and-neck patients were delineated using this automatic image segmentation method. Manually drawn contours on the daily images were used as references in the evaluation of automatically delineated ROIs. Two methods were used in quantitative validation: (1) the dice similarity coefficient index, which indicates the overlapping ratio between the manually and automatically delineated ROIs; and (2) the distance transformation, which yields the distances between the manually and automatically delineated ROI surfaces. Results: Automatic segmentation showed agreement with manual contouring. For most ROIs, the dice similarity coefficient indexes were approximately 0.8. Similarly, the distance transformation evaluation results showed that the distances between the manually and automatically delineated ROI surfaces were mostly within 3 mm. The distances between two surfaces had a mean of 1 mm and standard deviation of <2 mm in most ROIs. Conclusion: With atlas-based image segmentation, it is feasible to automatically delineate ROIs on the head-and-neck helical computed tomography images in on-line adaptive treatments.

  14. Development of a deformable dosimetric phantom to verify dose accumulation algorithms for adaptive radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Hualiang; Adams, Jeffrey; Glide-Hurst, Carri; Zhang, Hualin; Li, Haisen; Chetty, Indrin J.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive radiotherapy may improve treatment outcomes for lung cancer patients. Because of the lack of an effective tool for quality assurance, this therapeutic modality is not yet accepted in clinic. The purpose of this study is to develop a deformable physical phantom for validation of dose accumulation algorithms in regions with heterogeneous mass. A three-dimensional (3D) deformable phantom was developed containing a tissue-equivalent tumor and heterogeneous sponge inserts. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed at multiple locations in the phantom each time before dose measurement. Doses were measured with the phantom in both the static and deformed cases. The deformation of the phantom was actuated by a motor driven piston. 4D computed tomography images were acquired to calculate 3D doses at each phase using Pinnacle and EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc. These images were registered using two registration software packages: VelocityAI and Elastix. With the resultant displacement vector fields (DVFs), the calculated 3D doses were accumulated using a mass-and energy congruent mapping method and compared to those measured by the TLDs at four typical locations. In the static case, TLD measurements agreed with all the algorithms by 1.8% at the center of the tumor volume and by 4.0% in the penumbra. In the deformable case, the phantom's deformation was reproduced within 1.1 mm. For the 3D dose calculated by Pinnacle, the total dose accumulated with the Elastix DVF agreed well to the TLD measurements with their differences <2.5% at four measured locations. When the VelocityAI DVF was used, their difference increased up to 11.8%. For the 3D dose calculated by EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc, the total doses accumulated with the two DVFs were within 5.7% of the TLD measurements which are slightly over the rate of 5% for clinical acceptance. The detector-embedded deformable phantom allows radiation dose to be measured in a dynamic environment, similar to deforming lung tissues, supporting

  15. Development of a deformable dosimetric phantom to verify dose accumulation algorithms for adaptive radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hualiang; Adams, Jeffrey; Glide-Hurst, Carri; Zhang, Hualin; Li, Haisen; Chetty, Indrin J

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive radiotherapy may improve treatment outcomes for lung cancer patients. Because of the lack of an effective tool for quality assurance, this therapeutic modality is not yet accepted in clinic. The purpose of this study is to develop a deformable physical phantom for validation of dose accumulation algorithms in regions with heterogeneous mass. A three-dimensional (3D) deformable phantom was developed containing a tissue-equivalent tumor and heterogeneous sponge inserts. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed at multiple locations in the phantom each time before dose measurement. Doses were measured with the phantom in both the static and deformed cases. The deformation of the phantom was actuated by a motor driven piston. 4D computed tomography images were acquired to calculate 3D doses at each phase using Pinnacle and EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc. These images were registered using two registration software packages: VelocityAI and Elastix. With the resultant displacement vector fields (DVFs), the calculated 3D doses were accumulated using a mass-and energy congruent mapping method and compared to those measured by the TLDs at four typical locations. In the static case, TLD measurements agreed with all the algorithms by 1.8% at the center of the tumor volume and by 4.0% in the penumbra. In the deformable case, the phantom's deformation was reproduced within 1.1 mm. For the 3D dose calculated by Pinnacle, the total dose accumulated with the Elastix DVF agreed well to the TLD measurements with their differences <2.5% at four measured locations. When the VelocityAI DVF was used, their difference increased up to 11.8%. For the 3D dose calculated by EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc, the total doses accumulated with the two DVFs were within 5.7% of the TLD measurements which are slightly over the rate of 5% for clinical acceptance. The detector-embedded deformable phantom allows radiation dose to be measured in a dynamic environment, similar to deforming lung tissues, supporting

  16. Adaptive-Predictive Organ Localization Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography for Improved Accuracy in External Beam Radiotherapy for Bladder Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lalondrelle, Susan; Huddart, Robert; Warren-Oseni, Karole; Hansen, Vibeke Nordmark; McNair, Helen; Thomas, Karen; Dearnaley, David; Horwich, Alan; Khoo, Vincent

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To examine patterns of bladder wall motion during high-dose hypofractionated bladder radiotherapy and to validate a novel adaptive planning method, A-POLO, to prevent subsequent geographic miss. Methods and Materials: Patterns of individual bladder filling were obtained with repeat computed tomography planning scans at 0, 15, and 30 minutes after voiding. A series of patient-specific plans corresponding to these time-displacement points was created. Pretreatment cone-beam computed tomography was performed before each fraction and assessed retrospectively for adaptive intervention. In fractions that would have required intervention, the most appropriate plan was chosen from the patient's 'library,' and the resulting target coverage was reassessed with repeat cone-beam computed tomography. Results: A large variation in patterns of bladder filling and interfraction displacement was seen. During radiotherapy, predominant translations occurred cranially (maximum 2.5 cm) and anteriorly (maximum 1.75 cm). No apparent explanation was found for this variation using pretreatment patient factors. A need for adaptive planning was demonstrated by 51% of fractions, and 73% of fractions would have been delivered correctly using A-POLO. The adaptive strategy improved target coverage and was able to account for intrafraction motion also. Conclusions: Bladder volume variation will result in geographic miss in a high proportion of delivered bladder radiotherapy treatments. The A-POLO strategy can be used to correct for this and can be implemented from the first fraction of radiotherapy; thus, it is particularly suited to hypofractionated bladder radiotherapy regimens.

  17. Evaluation of deformable image registration for contour propagation between CT and cone-beam CT images in adaptive head and neck radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Zhang, Y Y; Shi, Y H; Zhou, L H; Zhen, X

    2016-04-29

    Deformable image registration (DIR) is a critical technic in adaptive radiotherapy (ART) to propagate contours between planning computerized tomography (CT) images and treatment CT/Cone-beam CT (CBCT) image to account for organ deformation for treatment re-planning. To validate the ability and accuracy of DIR algorithms in organ at risk (OAR) contours mapping, seven intensity-based DIR strategies are tested on the planning CT and weekly CBCT images from six Head & Neck cancer patients who underwent a 6 ∼ 7 weeks intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Three similarity metrics, i.e. the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), the percentage error (PE) and the Hausdorff distance (HD), are employed to measure the agreement between the propagated contours and the physician delineated ground truths. It is found that the performance of all the evaluated DIR algorithms declines as the treatment proceeds. No statistically significant performance difference is observed between different DIR algorithms (p> 0.05), except for the double force demons (DFD) which yields the worst result in terms of DSC and PE. For the metric HD, all the DIR algorithms behaved unsatisfactorily with no statistically significant performance difference (p= 0.273). These findings suggested that special care should be taken when utilizing the intensity-based DIR algorithms involved in this study to deform OAR contours between CT and CBCT, especially for those organs with low contrast. PMID:27259084

  18. Expected treatment dose construction and adaptive inverse planning optimization: Implementation for offline head and neck cancer adaptive radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Di; Liang Jian

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: To construct expected treatment dose for adaptive inverse planning optimization, and evaluate it on head and neck (h and n) cancer adaptive treatment modification. Methods: Adaptive inverse planning engine was developed and integrated in our in-house adaptive treatment control system. The adaptive inverse planning engine includes an expected treatment dose constructed using the daily cone beam (CB) CT images in its objective and constrains. Feasibility of the adaptive inverse planning optimization was evaluated retrospectively using daily CBCT images obtained from the image guided IMRT treatment of 19 h and n cancer patients. Adaptive treatment modification strategies with respect to the time and the number of adaptive inverse planning optimization during the treatment course were evaluated using the cumulative treatment dose in organs of interest constructed using all daily CBCT images. Results: Expected treatment dose was constructed to include both the delivered dose, to date, and the estimated dose for the remaining treatment during the adaptive treatment course. It was used in treatment evaluation, as well as in constructing the objective and constraints for adaptive inverse planning optimization. The optimization engine is feasible to perform planning optimization based on preassigned treatment modification schedule. Compared to the conventional IMRT, the adaptive treatment for h and n cancer illustrated clear dose-volume improvement for all critical normal organs. The dose-volume reductions of right and left parotid glands, spine cord, brain stem and mandible were (17 {+-} 6)%, (14 {+-} 6)%, (11 {+-} 6)%, (12 {+-} 8)%, and (5 {+-} 3)% respectively with the single adaptive modification performed after the second treatment week; (24 {+-} 6)%, (22 {+-} 8)%, (21 {+-} 5)%, (19 {+-} 8)%, and (10 {+-} 6)% with three weekly modifications; and (28 {+-} 5)%, (25 {+-} 9)%, (26 {+-} 5)%, (24 {+-} 8)%, and (15 {+-} 9)% with five weekly modifications. Conclusions

  19. SU-E-J-220: Evaluation of Atlas-Based Auto-Segmentation (ABAS) in Head-And-Neck Adaptive Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Q; Yan, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the accuracy of atlas-based auto segmentation of organs at risk (OARs) on both helical CT (HCT) and cone beam CT (CBCT) images in head and neck (HN) cancer adaptive radiotherapy (ART). Methods: Six HN patients treated in the ART process were included in this study. For each patient, three images were selected: pretreatment planning CT (PreTx-HCT), in treatment CT for replanning (InTx-HCT) and a CBCT acquired in the same day of the InTx-HCT. Three clinical procedures of auto segmentation and deformable registration performed in the ART process were evaluated: a) auto segmentation on PreTx-HCT using multi-subject atlases, b) intra-patient propagation of OARs from PreTx-HCT to InTx-HCT using deformable HCT-to-HCT image registration, and c) intra-patient propagation of OARs from PreTx-HCT to CBCT using deformable CBCT-to-HCT image registration. Seven OARs (brainstem, cord, L/R parotid, L/R submandibular gland and mandible) were manually contoured on PreTx-HCT and InTx-HCT for comparison. In addition, manual contours on InTx-CT were copied on the same day CBCT, and a local region rigid body registration was performed accordingly for each individual OAR. For procedures a) and b), auto contours were compared to manual contours, and for c) auto contours were compared to those rigidly transferred contours on CBCT. Dice similarity coefficients (DSC) and mean surface distances of agreement (MSDA) were calculated for evaluation. Results: For procedure a), the mean DSC/MSDA of most OARs are >80%/±2mm. For intra-patient HCT-to-HCT propagation, the Resultimproved to >85%/±1.5mm. Compared to HCT-to-HCT, the mean DSC for HCT-to-CBCT propagation drops ∼2–3% and MSDA increases ∼0.2mm. This Resultindicates that the inferior imaging quality of CBCT seems only degrade auto propagation performance slightly. Conclusion: Auto segmentation and deformable propagation can generate OAR structures on HCT and CBCT images with clinically acceptable accuracy. Therefore

  20. Analog circuit design and implementation of an adaptive resonance theory (ART) neural network architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Ching S.; Liou, Juin J.; Georgiopoulos, Michael; Heileman, Gregory L.; Christodoulou, Christos G.

    1993-09-01

    This paper presents an analog circuit implementation for an adaptive resonance theory neural network architecture, called the augmented ART-1 neural network (AART1-NN). The AART1-NN is a modification of the popular ART1-NN, developed by Carpenter and Grossberg, and it exhibits the same behavior as the ART1-NN. The AART1-NN is a real-time model, and has the ability to classify an arbitrary set of binary input patterns into different clusters. The design of the AART1-NN model. The circuit is implemented by utilizing analog electronic components, such as, operational amplifiers, transistors, capacitors, and resistors. The implemented circuit is verified using the PSpice circuit simulator, running on Sun workstations. Results obtained from the PSpice circuit simulation compare favorably with simulation results produced by solving the differential equations numerically. The prototype system developed here can be used as a building block for larger AART1-NN architectures, as well as for other types of ART architectures that involve the AART1-NN model.

  1. Role of Adaptive Radiotherapy During Concomitant Chemoradiotherapy for Lung Cancer: Analysis of Data From a Prospective Clinical Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Spoelstra, Femke; Pantarotto, Jason R.; Soernsen de Koste, John R. van; Slotman, Ben J.; Senan, Suresh

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Respiratory-gated radiotherapy allows for the reduction of the toxicity associated with concomitant chemoradiotherapy, but the smaller fields used could increase the risk of missing the target. A prospective study was performed to evaluate the dosimetric consequences of time-trend changes in patients with lung cancer who were treated with concomitant chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 24 lung cancer patients eligible for chemoradiotherapy and gated delivery underwent four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) after 15 fractions. This scan was co-registered with the initial planning 4D-CT and a new planning target volume (PTV) was generated on the basis of the tumor visualized after 15 fractions. Coverage of the repeat PTV was evaluated by applying the original plan to the second scan and recalculating the dose. Plan modification was triggered by a 5% reduction in the PTV included within the 95% isodose volume or an unacceptable increase in the critical organ dose. Results: Of the 21 evaluable patients, 15 had an average reduction in the PTV of 8% after 30 Gy. The PTV increased in the remaining 6 patients, but the increase was >20% in only 1 patient. In the latter patient, disease progression was observed, and repeat planning was required. The plans created using the new PTV were acceptable in all the other patients. Conclusion: The role of adaptive radiotherapy appears limited when respiratory-gated radiotherapy is used to reduce the toxicity related to concomitant chemoradiotherapy. The use of more conformal treatment techniques might provide the rationale for repeat imaging as a method to identify patients at risk of dosimetric miss.

  2. Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arviso, Kathern; And Others

    Designed as a helpful guide and "how-to-do-it" outline for those on the Navajo Reservation who work with children, this guide is arranged to offer quick reference and simple projects requiring the minimum of materials. The projects are designed to meet the Navajo child's art needs based on the belief that the art program of the elementary school…

  3. A dosimetric comparison of two-phase adaptive intensity-modulated radiotherapy for locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chitapanarux, Imjai; Chomprasert, Kittisak; Nobnaop, Wannapa; Wanwilairat, Somsak; Tharavichitkul, Ekasit; Jakrabhandu, Somvilai; Onchan, Wimrak; Traisathit, Patrinee; Van Gestel, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the potential dosimetric benefits of a two-phase adaptive intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) protocol for patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). A total of 17 patients with locally advanced NPC treated with IMRT had a second computed tomography (CT) scan after 17 fractions in order to apply and continue the treatment with an adapted plan after 20 fractions. To simulate the situation without adaptation, a hybrid plan was generated by applying the optimization parameters of the original treatment plan to the anatomy of the second CT scan. The dose–volume histograms (DVHs) and dose statistics of the hybrid plan and the adapted plan were compared. The mean volume of the ipsilateral and contralateral parotid gland decreased by 6.1 cm3 (30.5%) and 5.4 cm3 (24.3%), respectively. Compared with the hybrid plan, the adapted plan provided a higher dose to the target volumes with better homogeneity, and a lower dose to the organs at risk (OARs). The Dmin of all planning target volumes (PTVs) increased. The Dmax of the spinal cord and brainstem were lower in 94% of the patients (1.6–5.9 Gy, P < 0.001 and 2.1–9.9 Gy, P < 0.001, respectively). The Dmean of the contralateral parotid decreased in 70% of the patients (range, 0.2–4.4 Gy). We could not find a relationship between dose variability and weight loss. Our two-phase adaptive IMRT protocol improves dosimetric results in terms of target volumes and OARs in patients with locally advanced NPC. PMID:25666189

  4. Outcomes of Risk-Adapted Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lagerwaard, Frank J. Haasbeek, Cornelis J.A.; Smit, Egbert F.; Slotman, Ben J.; Senan, S.

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: High local control rates can be achieved using stereotactic radiotherapy in Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but reports have suggested that toxicity may be of concern. We evaluated early clinical outcomes of 'risk-adapted' fractionation schemes in patients treated in a single institution. Methods and Materials: Of 206 patients with Stage I NSCLC, 81% were unfit to undergo surgery and the rest refused surgery. Pathologic confirmation of malignancy was obtained in 31% of patients. All other patients had new or growing 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography positive lesions with radiologic characteristics of malignancy. Planning four-dimensional computed tomography scans were performed and fractionation schemes used (3 x 20 Gy, 5 x 12 Gy, and 8 x 7.5 Gy) were determined by T stage and risk of normal tissue toxicity. Results: Median overall survival was 34 months, with 1- and 2-year survivals of 81% and 64%, respectively. Disease-free survival (DFS) at 1 and 2 years was 83% and 68%, respectively, and DFS correlated with T stage (p = 0.002). Local failure was observed in 7 patients (3%). The crude regional failure rate was 9%; isolated regional recurrence was observed in 4%. The distant progression-free survival at 1 and 2 years was 85% and 77%, respectively. SRT was well tolerated and severe late toxicity was observed in less than 3% of patients. Conclusions: SRT is well tolerated in patients with extensive comorbidity with high local control rates and minimal toxicity. Early outcomes are not inferior to those reported for conventional radiotherapy. In view of patient convenience, such risk-adapted SRT schedules should be considered treatment of choice in patients presenting with medically inoperable Stage I NSCLC.

  5. Parotid Glands Dose-Effect Relationships Based on Their Actually Delivered Doses: Implications for Adaptive Re-Planning in Radiotherapy of Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Klaudia U.; Fernandes, Laura; Vineberg, Karen A.; McShan, Daniel; Antonuk, Alan E.; Cornwall, Craig; Feng, Mary; Schipper, Mathew; Balter, James; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Doses actually delivered to the parotid glands during radiotherapy often exceed planned doses. We hypothesized that the delivered doses correlate better with parotid salivary output than the planned doses, used in all previous studies, and that determining these correlations will help decisions regarding adaptive re-planning (ART) aimed at reducing the delivered doses. Methods and Materials Prospective study: oropharyngeal cancer patients treated definitively with chemo-irradiation underwent daily cone beam CT (CBCT) with clinical set-up alignment based on C2 posterior edge. Parotid glands in the CBCTs were aligned by deformable registration to calculate cumulative delivered doses. Stimulated salivary flow rates were measured separately from each parotid gland pretherapy and periodically posttherapy. Results 36 parotid glands of 18 patients were analyzed. Average mean planned doses was 32 Gy and differences from planned to delivered mean gland doses were −4.9 to +8.4 Gy, median difference +2.2 Gy in glands whose delivered doses increased relative to planned. Both planned and delivered mean doses were significantly correlated with post-treatment salivary outputs at almost all post-therapy time points, without statistically significant differences in the correlations. Large dispersions [on average, standard deviation (SD) 3.6 Gy] characterized the dose/effect relationships for both. The differences between the cumulative delivered doses and planned doses were evident already at first fraction (r=0.92, p<0.0001) due to complex set-up deviations, e.g. rotations and neck articulations, uncorrected by the translational clinical alignments. Conclusions After daily translational set-up corrections, differences between planned and delivered doses in most glands were small relative to the SDs of the dose/saliva data, suggesting that ART is not likely to gain measurable salivary output improvement in most cases. These differences were observed already at first

  6. Introduction of online adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer through a multicentre clinical trial (Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 10.01): Lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Pham, Daniel; Roxby, Paul; Kron, Tomas; Rolfo, Aldo; Foroudi, Farshad

    2013-04-01

    Online adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer is a novel radiotherapy technique that was found feasible in a pilot study at a single academic institution. In September 2010 this technique was opened as a multicenter study through the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG 10.01 bladder online adaptive radiotherapy treatment). Twelve centers across Australia and New-Zealand registered interest into the trial. A multidisciplinary team of radiation oncologists, radiation therapists and medical physicists represented the trial credentialing and technical support team. To provide timely activation and proper implementation of the adaptive technique the following key areas were addressed at each site: Staff education/training; Practical image guided radiotherapy assessment; provision of help desk and feedback. The trial credentialing process involved face-to-face training and technical problem solving via full day site visits. A dedicated "help-desk" team was developed to provide support for the clinical trial. 26% of the workload occurred at the credentialing period while the remaining 74% came post-center activation. The workload was made up of the following key areas; protocol clarification (36%), technical problems (46%) while staff training was less than 10%. Clinical trial credentialing is important to minimizing trial deviations. It should not only focus on site activation quality assurance but also provide ongoing education and technical support. PMID:23776308

  7. A self-adaptive case-based reasoning system for dose planning in prostate cancer radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Nishikant; Petrovic, Sanja; Sundar, Santhanam

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in the male population. Radiotherapy is often used in the treatment for prostate cancer. In radiotherapy treatment, the oncologist makes a trade-off between the risk and benefit of the radiation, i.e., the task is to deliver a high dose to the prostate cancer cells and minimize side effects of the treatment. The aim of our research is to develop a software system that will assist the oncologist in planning new treatments. Methods: A nonlinear case-based reasoning system is developed to capture the expertise and experience of oncologists in treating previous patients. Importance (weights) of different clinical parameters in the dose planning is determined by the oncologist based on their past experience, and is highly subjective. The weights are usually fixed in the system. In this research, the weights are updated automatically each time after generating a treatment plan for a new patient using a group based simulated annealing approach. Results: The developed approach is analyzed on the real data set collected from the Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, City Hospital Campus, UK. Extensive experiments show that the dose plan suggested by the proposed method is coherent with the dose plan prescribed by an experienced oncologist or even better. Conclusions: The developed case-based reasoning system enables the use of knowledge and experience gained by the oncologist in treating new patients. This system may play a vital role to assist the oncologist in making a better decision in less computational time; it utilizes the success rate of the previously treated patients and it can also be used in teaching and training processes.

  8. An on-line replanning method for head and neck adaptive radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ahunbay, Ergun E.; Peng, Cheng; Godley, Andrew; Schultz, Christopher; Li, X. Allen

    2009-10-15

    Daily setup for head and neck (HN) radiotherapy (RT) can vary randomly due to neck rotation and anatomy change. These differences cannot be totally corrected by the current practice of image guided RT with translational repositioning. The authors present a novel rapid correction scheme that can be used on-line to correct both interfractional setup variation and anatomy change for HN RT. The scheme consists of two major steps: (1) Segment aperture morphing (SAM) and (2) segment weight optimization (SWO). SAM is accomplished by applying the spatial relationship between the apertures and the contours of the planning target and organs at risk (OARs) to the new target and OAR contours. The new target contours are transferred from planning target contours to the CT of the day by means of deformable registration (MIMVISTA). The dose distribution for each new aperture was generated using a planning system with a fast dose engine and hardware and was input into a newly developed SWO package using fast sequential quadratic programming. The entire scheme was tested based on the daily CT images acquired for representative HN IMRT cases treated with a linac and CT-on-Rails combo. It was found that the target coverage and/or OAR sparing was degraded based on the CT of the day with the current standard repositioning from rigid registration. This degradation can be corrected by the SAM/SWO scheme. The target coverage and OAR sparing for the SAM/SWO plans were found to be equivalent to the original plan. The SAM/SWO process took 5-8 min for the head and neck cases studied. The proposed aperture morphing with weight optimization is an effective on-line approach for correcting interfractional patient setup and anatomic changes for head and neck cancer radiotherapy.

  9. SU-E-J-52: Dosimetric Benefit of Adaptive Re-Planning in Lung Cancer Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT)

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, J; Tian, Z; Gu, X; Yan, H; Jiang, S; Jia, X

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric benefit of adaptive re-planning for lung stereotactic body radiotherapy(SBRT). Methods: Five lung cancer patients with SBRT treatment were retrospectively investigated. Our in-house supercomputing online re-planning environment (SCORE) was used to realize the re-planning process. First a deformable image registration was carried out to transfer contours from treatment planning CT to each treatment CBCT. Then an automatic re-planning using original plan DVH guided fluence-map optimization is performed to get a new plan for the up-to-date patient geometry. We compared the re-optimized plan to the original plan projected on the up-to-date patient geometry in critical dosimetric parameters, such as PTV coverage, spinal cord maximum and volumetric constraint dose, esophagus maximum and volumetric constraint dose. Results: The average volume of PTV covered by prescription dose for all patients was improved by 7.56% after the adaptive re-planning. The volume of the spinal cord receiving 14.5Gy and 23Gy (V14.5, V23) decreased by 1.48% and 0.68%, respectively. For the esophagus, the volume receiving 19.5Gy (V19.5) reduced by 1.37%. Meanwhile, the maximum dose dropped off by 2.87% for spinal cord and 4.80% for esophagus. Conclusion: Our experimental results demonstrate that adaptive re-planning for lung SBRT has the potential to minimize the dosimetric effect of inter-fraction deformation and thus improve target coverage while reducing the risk of toxicity to nearby normal tissues.

  10. The role of regularization in deformable image registration for head and neck adaptive radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ciardo, D; Peroni, M; Riboldi, M; Alterio, D; Baroni, G; Orecchia, R

    2013-08-01

    Deformable image registration provides a robust mathematical framework to quantify morphological changes that occur along the course of external beam radiotherapy treatments. As clinical reliability of deformable image registration is not always guaranteed, algorithm regularization is commonly introduced to prevent sharp discontinuities in the quantified deformation and achieve anatomically consistent results. In this work we analyzed the influence of regularization on two different registration methods, i.e. B-Splines and Log Domain Diffeomorphic Demons, implemented in an open-source platform. We retrospectively analyzed the simulation computed tomography (CTsim) and the corresponding re-planning computed tomography (CTrepl) scans in 30 head and neck cancer patients. First, we investigated the influence of regularization levels on hounsfield units (HU) information in 10 test patients for each considered method. Then, we compared the registration results of the open-source implementation at selected best performing regularization levels with a clinical commercial software on the remaining 20 patients in terms of mean volume overlap, surface and center of mass distances between manual outlines and propagated structures. The regularized B-Splines method was not statistically different from the commercial software. The tuning of the regularization parameters allowed open-source algorithms to achieve better results in deformable image registration for head and neck patients, with the additional benefit of a framework where regularization can be tuned on a patient specific basis.

  11. SU-E-J-208: Fast and Accurate Auto-Segmentation of Abdominal Organs at Risk for Online Adaptive Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, V; Wang, Y; Romero, A; Heijmen, B; Hoogeman, M; Myronenko, A; Jordan, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Various studies have demonstrated that online adaptive radiotherapy by real-time re-optimization of the treatment plan can improve organs-at-risk (OARs) sparing in the abdominal region. Its clinical implementation, however, requires fast and accurate auto-segmentation of OARs in CT scans acquired just before each treatment fraction. Autosegmentation is particularly challenging in the abdominal region due to the frequently observed large deformations. We present a clinical validation of a new auto-segmentation method that uses fully automated non-rigid registration for propagating abdominal OAR contours from planning to daily treatment CT scans. Methods: OARs were manually contoured by an expert panel to obtain ground truth contours for repeat CT scans (3 per patient) of 10 patients. For the non-rigid alignment, we used a new non-rigid registration method that estimates the deformation field by optimizing local normalized correlation coefficient with smoothness regularization. This field was used to propagate planning contours to repeat CTs. To quantify the performance of the auto-segmentation, we compared the propagated and ground truth contours using two widely used metrics- Dice coefficient (Dc) and Hausdorff distance (Hd). The proposed method was benchmarked against translation and rigid alignment based auto-segmentation. Results: For all organs, the auto-segmentation performed better than the baseline (translation) with an average processing time of 15 s per fraction CT. The overall improvements ranged from 2% (heart) to 32% (pancreas) in Dc, and 27% (heart) to 62% (spinal cord) in Hd. For liver, kidneys, gall bladder, stomach, spinal cord and heart, Dc above 0.85 was achieved. Duodenum and pancreas were the most challenging organs with both showing relatively larger spreads and medians of 0.79 and 2.1 mm for Dc and Hd, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the achieved accuracy and computational time we conclude that the investigated auto

  12. SU-E-J-20: Adaptive Aperture Morphing for Online Correction for Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, R; Qin, A; Yan, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Online adaptive aperture morphing is desirable over translational couch shifts to accommodate not only the target position variation but also anatomic changes (rotation, deformation, and relation of target to organ-atrisks). We proposed quick and reliable method for adapting segment aperture leaves for IMRT treatment of prostate. Methods: The proposed method consists of following steps: (1) delineate the contours of prostate, SV, bladder and rectum on kV-CBCT; (2) determine prostate displacement from the rigid body registration of the contoured prostate manifested on the reference CT and the CBCT; (3) adapt the MLC segment apertures obtained from the pre-treatment IMRT planning to accommodate the shifts as well as anatomic changes. The MLC aperture adaptive algorithm involves two steps; first move the whole aperture according to prostate translational/rotational shifts, and secondly fine-tune the aperture shape to maintain the spatial relationship between the planning target contour and the MLC aperture to the daily target contour. Feasibility of this method was evaluated retrospectively on a seven-field IMRT treatment of prostate cancer patient by comparing dose volume histograms of the original plan and the aperture-adjusted plan, with/without additional segments weight optimization (SWO), on two daily treatment CBCTs selected with relative large motion and rotation. Results: For first daily treatment, the prostate rotation was significant (12degree around lateral-axis). With apertureadjusted plan, the D95 to the target was improved 25% and rectum dose (D30, D40) was reduced 20% relative to original plan on daily volumes. For second treatment-fraction, (lateral shift = 6.7mm), after adjustment target D95 improved by 3% and bladder dose (D30, maximum dose) was reduced by 1%. For both cases, extra SWO did not provide significant improvement. Conclusion: The proposed method of adapting segment apertures is promising in treatment position correction

  13. Reduction of cardiac and pulmonary complication probabilities after breathing adapted radiotherapy for breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Korreman, Stine S. . E-mail: stine.k@rh.dk; Pedersen, Anders N.; Aarup, Lasse Rye; Nottrup, Trine J.; Specht, Lena; Nystroem, Hakan

    2006-08-01

    Purpose: Substantial reductions of cardio-pulmonary radiation doses can be achieved using voluntary deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) or free breathing inspiration gating (IG) in radiotherapy after conserving surgery for breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the radiobiological implications of such dosimetric benefits. Methods and Materials: Patients from previously reported studies were pooled for a total of 33 patients. All patients underwent DIBH and free breathing (FB) scans, and 17 patients underwent an additional IG scan. Tangential conformal treatment plans covering the remaining breast, internal mammary, and periclavicular nodes were optimized for each scan, prescription dose 48 Gy. Normal tissue complication probabilities were calculated using the relative seriality model for the heart, and the model proposed by Burman et al. for the lung. Results: Previous computed tomography studies showed that both voluntary DIBH and IG provided reduction of the lung V{sub 5} (relative volume receiving more than 50% of prescription dose) on the order of 30-40%, and a 80-90% reduction of the heart V{sub 5} for left-sided cancers. Corresponding pneumonitis probability of 28.1% (range, 0.7-95.6%) for FB could be reduced to 2.6% (range, 0.1-40.1%) for IG, and 4.3% (range, 0.1-59%) for DIBH. The cardiac mortality probability could be reduced from 4.8% (range, 0.1-23.4%) in FB to 0.5% (range, 0.1-2.6%) for IG and 0.1% (range, 0-3.0%) for DIBH. Conclusions: Remarkable potential is shown for simple voluntary DIBH and free breathing IG to reduce the risk of both cardiac mortality and pneumonitis for the common technique of adjuvant tangential breast irradiation.

  14. Towards adaptive radiotherapy for head and neck patients: validation of an in-house deformable registration algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiga, C.; McClelland, J.; Moinuddin, S.; Ricketts, K.; Modat, M.; Ourselin, S.; D'Souza, D.; Royle, G.

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to validate an in-house deformable image registration (DIR) algorithm for adaptive radiotherapy for head and neck patients. We aim to use the registrations to estimate the "dose of the day" and assess the need to replan. NiftyReg is an open-source implementation of the B-splines deformable registration algorithm, developed in our institution. We registered a planning CT to a CBCT acquired midway through treatment for 5 HN patients that required replanning. We investigated 16 different parameter settings that previously showed promising results. To assess the registrations, structures delineated in the CT were warped and compared with contours manually drawn by the same clinical expert on the CBCT. This structure set contained vertebral bodies and soft tissue. Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), overlap index (OI), centroid position and distance between structures' surfaces were calculated for every registration, and a set of parameters that produces good results for all datasets was found. We achieve a median value of 0.845 in DSC, 0.889 in OI, error smaller than 2 mm in centroid position and over 90% of the warped surface pixels are distanced less than 2 mm of the manually drawn ones. By using appropriate DIR parameters, we are able to register the planning geometry (pCT) to the daily geometry (CBCT).

  15. SU-E-J-254: Utility of Pinnacle Dynamic Planning Module Utilizing Deformable Image Registration in Adaptive Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Jani, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose For certain highly conformal treatment techniques, changes in patient anatomy due to weight loss and/or tumor shrinkage can result in significant changes in dose distribution. Recently, the Pinnacle treatment planning system added a Dynamic Planning module utilizing Deformable Image Registration (DIR). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this software in adapting to altered anatomy and adjusting treatment plans to account for it. Methods We simulated significant tumor response by changing patient thickness and altered chin positions using a commercially-available head and neck (H and N) phantom. In addition, we studied 23 CT image sets of fifteen (15) patients with H and N tumors and eight (8) patients with prostate cancer. In each case, we applied deformable image registration through Dynamic Planning module of our Pinnacle Treatment Planning System. The dose distribution of the original CT image set was compared to the newly computed dose without altering any treatment parameter. Result was a dose if we did not adjust the plan to reflect anatomical changes. Results For the H and N phantom, a tumor response of up to 3.5 cm was correctly deformed by the Pinnacle Dynamic module. Recomputed isodose contours on new anatomies were within 1 mm of the expected distribution. The Pinnacle system configuration allowed dose computations resulting from original plans on new anatomies without leaving the planning system. Original and new doses were available side-by-side with both CT image sets. Based on DIR, about 75% of H and N patients (11/15) required a re-plan using new anatomy. Among prostate patients, the DIR predicted near-correct bladder volume in 62% of the patients (5/8). Conclusions The Dynamic Planning module of the Pinnacle system proved to be an accurate and useful tool in our ability to adapt to changes in patient anatomy during a course of radiotherapy.

  16. Accelerated gradient-based free form deformable registration for online adaptive radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Gang; Liang, Yueqiang; Yang, Guanyu; Shu, Huazhong; Li, Baosheng; Yin, Yong; Li, Dengwang

    2015-04-01

    The registration of planning fan-beam computed tomography (FBCT) and daily cone-beam CT (CBCT) is a crucial step in adaptive radiation therapy. The current intensity-based registration algorithms, such as Demons, may fail when they are used to register FBCT and CBCT, because the CT numbers in CBCT cannot exactly correspond to the electron densities. In this paper, we investigated the effects of CBCT intensity inaccuracy on the registration accuracy and developed an accurate gradient-based free form deformation algorithm (GFFD). GFFD distinguishes itself from other free form deformable registration algorithms by (a) measuring the similarity using the 3D gradient vector fields to avoid the effect of inconsistent intensities between the two modalities; (b) accommodating image sampling anisotropy using the local polynomial approximation-intersection of confidence intervals (LPA-ICI) algorithm to ensure a smooth and continuous displacement field; and (c) introducing a 'bi-directional' force along with an adaptive force strength adjustment to accelerate the convergence process. It is expected that such a strategy can decrease the effect of the inconsistent intensities between the two modalities, thus improving the registration accuracy and robustness. Moreover, for clinical application, the algorithm was implemented by graphics processing units (GPU) through OpenCL framework. The registration time of the GFFD algorithm for each set of CT data ranges from 8 to 13 s. The applications of on-line adaptive image-guided radiation therapy, including auto-propagation of contours, aperture-optimization and dose volume histogram (DVH) in the course of radiation therapy were also studied by in-house-developed software. PMID:25767898

  17. Accelerated gradient-based free form deformable registration for online adaptive radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Gang; Liang, Yueqiang; Yang, Guanyu; Shu, Huazhong; Li, Baosheng; Yin, Yong; Li, Dengwang

    2015-04-01

    The registration of planning fan-beam computed tomography (FBCT) and daily cone-beam CT (CBCT) is a crucial step in adaptive radiation therapy. The current intensity-based registration algorithms, such as Demons, may fail when they are used to register FBCT and CBCT, because the CT numbers in CBCT cannot exactly correspond to the electron densities. In this paper, we investigated the effects of CBCT intensity inaccuracy on the registration accuracy and developed an accurate gradient-based free form deformation algorithm (GFFD). GFFD distinguishes itself from other free form deformable registration algorithms by (a) measuring the similarity using the 3D gradient vector fields to avoid the effect of inconsistent intensities between the two modalities; (b) accommodating image sampling anisotropy using the local polynomial approximation-intersection of confidence intervals (LPA-ICI) algorithm to ensure a smooth and continuous displacement field; and (c) introducing a ‘bi-directional’ force along with an adaptive force strength adjustment to accelerate the convergence process. It is expected that such a strategy can decrease the effect of the inconsistent intensities between the two modalities, thus improving the registration accuracy and robustness. Moreover, for clinical application, the algorithm was implemented by graphics processing units (GPU) through OpenCL framework. The registration time of the GFFD algorithm for each set of CT data ranges from 8 to 13 s. The applications of on-line adaptive image-guided radiation therapy, including auto-propagation of contours, aperture-optimization and dose volume histogram (DVH) in the course of radiation therapy were also studied by in-house-developed software.

  18. Image-guided adaptive radiotherapy for prostate and head-and-neck cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Daniel, Jennifer C.

    In the current practice of radiation therapy, daily patient alignments have been based on external skin marks or on bone. However, internal organ variation (both motion and volumetric changes) between treatment fractions can displace the treatment target, causing target underdosage and normal tissue overdosage. In order to deliver the radiation treatment as planned, more accurate knowledge of the daily internal anatomy was needed. Additionally, treatments needed to adapt to these variations by either shifting the patient to account for the daily target position or by altering the treatment plan. In this dissertation, the question of whether inter-fractional variations in internal patient anatomy combined with external set-up uncertainties produced measurable differences between planned and delivered doses for prostate and head-and-neck cancer patients was investigated. Image-guided adaptive treatment strategies to improve tumor coverage and/or reduce normal tissue dose were examined. Treatment deliveries utilizing various alignment procedures for ten prostate cancer patients and eleven head-and-neck cancer patients, each of whom received multiple CT scans over the course of treatment, were simulated. The largest prostate dose losses between planning and delivery were correlated with anterior/posterior and superior/inferior prostate displacement. Daily bone alignment sufficiently maintained target coverage for 70% of patients, ultrasound for 90%, and CT for 100%. A no-action-level correction protocol, which corrected the daily bone alignment for the systematic internal displacement of the prostate based on a pre-determined number of CT image sets, successfully improved the prostate and seminal vesicle dosimetric coverage. Three CT image sets were sufficient to accurately correct the bone alignment scheme for the prostate internal systematic shifts. For head-and-neck cancer patient treatment, setup uncertainties and internal organ variations did not greatly affect

  19. WE-G-BRF-01: Adaptation to Intrafraction Tumor Deformation During Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy: First Proof-Of-Principle Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Y; OBrien, R; Shieh, C; Booth, J; Keall, P

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Intrafraction tumor deformation limits targeting accuracy in radiotherapy and cannot be adapted to by current motion management techniques. This study simulated intrafractional treatment adaptation to tumor deformations using a dynamic Multi-Leaf Collimator (DMLC) tracking system during Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment for the first time. Methods: The DMLC tracking system was developed to adapt to the intrafraction tumor deformation by warping the planned beam aperture guided by the calculated deformation vector field (DVF) obtained from deformable image registration (DIR) at the time of treatment delivery. Seven single phantom deformation images up to 10.4 mm deformation and eight tumor system phantom deformation images up to 21.5 mm deformation were acquired and used in tracking simulation. The intrafraction adaptation was simulated at the DMLC tracking software platform, which was able to communicate with the image registration software, reshape the instantaneous IMRT field aperture and log the delivered MLC fields.The deformation adaptation accuracy was evaluated by a geometric target coverage metric defined as the sum of the area incorrectly outside and inside the reference aperture. The incremental deformations were arbitrarily determined to take place equally over the delivery interval. The geometric target coverage of delivery with deformation adaptation was compared against the delivery without adaptation. Results: Intrafraction deformation adaptation during dynamic IMRT plan delivery was simulated for single and system deformable phantoms. For the two particular delivery situations, over the treatment course, deformation adaptation improved the target coverage by 89% for single target deformation and 79% for tumor system deformation compared with no-tracking delivery. Conclusion: This work demonstrated the principle of real-time tumor deformation tracking using a DMLC. This is the first step towards the development of an

  20. SU-E-J-59: Effective Adaptive DMLC Gated Radiotherapy with OAR Sparing

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y; Wu, H; Zhou, Z; Sandison, MinGeorge

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Patient respiratory motion degrades the effectiveness of cancer radiation treatment. Advanced respiratory gating delivers radiation dose accurately yet with elongated treatment time. The goal of this research is to propose a novel adaptive dMLC dynamic gating with high delivery efficiency and precision. Methods: The dose delivery of dMLC is aided by simultaneous tracking of tumor and organ at risk (OAR). The leaf opening/closing will follow the motion trajectory of the tumor while sparing the OAR. The treatment beam turns on only when there is no overlapping between OAR and tumor in BEV. A variety of evaluation metrics were considered and calculated, including duty cycle, beam toggling rate, and direct irradiation avoidance to OAR, under various combinations of different tumor margins and the distance between the centers of the tumor and OAR in BEV (expressed as dx). Results: Retrospective simulation was performed to investigate the feasibility and superiority of this technique using four groups of synchronized tumor and OAR motion data. The simulation results indicate that the tumor and OAR motion patterns and their relative positions are the dominant influential factors. The duty cycle can be greater than 96.71% yet can be as low as 6.69% depending different motion groups. This proposed technique provides good OAR protection, especially for such cases with low duty cycle for which as high as 77.71% maximal direct irradiation to OAR can be spared. Increasing dx improves the duty cycle (treatment efficiency) and provides better OAR volume sparing, whereas, that of the tumor margins has the opposite influence. Conclusion: This real-time adaptive dMLC gated radiation treatment with synchronous tumor and OAR tracking has inherent accurate dose delivery to tumor with reduced treatment time. In addition, the OAR protection capability make it an outstanding potential treatment strategy for mobile tumors.

  1. An adaptive MR-CT registration method for MRI-guided prostate cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Hualiang; Wen, Ning; Gordon, James J.; Elshaikh, Mohamed A.; Movsas, Benjamin; Chetty, Indrin J.

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic Resonance images (MRI) have superior soft tissue contrast compared with CT images. Therefore, MRI might be a better imaging modality to differentiate the prostate from surrounding normal organs. Methods to accurately register MRI to simulation CT images are essential, as we transition the use of MRI into the routine clinic setting. In this study, we present a finite element method (FEM) to improve the performance of a commercially available, B-spline-based registration algorithm in the prostate region. Specifically, prostate contours were delineated independently on ten MRI and CT images using the Eclipse treatment planning system. Each pair of MRI and CT images was registered with the B-spline-based algorithm implemented in the VelocityAI system. A bounding box that contains the prostate volume in the CT image was selected and partitioned into a tetrahedral mesh. An adaptive finite element method was then developed to adjust the displacement vector fields (DVFs) of the B-spline-based registrations within the box. The B-spline and FEM-based registrations were evaluated based on the variations of prostate volume and tumor centroid, the unbalanced energy of the generated DVFs, and the clarity of the reconstructed anatomical structures. The results showed that the volumes of the prostate contours warped with the B-spline-based DVFs changed 10.2% on average, relative to the volumes of the prostate contours on the original MR images. This discrepancy was reduced to 1.5% for the FEM-based DVFs. The average unbalanced energy was 2.65 and 0.38 mJ cm-3, and the prostate centroid deviation was 0.37 and 0.28 cm, for the B-spline and FEM-based registrations, respectively. Different from the B-spline-warped MR images, the FEM-warped MR images have clear boundaries between prostates and bladders, and their internal prostatic structures are consistent with those of the original MR images. In summary, the developed adaptive FEM method preserves the prostate volume

  2. Radiotherapy of Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Vordermark, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Curative-intent radical radiotherapy of cervical cancer consists of external-beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, and concomitant chemotherapy with cisplatin. For each element, new developments aim to improve tumor control rates or treatment tolerance. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has been shown to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity and can be used to selectively increase the radiotherapy dose. Individualized, image-guided brachytherapy enables better adaptation of high-dose volumes to the tumor extension. Intensification of concomitant or sequential systemic therapy is under evaluation. PMID:27614991

  3. MagicPlate-512: A 2D silicon detector array for quality assurance of stereotactic motion adaptive radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Petasecca, M. Newall, M. K.; Aldosari, A. H.; Fuduli, I.; Espinoza, A. A.; Porumb, C. S.; Guatelli, S.; Metcalfe, P.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Booth, J. T.; Colvill, E.; Duncan, M.; Cammarano, D.; Carolan, M.; Oborn, B.; Perevertaylo, V.; Keall, P. J.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Spatial and temporal resolutions are two of the most important features for quality assurance instrumentation of motion adaptive radiotherapy modalities. The goal of this work is to characterize the performance of the 2D high spatial resolution monolithic silicon diode array named “MagicPlate-512” for quality assurance of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) combined with a dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking technique for motion compensation. Methods: MagicPlate-512 is used in combination with the movable platform HexaMotion and a research version of radiofrequency tracking system Calypso driving MLC tracking software. The authors reconstruct 2D dose distributions of small field square beams in three modalities: in static conditions, mimicking the temporal movement pattern of a lung tumor and tracking the moving target while the MLC compensates almost instantaneously for the tumor displacement. Use of Calypso in combination with MagicPlate-512 requires a proper radiofrequency interference shielding. Impact of the shielding on dosimetry has been simulated by GEANT4 and verified experimentally. Temporal and spatial resolutions of the dosimetry system allow also for accurate verification of segments of complex stereotactic radiotherapy plans with identification of the instant and location where a certain dose is delivered. This feature allows for retrospective temporal reconstruction of the delivery process and easy identification of error in the tracking or the multileaf collimator driving systems. A sliding MLC wedge combined with the lung motion pattern has been measured. The ability of the MagicPlate-512 (MP512) in 2D dose mapping in all three modes of operation was benchmarked by EBT3 film. Results: Full width at half maximum and penumbra of the moving and stationary dose profiles measured by EBT3 film and MagicPlate-512 confirm that motion has a significant impact on the dose distribution. Motion

  4. Intra-patient semi-automated segmentation of the cervix-uterus in CT-images for adaptive radiotherapy of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Bondar, M Luiza; Hoogeman, Mischa; Schillemans, Wilco; Heijmen, Ben

    2013-08-01

    For online adaptive radiotherapy of cervical cancer, fast and accurate image segmentation is required to facilitate daily treatment adaptation. Our aim was twofold: (1) to test and compare three intra-patient automated segmentation methods for the cervix-uterus structure in CT-images and (2) to improve the segmentation accuracy by including prior knowledge on the daily bladder volume or on the daily coordinates of implanted fiducial markers. The tested methods were: shape deformation (SD) and atlas-based segmentation (ABAS) using two non-rigid registration methods: demons and a hierarchical algorithm. Tests on 102 CT-scans of 13 patients demonstrated that the segmentation accuracy significantly increased by including the bladder volume predicted with a simple 1D model based on a manually defined bladder top. Moreover, manually identified implanted fiducial markers significantly improved the accuracy of the SD method. For patients with large cervix-uterus volume regression, the use of CT-data acquired toward the end of the treatment was required to improve segmentation accuracy. Including prior knowledge, the segmentation results of SD (Dice similarity coefficient 85 ± 6%, error margin 2.2 ± 2.3 mm, average time around 1 min) and of ABAS using hierarchical non-rigid registration (Dice 82 ± 10%, error margin 3.1 ± 2.3 mm, average time around 30 s) support their use for image guided online adaptive radiotherapy of cervical cancer.

  5. Intra-patient semi-automated segmentation of the cervix-uterus in CT-images for adaptive radiotherapy of cervical cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luiza Bondar, M.; Hoogeman, Mischa; Schillemans, Wilco; Heijmen, Ben

    2013-08-01

    For online adaptive radiotherapy of cervical cancer, fast and accurate image segmentation is required to facilitate daily treatment adaptation. Our aim was twofold: (1) to test and compare three intra-patient automated segmentation methods for the cervix-uterus structure in CT-images and (2) to improve the segmentation accuracy by including prior knowledge on the daily bladder volume or on the daily coordinates of implanted fiducial markers. The tested methods were: shape deformation (SD) and atlas-based segmentation (ABAS) using two non-rigid registration methods: demons and a hierarchical algorithm. Tests on 102 CT-scans of 13 patients demonstrated that the segmentation accuracy significantly increased by including the bladder volume predicted with a simple 1D model based on a manually defined bladder top. Moreover, manually identified implanted fiducial markers significantly improved the accuracy of the SD method. For patients with large cervix-uterus volume regression, the use of CT-data acquired toward the end of the treatment was required to improve segmentation accuracy. Including prior knowledge, the segmentation results of SD (Dice similarity coefficient 85 ± 6%, error margin 2.2 ± 2.3 mm, average time around 1 min) and of ABAS using hierarchical non-rigid registration (Dice 82 ± 10%, error margin 3.1 ± 2.3 mm, average time around 30 s) support their use for image guided online adaptive radiotherapy of cervical cancer.

  6. Reconstructing cone-beam CT with spatially varying qualities for adaptive radiotherapy: a proof-of-principle study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wenting; Yan, Hao; Gu, Xuejun; Tian, Zhen; Ouyang, Luo; Yang, Liu; Zhou, Linghong; Cervino, Laura; Wang, Jing; Jiang, Steve; Jia, Xun

    2014-10-01

    With the aim of maximally reducing imaging dose while meeting requirements for adaptive radiation therapy (ART), we propose in this paper a new cone beam CT (CBCT) acquisition and reconstruction method that delivers images with a low noise level inside a region of interest (ROI) and a relatively high noise level outside the ROI. The acquired projection images include two groups: densely sampled projections at a low exposure with a large field of view (FOV) and sparsely sampled projections at a high exposure with a small FOV corresponding to the ROI. A new algorithm combining the conventional filtered back-projection algorithm and the tight-frame iterative reconstruction algorithm is also designed to reconstruct the CBCT based on these projection data. We have validated our method on a simulated head-and-neck (HN) patient case, a semi-real experiment conducted on a HN cancer patient under a full-fan scan mode, as well as a Catphan phantom under a half-fan scan mode. Relative root-mean-square errors (RRMSEs) of less than 3% for the entire image and ~1% within the ROI compared to the ground truth have been observed. These numbers demonstrate the ability of our proposed method to reconstruct high-quality images inside the ROI. As for the part outside ROI, although the images are relatively noisy, it can still provide sufficient information for radiation dose calculations in ART. Dose distributions calculated on our CBCT image and on a standard CBCT image are in agreement, with a mean relative difference of 0.082% inside the ROI and 0.038% outside the ROI. Compared with the standard clinical CBCT scheme, an imaging dose reduction of approximately 3-6 times inside the ROI was achieved, as well as an 8 times outside the ROI. Regarding computational efficiency, it takes 1-3 min to reconstruct a CBCT image depending on the number of projections used. These results indicate that the proposed method has the potential for application in ART.

  7. Toward adaptive radiotherapy for head and neck patients: Feasibility study on using CT-to-CBCT deformable registration for “dose of the day” calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Veiga, Catarina Lourenço, Ana; Ricketts, Kate; Annkah, James; Royle, Gary; McClelland, Jamie; Modat, Marc; Ourselin, Sébastien; Moinuddin, Syed; D’Souza, Derek

    2014-03-15

    a replan CT. The DD is smaller than 2% of the prescribed dose on 90% of the body's voxels and it passes a 2% and 2 mm gamma-test on over 95% of the voxels. Target coverage similarity was assessed in terms of the 95%-isodose volumes. A mean value of 0.962 was obtained for the DSC, while the distance between surfaces is less than 2 mm in 95.4% of the pixels. The method proposed provided adequate dose estimation, closer to the gold standard than the other two approaches. Differences in DVH curves were mainly due to differences in the OARs definition (manual vs warped) and not due to differences in dose estimation (dose calculated in replan CT vs dose calculated in deformed CT). Conclusions: Deforming a planning CT to match a daily CBCT provides the tools needed for the calculation of the “dose of the day” without the need to acquire a new CT. The initial clinical application of our method will be weekly offline calculations of the “dose of the day,” and use this information to inform adaptive radiotherapy (ART). The work here presented is a first step into a full implementation of a “dose-driven” online ART.

  8. Toward adaptive radiotherapy for head and neck patients: Uncertainties in dose warping due to the choice of deformable registration algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Veiga, Catarina Royle, Gary; Lourenço, Ana Mónica; Mouinuddin, Syed; Herk, Marcel van; Modat, Marc; Ourselin, Sébastien; McClelland, Jamie R.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: The aims of this work were to evaluate the performance of several deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms implemented in our in-house software (NiftyReg) and the uncertainties inherent to using different algorithms for dose warping. Methods: The authors describe a DIR based adaptive radiotherapy workflow, using CT and cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging. The transformations that mapped the anatomy between the two time points were obtained using four different DIR approaches available in NiftyReg. These included a standard unidirectional algorithm and more sophisticated bidirectional ones that encourage or ensure inverse consistency. The forward (CT-to-CBCT) deformation vector fields (DVFs) were used to propagate the CT Hounsfield units and structures to the daily geometry for “dose of the day” calculations, while the backward (CBCT-to-CT) DVFs were used to remap the dose of the day onto the planning CT (pCT). Data from five head and neck patients were used to evaluate the performance of each implementation based on geometrical matching, physical properties of the DVFs, and similarity between warped dose distributions. Geometrical matching was verified in terms of dice similarity coefficient (DSC), distance transform, false positives, and false negatives. The physical properties of the DVFs were assessed calculating the harmonic energy, determinant of the Jacobian, and inverse consistency error of the transformations. Dose distributions were displayed on the pCT dose space and compared using dose difference (DD), distance to dose difference, and dose volume histograms. Results: All the DIR algorithms gave similar results in terms of geometrical matching, with an average DSC of 0.85 ± 0.08, but the underlying properties of the DVFs varied in terms of smoothness and inverse consistency. When comparing the doses warped by different algorithms, we found a root mean square DD of 1.9% ± 0.8% of the prescribed dose (pD) and that an average of 9% ± 4% of

  9. Using dual-energy x-ray imaging to enhance automated lung tumor tracking during real-time adaptive radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Menten, Martin J. Fast, Martin F.; Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Real-time, markerless localization of lung tumors with kV imaging is often inhibited by ribs obscuring the tumor and poor soft-tissue contrast. This study investigates the use of dual-energy imaging, which can generate radiographs with reduced bone visibility, to enhance automated lung tumor tracking for real-time adaptive radiotherapy. Methods: kV images of an anthropomorphic breathing chest phantom were experimentally acquired and radiographs of actual lung cancer patients were Monte-Carlo-simulated at three imaging settings: low-energy (70 kVp, 1.5 mAs), high-energy (140 kVp, 2.5 mAs, 1 mm additional tin filtration), and clinical (120 kVp, 0.25 mAs). Regular dual-energy images were calculated by weighted logarithmic subtraction of high- and low-energy images and filter-free dual-energy images were generated from clinical and low-energy radiographs. The weighting factor to calculate the dual-energy images was determined by means of a novel objective score. The usefulness of dual-energy imaging for real-time tracking with an automated template matching algorithm was investigated. Results: Regular dual-energy imaging was able to increase tracking accuracy in left–right images of the anthropomorphic phantom as well as in 7 out of 24 investigated patient cases. Tracking accuracy remained comparable in three cases and decreased in five cases. Filter-free dual-energy imaging was only able to increase accuracy in 2 out of 24 cases. In four cases no change in accuracy was observed and tracking accuracy worsened in nine cases. In 9 out of 24 cases, it was not possible to define a tracking template due to poor soft-tissue contrast regardless of input images. The mean localization errors using clinical, regular dual-energy, and filter-free dual-energy radiographs were 3.85, 3.32, and 5.24 mm, respectively. Tracking success was dependent on tumor position, tumor size, imaging beam angle, and patient size. Conclusions: This study has highlighted the influence of

  10. Evaluations of an adaptive planning technique incorporating dose feedback in image-guided radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Han; Wu Qiuwen

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: Online image guidance (IG) has been used to effectively correct the setup error and inter-fraction rigid organ motion for prostate cancer. However, planning margins are still necessary to account for uncertainties such as deformation and intra-fraction motion. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of an adaptive planning technique incorporating offline dose feedback to manage inter-fraction motion and residuals from online correction. Methods: Repeated helical CT scans from 28 patients were included in the study. The contours of prostate and organs-at-risk (OARs) were delineated on each CT, and online IG was simulated by matching center-of-mass of prostate between treatment CTs and planning CT. A seven beam intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan was designed for each patient on planning CT for a total of 15 fractions. Dose distribution at each fraction was evaluated based on actual contours of the target and OARs from that fraction. Cumulative dose up to each fraction was calculated by tracking each voxel based on a deformable registration algorithm. The cumulative dose was compared with the dose from initial plan. If the deviation exceeded the pre-defined threshold, such as 2% of the D{sub 99} to the prostate, an adaptive planning technique called dose compensation was invoked, in which the cumulative dose distribution was fed back to the treatment planning system and the dose deficit was made up through boost radiation in future treatment fractions. The dose compensation was achieved by IMRT inverse planning. Two weekly compensation delivery strategies were simulated: one intended to deliver the boost dose in all future fractions (schedule A) and the other in the following week only (schedule B). The D{sub 99} to prostate and generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) to rectal wall and bladder were computed and compared with those without the dose compensation. Results: If only 2% underdose is allowed at the end of the

  11. The role of postoperative radiotherapy for stage I/II/III thymic tumor—results of the ChART retrospective database

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qianwen; Gu, Zhitao; Yang, Fu; Shen, Yi; Wei, Yucheng; Tan, Lijie; Zhang, Peng; Han, Yongtao; Chen, Chun; Zhang, Renquan; Li, Yin; Chen, Keneng; Chen, Hezhong; Liu, Yongyu; Cui, Youbing; Wang, Yun; Pang, Liewen; Yu, Zhentao; Zhou, Xinming; Liu, Yangchun; Xiang, Jin; Liu, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) for thymic tumor is still controversial. The object of the study is to evaluate the role of PORT for stage I to III thymic tumors. Methods The Chinese Alliance for Research in Thymomas (ChART) was searched for patients with stage I to III thymic tumors who underwent surgical resection without neoajuvant therapy between 1994 and 2012. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were performed. Cox proportional hazard model was used to determine the hazard ratio for death. Result From the ChART database, 1,546 stage I to III patients were identified. Among these patients, 649 (41.98%) received PORT. PORT was associated with gender, histological type (World Health Organization, WHO), thymectomy extent, resection status, Masaoka-Koga stage and adjuvant chemotherapy. The 5-year and 10-year overall survival (OS) rates and disease-free survival (DFS) rates for patients underwent surgery followed by PORT were 90% and 80%, 81% and 63%, comparing with 96% and 95%, 92% and 90% for patients underwent surgery alone (P=0.001, P<0.001) respectively. In univariate analysis, age, histological type (WHO), Masaoka-Koga stage, completeness of resection, and PORT were associated with OS. Multivariable analysis showed that histological type (WHO) (P=0.001), Masaoka-Koga stage (P=0.029) and completeness of resection (P=0.003) were independently prognostic factors of OS. In univariate analysis, gender, myasthenia gravis, histological subtype, Masaoka-Koga stage, surgical approach, PORT and completeness of resection were associated with DFS. Multivariate analysis showed that histological subtype (P<0.001), Masaoka-Koga stage (P=0.005) and completeness of resection (P=0.006) were independent prognostic factors for DFS. Subgroup analysis showed that patients with incomplete resection underwent PORT achieved better OS and DFS (P=0.010, 0.017, respectively). However, patients with complete resection underwent PORT had the worse OS and DFS (P<0

  12. Adapting Language Arts, Social Studies, and Science Materials for the Inclusive Classroom. ERIC/OSEP Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, Keith; Schumaker, Jean

    This digest, based on a larger publication of the same title, offers a nine-step process for planning and implementing adaptations to instructional materials for students with disabilities in the inclusive classroom. Introductory material notes that adaptations should be approached as a short-term solution to increase access to the curriculum and…

  13. Adaptive Teaching for English Language Arts: Following the Pathway of Classroom Data in Preservice Teacher Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanases, Steven Z.; Bennett, Lisa H.; Wahleithner, Juliet Michelsen

    2015-01-01

    Consensus exists that effective teaching includes capacity to adapt instruction to respond to student learning challenges as they arise. Adaptive teachers may keep pace with rapidly evolving youth literacies and students' increasing cultural and linguistic diversity. Teachers are challenged to critically examine pedagogy when some contexts expect…

  14. Development of a Synthetic Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Prediction Model for Tumor Motion Tracking in External Radiotherapy by Evaluating Various Data Clustering Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Ghorbanzadeh, Leila; Torshabi, Ahmad Esmaili; Nabipour, Jamshid Soltani; Arbatan, Moslem Ahmadi

    2016-04-01

    In image guided radiotherapy, in order to reach a prescribed uniform dose in dynamic tumors at thorax region while minimizing the amount of additional dose received by the surrounding healthy tissues, tumor motion must be tracked in real-time. Several correlation models have been proposed in recent years to provide tumor position information as a function of time in radiotherapy with external surrogates. However, developing an accurate correlation model is still a challenge. In this study, we proposed an adaptive neuro-fuzzy based correlation model that employs several data clustering algorithms for antecedent parameters construction to avoid over-fitting and to achieve an appropriate performance in tumor motion tracking compared with the conventional models. To begin, a comparative assessment is done between seven nuero-fuzzy correlation models each constructed using a unique data clustering algorithm. Then, each of the constructed models are combined within an adaptive sevenfold synthetic model since our tumor motion database has high degrees of variability and that each model has its intrinsic properties at motion tracking. In the proposed sevenfold synthetic model, best model is selected adaptively at pre-treatment. The model also updates the steps for each patient using an automatic model selectivity subroutine. We tested the efficacy of the proposed synthetic model on twenty patients (divided equally into two control and worst groups) treated with CyberKnife synchrony system. Compared to Cyberknife model, the proposed synthetic model resulted in 61.2% and 49.3% reduction in tumor tracking error in worst and control group, respectively. These results suggest that the proposed model selection program in our synthetic neuro-fuzzy model can significantly reduce tumor tracking errors. Numerical assessments confirmed that the proposed synthetic model is able to track tumor motion in real time with high accuracy during treatment. PMID:25765021

  15. Is Consciousness Necessary for Conflict Adaptation? A State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Desender, Kobe; Van den Bussche, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Facing response conflict, subjects try to improve their responses by reducing the influence of the detrimental information which caused the conflict. It was speculated that this adaptation to conflict can only occur when the conflicting information is consciously perceived. In this review we give an overview of the research looking at the possibility of unconscious stimuli to provoke this conflict adaptation. In a first part we discuss adaptation to conflict on a trial-by-trial basis. When the previous trial contained conflicting information, subjects will adapt to this by reducing the influence of the conflicting information on the current trial. However, the interesting question is whether this is also possible when the conflicting information remains unconscious. In a second part we will discuss blockwise adaptation to conflict. If conflict is very frequent, subjects will adapt to this by reducing the conflicting information sustainably. Again the question is whether this is possible when the conflict was never experienced consciously. In a third part we will discuss the neural basis of conscious and unconscious conflict adaptation. We will critically discuss the research on these topics and highlight strengths and weaknesses of the used paradigms. Finally, we will give some suggestions how future research can be more conclusive in this respect. PMID:22347176

  16. Moving Adapted Physical Activity: The Possibilities of Arts-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eales, Lindsay; Peers, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Where is the moving body in our written bodies of work? How might we articulate truly unspeakable and deeply moving moments of understanding? In what ways can we reflect and honor the knowledge of those who do not use academic words, English words, or any words at all? How might art move us to answer these questions differently--and more…

  17. Mapping Techno-Literary Spaces: Adapting Multiple Correspondence Analysis for Literature and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paling, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: This paper constitutes part of a series of studies intended to establish "Literature and Art Informatics". The paper describes the conceptual background of multiple correspondence analysis and its use in visualizing conceptual spaces to describe the values that motivate the use of information technology by literary authors. An…

  18. MO-C-17A-13: Uncertainty Evaluation of CT Image Deformable Registration for H and N Cancer Adaptive Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, A; Yan, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate uncertainties of organ specific Deformable Image Registration (DIR) for H and N cancer Adaptive Radiation Therapy (ART). Methods: A commercial DIR evaluation tool, which includes a digital phantom library of 8 patients, and the corresponding “Ground truth Deformable Vector Field” (GT-DVF), was used in the study. Each patient in the phantom library includes the GT-DVF created from a pair of CT images acquired prior to and at the end of the treatment course. Five DIR tools, including 2 commercial tools (CMT1, CMT2), 2 in-house (IH-FFD1, IH-FFD2), and a classic DEMON algorithms, were applied on the patient images. The resulting DVF was compared to the GT-DVF voxel by voxel. Organ specific DVF uncertainty was calculated for 10 ROIs: Whole Body, Brain, Brain Stem, Cord, Lips, Mandible, Parotid, Esophagus and Submandibular Gland. Registration error-volume histogram was constructed for comparison. Results: The uncertainty is relatively small for brain stem, cord and lips, while large in parotid and submandibular gland. CMT1 achieved best overall accuracy (on whole body, mean vector error of 8 patients: 0.98±0.29 mm). For brain, mandible, parotid right, parotid left and submandibular glad, the classic Demon algorithm got the lowest uncertainty (0.49±0.09, 0.51±0.16, 0.46±0.11, 0.50±0.11 and 0.69±0.47 mm respectively). For brain stem, cord and lips, the DVF from CMT1 has the best accuracy (0.28±0.07, 0.22±0.08 and 0.27±0.12 mm respectively). All algorithms have largest right parotid uncertainty on patient #7, which has image artifact caused by tooth implantation. Conclusion: Uncertainty of deformable CT image registration highly depends on the registration algorithm, and organ specific. Large uncertainty most likely appears at the location of soft-tissue organs far from the bony structures. Among all 5 DIR methods, the classic DEMON and CMT1 seem to be the best to limit the uncertainty within 2mm for all OARs. Partially supported by

  19. Adaptive Transcutaneous Power Transfer to Implantable Devices: A State of the Art Review.

    PubMed

    Bocan, Kara N; Sejdić, Ervin

    2016-01-01

    Wireless energy transfer is a broad research area that has recently become applicable to implantable medical devices. Wireless powering of and communication with implanted devices is possible through wireless transcutaneous energy transfer. However, designing wireless transcutaneous systems is complicated due to the variability of the environment. The focus of this review is on strategies to sense and adapt to environmental variations in wireless transcutaneous systems. Adaptive systems provide the ability to maintain performance in the face of both unpredictability (variation from expected parameters) and variability (changes over time). Current strategies in adaptive (or tunable) systems include sensing relevant metrics to evaluate the function of the system in its environment and adjusting control parameters according to sensed values through the use of tunable components. Some challenges of applying adaptive designs to implantable devices are challenges common to all implantable devices, including size and power reduction on the implant, efficiency of power transfer and safety related to energy absorption in tissue. Challenges specifically associated with adaptation include choosing relevant and accessible parameters to sense and adjust, minimizing the tuning time and complexity of control, utilizing feedback from the implanted device and coordinating adaptation at the transmitter and receiver. PMID:26999154

  20. Adaptive Transcutaneous Power Transfer to Implantable Devices: A State of the Art Review

    PubMed Central

    Bocan, Kara N.; Sejdić, Ervin

    2016-01-01

    Wireless energy transfer is a broad research area that has recently become applicable to implantable medical devices. Wireless powering of and communication with implanted devices is possible through wireless transcutaneous energy transfer. However, designing wireless transcutaneous systems is complicated due to the variability of the environment. The focus of this review is on strategies to sense and adapt to environmental variations in wireless transcutaneous systems. Adaptive systems provide the ability to maintain performance in the face of both unpredictability (variation from expected parameters) and variability (changes over time). Current strategies in adaptive (or tunable) systems include sensing relevant metrics to evaluate the function of the system in its environment and adjusting control parameters according to sensed values through the use of tunable components. Some challenges of applying adaptive designs to implantable devices are challenges common to all implantable devices, including size and power reduction on the implant, efficiency of power transfer and safety related to energy absorption in tissue. Challenges specifically associated with adaptation include choosing relevant and accessible parameters to sense and adjust, minimizing the tuning time and complexity of control, utilizing feedback from the implanted device and coordinating adaptation at the transmitter and receiver. PMID:26999154

  1. Direct Adaptive Control of Systems with Actuator Failures: State of the Art and Continuing Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Gang; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of controlling systems with failures and faults is introduced, and an overview of recent work on direct adaptive control for compensation of uncertain actuator failures is presented. Actuator failures may be characterized by some unknown system inputs being stuck at some unknown (fixed or varying) values at unknown time instants, that cannot be influenced by the control signals. The key task of adaptive compensation is to design the control signals in such a manner that the remaining actuators can automatically and seamlessly take over for the failed ones, and achieve desired stability and asymptotic tracking. A certain degree of redundancy is necessary to accomplish failure compensation. The objective of adaptive control design is to effectively use the available actuation redundancy to handle failures without the knowledge of the failure patterns, parameters, and time of occurrence. This is a challenging problem because failures introduce large uncertainties in the dynamic structure of the system, in addition to parametric uncertainties and unknown disturbances. The paper addresses some theoretical issues in adaptive actuator failure compensation: actuator failure modeling, redundant actuation requirements, plant-model matching, error system dynamics, adaptation laws, and stability, tracking, and performance analysis. Adaptive control designs can be shown to effectively handle uncertain actuator failures without explicit failure detection. Some open technical challenges and research problems in this important research area are discussed.

  2. Adaptive semi-supervised recursive tree partitioning: The ART towards large scale patient indexing in personalized healthcare.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei

    2015-06-01

    With the rapid development of information technologies, tremendous amount of data became readily available in various application domains. This big data era presents challenges to many conventional data analytics research directions including data capture, storage, search, sharing, analysis, and visualization. It is no surprise to see that the success of next-generation healthcare systems heavily relies on the effective utilization of gigantic amounts of medical data. The ability of analyzing big data in modern healthcare systems plays a vital role in the improvement of the quality of care delivery. Specifically, patient similarity evaluation aims at estimating the clinical affinity and diagnostic proximity of patients. As one of the successful data driven techniques adopted in healthcare systems, patient similarity evaluation plays a fundamental role in many healthcare research areas such as prognosis, risk assessment, and comparative effectiveness analysis. However, existing algorithms for patient similarity evaluation are inefficient in handling massive patient data. In this paper, we propose an Adaptive Semi-Supervised Recursive Tree Partitioning (ART) framework for large scale patient indexing such that the patients with similar clinical or diagnostic patterns can be correctly and efficiently retrieved. The framework is designed for semi-supervised settings since it is crucial to leverage experts' supervision knowledge in medical scenario, which are fairly limited compared to the available data. Starting from the proposed ART framework, we will discuss several specific instantiations and validate them on both benchmark and real world healthcare data. Our results show that with the ART framework, the patients can be efficiently and effectively indexed in the sense that (1) similarity patients can be retrieved in a very short time; (2) the retrieval performance can beat the state-of-the art indexing methods.

  3. Sen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance: Adaptive Preferences and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive preferences are both a central justification and continuing problem for the use of the capability approach. They are illustrated here with reference to a project examining the choices of young people who had rejected higher education. Jon Elster, Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum have all criticised utilitarianism on the grounds that a…

  4. The Adaptation of Short Stories into Screenplays: A Language Arts Program for the Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulis, Chris

    1984-01-01

    A summer English class for gifted fifth- through eighth-grade students was designed to allow students to interact with literature by adapting short-stories into plays that the students then produced, performed, and filmed. During the prewriting phase, students discussed qualities most essential to a story or film, and compared a short story with…

  5. First Clinical Release of an Online, Adaptive, Aperture-Based Image-Guided Radiotherapy Strategy in Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy to Correct for Inter- and Intrafractional Rotations of the Prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Deutschmann, Heinz; Kametriser, Gerhard; Steininger, Philipp; Scherer, Philipp; Schoeller, Helmut; Gaisberger, Christoph; Mooslechner, Michaela; Mitterlechner, Bernhard; Weichenberger, Harald; Fastner, Gert; Wurstbauer, Karl; Jeschke, Stephan; Forstner, Rosemarie; Sedlmayer, Felix

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: We developed and evaluated a correction strategy for prostate rotations using direct adaptation of segments in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Method and Materials: Implanted fiducials (four gold markers) were used to determine interfractional translations, rotations, and dilations of the prostate. We used hybrid imaging: The markers were automatically detected in two pretreatment planar X-ray projections; their actual position in three-dimensional space was reconstructed from these images at first. The structure set comprising prostate, seminal vesicles, and adjacent rectum wall was transformed accordingly in 6 degrees of freedom. Shapes of IMRT segments were geometrically adapted in a class solution forward-planning approach, derived within seconds on-site and treated immediately. Intrafractional movements were followed in MV electronic portal images captured on the fly. Results: In 31 of 39 patients, for 833 of 1013 fractions (supine, flat couch, knee support, comfortably full bladder, empty rectum, no intraprostatic marker migrations >2 mm of more than one marker), the online aperture adaptation allowed safe reduction of margins clinical target volume-planning target volume (prostate) down to 5 mm when only interfractional corrections were applied: Dominant L-R rotations were found to be 5.3 Degree-Sign (mean of means), standard deviation of means {+-}4.9 Degree-Sign , maximum at 30.7 Degree-Sign . Three-dimensional vector translations relative to skin markings were 9.3 {+-} 4.4 mm (maximum, 23.6 mm). Intrafractional movements in 7.7 {+-} 1.5 min (maximum, 15.1 min) between kV imaging and last beam's electronic portal images showed further L-R rotations of 2.5 Degree-Sign {+-} 2.3 Degree-Sign (maximum, 26.9 Degree-Sign ), and three-dimensional vector translations of 3.0 {+-}3.7 mm (maximum, 10.2 mm). Addressing intrafractional errors could further reduce margins to 3 mm. Conclusion: We demonstrated the clinical feasibility of an online

  6. SU-E-J-67: Evaluation of Adaptive MLC Morphing for Online Correction of Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, R; Qin, A; Yan, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Online adaptive MLC morphing is desirable over translational couch shifts to accommodate target position as well as anatomic changes. A reliable method of adaptive MLC segment to target during prostate cancer IMRT treatment is proposed and evaluated by comparison with daily online-image guidance (IGRT) correction and online-IMRT planning. Methods: The MLC adaptive algorithm involves following steps; move the MLC segments according to target translational shifts, and then morph the segment shape to maintain the spatial relationship between the planning-target contour and MLC segment. Efficacy of this method was evaluated retrospectively using daily-CBCT images on seven prostate patients treated with seven-beam IMRT treatment to deliver 64Gy in 20 fractions. Daily modification was simulated with three approaches; daily-IGRT correction based on implanted radio-markers, adaptive MLC morphing, and online-IMRT planning, with no-residual variation. The selected dosimetric endpoints and nEUD (normalized equivalent uniform dose to online-IMRT planning) of each organ of interest were determined for evaluation and comparison. Results: For target(prostate), bladder and rectal-wall, the mean±sd of nEUD were 97.6%+3.2%, 103.9%±4.9% and 97.4%±1.1% for daily-IGRT correction; and 100.2%+0.2%, 108.9%±5.1% and 99.8%±1.2% for adaptive MLC morphing, respectively. For daily-IGRT correction, adaptive MLC morphing and online-IMRT planning, target D99 was <95% of the prescription dose in 30%, 0% and 0% of 140 fractions, respectively. For the rectal-wall, D5 exceeded 105% of the planned-D5 in 2.8%, 11.4% and 0% of 140 fractions, respectively. For the bladder, Dmax exceeded 105% of the planned-D5 in 2.8%, 5.6% and 0% of 140 fractions, respectively. D30 of bladder and rectal-wall were well within the planned-D30 for all three approaches. Conclusion: The proposed method of adaptive MLC morphing can be beneficial for the prostate patient population with large deformation and

  7. Individualized Nonadaptive and Online-Adaptive Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Treatment Strategies for Cervical Cancer Patients Based on Pretreatment Acquired Variable Bladder Filling Computed Tomography Scans

    SciTech Connect

    Bondar, M.L.; Hoogeman, M.S.; Mens, J.W.; Quint, S.; Ahmad, R.; Dhawtal, G.; Heijmen, B.J.

    2012-08-01

    bladder and rectum inside the PTV (0% to 10% and -1% to 9%; p < 0.004) and the CTV-to-PTV volume (4-96 ml). Conclusions: Compared with population-based margins, an individualized PTV results in better organ-at-risk sparing. Online-adaptive radiotherapy further improves organ-at-risk sparing.

  8. MO-C-17A-06: Online Adaptive Re-Planning to Account for Independent Motions Between Multiple Targets During Radiotherapy of Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, F; Tai, A; Ahunbay, E; Gore, E; Johnstone, C; Li, X

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify interfractional independent motions between multiple targets in radiotherapy (RT) of lung cancer, and to study the dosimetric benefits of an online adaptive replanning method to account for these variations. Methods: Ninety five diagnostic-quality daily CTs acquired for 9 lung cancer patients treated with IGRT using an in-room CT (CTVision, Siemens) were analyzed. On each daily CT set, contours of the targets (GTV, CTV, or involved nodes) and organs at risk were generated by populating the planning contours using an auto-segmentation tool (ABAS, Elekta) with manual editing. For each patient, an IMRT plan was generated based on the planning CT with a prescription dose of 60 Gy in 2Gy fractions. Three plans were generated and compared for each daily CT set: an IGRT (repositioning) plan by copying the original plan with the required shifts, an online adaptive plan by rapidly modifying the aperture shapes and segment weights of the original plan to conform to the daily anatomy, and a new fully re-optimized plan based on the daily CT using a planning system (Panther, Prowess). Results: The daily deviations of the distance between centers of masses of the targets from the plans varied daily from -10 to 8 mm with an average −0.9±4.1 mm (one standard deviation). The average CTV V100 are 99.0±0.7%, 97.9±2.8%, 99.0±0.6%, and 99.1±0.6%, and the lung V20 Gy 928±332 cc, 944±315 cc, 917±300 cc, and 891±295 cc for the original, repositioning, adaptive, and re-optimized plans, respectively. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests show that the adaptive plans are statistically significantly better than the repositioning plans and comparable with the reoptimized plans. Conclusion: There exist unpredictable, interfractional, relative volume changes and independent motions between multiple targets during lung cancer RT which cannot be accounted for by the current IGRT repositioning but can be corrected by the online adaptive replanning method.

  9. Prospective, Risk-Adapted Strategy of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Early-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Results of a Phase II Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Bral, Samuel; Gevaert, Thierry; Linthout, Nadine; Versmessen, Harijati; Collen, Christine; Engels, Benedikt; Verdries, Douwe; Everaert, Hendrik; Christian, Nicolas; De Ridder, Mark; Storme, Guy

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: Validation of a prospective, risk-adapted strategy for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Patients with a T1-3N0M0 (American Joint Committee on Cancer 6th edition) NSCLC were accrued. Using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group definition, patients were treated to a total dose of 60,Gy in three fractions for peripherally located lesions and four fractions for centrally located lesions. The primary endpoint was toxicity, graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group acute and late morbidity scoring system, and the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 3.0. Secondary endpoints were local control and survival. Results: A total of 40 patients were included, 17 with a centrally located lesion. The lung toxicity-free survival estimate at 2 years was 74% and was related to the location (central vs. peripheral) and the size of the target volume. No dose volumetric parameters could predict the occurrence of lung toxicity. One patient died because of treatment-related toxicity. The 1-year and 2-year local progression-free survival estimates were 97% and 84%, respectively, and were related to stage (T1 vs. T2) related (p = 0.006). Local failure was not more frequent for patients treated in four fractions. The 1-year local progression-free survival estimate dropped below 80% for lesions with a diameter of more than 4 cm. Conclusion: The proposed risk-adapted strategy for both centrally and peripherally located lesions showed an acceptable toxicity profile while maintaining excellent local control rates. The correlation between local control and tumor diameter calls for the inclusion of tumor stage as a variable in future study design.

  10. SU-E-J-151: Dosimetric Evaluation of DIR Mapped Contours for Image Guided Adaptive Radiotherapy with 4D Cone-Beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Balik, S; Weiss, E; Williamson, J; Hugo, G; Jan, N; Zhang, L; Roman, N; Christensen, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To estimate dosimetric errors resulting from using contours deformably mapped from planning CT to 4D cone beam CT (CBCT) images for image-guided adaptive radiotherapy of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Ten locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients underwent one planning 4D fan-beam CT (4DFBCT) and weekly 4DCBCT scans. Multiple physicians delineated the gross tumor volume (GTV) and normal structures in planning CT images and only GTV in CBCT images. Manual contours were mapped from planning CT to CBCTs using small deformation, inverse consistent linear elastic (SICLE) algorithm for two scans in each patient. Two physicians reviewed and rated the DIR-mapped (auto) and manual GTV contours as clinically acceptable (CA), clinically acceptable after minor modification (CAMM) and unacceptable (CU). Mapped normal structures were visually inspected and corrected if necessary, and used to override tissue density for dose calculation. CTV (6mm expansion of GTV) and PTV (5mm expansion of CTV) were created. VMAT plans were generated using the DIR-mapped contours to deliver 66 Gy in 33 fractions with 95% and 100% coverage (V66) to PTV and CTV, respectively. Plan evaluation for V66 was based on manual PTV and CTV contours. Results: Mean PTV V66 was 84% (range 75% – 95%) and mean CTV V66 was 97% (range 93% – 100%) for CAMM scored plans (12 plans); and was 90% (range 80% – 95%) and 99% (range 95% – 100%) for CA scored plans (7 plans). The difference in V66 between CAMM and CA was significant for PTV (p = 0.03) and approached significance for CTV (p = 0.07). Conclusion: The quality of DIR-mapped contours directly impacted the plan quality for 4DCBCT-based adaptation. Larger safety margins may be needed when planning with auto contours for IGART with 4DCBCT images. Reseach was supported by NIH P01CA116602.

  11. Performance variations among clinically available deformable image registration tools in adaptive radiotherapy - how should we evaluate and interpret the result?

    PubMed

    Nie, Ke; Pouliot, Jean; Smith, Eric; Chuang, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance variations in commercial deformable image registration (DIR) tools for adaptive radiation therapy and further to interpret the differences using clinically available terms. Three clinical examples (prostate, head and neck (HN), and cranial spinal irradiation (CSI) with L-spine boost) were evaluated in this study. Firstly, computerized deformed CT images were generated using simulation QA software with virtual deformations of bladder filling (prostate), neck flexion/bite-block repositioning/tumor shrinkage (HN), and vertebral body rotation (CSI). The corresponding transformation matrices served as a "reference" for the following comparisons. Three commercialized DIR algorithms: the free-form deformation from MIMVista 5.5 and the RegRefine from MIMMaestro 6.0, the multipass B-spline from VelocityAI v3.0.1, and the adap-tive demons from OnQ rts 2.1.15, were applied between the initial images and the deformed CT sets. The generated adaptive contours and dose distributions were compared with the "reference" and among each other. The performance in transfer-ring contours was comparable among all three tools with an average Dice similarity coefficient of 0.81 for all the organs. However, the dose warping accuracy appeared to rely on the evaluation end points and methodologies. Point-dose differences could show a difference of up to 23.3 Gy inside the PTVs and to overestimate up to 13.2 Gy for OARs, which was substantial for a 72 Gy prescription dose. Dose-volume histogram-based evaluation might not be sensitive enough to illustrate all the detailed variations, while isodose assessment on a slice-by-slice basis could be tedious. We further explored the possibility of using 3D gamma index analysis for warping dose variation assessment, and observed differences in dose warping using different DIR tools. Overall, our results demonstrated that evaluation based only on the performance of contour transformation could not

  12. Adaptive Image-Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT) Eliminates the Risk of Biochemical Failure Caused by the Bias of Rectal Distension in Prostate Cancer Treatment Planning: Clinical Evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sean S.; Yan Di; McGrath, Samuel; Dilworth, Joshua T.; Liang Jian; Ye Hong; Krauss, Daniel J.; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Kestin, Larry L.

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: Rectal distension has been shown to decrease the probability of biochemical control. Adaptive image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) corrects for target position and volume variations, reducing the risk of biochemical failure while yielding acceptable rates of gastrointestinal (GI)/genitourinary (GU) toxicities. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2006, 962 patients were treated with computed tomography (CT)-based offline adaptive IGRT. Patients were stratified into low (n = 400) vs. intermediate/high (n = 562) National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk groups. Target motion was assessed with daily CT during the first week. Electronic portal imaging device (EPID) was used to measure daily setup error. Patient-specific confidence-limited planning target volumes (cl-PTV) were then constructed, reducing the standard PTV and compensating for geometric variation of the target and setup errors. Rectal volume (RV), cross-sectional area (CSA), and rectal volume from the seminal vesicles to the inferior prostate (SVP) were assessed on the planning CT. The impact of these volumetric parameters on 5-year biochemical control (BC) and chronic Grades {>=}2 and 3 GU and GI toxicity were examined. Results: Median follow-up was 5.5 years. Median minimum dose covering cl-PTV was 75.6 Gy. Median values for RV, CSA, and SVP were 82.8 cm{sup 3}, 5.6 cm{sup 2}, and 53.3 cm{sup 3}, respectively. The 5-year BC was 89% for the entire group: 96% for low risk and 83% for intermediate/high risk (p < 0.001). No statistically significant differences in BC were seen with stratification by RV, CSA, and SVP in quartiles. Maximum chronic Grades {>=}2 and 3 GI toxicities were 21.2% and 2.9%, respectively. Respective values for GU toxicities were 15.5% and 4.3%. No differences in GI or GU toxicities were noted when patients were stratified by RV. Conclusions: Incorporation of adaptive IGRT reduces the risk of geometric miss and results in excellent biochemical control that is

  13. Adaptive radiation therapy for bladder cancer: a review of adaptive techniques used in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Kibrom, Awet Z; Knight, Kellie A

    2015-12-01

    Significant changes in the shape, size and position of the bladder during radiotherapy (RT) treatment for bladder cancer have been correlated with high local failure rates; typically due to geographical misses. To account for this, large margins are added around the target volumes in conventional RT; however, this increases the volume of healthy tissue irradiation. The availability of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has not only allowed in-room volumetric imaging of the bladder, but also the development of adaptive radiotherapy (ART) for modification of plans to patient-specific changes. The aim of this review is to: (1) identify and explain the different ART techniques being used in clinical practice and (2) compare and contrast these different ART techniques to conventional RT in terms of target coverage and dose to healthy tissue: A literature search was conducted using EMBASE, MEDLINE and Scopus with the key words 'bladder, adaptive, radiotherapy/radiation therapy'. 11 studies were obtained that compared different adaptive RT techniques to conventional RT in terms of target volume coverage and healthy tissue sparing. All studies showed superior target volume coverage and/or healthy tissue sparing in adaptive RT compared to conventional RT. Cross-study comparison between different adaptive techniques could not be made due to the difference in protocols used in different studies. However, one study found daily re-optimisation of plans to be superior to plan of the day technique. The use of adaptive RT for bladder cancer is promising. Further study is required to assess adaptive RT versus conventional RT in terms of local control and long-term toxicity. PMID:27512574

  14. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for patients with oligometastases from colorectal cancer: risk-adapted dose prescription with a maximum dose of 83–100 Gy in five fractions

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Atsuya; Sanuki, Naoko; Tsurugai, Yuichiro; Oku, Yohei; Aoki, Yousuke

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that the local control of pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC) following stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) with moderate prescription dose was relatively worse. We investigated the treatment outcomes and toxicities of patients with oligometastases from CRC treated by SBRT using risk-adapted, very high- and convergent-dose regimens. Among patients referred for SBRT from August 2011 to January 2015, those patients were extracted who had liver or pulmonary metastases from CRC, and they were treated with a total dose of 50–60 Gy in five fractions prescribed to the 60% isodose line of the maximum dose covering the surface of the planning target volume. Concurrent administration of chemotherapy was not admitted during SBRT, while neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy was allowed. A total of 21 patients (12 liver, 9 lung) with 28 oligometastases were evaluated. The median follow-up duration was 27.5 months (range: 6.5–43.3 months). Four patients were treated with SBRT as a series of initial treatments, and 17 patients were treated after recurrent oligometastases. The local control rates at 1 and 2 years from the start of SBRT were 100%. The disease-free and actuarial overall survival rates were 62% and 55%, and 79% and 79%, respectively. No severe toxicities (≥grade 3) occurred during follow-up. The outcomes following high-dose SBRT were excellent. This treatment can provide an alternative to the surgical resection of oligometastases from CRC. Prospective studies are needed to validate the effectiveness of SBRT. PMID:26983981

  15. Dosimetric and geometric evaluation of the use of deformable image registration in adaptive intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eiland, R.B.; Maare, C.; Sjöström, D.; Samsøe, E.; Behrens, C.F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out geometric and dosimetric evaluation of the usefulness of a deformable image registration algorithm utilized for adaptive head-and-neck intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Data consisted of seven patients, each with a planning CT (pCT), a rescanning CT (ReCT) and a cone beam CT (CBCT). The CBCT was acquired on the same day (±1 d) as the ReCT (i.e. at Fraction 17, 18, 23, 24 or 29). The ReCT served as ground truth. A deformed CT (dCT) with structures was created by deforming the pCT to the CBCT. The geometrical comparison was based on the volumes of the deformed, and the manually delineated structures on the ReCT. Likewise, the center of mass shift (CMS) and the Dice similarity coefficient were determined. The dosimetric comparison was performed by recalculating the initial treatment plan on the dCT and the ReCT. Dose–volume histogram (DVH) points and a range of conformity measures were used for the evaluation. We found a significant difference in the median volume of the dCT relative to that of the ReCT. Median CMS values were ∼2–5 mm, except for the spinal cord, where the median CMS was 8 mm. Dosimetric evaluation of target structures revealed small differences, while larger differences were observed for organs at risk. The deformed structures cannot fully replace manually delineated structures. Based on both geometrical and dosimetrical measures, there is a tendency for the dCT to overestimate the need for replanning, compared with the ReCT. PMID:24907340

  16. SU-E-J-109: Evaluation of Deformable Accumulated Parotid Doses Using Different Registration Algorithms in Adaptive Head and Neck Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, S; Liu, B

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Three deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms are utilized to perform deformable dose accumulation for head and neck tomotherapy treatment, and the differences of the accumulated doses are evaluated. Methods: Daily MVCT data for 10 patients with pathologically proven nasopharyngeal cancers were analyzed. The data were acquired using tomotherapy (TomoTherapy, Accuray) at the PLA General Hospital. The prescription dose to the primary target was 70Gy in 33 fractions.Three DIR methods (B-spline, Diffeomorphic Demons and MIMvista) were used to propagate parotid structures from planning CTs to the daily CTs and accumulate fractionated dose on the planning CTs. The mean accumulated doses of parotids were quantitatively compared and the uncertainties of the propagated parotid contours were evaluated using Dice similarity index (DSI). Results: The planned mean dose of the ipsilateral parotids (32.42±3.13Gy) was slightly higher than those of the contralateral parotids (31.38±3.19Gy)in 10 patients. The difference between the accumulated mean doses of the ipsilateral parotids in the B-spline, Demons and MIMvista deformation algorithms (36.40±5.78Gy, 34.08±6.72Gy and 33.72±2.63Gy ) were statistically significant (B-spline vs Demons, P<0.0001, B-spline vs MIMvista, p =0.002). And The difference between those of the contralateral parotids in the B-spline, Demons and MIMvista deformation algorithms (34.08±4.82Gy, 32.42±4.80Gy and 33.92±4.65Gy ) were also significant (B-spline vs Demons, p =0.009, B-spline vs MIMvista, p =0.074). For the DSI analysis, the scores of B-spline, Demons and MIMvista DIRs were 0.90, 0.89 and 0.76. Conclusion: Shrinkage of parotid volumes results in the dose increase to the parotid glands in adaptive head and neck radiotherapy. The accumulated doses of parotids show significant difference using the different DIR algorithms between kVCT and MVCT. Therefore, the volume-based criterion (i.e. DSI) as a quantitative evaluation of

  17. Deformable image registration based automatic CT-to-CT contour propagation for head and neck adaptive radiotherapy in the routine clinical setting

    SciTech Connect

    Kumarasiri, Akila Siddiqui, Farzan; Liu, Chang; Yechieli, Raphael; Shah, Mira; Pradhan, Deepak; Zhong, Hualiang; Chetty, Indrin J.; Kim, Jinkoo

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical potential of deformable image registration (DIR)-based automatic propagation of physician-drawn contours from a planning CT to midtreatment CT images for head and neck (H and N) adaptive radiotherapy. Methods: Ten H and N patients, each with a planning CT (CT1) and a subsequent CT (CT2) taken approximately 3–4 week into treatment, were considered retrospectively. Clinically relevant organs and targets were manually delineated by a radiation oncologist on both sets of images. Four commercial DIR algorithms, two B-spline-based and two Demons-based, were used to deform CT1 and the relevant contour sets onto corresponding CT2 images. Agreement of the propagated contours with manually drawn contours on CT2 was visually rated by four radiation oncologists in a scale from 1 to 5, the volume overlap was quantified using Dice coefficients, and a distance analysis was done using center of mass (CoM) displacements and Hausdorff distances (HDs). Performance of these four commercial algorithms was validated using a parameter-optimized Elastix DIR algorithm. Results: All algorithms attained Dice coefficients of >0.85 for organs with clear boundaries and those with volumes >9 cm{sup 3}. Organs with volumes <3 cm{sup 3} and/or those with poorly defined boundaries showed Dice coefficients of ∼0.5–0.6. For the propagation of small organs (<3 cm{sup 3}), the B-spline-based algorithms showed higher mean Dice values (Dice = 0.60) than the Demons-based algorithms (Dice = 0.54). For the gross and planning target volumes, the respective mean Dice coefficients were 0.8 and 0.9. There was no statistically significant difference in the Dice coefficients, CoM, or HD among investigated DIR algorithms. The mean radiation oncologist visual scores of the four algorithms ranged from 3.2 to 3.8, which indicated that the quality of transferred contours was “clinically acceptable with minor modification or major modification in a small number of contours

  18. Art Education and Children with Visual Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Carla

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses how art activities can be adapted for students with visual impairments, focusing on textural art, sculpture, sound art, smell, taste, kinetic art, dioramas and maps, and computer art. Suggestions for adapting visual arts are also offered, by using good contrast in projects or by enlarging or simplifying pictures. (JDD)

  19. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  20. Radiotherapy Accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mckenzie, Alan

    A major benefit of a Quality Assurance system in a radiotherapy centre is that it reduces the likelihood of an accident. For over 20 years I have been the interface in the UK between the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine and the media — newspapers, radio and TV — and so I have learned about radiotherapy accidents from personal experience. In some cases, these accidents did not become public and so the hospital cannot be identified. Nevertheless, lessons are still being learned.

  1. SU-E-J-08: A Hybrid Three Dimensional Registration Framework for Image-Guided Accurate Radiotherapy System ARTS-IGRT

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Q; Pei, X; Cao, R; Hu, L; Wu, Y

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to develop a registration framework and method based on the software platform of ARTS-IGRT and implement in C++ based on ITK libraries to register CT images and CBCT images. ARTS-IGRT was a part of our self-developed accurate radiation planning system ARTS. Methods: Mutual information (MI) registration treated each voxel equally. Actually, different voxels even having same intensity should be treated differently in the registration procedure. According to their importance values calculated from self-information, a similarity measure was proposed which combined the spatial importance of a voxel with MI (S-MI). For lung registration, Firstly, a global alignment method was adopted to minimize the margin error and achieve the alignment of these two images on the whole. The result obtained at the low resolution level was then interpolated to become the initial conditions for the higher resolution computation. Secondly, a new similarity measurement S-MI was established to quantify how close the two input image volumes were to each other. Finally, Demons model was applied to compute the deformable map. Results: Registration tools were tested for head-neck and lung images and the average region was 128*128*49. The rigid registration took approximately 2 min and converged 10% faster than traditional MI algorithm, the accuracy reached 1mm for head-neck images. For lung images, the improved symmetric Demons registration process was completed in an average of 5 min using a 2.4GHz dual core CPU. Conclusion: A registration framework was developed to correct patient's setup according to register the planning CT volume data and the daily reconstructed 3D CBCT data. The experiments showed that the spatial MI algorithm can be adopted for head-neck images. The improved Demons deformable registration was more suitable to lung images, and rigid alignment should be applied before deformable registration to get more accurate result. Supported by

  2. Art and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamal, Pauline Dove

    Art has always adapted technological advances to its own uses. In the last 15 years, art has turned to color photocopiers, computers, mimeograph machines, and thermofax copiers. With this in mind, Central Piedmont Community College began offering a course in 1982 called "Art and Technology" which focused on the application of office machines to…

  3. Respiratory motion prediction for tumor following radiotherapy by using time-variant seasonal autoregressive techniques.

    PubMed

    Ichiji, Kei; Homma, Noriyasu; Sakai, Masao; Takai, Yoshihiro; Narita, Yuichiro; Abe, Mokoto; Sugita, Norihiro; Yoshizawa, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    We develop a new prediction method of respiratory motion for accurate dynamic radiotherapy, called tumor following radiotherapy. The method is based on a time-variant seasonal autoregressive (TVSAR) model and extended to further capture time-variant and complex nature of various respiratory patterns. The extended TVSAR can represent not only the conventional quasi-periodical nature, but also the residual components, which cannot be expressed by the quasi-periodical model. Then, the residuals are adaptively predicted by using another autoregressive model. The proposed method was tested on 105 clinical data sets of tumor motion. The average errors were 1.28 ± 0.87 mm and 1.75 ± 1.13 mm for 0.5 s and 1.0 s ahead prediction, respectively. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can outperform the state-of-the-art prediction methods. PMID:23367303

  4. Long-Term Follow-Up of Dose-Adapted and Reduced-Field Radiotherapy With or Without Chemotherapy for Central Nervous System Germinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Ashley W.; Issa Laack, Nadia N.; Buckner, Jan C.; Schomberg, Paula J.; Wetmore, Cynthia J.; Brown, Paul D.

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: To update our institutional experience with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and minimized radiotherapy vs. radiation monotherapy for intracranial germinoma. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed records of 59 patients with diagnosis of primary intracranial germinoma between 1977 and 2007. Treatment was irradiation alone or neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy and local irradiation (initial tumor plus margin) for patients with localized complete response and reduced-dose craniospinal irradiation for others. Results: For the chemoradiotherapy group (n = 28), median follow-up was 7 years. No patient died. The freedom from progression (FFP) rate was 88% at 5 years and 80% at 10 years. In 4 patients, disease recurred 1.1 to 6.8 years after diagnosis. All were young male patients who received 30.6 Gy to local fields after complete response to chemotherapy. The FFP rate was 88% for local irradiation vs. 100% for more extensive fields (p = .06). For the radiotherapy-alone group (n = 31), median follow-up was 15 years. Overall and disease-free survival rates were 93% and 93% at 5 years and 90% and 87% at 15 years. In 5 patients, disease recurred 1.1 to 4.9 years after diagnosis. Most patients in this group were young men 18 to 23 years of age with suprasellar primary disease treated with about 50 Gy to local fields. The FFP rate was 44% for local irradiation vs. 100% for more extensive fields (p < .01). Conclusions: The addition of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to local-field radiotherapy reduced central nervous system cancer recurrence when high-risk patients were excluded by thorough pretreatment staging. There was trend toward improved central nervous system tumor control when larger fields (whole brain, whole ventricle, or craniospinal axis) were used.

  5. Assessment Study of the State of the Art in Adaptive Control and its Applications to Aircraft Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Howard

    1998-01-01

    Many papers relevant to reconfigurable flight control have appeared over the past fifteen years. In general these have consisted of theoretical issues, simulation experiments, and in some cases, actual flight tests. Results indicate that reconfiguration of flight controls is certainly feasible for a wide class of failures. However many of the proposed procedures although quite attractive, need further analytical and experimental studies for meaningful validation. Many procedures assume the availability of failure detection and identification logic that will supply adequately fast, the dynamics corresponding to the failed aircraft. This in general implies that the failure detection and fault identification logic must have access to all possible anticipated faults and the corresponding dynamical equations of motion. Unless some sort of explicit on line parameter identification is included, the computational demands could possibly be too excessive. This suggests the need for some form of adaptive control, either by itself as the prime procedure for control reconfiguration or in conjunction with the failure detection logic. If explicit or indirect adaptive control is used, then it is important that the identified models be such that the corresponding computed controls deliver adequate performance to the actual aircraft. Unknown changes in trim should be modelled, and parameter identification needs to be adequately insensitive to noise and at the same time capable of tracking abrupt changes. If however, both failure detection and system parameter identification turn out to be too time consuming in an emergency situation, then the concepts of direct adaptive control should be considered. If direct model reference adaptive control is to be used (on a linear model) with stability assurances, then a positive real or passivity condition needs to be satisfied for all possible configurations. This condition is often satisfied with a feedforward compensator around the plant

  6. TOPICAL REVIEW: Anatomical imaging for radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Philip M.

    2008-06-01

    The goal of radiation therapy is to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit expressed in terms of a high probability of local control of disease with minimal side effects. Physically this often equates to the delivery of a high dose of radiation to the tumour or target region whilst maintaining an acceptably low dose to other tissues, particularly those adjacent to the target. Techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiosurgery and computer planned brachytherapy provide the means to calculate the radiation dose delivery to achieve the desired dose distribution. Imaging is an essential tool in all state of the art planning and delivery techniques: (i) to enable planning of the desired treatment, (ii) to verify the treatment is delivered as planned and (iii) to follow-up treatment outcome to monitor that the treatment has had the desired effect. Clinical imaging techniques can be loosely classified into anatomic methods which measure the basic physical characteristics of tissue such as their density and biological imaging techniques which measure functional characteristics such as metabolism. In this review we consider anatomical imaging techniques. Biological imaging is considered in another article. Anatomical imaging is generally used for goals (i) and (ii) above. Computed tomography (CT) has been the mainstay of anatomical treatment planning for many years, enabling some delineation of soft tissue as well as radiation attenuation estimation for dose prediction. Magnetic resonance imaging is fast becoming widespread alongside CT, enabling superior soft-tissue visualization. Traditionally scanning for treatment planning has relied on the use of a single snapshot scan. Recent years have seen the development of techniques such as 4D CT and adaptive radiotherapy (ART). In 4D CT raw data are encoded with phase information and reconstructed to yield a set of scans detailing motion through the breathing, or cardiac, cycle. In ART a set of

  7. Imaging Instrumentation and Techniques for Precision Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parodi, Katia; Parodi, Katia; Thieke, Christian; Thieke, Christian

    Over the last decade, several technological advances have considerably improved the achievable precision of dose delivery in radiation therapy. Clinical exploitation of the superior tumor-dose conformality offered by modern radiotherapy techniques like intensity-modulated radiotherapy and ion beam therapy requires morphological and functional assessment of the tumor during the entire therapy chain from treatment planning to beam application and treatment response evaluation. This chapter will address the main rationale and role of imaging in state-of-the-art external beam radiotherapy. Moreover, it will present the status of novel imaging instrumentation and techniques being nowadays introduced in clinical use or still under development for image guidance and, ultimately, dose guidance of precision radiotherapy.

  8. Improved Correlation of the Neuropathologic Classification According to Adapted World Health Organization Classification and Outcome After Radiotherapy in Patients With Atypical and Anaplastic Meningiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, Stephanie E.; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela; Debus, Juergen; Deimling, Andreas von; Hartmann, Christian

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between the 1993 and 2000/2007 World Health Organization (WHO) classification with the outcome in patients with high-grade meningiomas. Patients and Methods: Between 1985 and 2004, 73 patients diagnosed with atypical or anaplastic meningiomas were treated with radiotherapy. Sections from the paraffin-embedded tumor material from 66 patients (90%) from 13 different pathology departments were re-evaluated according to the first revised WHO classification from 1993 and the revised classifications from 2000/2007. In 4 cases, the initial diagnosis meningioma was not reproducible (5%). Therefore, 62 patients with meningiomas were analyzed. Results: All 62 tumors were reclassified according to the 1993 and 2000/2007 WHO classification systems. Using the 1993 system, 7 patients were diagnosed with WHO grade I meningioma (11%), 23 with WHO grade II (37%), and 32 with WHO grade III meningioma (52%). After scoring using the 2000/2007 system, we found 17 WHO grade I meningiomas (27%), 32 WHO grade II meningiomas (52%), and 13 WHO grade III meningiomas (21%). According to the 1993 classification, the difference in overall survival was not statistically significant among the histologic subgroups (p = .96). Using the 2000/2007 WHO classifications, the difference in overall survival became significant (p = .02). Of the 62 reclassified patients 29 developed tumor progression (47%). No difference in progression-free survival was observed among the histologic subgroups (p = .44). After grading according to the 2000/2007 WHO classifications, significant differences in progression-free survival were observed among the three histologic groups (p = .005). Conclusion: The new 2000/2007 WHO classification for meningiomas showed an improved correlation between the histologic grade and outcome. This classification therefore provides a useful basis to determine the postoperative indication for radiotherapy. According to our results, a comparison of the

  9. [Conformal radiotherapy: principles and classification].

    PubMed

    Rosenwald, J C; Gaboriaud, G; Pontvert, D

    1999-01-01

    'Conformal radiotherapy' is the name fixed by usage and given to a new form of radiotherapy resulting from the technological improvements observed during, the last ten years. While this terminology is now widely used, no precise definition can be found in the literature. Conformal radiotherapy refers to an approach in which the dose distribution is more closely 'conformed' or adapted to the actual shape of the target volume. However, the achievement of a consensus on a more specific definition is hampered by various difficulties, namely in characterizing the degree of 'conformality'. We have therefore suggested a classification scheme be established on the basis of the tools and the procedures actually used for all steps of the process, i.e., from prescription to treatment completion. Our classification consists of four levels: schematically, at level 0, there is no conformation (rectangular fields); at level 1, a simple conformation takes place, on the basis of conventional 2D imaging; at level 2, a 3D reconstruction of the structures is used for a more accurate conformation; and level 3 includes research and advanced dynamic techniques. We have used our personal experience, contacts with colleagues and data from the literature to analyze all the steps of the planning process, and to define the tools and procedures relevant to a given level. The corresponding tables have been discussed and approved at the European level within the Dynarad concerted action. It is proposed that the term 'conformal radiotherapy' be restricted to procedures where all steps are at least at level 2.

  10. Characterization and Management of Interfractional Anatomic Changes for Pancreatic Cancer Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Feng; Erickson, Beth; Peng Cheng; Li, X. Allen

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively characterize interfractional anatomic variations in pancreatic cancer radiotherapy (RT) and to study dosimetric advantages for using an online adaptive replanning scheme to account for these variations. Methods and Materials: Targets and organs at risk (OAR) were delineated by autosegmentation based on daily computed tomography (CT) images acquired using a respiration-gated in-room CT during daily image-guided RT (IGRT) for 10 pancreatic cancer patients. Various parameters, including the maximum overlap ratio (MOR) between the volumes based on planning and daily CTs for a structure, while the overlapping volumes were maximized, were used to quantify the interfractional organ deformation with the intrafractional variations largely excluded. An online adaptive RT (ART) was applied to these daily CTs. To evaluate the dosimetric benefits of ART, the dose distributions from the online ART were compared to those from the repositioning in the current standard IGRT practice. Results: The interfractional anatomic variations, particularly the organ deformation, are significant during pancreas irradiation. For the patients studied, the average MORs of all daily CTs were 80.2%, 61.7%, and 72.2% for pancreatic head, duodenum, and stomach, respectively. The online ART leads to improved dosimetric plan with better target coverage and/or OAR sparing than IGRT repositioning. For the patients studied, the mean V{sub 50.4Gy} (volume covered by 50.4 Gy) for the duodenum was reduced from 43.4% for IGRT to 15.6% for the online ART scheme. Conclusions: The online adaptive RT scheme can effectively account for the significant interfractional anatomic variations observed in pancreas irradiation. The dosimetric advantages with the online ART may enable safe dose escalation in radiation therapy for pancreatic cancer.

  11. Population and patient-specific target margins for 4D adaptive radiotherapy to account for intra- and inter-fraction variation in lung tumour position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugo, Geoffrey D.; Yan, Di; Liang, Jian

    2007-01-01

    In this work, five 4D image-guidance strategies (two population, an offline adaptive and two online strategies) were evaluated that compensated for both inter- and intra-fraction variability such as changes to the baseline tumour position and respiratory pattern. None of the strategies required active motion compensation such as gating or tracking; all strategies simulated a free-breathing-based treatment technique. Online kilovoltage fluoroscopy was acquired for eight patients with lung tumours, and used to construct inter- and intra-fraction tumour position variability models. Planning was performed on a mid-ventilation image acquired from a respiration-correlated CT scan. The blurring effect of tumour position variability was included in the dose calculation by convolution. CTV to PTV margins were calculated for variability in the cranio-caudal direction. A population margin of 9.0 ± 0.7 mm was required to account for setup error and respiration in the study population without the use of image-guidance. The greatest mean margin reduction was introduced by the offline adaptive strategy. A daily online correction strategy produced a small reduction (1.6 mm) in the mean margin from the offline strategy. Adaptively correcting for an inter-fraction change in the respiratory pattern had little effect on margin size due to most patients having only small daily changes in the respiratory pattern. A daily online correction strategy would be useful for patients who exhibit large variations in the daily mean tumour position, while an offline adaptive strategy is more applicable to patients with less variation.

  12. Evidence-based estimates of the demand for radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Delaney, G P; Barton, M B

    2015-02-01

    There are different methods that may be used to estimate the future demand for radiotherapy services in a population ranging from expert opinion through to complex modelling techniques. This manuscript describes the use of evidence-based treatment guidelines to determine indications for radiotherapy. It also uses epidemiological data to estimate the proportion of the population who have attributes that suggest a benefit from radiotherapy in order to calculate the overall proportion of a population of new cases of cancer who appropriately could be recommended to undergo radiotherapy. Evidence-based methods are transparent and adaptable to different populations but require extensive information about the indications for radiotherapy and the proportion of cancer cases with those indications in the population. In 2003 this method produced an estimate that 52.4% of patients with a registered cancer-type had an indication for radiotherapy. The model was updated in 2012 because of changes in cancer incidence, stage distributions and indications for radiotherapy. The new estimate of the optimal radiotherapy utilisation rate was 48.3%. The decrease was due to changes in the relative frequency of cancer types and some changes in indications for radiotherapy. Actual rates of radiotherapy utilisation in most populations still fall well below this benchmark. PMID:25455408

  13. SU-E-J-102: Performance Variations Among Clinically Available Deformable Image Registration Tools in Adaptive Radiotherapy: How Should We Evaluate and Interpret the Result?

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, K; Pouliot, J; Smith, E; Chuang, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance variations in commercial deformable image registration (DIR) tools for adaptive radiation therapy. Methods: Representative plans from three different anatomical sites, prostate, head-and-neck (HN) and cranial spinal irradiation (CSI) with L-spine boost, were included. Computerized deformed CT images were first generated using virtual DIR QA software (ImSimQA) for each case. The corresponding transformations served as the “reference”. Three commercial software packages MIMVista v5.5 and MIMMaestro v6.0, VelocityAI v2.6.2, and OnQ rts v2.1.15 were tested. The warped contours and doses were compared with the “reference” and among each other. Results: The performance in transferring contours was comparable among all three tools with an average DICE coefficient of 0.81 for all the organs. However, the performance of dose warping accuracy appeared to rely on the evaluation end points. Volume based DVH comparisons were not sensitive enough to illustrate all the detailed variations while isodose assessment on a slice-by-slice basis could be tedious. Point-based evaluation was over-sensitive by having up to 30% hot/cold-spot differences. If adapting the 3mm/3% gamma analysis into the evaluation of dose warping, all three algorithms presented a reasonable level of equivalency. One algorithm had over 10% of the voxels not meeting this criterion for the HN case while another showed disagreement for the CSI case. Conclusion: Overall, our results demonstrated that evaluation based only on the performance of contour transformation could not guarantee the accuracy in dose warping. However, the performance of dose warping accuracy relied on the evaluation methodologies. Nevertheless, as more DIR tools are available for clinical use, the performance could vary at certain degrees. A standard quality assurance criterion with clinical meaning should be established for DIR QA, similar to the gamma index concept, in the near future.

  14. Experience Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Brenda

    This Arkansas art education curriculum guide for grades 1 to 6 covers basic concepts, vocabulary, activities, and evaluation for each grade. The basic concepts to be taught throughout these grades include line, shape, color, space, drawing, painting, printing, art history, and art careers. Specific art techniques and types of arts are introduced…

  15. Recent advancements in toxicity prediction following prostate cancer radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ospina, J D; Fargeas, A; Dréan, G; Simon, A; Acosta, O; de Crevoisier, R

    2015-01-01

    In external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer limiting toxicities for dose escalation are bladder and rectum toxicities. Normal tissue complication probability models aim at quantifying the risk of developping adverse events following radiotherapy. These models, originally proposed in the context of uniform irradiation, have evolved to implementations based on the state-of-the-art classification methods which are trained using empirical data. Recently, the use of image processing techniques combined with population analysis methods has led to a new generation of models to understand the risk of normal tissue complications following radiotherapy. This paper overviews those methods in the case of prostate cancer radiation therapy and propose some lines of future research.

  16. [Radiotherapy for Thyroid Cancer].

    PubMed

    Jingu, Keiichi; Maruoka, Shin; Umezawa, Rei; Takahashi, Noriyoshi

    2015-06-01

    Radioactive 131I therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer has been used since the 1940s and is an established and effective treatment. In contrast, external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) was considered to be effective for achieving local control but not for prolonging survival. Although clinicians were hesitant to administer EBRT owing to the potential radiation-induced adverse effects of 2 dimensional (2D)-radiotherapy until 2000, it is expected that adverse effects will be reduced and treatment efficacy improved through the introduction of more advanced techniques for delivering radiation (eg, 3D-radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy [IMRT]). The prognosis of undifferentiated thyroid cancer is known to be extremely bad, although in very rare cases, multimodality therapy (total or subtotal resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy) has allowed long-term survival. Here, we report the preliminary results of using hypofractionated radiotherapy for undifferentiated thyroid cancer in our institution. PMID:26199238

  17. Intraoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Norman R.; Pigott, Katharine H.; Brew-Graves, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Intra-operative radiotherapy (IORT) as a treatment for breast cancer is a relatively new technique that is designed to be a replacement for whole breast external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in selected women suitable for breast-conserving therapy. This article reviews twelve reasons for the use of the technique, with a particular emphasis on targeted intra-operative radiotherapy (TARGIT) which uses X-rays generated from a portable device within the operating theatre immediately after the breast tumour (and surrounding margin of healthy tissue) has been removed. The delivery of a single fraction of radiotherapy directly to the tumour bed at the time of surgery, with the capability of adding EBRT at a later date if required (risk-adaptive technique) is discussed in light of recent results from a large multinational randomised controlled trial comparing TARGIT with EBRT. The technique avoids irradiation of normal tissues such as skin, heart, lungs, ribs and spine, and has been shown to improve cosmetic outcome when compared with EBRT. Beneficial aspects to both institutional and societal economics are discussed, together with evidence demonstrating excellent patient satisfaction and quality of life. There is a discussion of the published evidence regarding the use of IORT twice in the same breast (for new primary cancers) and in patients who would never be considered for EBRT because of their special circumstances (such as the frail, the elderly, or those with collagen vascular disease). Finally, there is a discussion of the role of the TARGIT Academy in developing and sustaining high standards in the use of the technique. PMID:25083504

  18. Analysis of Prostate Bed Motion Using Daily Cone-Beam Computed Tomography During Postprostatectomy Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ost, Piet; De Meerleer, Gert; De Gersem, Werner; Impens, Aline; De Neve, Wilfried

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To report on the interfraction total positioning error of the postoperative prostate bed and to quantify its components (bony misalignment [BM]and prostate bed motion [PBM]) using daily kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The role of an adaptive radiotherapy schedule (ART) was investigated. Methods and Materials: A total of 547 daily CBCT images from 15 consecutive patients who had been treated with prostate bed radiotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. The positioning error was measured by rigid co-registration of the daily CBCT with pretreatment CT planning scan. The total positioning error was quantified by co-registration of the CBCT with the CT planning scan to match the anterior rectal wall. Automatic bony pelvis co-registration was performed to separate BM and PBM. The ART was determined by the average total positioning error from the first 5 CBCT images. Results: The systematic error for the total positioning error in the left-right, superoinferior, and anteroposterior direction was 2.69, 2.00, and 2.65 mm with a random error of 1.99, 1.49, and 2.25 mm, resulting in a planning target volume margin of 8, 6, and 8 mm, respectively. ART reduced the margin by 54%, 44%, and 40%, respectively. Systematic errors in the left-right, superoinferior, and anteroposterior direction for BM was 2.66, 1.83, and 2.60 mm and for PBM was 0.44, 0.92, and 2.50 mm with a random error of 1.88, 1.24, and 1.77 mm for BM and 0.99, 1.38, and 2.32 mm for PBM, respectively. Conclusion: Without treatment verifications, 6-8-mm planning target volume margins are required because of PBM and BM. The anteroposterior PBM was significant. An ART protocol can reduce these planning target volume margins.

  19. Arts Education Grants, Fiscal Year 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assembly of State Arts Agencies, 2011

    2011-01-01

    National Assembly of State Arts Agencies (NASAA) is the authority on state arts agency funding and grant making. NASAA publications provide extensive information on strategic planning, needs assessment and program evaluation methods specifically adapted to public arts agencies. This document presents the total number of arts education grant awards…

  20. The Nano-X Linear Accelerator: A Compact and Economical Cancer Radiotherapy System Incorporating Patient Rotation.

    PubMed

    Eslick, Enid M; Keall, Paul J

    2015-10-01

    Rapid technological improvements in radiotherapy delivery results in improved outcomes to patients, yet current commercial systems with these technologies on board are costly. The aim of this study was to develop a state-of-the-art cancer radiotherapy system that is economical and space efficient fitting with current world demands. The Nano-X system is a compact design that is light weight combining a patient rotation system with a vertical 6 MV fixed beam. In this paper, we present the Nano-X system design configuration, an estimate of the system dimensions and its potential impact on shielding cost reductions. We provide an assessment of implementing such a radiotherapy system clinically, its advantages and disadvantages compared to a compact conventional gantry rotating linac. The Nano-X system has several differentiating features from current radiotherapy systems, it is [1] compact and therefore can fit into small vaults, [2] light weight, and [3] engineering efficient, i.e., it rotates a relatively light component and the main treatment delivery components are not under rotation (e.g., DMLCs). All these features can have an impact on reducing the costs of the system. In terms of shielding requirements, leakage radiation was found to be the dominant contributor to the Nano-X vault and as such no primary shielding was necessary. For a low leakage design, the Nano-X vault footprint and concrete volume required is 17 m2 and 35 m3 respectively, compared to 54 m2 and 102 m3 for a conventional compact linac vault, resulting in decreased costs in shielding. Key issues to be investigated in future work are the possible patient comfort concerns associated with the patient rotation system, as well as the magnitude of deformation and subsequent adaptation requirements.

  1. Boosting runtime-performance of photon pencil beam algorithms for radiotherapy treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Siggel, M; Ziegenhein, P; Nill, S; Oelfke, U

    2012-10-01

    Pencil beam algorithms are still considered as standard photon dose calculation methods in Radiotherapy treatment planning for many clinical applications. Despite their established role in radiotherapy planning their performance and clinical applicability has to be continuously adapted to evolving complex treatment techniques such as adaptive radiation therapy (ART). We herewith report on a new highly efficient version of a well-established pencil beam convolution algorithm which relies purely on measured input data. A method was developed that improves raytracing efficiency by exploiting the capability of modern CPU architecture for a runtime reduction. Since most of the current desktop computers provide more than one calculation unit we used symmetric multiprocessing extensively to parallelize the workload and thus decreasing the algorithmic runtime. To maximize the advantage of code parallelization, we present two implementation strategies - one for the dose calculation in inverse planning software, and one for traditional forward planning. As a result, we could achieve on a 16-core personal computer with AMD processors a superlinear speedup factor of approx. 18 for calculating the dose distribution of typical forward IMRT treatment plans. PMID:22071169

  2. Gourdeous Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a gourd art project for her art club. Prior to students actually working on the gourds, the author and her art volunteer did a joint demonstration on the process students would go through to create their project. The volunteer brought in and explained her gourd art and shared information about the drying and…

  3. [Radiotherapy of skin cancers].

    PubMed

    Hennequin, C; Rio, E; Mahé, M-A

    2016-09-01

    The indications of radiotherapy for skin cancers are not clearly defined because of the lack of randomised trials or prospective studies. For basal cell carcinomas, radiotherapy frequently offers a good local control, but a randomized trial showed that surgery is more efficient and less toxic. Indications of radiotherapy are contra-indications of surgery for patients older than 60, non-sclerodermiform histology and occurring in non-sensitive areas. Adjuvant radiotherapy could be proposed to squamous cell carcinomas, in case of poor prognostic factors. Dose of 60 to 70Gy are usually required, and must be modulated to the size of the lesions. Adjuvant radiotherapy seems beneficial for desmoplastic melanomas but not for the other histological types. Prophylactic nodal irradiation (45 to 50Gy), for locally advanced tumours (massive nodal involvement), decreases the locoregional failure rate but do not increase survival. Adjuvant radiotherapy (50 to 56Gy) for Merckel cell carcinomas increases also the local control rate, as demonstrated by meta-analysis and a large epidemiological study. Nodal areas must be included, if there is no surgical exploration (sentinel lymph node dissection). Kaposi sarcomas are radiosensitive and could be treated with relatively low doses (24 to 30Gy). Also, cutaneous lymphomas are good indications for radiotherapy: B lymphomas are electively treated with limited fields. The role of total skin electron therapy for T-lymphomas is still discussed; but palliative radiotherapy is very efficient in case of cutaneous nodules. PMID:27522189

  4. Planning National Radiotherapy Services

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Countries, states, and island nations often need forward planning of their radiotherapy services driven by different motives. Countries without radiotherapy services sponsor patients to receive radiotherapy abroad. They often engage professionals for a feasibility study in order to establish whether it would be more cost-beneficial to establish a radiotherapy facility. Countries where radiotherapy services have developed without any central planning, find themselves in situations where many of the available centers are private and thus inaccessible for a majority of patients with limited resources. Government may decide to plan ahead when a significant exodus of cancer patients travel to another country for treatment, thus exposing the failure of the country to provide this medical service for its citizens. In developed countries, the trigger has been the existence of highly visible waiting lists for radiotherapy revealing a shortage of radiotherapy equipment. This paper suggests that there should be a systematic and comprehensive process of long-term planning of radiotherapy services at the national level, taking into account the regulatory infrastructure for radiation protection, planning of centers, equipment, staff, education programs, quality assurance, and sustainability aspects. Realistic budgetary and cost considerations must also be part of the project proposal or business plan. PMID:25505730

  5. Art Education/Art Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, John R., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    The special issue presents 13 articles dealing with art education and art therapy for special groups. Included are the following titles and authors: "Art Education for Special Groups: The Emotionally Disturbed" (E. Ulman); "You Are The Early Warning System" (C. Stember); "School Art Therapist Rationale for DPI Certification" (V. Minar); "Art…

  6. Computational and Physical Quality Assurance Tools for Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Yan Jiang

    Radiation therapy aims at delivering a prescribed amount of radiation dose to cancerous targets while sparing dose to normal organs. Treatment planning and delivery in modern radiotherapy are highly complex. To ensure the accuracy of the delivered dose to a patient, a quality assurance (QA) procedure is needed before the actual treatment delivery. This dissertation aims at developing computational and physical tools to facilitate the QA process. In Chapter 2, we have developed a fast and accurate computational QA tool using a graphics processing unit based Monte Carlo (MC) dose engine. This QA tool aims at identifying any errors in the treatment planning stage and machine delivery process by comparing three dose distributions: planned dose computed by a treatment planning system, planned dose and delivered dose reconstructed using the MC method. Within this tool, several modules have been built. (1) A denoising algorithm to smooth the MC calculated dose. We have also investigated the effects of statistical uncertainty in MC simulations on a commonly used dose comparison metric. (2) A linear accelerator source model with a semi-automatic commissioning process. (3) A fluence generation module. With all these modules, a web application for this QA tool with a user friendly interface has been developed to provide users with easy access to our tool, facilitating its clinical utilizations. Even after an initial treatment plan fulfills the QA requirements, a patient may experience inter-fractional anatomy variations, which compromise the initial plan optimality. To resolve this issue, adaptive radiotherapy (ART) has been proposed, where treatment plan is redesigned based on most recent patient anatomy. In Chapter 3, we have constructed a physical deformable head and neck (HN) phantom with in-vivo dosimetry capability. This phantom resembles HN patient geometry and simulates tumor shrinkage with a high level of realism. The ground truth deformation field can be measured

  7. Concomitant use of radiotherapy and two topoisomerase inhibitors to treat adult T-cell leukemia with a radiotherapy-resistant bulky disease: a case series.

    PubMed

    Obama, Kosuke

    2014-01-01

    Concomitant chemoradiotherapy is established as the standard treatment to improve the prognosis of several types of solid tumor, but has not been the general practice for hematological malignancies. Here, I report two cases of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) with a radiotherapy-resistant bulky disease treated with concomitant radiotherapy and two topoisomerase inhibitors: etoposide (VP-16) and irinotecan (CPT-11). Patient 1 was a 78-year-old man with chemotherapy-resistant inguinal bulky mass. Radiotherapy (total 40 Gy) for this inguinal lesion was started; however, the bulky disease was found to be resistant to radiotherapy and progressed. VP-16 and CPT-11 were administered in addition to radiotherapy (after a total of 20 Gy of radiotherapy). Patient 2 was a 71-year-old man with a solitary bulky mass in left cervical lesion. Various previous chemotherapy and radiotherapy approaches had not been able to control the disease. Six months after first radiotherapy, the bulky disease rapidly progressed with the occurrence of pain. Second radiotherapy (30 Gy) was started with simultaneous administration of CPT-11 and VP-16. In both cases, the bulky disease gradually regressed and completely disappeared by the end of radiotherapy. Thus, flexible adaptation of concomitant chemoradiotherapy including two topoisomerase inhibitors may offer a potential therapeutic option for radiotherapy-resistant bulky diseases, even in hematological malignancies.

  8. Language Arts - Spanish Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Magdalena; Sones, Mary

    This publication presents three suggested language arts curriculum units. They represent a cross-section of materials that have been developed to deal with the learning problems of students with special language difficulties. Originally developed for grades 7-12, these units may be adapted for use in adult education or at other grade levels. They…

  9. Deformable image registration for geometrical evaluation of DIBH radiotherapy treatment of lung cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottosson, W.; Lykkegaard Andersen, J. A.; Borrisova, S.; Mellemgaard, A.; Behrens, C. F.

    2014-03-01

    Respiration and anatomical variation during radiotherapy (RT) of lung cancer yield dosimetric uncertainties of the delivered dose, possibly affecting the clinical outcome if not corrected for. Adaptive radiotherapy (ART), based on deformable image registration (DIR) and Deep-Inspiration-Breath-Hold (DIBH) gating can potentially improve the accuracy of RT. Purpose: The objective was to investigate the performance of contour propagation on repeated CT and Cone Beam CT (CBCT) images in DIBH compared to images acquired in free breathing (FB), using a recently released DIR software. Method: Three locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients were included, each with a planning-, midterm- and final CT (pCT, mCT, fCT) and 7 CBCTs acquired weekly and on the same day as the mCT and fCT. All imaging were performed in both FB and DIBH, using Varian RPM system for respiratory tracking. Delineations of anatomical structures were performed on each image set. The CT images were retrospective rigidly and deformable registered to all obtained images using the Varian Smart Adapt v. 11.0. The registered images were analysed for volume change and Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC). Result: Geometrical similarities were found between propagated and manually delineated structures, with a slightly favour of FB imaging. Special notice should be taken to registrations where image artefacts or low tissue contrast are present. Conclusion: This study does not support the hypothesis that DIBH images perform better image registration than FB images. However DIR is a feasible tool for ART of lung cancer.

  10. Integrating Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCATA Journal for Art Teachers, 1991

    1991-01-01

    These articles focus on art as a component of interdisciplinary integration. (1) "Integrated Curriculum and the Visual Arts" (Anna Kindler) considers various aspects of integration and implications for art education. (2) "Integration: The New Literacy" (Tim Varro) illustrates how the use of technology can facilitate cross-curricular integration.…

  11. Art English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Art English is a combination of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL)/English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) and art content. As a new instructional area, it faces several challenges: as with all English for Special Purposes (ESP), exchange of information among programs; development of a suitable combination of art content and ESL, due to lack of…

  12. Art Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCATA Journal for Art Teachers, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Advocating that Canadian art programs should use and model environmentally safe practices, the articles in this journal focus on issues of safe practices in art education. Articles are: (1) "What is WHMIS?"; (2) "Safety Precautions for Specific Art Processes"; (3) "Toxic Substances"; (4) "Using Clay, Glazes, and Kilns Safely in the Classroom"…

  13. Wall Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinley, Connie Q.

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article, an art teacher at Monarch High School in Louisville, Colorado, describes how her experience teaching in a new school presented an exciting visual challenge for an art teacher--monotonous brick walls just waiting for decoration. This school experienced only minimal instances of graffiti, but as an art teacher, she did…

  14. Rock Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  15. Recruitment in Radiotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeley, T. J.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The Faculty Board of Radiotherapy and Oncology of the Royal College of Radiobiologists surveyed the factors thought to influence recruitment into the specialty. Possible factors listed in replies of 36 questionnaires are offered. (LBH)

  16. Errors in Radiotherapy: Motivation for Development of New Radiotherapy Quality Assurance Paradigms

    SciTech Connect

    Fraass, Benedick A.

    2008-05-01

    Modern radiotherapy practice has rapidly evolved during the past decade, making use of many highly complex and/or automated processes for planning and delivery, including new techniques, like intensity-modulated radiotherapy driven by inverse planning optimization methods, or near real-time image-guided adaptive therapy based on fluoroscopic or tomographic imaging on the treatment machine. In spite of the modern technology, or potentially because of it in some instances, errors and other problems continue to have a significant impact on the field. This report reviews example errors and problems, discusses some of the quality assurance issues that these types of problems raise, and motivates the development of more modern and sophisticated approaches to assure quality for our clinical radiotherapy treatment methods.

  17. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  18. [Art therapy and "art brut"].

    PubMed

    Kovács, Emese; Simon, Lajos

    2010-01-01

    The authors in this article explor the most important steps of the development of the research on the psychopathology of expression. They introduce the development of Art Brut and it's place in art history. They deal with the characteristics of art therapy.

  19. [Conformal radiotherapy of brain tumors].

    PubMed

    Haie-Meder, C; Beaudré, A; Breton, C; Biron, B; Cordova, A; Dubray, B; Mazeron, J J

    1999-01-01

    Conformal irradiation of brain tumours is based on the three-dimensional reconstruction of the targeted volumes and at-risk organ images, the three-dimensional calculation of the dose distribution and a treatment device (immobilisation, beam energy, collimation, etc.) adapted to the high precision required by the procedure. Each step requires an appropriate methodology and a quality insurance program. Specific difficulties in brain tumour management are related to GTV and CTV definition depending upon the histological type, the quality of the surgical resection and the medical team. Clinical studies have reported dose escalation trials, mostly in high-grade gliomas and tumours at the base of the skull. Clinical data are now providing a better knowledge of the tolerance of normal tissues. As for small tumours, the implementation of beam intensity modulation is likely to narrow the gap between conformal and stereotaxic radiotherapy. PMID:10572510

  20. Dilemmas of Design and Predicaments of Practice: Adapting the "Fostering a Community of Learners" Model in Secondary School English Language Arts Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcomb, Jennifer A.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines three middle school and secondary school English teachers' attempts to adapt and enact the principles and practices of the "Fostering a Community of Learners" (FCL) model. As a systemic pedagogical model designed to foster authentic dialogue and inquiry, FCL challenges deeply held traditions of English as both a school subject…

  1. Holographic art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryskin, V. Z.; Prostev, A.

    1991-02-01

    The authors of the present paper have been working together in the field of holographic art during the last three years. Our holographic works of art are based on the use of the Denisyuk reflection holograms. These holograms make it possible to creat an art image with the help of the completely new means of representation. The increase of the reflection holograms size could widen the possibilites of art holography. For example , the high quality holograms C size 60x80 cm ) are produced in the USSR. Assembled into large-sized panels, they can be used both in advertisments, interior decoration and in creating unique works of art. They can also be used for decoration of Christian cathedrals and churches, where such art holographic compositions would produce great impressin on people. Here we'd like to discuss the problem of an aesthetic perception of a holographic image.

  2. Mindful art.

    PubMed

    Malafouris, Lambros

    2013-04-01

    Bullot & Reber (B&R) begin asking if the study of the mind's inner life can provide a foundation for a science of art. Clearly there are many epistemological problems involved in the study of the cognitive and affective basis of art appreciation. I argue that context is key. I also propose that as long as the "mind's life" continues to be perceived as an "inner" intracranial phenomenon, little progress can be made. Mind and art are one.

  3. [Radiotherapy of larynx cancers].

    PubMed

    Pointreau, Y; Lafond, C; Legouté, F; Trémolières, P; Servagi-Vernat, S; Giraud, P; Maingon, P; Calais, G; Lapeyre, M

    2016-09-01

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy is the gold standard in the treatment of larynx cancers (except T1 glottic tumour). Early T1 and T2 tumours may be treated by exclusive radiation or surgery. For tumours requiring total laryngectomy (T2 or T3), induction chemotherapy followed by exclusive radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy is possible. For T4 tumour, surgery must be proposed. The treatment of lymph nodes is based on the initial treatment of the primary tumour. In non-surgical procedure, in case of sequential radiotherapy, the curative dose is 70Gy and the prophylactic dose is 50Gy. An integrated simultaneous boost radiotherapy is allowed (70Gy in 2Gy per fraction and 56Gy in 1.8Gy per fraction or 70Gy in 2.12Gy per fraction). Postoperatively, radiotherapy is used in locally advanced cancer with dose levels based on pathologic criteria (66Gy for R1 resection, 50 to 54Gy for complete resection). Volume delineation was based on guidelines. PMID:27521037

  4. [Prostate cancer external beam radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    de Crevoisier, R; Pommier, P; Latorzeff, I; Chapet, O; Chauvet, B; Hennequin, C

    2016-09-01

    The prostate external beam radiotherapy techniques are described, when irradiating the prostate or after prostatectomy, with and without pelvic lymph nodes. The following parts are presented: indications of radiotherapy, total dose and fractionation, planning CT image acquisition, volume of interest delineation (target volumes and organs at risk) and margins, Intensity modulated radiotherapy planning and corresponding dose-volume constraints, and finally Image guided radiotherapy. PMID:27516051

  5. April Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Ideas for spring arts activities include a whimsical play about royal dragons, a skit on an April fool, and a song. Instructions for making brightly colored birds from boxes, a happy day hat, decorated eggs, and other art projects are given. (PP)

  6. Art Rocks!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapin, Erika

    2008-01-01

    Though people may like different types of music, everyone likes music. In middle school, music and art are of key importance for students to express and define what kind of person they are. In this article, the author presents an art project where students are asked to create their own guitars. (Contains 1 resource and 3 online resources.)

  7. Indigenous Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Linda Lomahaftewa, a noted painter, has taught at much bigger places than the Institute of American Indian Arts (IAIA). But Lomahaftewa, who is Hopi-Choctaw, and others on the faculty of IAIA are intensely devoted to the mission of this small but unique school. IAIA--the nation's only four-year fine arts institution devoted to American Indian and…

  8. Graphic Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempe, Joseph; Kinde, Bruce

    This curriculum guide is intended to assist vocational instructors in preparing students for entry-level employment in the graphic arts field and getting them ready for advanced training in the workplace. The package contains an overview of new and emerging graphic arts technologies, competency/skill and task lists for the occupations of…

  9. Art Playgroup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiniger, Christina

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how parents can be involved in a developmentally appropriate art program for very young children. "Art Playgroup," a program for children ages two to five and their parents is one suggestion. Operating under the auspices of DTA Center for Learning & Growing, a nonprofit in Ellsworth, Maine, DTA received a…

  10. Creative Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellano, Richard J.; Fleming, Mary Ann

    Educational goals and objectives, student activities, and visual aids are included in this guide to a three-dimensional design unit that combines creative art and industrial arts skills. Course goals include challenging students' creative skills, encouraging student interaction and successful group work, and providing an atmosphere of fun and…

  11. Art Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spodek, Bernard; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents four articles that examine the role of art experiences in early childhood education: "Educationally Appropriate Art Activities for Young Children," by Bernard Spodek; "Teachers and Children Together: Constructing New Learning," by Lella Gandini; "Fostering Experiences between Young Children and Clay," by Cathy Weisman Topal; and…

  12. Radiotherapy of inoperable lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Namer, M.; Lalanne, C.M.; Boublil, J.L.; Hery, M.; Chauvel, P.; Verschoore, J.; Aubanel, J.M.; Bruneton, J.N.

    1980-08-01

    Evaluation of loco-regional results obtained by radiotherapy for 31 patients with inoperable epidermoid lung cancer revealed objective remission (over 50%) in only 25% of patients. These results emphasize the limited effectiveness of radiotherapy in such cases and point out the need for increased research in radiotherapy techniques if survival rates are to be improved.

  13. [Radiotherapy for brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Latorzeff, I; Antoni, D; Gaudaire-Josset, S; Feuvret, L; Tallet-Richard, A; Truc, G; Noël, G

    2016-09-01

    Radiotherapy for brain metastases has become more multifaceted. Indeed, with the improvement of the patient's life expectancy, side effects must be undeniably avoided and the retreatments or multiple treatments are common. The cognitive side effects should be warned and the most modern techniques of radiation therapy are used regularly to reach this goal. The new classifications of patients with brain metastases help guiding treatment more appropriately. Stereotactic radiotherapy has supplanted whole brain radiation therapy both for patients with metastases in place and for those who underwent surgery. Hippocampus protection is possible with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Its relevance in terms of cognitive functioning should be more clearly demonstrated but the requirement, for using it, is increasingly strong. While addressing patients in palliative phase, the treatment of brain metastases is one of the localisations where technical thinking is the most challenging. PMID:27523410

  14. [Radiotherapy in Europe].

    PubMed

    Verheij, M; Slotman, B J

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy plays an important part in the curing of cancer patients and is an effective treatment for tumour-related symptoms. However, in many countries the level of access to this treatment modality is unacceptably low due to shortage of infrastructure, modern apparatus and trained staff. In Europe it is mainly the Eastern European countries that are behind in the provision of and accessibility to radiotherapy. Worldwide investment to narrow the gap would put an end to these undesirable differences. In addition, these investments would deliver economic benefits, especially in low-to-middle income countries. In this article, on the basis of a number of recently published reports, we discuss the differences that exist in the geographical spread of radiotherapy departments and the availability of apparatus within Europe. In conclusion we also take a short look at the Dutch situation. PMID:27334085

  15. [How to maximize skin care during radiotherapy?].

    PubMed

    Fromantin, I; Lesport, G; Le Mée, M

    2015-10-01

    No consensual guidelines exist regarding the management of early effects of radiotherapy. But preventive and curative care strategies could be adapted in the aim to delay erythema, limit complications and improve patients' comfort. Prevention involves encouraging patients to take care of their skin, avoid moisture, frictions, sun exposition and dry soap. When these rules seem insufficient, products (dressings, solution, or cream) could be prescribed, according to the individual risk of each patient. Preventive measures are accentuated when radiodermatitis appears and/or topics indicated for wound healing could be applied. Care (education, dressing, observation) needs a multidisciplinary approach. Improvements of radiotherapy treatments (methods, techniques) have been the most effective evolution on radiodermatitis. PMID:26344433

  16. Radiotherapy for craniopharyngioma.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Ajay; Fersht, Naomi; Brada, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Radiotherapy remains the mainstay of multidisciplinary management of patients with incompletely resected and recurrent craniopharyngioma. Advances in imaging and radiotherapy technology offer new alternatives with the principal aim of improving the accuracy of treatment and reducing the volume of normal brain receiving significant radiation doses. We review the available technologies, their technical advantages and disadvantages and the published clinical results. Fractionated high precision conformal radiotherapy with image guidance remains the gold standard; the results of single fraction treatment are disappointing and hypofractionation should be used with caution as long term results are not available. There is insufficient data on the use of protons to assess the comparative efficacy and toxicity. The precision of treatment delivery needs to be coupled with experienced infrastructure and more intensive quality assurance to ensure best treatment outcome and this should be carried out within multidisciplinary teams experienced in the management of craniopharyngioma. The advantages of the combined skills and expertise of the team members may outweigh the largely undefined clinical gain from novel radiotherapy technologies.

  17. [Radiotherapy of cerebral metastases].

    PubMed

    Soffietti, R

    1984-05-31

    Radiotherapy of brain metastases is almost always palliative, as histologically documented cures are exceptional. Radiotherapy alone improves neurological symptoms in two-thirds of cases, but median survivals do not generally exceed 6 months. Whole brain radiation is mandatory as the lesions are often multiple, even when they escape clinical demonstration. There is no definite difference in prognosis after conventional rather than concentrated treatments. The role of steroids in the prevention and/or control of the acute effects of radiotherapy is controversial. Favorable prognostic factors are a good neurological and performance status, a solitary brain metastasis of a primary tumor under control, some histological types (i.e.: metastases from "oat" cell carcinomas, breast carcinomas, non-Hodgkin lymphomas are more responsive). Surgical excision before radiotherapy improves survival (6-12 months), especially in solitary metastases from melanomas, colon and renal tumors. Reirradiation can be useful, but the risk of delayed damage to the normal tissue in patients with longer survival (solitary operated and irradiated metastases) must be considered. The search for new radiotherapeutic modalities must be based on a deeper understanding of the biological factors involved in the response to radiation through controlled anatomo-clinical studies and biological research on experimental models.

  18. [Radiotherapy of lymphomas].

    PubMed

    Barillot, I; Mahé, M A; Antoni, D; Hennequin, C

    2016-09-01

    Radiotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma has evolved over time but retains a dominant position in the treatment of early stage tumours. Its indications are more limited for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, but the techniques follow the same principles whatever the histological type. This review presents the French recommendations in terms of preparation and choice of irradiation techniques. PMID:27521031

  19. Radiotherapy equipment--purchase or lease?

    PubMed

    Nisbet, A; Ward, A

    2001-08-01

    Against a background of increasing demand for radiotherapy equipment, this study was undertaken to investigate options for equipment procurement, in particular to compare purchase with lease. The perceived advantages of lease are that equipment can be acquired within budget and cashflow constraints, with relatively low amounts of cash leaving the NHS in the first year, avoiding the necessity of capitalizing the equipment and providing protection against the risk of obsolescence associated with high technology equipment. The perceived disadvantages of leasing are that the Trust does not own the equipment, leasing can be more expensive in revenue terms, the tender process is extended and there may be lease conditions to be met, which may be costly and/or restrictive. There are also a number of technical considerations involved in the leasing of radiotherapy equipment that influence the financial analysis and practical operation of the radiotherapy service. The technical considerations include servicing and planned preventative maintenance, upgrades, spare parts, subsequent purchase of "add ons", modification of equipment, research and development work, commencement of the lease period, return of equipment at the end of the lease period and negotiations at the end of the lease period. A study from Raigmore Hospital, Inverness is described, which involves the procurement of new, state-of-the-art radiotherapy equipment. This provides an overview of the procurement process, including a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of leasing, with the figures from the financial analysis presented and explained. In addition, a detailed description is given of the technical considerations to be taken into account in the financial analysis and negotiation of any lease contract.

  20. Radiotherapy equipment--purchase or lease?

    PubMed

    Nisbet, A; Ward, A

    2001-08-01

    Against a background of increasing demand for radiotherapy equipment, this study was undertaken to investigate options for equipment procurement, in particular to compare purchase with lease. The perceived advantages of lease are that equipment can be acquired within budget and cashflow constraints, with relatively low amounts of cash leaving the NHS in the first year, avoiding the necessity of capitalizing the equipment and providing protection against the risk of obsolescence associated with high technology equipment. The perceived disadvantages of leasing are that the Trust does not own the equipment, leasing can be more expensive in revenue terms, the tender process is extended and there may be lease conditions to be met, which may be costly and/or restrictive. There are also a number of technical considerations involved in the leasing of radiotherapy equipment that influence the financial analysis and practical operation of the radiotherapy service. The technical considerations include servicing and planned preventative maintenance, upgrades, spare parts, subsequent purchase of "add ons", modification of equipment, research and development work, commencement of the lease period, return of equipment at the end of the lease period and negotiations at the end of the lease period. A study from Raigmore Hospital, Inverness is described, which involves the procurement of new, state-of-the-art radiotherapy equipment. This provides an overview of the procurement process, including a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of leasing, with the figures from the financial analysis presented and explained. In addition, a detailed description is given of the technical considerations to be taken into account in the financial analysis and negotiation of any lease contract. PMID:11511499

  1. The Art of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidya, Ashwin; Munakata, Mika

    2014-03-01

    The Art of Science project at Montclair State University strives to communicate the creativity inherent in the sciences to students and the general public alike. The project uses connections between the arts and sciences to show the underlying unity and interdependence of the two. The project is planned as one big `performance' bringing together the two disciplines around the theme of sustainability. In the first phase, physics students learned about and built human-powered generators including hand cranks and bicycle units. In the second phase, using the generators to power video cameras, art students worked with a visiting artist to make short films on the subject of sustainability, science, and art. The generators and films were showcased at an annual university Physics and Art exhibition which was open to the university and local community. In the final phase, to be conducted, K12 teachers will learn about the project through a professional development workshop and will be encouraged to adapt the experiment for their own classrooms. The last phase will also combine the university and K12 projects for an exhibition to be displayed on Earth Day, 2014. Project funded by the APS Outreach Grant.

  2. [Radiotherapy of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Hennequin, C; Barillot, I; Azria, D; Belkacémi, Y; Bollet, M; Chauvet, B; Cowen, D; Cutuli, B; Fourquet, A; Hannoun-Lévi, J M; Leblanc, M; Mahé, M A

    2016-09-01

    In breast cancer, radiotherapy is an essential component of the treatment. After conservative surgery for an infiltrating carcinoma, radiotherapy must be systematically performed, regardless of the characteristics of the disease, because it decreases the rate of local recurrence and by this way, specific mortality. Partial breast irradiation could not be proposed routinely but only in very selected and informed patients. For ductal carcinoma in situ, adjuvant radiotherapy must be also systematically performed after lumpectomy. After mastectomy, chest wall irradiation is required for pT3-T4 tumours and if there is an axillary nodal involvement, whatever the number of involved lymph nodes. After neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy, in case of pN0 disease, chest wall irradiation is recommended if there is a clinically or radiologically T3-T4 or node positive disease before chemotherapy. Axillary irradiation is recommended only if there is no axillary surgical dissection and a positive sentinel lymph node. Supra and infra-clavicular irradiation is advised in case of positive axillary nodes. Internal mammary irradiation must be discussed case by case, according to the benefit/risk ratio (cardiac toxicity). Dose to the chest wall or the breast must be between 45-50Gy with a conventional fractionation. A boost dose over the tumour bed is required if the patient is younger than 60 years old. Hypofractionation (42.5 Gy in 16 fractions, or 41.6 Gy en 13 or 40 Gy en 15) is possible after tumorectomy and if a nodal irradiation is not mandatory. Delineation of the breast, the chest wall and the nodal areas are based on clinical and radiological evaluations. 3D-conformal irradiation is the recommended technique, intensity-modulated radiotherapy must be proposed only in case of specific clinical situations. Respiratory gating could be useful to decrease the cardiac dose. Concomitant administration of chemotherapy in unadvised, but hormonal treatment could be start with

  3. [Technological problems in use of fast reactors for radiotherapy of patients with malignant tumors].

    PubMed

    Mardynskií, I S; Sysoev, A S; Gulidov, I A; Obaturov, G M; Sokolov, V A; Ul'ianenko, S E; Kotukhov, I I

    1997-01-01

    The authors discuss the technological problems associated with the use of fast neutrons in radiotherapy of cancer patients and outline the approaches to the solution of these problems. The state of the art is assessed. Physical and radiobiological prerequisites for the use of fast reactors for radiotherapy of patients with malignant tumors are analyzed. Results of clinical use of BR-10 reactor at the Medical Radiology Research Center, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, are presented. Experimental and clinical findings indicate that the results of radiotherapy may be appreciably improved if a novel perspective source of fast neutrons, a nuclear reactor, is used.

  4. Adaptive Image Denoising by Mixture Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Enming; Chan, Stanley H.; Nguyen, Truong Q.

    2016-10-01

    We propose an adaptive learning procedure to learn patch-based image priors for image denoising. The new algorithm, called the Expectation-Maximization (EM) adaptation, takes a generic prior learned from a generic external database and adapts it to the noisy image to generate a specific prior. Different from existing methods that combine internal and external statistics in ad-hoc ways, the proposed algorithm is rigorously derived from a Bayesian hyper-prior perspective. There are two contributions of this paper: First, we provide full derivation of the EM adaptation algorithm and demonstrate methods to improve the computational complexity. Second, in the absence of the latent clean image, we show how EM adaptation can be modified based on pre-filtering. Experimental results show that the proposed adaptation algorithm yields consistently better denoising results than the one without adaptation and is superior to several state-of-the-art algorithms.

  5. Radiotherapy of early glottic cancer.

    PubMed

    Harwood, A R; Hawkins, N V; Keane, T; Cummings, B; Beale, F A; Rider, W D; Bryce, D P

    1980-03-01

    Patients (383) with stage Tis, Tla and Tlb NoMo glottic cancer are reviewed. Radiotherapy cured 93% of Tis patients and 86% of Tla and Tlb cases. Of all recurrences, 63% were cured. No patient with stage Tis died as a result of tumor and only 5% of stage Tla and Tlb died from tumor. Involvement of the anterior commissure or both vocal cords did not influence control rates by radiotherapy. Mobility of the vocal cord and size of radiotherapy field were significant factors influencing control by radiotherapy. Late recurrences and/or second primaries in the larynx following radiotherapy are rare. Second primaries in the respiratory tract (especially lung) are common and are as important a cause of death as laryngeal cancer in T1 cases. It is concluded that moderate dose radiotherapy with surgery for salvage is a highly effective method of management for early glottic cancer. PMID:7359967

  6. Response Art: The Art of the Art Therapist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    Response art is artwork created by art therapists in response to material that arises in their therapy work. Art therapists use response art to contain difficult material, express and examine their experiences, and share their experiences with others. In this viewpoint, some of the varied uses of response art are discussed and illuminated with…

  7. Adaptive Pairing Reversible Watermarking.

    PubMed

    Dragoi, Ioan-Catalin; Coltuc, Dinu

    2016-05-01

    This letter revisits the pairwise reversible watermarking scheme of Ou et al., 2013. An adaptive pixel pairing that considers only pixels with similar prediction errors is introduced. This adaptive approach provides an increased number of pixel pairs where both pixels are embedded and decreases the number of shifted pixels. The adaptive pairwise reversible watermarking outperforms the state-of-the-art low embedding bit-rate schemes proposed so far.

  8. Developments in radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Hans; Möller, Torgil R

    2003-01-01

    A systematic assessment of radiotherapy for cancer was conducted by The Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU) in 2001. The assessment included a review of future developments in radiotherapy and an estimate of the potential benefits of improved radiotherapy in Sweden. The conclusions reached from this review can be summarized as: Successively better knowledge is available on dose-response relationships for tumours and normal tissues at different fractionation schedules and treated volumes. Optimization of dose levels and fractionation schedules should improve the treatment outcome. Improved treatment results may be expected with even more optimized fractionation schedules. The radiosensitivity of the tumour is dependent on the availability of free oxygen in the cells. The oxygen effect has been studied for a long time and new knowledge has emerged, but there is still no consensus on the best way to minimize its negative effect in the treatment of hypoxic tumours. Development in imaging techniques is rapid, improving accuracy in outlining targets and organs at risk. This is a prerequisite for advanced treatment planning. More accurate treatment can be obtained using all the computer techniques that are successively made available for calculating dose distributions, controlling the accelerator and multileaf collimator (MLC) and checking patient set-up. Optimized treatment plans can be achieved using inverse dose planning and intensity modulation radiation therapy (IMRT). Optimization algorithms based on biological data from clinical trials could be a part of future dose planning. New genetic markers might be developed that give a measure of the radiation responsiveness of tumours and normal tissue. This could lead to more individualized treatments. New types of radiation sources may be expected: protons, light ions, and improved beams (and compounds) for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Proton accelerators with scanned-beam systems and

  9. Fine Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danzer, Gerald A.; Newman, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the use of fine arts as sources to enrich the study of history. Suggests that such works will serve as barometers of change, examples of cross-cultural influences, and political messages. Includes suggestions of works and artists from different historic periods. (DK)

  10. Scanner Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaworski, Joy; Murphy, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they incorporated environmental awareness into their art curriculum. Here, they describe a digital photography project in which their students used flatbed scanners as cameras. Their students composed their objects directly on the scanner. The lesson enabled students to realize that artists have voices…

  11. Chicken Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  12. Nature's Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Vicki; And Others

    Over 60 art activities, designed to enhance environmental awareness and incorporate environmental concepts, are outlined in this document. A sample of the activities presented are: decorated notepaper and cards with feathers or weeds; wall plaques of prairie plants; methods of flower preservation; water plant prints; construction of dolls,…

  13. Commercial Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vassallo, Thomas

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in commercial art at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  14. Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    The language arts course content guides presented in this manual cover English, oral communications, and journalism in grades 9-12 and provide a framework from which a curriculum can be built. Within each subject area and at each grade level, skills are identified at three instructional levels: basic, developmental, and extension. The basic skills…

  15. Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keener, Paul L.

    Capitalizing on the resources available in an urban city block, this resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) presents a resource list and objectives and activities relative to teaching language arts (reading, English, listening, speaking, and writing). The resource list is comprised of approximately 150 physical facilities (e.g.,…

  16. Art History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukehart, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    Whether one views art as a cultural record, a political or religious instrument, a celebration of form and color, or an instinctual force, it is a given that sharing diverse expressions of creativity with children plants fresh understandings and pathways for their own questions and drives. It is impossible to do justice to the many outstanding…

  17. [Definition of accurate planning target volume margins for esophageal cancer radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Lesueur, P; Servagi-Vernat, S

    2016-10-01

    More than 4000 cases of esophagus neoplasms are diagnosed every year in France. Radiotherapy, which can be delivered in preoperative or exclusive with a concomitant chemotherapy, plays a central role in treatment of esophagus cancer. Even if efficacy of radiotherapy no longer has to be proved, the prognosis of esophagus cancer remains unfortunately poor with a high recurrence rate. Toxicity of esophageal radiotherapy is correlated with the irradiation volume, and limits dose escalation and local control. Esophagus is a deep thoracic organ, which undergoes cardiac and respiratory motion, making the radiotherapy delivery more difficult and increasing the planning target volume margins. Definition of accurate planning target volume margins, taking into account the esophagus' intrafraction motion and set up margins is very important to be sure to cover the clinical target volume and restrains acute and late radiotoxicity. In this article, based on a review of the literature, we propose planning target volume margins adapted to esophageal radiotherapy.

  18. Comparative analysis of fuzzy ART and ART-2A network clustering performance.

    PubMed

    Frank, T; Kraiss, K F; Kuhlen, T

    1998-01-01

    Adaptive resonance theory (ART) describes a family of self-organizing neural networks, capable of clustering arbitrary sequences of input patterns into stable recognition codes. Many different types of ART-networks have been developed to improve clustering capabilities. In this paper we compare clustering performance of different types of ART-networks: Fuzzy ART, ART 2A with and without complement encoded input patterns, and an Euclidean ART 2A-variation. All types are tested with two- and high-dimensional input patterns in order to illustrate general capabilities and characteristics in different system environments. Based on our simulation results, Fuzzy ART seems to be less appropriate whenever input signals are corrupted by additional noise, while ART 2A-type networks keep stable in all inspected environments. Together with other examined features, ART-architectures suited for particular applications can be selected. PMID:18252478

  19. [Juvenile angiofibroma. Results of radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Rosset, A; Korzeniowski, S

    1990-01-01

    8 patients with the nasofibromata were treated by radiotherapy in Oncologic Center in Kraków. In most part of these patients tumors exceeded the nasopharynx or gave the massive postoperational recurrencies. Complete regression was obtained in 6 out of 8 cases. The radiation changes are described. The radiotherapy is effective in more advanced and recurrent stages of the juvenile nasofibroma.

  20. Snow Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    It was nearing the end of a very long, rough winter with a lot of snow and too little time to play outside. The snow had formed small hills and valleys over the bushes and this was at the perfect height for the students to paint. In this article, the author describes how her transitional first-grade students created snow art paintings. (Contains 1…

  1. Art Preservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A new class of polyimides, synthesized by Langley Research Center, has been evaluated by the Getty Conservation Institute's Materials Science Group for possible art conservation applications. Polyimides are noted for resistance to high temperature, wear and radiation. They are thermally stable and soluble in some common solvents. After testing under simulated exposures for changes in color, permeability and flexibility, one coating, ODPA-3, 3-ODA may be used to protect bronze statues from corrosion. A test on stained glass windows was unsuccessful.

  2. Technology in Art Therapy: Ethical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alders, Amanda; Beck, Liz; Allen, Pat B.; Mosinski, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    As technology advances, art therapy practices are adapting to the demands of a new cultural climate. Art therapists face a number of ethical challenges as they interact with increasingly diverse populations and employ new media. This article addresses some of the ethical and professional issues related to the use of technology in clinical…

  3. Using the Outdoors To Teach Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, Rebecca R.; Staley, Frederick A.

    A framework for using the outdoors as a vehicle for providing meaningful language arts experiences is presented in this guide geared toward intermediate students but adaptable for other ages. The introduction outlines goals of language arts instruction and notes that activities conducted outdoors contribute to these goals because they are…

  4. [Epoetin alfa in radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Trodella, L; Balducci, M; Gambacorta, M A; Mantini, G

    1998-01-01

    Sixty per cent of oncologic patients need radiation therapy for cure or palliation. In fact, in most neoplastic diseases, a better local control positively impacts on disease-free survival and overall survival. The efficacy of radiotherapy depends on several factors: while some are tumor-related, others are host-related. Radiobiological phenomena are also important: ionizing radiation is responsible for cell damage (double rupture of DNA chains), mostly an indirect mechanism with the formation of free radicals. Their toxic action is enhanced by the oxygen partial pressure at the cellular level. A number of studies have confirmed that good tissue oxygenation is a function of a high hemoglobin level in the peripheral blood (Hb > or = 13 g/dL). Unfortunately, these values are rarely present in oncologic patients due to the disease-related toxicosis as well as to the therapy induced hematologic toxicity. The treatment of anemia is free of risk for the recent developments in technology which with gene cloning and the technique of recombinant DNA has allowed the production of human recombinant erythropoietin. Erythropoietin is produced by the interstitial cells of renal tubules in response to hypoxia. It prevents apoptosis and promotes erythroid proliferation and differentiation with consequent reticulocyte release and hemoglobin synthesis. It is not completely understood whether the efficacy of radiotherapy depends on hemoglobin values present at the start of irradiation (often less than 12-13 g/dL) or on the higher ones observed during and at the end of radiotherapy. Therefore, preventive systemic erythropoietin therapy in non anemic patients in terms of costs/benefits is at present non sustainable. To the contrary, in patients undergoing radiotherapy to extended fields or aggressive multimodal treatments, for the higher risk of anemia, the early use of this treatment can be hypothesized in case of initial anemia to improve therapy compliance and prevent negative

  5. "Artforum," Andy Warhol, and the Art of Living: What Art Educators Can Learn from the Recent History of American Art Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, David

    2005-01-01

    What is the best way to understand the recent development of American art? An older tradition of commentary focuses on the role of tradition, noting how each new form of painting is rooted in a long history. But Jack Bankoswky and some other art writers discussing Andy Warhol have adapted a different approach, arguing that his art breaks radically…

  6. Fertility impairment in radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kuźba-Kryszak, Tamara; Nowikiewicz, Tomasz; Żyromska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Infertility as a result of antineoplastic therapy is becoming a very important issue due to the growing incidence of neoplastic diseases. Routinely applied antineoplastic treatments and the illness itself lead to fertility disorders. Therapeutic methods used in antineoplastic treatment may cause fertility impairment or sterilization due to permanent damage to reproductive cells. The risk of sterilization depends on the patient's sex, age during therapy, type of neoplasm, radiation dose and treatment area. It is known that chemotherapy and radiotherapy can lead to fertility impairment and the combination of these two gives an additive effect. The aim of this article is to raise the issue of infertility in these patients. It is of growing importance due to the increase in the number of children and young adults who underwent radiotherapy in the past. The progress in antineoplastic therapy improves treatment results, but at the same time requires a deeper look at existential needs of the patient. Reproductive function is an integral element of self-esteem and should be taken into account during therapy planning. PMID:27647982

  7. Imaging in radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calandrino, R.; Del Maschio, A.; Cattaneo, G. M.; Castiglioni, I.

    2009-09-01

    The diagnostic methodologies used for the radiotherapy planning have undergone great developments in the last 30 years. Since the 1980s, after the introduction of the CT scanner, the modality for the planning moved beyond the planar 2D assessment to approach a real and more realistic volumetric 3D definition. Consequently the dose distribution, previously obtained by means of an overly simple approximation, became increasingly complex, better tailoring the true shape of the tumour. The final therapeutic improvement has been obtained by a parallel increase in the complexity of the irradiating units: the Linacs for therapy have, in fact, been equipped with a full accessory set capable to modulate the fluence (IMRT) and to check the correct target position continuously during the therapy session (IMRT-IGRT). The multimodal diagnostic approach, which integrates diagnostic information, from images of the patient taken with CT, NMR, PET and US, further improves the data for a biological and topological optimization of the radiotherapy plan and consequently of the dose distribution in the Planning Target Volume. Proteomic and genomic analysis will be the next step in tumour diagnosis. These methods will provide the planners with further information, for a true personalization of the treatment regimen and the assessment of the predictive essays for each tumour and each patient.

  8. Fertility impairment in radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kuźba-Kryszak, Tamara; Nowikiewicz, Tomasz; Żyromska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Infertility as a result of antineoplastic therapy is becoming a very important issue due to the growing incidence of neoplastic diseases. Routinely applied antineoplastic treatments and the illness itself lead to fertility disorders. Therapeutic methods used in antineoplastic treatment may cause fertility impairment or sterilization due to permanent damage to reproductive cells. The risk of sterilization depends on the patient's sex, age during therapy, type of neoplasm, radiation dose and treatment area. It is known that chemotherapy and radiotherapy can lead to fertility impairment and the combination of these two gives an additive effect. The aim of this article is to raise the issue of infertility in these patients. It is of growing importance due to the increase in the number of children and young adults who underwent radiotherapy in the past. The progress in antineoplastic therapy improves treatment results, but at the same time requires a deeper look at existential needs of the patient. Reproductive function is an integral element of self-esteem and should be taken into account during therapy planning.

  9. Fertility impairment in radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Biedka, Marta; Kuźba-Kryszak, Tamara; Nowikiewicz, Tomasz; Żyromska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Infertility as a result of antineoplastic therapy is becoming a very important issue due to the growing incidence of neoplastic diseases. Routinely applied antineoplastic treatments and the illness itself lead to fertility disorders. Therapeutic methods used in antineoplastic treatment may cause fertility impairment or sterilization due to permanent damage to reproductive cells. The risk of sterilization depends on the patient's sex, age during therapy, type of neoplasm, radiation dose and treatment area. It is known that chemotherapy and radiotherapy can lead to fertility impairment and the combination of these two gives an additive effect. The aim of this article is to raise the issue of infertility in these patients. It is of growing importance due to the increase in the number of children and young adults who underwent radiotherapy in the past. The progress in antineoplastic therapy improves treatment results, but at the same time requires a deeper look at existential needs of the patient. Reproductive function is an integral element of self-esteem and should be taken into account during therapy planning. PMID:27647982

  10. American Art Therapy Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Welcome Board of Directors National Staff Financial Information Strategic Plan Local Chapters About Art Therapy What is Art ... Sheet MEDIA About Us About AATA President's Welcome Strategic Plan About Art Therapy What is Art Therapy Fact ...

  11. [External radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Girard, N; Mornex, F

    2011-02-01

    For a long time radiotherapy has been excluded from the therapeutic strategy for hepatocellular carcinoma, given its significant toxicity on the non-tumoral liver parenchyma. Conformal radiation is a recent advance in the field of radiotherapy, allowing dose escalation and combination with other therapeutic options for hepatocellular carcinoma, including trans-arterial chemo-embolization. Conformal radiotherapy is associated with interesting features, especially in cirrhotic patients: wide availability, non-invasiveness, possibility to target multiple localizations anywhere within the liver parenchyma, and favorable tolerance profile even in patients with cirrhosis and/or in a poor medical condition. Recently, radiation delivery has been optimized through several technical developments: respiratory gating and intensity-modulated radiotherapy, which allow a better focalization of the ballistics, stereotactic techniques and proton-beam radiotherapy, whose availability is currently limited in Europe. Given the high response rates of hepatocellular carcinoma to radiation, conformal radiotherapy may be regarded as a curative-intent treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma, similar to surgery and per-cutaneous techniques. Yet the impact of radiotherapy has to be evaluated in randomized trials to better integrate in the complex therapeutic algorithm of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  12. Development of targeted radiotherapy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferro, Guillermina; Murphy, Consuelo A.; Villarreal, José E.; Pedraza, Martha; García, Laura; Tendilla, José I.; Paredes, Lydia

    2001-10-01

    Conventional or external beam radiotherapy, has been a viable alternative for cancer treatment. Although this technique is effective, its use is limited if the patient has multiple malignant lesions (metastases). An alternative approach is based on the design of radiopharmaceuticals that, to be administered in the patient, are directed specifically toward the target cell producing a selective radiation delivery. This treatment is known as targeted radiotherapy. We have summarized and discussed some results related to our investigations on the development of targeted radiotherapy systems, including aspects of internal dosimetry.

  13. [Task sharing with radiotherapy technicians in image-guided radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Diaz, O; Lorchel, F; Revault, C; Mornex, F

    2013-10-01

    The development of accelerators with on-board imaging systems now allows better target volumes reset at the time of irradiation (image-guided radiotherapy [IGRT]). However, these technological advances in the control of repositioning led to a multiplication of tasks for each actor in radiotherapy and increase the time available for the treatment, whether for radiotherapy technicians or radiation oncologists. As there is currently no explicit regulatory framework governing the use of IGRT, some institutional experiments show that a transfer is possible between radiation oncologists and radiotherapy technicians for on-line verification of image positioning. Initial training for every technical and drafting procedures within institutions will improve audit quality by reducing interindividual variability. PMID:24007955

  14. Defining Art Appreciation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seabolt, Betty Oliver

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the differences and goals of four areas: (1) art appreciation; (2) art history; (3) art aesthetics; and (4) art criticism. Offers a definition of art appreciation and information on how the view of art appreciation in education has changed over time. (CMK)

  15. History and Art: The Heart of Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiferth, Berniece B; And Others

    Learning to appreciate religious art and to understand the interdependence of history and art are basic to the foundations of culture. Students need to be exposed to the art of the diverse adherents of all major religions in order to understand the beliefs and practices of others. Students can examine religious art from ancient times, including…

  16. Art Supply Inventors. Children's Art Diary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    2001-01-01

    Discusses types of art materials that children enjoy using in their artworks. Explores the art materials such as tasty art supplies, such as candy; peeled supplies, such as pencil shavings; sticky art supplies, such as Band-Aids; and fast-food supplies, such as forks and spoons. (CMK)

  17. Small Art Images--Big Art Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Pam

    2005-01-01

    When small art images are incorporated into the curriculum, students are afforded opportunities to slow down, observe minute details, and communicate ideas about art and artists. This sort of purposeful art contemplation takes students beyond the day-to-day educational practice. It is through these sorts of art activities that students develop…

  18. Art Therapy Teaching as Performance Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Bruce L.

    2012-01-01

    This viewpoint asserts that art therapy education is a form of performance art. By designing class sessions as performance artworks, art therapy educators can help their students become more fully immersed in their studies. This view also can be extended to conceptualizing each semester--and the entire art therapy curriculum--as a complex and…

  19. Fine Arts: Secondary Visual Arts Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    This guide to Utah's requirements for students in secondary visual arts is organized and based upon a student achievement portfolio for each course. Foundation I, the required junior high/middle school visual arts course, is designed to provide an overview of visual arts while studying various art tools and materials. With an emphasis on studio…

  20. [Hepatic tumors and radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Rio, E; Mornex, F; Peiffert, D; Huertas, A

    2016-09-01

    Recent technological developments led to develop the concept of focused liver radiation therapy. We must distinguish primary and secondary tumors as the indications are restricted and must be discussed as an alternative to surgical or medical treatments. For hepatocellular carcinoma 5 to 10cm (or more), a conformational radiation with or without intensity modulation is performed. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is being evaluated and is increasingly proposed as an alternative to radiofrequency ablative treatment for primary or secondary tumors (typically less than 5cm). Tumor (and liver) movements induced by respiratory motions must be taken into account. Strict dosimetric criteria must be met with particular attention to the dose-volume histograms to liver and the hollow organs, including cases of SBRT. PMID:27521035

  1. Medical Applications: Proton Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppel, Cynthia

    2009-05-01

    Proton therapy is a highly advanced and precise form of radiation treatment for cancer. Due to the characteristic Bragg peak associated with ion energy deposition, proton therapy provides the radiation oncologist with an improved method of treatment localization within a patient, as compared with conventional radiation therapy using X-rays or electrons. Controlling disease and minimizing side effects are the twin aims of radiation treatment. Proton beams enhance the opportunity for both by facilitating maximal dose to tumor and minimal dose to surrounding tissue. In the United States, five proton radiotherapy centers currently treat cancer patients, with more in the construction phase. New facilities and enabling technologies abound. An overview of the treatment modality generally, as well as of the capabilities and research planned for the field and for the Hampton University Proton Therapy Institute in particular, will be presented.

  2. Improving radiotherapy planning, delivery accuracy, and normal tissue sparing using cutting edge technologies.

    PubMed

    Glide-Hurst, Carri K; Chetty, Indrin J

    2014-04-01

    In the United States, more than half of all new invasive cancers diagnosed are non-small cell lung cancer, with a significant number of these cases presenting at locally advanced stages, resulting in about one-third of all cancer deaths. While the advent of stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR, also known as stereotactic body radiotherapy, or SBRT) for early-staged patients has improved local tumor control to >90%, survival results for locally advanced stage lung cancer remain grim. Significant challenges exist in lung cancer radiation therapy including tumor motion, accurate dose calculation in low density media, limiting dose to nearby organs at risk, and changing anatomy over the treatment course. However, many recent technological advancements have been introduced that can meet these challenges, including four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and volumetric cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to enable more accurate target definition and precise tumor localization during radiation, respectively. In addition, advances in dose calculation algorithms have allowed for more accurate dosimetry in heterogeneous media, and intensity modulated and arc delivery techniques can help spare organs at risk. New delivery approaches, such as tumor tracking and gating, offer additional potential for further reducing target margins. Image-guided adaptive radiation therapy (IGART) introduces the potential for individualized plan adaptation based on imaging feedback, including bulky residual disease, tumor progression, and physiological changes that occur during the treatment course. This review provides an overview of the current state of the art technology for lung cancer volume definition, treatment planning, localization, and treatment plan adaptation.

  3. Art Education in a World of Cross-Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Samuel

    2005-01-01

    This article is adapted from the Handbook of Research and Policy in Art Education. Elliot Eisner and Michael Day (eds.) [c] 2004 by Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates, Mahwah, NJ, and the National Art Education Association. To study art education is to discover and engage a field rich with achievement and promise. On one hand, this comes as no…

  4. How the United States Funds the Arts. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Arts, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The infrastructure for arts and cultural support in the United States is complex and adaptive. Citizens who enjoy the arts can choose from a wide array of drama, visual and media arts, dance, music, and literature available in formal and informal settings--theaters, museums, and concert halls, but also libraries, schools, places of worship,…

  5. Spirit, Mind, and Body: Arts Education the Redeemer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Constance Bumgarner

    2004-01-01

    This article is adapted from "The Handbook of Research and Policy in Art Education," Elliot Eisner and Michael Day (Eds.) [c] Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates, Mahwah, NJ 2004. The author contends that two fundamental premises drive arts education advocacy as it is currently coined and circulated. The first premise is that all arts programming is…

  6. [Exclusive radiotherapy and concurrent endocrine therapy for the management of elderly breast cancer patients: case study and review of hypofractionated schemes].

    PubMed

    Auberdiac, P; Chargari, C; Cartier, L; Mélis, A; Malkoun, N; Chauleur, C; Jacquin, J-P; de Laroche, G; Magné, N

    2011-12-01

    Normofractionated radiotherapy is standard for adjuvant management of patients treated with breast conservative surgery for breast cancer. However, many elderly patients are not eligible to such strategy, either because of concurrent diseases, or because the tumor is inoperable. Several protocols of exclusive radiotherapy have been reported in the literature, frequently using hypofractionated radiotherapy and endocrine therapy. We report a case of a patient treated with exclusive endocrine and radiotherapy and address the state of the art on hypofractionated schemes for the management of elderly breast cancer patients. While hypofractionated radiotherapy does not compromise the oncologic or cosmetic outcome, there is no prospective data that assesses the place of radiotherapy for the exclusive treatment of elderly patients. This strategy should be further assessed in clinical randomized trial.

  7. Shared Treasures: Gifts from Our Ancestors. Northwest Coast Native Art at the Seattle Art Museum. Curriculum Resource Unit. Second Printing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Annie; And Others

    This curriculum resource includes a set of 20 color slides with a descriptive script and comprehensive lesson guide. The unit, which is adaptable for use with grades K-12, examines some of the Northwest Coast Native art objects in the Seattle Art Museum's permanent collection and teaches about the art and culture of the indigenous people of the…

  8. [New techniques and potential benefits for radiotherapy of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, L; Doré, M; Giraud, P

    2014-10-01

    Radiotherapy is used for inoperable lung cancers, sometimes in association with chemotherapy. Outcomes of conventional radiotherapy are disappointing. New techniques improve adaptation to tumour volume, decrease normal tissue irradiation and lead to increasing tumour dose with the opportunity for improved survival. With intensity-modulated radiation therapy, isodoses can conform to complex volumes. It is widely used and seems to be indicated in locally advanced stages. Its dosimetric improvements have been demonstrated but outcomes are still heterogeneous. Stereotactic radiotherapy allows treatment of small volumes with many narrow beams. Dedicated devices or appropriate equipment on classical devices are needed. In early stages, its efficacy is comparable to surgery with an acceptable toxicity. Endobronchial brachytherapy could be used for early stages with specific criteria. Hadrontherapy is still experimental regarding lung cancer. Hadrons have physical properties leading to very accurate dose distribution. In the rare published studies, toxicities are roughly lower than others techniques but for early stages its effectiveness is not better than stereotactic radiotherapy. These techniques are optimized by metabolic imaging which precisely defines the target volume and assesses the therapeutic response; image-guided radiation therapy which allows a more accurate patient set up and by respiratory tracking or gating which takes account of tumour respiratory motions.

  9. Uses of megavoltage digital tomosynthesis in radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Vikren

    , the software was extended to investigate if the digital tomosynthesis dataset could be used in an adaptive radiotherapy regimen through the use of the Pinnacle treatment planning software to recalculate dose delivered. The feasibility study showed that the megavoltage CBDT visually agreed with corresponding megavoltage computed tomography images. The comparative study showed that the best compromise between imaging quality and imaging dose is obtained when 11 projection images, acquired over an imaging angle of 40°, are used with the filtered back-projection algorithm. DART was successfully used to register reference and daily image sets to within 1 mm in-plane and 2.5 mm out of plane. The DART platform was also effectively used to generate updated files that the Pinnacle treatment planning system used to calculate updated dose in a rigidly shifted patient. These doses were then used to calculate a cumulative dose distribution that could be used by a physician as reference to decide when the treatment plan should be updated. In conclusion, this study showed that a software solution is possible to extend existing electronic portal imaging devices to function as cone-beam digital tomosynthesis devices and achieve daily requirement for image guided intensity modulated radiotherapy treatments. The DART platform also has the potential to be used as a part of adaptive radiotherapy solution.

  10. Growing with the Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Bebe

    1985-01-01

    The author describes programs of the National Committee, Arts with the Handicapped, including the Very Special Arts Festival program for the visual and peforming arts and Project REAP (Retirement with Enrichment, the Arts and Purpose), which uses retired volunteers in arts education of disabled children and adults. (CL)

  11. Complications from radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Dhermain, Frédéric; Barani, Igor J

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) of the brain is associated with significant stigma in the neuro-oncology community. This is primarily because of the potentially severe complications with which it may be associated. These complications, especially in subacute and latent settings, are often unpredictable, potentially progressive, and irreversible. The onset of complications may start from the first fraction of 2 Gy, continuing over several months after end of RT with persistent drowsiness and apathy. It may also extend over many years with progressive onset of neurocognitive impairments such as memory decline, and diminished focus/attention. For long-term survivors, such as young patients irradiated for a favorable low-grade glioma, quality of life can be seriously impacted by RT. It is essential, as in the pediatric field, to propose patient-specific regimens from the very outset of therapy. The use of molecular biomarkers to better predict survival, control of comorbidities along with judicious use of medications such as steroids and antiepileptics, improved targeting with the help of modern imaging and RT techniques, modulation of the dose, and fractionation aimed at limiting integral dose to the healthy brain all have the potential to minimize treatment-related complications while maintaining the therapeutic efficacy for which RT is known. Sparing "radiosensitive" areas such as hippocampi could have a modest but measurable impact with regard to cognitive preservation, an effect that can possibly be enhanced when used in conjunction with memantine and/or donepezil. PMID:26948357

  12. Visual Contradictions. Teaching Art with Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on works of art that are dreamlike and surrealistic and include visual contradictions. Includes four reproductions of artworks with information about the works of art and the artists. Explains that the four pictures will stimulate students' creativity. (CMK)

  13. Disciplinary Literacy: "Adapt" Not Adopt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that every teacher is not a teacher of literacy, but instead posits that teachers in content areas must adapt literacy strategies to the content being taught and to the context in which that teaching occurs. Examples of adaptations of a literacy strategy for use in English/language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies…

  14. National ART Success Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... ART and Birth Defects ART and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology National Summary Report Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... live-birth rate? [PDF - 1.37MB] Section 2: ART Cycles using fresh nondonor eggs or embryos What ...

  15. Teaching Art with Art: Grotesque Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a type of visual art called grotesque art and includes four different examples of grotesque art: (1) the painting "Head of Medusa" by Peter Paul Rubens; (2) Rangda, the widow witch from Bali (Indonesia); (3) totem poles; and (4) grotesque sculptures from the Cathedral of Notre Dame (Paris, France). (CMK)

  16. Arts Impact: Lessons from ArtsBridge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimshon-Santo, Amy R.

    2010-01-01

    Arts Impact summarizes lessons learned at the ArtsBridge Program. It is informed by in-depth participant observation, logic modeling, and quantitative evaluation of program impact on K-12 students in inner city schools and arts students at the University of California Los Angeles over a two year period. The case study frames its analysis through a…

  17. The Liberal Arts and the Martial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Donald N.

    1984-01-01

    Liberal arts and the martial arts are compared from the perspective that courses of training in the martial arts often constitute exemplary educational programs and are worth examining closely. Program characteristics, individual characteristics fostered by them, the relationship between liberal and utilitarian learning, and the moral…

  18. Artists, Art Historians, and Visual Art Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layne, Sara Shatford

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the information-seeking and information-using behavior of artists, particularly in the applied arts, and art historians. Topics include visual information; technological and intellectual aspects of access to visual information; physical characteristics of art works; cataloging and indexing tools; access to images; and the role of…

  19. Keeping the Arts Alive: Fine Arts Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Terrence E., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    When budgets are tightened, the school library media specialists and/or the arts programs are often considered expendable. No Child Left Behind legislation means increasing academic time for core subjects, which translates into cutting time for arts education. As money becomes tight, frills are cut (i.e., the arts). Schools don't seem able to fill…

  20. Predictors for Chronic Urinary Toxicity After the Treatment of Prostate Cancer With Adaptive Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy: Dose-Volume Analysis of a Phase II Dose-Escalation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Harsolia, Asif; Vargas, Carlos; Yan Di; Brabbins, Donald; Lockman, David; Liang Jian; Gustafson, Gary; Vicini, Frank; Martinez, Alvaro; Kestin, Larry L.

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: To identify factors predictive for chronic urinary toxicity secondary to high-dose adaptive three-dimensional conformal radiation. Methods and Materials: From 1999 to 2002, 331 consecutive patients with clinical Stage II-III prostate cancer were prospectively treated (median dose, 75.6 Gy). The bladder was contoured, and the bladder wall was defined as the outer 3 mm of the bladder solid volume. Toxicity was quantified according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria 2.0. Median follow-up was 1.6 years. Results: The 3-year rates of Grade {>=}2 and Grade 3 chronic urinary toxicity were 17.0% and 3.6%, respectively. Prostate volume, confidence-limited patient-specific planning target volume, bladder wall volume, and acute urinary toxicity were all found to be accurate predictors for chronic urinary toxicity. The volume of bladder wall receiving {>=}30 Gy (V30) and {>=}82 Gy (V82), along with prostate volume, were all clinically useful predictors of Grade {>=}2 and Grade 3 chronic urinary toxicity and chronic urinary retention. Both Grade {>=}2 (p = 0.001) and Grade 3 (p = 0.03) acute urinary toxicity were predictive for the development of Grade {>=}2 (p = 0.001, p = 0.03) and Grade 3 (p = 0.05, p < 0.001) chronic urinary toxicity. On Cox multivariate analysis the development of acute toxicity was independently predictive for the development of both Grade {>=}2 and Grade 3 chronic urinary toxicity. Conclusions: Acute urinary toxicity and bladder wall dose-volume endpoints are strong predictors for the development of subsequent chronic urinary toxicity. Our recommendation is to attempt to limit the bladder wall V30 to <30 cm{sup 3} and the V82 to <7 cm{sup 3} when possible. If bladder wall information is not available, bladder solid V30 and V82 may be used.

  1. A multi-radar wireless system for respiratory gating and accurate tumor tracking in lung cancer radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gu, Changzhan; Li, Ruijiang; Jiang, Steve B; Li, Changzhi

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory gating and tumor tracking are two promising motion-adaptive lung cancer treatments, minimizing incidence and severity of normal tissues and precisely delivering radiation dose to the tumor. Accurate respiration measurement is important in respiratory-gated radiotherapy. Conventional gating techniques are either invasive to the body or bring insufficient accuracy and discomfort to the patients. In this paper, we present an accurate noncontact means of measuring respiration for the use in gated lung cancer radiotherapy. We also present an accurate tumor tracking technique for dynamical beam tracking radiotherapy. Two 2.4 GHz miniature radars were used to monitor the chest wall and abdominal movements simultaneously to get high resolution and enhanced parameter identification. Ray tracing technique was used to investigate the impact of antenna size in clinical practice. It is shown that our multiple radar system can reliably measure respiration signals for respiratory gating and accurate tumor tracking in motion-adaptive lung cancer radiotherapy.

  2. Voice following radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Stoicheff, M L

    1975-04-01

    This study was undertaken to provide information on the voice of patients following radiotherapy for glottic cancer. Part I presents findings from questionnaires returned by 227 of 235 patients successfully irradiated for glottic cancer from 1960 through 1971. Part II presents preliminary findings on the speaking fundamental frequencies of 22 irradiated patients. Normal to near-normal voice was reported by 83 percent of the 227 patients; however, 80 percent did indicate persisting vocal difficulties such as fatiguing of voice with much usage, inability to sing, reduced loudness, hoarse voice quality and inability to shout. Amount of talking during treatments appeared to affect length of time for voice to recover following treatments in those cases where it took from nine to 26 weeks; also, with increasing years since treatment, patients rated their voices more favorably. Smoking habits following treatments improved significantly with only 27 percent smoking heavily as compared with 65 percent prior to radiation therapy. No correlation was found between smoking (during or after treatments) and vocal ratings or between smoking and length of time for voice to recover. There was no relationship found between reported vocal ratings and stage of the disease. Data on mean speaking fundamental frequency seem to indicate a trend toward lower frequencies in irradiated patients as compared with normals. A trend was also noted in both irradidated and control groups for lower speaking fundamental frequencies in heavy smokers compared with non-smokers or previous smokers. These trends would indicate some vocal cord thickening or edema in irradiated patients and in heavy smokers. It is suggested that the study of irradiated patients' voices before, during and following treatments by means of audio, aerodynamic and acoustic instrumentation would yield additional information of diagnostic value on recovery of laryngeal function. It is also suggested that the voice pathologist could

  3. Introduction to suspension levels: radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Horton, P; Lillicrap, S; Lamm, I-L; Lehmann, W

    2013-02-01

    In 2007, the European Commission (EC) commissioned a group of experts to undertake the revision of Report Radiation Protection (RP 91) 'Criteria for acceptability of radiological (including radiotherapy) and nuclear medicine installations' written in 1997. The revised draft report was submitted to the EC in 2010, who issued it for public consultation. The EC has commissioned the same group of experts to consider the comments of the public consultation for further improvement of the revised report. The EC intends to publish the final report under its Radiation Report Series as RP 162. This paper describes the background to the selection of the key performance parameters for radiotherapy equipment and sets out the sources of their criteria of acceptability including suspension levels for a wide range of radiotherapy equipment.

  4. Expanding global access to radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat; Jaffray, David A; Barton, Michael B; Bray, Freddie; Baumann, Michael; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Hanna, Timothy P; Knaul, Felicia M; Lievens, Yolande; Lui, Tracey Y M; Milosevic, Michael; O'Sullivan, Brian; Rodin, Danielle L; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Van Dyk, Jacob; Yap, Mei Ling; Zubizarreta, Eduardo; Gospodarowicz, Mary

    2015-09-01

    Radiotherapy is a critical and inseparable component of comprehensive cancer treatment and care. For many of the most common cancers in low-income and middle-income countries, radiotherapy is essential for effective treatment. In high-income countries, radiotherapy is used in more than half of all cases of cancer to cure localised disease, palliate symptoms, and control disease in incurable cancers. Yet, in planning and building treatment capacity for cancer, radiotherapy is frequently the last resource to be considered. Consequently, worldwide access to radiotherapy is unacceptably low. We present a new body of evidence that quantifies the worldwide coverage of radiotherapy services by country. We show the shortfall in access to radiotherapy by country and globally for 2015-35 based on current and projected need, and show substantial health and economic benefits to investing in radiotherapy. The cost of scaling up radiotherapy in the nominal model in 2015-35 is US$26·6 billion in low-income countries, $62·6 billion in lower-middle-income countries, and $94·8 billion in upper-middle-income countries, which amounts to $184·0 billion across all low-income and middle-income countries. In the efficiency model the costs were lower: $14·1 billion in low-income, $33·3 billion in lower-middle-income, and $49·4 billion in upper-middle-income countries-a total of $96·8 billion. Scale-up of radiotherapy capacity in 2015-35 from current levels could lead to saving of 26·9 million life-years in low-income and middle-income countries over the lifetime of the patients who received treatment. The economic benefits of investment in radiotherapy are very substantial. Using the nominal cost model could produce a net benefit of $278·1 billion in 2015-35 ($265·2 million in low-income countries, $38·5 billion in lower-middle-income countries, and $239·3 billion in upper-middle-income countries). Investment in the efficiency model would produce in the same period an even

  5. Expanding global access to radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat; Jaffray, David A; Barton, Michael B; Bray, Freddie; Baumann, Michael; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Hanna, Timothy P; Knaul, Felicia M; Lievens, Yolande; Lui, Tracey Y M; Milosevic, Michael; O'Sullivan, Brian; Rodin, Danielle L; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Van Dyk, Jacob; Yap, Mei Ling; Zubizarreta, Eduardo; Gospodarowicz, Mary

    2015-09-01

    Radiotherapy is a critical and inseparable component of comprehensive cancer treatment and care. For many of the most common cancers in low-income and middle-income countries, radiotherapy is essential for effective treatment. In high-income countries, radiotherapy is used in more than half of all cases of cancer to cure localised disease, palliate symptoms, and control disease in incurable cancers. Yet, in planning and building treatment capacity for cancer, radiotherapy is frequently the last resource to be considered. Consequently, worldwide access to radiotherapy is unacceptably low. We present a new body of evidence that quantifies the worldwide coverage of radiotherapy services by country. We show the shortfall in access to radiotherapy by country and globally for 2015-35 based on current and projected need, and show substantial health and economic benefits to investing in radiotherapy. The cost of scaling up radiotherapy in the nominal model in 2015-35 is US$26·6 billion in low-income countries, $62·6 billion in lower-middle-income countries, and $94·8 billion in upper-middle-income countries, which amounts to $184·0 billion across all low-income and middle-income countries. In the efficiency model the costs were lower: $14·1 billion in low-income, $33·3 billion in lower-middle-income, and $49·4 billion in upper-middle-income countries-a total of $96·8 billion. Scale-up of radiotherapy capacity in 2015-35 from current levels could lead to saving of 26·9 million life-years in low-income and middle-income countries over the lifetime of the patients who received treatment. The economic benefits of investment in radiotherapy are very substantial. Using the nominal cost model could produce a net benefit of $278·1 billion in 2015-35 ($265·2 million in low-income countries, $38·5 billion in lower-middle-income countries, and $239·3 billion in upper-middle-income countries). Investment in the efficiency model would produce in the same period an even

  6. Clinical quality standards for radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study The technological progress that is currently being witnessed in the areas of diagnostic imaging, treatment planning systems and therapeutic equipment has caused radiotherapy to become a high-tech and interdisciplinary domain involving staff of various backgrounds. This allows steady improvement in therapy results, but at the same time makes the diagnostic, imaging and therapeutic processes more complex and complicated, requiring every stage of those processes to be planned, organized, controlled and improved so as to assure high quality of services provided. The aim of this paper is to present clinical quality standards for radiotherapy as developed by the author. Material and methods In order to develop the quality standards, a comparative analysis was performed between European and Polish legal acts adopted in the period of 1980-2006 and the universal industrial ISO 9001:2008 standard, defining requirements for quality management systems, and relevant articles published in 1984-2009 were reviewed, including applicable guidelines and recommendations of American, international, European and Polish bodies, such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), the European Society for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) on quality assurance and management in radiotherapy. Results As a result, 352 quality standards for radiotherapy were developed and categorized into the following three groups: 1 – organizational standards; 2 – physico-technical standards and 3 – clinical standards. Conclusion Proposed clinical quality standards for radiotherapy can be used by any institution using ionizing radiation for medical purposes. However, standards are of value only if they are implemented, reviewed, audited and improved, and if there is a clear mechanism in place to monitor and address failure to meet agreed standards. PMID:23788854

  7. Second Malignant Neoplasms Following Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanath

    2012-01-01

    More than half of all cancer patients receive radiotherapy as a part of their treatment. With the increasing number of long-term cancer survivors, there is a growing concern about the risk of radiation induced second malignant neoplasm [SMN]. This risk appears to be highest for survivors of childhood cancers. The exact mechanism and dose-response relationship for radiation induced malignancy is not well understood, however, there have been growing efforts to develop strategies for the prevention and mitigation of radiation induced cancers. This review article focuses on the incidence, etiology, and risk factors for SMN in various organs after radiotherapy. PMID:23249860

  8. [Which rules apply to hypofractionated radiotherapy?].

    PubMed

    Supiot, S; Clément-Colmou, K; Paris, F; Corre, I; Chiavassa, S; Delpon, G

    2015-10-01

    Hypofractionated radiotherapy is now more widely prescribed due to improved targeting techniques (intensity modulated radiotherapy, image-guided radiotherapy and stereotactic radiotherapy). Low dose hypofractionated radiotherapy is routinely administered mostly for palliative purposes. High or very high dose hypofractionated irradiation must be delivered according to very strict procedures since every minor deviation can lead to major changes in dose delivery to the tumor volume and organs at risk. Thus, each stage of the processing must be carefully monitored starting from the limitations and the choice of the hypofractionation technique, tumour contouring and dose constraints prescription, planning and finally dose calculation and patient positioning verification.

  9. Intraoperative radiotherapy: the Japanese experience. [Betatron

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, M.; Takahashi, M.

    1981-07-01

    Clinical results of intraoperative radiotherapy (IOR) which have been obtained since 1964 in Japan were reviewed. In this radiotherapy a cancerocidal dose can be delivered safely to the lesions, since critical organs are shifted from the field so that the lesions may be exposed directly to radiation. Intraoperative radiotherapy has spread in Japan and the number of institutions in which this radiotherapy is performed has continued to increase to a total of 26 in 1979. The total number of patients treated was 717. It has been demonstrated that intraoperative radiotherapy has definite effects on locally advanced abdominal neoplasms and unresectable radioresistant tumors.

  10. Linking Art and Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoubrey, Sharon, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This serial issue examines the theme of picture books as resources for art production and art response; gives specific project descriptions; and looks at the relationship between words and pictures, and the creative connection between art and language. Articles are: (1) "Editor's View" (Sharon McCoubrey); (2) "The Creative Connection: Art and…

  11. K-12 Art Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furney, Trudy; And Others

    The development of students in various art fields is the focus of this K-12 art curriculum guide. The philosophy of the art program and the roles of administrator, teacher, and parent are outlined. The underlying school community relationships, and the objective, goals, and purposes of art education are described. Phases of child development in…

  12. Cultivating Demand for the Arts: Arts Learning, Arts Engagement, and State Arts Policy. Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakaras, Laura; Lowell, Julia F.

    2008-01-01

    The findings summarized in this report are intended to shed light on what it means to cultivate demand for the arts, why it is necessary and important to cultivate this demand, and what state arts agencies (SAAs) and other arts and education policymakers can do to help. The research considered only the benchmark arts central to public policy:…

  13. Children as Art Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    2011-01-01

    A goal of art learning is always independence, for everyone to become their own art teacher. Teaching for artistic independence can never start too early. As art teachers, children acquire confidence in their art, and in coming to school as artists. Children should be considered artists in residence and visiting artists in schools. It makes sense…

  14. Cultural Arts Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistone, Kathleen A.

    The handbook presents activities to aid elementary school classroom teachers as they develop and implement cultural arts lessons. A cultural arts program is interpreted as a way to help students develop perceptual awareness, build a basic vocabulary in some art cultural form, evaluate their own works of art, appreciate creative expressions, and…

  15. Spotlight on Arts Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.

    In this annual edition selected cultural arts organizations from across the state are featured, with a specific focus on how these organizations have aided local school systems as they implemented the arts education component of North Carolina's Basic Education Program. The following arts organizations are featured: Winston-Salem Arts Council;…

  16. Art Therapy Verses Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Giacco, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of my paper is to identify the difference between psychotherapy and art therapy. Then to introduce a technique within the field of art therapy that is relevant to neuro-plasticity Del Giacco Neuro Art Therapy. The paper identifies the importance of the amygdala and the hippocampus within the role of art therapy. Supporting…

  17. Art Education Communicating Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Sue-Anne

    1997-01-01

    Transcribes the Leon Jackman Memorial Address to the Australasian Art Educators Conference in 1996. Discusses distinctions between the formal world of pedagogy and the informal world of experiential learning in art education. Focuses on art educators as communicators, on how they talk about the arts, and on communication as sharing knowledge. (DSK)

  18. Art and Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shusterman, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Since the nineteenth century's interest in "art for art's sake," many thinkers have argued that art would supplant traditional religion as the spiritual locus of the increasingly secular society of Western modernity. If art can capture the sort of spirituality, idealism, and expressive community of traditional religions but without being ensnared…

  19. Soviet Arts Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego County Office of Education, CA.

    This extensive curriculum guide was written in conjunction with the San Diego Arts Festival of Soviet Arts in 1989. It aimed to provide teachers with insights and ideas about arts in the Soviet Union before, during, and after the Arts Festival. A curriculum model is presented at the beginning of the guide to illustrate how the lessons were…

  20. Winter Art Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokela, Timo

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how the Department of Art Education at the University of Lapland in Finland has developed winter art as a method of environmental and community-based art education. I will focus on the Snow Show Winter Art Education Project, a training project funded by the European Union and the State Provincial Office…

  1. Arts Inspire Community Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Dan W.

    1983-01-01

    Describes Southeastern Community College's efforts to focus on the arts, which included a campus visit by the artist Kenneth Larson and events centered on his Heroic Individual prints; a performing arts series supported by local corporations; an Associate in Fine Arts degree; regular art exhibits; and an artist-in-residence program. (DMM)

  2. Radiotherapy of chondrosarcoma of bone

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, A.R.; Krajbich, J.I.; Fornasier, V.L.

    1980-06-01

    A retrospective analysis of 31 cases of chondrosarcoma of bone treated by radiotherapy is presented. In comparison with other large series, our group of patients were found to have been unfavourably selected with respect to the known prognostic factors: histology site, adequacy of operative treatment, and presenting symptoms. Twelve patients with primary chondrosarcoma were radically irradiated; 6 of these 12 have been alive and well without tumor for periods ranging from three and a half to 16 years and 3 of these are alive and well for 15 years or more following radiotherapy. The other 6 patients responded or desease stabilized following radiotherapy for periods ranging from 16 months to eight years. One poorly differentiated tumor was radically irradiated and did not respond. Eleven patients were irradiated palliatively, generally with low doses of irradiation, and only 4 responded transiently for periods ranging from three to 12 months. Seven patients with mesenchymal and dedifferentiated tumors were radically irradiated. Four responded or disease stabilized, and 1 of these patients was alive and well at 3 years; 3 did not respond. Six died with distant metastasis. It is concluded that chondrosarcoma of bone is a radioresponsive tumor and the place of radiotherapy in the treatment of this disease and the reason for its being labelled a radioresistant tumor are discussed. The problems of assessing response of chondrosarcoma to therapy are also discussed. It is suggested that chemotherapy may have a role in the management of mesenchymal and dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma.

  3. Pancreatic cancer: chemotherapy and radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Andrén-Sandberg, Åke

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer in many cases appears in a non-curatively resectable stage when the diagnosis is made. Palliative treatment become an option in the patients with advanced stage. The present article reviewed chemotherapy and radiotherapy in various advanced stage of pancreatic cancer. PMID:22540056

  4. Radiotherapy T1 glottic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zablow, A.I.; Erba, P.S.; Sanfillippo, L.J.

    1989-11-01

    From 1970 to 1985, curative radiotherapy was administered to 63 patients with stage I carcinoma of the true vocal cords. Precision radiotherapeutic technique yields cure rates comparable to surgical results. Good voice quality was preserved in a high percentage of patients.

  5. ARTS BETA testing report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccune, M. C.

    1981-01-01

    The advanced real time system (ARTS) was tested utilizing existing commercial system hardware and software which has been operating under advanced operating system (AOS) for several years in a multitasking, multiprocessing, and multiple computer environment. Experiences with ARTS in terms of compatibility with AOS, ease of transmission between AOS and ARTS, and functional areas of ARTS which were tested are discussed. Relative and absolute performance of ARTS versus AOS as measured in the system environment are also presented.

  6. Adaptations, exaptations, and spandrels.

    PubMed

    Buss, D M; Haselton, M G; Shackelford, T K; Bleske, A L; Wakefield, J C

    1998-05-01

    Adaptation and natural selection are central concepts in the emerging science of evolutionary psychology. Natural selection is the only known causal process capable of producing complex functional organic mechanisms. These adaptations, along with their incidental by-products and a residue of noise, comprise all forms of life. Recently, S. J. Gould (1991) proposed that exaptations and spandrels may be more important than adaptations for evolutionary psychology. These refer to features that did not originally arise for their current use but rather were co-opted for new purposes. He suggested that many important phenomena--such as art, language, commerce, and war--although evolutionary in origin, are incidental spandrels of the large human brain. The authors outline the conceptual and evidentiary standards that apply to adaptations, exaptations, and spandrels and discuss the relative utility of these concepts for psychological science. PMID:9612136

  7. [Blood in art, art in blood].

    PubMed

    Danic, B; Lefrère, J-J

    2010-12-01

    In the different forms of art developed by Humanity over the centuries, artists have at times chosen themes from the world of medicine or health, such as blood donation or transfusion. In order to illustrate this, we have looked at three artistic domains: painting, movies and body art.

  8. Land Art in Preschools. An Art Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solberg, Ingunn

    2016-01-01

    The basis for my article is how, and if, a collaborative land art project can provide opportunities for such co-creating as suggested in the national framework plan for preschools, which explicitly states the child as a co-creator of a shared expressive culture. I further wish to propose land art as a meaningful cultural practice, closely…

  9. Art, Ecological Restoration, and Art Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandy, Doug; Congdon, Kristin G.; Krug, Don H.

    1998-01-01

    Aims to foster among art educators and students an awareness of how many contemporary artists are promoting ecological restoration. Grounds these artists' work historically, and discusses its view of humanity as interconnected with nature. Offers suggestions for involving art educators and students in ecological theory and artistic creation. (DSK)

  10. Inspired Spirals. Teaching Art with Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2001-01-01

    Discusses spirals in nature, man-made objects, and art. Focuses on art that incorporates the spiral, including works by M. C. Escher and Frank Lloyd Wright, an African headdress, and a burial urn. Describes activities to help students make spirals of their own, such as constructing a coil clay pot. (CMK)

  11. CyberArts: Exploring Art and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda, Ed.

    This book takes the position that CyberArts(TM) is the new frontier in creativity, where the worlds of science and art meet. Computer technologies, visual design, music and sound, education and entertainment merge to form the new artistic territory of interactive multimedia. This diverse collection of essays, articles, and commentaries…

  12. Neolithic Art and the Art History Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilson, Muriel

    1991-01-01

    Addresses issues that might be raised in the study of art history from a critical theory perspective. Suggests that, in view of contemporary environmental and social concerns, Neolithic art would be of particular interest to students as would the possibility of having a society in which neither sex was dominant. (KM)

  13. Cognition and art: the current interdisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Zaidel, Dahlia W

    2013-07-01

    For decades discussions of cognition and art were anchored in psychological and perceptual theories alone and were focused primarily on pictorial art, but in recent years a major conceptual shift has altered the discussions. Now, insights, concepts, and findings from archaeology, anthropology, brain evolution, biology, genetics, neurology, and neuroscience together with psychology and perception are leading into deeper scholarly explorations of the topic than was done previously. The implication is that the relationship between cognition and art can be fully grasped only when scholarship from all these disciplines is included in the discussions. We now emphasize that the diverse art forms practiced ubiquitously in human societies have a communicative value with deep biological roots and that art is another expression of the symbolic cognition that is the hallmark of the human brain, but that early societal-type organization played a pivotal role in the enduring practice of art. Moreover, neurological evidence from artists with brain damage suggests that the communicative nature of art is neuronally damage-resistant, much more so than language. Rather than placing pictorial art center stage, as was done previously, the current interdisciplinary approach includes all the arts, points to sociocultural triggers for art practice, to the demographic conditions that prevailed in art's early beginnings, and to the interplay of these evolutionarily adaptive factors with deep biological motivations in the artist. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:431-439. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1236 The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  14. Supine proton beam craniospinal radiotherapy using a novel tabletop adapter.

    PubMed

    Buchsbaum, Jeffrey C; Besemer, Abby; Simmons, Joseph; Hoene, Ted; Simoneaux, Victor; Sandefur, Amy; Wolanski, Mark; Li, Zhao; Cheng, Chee-Wei

    2013-01-01

    To develop a device that allows supine craniospinal proton and photon therapy to the vast majority of proton and photon facilities currently experiencing limitations as a result of couch design issues. Plywood and carbon fiber were used for the development of a prototype unit. Once this was found to be satisfactory after all design issues were addressed, computer-assisted design (CAD) was used and carbon fiber tables were built to our specifications at a local manufacturer of military and racing car carbon fiber parts. Clinic-driven design was done using real-time team discussion for a prototype design. A local machinist was able to construct a prototype unit for us in <2 weeks after the start of our project. Once the prototype had been used successfully for several months and all development issues were addressed, a custom carbon fiber design was developed in coordination with a carbon fiber manufacturer in partnership. CAD methods were used to design the units to allow oblique fields from head to thigh on patients up to 200 cm in height. Two custom-designed carbon fiber craniospinal tabletop designs now exist: one long and one short. Four are in successful use in our facility. Their weight tolerance is greater than that of our robot table joint (164 kg). The long unit allows for working with taller patients and can be converted into a short unit as needed. An affordable, practical means of doing supine craniospinal therapy with protons or photons can be used in most locations via the use of these devices. This is important because proton therapy provides a much lower integral dose than all other therapy methods for these patients and the supine position is easier for patients to tolerate and for anesthesia delivery. These units have been successfully used for adult and pediatric supine craniospinal therapy, proton therapy using oblique beams to the low pelvis, treatment of various spine tumors, and breast-sparing Hodgkin's therapy. PMID:22951538

  15. Supine proton beam craniospinal radiotherapy using a novel tabletop adapter

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, Jeffrey C.; Besemer, Abby; Simmons, Joseph; Hoene, Ted; Simoneaux, Victor; Sandefur, Amy; Wolanski, Mark; Li, Zhao; Cheng, Chee-Wei

    2013-04-01

    To develop a device that allows supine craniospinal proton and photon therapy to the vast majority of proton and photon facilities currently experiencing limitations as a result of couch design issues. Plywood and carbon fiber were used for the development of a prototype unit. Once this was found to be satisfactory after all design issues were addressed, computer-assisted design (CAD) was used and carbon fiber tables were built to our specifications at a local manufacturer of military and racing car carbon fiber parts. Clinic-driven design was done using real-time team discussion for a prototype design. A local machinist was able to construct a prototype unit for us in <2 weeks after the start of our project. Once the prototype had been used successfully for several months and all development issues were addressed, a custom carbon fiber design was developed in coordination with a carbon fiber manufacturer in partnership. CAD methods were used to design the units to allow oblique fields from head to thigh on patients up to 200 cm in height. Two custom-designed carbon fiber craniospinal tabletop designs now exist: one long and one short. Four are in successful use in our facility. Their weight tolerance is greater than that of our robot table joint (164 kg). The long unit allows for working with taller patients and can be converted into a short unit as needed. An affordable, practical means of doing supine craniospinal therapy with protons or photons can be used in most locations via the use of these devices. This is important because proton therapy provides a much lower integral dose than all other therapy methods for these patients and the supine position is easier for patients to tolerate and for anesthesia delivery. These units have been successfully used for adult and pediatric supine craniospinal therapy, proton therapy using oblique beams to the low pelvis, treatment of various spine tumors, and breast-sparing Hodgkin's therapy.

  16. Creative by Nature: Integrating the Arts into Environmental Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Susan A.

    2002-01-01

    Incorporates environmental education into the arts to enhance student learning, imagination, and ability to invent solutions. Provides lesson ideas such as a river walk, bird adaptation sculptures, and a tree scavenger hunt. (YDS)

  17. The Art & Science of Mask Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Brian; Jefferies, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Art, particularly observational drawing, plays an important role in science. Scientific illustrators combine science content knowledge, observation skills, and artistic ability. For students, creating representational artwork helps develop observation skills and an appreciation of the diverse ways organisms have adapted to life on Earth. In this…

  18. The liberal arts physician.

    PubMed

    Burrow, G N

    1999-10-01

    The United States is in the midst of the second revolution in American health care to occur during this century, as Kenneth Ludmerer makes clear in his book Time to Heal: American Medical Education from the Turn of the Century to the Era of Managed Care. The "Flexnerian revolution" eventually led to the closing of a third of the medical schools. Although such closures are not likely this time, familiar arrangements are collapsing, without a clear picture of the shape of things to come. Whatever the outcome of the current revolution, well-trained physicians will be needed to care for the sick. Academic medical centers truly are at risk and increasingly require public support to flourish or even to survive, but medical schools and their teaching hospitals must demonstrate that they deserve this support. These institutions have responded by focusing on the business aspects of medicine, perhaps to the detriment of medical education. Lost in this focus is teaching time, and perhaps even more important, the time for mentoring. Often lacking too is a clear vision of the preparation needed by the student to practice medicine successfully in the future: different specialty mixes, interdisciplinary group practice; vastly increased use of information technologies, and overwhelming amounts of relevant and interrelated information. Yet the answer is the same as it was 75 years ago when Yale introduced the first radical medical curricular reform--the "liberal arts physician," trained in science, the values of medicine, and particularly for uncertainly and with the capacity to adapt.

  19. Creating Art Appreciation Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidt, Ann H.

    1986-01-01

    The experiences of college students enrolled as majors in elementary education in designing art appreciation activities for use in elementary classrooms are described. The college students had no art background. (RM)

  20. Visual Arts and Handicrafts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Lois

    1998-01-01

    Lists recommended book titles for children on art, crafts, artists, optical illusions, and drawing. Provides the address for a Web site featuring art activities and information about artists for children. (PEN)

  1. Chemistry, Color, and Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orna, Mary Virginia

    2001-01-01

    Describes pigments and artists' colors from a chronological perspective. Explains how chemical analysis can be used to distinguish the differences between artists' palettes, identify the evolution of art, and lead to restoration of an art work. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  2. Using Interactive Video to Examine Cultural Issues in Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semrau, Penelope; Boyer, Barbara A.

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of the use of interactive video to address issues of culture and gender in multicultural art classrooms focuses on an adaptation of "The Vincent Van Gogh Laserguide" at California State University-Los Angeles to teach students how to talk about and analyze works of art. (LRW)

  3. The Nature of Art and the Stle7esht Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Mae

    2000-01-01

    The traditional culture of the Stle7esht tribe of British Columbia has no word for art, because everything is art. Years of Eurocentric boarding schools have threatened this culture. The New Zealand Maori model of working outside the formal school system through early childhood education can be adapted by the Stle7esht to foster cultural…

  4. Adjuvant and Definitive Radiotherapy for Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sabolch, Aaron; Feng, Mary; Griffith, Kent; Hammer, Gary; Doherty, Gerard; Ben-Josef, Edgar

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of both adjuvant and definitive radiotherapy on local control of adrenocortical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Outcomes were analyzed from 58 patients with 64 instances of treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma at the University of Michigan's Multidisciplinary Adrenal Cancer Clinic. Thirty-seven of these instances were for primary disease, whereas the remaining 27 were for recurrent disease. Thirty-eight of the treatment regimens involved surgery alone, 10 surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and 16 definitive radiotherapy for unresectable disease. The effects of patient, tumor, and treatment factors were modeled simultaneously using multiple variable Cox proportional hazards regression for associations with local recurrence, distant recurrence, and overall survival. Results: Local failure occurred in 16 of the 38 instances that involved surgery alone, in 2 of the 10 that consisted of surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and in 1 instance of definitive radiotherapy. Lack of radiotherapy use was associated with 4.7 times the risk of local failure compared with treatment regimens that involved radiotherapy (95% confidence interval, 1.2-19.0; p = 0.030). Conclusions: Radiotherapy seems to significantly lower the risk of local recurrence/progression in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. Adjuvant radiotherapy should be strongly considered after surgical resection.

  5. Creative Art for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnes, Merle B.

    The book presents a creative art program for preschool children that utilizes art as a vehicle to develop many desirable behaviors -- social, emotional, and intellectual. A total of 45 art activities are described, organized under the headings "Exploration--Seeing and Feeling" (including seeing and feeling different textures, and seeing repeating…

  6. Arts Opportunity Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The increasing focus on arts education during the past few years has brought much-needed attention to the benefits it affords to students of all ages. Past research has proved time and again that the arts support teaching and learning in numerous ways, and recommendations abound that schools should find ways to integrate the arts in classrooms.…

  7. Women Art Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Enid, Ed.; Stankiewicz, Mary Ann, Ed.

    This collection of papers on women art educators reveals the variety of roles played by those women, from anonymous art teachers to leaders in their profession. "Mary Rouse: A Remembrance" (G. Hubbard) is a personal perspective on Rouse, the development of her career, and her considerable impact in the field of art education. "The Search for Mrs.…

  8. Arts Advocacy Roundtable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Ann Marie; Green, Sharon; Haedicke, Susan; Mardirosian, Gail Humphries; Martin, Deborah; Schildcrout, Jordan; Spencer, Jenny; Weinberg, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Records discussion of an arts advocacy roundtable began at the August 2000 meeting of the Association for Theatre in Higher Education and continued online. Explains how theatre departments have found themselves defending their very existence in the past decade. Includes discussions of the meaning of arts advocacy; how to incorporate arts advocacy…

  9. The Art of Opera.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, David L.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a two-week arts appreciation unit implemented by a sixth-grade teacher at Graham Elementary School in Los Angeles. The unit introduces the students to Parisian art and architecture, the music of Wagner and Stravinsky, and the paintings of Monet and Chagall. Visual and aural exposure to art and music, group discussions, and hands-on art…

  10. Design for Visual Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skeries, Larry

    Experiences suggested within this visual arts packet provide high school students with awareness of visual expression in graphic design, product design, architecture, and crafts. The unit may be used in whole or in part and includes information about art careers and art-related jobs found in major occupational fields. Specific lesson topics…

  11. "I like Art Because..."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leishear, Christina Chiddo

    2012-01-01

    There is a lot of creative energy between students and their art materials. In this lesson, the author discusses materials an artist may use to create a work of art--paint, a paintbrush, a palette, crayons, markers, pastels, and so on. Each student sketched a picture of themselves holding some tools that can be used in art. The objectives of this…

  12. Art Meets Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohs, C. Renee

    2007-01-01

    Numerous connections between the visual arts and sciences are evident if we choose to look for them. In February 2006, students and faculty from the Art and Geol/Geog departments at NW Missouri State University put together an exhibit at a local art gallery featuring works that were born out of science, inspired by science, or exploring the…

  13. Transpersonal Art Therapy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Michael; Farrelly-Hansen, Mimi; Marek, Bernie; Swan-Foster, Nora; Wallingford, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the task of training future art therapists through a unique branch of transpersonal psychology referred to as "contemplative education." Discusses contemplative practices, such as meditation, and their relationship to creating art. Offers a definition of transpersonal art therapy as well as a literature review. (Contains 80 references.)…

  14. Art's Educational Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores critically the nature of art's value in education and argues in favor of both intrinsic and instrumental value. Form and expression, while being out of favor in some contemporary circles, are re-claimed as appropriate features of art. Concepts and forms in art as elsewhere serve to structure impressions and experience and…

  15. Arts and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berube, Maurice R.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the American public's growing interest in art after World War II. Discusses the problematic history of arts in the public school curricula, in which arts programs are seen as a last priority in school reform and are the first to be eliminated in school districts facing financial retrenchment. (SR)

  16. The Art of Running

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jill Harris

    2007-01-01

    Every year, the Parent-Teacher Association of Ferndale Elementary School in Atlanta, Georgia sponsors a fun road race for the students, teachers, families, and community. This annual event has inspired the author to develop the Running and Art project to show off her students' art and squeeze in a little art history, too. In this article, the…

  17. Art and Montessori.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Joy

    1982-01-01

    Designed for Montessori teachers with little background in the plastic arts, this discussion points out that, while the Montessori program has many features that support creative development, presently, no art curriculum exists. The article indicates the limitations of Maria Montessori's ideas and attitudes about the role of art in the education…

  18. Navajo Arts and Crafts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessel, Robert A., Jr.

    A profusely-illustrated book on Navajo arts and crafts, from the Navajo Curriculum Center, includes sections on weaving, silversmithing, basket making, pottery making, and the economics of Navajo arts and crafts. The book is intended for use by Navajo students and Navajo people in general, so they can read about their arts and crafts from a Navajo…

  19. Early Childhood Arts Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suthers, Louie; Larkin, Veronicah

    The arts are central to quality early childhood programs. Experiences in the arts commonly attract and sustain children's involvement and provide opportunities for individualized creative responses. This research project investigated the implementation of arts games (structured play experiences based on drama, music, dance, and movement) into the…

  20. Research Explains Modern Art!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eickhorst, William S.

    1985-01-01

    This tongue-in-cheek article calls for the critical reexamination of the history of modern art. The author believes that modern art is neither an extension of the Renaissance aesthetic nor a collective by-product of artists possessed of creative genius. Creators of modern art were actually representational artists suffering from visual stuttering.…

  1. Art on Wheels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of wheels in children's art. Focuses on collecting wheels, ideas for decorating different artworks with wheels, and objects that can move on wheels. Sees wheels as an inspiration for children's art, reflecting on the use of this object in the art classroom. (CMK)

  2. Computer Aided Art Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jim

    The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar…

  3. Teaching with Public Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argiro, Carol

    2004-01-01

    "Public art" is a broad term that refers to art in public spaces and includes architecture, landscape, and urban design. Public art makes public spaces more beautiful, encourages us to pause and interact with our environment, or reminds us of important people and events. Just as often, public sculptures become such a part of our everyday…

  4. Arts throughout the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manner, Jane Carol

    2002-01-01

    Describes how curriculum integration can help art enhance learning during times when the arts may be considered dispensable and removed from education, presenting examples of how classroom teachers have examined art as a link to expanded understanding of history, science, math, reading, current events, geography, cultural studies, emotions,…

  5. Art as Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Peter

    Western society sees art as beautiful, well crafted objects; and art education derives almost its entire theory and practice from this concept. However, this is only one function of the creative process and art educators need to reconsider the fullness and depth of the usage of that process and provide an alternative mission and practice of art…

  6. Art and Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Suesi

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the author offers lesson plan ideas that are designed to guide teachers of art and science to encourage their students to see connections between art images and physics principles. The four works of art discussed are examples that can be linked visually and conceptually to physics properties in mathematics, space, energy, and light.…

  7. Basic Skills: Visual Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.

    A curriculum guide for the visual arts is presented. The goal of elementary and middle school education in the four arts disciplines is the development of basic understanding and skills by every student. In secondary education the aim is to continue a sequential curriculum for those students who study the arts. This document is intended as a guide…

  8. Windows to Art Excitement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley; Crumpecker, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that aimed to bring more attention to an art program. Explains that the students created themed murals on the windows of the art classroom, such as a "Jungle,""Ocean,""Masterpiece Paintings," and "Rainforest Tree Frogs." Discusses how the murals were created. (CMK)

  9. The Arts & Compensatory Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing.

    Intended to help compensatory education personnel better understand the role of the arts in cognitive growth, this booklet provides practical suggestions for using arts strategies in basic education. Following a discussion of the role of the arts in the learning process, the booklet presents a number of activities that involve the interaction of…

  10. From soil in art towards Soil Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feller, C.; Landa, E. R.; Toland, A.; Wessolek, G.

    2015-02-01

    The range of art forms and genres dealing with soil is wide and diverse, spanning many centuries and artistic traditions, from prehistoric painting and ceramics to early Renaissance works in Western literature, poetry, paintings, and sculpture, to recent developments in cinema, architecture and contemporary art. Case studies focused on painting, installation, and cinema are presented with the view of encouraging further exploration of art about, in, with, or featuring soil or soil conservation issues, created by artists, and occasionally scientists, educators or collaborative efforts thereof.

  11. The Art Classroom as Art Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr-Johnson, Virginia; Brockmyer, James J.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests ways of turning the art room into a microenvironment of sensory intensification--a place where a student steps into a new world of color, sound, and smell that delights the eye and inspires the imagination. (Author/SJL)

  12. Estimating the costs of intensity-modulated and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Yong, J.H.E.; McGowan, T.; Redmond-Misner, R.; Beca, J.; Warde, P.; Gutierrez, E.; Hoch, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Radiotherapy is a common treatment for many cancers, but up-to-date estimates of the costs of radiotherapy are lacking. In the present study, we estimated the unit costs of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (imrt) and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-crt) in Ontario. Methods An activity-based costing model was developed to estimate the costs of imrt and 3D-crt in prostate cancer. It included the costs of equipment, staff, and supporting infrastructure. The framework was subsequently adapted to estimate the costs of radiotherapy in breast cancer and head-and-neck cancer. We also tested various scenarios by varying the program maturity and the use of volumetric modulated arc therapy (vmat) alongside imrt. Results From the perspective of the health care system, treating prostate cancer with imrt and 3D-crt respectively cost $12,834 and $12,453 per patient. The cost of radiotherapy ranged from $5,270 to $14,155 and was sensitive to analytic perspective, radiation technique, and disease site. Cases of head-and-neck cancer were the most costly, being driven by treatment complexity and fractions per treatment. Although imrt was more costly than 3D-crt, its cost will likely decline over time as programs mature and vmat is incorporated. Conclusions Our costing model can be modified to estimate the costs of 3D-crt and imrt for various disease sites and settings. The results demonstrate the important role of capital costs in studies of radiotherapy cost from a health system perspective, which our model can accommodate. In addition, our study established the need for future analyses of imrt cost to consider how vmat affects time consumption. PMID:27330359

  13. Art-Based Learning Strategies in Art Therapy Graduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaver, Sarah P.

    2012-01-01

    This mixed methods research study examined the use of art-based teaching methods in master's level art therapy graduate education in North America. A survey of program directors yielded information regarding in which courses and how frequently art-based methods (individual in-class art making, dyad or group art making, student art projects as…

  14. New School Art Styles: The Project of Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gude, Olivia

    2013-01-01

    Art projects are appropriate building blocks for visual art curriculum because good art projects encode complex aesthetic strategies, giving students tools to investigate and make meaning. Art made in schools will inevitably be some form of "school art," defined by Arthur Efland in "The School Art Style: a Functional Analysis,"…

  15. Radiotherapy in muscle-invasive bladder cancer: the latest research progress and clinical application

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuo; Yu, Yong-Hua; Zhang, Yong; Qu, Wei; Li, Jia

    2015-01-01

    The role of radiotherapy (RT) in the management of urinary bladder cancer has undergone several alterations along the last decades. Recently, many protocols have been developed supporting the use of multi-modality therapy, and the concept of organ preservation began to be reconsidered. Advances in radiotherapy planning, verification, and delivery provide a method to optimize radiotherapy for bladder cancer and overcome difficulties which have previously limited the success of this treatment. They offer the opportunity to enhance the therapeutic ratio by reducing the volume of normal tissue irradiated and by increasing radiation dose or using more intensive fractionation and synchronous chemotherapy regimes. These techniques have a large potential to improve the therapeutic outcome of bladder cancer. In the near future, it should be possible to offer selected patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer an organ-sparing, yet effective combined-modality treatment. In this review, we aim to present the role of radiotherapy in the management of muscle invasive bladder cancer. Alternative methods of improving treatment accuracy such as helical tomotherapy, adaptive radiotherapy and radiochemotherapy are also discussed. PMID:25973322

  16. Radiotherapy in patients with connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    Giaj-Levra, Niccolò; Sciascia, Savino; Fiorentino, Alba; Fersino, Sergio; Mazzola, Rosario; Ricchetti, Francesco; Roccatello, Dario; Alongi, Filippo

    2016-03-01

    The decision to offer radiotherapy in patients with connective tissue diseases continues to be challenging. Radiotherapy might trigger the onset of connective tissue diseases by increasing the expression of self-antigens, diminishing regulatory T-cell activity, and activating effectors of innate immunity (dendritic cells) through Toll-like receptor-dependent mechanisms, all of which could potentially lead to breaks of immune tolerance. This potential risk has raised some debate among radiation oncologists about whether patients with connective tissue diseases can tolerate radiation as well as people without connective tissue diseases. Because the number of patients with cancer and connective tissue diseases needing radiotherapy will probably increase due to improvements in medical treatment and longer life expectancy, the issue of interactions between radiotherapy and connective tissue diseases needs to be clearer. In this Review, we discuss available data and evidence for patients with connective tissue diseases treated with radiotherapy.

  17. Management of radiotherapy-induced skin reactions.

    PubMed

    Trueman, Ellen

    2015-04-01

    Radiotherapy is a highly effective cancer treatment that not only offers cure but also excellent palliation of disease related symptoms and complications. Although radiotherapy is primarily an outpatient treatment, delivered within specialist centres, a diverse range of health professionals may be involved in the treatment pathway before, during and after treatment. Radiotherapy can, and does, make a significant contribution to improving a patient's wellbeing through effective symptom management. However, treatment-related side-effects do occur, with an acute skin reaction being one of the most common. It is imperative that radiotherapy-induced skin reactions are correctly assessed and appropriately managed in promoting patient comfort, treatment compliance and enhanced quality of life. This article describes how the use of a recognised assessment tool and evidence-based guidelines can facilitate consistent, high-quality care in the management of radiotherapy-induced skin reactions.

  18. Multiscale registration of planning CT and daily cone beam CT images for adaptive radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Paquin, Dana; Levy, Doron; Xing Lei

    2009-01-15

    Adaptive radiation therapy (ART) is the incorporation of daily images in the radiotherapy treatment process so that the treatment plan can be evaluated and modified to maximize the amount of radiation dose to the tumor while minimizing the amount of radiation delivered to healthy tissue. Registration of planning images with daily images is thus an important component of ART. In this article, the authors report their research on multiscale registration of planning computed tomography (CT) images with daily cone beam CT (CBCT) images. The multiscale algorithm is based on the hierarchical multiscale image decomposition of E. Tadmor, S. Nezzar, and L. Vese [Multiscale Model. Simul. 2(4), pp. 554-579 (2004)]. Registration is achieved by decomposing the images to be registered into a series of scales using the (BV, L{sup 2}) decomposition and initially registering the coarsest scales of the image using a landmark-based registration algorithm. The resulting transformation is then used as a starting point to deformably register the next coarse scales with one another. This procedure is iterated at each stage using the transformation computed by the previous scale registration as the starting point for the current registration. The authors present the results of studies of rectum, head-neck, and prostate CT-CBCT registration, and validate their registration method quantitatively using synthetic results in which the exact transformations our known, and qualitatively using clinical deformations in which the exact results are not known.

  19. A framework for automated contour quality assurance in radiation therapy including adaptive techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altman, M. B.; Kavanaugh, J. A.; Wooten, H. O.; Green, O. L.; DeWees, T. A.; Gay, H.; Thorstad, W. L.; Li, H.; Mutic, S.

    2015-07-01

    Contouring of targets and normal tissues is one of the largest sources of variability in radiation therapy treatment plans. Contours thus require a time intensive and error-prone quality assurance (QA) evaluation, limitations which also impair the facilitation of adaptive radiotherapy (ART). Here, an automated system for contour QA is developed using historical data (the ‘knowledge base’). A pilot study was performed with a knowledge base derived from 9 contours each from 29 head-and-neck treatment plans. Size, shape, relative position, and other clinically-relevant metrics and heuristically derived rules are determined. Metrics are extracted from input patient data and compared against rules determined from the knowledge base; a computer-learning component allows metrics to evolve with more input data, including patient specific data for ART. Nine additional plans containing 42 unique contouring errors were analyzed. 40/42 errors were detected as were 9 false positives. The results of this study imply knowledge-based contour QA could potentially enhance the safety and effectiveness of RT treatment plans as well as increase the efficiency of the treatment planning process, reducing labor and the cost of therapy for patients.

  20. The martial arts.

    PubMed

    Terry, Charles M

    2006-08-01

    Given the increasing popularity of the martial arts, it is likely that physicians in all specialties encounter patients who participate. From pediatric patients, to geriatric patients, to those living with various disabilities, the martial arts may offer physical, psychologic, and therapeutic benefits. An appreciation of the physical demands of the martial arts is crucial to understanding the pathogenesis of injury as well as to planning treatment and prevention strategies and to determining safe return to participation after injury.

  1. Neural Networks Art: Solving Problems with Multiple Solutions and New Teaching Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Dmitrienko, V. D; Zakovorotnyi, A. Yu.; Leonov, S. Yu.; Khavina, I. P

    2014-01-01

    A new discrete neural networks adaptive resonance theory (ART), which allows solving problems with multiple solutions, is developed. New algorithms neural networks teaching ART to prevent degradation and reproduction classes at training noisy input data is developed. Proposed learning algorithms discrete ART networks, allowing obtaining different classification methods of input. PMID:25246988

  2. Adaptive Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive managem...

  3. Ion-induced nuclear radiotherapy

    DOEpatents

    Horn, Kevin M.; Doyle, Barney L.

    1996-01-01

    Ion-induced Nuclear Radiotherapy (INRT) is a technique for conducting radiosurgery and radiotherapy with a very high degree of control over the spatial extent of the irradiated volume and the delivered dose. Based upon the concept that low energy, ion induced atomic and nuclear reactions can be used to produce highly energetic reaction products at the site of a tumor, the INRT technique is implemented through the use of a conduit-needle or tube which conducts a low energy ion beam to a position above or within the intended treatment area. At the end of the conduit-needle or tube is a specially fabricated target which, only when struck by the ion beam, acts as a source of energetic radiation products. The inherent limitations in the energy, and therefore range, of the resulting reaction products limits the spatial extent of irradiation to a pre-defined volume about the point of reaction. Furthermore, since no damage is done to tissue outside this irradiated volume, the delivered dose may be made arbitrarily large. INRT may be used both as a point-source of radiation at the site of a small tumor, or as a topical bath of radiation to broad areas of diseased tissue.

  4. Ion-induced nuclear radiotherapy

    DOEpatents

    Horn, K.M.; Doyle, B.L.

    1996-08-20

    Ion-induced Nuclear Radiotherapy (INRT) is a technique for conducting radiosurgery and radiotherapy with a very high degree of control over the spatial extent of the irradiated volume and the delivered dose. Based upon the concept that low energy, ion induced atomic and nuclear reactions can be used to produce highly energetic reaction products at the site of a tumor, the INRT technique is implemented through the use of a conduit-needle or tube which conducts a low energy ion beam to a position above or within the intended treatment area. At the end of the conduit-needle or tube is a specially fabricated target which, only when struck by the ion beam, acts as a source of energetic radiation products. The inherent limitations in the energy, and therefore range, of the resulting reaction products limits the spatial extent of irradiation to a pre-defined volume about the point of reaction. Furthermore, since no damage is done to tissue outside this irradiated volume, the delivered dose may be made arbitrarily large. INRT may be used both as a point-source of radiation at the site of a small tumor, or as a topical bath of radiation to broad areas of diseased tissue. 25 figs.

  5. Segmented ART - The new era in ART?

    PubMed

    Ozgur, Kemal; Humaidan, Peter; Coetzee, Kevin

    2016-06-01

    Currently up to 4% of infants born in developing countries are conceived through assisted reproductive technology (ART). Even though most of these conceptions occur and progress without complications, ART procedures and processes may increase iatrogenesis through complications in - and after conception. We herein review and discuss the clinically and scientific implications and evidence of iatrogenesis, and show how the evolution in ART technologies and procedures has led to the current presumption that frozen embryo transfer might be a more optimal strategy than fresh embryo transfer, in terms of not only reproduction, but also of maternal and fetal outcomes. There is increasing scientific evidence to support the notion that controlled ovarian stimulation could induce significant changes to the endocrine profile of a reproductive cycle, especially to the reproductively important early luteal phase. These changes may not only have a negative effect on implantation and early placentation, but also on the mother, the fetus, and the infant. The overt consequences of controlled ovarian stimulation include ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, reduced embryo implantation, increased ectopic pregnancy, and altered placentation and fetal growth. The cumulative scientific evidence from this review suggests that GnRHa trigger in segmented ART might constitute the future routine treatment regimen for IVF patients, providing a safe, effective, and patient friendly treatment.

  6. Art in Chemistry; Chemistry in Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Barbara R.; Patterson, Dianne

    High school teachers are often challenged to motivate students who have little or no interest in a subject and are bored with traditional instruction. This unique book is designed to help educators make chemistry classes more interesting and links art curriculum to practical applications, integrating the two subjects through scores of hands-on…

  7. Segmented ART - The new era in ART?

    PubMed

    Ozgur, Kemal; Humaidan, Peter; Coetzee, Kevin

    2016-06-01

    Currently up to 4% of infants born in developing countries are conceived through assisted reproductive technology (ART). Even though most of these conceptions occur and progress without complications, ART procedures and processes may increase iatrogenesis through complications in - and after conception. We herein review and discuss the clinically and scientific implications and evidence of iatrogenesis, and show how the evolution in ART technologies and procedures has led to the current presumption that frozen embryo transfer might be a more optimal strategy than fresh embryo transfer, in terms of not only reproduction, but also of maternal and fetal outcomes. There is increasing scientific evidence to support the notion that controlled ovarian stimulation could induce significant changes to the endocrine profile of a reproductive cycle, especially to the reproductively important early luteal phase. These changes may not only have a negative effect on implantation and early placentation, but also on the mother, the fetus, and the infant. The overt consequences of controlled ovarian stimulation include ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, reduced embryo implantation, increased ectopic pregnancy, and altered placentation and fetal growth. The cumulative scientific evidence from this review suggests that GnRHa trigger in segmented ART might constitute the future routine treatment regimen for IVF patients, providing a safe, effective, and patient friendly treatment. PMID:27288333

  8. Wearable Arts of Japan: Seattle Art Museum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loudon, Sarah

    1996-01-01

    Presents four lesson plans centered around artworks involving Japanese clothing. Instructional materials include color plates of a 19th century print showing women's clothing, two beautifully handcrafted coats, and a coverlet in kimono form. The lesson plans discuss Japanese clothing, art, society, and culture. (MJP)

  9. [Current status and perspectives of radiotherapy for esophageal cancer].

    PubMed

    Wu, S X; Wang, L H

    2016-09-23

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most common cancers in China. More than 80% of esophageal cancer patients are diagnosed at a late stage and are not eligible for surgery. Radiotherapy is one of the most important modalities in esophageal cancer treatment. Here we reviewed the advances in esophageal cancer radiotherapy and radiotherapy-based combined-modality therapy, such as optimization of radiation dose and target volume, application of precise radiotherapy technique and the integration of radiotherapy with chemotherapy and targeted therapy.

  10. Support for Arts Education. State Arts Agency Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assembly of State Arts Agencies, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Supporting lifelong learning in the arts is a top priority for state arts agencies. By supporting arts education in the schools, state arts agencies foster young imaginations, address core academic standards, and promote the critical thinking and creativity skills essential to a 21st century work force. State arts agencies also support…

  11. Arts Week: A Canadian School Celebrates the Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Charlene A.

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the program called "Arts Week" that demonstrates the importance of the arts in the lives of students at West Point Gray Academy in Vancouver (British Columbia). Describes Arts Week and discusses the process of creating Arts Week. States that Art Week was a success. (CMK)

  12. Thinking about Art: Encouraging Art Appreciation in Early Childhood Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Ann S.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the place of art appreciation in early childhood education programs. Discusses historical changes in philosophies of art education and young children's capability for appreciating art. Presents suggestions for including art appreciation in the preschool curriculum, and describes ways to tie art activities to children's interests,…

  13. Old Friends, Bookends: Art Educators and Art Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This viewpoint presents a reflection on a meaningful relationship that developed between a university art education department and a local art therapy studio. Such partnerships are desirable and mutually beneficial because of the significant interest many art educators have in the field of art therapy. The author, an art educator, describes the…

  14. Cable and the Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Martin

    Television has been less hospitable to the arts in the United States than in other parts of the world, although there have been some efforts to provide the public with some artistic forms of entertainment. If the reason that the arts have been largely neglected on television is its limited channel capacity that democracy must devote to more…

  15. Visual Arts Research, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Nancy C., Ed.; Thompson, Christine, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This document consists of the two issues of the journal "Visual Arts Research" published in 1995. This journal focuses on the theory and practice of visual arts education from educational, historical, philosophical, and psychological perspectives. Number 1 of this volume includes the following contributions: (1) "Children's Sensitivity to…

  16. Art & Science Grow Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stellflue, Pat; Allen, Marie; Gerber, D. Timothy

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a collaborative effort that included a botany professor, an art teacher, and a science teacher, called,"Plants, Pots, and Paints." This interdisciplinary project was successful in connecting content across disciplines (science to art) and for motivating fourth-and fifth-grade students to create something beautiful both they…

  17. Art-By-Telephone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jesser, David L.; Clarke, Michael ael J.

    In an attempt to bring art instruction into small schools financially unable to support such a program, 11 high schools in 4 western states have been receiving simultaneous instruction in art from a central source with the aid of an amplified telephone and coordinated overhead transparencies. Before the onset of classes, the instructor visits each…

  18. Normalizing Art Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congdon, Kristin G.

    1990-01-01

    Contends that art therapy promotes mental health beyond diagnosing and treating illness. Outlines four overlapping ways that art contributes to mental health: (1) giving people a sense of identity and place; (2) conferring status; (3) expanding and directing thought processes; and (4) utilizing the security of the rhythmic "takeover" phenomenon.…

  19. INDUSTRIAL ARTS HANDBOOK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JOHNSON, ALLEN

    TO AID TEACHERS, GUIDANCE COUNSELORS, AND ADMINISTRATORS, AS WELL AS THE STUDENT HIMSELF, THE HANDBOOK OFFERED PURPOSES AND COURSE DESCRIPTIONS IN THE FIELD OF INDUSTRIAL ARTS. IT APPLIED TO ELEMENTARY, JUNIOR HIGH, AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS. INDUSTRIAL ARTS PROVIDED AN OPPORTUNITY FOR STUDENTS TO DISCOVER THEIR APTITUDES AND ABILITIES IN…

  20. Looking into Oceanic Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Nancy Schien; Maxedon, G. Edward

    1997-01-01

    Presents background material, suggested teaching activities, and four color plates illustrating the folk art of the Oceania islands (Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia). The background material is incorporated into an interview with two Oceanic art specialists from Indiana University who discuss the culture of the islands. (MJP)

  1. Gerontology and the Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jean Ellen, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews research on the place of the arts in programs for the elderly. In nine articles deals with characteristics and attitudes of adult students in art and music, dance therapy, and creativity. Discusses the aging advocacy movement and suggests it can be useful to program planners and gerontologists. (JAC)

  2. Art in the Garden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Geri

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project in which beginning art students created ceramic vegetables that are supposed to be functional, such as a container. Explains how the teacher can demonstrate the process of creating the ceramic vegetables. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

  3. [Aesthetic Response to Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muth, Helen, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    The "Bulletin of the Caucus on Social Theory and Art Education" is an annual publication, with each issue devoted to a unified theme. The theme of this issue is aesthetic response. The following papers focus on the audience and the persons responding to art: "Attitudes of Three Urban Appalachian Teenagers Toward Selected Early Modern American…

  4. PLANNING THE ART ROOM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    POPOLIZIO, VINCENT J.; AND OTHERS

    FACILITIES FOR CARRYING OUT AN ART PROGRAM MUST BE DESIGNED TO MEET THE NEEDS OF STUDENTS IN SCHOOL AND THOSE ENROLLED IN ADULT PROGRAMS. PROVISIONS MUST BE INCLUDED FOR PAINTING AND DRAWING, THE GRAPHIC ARTS, GENERAL CRAFTS, MODELING, SCHULPTURING, PHOTOGRAPHY, SERIGRAPHY, AND MECHANICAL DRAWING. WORK CENTERS AND TRAFFIC FLOW NEED CAREFUL…

  5. Art Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This journal issue provides a cogent look at general issues in art teacher education, specific teacher education programs and particular agendas as they are played out in a number of different countries. The topic is introduced in the Editorial, "The Education of Educators: Art Teacher Education around the World" (Kit Grauer). Articles that follow…

  6. The Art of Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Jan

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on secondary students with cognitive or intellectual disabilities. She discusses that these students can be successfully included into the classroom community if schools can provide the appropriate tools such literacy in the arts. Here, she cites the number of reasons why arts can meet the varied needs and…

  7. Language Arts Topics Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jane M.; And Others

    This document brings together six papers on language skills and language arts teaching of gifted students. "The State of the Art Issues in Language Study for High Ability Learners: Thinking about Language with Gifted Children" (Michael Clay Thompson) considers two areas traditionally included in discussions of language study--grammar and…

  8. The Art of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Robert F. Sabol, professor of visual and performing arts at Purdue University says that art education has suffered some serious setbacks since No Child Left Behind--the landmark federal education law that put a greater emphasis on high-stakes testing. Since No Child Left Behind became law in 2002, school systems--under increased pressure to…

  9. Visual Arts Research, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Nancy C., Ed.; Thompson, Christine, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This document consists of the two issues of the journal "Visual Arts in Research" published in 1994. This journal focuses on the theory and practice of visual arts education from educational, historical, philosophical, and psychological perspectives. Number 1 of this volume includes the following contributions: (1) "Zooming in on the Qualitative…

  10. Elegant Art Nouveau

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Kris

    2005-01-01

    Gustav Klimt (1862-1918), a Viennese painter, was the founder of the Vienna Secession, the Austrian Art Nouveau movement. Art Nouveau is characterised by flowing lines and flat designs based on organic structures. This style is found in the symbolic aspect of Klimt's later work, and in the works of other artists of the late 1890s and early 1900s…

  11. PLANNING AN ART ROOM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KROEGER, GARY

    THIS GUIDE IS INTENDED TO PROVIDE SUGGESTIONS IN PLANNING ART FACILITIES FOR ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS. AREAS PROVIDED FOR ARE (1) DRAWING AND PAINTING, (2) GRAPHIC ARTS, (3) GENERAL CRAFTS, (4) MODELING, AND (5) SCULPTURING. WORK CENTERS CAN BE PLANNED IN RELATION TO TRAFFIC FLOW. AT JUNIOR HIGH LEVEL, 24 STUDENTS ARE BEST ACCOMMODATED FOR…

  12. Cybernetics, Art and Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichardt, Jasia, Ed.

    The essays in this volume deal with the relationship of the computer and the arts, especially the exploration and demonstration of connections between creativity and technology, the links between scientific or mathematical approaches, intuitions, and the more irrational and oblique urges associated with the making of music, art, and poetry. The…

  13. I: Making Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Malke; Johnson, Marquetta; Plemons, Anna; Makol, Suzanne; Zanskas, Meghan; Dzula, Mark; Mahoney, Meg Robson

    2014-01-01

    Writing about the teaching artist practice should mean writing about art making. As both teacher and artist, the authors are required to be cognizant of their own art-making processes, both how it works and why it is important to them, in order to make this process visible to their students. They also need the same skills to write about how and…

  14. Art without Boundaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colt, Elizabeth H.

    1980-01-01

    Described is an eleventh- and twelfth-grade art curriculum which meets four times a week and is largely a conceptual approach to the arts. It is built around a reading and film list and uses as raw materials ourselves and our environment. The lists are not included. (KC)

  15. Tangrams: Puzzles of Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fee, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Challenging one's brain is the beginning of making great art. Tangrams are a great way to keep students thinking about their latest art project long after leaving the classroom. A tangram is a Chinese puzzle. The earliest known reference to tangrams appears in a Chinese book dated 1813, but the puzzles existed long before that date. The puzzle…

  16. Mola Art: Elementary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barsamian, Araxey

    2004-01-01

    In this brief article, the author describes a lesson plan on Mola art she used in her elementary classroom. Using four examples of Kuna Indian molas, the teacher introduced students to the beautiful, colorful, creative art form of molas. The Kuna women have been making these layered pieces of cloth for more than one hundred years. They use a…

  17. The Art of Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saccardi, Marianne

    1997-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of books for grades K and up which explores the folklore, poetry, fiction, and art of Mexico, and focuses on the Mayans and Aztecs and Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo. Also suggests various research, reading, drama, music, social studies, physical education, and art activities and lists related videos and Internet…

  18. Primary Art Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton Unified School District 373, KS.

    GRADES OR AGES: Primary Grades. SUBJECT MATTER: Art. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide begins with a list of topics for art expression. The main body of the guide contains 15 color-coded sections on the following subjects: 1) mobiles and folded paper; 2) collage and photo montage; 3) square paper and mosaics; 4) wax paper and…

  19. The Boutique Liberal Arts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The structure of higher education today, in conjunction with those actively trying to devalue a liberal arts degree in the public sphere, has set the table for what seems like a completely rational solution: finding a "niche." Broadly speaking, colleges offering a liberal arts education identify their "niche market" in terms of…

  20. Industrial Arts Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Office of Vocational Education.

    Requirements and planning guidelines for industrial arts facilities are outlined for application to three types of industrial arts shops. The ratios of areas to students are discussed in regard to the sizes, shapes, and locations of shops. Specifications for walls, floors, ceilings, windows, paint, and illumination are included. An equipment…

  1. ART MODERN/DIALOG.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Katharine K.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews ART MODERN, an on-line data base which provides comprehensive coverage of current worldwide literature on modern art and design since 1800. Areas described include scope, coverage, arrangement of printed and on-line indexes, characteristics of basic index and code searching; also search hints, search negotiation, searchguide, and data base…

  2. Comics as Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulholland, Matthew J.

    2004-01-01

    Spider Man and the Green Lantern are not the first images that most people conjure up when someone mentions "important art." In the world of fine art, comic books are often viewed as the bottom rung of the artistic ladder. In the early half of the 1900s, such an assessment would not have been unreasonable. With their rudimentary visuals and…

  3. Cultivating Demand for the Arts: Arts Learning, Arts Engagement, and State Arts Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakaras, Laura; Lowell, Julia F.

    2008-01-01

    To shed light on the decline in demand for the nonprofit arts, the authors describe what it means to cultivate demand for the arts, examine how well U.S. institutions are serving this function, and discuss whether it is in the public interest to make such cultivation a higher priority than it has been in the past. The authors propose that a strong…

  4. Performance Art: Kinetic Reproductions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassin, Cherie

    2001-01-01

    Provides an art project for use with eighth-grade students, who choose a work of art and recreate it in an interpretive and informative manner. Explains that students re-create the background of the artwork and then the students become a part of the painting via characters or objects. (CMK)

  5. LANGUAGE ARTS LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROBERTS, HERMESE E.

    THE LANGUAGE ARTS LABORATORY WAS ESTABLISHED TO IMPROVE READING ABILITY AND OTHER LANGUAGE ARTS SKILLS AS AN AID IN THE PREVENTION OF DROPOUTS. THE LABORATORY WAS OPERATED ON A SUMMER SCHEDULE WITH A FLEXIBLE PROGRAM OF FROM 45 MINUTES TO 2 1/2 HOURS DAILY. ALL PUPILS WERE 14 YEARS OF AGE OR OLDER, AND EXPRESSED A DESIRE TO IMPROVE THEIR READING…

  6. Art Therapy: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantt, Linda, Comp.; Schmal, Marilyn Strauss, Comp.

    The bibliography on art therapy presents 1175 citations (1940-1973) drawn from searches of the medical indexes, computer systems of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institute of Mental Health, other bibliographies, Centre International de Documentation Concernant les Expressions Plastiques, and the American Journal of Art Therapy.…

  7. Art as Peace Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Art educators can "critique" senseless violence--mistreatment, exclusion, intimidation, bullying, violation, abuse, corruption, murder, and war--by unleashing the power of students' creativity. In this article, the author, sharing her philosophical context, discusses how art is preventative medicine with the power to transform the…

  8. The Art of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jory, Tina

    1997-01-01

    Advocates introducing young students to realistic nature drawing as a way of integrating art and science. Describes an earthworm art project using a salt dough model and a realistic drawing. This activity should begin with a view of the real subject whenever possible before proceeding to the actual artwork. (AIM)

  9. The Talking Art Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundy, Jacqui

    2009-01-01

    Every year, fourth graders at Sterling Morton Elementary School in Ohio present a talking art museum for the school and community. In this article, the author describes a lesson on art history which culminates in an activity showcasing all the students' finished paintings in gold frames. A student stands behind the painting and pokes his or her…

  10. The Art Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scolarici, Alicia

    2004-01-01

    This article describes what once was thought to be impossible--a formal art show extravaganza at an elementary school with 1,000 students, a Department of Defense Dependent School (DODDS) located overseas, on RAF Lakenheath, England. The dream of this this event involved the transformation of the school cafeteria into an elegant art show…

  11. Art Education Is Violent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavin, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    In an era that is rife with aggression and hostility, most art educators hold close to their hearts the belief that they, and their students, can contribute to making the world a better place. Through their acts as teachers and the daily work of art education, they often strive toward creating a space of "non-violence." For K-12…

  12. Reading, Writing, and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reist, Kay M.

    2010-01-01

    With No Child Left Behind, schools are cutting extracurricular activities, doing away with aides, and even getting rid of art and physical education so that reading specialists and writing tutors can be hired. But what can the art teachers do to assist in teaching reading and writing skills? The author believes they need to provide their students…

  13. Hungry for Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Describes what occurred during an "Art Exchange Day" between two high schools that offered students access to varying viewpoints about art. Explains how the students created their own artworks of cakes and other desserts, inspired by the work of Wayne Thiebaud. Includes examples. (CMK)

  14. Art in Public.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, David J.

    1991-01-01

    Examines four works of art, created for public spaces, to help students understand the value of public art in the community. Illustrates work by Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen, Siah Armajani, Jackie Ferrara, and Deborah Butterfield. Outlines lesson activities for elementary and secondary students. (KM)

  15. Bringing Art to Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, Eric

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the Art and Architecture program that involves K-12 students in the creation of public art. The program provides students with a sense of ownership through design and construction assignments created as part of an integrated curriculum, including mock bids and interpreting a floor plan into an elevation. Tips on how architects can start…

  16. Arte Brasileno Erudito y Arte Brasileno Popular. (Brazilian Fine Art and Brazilian Popular Art)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valladares, Clarival Do Prado

    1969-01-01

    Class differences in Brazil explain the inequality between the art produced in the high strata of society and that originating in the economically inferior communities. Genuine expression of art degenerates for two reasons: the influence of modern industrial civilization and the tendency to satisfy the taste of the acquisitive group. (Author/MF)

  17. Parallels in the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laffey, Grace

    1972-01-01

    A mini-course of nine weeks was organized as a laboratory course to survey relationships in literature, music, and art. Three periods in the arts (Romanticism, Impressionism, and Contemporary) were matched with three major activities; the basic areas of study and activity were poetry, short story, and novel. (Author)

  18. Mathematics and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, John

    2012-01-01

    This relationship is omnipresent to those who appreciate the shared attributes of these two areas of creativity. The dynamic nature of media, and further study, enable mathematicians and artists to present new and exciting manifestations of the "mathematics in art", and the "art in mathematics". The illustrative images of the relationship--that…

  19. When Curriculum Meets Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giardina, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    A three-year grant program at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City encourages teachers to draw connections between curricular topics and works of art. In this article, museum educator Nicola Giardina describes how the program uses inquiry-based lessons to create meaningful learning experiences for underserved students. She highlights…

  20. Fireplace adapters

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, R.L.

    1983-12-27

    An adapter is disclosed for use with a fireplace. The stove pipe of a stove standing in a room to be heated may be connected to the flue of the chimney so that products of combustion from the stove may be safely exhausted through the flue and outwardly of the chimney. The adapter may be easily installed within the fireplace by removing the damper plate and fitting the adapter to the damper frame. Each of a pair of bolts has a portion which hooks over a portion of the damper frame and a threaded end depending from the hook portion and extending through a hole in the adapter. Nuts are threaded on the bolts and are adapted to force the adapter into a tight fit with the adapter frame.

  1. Navigated marker placement for motion compensation in radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterstein, A.; März, K.; Franz, A. M.; Hafezi, M.; Fard, N.; Sterzing, F.; Mehrabi, A.; Maier-Hein, L.

    2015-03-01

    Radiotherapy is frequently used to treat unoperated or partially resected tumors. Tumor movement, e.g. caused by respiration, is a major challenge in this context. Markers can be implanted around the tumor prior to radiation therapy for accurate tracking of tumor movement. However, accurate placement of these markers while keeping a secure margin around the target and while taking into account critical structures is a difficult task. Computer-assisted needle insertion has been an active field of research in the past decades. However, the challenge of navigated marker placement for motion compensated radiotherapy has not yet been addressed. This work presents a system to support marker implantation for radiotherapy under consideration of safety margins and optimal marker configuration. It is designed to allow placement of markers both percutaneously and during an open liver surgery. To this end, we adapted the previously proposed EchoTrack system which integrates ultrasound (US) imaging and electromagnetic (EM) tracking in a single mobile modality. The potential of our new marker insertion concept was evaluated in a phantom study by inserting sets of three markers around dedicated targets (n=22) simultaneously spacing the markers evenly around the target as well as placing the markers in a defined distance to the target. In all cases the markers were successfully placed in a configuration fulfilling the predefined criteria. This includes a minimum distance of 18.9 ± 2.4 mm between marker and tumor as well as a divergence of 2.1 ± 1.5 mm from the planned marker positions. We conclude that our system has high potential to facilitate the placement of markers in suitable configurations for surgeons without extensive experience in needle punctions as high quality configurations were obtained even by medical non-experts.

  2. Identifying technology barriers in adapting a state-of-the-art gas turbine for IGCC applications and an experimental investigation of air extraction schemes for IGCC operations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Tah-teh; Agrawal, A.K.; Kapat, J.S.

    1993-06-01

    Under contracted work with Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Clemson University, the prime contractor, and General Electric (GE) and CRSS, the subcontractors, made a comprehensive study in the first phase of research to investigate the technology barriers of integrating a coal gasification process with a hot gas cleanup scheme and the state-of-the-art industrial gas turbine, the GE MS-7001F. This effort focused on (1) establishing analytical tools necessary for modeling combustion phenomenon and emissions in gas turbine combustors operating on multiple species coal gas, (2) estimates the overall performance of the GE MS-7001F combined cycle plant, (3) evaluating material issues in the hot gas path, (4) examining the flow and temperature fields when air extraction takes place at both the compressor exit and at the manhole adjacent to the combustor, and (5) examining the combustion/cooling limitations of such a gas turbine by using 3-D numerical simulation of a MS-7001F combustor operated with gasified coal. In the second phase of this contract, a 35% cool flow model was built similar to GE`s MS-7001F gas turbine for mapping the flow region between the compressor exit and the expander inlet. The model included sufficient details, such as the combustor`s transition pieces, the fuel nozzles, and the supporting struts. Four cases were studied: the first with a base line flow field of a GE 7001F without air extraction; the second with a GE 7001F with air extraction; and the third and fourth with a GE 7001F using a Griffith diffuser to replace the straight wall diffuser and operating without air extraction and with extraction, respectively.

  3. Art as behaviour--an ethological approach to visual and verbal art, music and architecture.

    PubMed

    Sütterlin, Christa; Schiefenhövel, Wulf; Lehmann, Christian; Forster, Johanna; Apfelauer, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the fine arts, architecture, music and literature have increasingly been examined from the vantage point of human ethology and evolutionary psychology. In 2011 the authors formed the research group 'Ethology of the Arts' concentrating on the evolution and biology of perception and behaviour. These novel approaches aim at a better understanding of the various facets represented by the arts by taking into focus possible phylogenetic adaptations, which have shaped the artistic capacities of our ancestors. Rather than culture specificity, which is stressed e.g. by cultural anthropology and numerous other disciplines, universal human tendencies to perceive, feel, think and behave are postulated. Artistic expressive behaviour is understood as an integral part of the human condition, whether expressed in ritual, visual, verbal or musical art. The Ethology of the Arts-group's research focuses on visual and verbal art, music and built environment/architecture and is designed to contribute to the incipient interdisciplinarity in the field of evolutionary art research.

  4. [Radiotherapy of benign intracranial tumors].

    PubMed

    Delannes, M; Latorzeff, I; Chand, M E; Huchet, A; Dupin, C; Colin, P

    2016-09-01

    Most of the benign intracranial tumors are meningiomas, vestibular schwannomas, pituitary adenomas, craniopharyngiomas, and glomus tumors. Some of them grow very slowly, and can be observed without specific treatment, especially if they are asymptomatic. Symptomatic or growing tumors are treated by surgery, which is the reference treatment. When surgery is not possible, due to the location of the lesion, or general conditions, radiotherapy can be applied, as it is if there is a postoperative growing residual tumor, or a local relapse. Indications have to be discussed in polydisciplinary meetings, with precise evaluation of the benefit and risks of the treatments. The techniques to be used are the most modern ones, as multimodal imaging and image-guided radiation therapy. Stereotactic treatments, using fractionated or single doses depending on the size or the location of the tumors, are commonly realized, to avoid as much a possible the occurrence of late side effects. PMID:27523417

  5. It's Time for Art Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbert, Beth

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her school's art club works. She relates that the art projects made by students at the art club became permanent fixtures at their school. Because of this incentive, students were very eager to contribute to the art club knowing that their art projects will be permanently displayed for all to enjoy in the…

  6. Art, antiquarianism and early anatomy.

    PubMed

    Guest, Clare E L

    2014-12-01

    Discussions of the early relationship between art and anatomy are shaped by Vasari's account of Florentine artists who dissected bodies in order to understand the causes of movement, and the end of movement in action. This account eclipses the role of the study of antiquities in Renaissance anatomical illustration. Beyond techniques of presentation, such as sectioning and analytic illustration, or a preoccupation with the mutilated fragment, antiquarianism offered a reflection on the variant and the role of temperament which could be adapted for anatomical purposes. With its play on ambiguities of life and death, idealisation and damage, antiquarianism also provided a way of negotiating the difficulties of content inherent in anatomical illustration. As such, it goes beyond exclusively historical interest to provoke reflection on the modes, possibilities and humane responsibilities of medical illustration. PMID:24696510

  7. Art, antiquarianism and early anatomy.

    PubMed

    Guest, Clare E L

    2014-12-01

    Discussions of the early relationship between art and anatomy are shaped by Vasari's account of Florentine artists who dissected bodies in order to understand the causes of movement, and the end of movement in action. This account eclipses the role of the study of antiquities in Renaissance anatomical illustration. Beyond techniques of presentation, such as sectioning and analytic illustration, or a preoccupation with the mutilated fragment, antiquarianism offered a reflection on the variant and the role of temperament which could be adapted for anatomical purposes. With its play on ambiguities of life and death, idealisation and damage, antiquarianism also provided a way of negotiating the difficulties of content inherent in anatomical illustration. As such, it goes beyond exclusively historical interest to provoke reflection on the modes, possibilities and humane responsibilities of medical illustration.

  8. [Radiotherapy of carcinoma of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Servagi-Vernat, S; Tochet, F

    2016-09-01

    Indication, doses, and technique of radiotherapy for salivary glands carcinoma are presented, and the contribution of neutrons and carbon ions. The recommendations for delineation of the target volumes and organs at risk are detailed. PMID:27521038

  9. Historical aspects of heavy ion radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Raju, M.R.

    1995-03-01

    This paper presents historical developments of heavy-ion radiotherapy including discussion of HILAC and HIMAC and discussion of cooperation between Japan and the United States, along with personal reflections.

  10. Heavy particle radiotherapy: prospects and pitfalls

    SciTech Connect

    Faju, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    The use of heavy particles in radiotherapy of tumor volumes is examined. Particles considered are protons, helium ions, heavy ions, negative pions, and fast neutrons. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed. (ACR)

  11. [Conformal radiotherapy for vertebral bone metastasis].

    PubMed

    Faivre, J C; Py, J F; Vogin, G; Martinage, G; Salleron, J; Royer, P; Grandgirard, N; Pasquier, D; Thureau, S

    2016-10-01

    Analgesic external beam radiation therapy is a standard of care for patients with uncomplicated painful bone metastases and/or prevention of bone complications. In case of fracture risk, radiation therapy is performed after surgery in a consolidation of an analgesic purpose and stabilizing osteosynthesis. Radiotherapy is mandatory after vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty. Spinal cord compression - the only emergency in radiation therapy - is indicated postoperatively either exclusively for non surgical indication. Analgesic re-irradiation is possible in the case of insufficient response or recurrent pain after radiotherapy. Metabolic radiation, bisphosphonates or denosumab do not dissuade external radiation therapy for pain relief. Systemic oncological treatments can be suspended with a period of wash out given the risk of radiosensitization or recall phenomenon. Better yet, the intensity modulated radiotherapy and stereotactic radiotherapy can be part of a curative strategy for oligometastatic patients and suggest new treatment prospects. PMID:27614498

  12. Efficacy of radiotherapy in optic gliomas.

    PubMed

    Gould, R J; Hilal, S K; Chutorian, A M

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-five children with optic gliomas were evaluated over a seven year period by sequential computed axial tomography in order to determine the efficacy of radiotherapy as a treatment modality. Indices of tumor progression or regression included both size and contrast enhancement characteristics. Twenty of 25 patients followed during this period received radiotherapy. Of these patients, ten had tumor regression, nine were stable, and one was worse. This result contrasts with five untreated patients, four of whom had tumor progression and one who was stable (x2 = 18.37, p less than .001). One of the children with tumor progression later received radiotherapy and demonstrated marked tumor regression. Of the 18 treated patients who could be tested reliably, visual function and/or regression occurred in seven children. None of the untreated patients improved. There were no definite complications of radiotherapy in this small group.

  13. Prevention of accidental exposure in radiotherapy: the risk matrix approach.

    PubMed

    Vilaragut, J J; Duménigo, C; Delgado, J M; Morales, J; McDonnell, J D; Ferro, R; Ortiz López, P; Ramírez, M L; Pérez Mulas, A; Papadopulos, S; Gonçalves, M; López Morones, R; Sánchez Cayuela, C; Cascajo Castresana, A; Somoano, F; Álvarez, C; Guillén, A; Rodríguez, M; Pereira, P P; Nader, A

    2013-02-01

    Knowledge and lessons from past accidental exposures in radiotherapy are very helpful in finding safety provisions to prevent recurrence. Disseminating lessons is necessary but not sufficient. There may be additional latent risks for other accidental exposures, which have not been reported or have not occurred, but are possible and may occur in the future if not identified, analyzed, and prevented by safety provisions. Proactive methods are available for anticipating and quantifying risk from potential event sequences. In this work, proactive methods, successfully used in industry, have been adapted and used in radiotherapy. Risk matrix is a tool that can be used in individual hospitals to classify event sequences in levels of risk. As with any anticipative method, the risk matrix involves a systematic search for potential risks; that is, any situation that can cause an accidental exposure. The method contributes new insights: The application of the risk matrix approach has identified that another group of less catastrophic but still severe single-patient events may have a higher probability, resulting in higher risk. The use of the risk matrix approach for safety assessment in individual hospitals would provide an opportunity for self-evaluation and managing the safety measures that are most suitable to the hospital's own conditions. PMID:23274816

  14. [Interest of FDG-PET for lung cancer radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Thureau, S; Mezzani-Saillard, S; Modzelewski, R; Edet-Sanson, A; Dubray, B; Vera, P

    2011-10-01

    The recent advances in medical imaging have profoundly altered the radiotherapy of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). A meta-analysis has confirmed the superiority of FDG PET-CT over CT for initial staging. FDG PET-CT improves the reproducibility of target volume delineation, especially close to the mediastinum or in the presence of atelectasia. Although not formally validated by a randomized trial, the reduction of the mediastinal target volume, by restricting the irradiation to FDG-avid nodes, is widely accepted. The optimal method of delineation still remains to be defined. The role of FDG PET-CT in monitoring tumor response during radiotherapy is under investigation, potentially opening the way to adapting the treatment modalities to tumor radiation sensitivity. Other tracers, such as F-miso (hypoxia), are also under clinical investigation. To avoid excessive delays, the integration of PET-CT in routine practice requires quick access to the imaging equipment, technical support (fusion and image processing) and multidisciplinary delineation of target volumes. PMID:21880535

  15. SORS: A New Software for the Simulation of Radiotherapy Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Tamborra, Pasquale; Simeone, Giovanni; Carioggia, Enza

    2010-10-01

    We present a software for choosing the best radiotherapy treatment schedule for head and neck cancers as a beginning radiotherapy plan or a temporarily interrupted plan. Its application occurs according to two modalities: the first adopts the best estimates for model parameters; the second takes into account the parameters' uncertainty too. In both cases, the choice becomes the schedule with the highest uncomplicated tumor control probability (UTCP). In the UTCP valuation, the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) of each organ is related to the gravity of its possible late injury. For NTCP calculation, it has been adopted the empirical LKB (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman) model corrected for dose/fraction via linear-quadratic model and the incomplete repair effect. The tumor control probability (TCP) model is Poisson based and contains corrections for dose/fraction and regrowth effect; optionally, it can be accounted for the incomplete repair effect as well. At the end of processing, a detailed file with all informations about UTCP, TCP and single organ NTCP is furnished for every examined schedule. Moreover, a useful 3-D graphic representation of the schedule's UTCP is available, allowing the physician to easily understand the schedules with the highest radiotherapeutic efficacy. The open source characteristic allows the program to adapt to the individual clinical case as well as to be a valid support in radiobiological research.

  16. Adaptive SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Freed, Melanie; Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Clarkson, Eric; Whitaker, Meredith K.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive imaging systems alter their data-acquisition configuration or protocol in response to the image information received. An adaptive pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system might acquire an initial scout image to obtain preliminary information about the radiotracer distribution and then adjust the configuration or sizes of the pinholes, the magnifications, or the projection angles in order to improve performance. This paper briefly describes two small-animal SPECT systems that allow this flexibility and then presents a framework for evaluating adaptive systems in general, and adaptive SPECT systems in particular. The evaluation is in terms of the performance of linear observers on detection or estimation tasks. Expressions are derived for the ideal linear (Hotelling) observer and the ideal linear (Wiener) estimator with adaptive imaging. Detailed expressions for the performance figures of merit are given, and possible adaptation rules are discussed. PMID:18541485

  17. Whole Pelvic Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy for Gynecological Malignancies: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hymel, Rockne; Jones, Guy C.; Simone, Charles B.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy has long played a major role in the treatment of gynecological malignancies. There is increasing interest in the utility of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and its application to treat gynecological malignancies. Herein, we review the state-of-the-art use of IMRT for gynecological malignancies and report how it is being used alone as well as in combination with chemotherapy in both the adjuvant and definitive settings. Based on dosimetric and clinical evidence, IMRT can reduce gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and hematological toxicities compared with 3D conformal radiotherapy for gynecologic malignancies. We discuss how these attributes of IMRT may lead to improvements in disease outcomes by allowing for dose escalation of radiation therapy, intensification of chemotherapy, and limiting toxicity-related treatment breaks. Currently accruing trials investigating pelvic IMRT for cervical and endometrial cancers are discussed. PMID:25600840

  18. Radiotherapy in the treatment of vertebral hemangiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Faria, S.L.; Schlupp, W.R.; Chiminazzo, H. Jr.

    1985-02-01

    Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas are not common. Although radiotherapy has been used as treatment, the data are sparse concerning total dose, fractionation and results. The authors report nine patients with vertebral hemangioma treated with 3000-4000 rad, 200 rad/day, 5 fractions per week, followed from 6 to 62 months. Seventy-seven percent had complete or almost complete disappearance of the symptoms. Radiotherapy schedules are discussed.

  19. Blisters - an unusual effect during radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Höller, U; Schubert, T; Budach, V; Trefzer, U; Beyer, M

    2013-11-01

    The skin reaction to radiation is regularly monitored in order to detect enhanced radiosensitivity of the patient, unexpected interactions (e.g. with drugs) or any inadvertent overdosage. It is important to distinguish secondary disease from radiation reaction to provide adequate treatment and to avoid unnecessary discontinuation of radiotherapy. A case of bullous eruption or blisters during radiotherapy of the breast is presented. Differential diagnoses bullous pemphigoid, pemphigus vulgaris, and bullous impetigo are discussed and treatment described. PMID:24158604

  20. Art and Delusion: Unreality in Art School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neher, Ross

    2010-01-01

    The author teaches painting in a Master of Fine Arts (MFA) program at Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, New York. Each fall semester he asks his students why they have come to Pratt and what they want to do when they graduate. The common answer is to develop as artists and find a commercial gallery to show and sell their work. Some want the MFA degree…

  1. Arts Teachers' Perceptions and Attitudes on Arts Integration While Participating in a Statewide Arts Integration Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Brittany Nixon; Robinson, Nicole R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions and attitudes of the Beverley Taylor Sorenson Arts Learning Program (BTSALP) arts specialists on arts integration. BTSALP arts specialists (N = 50) throughout the state of Utah responded to a 20-item survey. Results indicated that a majority of BTSALP arts specialists believe that arts…

  2. Adaptive Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, William

    1999-01-01

    Provides information on various adaptive technology resources available to people with disabilities. (Contains 19 references, an annotated list of 129 websites, and 12 additional print resources.) (JOW)

  3. Contour adaptation.

    PubMed

    Anstis, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    It is known that adaptation to a disk that flickers between black and white at 3-8 Hz on a gray surround renders invisible a congruent gray test disk viewed afterwards. This is contrast adaptation. We now report that adapting simply to the flickering circular outline of the disk can have the same effect. We call this "contour adaptation." This adaptation does not transfer interocularly, and apparently applies only to luminance, not color. One can adapt selectively to only some of the contours in a display, making only these contours temporarily invisible. For instance, a plaid comprises a vertical grating superimposed on a horizontal grating. If one first adapts to appropriate flickering vertical lines, the vertical components of the plaid disappears and it looks like a horizontal grating. Also, we simulated a Cornsweet (1970) edge, and we selectively adapted out the subjective and objective contours of a Kanisza (1976) subjective square. By temporarily removing edges, contour adaptation offers a new technique to study the role of visual edges, and it demonstrates how brightness information is concentrated in edges and propagates from them as it fills in surfaces.

  4. California: Art on the Road.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, David

    1982-01-01

    Describes a touring exhibit of posters which has been used to promote cultural events in California since 1976. Many art forms and disciplines were represented, including all the visual arts, photography, film, folk arts, music, theater, and dance. (AM)

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Arts syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Arts syndrome Arts syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Arts syndrome is a disorder that causes serious neurological ...

  6. Radiotherapy for Vestibular Schwannomas: A Critical Review

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Erin S.; Suh, John H.

    2011-03-15

    Vestibular schwannomas are slow-growing tumors of the myelin-forming cells that cover cranial nerve VIII. The treatment options for patients with vestibular schwannoma include active observation, surgical management, and radiotherapy. However, the optimal treatment choice remains controversial. We have reviewed the available data and summarized the radiotherapeutic options, including single-session stereotactic radiosurgery, fractionated conventional radiotherapy, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, and proton beam therapy. The comparisons of the various radiotherapy modalities have been based on single-institution experiences, which have shown excellent tumor control rates of 91-100%. Both stereotactic radiosurgery and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy have successfully improved cranial nerve V and VII preservation to >95%. The mixed data regarding the ideal hearing preservation therapy, inherent biases in patient selection, and differences in outcome analysis have made the comparison across radiotherapeutic modalities difficult. Early experience using proton therapy for vestibular schwannoma treatment demonstrated local control rates of 84-100% but disappointing hearing preservation rates of 33-42%. Efforts to improve radiotherapy delivery will focus on refined dosimetry with the goal of reducing the dose to the critical structures. As future randomized trials are unlikely, we suggest regimented pre- and post-treatment assessments, including validated evaluations of cranial nerves V, VII, and VIII, and quality of life assessments with long-term prospective follow-up. The results from such trials will enhance the understanding of therapy outcomes and improve our ability to inform patients.

  7. Interviewing Art Linkletter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Journal, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The article reports on the assignments and activities of Dean Griffin, one of four American Vocational Association associates directors; highlighted is a conversation of Griffin's with Art Linkletter, who addressed the Minnesota Vocational Association in October. (AJ)

  8. Sandpainting: A Healing Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Bethany

    2005-01-01

    As part of a unit on Native American art studies, students researched Navajo sand painting. They used Navajo image resources to develop designs for their sand paintings. The process and precautions for this lesson are described in this article.

  9. Anatomy and art.

    PubMed

    Laios, Konstantinos; Tsoukalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Androutsos, George

    2013-01-01

    Leonardo da Vinci, Jean Falcon, Andreas Vesalius, Henry Gray, Henry Vandyke Carter and Frank Netter created some of the best atlases of anatomy. Their works constitute not only scientific medical projects but also masterpieces of art. PMID:24640589

  10. Art and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Robin

    1975-01-01

    The art department at Fremont Junior High School in Mesa, Arizona, developed a project in which Indian, Mexican-American, and White-Anglo American students learned about their different cultural values and tradititions. (Author/RK)

  11. Views on Surrealist Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean, Marcel

    1975-01-01

    Author attempted to throw some light on events in which he had been a witness and sometimes an actor, and to bring out the main lines of the surrealist adventure in the domain of the visual arts. (Author/RK)

  12. Arts/Crafts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Described are various arts and crafts ideas, mostly with a February theme. Included are: ceramic boxes, valentine ideas, and patriotic projects--symbols of our country, silhouettes of George Washington and Abraham Lincoln, and stars and stripes. (KC)

  13. 3-D Art Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niswander, Virginia

    1983-01-01

    Perceptual motor dysfunctions may not allow children with learning and behavior problems to perform as most children do. A successful art activity for these children is construction using wood scraps. (SR)

  14. Vocational/Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design of notable school vocational/industrial arts facilities, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on architects, suppliers, and cost, as well as photographs. (EV)

  15. Building Arts Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soper, Stephanie

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the activities of the Education Department at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, including the local education outreach program and the Partners in Education program promoting school-community partnerships. (SR)

  16. Workshop: Teaching Primitive Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordison, Jerry

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the concrete and spiritual aspects of teaching workshops on survival skills or primitive arts. Gives details on lostproofing, or ways to teach a child not to get lost in the outdoors; building a survival shelter; and wilderness cooking. (CDS)

  17. Wth Basic Art Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a checklist of basic materials for two-dimensional activities that are necessary for an elementary-school art program. She also provides a few tips on how to use them.

  18. Development of heavy-ion radiotherapy technology with HIMAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Koji

    2016-09-01

    Since 1994, HIMAC has carried out clinical studies and treatments for more than 9000 cancer patients with carbon-ion beams. During the first decade of the HIMAC study, a single beam-wobbling method, adopted as the HIMAC beam-delivery technique, was improved for treatments of moving tumors and for obtaining more conformal dose distribution. During the second decade, a pencil-beam 3D scanning method has been developed toward an “adaptive cancer treatment” for treatments of both static and moving tumors. A new treatment research facility was constructed with HIMAC in order to verify the developed 3D scanning technology through a clinical study that has been successfully conducted since 2011. As the next stage, a compact heavy-ion rotating gantry with a superconducting technology has been developed for the more accurate and shorter-course treatments. The twenty-year development of the heavy-ion radiotherapy technologies including accelerator technologies with HIMAC is reviewed.

  19. Adaptable Learning Pathway Generation with Ant Colony Optimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Looi, Chee-Kit

    2009-01-01

    One of the new major directions in research on web-based educational systems is the notion of adaptability: the educational system adapts itself to the learning profile, preferences and ability of the student. In this paper, we look into the issues of providing adaptability with respect to learning pathways. We explore the state of the art with…

  20. Improving Adaptive Learning Technology through the Use of Response Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mettler, Everett; Massey, Christine M.; Kellman, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive learning techniques have typically scheduled practice using learners' accuracy and item presentation history. We describe an adaptive learning system (Adaptive Response Time Based Sequencing--ARTS) that uses both accuracy and response time (RT) as direct inputs into sequencing. Response times are used to assess learning strength and…

  1. A Web application for the management of clinical workflow in image-guided and adaptive proton therapy for prostate cancer treatments.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Daniel; Boes, Peter; Ho, Meng Wei; Li, Zuofeng

    2015-05-08

    Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), based on radiopaque markers placed in the prostate gland, was used for proton therapy of prostate patients. Orthogonal X-rays and the IBA Digital Image Positioning System (DIPS) were used for setup correction prior to treatment and were repeated after treatment delivery. Following a rationale for margin estimates similar to that of van Herk,(1) the daily post-treatment DIPS data were analyzed to determine if an adaptive radiotherapy plan was necessary. A Web application using ASP.NET MVC5, Entity Framework, and an SQL database was designed to automate this process. The designed features included state-of-the-art Web technologies, a domain model closely matching the workflow, a database-supporting concurrency and data mining, access to the DIPS database, secured user access and roles management, and graphing and analysis tools. The Model-View-Controller (MVC) paradigm allowed clean domain logic, unit testing, and extensibility. Client-side technologies, such as jQuery, jQuery Plug-ins, and Ajax, were adopted to achieve a rich user environment and fast response. Data models included patients, staff, treatment fields and records, correction vectors, DIPS images, and association logics. Data entry, analysis, workflow logics, and notifications were implemented. The system effectively modeled the clinical workflow and IGRT process.

  2. A Web application for the management of clinical workflow in image-guided and adaptive proton therapy for prostate cancer treatments.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Daniel; Boes, Peter; Ho, Meng Wei; Li, Zuofeng

    2015-01-01

    Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), based on radiopaque markers placed in the prostate gland, was used for proton therapy of prostate patients. Orthogonal X-rays and the IBA Digital Image Positioning System (DIPS) were used for setup correction prior to treatment and were repeated after treatment delivery. Following a rationale for margin estimates similar to that of van Herk,(1) the daily post-treatment DIPS data were analyzed to determine if an adaptive radiotherapy plan was necessary. A Web application using ASP.NET MVC5, Entity Framework, and an SQL database was designed to automate this process. The designed features included state-of-the-art Web technologies, a domain model closely matching the workflow, a database-supporting concurrency and data mining, access to the DIPS database, secured user access and roles management, and graphing and analysis tools. The Model-View-Controller (MVC) paradigm allowed clean domain logic, unit testing, and extensibility. Client-side technologies, such as jQuery, jQuery Plug-ins, and Ajax, were adopted to achieve a rich user environment and fast response. Data models included patients, staff, treatment fields and records, correction vectors, DIPS images, and association logics. Data entry, analysis, workflow logics, and notifications were implemented. The system effectively modeled the clinical workflow and IGRT process. PMID:26103504

  3. Dwarfism in art.

    PubMed

    Limon, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the history of mankind the birth of a child with congenital malformation raised anxiety and torment, along with attempts to explain its origins. It is possible to find relics of such events in prehistoric rock drawings and primitive sculptures, in numerous art pieces produced through the centuries up to modern sculptures, paintings and drawings. The aim of the present article is to show how dwarfs were portrayed in a variety of art forms at different moments in the history of our world.

  4. Pop-Art Panels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    James Rosenquist's giant Pop-art panels included realistic renderings of well-known contemporary foods and objects, juxtaposed with famous people in the news--largely from the 1960s, '70s and '80s--and really serve as visual time capsules. In this article, eighth-graders focus on the style of James Rosenquist to create their own Pop-art panel that…

  5. Memories of art.

    PubMed

    Hirstein, William

    2013-04-01

    Although the art-historical context of a work of art is important to our appreciation of it, it is our knowledge of that history that plays causal roles in producing the experience itself. This knowledge is in the form of memories, both semantic memories about the historical circumstances, but also episodic memories concerning our personal connections with an artwork. We also create representations of minds in order to understand the emotions that artworks express.

  6. Climate adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinzig, Ann P.

    2015-03-01

    This paper is intended as a brief introduction to climate adaptation in a conference devoted otherwise to the physics of sustainable energy. Whereas mitigation involves measures to reduce the probability of a potential event, such as climate change, adaptation refers to actions that lessen the impact of climate change. Mitigation and adaptation differ in other ways as well. Adaptation does not necessarily have to be implemented immediately to be effective; it only needs to be in place before the threat arrives. Also, adaptation does not necessarily require global, coordinated action; many effective adaptation actions can be local. Some urban communities, because of land-use change and the urban heat-island effect, currently face changes similar to some expected under climate change, such as changes in water availability, heat-related morbidity, or changes in disease patterns. Concern over those impacts might motivate the implementation of measures that would also help in climate adaptation, despite skepticism among some policy makers about anthropogenic global warming. Studies of ancient civilizations in the southwestern US lends some insight into factors that may or may not be important to successful adaptation.

  7. MO-G-BRF-06: Radiotherapy and Prompt Oxygen Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Kissick, M; Campos, D; Adamson, E; Niles, D; Torres, A; L, Che Fru; Kimple, R; Fain, S; Kogel, A van der; Jacques, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Adaptive radiotherapy requires a knowledge of the changing local tumor oxygen concentrations for times on the order of the treatment time, a time scale far shorter than cell death and proliferation. This knowledge will be needed to guide hypofractionated radiotherapy. Methods: A diffuse optical probe system was developed to spatially average over the whole interior of athymic Sprague Dawley nude mouse xenografts of human head and neck cancers. The blood volume and hemoglobin saturation was measured in real time. The quantities were measured with spectral fitting before and after 10 Gy of radiation is applied. An MRI BOLD scan is acquired before and after 10 Gy that measures regional changes in R2* which is inversely proportional to oxygen availability. Simulations were performed to fit the blood oxygen dynamics and infer changes in hypoxia within the tumor. Results: The optical probe measured nearly constant blood volume and a significant drop in hemoglobin saturation of about 30% after 10 Gy over the time scale of less than 30 minutes. The averaged R2* within the tumor volume increased by 15% after the 10 Gy dose, which is consistent with the optical results. The simulations and experiments support likely dynamic metabolic changes and/or fast vasoconstrictive signals are occurring that change the oxygen concentrations significantly, but not cell death or proliferation. Conclusion: Significant oxygen changes were observed to occur within 30 minutes, coinciding with the treatment time scale. This dynamic is very important for patient specific adaptive therapy. For hypofractionated therapy, the local instantaneous oxygen content is likely the most important variable to control. The invention of a bedside device for the purpose of measuring the instantaneous response to large radiation doses would be an important step to future improvements in outcome.

  8. State Arts Agency Fact Sheet: Support for Arts Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This national overview of state arts agency grants and services for arts education includes summary statistics and geographic distribution. The fact sheet uses data from Final Descriptive Reports of state arts agency grant-making activities submitted annually to the National Assembly of State Arts Agencies (NASAA) and the National Endowment for…

  9. [Art-chance and art-experience in classical Greece].

    PubMed

    Ban, Deokjin

    2011-06-30

    In Classical Greece, works defining the nature of art appeared in the various disciplines like medicine, rhetoric, dietetics, architecture and painting. Hippocratic authors tried to show that an art of medicine existed indeed. They contrasted the concept of art with that of chance, not experience that Plato and Aristotle distinguished from art. In fact there are similarities and discrepancies between Hippocratic epistemology and Platoic epistemology. Hippocratic authors maintained that the products of chance were not captured by art. They distinguished the domain of art charactered by explanatory knowledge and prediction from the domain of chance ruled by the unexplained and the unforeseeable. They minimized the role of luck and believed the role of art. Hippocratic authors thought that professional ability contained both knowledge and experience. In Hippocratic corpus, experience is a synonym of competence and usually has a positive meaning. But Plato gave empirical knowledge the disdainful sense and decided a ranking between two types of knowledge. Both Hippocratic authors and Plato held that a genuine art had connection with explanatory knowledge of the nature of its subject matter. A common theme that goes through arguments about art-chance and art-chance is the connection between art and nature. Hippocratic authors and Plato regarded art as a highly systematic process. Art provides us with general and explanatory knowledge of human nature. Art and nature is a mutual relationship. The systematic understanding of nature helps us gain the exactness of art and an exact art helps us understand nature well.

  10. The Sociology of Art and Art Education: A Relationship Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaChapelle, Joseph R.

    1984-01-01

    Recent methodological and conceptual changes in sociology of art research are valuable because they provide descriptive material and counter prevalent sociological assumptions. Researchers now see the need for a sociological component in the study of aesthetics and art. An effective sociology of art is of vital concern to art education. (RM)

  11. ArtsBridge America: Bringing the Arts Back to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouillette, Liane R.; Burns, Maureen A.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the origin of ArtsBridge America, a K-12 school/university arts education partnership. It also summarizes findings from a research study on the effect that ArtsBridge participation had on a sample of university arts students. The study indicated that the transition from student to teaching artist required transformation of…

  12. Arts Smarts: First-Rate Arts Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Vivien; Granger, Lenny

    1988-01-01

    The Alliance for Arts Education, formed by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Education and the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts (Washington, D.C.), aims to advance arts education for all U.S. students through networking activities. This article highlights center activities, suggests fine arts leadership strategies, and…

  13. Radiotherapy Treatment Planning for Testicular Seminoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, Richard B.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Beard, Clair J.

    2012-07-15

    Virtually all patients with Stage I testicular seminoma are cured regardless of postorchiectomy management. For patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy, late toxicity is a major concern. However, toxicity may be limited by radiotherapy techniques that minimize radiation exposure of healthy normal tissues. This article is an evidence-based review that provides radiotherapy treatment planning recommendations for testicular seminoma. The minority of Stage I patients who choose adjuvant treatment over surveillance may be considered for (1) para-aortic irradiation to 20 Gy in 10 fractions, or (2) carboplatin chemotherapy consisting of area under the curve, AUC = 7 Multiplication-Sign 1-2 cycles. Two-dimensional radiotherapy based on bony anatomy is a simple and effective treatment for Stage IIA or IIB testicular seminoma. Centers with expertise in vascular and nodal anatomy may consider use of anteroposterior-posteroanterior fields based on three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy instead. For modified dog-leg fields delivering 20 Gy in 10 fractions, clinical studies support placement of the inferior border at the top of the acetabulum. Clinical and nodal mapping studies support placement of the superior border of all radiotherapy fields at the top of the T12 vertebral body. For Stage IIA and IIB patients, an anteroposterior-posteroanterior boost is then delivered to the adenopathy with a 2-cm margin to the block edge. The boost dose consists of 10 Gy in 5 fractions for Stage IIA and 16 Gy in 8 fractions for Stage IIB. Alternatively, bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin chemotherapy for 3 cycles or etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy for 4 cycles may be delivered to Stage IIA or IIB patients (e.g., if they have a horseshoe kidney, inflammatory bowel disease, or a history of radiotherapy).

  14. HERO (Health Economics in Radiation Oncology): a pan-European project on radiotherapy resources and needs.

    PubMed

    Lievens, Y; Dunscombe, P; Defourny, N; Gasparotto, C; Borras, J M; Grau, C

    2015-02-01

    Radiotherapy continues to evolve at a rapid rate in technology and techniques, with both driving up costs in an era in which health care budgets are of increasing concern at every governmental level. Against this background, it is clear that the radiotherapy community needs to quantify the costs of state of the art practice and then to justify those costs through rigorous cost-effectiveness analyses. The European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology-Health Economics in Radiation Oncology project is directed towards tackling this issue in the European context. The first step has been to provide a validated picture of the European radiotherapy landscape in terms of the availability of equipment, personnel and guidelines. An 84-item questionnaire was distributed to the 40 countries of the European Cancer Observatory, of which 34 provided partial or complete responses. There was a huge variation in the availability and sophistication of treatment equipment and staffing levels across Europe. The median number of MV units per million inhabitants was 5.3, but there was a seven-fold variation across the European countries. Likewise, although average staffing figures per million inhabitants were 12.8 for radiation oncologists, 7.6 for physicists, 3.5 for dosimetrists, 26.6 for radiation therapists and 14.8 for nurses, there was a 20-fold variation, even after grouping personnel with comparable duties in the radiotherapy process. Guidelines for capital and human resources were declared for most countries, but without explicitly providing metrics for developing capital and human resource inventories in many cases. Although courses delivered annually per resource item – be it equipment or staff – increase with decreasing gross national income (GNI) per capita, differences were observed in equipment and staff availability in countries with a higher GNI/n, indicating that health policy has a significant effect on the provision of services. Although more needs to be done to

  15. HERO (Health Economics in Radiation Oncology): a pan-European project on radiotherapy resources and needs.

    PubMed

    Lievens, Y; Dunscombe, P; Defourny, N; Gasparotto, C; Borras, J M; Grau, C

    2015-02-01

    Radiotherapy continues to evolve at a rapid rate in technology and techniques, with both driving up costs in an era in which health care budgets are of increasing concern at every governmental level. Against this background, it is clear that the radiotherapy community needs to quantify the costs of state of the art practice and then to justify those costs through rigorous cost-effectiveness analyses. The European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology-Health Economics in Radiation Oncology project is directed towards tackling this issue in the European context. The first step has been to provide a validated picture of the European radiotherapy landscape in terms of the availability of equipment, personnel and guidelines. An 84-item questionnaire was distributed to the 40 countries of the European Cancer Observatory, of which 34 provided partial or complete responses. There was a huge variation in the availability and sophistication of treatment equipment and staffing levels across Europe. The median number of MV units per million inhabitants was 5.3, but there was a seven-fold variation across the European countries. Likewise, although average staffing figures per million inhabitants were 12.8 for radiation oncologists, 7.6 for physicists, 3.5 for dosimetrists, 26.6 for radiation therapists and 14.8 for nurses, there was a 20-fold variation, even after grouping personnel with comparable duties in the radiotherapy process. Guidelines for capital and human resources were declared for most countries, but without explicitly providing metrics for developing capital and human resource inventories in many cases. Although courses delivered annually per resource item – be it equipment or staff – increase with decreasing gross national income (GNI) per capita, differences were observed in equipment and staff availability in countries with a higher GNI/n, indicating that health policy has a significant effect on the provision of services. Although more needs to be done to

  16. The Artful Universe Expanded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, John D.

    2005-07-01

    Our love of art, writes John Barrow, is the end product of millions of years of evolution. How we react to a beautiful painting or symphony draws upon instincts laid down long before humans existed. Now, in this enhanced edition of the highly popular The Artful Universe , Barrow further explores the close ties between our aesthetic appreciation and the basic nature of the Universe. Barrow argues that the laws of the Universe have imprinted themselves upon our thoughts and actions in subtle and unexpected ways. Why do we like certain types of art or music? What games and puzzles do we find challenging? Why do so many myths and legends have common elements? In this eclectic and entertaining survey, Barrow answers these questions and more as he explains how the landscape of the Universe has influenced the development of philosophy and mythology, and how millions of years of evolutionary history have fashioned our attraction to certain patterns of sound and color. Barrow casts the story of human creativity and thought in a fascinating light, considering such diverse topics as our instinct for language, the origins and uses of color in nature, why we divide time into intervals as we do, the sources of our appreciation of landscape painting, and whether computer-generated fractal art is really art. Drawing on a wide variety of examples, from the theological questions raised by St. Augustine and C.S. Lewis to the relationship between the pure math of Pythagoras and the music of the Beatles, The Artful Universe Expanded covers new ground and enters a wide-ranging debate about the meaning and significance of the links between art and science.

  17. Standards for Art Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Art Education Association, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The National Art Education Association (NAEA) is committed to ensuring student access to a highly qualified, certified visual arts educator in every K-12 public school across the United States, recognizing that effective arts instruction is a core component to a 21st-century education. "Standards for Art Teacher Preparation" represents the…

  18. The Value of the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubbs, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    The value of the arts is often measured in terms of human creativity against instrumental rationality, while art for art's sake defends against a utility of art. Such critiques of the technical and formulaic are themselves formulaic, repeating the dualism of the head and the heart. How should we account for this formula? We should do so by…

  19. Communication Access to the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchan, Judith; Jennings, Marian; Barrett, Ray; Butler, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Art galleries, theaters, and museums are often communicatively inaccessible to people with aphasia. This article describes how a group of people with aphasia and a group of health and arts service providers worked together to develop an arts access initiative that involved people with aphasia in accessing museums and arts courses in the community…

  20. Contemporary Art and Multicultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Susan; Kocur, Zoya

    1994-01-01

    Argues that much of what is used currently to teach about multiculturalism in art consists of art made "long ago" or "far away." Presents four contemporary art works incorporating elements of mass media, popular culture, and diverse artistic traditions. Includes four full-page color photographs of the art works. (CFR)

  1. [Social Ramifications of Art Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muth, Helen, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The "Bulletin of the Caucus on Social Theory and Art Education" is an annual publication, with each issue devoted to a unified theme. The theme of this issue is the social ramifications of the teaching of art. This issue focuses on art teachers to gain a perspective on the art education process as a socially relevant experience. The volume…

  2. On Culture, Art, and Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chernoff, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    While the arts in the United States are themselves often controversial, arts in public schools rarely are. That is to say that teachers, administrators, parents, students, and community members tend to agree that the opportunity to participate in the arts is beneficial to students and to the wider society. Whether discipline-based arts education…

  3. Qualitative Assessment of Arts Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stake, Robert; Munson, April

    2008-01-01

    Exploring the complicated issues of assessment in the arts, the authors discuss assessment of arts education and arts programs from a qualitative perspective: experiential, naturalistic, and ethnographic interpretation. With special attention to the practices of teaching, learning, and administration of education in the arts, quality is sought…

  4. Putting Pow into Art Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Jay; Packer, Todd

    2004-01-01

    How would you like to put some "Pow!" into your art instruction? A lesson in comic books--history, design, story, and production--can make your classes come alive. The authors present a new approach to using comics to build artistic skills and involve students in art appreciation. Why Comics? Many art teachers have students who say, "I hate art!"…

  5. Making Art for Professional Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadeson, Harriet

    2003-01-01

    Although art therapists readily recognize the value of artmaking for their clients and for themselves, do they utilize its potentialities for professional self-processing? In the hope of encouraging art therapists to use this valuable resource, this paper presents examples of art expressions for professional processing by many art therapists…

  6. 2008 Arts Education Assessment Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment Governing Board, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) for the arts measures students' knowledge and skills in creating, performing, and responding to works of music, theatre, and visual arts. This framework document asserts that dance, music, theatre and the visual arts are important parts of a full education. When students engage in the arts,…

  7. A FLARE for the Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aschbacher, Pamela

    1996-01-01

    Although arts programs have been cut from many school budgets, an innovative program in Pasadena, California, is keeping art and artists in classrooms. Project FLARE (Fun with Language, Arts, and Reading) pairs classroom teachers with local artists, who together develop an integrated language and visual arts curriculum. Students also take field…

  8. Reaching the Retarded Through Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Bernice B.; Shultz, Joyce B.

    Included in the manual on art are suggestions concerning growth through a good classroom climate, orderly arrangements, displays, and a good visual experience; a view of development through art, concept differentiation, motor and sensory skills, self fulfillment and thought processes, and art as therapy; and the art program itself. The program…

  9. Abstraction and art.

    PubMed Central

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music. PMID:12903659

  10. [Needs and financing of radiotherapy in France and Europe].

    PubMed

    Defourny, N; Lievens, Y

    2016-10-01

    Access to high-quality and safe radiotherapy is a prerequisite to assure optimal oncology care in a multidisciplinary environment. In view of supporting long-term radiotherapy planning, actual and predicted radiotherapy needs should be put in context of the nowadays' available resources. The present article reviews the existing data on radiotherapy resources and needs, along with the prevailing reimbursement systems in the different European countries, with a specific emphasis on France. It describes potential incentives of different financing systems on clinical practice and highlights how knowledge of the cost of radiotherapy treatments, by indication and technique, is essential to support correct reimbursement, hence access to radiotherapy. It is expected that such data will help national professional and scientific radiotherapy societies across Europe in their negotiations with policy makers, with the ultimate aim to make radiotherapy accessible to all cancer patients who need it, now and in the decades to come.

  11. [Needs and financing of radiotherapy in France and Europe].

    PubMed

    Defourny, N; Lievens, Y

    2016-10-01

    Access to high-quality and safe radiotherapy is a prerequisite to assure optimal oncology care in a multidisciplinary environment. In view of supporting long-term radiotherapy planning, actual and predicted radiotherapy needs should be put in context of the nowadays' available resources. The present article reviews the existing data on radiotherapy resources and needs, along with the prevailing reimbursement systems in the different European countries, with a specific emphasis on France. It describes potential incentives of different financing systems on clinical practice and highlights how knowledge of the cost of radiotherapy treatments, by indication and technique, is essential to support correct reimbursement, hence access to radiotherapy. It is expected that such data will help national professional and scientific radiotherapy societies across Europe in their negotiations with policy makers, with the ultimate aim to make radiotherapy accessible to all cancer patients who need it, now and in the decades to come. PMID:27599682

  12. A systematic review of antiproton radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, Martin-Immanuel; Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Wiedenmann, Nicole; Wilkens, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Antiprotons have been proposed as possible particles for radiotherapy; over the past years, the renewed interest in the potential biomedical relevance led to an increased research activity. It is the aim of this review to deliver a comprehensive overview regarding the evidence accumulated so far, analysing the background and depicting the current status of antiprotons in radiotherapy. A literature search has been conducted, including major scientific and commercial databases. All articles and a number of relevant conference abstracts published in the respective field have been included in this systematic review. The physical basis of antiproton radiotherapy is complex; however, the characterisation of the energy deposition profile supports its potential use in radiotherapy. Also the dosimetry improved considerably over the past few years. Regarding the biological properties, data on the effects on cells are presented; however, definite conclusions regarding the relative biological effectiveness cannot be made at the moment and radiobiological evidence of enhanced effectiveness remains scarce. In addition, there is new evidence supporting the potential imaging properties, for example for online dose verification. Clinical settings which might profit from the use of antiprotons have been further tracked. Judging from the evidence available so far, clinical constellations requiring optimal sparing in the entrance region of the beam and re-irradiations might profit most from antiproton radiotherapy. While several open questions remain to be answered, first steps towards a thorough characterisation of this interesting modality have been made.

  13. A systematic review of antiproton radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, Martin-Immanuel; Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Wiedenmann, Nicole; Wilkens, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Antiprotons have been proposed as possible particles for radiotherapy; over the past years, the renewed interest in the potential biomedical relevance led to an increased research activity. It is the aim of this review to deliver a comprehensive overview regarding the evidence accumulated so far, analysing the background and depicting the current status of antiprotons in radiotherapy. A literature search has been conducted, including major scientific and commercial databases. All articles and a number of relevant conference abstracts published in the respective field have been included in this systematic review. The physical basis of antiproton radiotherapy is complex; however, the characterisation of the energy deposition profile supports its potential use in radiotherapy. Also the dosimetry improved considerably over the past few years. Regarding the biological properties, data on the effects on cells are presented; however, definite conclusions regarding the relative biological effectiveness cannot be made at the moment and radiobiological evidence of enhanced effectiveness remains scarce. In addition, there is new evidence supporting the potential imaging properties, for example for online dose verification. Clinical settings which might profit from the use of antiprotons have been further tracked. Judging from the evidence available so far, clinical constellations requiring optimal sparing in the entrance region of the beam and re-irradiations might profit most from antiproton radiotherapy. While several open questions remain to be answered, first steps towards a thorough characterisation of this interesting modality have been made.

  14. Nutritional intervention improves the caloric and proteic ingestion of head and neck cancer patients under radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves Dias, M C; de Fátima Nunes Marucci, M; Nadalin, W; Waitzberg, D L

    2005-01-01

    Malnutrition is commonly associated with head and neck cancer, due especially to anorexia, which is aggravated by radiotherapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate modifications to nutritional ingestion following three types of nutritional intervention. Sixty-four male out-patients (62.1 +/- 1.5 years) were divided into three groups: oral group, (n=32) that received an adapted oral diet; feeding tube group, (n=16) under home enteral nutrition via a nasoenteral feeding tube (6x/day); and supplement group, (n=16) with oral diet associated to oral alimentary supplement between meals (3x/day). The groups were homogeneous and counseled to maintain a caloric ingestion of 40 kcal/kg. The diet for the oral group was adapted to the age and to the side effects of radiotherapyThe nutritional state of the three groups was evaluated for the caloric-proteic ingestion, anthropometric indicators (body weight, body mass index, triceps skinfold thickness, midarm muscle area), laboratorial indicators (total proteins, albumin, hematocrit, hemoglobin and total lymphocytes count), The results showed that all of the groups presented an increase in the ingestion of calories and proteins (p < 0.001). The nutritional therapy support for patients with head and neck cancer under radiotherapy, whether exclusive oral diet, enteral through a feeding tube, or with alimentary supplement associated to an oral diet achieved a significant increase in the total caloric ingestion. It is recommended that programs be implemented-to improve the ingestion of foods among these patients.

  15. Toothbrush Adaptations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Suggestions are presented for helping disabled individuals learn to use or adapt toothbrushes for proper dental care. A directory lists dental health instructional materials available from various organizations. (CB)

  16. [Image-guided radiotherapy and partial delegation to radiotherapy technicians: Clermont-Ferrand experience].

    PubMed

    Loos, G; Moreau, J; Miroir, J; Benhaïm, C; Biau, J; Caillé, C; Bellière, A; Lapeyre, M

    2013-10-01

    The various image-guided radiotherapy techniques raise the question of how to achieve the control of patient positioning before irradiation session and sharing of tasks between radiation oncologists and radiotherapy technicians. We have put in place procedures and operating methods to make a partial delegation of tasks to radiotherapy technicians and secure the process in three situations: control by orthogonal kV imaging (kV-kV) of bony landmarks, control by kV-kV imaging of intraprostatic fiducial goldmarkers and control by cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging for prostate cancer. Significant medical overtime is required to control these three IGRT techniques. Because of their competence in imaging, these daily controls can be delegated to radiotherapy technicians. However, to secure the process, initial training and regular evaluation are essential. The analysis of the comparison of the use of kV/kV on bone structures allowed us to achieve a partial delegation of control to radiotherapy technicians. Controlling the positioning of the prostate through the use and automatic registration of fiducial goldmarkers allows better tracking of the prostate and can be easily delegated to radiotherapy technicians. The analysis of the use of daily cone beam CT for patients treated with intensity modulated irradiation is underway, and a comparison of practices between radiotherapy technicians and radiation oncologists is ongoing to know if a partial delegation of this control is possible. PMID:24011600

  17. A dose comparison of proton radiotherapy and photon radiotherapy for pediatric brain tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. Y.; Cho, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of photon radiotherapy and to compare the dose of treatment planning between proton radiotherapy and 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for pediatric brain tumor patients. This study was conducted in five pediatric brain tumor patients who underwent craniospinal irradiation treatment from October 2013 to April 2014 in the hospital. The study compared organs at risk (OARs) by assessing the dose distribution of normal tissue from the proton plan and 3D-CRT. Furthermore, this study assessed the treatment plans by looking at the homogeneity index (HI) and conformity index (CI). As a result, the study revealed OARs due to the small volume proton radiotherapy dose distribution in the normal tissue. Also, by comparing HI and CI between the 3D-CRT and proton radiotherapy plan, the study found that the dose of proton radiotherapy plan was homogenized. When conducting 3D-CRT and proton radiotherapy in a dose-volume histogram comparison, the dose of distribution turned out to be low. Consequently, proton radiotherapy is used for protecting the normal tissue, and is used in tumor tissue as a homogenized dose for effective treatment.

  18. Trash to art

    SciTech Connect

    Heumann, J.M.

    1998-02-01

    The Materials for the Arts (MFA) center in New York City is nothing like your typical materials recovery facility. The center does not process recyclable materials collected through a municipal or commercial recycling program. Rather, it reaches up higher on the solid waste management hierarchy, by enabling reuse, rather than reprocessing, of discarded materials. MFA collects all sorts of discarded, but still usable, materials--ranging from furniture, computers, fabric, and paint, to paper, radios, boxes, lighting fixtures, construction and demolition debris, and more--from major corporations, small businesses, and individuals throughout the city. These materials then find a second home as resources for the city`s art and cultural community. MFA serves as a materials broker between businesses and individuals trying to get rid of unwanted materials and the city`s nonprofit art and cultural institutions.

  19. Mathematical Model for Evaluating Incidence of Acute Rectal Toxicity During Conventional or Hypofractionated Radiotherapy Courses for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Strigari, Lidia Arcangeli, Giorgio; Arcangeli, Stefano; Benassi, Marcello

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To describe the radiation-induced acute rectal toxicity (ART) using a modified Lyman-Kutcher-Burman normal tissue complication probability model and parameters set, taking into account the overall treatment time. Methods and Materials: A total of 160 patients underwent three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy to the prostate and seminal vesicles and were randomized to receive 80 Gy in 40 fractions within 8 weeks (Group A) or 62 Gy in 20 fractions within 5 weeks, 4 d/wk (Group B). An additional 52 patients (Group C) underwent intensity-modulated radiotherapy with a hypofractionation schedule consisting of 56 Gy, delivered in 16 fractions (4/wk) of 3.5 Gy. Patients were followed for ART weekly during treatment. The overall treatment time, rectal dose-volume histograms, and ART status, defined as Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 2 or greater gastrointestinal toxicity, were used to determine the modified Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model parameters. The m and n values were obtained from the cohort, and the tolerance doses for 50% complication probability for uniform irradiation [TD{sub 50}(1){sub k}] were obtained for each fractionation schedule indicated with k. Results: Of 212 patients treated with localized prostate radiotherapy, 65 developed Grade for {>=}1 week during treatment. The m and n value was 0.17 and 0.08, respectively. The TD{sub 50}(1){sub k} parameter was 79, 62.5, and 53 Gy, respectively for Group A, B, and C. Conclusion: The optimized modified Lyman-Kutcher-Burman normal tissue complication probability model allowed us to describe the ART data from conventional and hypofractionated regimens, using the dose-volume histograms and overall treatment time. This model could prove useful in designing hypofractionation schedules to reduce the incidence of ART.

  20. Science Is Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Michael Burke is an artist who's work combines scientific principles with aesthetic goals. He will describe how he became an artist after careers in astronomy and city planning, and discuss the supposed separation of science and art. The talk will be illustrated with photographs of his work, including an installation in an Etruscan tomb and one at the port city of Savona in Italy. Mr. Burke sees a romance in science equivalent to that of art, and will argue that the two should not be so resolutely separated.

  1. Time delays in gated radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Wendy L; Becker, Nathan

    2009-07-28

    In gated radiotherapy, the accuracy of treatment delivery is determined by the accuracy with which both the imaging and treatment beams are gated. If the time delays (the time between the target entering/leaving the gated region and the first/last image acquired or treatment beam on/off) for the imaging and treatment systems are in the opposite directions, they may increase the required internal target volume (ITV) margin, above that indicated by the tolerance for either system measured individually. We measured a gating system's time delay on 3 fluoroscopy systems, and 3 linear accelerator treatment beams, using a motion phantom of known geometry, varying gating type (amplitude vs. phase), beam energy, dose rate, and period. The average beam on imaging time delays were -0.04 +/- 0.05 s (amplitude, 1 SD), -0.11 +/- 0.04 s (phase); while the average beam off imaging time delays were -0.18 +/- 0.08 s (amplitude) and -0.15 +/- 0.04 s (phase). The average beam on treatment time delays were 0.09 +/- 0.02 s (amplitude, 1 SD), 0.10 +/- 0.03 s (phase); while the average beam off time delays for treatment beams were 0.08 +/- 0.02 s (amplitude) and 0.07 +/- 0.02 s (phase). The negative value indicates the images were acquired early, and the positive values show the treatment beam was triggered late. We present a technique for calculating the margin necessary to account for time delays and found that the difference between the imaging and treatment time delays required a significant increase in the ITV margin in the direction of tumor motion at the gated level.

  2. Operations experience at the Bevalac radiotherapy facility

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, J.R.; Criswell, T.L.; Howard, J.; Chu, W.T.; Singh, R.P.; Geller, D.; Nyman, M.

    1981-03-01

    During the first years of Bevalac operation the biomedical effort concentrated on radiobiology work, laying the foundation for patient radiotherapy. A dedicated radiotherapy area was created in 1978, and in 1979 full-scale patient treatment was begun. As of now over 500 treatments with carbon, neon and argon beams have been delivered to about 50 patients, some as boosts from other modalities and some as complete heavy ion treatments. Up to 12 patients per day have been treated in this facility. Continuing efforts in refining techniques and operating procedures are increasing efficiency and accuracy of treatments, and are contributing to the alleviation of scheduling difficulties caused by the unique requirements of radiotherapy with human patients.

  3. Scale adaptive compressive tracking.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pengpeng; Cui, Shaohui; Gao, Min; Fang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the compressive tracking (CT) method (Zhang et al. in Proceedings of European conference on computer vision, pp 864-877, 2012) has attracted much attention due to its high efficiency, but it cannot well deal with the scale changing objects due to its constant tracking box. To address this issue, in this paper we propose a scale adaptive CT approach, which adaptively adjusts the scale of tracking box with the size variation of the objects. Our method significantly improves CT in three aspects: Firstly, the scale of tracking box is adaptively adjusted according to the size of the objects. Secondly, in the CT method, all the compressive features are supposed independent and equal contribution to the classifier. Actually, different compressive features have different confidence coefficients. In our proposed method, the confidence coefficients of features are computed and used to achieve different contribution to the classifier. Finally, in the CT method, the learning parameter λ is constant, which will result in large tracking drift on the occasion of object occlusion or large scale appearance variation. In our proposed method, a variable learning parameter λ is adopted, which can be adjusted according to the object appearance variation rate. Extensive experiments on the CVPR2013 tracking benchmark demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method compared to state-of-the-art tracking algorithms. PMID:27386298

  4. Radiotherapy enhances the toxicity of aminoglutethimide

    SciTech Connect

    Vanek, N.; Hortobagyi, G.N.; Buzdar, A.U. )

    1990-01-01

    We report a case of radiotherapy-enhanced aminoglutethimide skin toxicity in a patient with metastatic breast cancer. This patient was started on aminoglutethimide 6 days prior to radiation therapy, for painful bone metastasis. On day 7 of radiation therapy, she developed an extensive erythematous maculopapular rash over her face, trunk, and extremities. The rash was confluent over the radiation ports, both anteriorly and posteriorly. Aminoglutethimide was discontinued until completion of radiotherapy, and the rash resolved. Concomitant irradiation apparently enhanced the skin toxicity of aminoglutethimide or possibly aminoglutethimide had a radiosensitizing role in this patient.

  5. Pelvic radiotherapy and sexual function in women

    PubMed Central

    Froeding, Ligita Paskeviciute

    2015-01-01

    Background During the past decade there has been considerable progress in developing new radiation methods for cancer treatment. Pelvic radiotherapy constitutes the primary or (neo) adjuvant treatment of many pelvic cancers e.g., locally advanced cervical and rectal cancer. There is an increasing focus on late effects and an increasing awareness that patient reported outcomes (PROs) i.e., patient assessment of physical, social, psychological, and sexual functioning provides the most valid information on the effects of cancer treatment. Following cure of cancer allow survivors focus on quality of life (QOL) issues; sexual functioning has proved to be one of the most important aspects of concern in long-term survivors. Methods An updated literature search in PubMed was performed on pelvic radiotherapy and female sexual functioning/dysfunction. Studies on gynaecological, urological and gastrointestinal cancers were included. The focus was on the period from 2010 to 2014, on studies using PROs, on potential randomized controlled trials (RCTs) where female sexual dysfunction (FSD) at least constituted a secondary outcome, and on studies reporting from modern radiotherapy modalities. Results The literature search revealed a few RCTs with FSD evaluated as a PRO and being a secondary outcome measure in endometrial and in rectal cancer patients. Very limited information could be extracted regarding FSD in bladder, vulva, and anal cancer patients. The literature before and after 2010 confirms that pelvic radiotherapy, independent on modality, increases the risk significantly for FSD both compared to data from age-matched healthy control women and compared to data on patients treated by surgery only. There was only very limited data available on modern radiotherapy modalities. These are awaited during the next five years. Several newer studies confirm that health care professionals are still reluctant to discuss treatment induced sexual dysfunction with patients. Conclusions

  6. Art Portraying Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koski, Kaisu

    2011-01-01

    A number of art projects are currently tackling the medical domain. This activity stems from a perceived need to increase the transparency and democracy of the medical domain, and it often questions the power relations and the one-dimensionality in current medical practices. This article sheds light on how artists process medical themes,…

  7. The art of psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    BLOCH, SIDNEY

    2005-01-01

    Psychiatrists would undoubtedly support the notion of promoting such qualities as empathy, sensitivity and caring in the pursuit of good clinical practice. However, cultivating what we may call the "art of psychiatry" is not straightforward, since the qualities that constitute it are elusive. I propose that the means by which we can accomplish the goal of relating empathically and compassionately to our patients and their families is by regarding the humanities and the sciences as of equal relevance and as complementary. The humanities, particularly literature, the visual arts, film and music, are most suited to promoting empathic skills when they are woven into the clinical scenario. Examples are provided to demonstrate how this may be achieved. Were we to succeed in highlighting the art of psychiatry in our educational programs, and as part of continuing professional development, I surmise that our patients and their families would be the beneficiaries. We cannot merely vow to act empathically and sensitively. Instead, we should embark on a lifelong journey through the wonderful world of literature, the visual arts, film and music. The experience will not only prove appealing and engaging, but it will also go far to enrich our personal and professional lives. PMID:16633530

  8. The Art of Fresco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaulay, Sara Grove

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a fresco assignment taught during a workshop for an art history class where students created their own fresco paintings. Provides background information on the fresco technique and the materials that are used. Describes the process of creating the frescos and lists the needed materials. (CMK)

  9. Understanding the Storyteller's Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, William; Moir, Hughes

    A sensitivity to both a story's content and art form can bring children to the understandings and feelings that are basic to the humane encounter that is education. Two approaches seem to dominate the use of stories in schools today. The first is the placement of literary selections in basal readers. However, the ways in which teachers are…

  10. Art in the Garden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucciarelli, Teri

    2004-01-01

    Meadow Woods Elementary in Orlando, Florida has a garden ceremony at the end of each year. This is a time when the whole school gathers together to celebrate another successful school year. The classrooms are built around the garden, so it is the centerpiece of the school. Students always do an art project for this ceremony. One year, students…

  11. Art in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelleher, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Students are often required to create work in a vacuum, handing in papers to an inauthentic audience for the purpose of receiving a grade. As a result, students often neglect to consider the effects that their work can have on others. In this article, the author highlights an art project from her middle school in Kings Park, New York, that…

  12. Chimera: Experiencing Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Rebecca K.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the production of a dramatic musical, Chimera: A Journey to Redoubtia, at Chapman Elementary School in Anchor Point, Alaska. Student participation in the project, and students' rewards from participation, are detailed. Benefits of the integration of dramatics into the language arts curriculum are listed. (BB)

  13. Art and Recollection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Noel

    2005-01-01

    Modern aesthetic theory maintains that a work is an artwork if it is intended to afford aesthetic experiences that are valuable for their own sake. The author claims that such a definition eliminates from art most of the poetry, novels, films, and music that have been produced in the world. The author examines several responses to his claim from…

  14. Science through ARts (STAR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Densmore, Marycay; Kolecki, Joseph C.; Miller, Allan; Petersen, Ruth; Terrell, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Science Through ARts (STAR) is a free, international, cross-curricular program thematically aligned with "The Vision for Space Exploration," a framework of goals and objectives published by NASA in February 2004. Through the STAR program, students in grades 5 through 12 are encouraged to apply their knowledge in creative ways as they approach a…

  15. [Personal motif in art].

    PubMed

    Gerevich, József

    2015-01-01

    One of the basic questions of the art psychology is whether a personal motif is to be found behind works of art and if so, how openly or indirectly it appears in the work itself. Analysis of examples and documents from the fine arts and literature allow us to conclude that the personal motif that can be identified by the viewer through symbols, at times easily at others with more difficulty, gives an emotional plus to the artistic product. The personal motif may be found in traumatic experiences, in communication to the model or with other emotionally important persons (mourning, disappointment, revenge, hatred, rivalry, revolt etc.), in self-searching, or self-analysis. The emotions are expressed in artistic activity either directly or indirectly. The intention nourished by the artist's identity (Kunstwollen) may stand in the way of spontaneous self-expression, channelling it into hidden paths. Under the influence of certain circumstances, the artist may arouse in the viewer, consciously or unconsciously, an illusionary, misleading image of himself. An examination of the personal motif is one of the important research areas of art therapy.

  16. Art Appreciation and Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Diane R.; Milam, Debora

    1985-01-01

    Presents examples of independent study units for gifted high school students in a resource room setting. Both art appreciation and technique are covered in activities concerned with media (basics of pencil, India ink, pastels, crayons, oil, acrylics, and watercolors), subject matter (landscapes, animals, the human figure), design and illustration…

  17. Compu-Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Gerald D.

    1985-01-01

    To many students the complex technical problems of computer graphics seem to put them beyond reach. Computer technology can be reduced to the bare basics, however. In this activity elementary art students add an intriguing dimension to a crayon drawing by completing a computer image counterpart of a previously drawn image. (RM)

  18. Connect with the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "What if?" might be the most powerful question in education. NAESP and Crayola challenge schools with that question every year in their Champion Creatively Alive Children grant competition. Schools are encouraged to ask questions such as: What if arts-infused learning thrived every day in schools? What if schools relied more on project-based…

  19. Exploring Global Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needler, Toby; Goodman, Bonnie

    The eight units in this volume are designed for use by an art teacher/specialist. Thematic ideas are presented, while skills, techniques, and materials are not dictated. The lessons encourage students to compare and contrast cultures, understand their own cultural experiences, and explore differences and commonalities among cultures. The materials…

  20. Language Arts Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    [Dolch, E.W.

    This document articulates a philosophy of language arts that is based on the teacher's recognition of the need for an idividualized rate of growth for each child. Writing is presented as a personal and practical means of communication, and writing skills are listed that should be taught in the writing program. The goals for an effective creative…