Science.gov

Sample records for adaptive remote-sensing techniques

  1. Adaptive remote sensing techniques implementing swarms of mobile agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Stewart M.; Loubriel, Guillermo M.; Robinett, Rush D., III; Stantz, Keith M.; Trahan, Michael W.; Wagner, John S.

    1999-07-01

    Measurement and signal intelligence of the battlespace has created new requirements in information management, communication and interoperability as they effect surveillance and situational awareness. In many situations, stand-off remote-sensing and hazard-interdiction techniques over realistic operational areas are often impractical and difficult to characterize. An alternative approach is to implement adaptive remote-sensing techniques with swarms of mobile agents employing collective behavior for optimization of mapping signatures and positional orientation (registration). We have expanded intelligent control theory using physics-based collective behavior models and genetic algorithms to produce a uniquely powerful implementation of distributed ground-based measurement incorporating both local collective behavior, and niter-operative global optimization for sensor fusion and mission oversight. By using a layered hierarchical control architecture to orchestrate adaptive reconfiguration of semi-autonomous robotic agents, we can improve overall robustness and functionality in dynamic tactical environments without information bottlenecking.

  2. Adaptive Remote-Sensing Techniques Implementing Swarms of Mobile Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Asher, R.B.; Cameron, S.M.; Loubriel, G.M.; Robinett, R.D.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-11-25

    In many situations, stand-off remote-sensing and hazard-interdiction techniques over realistic operational areas are often impractical "and difficult to characterize. An alternative approach is to implement an adap- tively deployable array of sensitive agent-specific devices. Our group has been studying the collective be- havior of an autonomous, multi-agent system applied to chedbio detection and related emerging threat applications, The current physics-based models we are using coordinate a sensor array for mukivanate sig- nal optimization and coverage as re,alized by a swarm of robots or mobile vehicles. These intelligent control systems integrate'glob"ally operating decision-making systems and locally cooperative learning neural net- works to enhance re+-timp operational responses to dynarnical environments examples of which include obstacle avoidance, res~onding to prevailing wind patterns, and overcoming other natural obscurants or in- terferences. Collectively',tkensor nefirons with simple properties, interacting according to basic community rules, can accomplish complex interconnecting functions such as generalization, error correction, pattern recognition, sensor fusion, and localization. Neural nets provide a greater degree of robusmess and fault tolerance than conventional systems in that minor variations or imperfections do not impair performance. The robotic platforms would be equipped with sensor devices that perform opticaI detection of biologicais in combination with multivariate chemical analysis tools based on genetic and neural network algorithms, laser-diode LIDAR analysis, ultra-wideband short-pulsed transmitting and receiving antennas, thermal im- a:ing sensors, and optical Communication technology providing robust data throughput pathways. Mission scenarios under consideration include ground penetrating radar (GPR) for detection of underground struc- tures, airborne systems, and plume migration and mitigation. We will describe our research in

  3. Adaptive Remote-Sensing Techniques Implementing Swarms of Mobile Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, S.M.; Loubriel, G.M.; Rbinett, R.D. III; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1999-04-01

    This paper focuses on our recent work at Sandia National Laboratories toward engineering a physics-based swarm of mobile vehicles for distributed sensing applications. Our goal is to coordinate a sensor array that optimizes sensor coverage and multivariate signal analysis by implementing artificial intelligence and evolutionary computational techniques. These intelligent control systems integrate both globally operating decision-making systems and locally cooperative information-sharing modes using genetically-trained neural networks. Once trained, neural networks have the ability to enhance real-time operational responses to dynamical environments, such as obstacle avoidance, responding to prevailing wind patterns, and overcoming other natural obscurants or interferences (jammers). The swarm realizes a collective set of sensor neurons with simple properties incorporating interactions based on basic community rules (potential fields) and complex interconnecting functions based on various neural network architectures, Therefore, the swarm is capable of redundant heterogeneous measurements which furnishes an additional degree of robustness and fault tolerance not afforded by conventional systems, while accomplishing such cognitive tasks as generalization, error correction, pattern recognition, and sensor fission. The robotic platforms could be equipped with specialized sensor devices including transmit/receive dipole antennas, chemical or biological sniffers in combination with recognition analysis tools, communication modulators, and laser diodes. Our group has been studying the collective behavior of an autonomous, multi-agent system applied to emerging threat applications. To accomplish such tasks, research in the fields of robotics, sensor technology, and swarms are being conducted within an integrated program. Mission scenarios under consideration include ground penetrating impulse radar (GPR) for detection of under-ground structures, airborne systems, and plume

  4. Remote sensing as a mineral prospecting technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneses, P. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Remote sensing and its application as an alternative technique to mineral resource exploration are reviewed. Emphasis is given here to the analysis of the three basic attributes of remote sensing, i.e., spatial attributes related to regional structural mapping, spectral attributes related to rock discrimination and seasonal attributes related to geobotanic anomalies mapping, all of which are employed in mineral exploration. Special emphasis is given to new developments of the Thematic Mapper of the LANDSAT-5, principally with reference to the application of the bands 1.6 and 2.2 microns to map hydrothermally altered rocks and the band of red and blue shift to geobotanical anomalies mapping.

  5. Adaptive Bayes classifiers for remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raulston, H. S.; Pace, M. O.; Gonzalez, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    An algorithm is developed for a learning, adaptive, statistical pattern classifier for remotely sensed data. The estimation procedure consists of two steps: (1) an optimal stochastic approximation of the parameters of interest, and (2) a projection of the parameters in time and space. The results reported are for Gaussian data in which the mean vector of each class may vary with time or position after the classifier is trained.

  6. Bibliography of Remote Sensing Techniques Used in Wetland Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    remote sensing technology for detecting changes in wetland environments. This report documents a bibliographic search conducted as part of that work unit on applications of remote sensing techniques in wetland research. Results were used to guide research efforts on the use of remote sensing technology for wetland change detection and assessment. The citations are presented in three appendixes, organized by wetland type, sensor type, and author.... Change detection, Wetland assessment, Remote sensing ,

  7. Introduction to the physics and techniques of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, Charles

    1987-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive overview of the basics behind remote-sensing physics, techniques, and technology. The physics of wave/matter interactions, techniques of remote sensing across the electromagnetic spectrum, and the concepts behind remote sensing techniques now established and future ones under development are discussed. Applications of remote sensing are described for a wide variety of earth and planetary atmosphere and surface sciences. Solid surface sensing across the electromagnetic spectrum, ocean surface sensing, basic principles of atmospheric sensing and radiative transfer, and atmospheric remote sensing in the microwave, millimeter, submillimeter, and infrared regions are examined.

  8. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of the Coastal Ocean: Adaptive Sampling and Forecasting of In situ Optical Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-30

    integrated observation system that is being coupled to a data assimilative hydrodynamic bio-optical ecosystem model. The system was used adaptively to develop hyperspectral remote sensing techniques in optically complex nearshore coastal waters.

  9. Wind Predictability and Remote Sensing Techniques,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report presents the unclassified findings from the Investigation of Airborne Wind Sensing Systems conducted under AIRTASK A30303/323/70F17311002. Included is a summary of the current accuracy of wind speed and direction forecasts, a list of possible methods for remote sensing meteorological data, a list of areas of application of the given methods and a list of contacts made for information relevant to this evaluation. (Author)

  10. Monitoring marine pollution by airborne remote sensing techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Yuanfu, S.; Quanan, Z.

    1982-06-01

    In order to monitor marine pollution by airborne remote sensing techniques, some comprehensive test of airborne remote sensing, involving monitoring marine oil pollution, were performed at several bay areas of China. This paper presents some typical results of monitoring marine oil pollution. The features associated with the EM spectrum (visible, thermal infrared, and microwave) response of marine oil spills is briefly analyzed. It has been verified that the airborne oil surveillance systems manifested their advantages for monitoring the oil pollution of bay environments.

  11. Evaluation of reforestation using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Dossantos, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The utilization of remotely sensed orbital data for forestry inventory. The study area (approximately 491,100 ha) encompasses the municipalities of Ribeirao Preto, Altinopolis, Cravinhos, Serra Azul, Luis Antonio, Sao Simao, Sant Rita do Passa Quatro and Santa Rosa do Viterbo (Sao Paulo State). Materials used were LANDSAT data from channels 5 and 7 (scale 1:250,000) and CCT's. Visual interpretation of the imagery showed that for 1977 a total of 37,766.00 ha and for 1979 38,003.75 ha were reforested with Pinus and Eucalyptus within the area under study. The results obtained show that LANDSAT data can be used efficiently in forestry inventory studies.

  12. Layered classification techniques for remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swain, P. H.; Wu, C. L.; Landgrebe, D. A.; Hauska, H.

    1975-01-01

    The single-stage method of pattern classification utilizes all available features in a single test which assigns the unknown to a category according to a specific decision strategy (such as the maximum likelihood strategy). The layered classifier classifies the unknown through a sequence of tests, each of which may be dependent on the outcome of previous tests. Although the layered classifier was originally investigated as a means of improving classification accuracy and efficiency, it was found that in the context of remote sensing data analysis, other advantages also accrue due to many of the special characteristics of both the data and the applications pursued. The layered classifier method and several of the diverse applications of this approach are discussed.

  13. Offshore winds using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, Alfredo; Bay Hasager, Charlotte; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Courtney, Michael; Antoniou, Ioannis; Mikkelsen, Torben; Sørensen, Paul

    2007-07-01

    Ground-based remote sensing instruments can observe winds at different levels in the atmosphere where the wind characteristics change with height: the range of heights where modern turbine rotors are operating. A six-month wind assessment campaign has been made with a LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) and a SoDAR (Sound Detection and Ranging) on the transformer/platform of the world's largest offshore wind farm located at the West coast of Denmark to evaluate their ability to observe offshore winds. The high homogeneity and low turbulence levels registered allow the comparison of LiDAR and SoDAR with measurements from cups on masts surrounding the wind farm showing good agreement for both the mean wind speed and the longitudinal component of turbulence. An extension of mean wind speed profiles from cup measurements on masts with LiDAR observations results in a good match for the free sectors at different wind speeds. The log-linear profile is fitted to the extended profiles (averaged over all stabilities and roughness lengths) and the deviations are small. Extended profiles of turbulence intensity are also shown for different wind speeds up to 161 m. Friction velocities and roughness lengths calculated from the fitted log-linear profile are compared with the Charnock model which seems to overestimate the sea roughness for the free sectors.

  14. Natural resource inventory for urban planning utilizing remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, K. E.; Mackey, P. F.; Bonham, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques were applied to the lower Pantano Wash area to acquire data for planning an ecological balance between the expanding Tucson metropolitan area and its environment. The types and distribution of vegetation are discussed along with the hydrologic aspects of the Wash.

  15. Propagation Limitations in Remote Sensing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: Multi-sensors and systems in remote sensing ; Radar sensing systems over land; Remote sensing techniques in oceanography; Influence of...propagation media and background; Infrared techniques in remote sensing ; Photography in remote sensing ; Analytical studies in remote sensing .

  16. Detection of southern corn leaf blight by remote sensing techniques.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E.; Swain, P. H.; Mroczynski, R. P.; Anuta, P. E.; Macdonald, R. B.

    1971-01-01

    Multispectral photographic and scanner data were collected over western Indiana in August and September 1970, to determine the detectability of southern corn leaf blight by remote sensing. Measurements were made at altitudes of 3000 to 7000 ft. Color, color IR, and multiband black and white photography were collected at altitudes from 3000 to 60,000 ft. Six levels of infection based on the amount of leaf damage were identified in the fields. Three levels of infection were detected with color IR photography by standard photo-interpretive techniques. Up to five levels of infection were distinguished by applying automatic pattern recognition techniques to the multispectral scanner data. The results illustrate the potential of remote sensing techniques in the detection of crop diseases.

  17. Evaluation of a Temperature Remote Sensing Technique.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    concnional Raman for the technique is to monitor temperature in a super- spectroscopy , shich rCqttircs the ncastrement of rela- somio acrod,,namic test...where atomic col- spread of the absorption line. It is normalized such that lisions are infrequent, the Doppler effect determines the width of the...ex- Note: Only the intense modes were recorded cellent tool for high-resolution spectroscopy . at each temperature Coarse frequency tuning of the laser

  18. Tunnel-Site Selection by Remote Sensing Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A study of the role of remote sensing for geologic reconnaissance for tunnel-site selection was commenced. For this study, remote sensing was defined...conventional remote sensing . Future research directions are suggested, and the extension of remote sensing to include airborne passive microwave

  19. Estimation of Insulator Contaminations by Means of Remote Sensing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ge; Gong, Wei; Cui, Xiaohui; Zhang, Miao; Chen, Jun

    2016-06-01

    The accurate estimation of deposits adhering on insulators is critical to prevent pollution flashovers which cause huge costs worldwide. The traditional evaluation method of insulator contaminations (IC) is based sparse manual in-situ measurements, resulting in insufficient spatial representativeness and poor timeliness. Filling that gap, we proposed a novel evaluation framework of IC based on remote sensing and data mining. Varieties of products derived from satellite data, such as aerosol optical depth (AOD), digital elevation model (DEM), land use and land cover and normalized difference vegetation index were obtained to estimate the severity of IC along with the necessary field investigation inventory (pollution sources, ambient atmosphere and meteorological data). Rough set theory was utilized to minimize input sets under the prerequisite that the resultant set is equivalent to the full sets in terms of the decision ability to distinguish severity levels of IC. We found that AOD, the strength of pollution source and the precipitation are the top 3 decisive factors to estimate insulator contaminations. On that basis, different classification algorithm such as mahalanobis minimum distance, support vector machine (SVM) and maximum likelihood method were utilized to estimate severity levels of IC. 10-fold cross-validation was carried out to evaluate the performances of different methods. SVM yielded the best overall accuracy among three algorithms. An overall accuracy of more than 70% was witnessed, suggesting a promising application of remote sensing in power maintenance. To our knowledge, this is the first trial to introduce remote sensing and relevant data analysis technique into the estimation of electrical insulator contaminations.

  20. Integration of geological remote-sensing techniques in subsurface analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taranik, James V.; Trautwein, Charles M.

    1976-01-01

    Geological remote sensing is defined as the study of the Earth utilizing electromagnetic radiation which is either reflected or emitted from its surface in wavelengths ranging from 0.3 micrometre to 3 metres. The natural surface of the Earth is composed of a diversified combination of surface cover types, and geologists must understand the characteristics of surface cover types to successfully evaluate remotely-sensed data. In some areas landscape surface cover changes throughout the year, and analysis of imagery acquired at different times of year can yield additional geological information. Integration of different scales of analysis allows landscape features to be effectively interpreted. Interpretation of the static elements displayed on imagery is referred to as an image interpretation. Image interpretation is dependent upon: (1) the geologist's understanding of the fundamental aspects of image formation, and (2.) his ability to detect, delineate, and classify image radiometric data; recognize radiometric patterns; and identify landscape surface characteristics as expressed on imagery. A geologic interpretation integrates surface characteristics of the landscape with subsurface geologic relationships. Development of a geologic interpretation from imagery is dependent upon: (1) the geologist's ability to interpret geomorphic processes from their static surface expression as landscape characteristics on imagery, (2) his ability to conceptualize the dynamic processes responsible for the evolution 6f interpreted geologic relationships (his ability to develop geologic models). The integration of geologic remote-sensing techniques in subsurface analysis is illustrated by development of an exploration model for ground water in the Tucson area of Arizona, and by the development of an exploration model for mineralization in southwest Idaho.

  1. A satellite remote sensing technique for geological structure horizon mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, A.; Huggins, P.; Rees, J.

    1996-08-01

    A Satellite Remote Sensing Technique is demonstrated for generating near surface geological structure data. This technique enables the screening of large areas and targeting of seismic acquisition during hydrocarbon exploration. This is of particular advantage in terrains where surveying is logistically difficult. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data and a high resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM), are used to identify and map outcropping horizons. These are used to reconstruct the near surface structure. The technique is applied in Central Yemen which is characterised by a {open_quote}layer-cake{close_quote} geological and low dipping terrain. The results are validated using 2D seismic data. The near surface map images faults and structure not apparent in the raw data. Comparison with the structure map generated from a 2D seismic data indicates very good structural and fault correlation. The near surface map successfully highlights areas of potential closure at reservoir depths.

  2. Reflectance spectroscopy: quantitative analysis techniques for remote sensing applications.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, R.N.; Roush, T.L.

    1984-01-01

    Several methods for the analysis of remotely sensed reflectance data are compared, including empirical methods and scattering theories, both of which are important for solving remote sensing problems. The concept of the photon mean path length and the implications for use in modeling reflectance spectra are presented.-from Authors

  3. Adaptive compression of remote sensing stereo image pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunsong; Yan, Ruomei; Wu, Chengke; Wang, Keyan; Li, Shizhong; Wang, Yu

    2010-09-01

    According to the data characteristics of remote sensing stereo image pairs, a novel adaptive compression algorithm based on the combination of feature-based image matching (FBM), area-based image matching (ABM), and region-based disparity estimation is proposed. First, the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and the Sobel operator are carried out for texture classification. Second, an improved ABM is used in the flat area, while the disparity estimation is used in the alpine area. The radiation compensation is applied to further improve the performance. Finally, the residual image and the reference image are compressed by JPEG2000 independently. The new algorithm provides a reasonable prediction in different areas according to the image textures, which improves the precision of the sensed image. The experimental results show that the PSNR of the proposed algorithm can obtain up to about 3dB's gain compared with the traditional algorithm at low or medium bitrates, and the DTM and subjective quality is also obviously enhanced.

  4. An overview of the development of remote sensing techniques for the screwworm eradication program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C. M.; Forsberg, F. C.

    1975-01-01

    The current status of remote sensing techniques developed for the screwworm eradication program of the Mexican-American Screwworm Eradication Commission was reported. A review of the type of data and equipment used in the program is presented. Future applications of remote sensing techniques are considered.

  5. The definition of hydrologic model parameters using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragan, R. M.; Salomonson, V. V.

    1978-01-01

    The reported investigation is concerned with the use of Landsat remote sensing to define input parameters for an array of hydrologic models which are used to synthesize streamflow and water quality parameters in the planning or management process. The ground truth sampling and problems involved in translating the remotely sensed information into hydrologic model parameters are discussed. Questions related to the modification of existing models for compatibility with remote sensing capabilities are also examined. It is shown that the input parameters of many models are presently overdefined in terms of the sensitivity and accuracy of the model. When this overdefinition is recognized many of the models currently considered to be incompatible with remote sensing capabilities can be modified to make possible use with sensors having rather low resolutions.

  6. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques for early detection of plant diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krezhova, Dora; Maneva, Svetla; Zdravev, Tomas

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is an emerging, multidisciplinary field with diverse applications in Earth observation. Nowadays spectral remote sensing techniques allow presymptomatic monitoring of changes in the physiological state of plants with high spectral resolution. Hyperspectral leaf reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence proved to be highly suitable for identification of growth anomalies of cultural plants that result from the environmental changes and different stress factors. Hyperspectral technologies can find place in many scientific areas, as well as for monitoring of plants status and functioning to help in making timely management decisions. This research aimed to detect a presence of viral infection in young pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) caused by Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) by using hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence data and to assess the effect of some growth regulators on the development of the disease. In Bulgaria CMV is one of the widest spread pathogens, causing the biggest economical losses in crop vegetable production. Leaf spectral reflectance and fluorescence data were collected by a portable fibre-optics spectrometer in the spectral ranges 450÷850 nm and 600-900 nm. Greenhouse experiment with pepper plants of two cultivars, Sivria (sensitive to CMV) and Ostrion (resistant to CMV) were used. The plants were divided into six groups. The first group consisted of healthy (control) plants. At growth stage 4-6 expanded leaf, the second group was inoculated with CMV. The other four groups were treated with growth regulators: Spermine, MEIA (beta-monomethyl ester of itaconic acid), ВТН (benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid-S-methyl ester) and Phytoxin. On the next day, the pepper plants of these four groups were inoculated with CMV. The viral concentrations in the plants were determined by the serological method DAS-ELISA. Statistical, first derivative and cluster analysis were applied and several vegetation indices were

  7. Remote sensing image denoising by using discrete multiwavelet transform techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haihui; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jian

    2006-01-01

    We present a new method by using GHM discrete multiwavelet transform in image denoising on this paper. The developments in wavelet theory have given rise to the wavelet thresholding method, for extracting a signal from noisy data. The method of signal denoising via wavelet thresholding was popularized. Multiwavelets have recently been introduced and they offer simultaneous orthogonality, symmetry and short support. This property makes multiwavelets more suitable for various image processing applications, especially denoising. It is based on thresholding of multiwavelet coefficients arising from the standard scalar orthogonal wavelet transform. It takes into account the covariance structure of the transform. Denoising of images via thresholding of the multiwavelet coefficients result from preprocessing and the discrete multiwavelet transform can be carried out by treating the output in this paper. The form of the threshold is carefully formulated and is the key to the excellent results obtained in the extensive numerical simulations of image denoising. We apply the multiwavelet-based to remote sensing image denoising. Multiwavelet transform technique is rather a new method, and it has a big advantage over the other techniques that it less distorts spectral characteristics of the image denoising. The experimental results show that multiwavelet based image denoising schemes outperform wavelet based method both subjectively and objectively.

  8. Estimation of ambient BVOC emissions using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichol, Janet; Wong, Man Sing

    2011-06-01

    The contribution of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) to local air quality modelling is often ignored due to the difficulty of obtaining accurate spatial estimates of emissions. Yet their role in the formation of secondary aerosols and photochemical smog is thought to be significant, especially in hot tropical cities such as Hong Kong, which are situated downwind from dense forests. This paper evaluates Guenther et al.'s [Guenther, A., Hewitt, C.N., Erickson, D., Fall, R., Geron, C., Graedel, T.E., Harley, P., Klinger, L., Lerdau, M., McKay, W.A., Pierce, T., Scholes, B., Steinbrecher, R., Tallamraju, R., Taylor, J., Zimmerman, P., 1995. A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions. Journal of Geophysical Research 100, 8873-8892] global model of BVOC emissions, for application at a spatially detailed level to Hong Kong's tropical forested landscape using high resolution remote sensing and ground data. The emission estimates are based on a landscape approach which assigns emission rates directly to ecosystem types not to individual species, since unlike in temperate regions where one or two single species may dominate over large regions, Hong Kong's vegetation is extremely diverse with up to 300 different species in one hectare. The resulting BVOC emission maps are suitable for direct input to regional and local air quality models giving 10 m raster output on an hourly basis over the whole of the Hong Kong territory, an area of 1100 km 2. Due to the spatially detailed mapping of isoprene emissions over the study area, it was possible to validate the model output using field data collected at a precise time and place by replicating those conditions in the model. The field measurement of emissions used for validating the model was based on a canister sampling technique, undertaken under different climatic conditions for Hong Kong's main ecosystem types in both urban and rural areas. The model-derived BVOC flux distributions appeared to be

  9. Water Vapor Remote Sensing Techniques: Radiometry and Solar Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somieski, A.; Buerki, B.; Cocard, M.; Geiger, A.; Kahle, H.-G.

    The high variability of atmospheric water vapor content plays an important role in space geodesy, climatology and meteorology. Water vapor has a strong influence on transatmospheric satellite signals, the Earth's climate and thus the weather forecasting. Several remote sensing techniques have been developed for the determination of inte- grated precipitable water vapor (IPWV). The Geodesy and Geodynamics Lab (GGL) utilizes the methods of Water Vapor Radiometry and Solar Spectrometry to quantify the amount of tropospheric water vapor and its temporal variations. The Water Vapor Radiometer (WVR) measures the radiation intensity of the atmosphere in a frequency band ranging from 20 to 32 GHz. The Solar Atmospheric MOnitoring Spectrome- ter (SAMOS) of GGL is designed for high-resolution measurements of water vapor absorption lines using solar radiation. In the framework of the ESCOMPTE (ExpÊrience sur Site pour COntraindre les Mod- Éles de Pollution atmosphÊrique et de Transport d'Emissions) field campaign these instruments have been operated near Marseille in 2001. They have aquired a long time series of integrated precipitable water vapor content (IPWV). The accuracy of IPWV measured by WVR and SAMOS is 1 kg/m2. Furthermore meteorological data from radiosondes were used to calculate the IPWV in order to provide comparisons with the results of WVR and SAMOS. The methods of Water Vapor Radiometry and So- lar Spectrometry will be discussed and first preliminary results retrieved from WVR, SAMOS and radiosondes during the ESCOMPTE field campaign will be presented.

  10. Integration of remote sensing and geophysical techniques for coastal monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoniello, T.; Carone, M. T.; Loperte, A.; Satriani, A.; Imbrenda, V.; D'Emilio, M.; Guariglia, A.

    2009-04-01

    Coastal areas are of great environmental, economic, social, cultural and recreational relevance; therefore, the implementation of suitable monitoring and protection actions is fundamental for their preservation and for assuring future use of this resource. Such actions have to be based on an ecosystem perspective for preserving coastal environment integrity and functioning and for planning sustainable resource management of both the marine and terrestrial components (ICZM-EU initiative). We implemented an integrated study based on remote sensing and geophysical techniques for monitoring a coastal area located along the Ionian side of Basilicata region (Southern Italy). This area, between the Bradano and Basento river mouths, is mainly characterized by a narrow shore (10-30 m) of fine sandy formations and by a pine forest planted in the first decade of 50's in order to preserve the coast and the inland cultivated areas. Due to drought and fire events and saltwater intrusion phenomena, such a forest is affected by a strong decline with consequent environmental problems. Multispectral satellite data were adopted for evaluating the spatio-temporal features of coastal vegetation and the structure of forested patterns. The increase or decrease in vegetation activity was analyzed from trends estimated on a time series of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) maps. The fragmentation/connection levels of vegetated patterns was assessed form a set of landscape ecology metrics elaborated at different structure scales (patch, class and landscape) on satellite cover classifications. Information on shoreline changes were derived form a multi-source data set (satellite data, field-GPS surveys and Aerial Laser Scanner acquisitions) by taking also into account tidal effects. Geophysical campaigns were performed for characterizing soil features and limits of salty water infiltrations. Form vertical resistivity soundings (VES), soil resistivity maps at different a deeps (0

  11. River flow forecasting in mountainous areas using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikweiri, Fathi Saleh

    The objective of this research is to develop a simple semi-distributed, physically based hydrologic model (SDPB_HM) for mountainous watershed areas. Most of the required watershed parameters in this developed model were acquired using remotely sensed imagery and digital terrain data. A modified technique to involve the use of the land cover properties in the Morton (1983) evapotranspiration model was proposed in this research. This new modified technique was proposed to overcome one of the major disadvantages of the Morton's evapotranspiration model for not having any allowances for the properties of different land cover types (Kite, 1997). The suitability of estimation the evapotranspiration using this modified technique was judged in this research by comparing its results with other average daily evapotranspiration data for an adjacent basin; Cross River Basin in the Rocky Mountain in British Columbia, Canada during year 1987. A new modified procedure for estimating maximum storage capacity in a basin that could estimate the retained rain or snowmelt water within the watershed area related to sink pixels on DTED was presented in this research. A simplified procedure for performing the geometric correction to satellite images based on the Oguro et al. (2001) technique that is used to register these images by utilizing a simulated shaded DTED overlaid with simulated streamlines network image was proposed in this work. A complete three-stage computer classifier (EBPANN) was built in this research that was aimed at minimizing the negative affect of overlapping spectral signatures. This developed computer classifier model was written in C computer program language and utilized in its procedures the error back-propagation neural network this proposed classifier technique was applied to classify a large part from Kananaskis Country area in the Rocky Mountains, Alberta, Canada. An enhanced method was employed in this work for dividing the watershed areas. This new

  12. The application of remote sensing techniques to selected inter and intra urban data acquisition problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, F. E.

    1970-01-01

    The utility of remote sensing techniques to urban data acquisition problems in several distinct areas was identified. This endeavor included a comparison of remote sensing systems for urban data collection, the extraction of housing quality data from aerial photography, utilization of photographic sensors in urban transportation studies, urban change detection, space photography utilization, and an application of remote sensing techniques to the acquisition of data concerning intra-urban commercial centers. The systematic evaluation of variable extraction for urban modeling and planning at several different scales, and the model derivation for identifying and predicting economic growth and change within a regional system of cities are also studied.

  13. Adaptive statistical pattern classifiers for remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, R. C.; Pace, M. O.; Raulston, H. S.

    1975-01-01

    A technique for the adaptive estimation of nonstationary statistics necessary for Bayesian classification is developed. The basic approach to the adaptive estimation procedure consists of two steps: (1) an optimal stochastic approximation of the parameters of interest and (2) a projection of the parameters in time or position. A divergence criterion is developed to monitor algorithm performance. Comparative results of adaptive and nonadaptive classifier tests are presented for simulated four dimensional spectral scan data.

  14. A forestry application simulation of man-machine techniques for analyzing remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkebile, J.; Russell, J.; Lube, B.

    1976-01-01

    The typical steps in the analysis of remotely sensed data for a forestry applications example are simulated. The example uses numerically-oriented pattern recognition techniques and emphasizes man-machine interaction.

  15. An integrated study of earth resources in the state of California using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    University of California investigations to determine the usefulness of modern remote sensing techniques have concentrated on the water resources of the state. The studies consider in detail the supply, demand, and impact relationships.

  16. Successful integration of remote sensing and ground based exploration techniques in an arid environment

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.F.E. ); Oehlers, M. )

    1995-03-06

    Twenty years ago, remote sensing promised to revolutionize exploration; unfortunately, many of the early promises made were unfulfilled and remote sensing tended to drop out of mainstream exploration. Both these extremes are unrealistic, and projects undertaken by Clyde in Yemen illustrate some of the ways remote sensing can become a successful and cost-effective part of an exploration program. Firstly, the remote sensed data, integrated with a minimum of ground control work, provided maps to use in subsequent fieldwork, a surface geology map, and a digital elevation model with its derived topographic contour maps. Secondly, the remote sensed data enabled the authors to create a structural contour map of a near surface horizon at a very low cost per square kilometer. Thirdly, the remote sensed data became a crucial planning tool for seismic operations to optimize data quality and minimize acquisition cost without having to resort to costly and time-consuming swath shooting or similar high-effort techniques. Finally, the surface geological map derived from the image interpretation enabled them to create geological cross sections along the shot seismic lines in a matter of hours without having a field geologist mapping along the lines. Remote sensing can provide highly cost-effective benefits to an exploration program in an arid region, and many of the applications can also be developed for use in areas with vegetation cover.

  17. The application of remote sensing techniques to the study of ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shuhab D.; Mahmood, Khalid

    2008-08-01

    Satellite remote sensing methods are a powerful tool for detailed geologic analysis, especially in inaccessible regions of the earth's surface. Short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands are shown to provide spectral information bearing on the lithologic, structural, and geochemical character of rock bodies such as ophiolites, allowing for a more comprehensive assessment of the lithologies present, their stratigraphic relationships, and geochemical character. Most remote sensing data are widely available for little or no cost, along with user-friendly software for non-specialists. In this paper we review common remote sensing systems and methods that allow for the discrimination of solid rock (lithologic) components of ophiolite complexes and their structural relationships. Ophiolites are enigmatic rock bodies which associated with most, if not all, plate collision sutures. Ophiolites are ideal for remote sensing given their widely recognized diversity of lithologic types and structural relationships. Accordingly, as a basis for demonstrating the utility of remote sensing techniques, we briefly review typical ophiolites in the Tethyan tectonic belt. As a case study, we apply integrated remote sensing studies of a well-studied example, the Muslim Bagh ophiolite, located in Balochistan, western Pakistan. On this basis, we attempt to demonstrate how remote sensing data can validate and reconcile existing information obtained from field studies. The lithologic and geochemical diversity of Muslim Bagh are representative of Tethyan ophiolites. Despite it's remote location it has been extensively mapped and characterized by structural and geochemical studies, and is virtually free of vegetative cover. Moreover, integrating the remote sensing data with 'ground truth' information thus offers the potential of an improved template for interpreting remote sensing data sets of other ophiolites for which little or no field information is available.

  18. Remote Sensing Techniques as a Tool for Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faisal, K.; AlAhmad, M.; Shaker, A.

    2012-07-01

    The disposal of the solid wastes in landfill sites should be properly monitored by analyzing samples from soil, water, and landfill gases within the landfill site. Nevertheless, ground monitoring systems require intensive efforts and cost. Furthermore, ground monitoring may be difficult to be achieved in large geographic extent. Remote sensing technology has been introduced for waste disposal management and monitoring effects of the landfill sites on the environment. In this paper, two case studies are presented in the Trail Road landfill, Ottawa, Canada and the Al-Jleeb landfill, Al-Farwanyah, Kuwait to evaluate the use of multi-temporal remote sensing images to monitor the landfill sites. The work objectives are: 1) to study the usability of multi-temporal Landsat images for landfill site monitoring by studying the land surface temperature (LST) in the Trail Road landfill, 2) to investigate the relationship between the LST and the amount of the landfill gas emitted in the Trail Road landfill, and 3) to use the multi-temporal LST images to detect the suspicious dumping areas within the Al-Jleeb landfill site. Free archive of multi-temporal Landsat images are obtained from the USGS EarthExplorer. The Landsat images are then atmospherically corrected and the LST images are derived from the thermal band of the corrected Landsat images. In the Trail Road landfill, the results reveal that the LST of the landfill site is always higher than the air temperature by 10°C in average as well as the surroundings. A correlation is also observed between the recorded emitted methane (CH4) from the ground monitoring stations and the LST derived from the Landsat images. Based on the findings in the Al-Jleeb landfill, five locations are identified as suspicious dumping areas by overlaying the highest LST contours generated from the multi-temporal LST images. The study demonstrates that the use of multi-temporal remote sensing images can provide supplementary information for

  19. The application of remote sensing techniques: Technical and methodological issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polcyn, F. C.; Wagner, T. W.

    1974-01-01

    Capabilities and limitations of modern imaging electromagnetic sensor systems are outlined, and the products of such systems are compared with those of the traditional aerial photographic system. Focus is given to the interface between the rapidly developing remote sensing technology and the information needs of operational agencies, and communication gaps are shown to retard early adoption of the technology by these agencies. An assessment is made of the current status of imaging remote sensors and their potential for the future. Public sources of remote sensor data and several cost comparisons are included.

  20. Remote sensing techniques for monitoring and managing irrigated lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, J. A.

    Agriculture in semi-arid tracts of the world depends on water to sustain its irrigation systems. Such agricultural systems either derive from government investments in the control of surface flow or they have been developed through the exploitation of groundwater sometimes by a large community of unsupervised individuals seeking to maximise their own advantage without concern for the resource upon which they depend in the medium and long term. In both cases government agencies need data on the area irrigated and the volume of water used. In countries with highly developed scientific and agricultural institutions the contribution of remote sensing, though significant, may only provide between five and ten per cent of the data required to guide regional and national managers. In countries without such institutions the proportion contributed by remote sensing can be very much higher, as shown in a recent study in North Africa. The paper will emphasise the importance of carefully structured sampling procedures, both to improve the areal estimates from satellite imagery and the estimates of water use based upon them. The role of satellite imagery in providing information on the status of water resources, on trends in water use and in the implementation of policies to extend or diminish irrigated land are discussed.

  1. Introduction to This Special Issue on Geostatistics and Geospatial Techniques in Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, Peter; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Goodman, H. Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The germination of this special Computers & Geosciences (C&G) issue began at the Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) (RGS-IBG) annual meeting in January 1997 held at the University of Exeter, UK. The snow and cold of the English winter were tempered greatly by warm and cordial discussion of how to stimulate and enhance cooperation on geostatistical and geospatial research in remote sensing 'across the big pond' between UK and US researchers. It was decided that one way forward would be to hold parallel sessions in 1998 on geostatistical and geospatial research in remote sensing at appropriate venues in both the UK and the US. Selected papers given at these sessions would be published as special issues of C&G on the UK side and Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing (PE&RS) on the US side. These issues would highlight the commonality in research on geostatistical and geospatial research in remote sensing on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. As a consequence, a session on "Geostatistics and Geospatial Techniques for Remote Sensing of Land Surface Processes" was held at the RGS-IBG annual meeting in Guildford, Surrey, UK in January 1998, organized by the Modeling and Advanced Techniques Special Interest Group (MAT SIG) of the Remote Sensing Society (RSS). A similar session was held at the Association of American Geographers (AAG) annual meeting in Boston, Massachusetts in March 1998, sponsored by the AAG's Remote Sensing Specialty Group (RSSG). The 10 papers that make up this issue of C&G, comprise 7 papers from the UK and 3 papers from the LIS. We are both co-editors of each of the journal special issues, with the lead editor of each journal issue being from their respective side of the Atlantic. The special issue of PE&RS (vol. 65) that constitutes the other half of this co-edited journal series was published in early 1999, comprising 6 papers by US authors. We are indebted to the International Association for Mathematical

  2. Investigation of remote sensing techniques of measuring soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, R. W. (Principal Investigator); Blanchard, A. J.; Nieber, J. L.; Lascano, R.; Tsang, L.; Vanbavel, C. H. M.

    1981-01-01

    Major activities described include development and evaluation of theoretical models that describe both active and passive microwave sensing of soil moisture, the evaluation of these models for their applicability, the execution of a controlled field experiment during which passive microwave measurements were acquired to validate these models, and evaluation of previously acquired aircraft microwave measurements. The development of a root zone soil water and soil temperature profile model and the calibration and evaluation of gamma ray attenuation probes for measuring soil moisture profiles are considered. The analysis of spatial variability of soil information as related to remote sensing is discussed as well as the implementation of an instrumented field site for acquisition of soil moisture and meteorologic information for use in validating the soil water profile and soil temperature profile models.

  3. California nearshore surface currents. [monitoring by remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, D. M.; Murphy, M. J.; Edmisten, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    During the oceanic period from July to November, the southward flowing California current dominates the nearshore current patterns. Commencing about the middle of November and extending to mid-February, the Davidson current, a northward moving countercurrent, is the dominant inshore transporter of water and suspensates. The phenomenon of upwelling is prevalent during the period from the middle of February to the end of July. Thus, every year along the coast of California, there are three successive current seasons: the oceanic, the Davidson, and the upwelling. This paper is a discussion of the nature of these nearshore currents. In addition, the capabilities of various remote sensing platforms and systems for providing methods of monitoring the coastal processes associated with the current seasons of California are demonstrated herein.

  4. The value of remote sensing techniques in supporting effective extrapolation across multiple marine spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Strong, James Asa; Elliott, Michael

    2017-03-15

    The reporting of ecological phenomena and environmental status routinely required point observations, collected with traditional sampling approaches to be extrapolated to larger reporting scales. This process encompasses difficulties that can quickly entrain significant errors. Remote sensing techniques offer insights and exceptional spatial coverage for observing the marine environment. This review provides guidance on (i) the structures and discontinuities inherent within the extrapolative process, (ii) how to extrapolate effectively across multiple spatial scales, and (iii) remote sensing techniques and data sets that can facilitate this process. This evaluation illustrates that remote sensing techniques are a critical component in extrapolation and likely to underpin the production of high-quality assessments of ecological phenomena and the regional reporting of environmental status. Ultimately, is it hoped that this guidance will aid the production of robust and consistent extrapolations that also make full use of the techniques and data sets that expedite this process.

  5. Surveillance of Arthropod Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases Using Remote Sensing Techniques: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kalluri, Satya; Gilruth, Peter; Rogers, David; Szczur, Martha

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologists are adopting new remote sensing techniques to study a variety of vector-borne diseases. Associations between satellite-derived environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and land cover type and vector density are used to identify and characterize vector habitats. The convergence of factors such as the availability of multi-temporal satellite data and georeferenced epidemiological data, collaboration between remote sensing scientists and biologists, and the availability of sophisticated, statistical geographic information system and image processing algorithms in a desktop environment creates a fertile research environment. The use of remote sensing techniques to map vector-borne diseases has evolved significantly over the past 25 years. In this paper, we review the status of remote sensing studies of arthropod vector-borne diseases due to mosquitoes, ticks, blackflies, tsetse flies, and sandflies, which are responsible for the majority of vector-borne diseases in the world. Examples of simple image classification techniques that associate land use and land cover types with vector habitats, as well as complex statistical models that link satellite-derived multi-temporal meteorological observations with vector biology and abundance, are discussed here. Future improvements in remote sensing applications in epidemiology are also discussed. PMID:17967056

  6. Remote sensing techniques for conservation and management of natural vegetation ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Verdesio, J. J.; Dossantos, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The importance of using remote sensing techniques, in the visible and near-infrared ranges, for mapping, inventory, conservation and management of natural ecosystems is discussed. Some examples realized in Brazil or other countries are given to evaluate the products from orbital platform (MSS and RBV imagery of LANDSAT) and aerial level (photography) for ecosystems study. The maximum quantitative and qualitative information which can be obtained from each sensor, at different level, are discussed. Based on the developed experiments it is concluded that the remote sensing technique is a useful tool in mapping vegetation units, estimating biomass, forecasting and evaluation of fire damage, disease detection, deforestation mapping and change detection in land-use. In addition, remote sensing techniques can be used in controling implantation and planning natural/artificial regeneration.

  7. Development and Experimental Verification of Key Techniques to Validate Remote Sensing Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Wang, S. G.; Ge, Y.; Jin, R.; Liu, S. M.; Ma, M. G.; Shi, W. Z.; Li, R. X.; Liu, Q. H.

    2013-05-01

    Validation of remote sensing land products is a fundamental issue for Earth observation. Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China (MOST) has launched a high-tech R&D Program named `Development and experimental verification of key techniques to validate remote sensing products' in 2011. This paper introduces the background, scientific objectives, research contents of this project and research result already achieved. The objectives of this project include (1) to build a technical specification for the validation of remote sensing products; (2) to investigate the performance, we will carry out a comprehensive remote sensing experiment on satellite - aircraft - ground truth and then modify Step 1 until reach the predefined requirement; (3) to establish a validation network of China for remote sensing products. In summer 2012, with support of the Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER), field observations have been successfully conducted in the central stream of the Heihe River Basin, a typical inland river basin in northwest China. A flux observation matrix composed of eddy covariance (EC) and large aperture scintillometer (LAS), in addition to a densely distributed eco-hydrological wireless sensor network have been established to capture multi-scale heterogeneities of evapotranspiration (ET), leaf area index (LAI), soil moisture and temperature. Airborne missions have been flown with the payloads of imaging spectrometer, light detection and ranging (LiDAR), infrared thermal imager and microwave radiometer that provide various scales of aerial remote sensing observations. Satellite images with high resolution have been collected and pre-processed, e.g. PROBA-CHRIS and TerraSAR-X. Simultaneously, ground measurements have been conducted over specific sampling plots and transects to obtain validation data sets. With this setup complex problems are addressed, e.g. heterogeneity, scaling, uncertainty, and eventually to

  8. Observations of the global structure of the stratosphere and mesosphere with sounding rockets and with remote sensing techniques from satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, D. F.; Hilsenrath, E.; Krueger, A. J.; Nordberg, W.; Prabhakara, C.; Theon, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    Brief descriptions are given of the techniques involved in determining the global structure of the mesosphere and stratosphere based on sounding rocket observations and satellite remotely sensed measurements.

  9. Detection of asphalt pavement cracks using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mettas, Christodoulos; Agapiou, Athos; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Neocleous, Kyriacos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2016-10-01

    Deterioration of asphalt road pavements is inevitable throughout its life cycle. There are several types of deterioration that take place on these surfaces, like surface defects and deformations. One of the most common asphalt defects is cracking. Fatigue, transverse, longitudinal, reflective, edge, block and slippage are types of cracking that can be observed anywhere in the world. Monitoring and preventative/periodic maintenance of these types of wears are two very important actions that have to take place to avoid "costly" solutions. This paper aims to introduce the spectral characteristics of uncracked (healthy) and cracked asphalt surfaces which can give a new asphalt crack index. This is performed through remote sensing applications in the area of asphalt pavements. Multispectral images can be elaborated using the index to enhance crack marks on asphalt surfaces. Ground spectral signatures were acquired from both uncracked and cracked asphalted areas of Cyprus (Limassol). Evaluation separability indices can be used to identify the optimum wavelength regions that can distinguish better the uncracked and cracked asphalt surfaces. The results revealed that the spectral sensitivity for the enhancement of cracked asphalt was detected using the Euclidean, Mahalanobis and Cosine Distance Indices in the Vis range (approximately at 450 nm) and in the SWIR 1 range (approximately at 1750 nm).

  10. The investigation of advanced remote sensing techniques for the measurement of aerosol characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deepak, A.; Becher, J.

    1979-01-01

    Advanced remote sensing techniques and inversion methods for the measurement of characteristics of aerosol and gaseous species in the atmosphere were investigated. Of particular interest were the physical and chemical properties of aerosols, such as their size distribution, number concentration, and complex refractive index, and the vertical distribution of these properties on a local as well as global scale. Remote sensing techniques for monitoring of tropospheric aerosols were developed as well as satellite monitoring of upper tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols. Computer programs were developed for solving multiple scattering and radiative transfer problems, as well as inversion/retrieval problems. A necessary aspect of these efforts was to develop models of aerosol properties.

  11. Rapid Damage Assessment Using High-resolution Remote Sensing Imagery: Tools and Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Vatsavai, Raju; Tuttle, Mark A; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Bright, Eddie A; Cheriyadat, Anil M; Chandola, Varun; Graesser, Jordan B

    2011-01-01

    Accurate damage assessment caused by major natural and anthropogenic disasters is becoming critical due to increases in human and economic loss. This increase in loss of life and severe damages can be attributed to growing population, as well as human migration to disaster prone regions of the world. Rapid damage assessment and dissemination of accurate information is critical for creating an effective emergency response. Remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) based techniques and tools are important in disaster damage assessment and reporting activities. In this review, we will look into the state of the art techniques in damage assessment using remote sensing and GIS.

  12. Region-based retrieval of remote sensing image patches with adaptive image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shijin; Zhu, Jiali; Zhu, Yuelong; Feng, Jun

    2012-06-01

    Over the past four decades, the satellite imaging sensors have acquired huge quantities of Earth- observation data. Content-based image retrieval allows for fast and effective queries of remote sensing images. Here, we take the following two issues into consideration. Firstly, different features and their combination should be chosen for different land covers. Secondly, for the block dividing strategy and the complexities of the remote sensing images, it can not effectively retrieve some small target areas scattered in multiple nontarget blocks. Aiming at the above two issues, a new region-based retrieval method with adaptive image segmentation is proposed. In order to improve the accuracy of remote sensing image segmentation, feature selection and weighing is performed by two-stage clustering, and image segmentation is accomplished based on the chosen features and mean shift procedure. Meanwhile, for the homogeneous characteristics of remote sensing land covers, a new regional representation and matching scheme are adopted to perform image retrieval. Experimental results on retrieving various land covers show that the method can avoid the impact of traditional blocking strategies, and can achieve an average percentage of 19% higher precision with the same level of recall rate, than the relevance feedback method for small target areas.

  13. Classification of remotely sensed data using OCR-inspired neural network techniques. [Optical Character Recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard K.

    1992-01-01

    Neural networks have been applied to classifications of remotely sensed data with some success. To improve the performance of this approach, an examination was made of how neural networks are applied to the optical character recognition (OCR) of handwritten digits and letters. A three-layer, feedforward network, along with techniques adopted from OCR, was used to classify Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data. Good results were obtained. To overcome the difficulties that are characteristic of remote sensing applications and to attain significant improvements in classification accuracy, a special network architecture may be required.

  14. Remote sensing techniques for the detection of soil erosion and the identification of soil conservation practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, R. E.; Griffin, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The following paper is a summary of a number of techniques initiated under the AgRISTARS (Agriculture and Resources Inventory Surveys Through Aerospace Remote Sensing) project for the detection of soil degradation caused by water erosion and the identification of soil conservation practices for resource inventories. Discussed are methods to utilize a geographic information system to determine potential soil erosion through a USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation) model; application of the Kauth-Thomas Transform to detect present erosional status; and the identification of conservation practices through visual interpretation and a variety of enhancement procedures applied to digital remotely sensed data.

  15. A solar energy estimation procedure using remote sensing techniques. [watershed hydrologic models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorram, S.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to design a remote sensing-aided procedure for daily location-specific estimation of solar radiation components over the watershed(s) of interest. This technique has been tested on the Spanish Creek Watershed, Northern California, with successful results.

  16. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of the Coastal Ocean: Adaptive Sampling and Forecasting of In situ Optical Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-30

    We are developing an integrated rapid environmental assessment capability that will be used to feed an ocean nowcast/forecast system. The goal is to develop a capacity for predicting the dynamics in inherent optical properties in coastal waters. This is being accomplished by developing an integrated observation system that is being coupled to a data assimilative hydrodynamic bio-optical ecosystem model. The system was used adaptively to calibrate hyperspectral remote sensing sensors in optically complex nearshore coastal waters.

  17. An unsupervised classification technique for multispectral remote sensing data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, M. Y.; Cummings, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a two-part clustering technique consisting of (a) a sequential statistical clustering, which is essentially a sequential variance analysis, and (b) a generalized K-means clustering. In this composite clustering technique, the output of (a) is a set of initial clusters which are input to (b) for further improvement by an iterative scheme. This unsupervised composite technique was employed for automatic classification of two sets of remote multispectral earth resource observations. The classification accuracy by the unsupervised technique is found to be comparable to that by traditional supervised maximum-likelihood classification techniques.

  18. Remote sensing of stress using electro-optics imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tong; Yuen, Peter; Hong, Kan; Tsitiridis, Aristeidis; Kam, Firmin; Jackman, James; James, David; Richardson, Mark; Oxford, William; Piper, Jonathan; Thomas, Francis; Lightman, Stafford

    2009-09-01

    Emotional or physical stresses induce a surge of adrenaline in the blood stream under the command of the sympathetic nerve system, which, cannot be suppressed by training. The onset of this alleviated level of adrenaline triggers a number of physiological chain reactions in the body, such as dilation of pupil and an increased feed of blood to muscles etc. This paper reports for the first time how Electro-Optics (EO) technologies such as hyperspectral [1,2] and thermal imaging[3] methods can be used for the detection of stress remotely. Preliminary result using hyperspectral imaging technique has shown a positive identification of stress through an elevation of haemoglobin oxygenation saturation level in the facial region, and the effect is seen more prominently for the physical stressor than the emotional one. However, all results presented so far in this work have been interpreted together with the base line information as the reference point, and that really has limited the overall usefulness of the developing technology. The present result has highlighted this drawback and it prompts for the need of a quantitative assessment of the oxygenation saturation and to correlate it directly with the stress level as the top priority of the next stage of research.

  19. Optimization of the polarization remote-sensing techniques of the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Kondranin, Timofei V.; Vasilkov, Alexander P.

    1992-12-01

    A numerical code has been developed to calculate Stokes parameters of the visible solar radiation, scattered in the atmosphere-ocean system. Mathematical modeling is used to examine spectral and angular (azimuth and zenith angle) variations of degree of polarization at sea level and at different heights in the atmosphere above the sea surface. On the basis of a developed computer code the efficiency of the polarization measurements for different optical passive remote sensing techniques of the ocean has been investigated. For the passive spectral measurements of the water bio-productivity (chlorophyll-a, dissolved organic matter, concentration of suspended particles) the polarizer can improve signal-to-background ratio. The magnitude of this effect and optimum direction of the polarizer depend upon height, viewing direction, and solar zenith angle. Within the framework of polarization remote sensing technique the influence of the observation height and viewing direction on the results of water turbidity measurements is investigated. Optimal viewing directions in such polarization passive remote sensing technique are discussed.

  20. Advanced Remote Sensing Research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, Terrence; Jones, John W.; Price, Susan D.; Hogan, Dianna

    2008-01-01

    'Remote sensing' is a generic term for monitoring techniques that collect information without being in physical contact with the object of study. Overhead imagery from aircraft and satellite sensors provides the most common form of remotely sensed data and records the interaction of electromagnetic energy (usually visible light) with matter, such as the Earth's surface. Remotely sensed data are fundamental to geographic science. The Eastern Geographic Science Center (EGSC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is currently conducting and promoting the research and development of three different aspects of remote sensing science: spectral analysis, automated orthorectification of historical imagery, and long wave infrared (LWIR) polarimetric imagery (PI).

  1. Measurements of Absorbing Aerosols Using in Situ and Remote Sensing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, J. V.; Martins, J. V.; Kaufman, Y.; Artaxo, P.; Andrea, C.; Yamasoe, M.; Remer, L.

    2001-12-01

    Reliable measurements of light absorption by aerosol particles are essential for an accurate assessment of the climate radiative forcing by aerosol particles. Depending on the absorption properties, the radiative forcing of the aerosols may change from a cooling to a heating effect. New techniques for the remote sensing of aerosol absorption over land and ocean are developed and applied in combination with in situ measurements for validation and addition of complementary information. Spectral measurements show the effects of aerosols on absorption of light from the UV to the near infrared. Depending on particle size and structure, there is a significant absorption component that must be accounted for the radiative forcing in the near infrared. Remote sensing results from MODIS and from the CLAMS field experiment, as well as in situ validation data will be discussed.

  2. Multi-Technique Remote-Sensing Observations and Modelling of a Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardwick, S. A.; Bisi, M. M.; Davies, J.; Morgan, H.; Fallows, R.; Harrison, R. A.; Xiong, M.; Jensen, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    On 14 November 2011, SDO|AIA observed a filament eruption located around S25 to S30 and extended between W20 and W40 of disc centre. The resulting coronal mass ejection (CME) is studied in detail using radio, white-light, and EUV remote-sensing observations from STEREO, SOHO, SDO, and the new next-generation LOFAR radio telescope system. We present a detailed story of the CME as it travels through the heliosphere with its northern flank travelling in the ecliptic out towards Mars. Various models are fitted to the heliospheric white-light data and different portions of the CME are investigated as they propagate through the inner heliosphere. The validity of each model is discussed. This combination of remote-sensing observational and modelling techniques displays a valid framework for further detailed investigations of CMEs.

  3. Remote sensing and GIS techniques for selecting a sustainable scenario for Lake Koronia, Greece.

    PubMed

    Alexandridis, Thomas K; Takavakoglou, Vasileios; Crisman, Thomas L; Zalidis, George C

    2007-02-01

    During recent decades, Lake Koronia has undergone severe degradation as a result of human activities around the lake and throughout the basin. Surface and groundwater abstraction and pollution from agricultural, industrial, and municipal sources are the major sources of degradation. Planning a restoration project was hampered by lack of sufficient data, with gaps evident in both spatial and temporal dimensions. This study emphasized various remote sensing and geographic information system techniques, such as digital image processing and geographic overlay, to fill gaps using satellite imagery and other spatial environmental, hydrological, and hydrogeological data in the process of planning the restoration of Lake Koronia, following Ramsar guidelines. Current and historical remote sensing data were used to assess the current status and level of degradation, set constraints and define the ideotype for the restoration, and, finally, define and select the best restoration scenario.

  4. Comprehensive studies of the dynamics of geosystems with the use of remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilev, L. N.; Kaczyński, R.; Ney, B. I.

    The described research programme for comprehensive studies of changes occuring within geosystems is a part of scientific activity of INTERKOSMOS, which will be executed mainly with the use of remote sensing methods and techniques. The main aim of the programme is to get an insight into the seasonal rithm of environmental changes on both regional and global level. The work will consist of gathering systematized information concerning quantitative and qualitative relations between various components of the environment. The application of remote sensing methods enables the acquisition of such environmental data in dynamic setting. Research will be conducted for areas comprising distinct geosystems and will lead to the detection of diurnal, seasonal and yearly dynamics of geosystems as well as long-term trends. Except cognitive, the programme will also serve the methodological purpose. The first aim will be realized with respect to individual geosystems; the resulting sets of data will consist of matrixes of statistical data characterizing relations between various components of geosystems. The methodological aim will be achieved through the process of practical verification of the preliminary assumptions. Information will be collected from different data acquisition levels namely from satellite and aerial platforms and through ground measurements. Different types of data, such as multispectral photography (SALYUT, KOSMOS), multispectral scanner images (LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER, SPOT), infrared photography, radar imagery and spectrometric measurements will be gathered during simultaneous data acquisition projects. All types of observations will be timed in accordance with the natural rithm of the observed phenomena. The paper contains the description of geosystems under anthropogenic stress based on the previous research of the authors. The presented multifactor characteristics of soil and crops is a part of completed studies on agricultural geosystems. The results of

  5. Geographic techniques and recent applications of remote sensing to landscape-water quality studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffith, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    This article overviews recent advances in studies of landscape-water quality relationships using remote sensing techniques. With the increasing feasibility of using remotely-sensed data, landscape-water quality studies can now be more easily performed on regional, multi-state scales. The traditional method of relating land use and land cover to water quality has been extended to include landscape pattern and other landscape information derived from satellite data. Three items are focused on in this article: 1) the increasing recognition of the importance of larger-scale studies of regional water quality that require a landscape perspective; 2) the increasing importance of remotely sensed data, such as the imagery-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and vegetation phenological metrics derived from time-series NDVI data; and 3) landscape pattern. In some studies, using landscape pattern metrics explained some of the variation in water quality not explained by land use/cover. However, in some other studies, the NDVI metrics were even more highly correlated to certain water quality parameters than either landscape pattern metrics or land use/cover proportions. Although studies relating landscape pattern metrics to water quality have had mixed results, this recent body of work applying these landscape measures and satellite-derived metrics to water quality analysis has demonstrated their potential usefulness in monitoring watershed conditions across large regions.

  6. Integrating remote sensing techniques at Cuprite, Nevada: AVIRIS, Thematic Mapper, and field spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Bradley; Nash, Greg; Ridd, Merrill; Hauff, Phoebe L.; Ebel, Phil

    1992-01-01

    The Cuprite mining district in southwestern Nevada has become a test site for remote sensing studies with numerous airborne scanners and ground sensor data sets collected over the past fifteen years. Structurally, the Cuprite region can be divided into two areas with slightly different alteration and mineralogy. These zones lie on either side of a postulated low-angle structural discontinuity that strikes nearly parallel to US Route 95. Hydrothermal alternation at Cuprite was classified into three major zones: silicified, opalized, and argillized. These alteration types form a bulls-eye pattern east of the highway and are more linear on the west side of the highway making a striking contrast from the air and the imagery. Cuprite is therefore an ideal location for remote sensing research as it exhibits easily identified hydrothermal zoning, is relatively devoid of vegetation, and contains a distinctive spectrally diagnostic mineral suite including the ammonium feldspar buddingtonite, several types of alunite, different jarosites, illite, kaolinite, smectite, dickite, and opal. This present study brings a new dimension to these previous remote sensing and ground data sets compiled for Cuprite. The development of a higher resolution field spectrometer now provides the capability to combine extensive in-situ mineralogical data with a new geologic field survey and detailed Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometers (AVIRIS) images. The various data collection methods and the refinement of the integrated techniques are discussed.

  7. The application of remote sensing for climate change adaptation in Sahel region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deafalla, Taisser H. H.; Csaplovics, Elmar; El-Abbas, Mustafa M.

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, there is no doubt that global climate change (CC) has observable development impacts, which seriously threatens the ability of individuals and communities at all levels. During this process, the clear degradation in the situation of ecosystems has produced a global concern of the urgency to mitigate climate threats and related effects. Assessing the impacts and vulnerability of CC requires accurate, up-to-date and improved information. Coupled with the ready availability of historical remote sensing (RS) data, the reduction in data cost and increased resolution from satellite platforms, RS technology appears poised to make a great impact on planning agencies and providing better understanding the dynamics of the climate system, predict and mitigate the expected global changes and the effects on human civilization involved in mapping Land Use Land Cover (LU/LC) at a variety of spatial scales. This research was designed to study the impact of CC in conflict zones and potential flashpoints in Sudan namely Nuba Mountains, where the community in this area living in fragile and unstable conditions, which making them more vulnerable to the risk of violent conflict and CC effects. And to determine the factors that exacerbate vulnerability in the study area as well as to map and assess the LU/LC change during the period 1984 to 2011 covered the years (1999, 2002 and 2009). Multispectral satellite data (i.e. LANDSAT TM and TERRA ASTER) were used. Change detection techniques were applied to analyze the rate of changes, causal factors as well as the drivers of changes. Recent study showed the importance of spatial variables in tackling CC which promoted the use of maps made within a RS. In addition to provide an input for climate models; and thus plan adaptation strategies.

  8. Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Southworth, C. Scott

    1983-01-01

    The Landsat Program became the major event of 1982 in geological remote sensing with the successful launch of Landsat 4. Other 1982 remote sensing accomplishments, research, publications, (including a set of Landsat worldwide reference system index maps), and conferences are highlighted. (JN)

  9. LIFES: Laser Induced Fluorescence and Environmental Sensing. [remote sensing technique for marine environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, W. R.; Stephenson, D. G.; Measures, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    A laboratory investigation has been conducted to evaluate the detection and identification capabilities of laser induced fluorescence as a remote sensing technique for the marine environment. The relative merits of fluorescence parameters including emission and excitation profiles, intensity and lifetime measurements are discussed in relation to the identification of specific targets of the marine environment including crude oils, refined petroleum products, fish oils and algae. Temporal profiles displaying the variation of lifetime with emission wavelength have proven to add a new dimension of specificity and simplicity to the technique.

  10. Mapping Glauconite Unites with Using Remote Sensing Techniques in North East of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadirouhani, R.; Samiee, S.

    2014-10-01

    Glauconite is a greenish ferric-iron silicate mineral with micaceous structure, characteristically formed in shallow marine environments. Glauconite has been used as a pigmentation agent for oil paint, contaminants remover in environmental studies and a source of potassium in plant fertilizers, and other industries. Koppeh-dagh basin is extended in Iran, Afghanistan and Turkmenistan countries and Glauconite units exist in this basin. In this research for enhancing and mapping glauconitic units in Koppeh-dagh structural zone in north east of Iran, remote sensing techniques such as Spectral Angle Mapper classification (SAM), band ratio and band composition methods on SPOT, ASTER and Landsat data in 3 steps were applied.

  11. Generalized high-spectral-resolution lidar technique with a multimode laser for aerosol remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhongtao; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Yupeng; Liu, Chong; Bai, Jian; Wang, Dan; Wang, Nanchao; Zhou, Yudi; Luo, Jing; Yang, Yongying; Shen, Yibing; Su, Lin; Yang, Liming

    2017-01-23

    High-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL) is a powerful tool for atmospheric aerosol remote sensing. The current HSRL technique often requires a single longitudinal mode laser as the transmitter to accomplish the spectral discrimination of the aerosol and molecular scattering conveniently. However, single-mode laser is cumbersome and has very strict requirements for ambient stability, making the HSRL instrument not so robust in many cases. In this paper, a new HSRL concept, called generalized HSRL technique with a multimode laser (MML-gHSRL), is proposed, which can work using a multimode laser. The MML-gHSRL takes advantage of the period characteristic of the spectral function of the interferometric spectral discrimination filter (ISDF) thoroughly. By matching the free spectral range of the ISDF with the mode interval of the multimode laser, fine spectral discrimination for the lidar return from each longitudinal mode can be realized. Two common ISDFs, i.e., the Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) and field-widened Michelson interferometer (FWMI), are introduced to develop the MML-gHSRL, and their performance is quantitatively analyzed and compared. The MML-gHSRL is a natural but significant generalization for the current HSRL technique based on the IDSF. It is potential that this technique would be a good entrance to future HSRL developments, especially in airborne and satellite-borne aerosol remote sensing applications.

  12. Lighter-Than-Air Blimps As a Testbed For River Remote Sensing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonstad, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    River science has seen a methodological revolution during the past decade as new platforms, sensors, and processing algorithms have allowed the remote collection of river data with ever-increasing ease, accuracy, precision, and extent. Recently, hand-held, low cost lighter-than-air blimps have been suggested as an important platform for river remote sensing, particularly when high-resolution and low-cost imaging is required. Because blimps are small, inexpensive, and relatively simple to operate in the field, they allow rapid river remote sensing trials, particularly over shorter river reaches. Unlike most airborne or satellite approaches, hand-held blimps can also be used to do very rapid repeat imaging. Field experiments show that such hand-held platforms are not as stable as most airborne and satellite platforms, and they have far reduced lift, allowing only very small and simple camera systems. They are also susceptible to become entangled in near-channel trees, and almost always have the problem of inclusion of the operator somewhere in resulting image. These issues notwithstanding, the simple adjustment of blimp tether length can easily allow adjustment of ground resolution to extremely high levels, and programmable cameras can allow versatility in automatic camera shutter intervals, shutter speeds, and other image constraints. We utilize low-altitude helikite platforms to test the potential for remote sensing (a) well geometrically-controlled measurements of water surface configuration, (b) submerged and near-channel sediment sizes, (c) water depth, and (d) surface velocity. The velocity imaging techniques include the use of natural and artificial particle image velocimetry (PIV) features, with velocity extracted using either the principles of motion blur or from sequential images. In addition, we use these low-cost, mobile platforms to test the brightness and color effects of shadows cast upon the water surface, and use these results to suggest potential

  13. Quantifying the change in soil moisture modeling uncertainty from remote sensing observations using Bayesian inference techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Kenneth W.; Kumar, Sujay V.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Santanello, Joseph A.

    2012-11-01

    Operational land surface models (LSMs) compute hydrologic states such as soil moisture that are needed for a range of important applications (e.g., drought, flood, and weather prediction). The uncertainty in LSM parameters is sufficiently great that several researchers have proposed conducting parameter estimation using globally available remote sensing data to identify best fit local parameter sets. However, even with in situ data at fine modeling scales, there can be significant remaining uncertainty in LSM parameters and outputs. Here, using a new uncertainty estimation subsystem of the NASA Land Information System (LIS) (described herein), a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique is applied to conduct Bayesian analysis for the accounting of parameter uncertainties. The Differential Evolution Markov Chain (DE-MC) MCMC algorithm was applied, for which a new parallel implementation was developed. A case study is examined that builds on previous work in which the Noah LSM was calibrated to passive (L-band) microwave remote sensing estimates of soil moisture for the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed. In keeping with prior related studies, the parameters subjected to the analysis were restricted to the soil hydraulic properties (SHPs). The main goal is to estimate SHPs and soil moisture simulation uncertainty before and after consideration of the remote sensing data. The prior SHP uncertainty is based on the original source of the standard SHP lookup tables for the Noah LSM. Conclusions are drawn regarding the value and viability of Bayesian analysis over alternative approaches (e.g., parameter estimation, lookup tables) and further research needs are identified.

  14. Utilization of remotely sensed data for agricultural insurance as adaptation to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongo, C.; Ogasawara, C.; Sigit, G.; Tamura, E.

    2015-12-01

    Impact of climate change is not only seen on food production but also on food security, socio-economics of the poor and sustainable development of society. Adaptation to climate change is a pressing issue throughout the world to reduce the risks along with the plans and strategies for food security and sustainable development. As a key adaptation to the climate change, agricultural insurance is expected to play an important role in stabilizing agricultural production through compensating the losses caused by the climate change, meaning that the agricultural insurance can contribute to promotion of the stability in food security as one of 4 pillars defined by FOA of the United Nations. Having the above as background, we conducted research on utilization of remote sensing data including satellite data to assess damage ratio of rice production which could be used for calculation of indemnity in the agricultural insurance. Our study site was in West Java, Indonesia. For assessment of the damage ratio, estimation of rice yield is a key. As the result of our study, rice yield in dry season could be estimated at level of 1 % significance using SPOT5 satellite data taken in 2014, and the 10-fold cross-validation result was 0.7t/ha. Then, the decrease ratio in rice yield about each individual paddy field was calculated using data on the estimated result and the average yield of the past 10 years. According to the Indonesian agricultural insurance, if the damage of rice reaches 75% or above, the indemnity shall be paid to farmers. In our study site, the result showed that about 80 paddy fields located in lower irrigation region were the area to be paid by the insurance. Our study results suggest that the utilization of remote sensing data is much useful and promising for assessment of the damage ratio of rice production with precise, quick and quantitative, and also it can be incorporated into the insurance procedures.

  15. Inversion Techniques for Retrieving Detailed Aerosol Properties from Remote Sensing Observations: Achievements and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovik, O.

    2010-12-01

    The ability of aerosol particles to interact strongly with electromagnetic radiation makes aerosol one of most climatically important atmospheric component. Remote sensing using the same ability for characterizing properties of atmospheric aerosol is probably the most adequate observational approach for accessing aerosol effect in climatic studies. Indeed, the satellite remote sensing is unique technique allowing monitoring of time variability of the aerosol at regional and global scales. Compare to in situ and laboratory measurements, remote methods do not use aerosol sampling and allow accessing the properties of unperturbed ambient aerosol in the atmospheres. However, interpretation of the remote sensing observations involves data inversion that, in practice, often appears to be a sophisticated procedure leading to rather ambiguous results. Numerous publications offer a wide diversity of approaches suggesting somewhat different inversion methods. Such uncertainty in methodological guidance leads to excessive dependence of retrieval algorithms on the personalized input and preferences of the developer. This presentation highlights a continues effort on developing a concept clarifying the differences between various methods and outlining unified principles addressing such important aspects of inversion optimization as accounting for errors in the data used, inverting the data with different levels of accuracy, accounting for a priori and ancillary information, estimating retrieval errors, etc. The developed concept uses the principles of statistical estimation and suggests a generalized multi-term Least Square type formulation that complementarily unites advantages of a variety of practical inversion approaches, such as Phillips-Tikhonov-Twomey constrained inversion, Kalman filter, Newton-Gauss and Levenberg-Marquardt iterations, optimal estimation, etc. The concept will be demonstrated by successful implementations in several challenging aerosol remote sensing

  16. Groundwater resources development in hard rock terrain - an approach using remote sensing and GIS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, Jagannathan; Mani, Arul; Jayaraman, Venkatakrishnan; Manivel, M.

    To demonstrate the capabilities of remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques for groundwater resources development in hard rock terrains, specifically for the demarcation of suitable sites for artificial recharge of groundwater aquifers, a study was carried out in the Kallar Basin, which is located in parts of the Salem and Tiruchirapalli districts, Tamil Nadu, India. Thematic maps defining lithology, lineaments, landforms, landuse, drainage density, thickness of weathered zone, thickness of fractured zone, hydrological soils, and well yield were prepared from data collected by the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) -1C and by conventional methods. All the thematic layers were integrated using a GIS-based model developed specifically for this purpose, enabling a map showing artificial recharge zones to be generated. The exact type of artificial recharge structure, eg, check dam, nallabund, gully plugging and percolation pond, suitable for replenishing groundwater was identified by superposing a drainage network map over an artificial recharge zones map. The GIS-based demarcation of artificial zones developed in the study was based on logical conditions and reasoning, so that the same techniques (with appropriate modifications) could be adopted elsewhere, especially in hard rock terrain, where the occurrence of groundwater is restricted and subject to greater complexity.

  17. Differential Radiometers Using Fabry-Perot Interferometric Technique for Remote Sensing of Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgieva, Elena M.; Heaps,William S.; Wilson, Emily L.

    2007-01-01

    A new type of remote sensing radiometer based upon the Fabry-Perot interferometric technique has been developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and tested from both ground and aircraft platform. The sensor uses direct or reflected sunlight and has channels for measuring column concentration of carbon dioxide at 1570 nm, oxygen lines sensitive to pressure and temperature at 762 and 768 nm, and water vapor (940 nm). A solid Fabry-Perot etalon is used as a tunable narrow bandpass filter to restrict the measurement to the gas of interest's absorption bands. By adjusting the temperature of the etalon, which changes the index of refraction of its material, the transmission fringes can be brought into nearly exact correspondence with absorption lines of the particular species. With this alignment between absorption lines and fringes, changes in the amount of a species in the atmosphere strongly affect the amount of light transmitted by the etalon and can be related to gas concentration. The technique is applicable to different chemical species. We have performed simulations and instrument design studies for CH4, "Cot isotope, and CO detection. Index Terms- Absorbing media, Atmospheric measurements, Fabry-Perot interferometers, Optical interferometry, Remote sensing.

  18. Remote Sensing Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The applications are reported of new remote sensing techniques for earth resources surveys and environmental monitoring. Applications discussed include: vegetation systems, environmental monitoring, and plant protection. Data processing systems are described.

  19. A Comprehensive Review on Water Quality Parameters Estimation Using Remote Sensing Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Gholizadeh, Mohammad Haji; Melesse, Assefa M.; Reddi, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensed data can reinforce the abilities of water resources researchers and decision makers to monitor waterbodies more effectively. Remote sensing techniques have been widely used to measure the qualitative parameters of waterbodies (i.e., suspended sediments, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), chlorophyll-a, and pollutants). A large number of different sensors on board various satellites and other platforms, such as airplanes, are currently used to measure the amount of radiation at different wavelengths reflected from the water’s surface. In this review paper, various properties (spectral, spatial and temporal, etc.) of the more commonly employed spaceborne and airborne sensors are tabulated to be used as a sensor selection guide. Furthermore, this paper investigates the commonly used approaches and sensors employed in evaluating and quantifying the eleven water quality parameters. The parameters include: chlorophyll-a (chl-a), colored dissolved organic matters (CDOM), Secchi disk depth (SDD), turbidity, total suspended sediments (TSS), water temperature (WT), total phosphorus (TP), sea surface salinity (SSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). PMID:27537896

  20. Use of remote-sensing techniques to survey the physical habitat of large rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Behrendt, Thomas E.; Cholwek, Gary; Frey, Jeffery W.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Smith, Stephen B.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Behrendt, Thomas E.; Cholwek, Gary; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Smith, Stephen B.

    1997-01-01

    Remote-sensing techniques that can be used to quantitatively characterize the physical habitat in large rivers in the United States where traditional survey approaches typically used in small- and medium-sized streams and rivers would be ineffective or impossible to apply. The state-of-the-art remote-sensing technologies that we discuss here include side-scan sonar, RoxAnn, acoustic Doppler current profiler, remotely operated vehicles and camera systems, global positioning systems, and laser level survey systems. The use of these technologies will permit the collection of information needed to create computer visualizations and hard copy maps and generate quantitative databases that can be used in real-time mode in the field to characterize the physical habitat at a study location of interest and to guide the distribution of sampling effort needed to address other habitat-related study objectives. This report augments habitat sampling and characterization guidance provided by Meador et al. (1993) and is intended for use primarily by U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment program managers and scientists who are documenting water quality in streams and rivers of the United States.

  1. Realization of daily evapotranspiration in arid ecosystems based on remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhag, Mohamed; Bahrawi, Jarbou A.

    2017-03-01

    Daily evapotranspiration is a major component of water resources management plans. In arid ecosystems, the quest for an efficient water budget is always hard to achieve due to insufficient irrigational water and high evapotranspiration rates. Therefore, monitoring of daily evapotranspiration is a key practice for sustainable water resources management, especially in arid environments. Remote sensing techniques offered a great help to estimate the daily evapotranspiration on a regional scale. Existing open-source algorithms proved to estimate daily evapotranspiration comprehensively in arid environments. The only deficiency of these algorithms is the course scale of the used remote sensing data. Consequently, the adequate downscaling algorithm is a compulsory step to rationalize an effective water resources management plan. Daily evapotranspiration was estimated fairly well using an Advance Along-Track Scanner Radiometer (AATSR) in conjunction with (MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) MERIS data acquired in July 2013 with 1 km spatial resolution and 3 days of temporal resolution under a surface energy balance system (SEBS) model. Results were validated against reference evapotranspiration ground truth values using standardized Penman-Monteith method with R2 of 0.879. The findings of the current research successfully monitor turbulent heat fluxes values estimated from AATSR and MERIS data with a temporal resolution of 3 days only in conjunction with reliable meteorological data. Research verdicts are necessary inputs for a well-informed decision-making processes regarding sustainable water resource management.

  2. A Remote Sensing Technique For Combustion Gas Temperature Measurement In Black Liquor Recovery Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charagundla, S. R.; Semerjian, H. G.

    1986-10-01

    A remote sensing technique, based on the principles of emission spectroscopy, is being developed for temperature measurements in black liquor recovery boilers. Several tests have been carried out, both in the laboratory and at a number of recovery boilers, to characterize the emission spectra in the wavelength range of 300 nm to 800 nm. These tests have pointed out the potential for temperature measurements using the line intensity ratio technique based on a pair of emission lines at 404.4 nm and 766.5 nm observed in the recovery boiler combustion zone; these emission lines are due to potassium, a common constituent found in all the black liquors. Accordingly, a fiber optics based four-color system has been developed. This in-situ, nonintrusive temperature measurement technique, together with some of the more recent results, is described in this paper.

  3. Development of mathematical techniques for the assimilation of remote sensing data into atmospheric models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seinfeld, J. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The problem of the assimilation of remote sensing data into mathematical models of atmospheric pollutant species was investigated. The problem is posed in terms of the matching of spatially integrated species burden measurements to the predicted three dimensional concentration fields from atmospheric diffusion models. General conditions are derived for the "reconstructability' of atmospheric concentration distributions from data typical of remote sensing applications, and a computational algorithm (filter) for the processing of remote sensing data is developed.

  4. Development of mathematical techniques for the assimilation of remote sensing data into atmospheric models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seinfeld, J. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The problem of the assimilation of remote sensing data into mathematical models of atmospheric pollutant species was investigated. The data assimilation problem is posed in terms of the matching of spatially integrated species burden measurements to the predicted three-dimensional concentration fields from atmospheric diffusion models. General conditions were derived for the reconstructability of atmospheric concentration distributions from data typical of remote sensing applications, and a computational algorithm (filter) for the processing of remote sensing data was developed.

  5. A satellite remote-sensing technique for geological horizon structure mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, A.J.; Huggins, P.; Cleverley, P.H.; Rees, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    A Satellite Remote Sensing technique is demonstrated which provides accurate and cost effective near-surface geological structure data. In the exploration phase the technique enables the rapid and inexpensive screening of open licences and the targeting of seismic acquisition, particularly important in terrains of difficult data acquisition. This paper describes the satellite data used, the technique of horizon surface data extraction and the analysis of a case study from Yemen. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data and a high resolution digital elevation model (DEM), generated from stereo SPOT panchromatic images, are used in conjunction to identify a number of outcropping horizons and map their spatial position and height. Geological contacts are identified and digitised from the Landsat TM data and the elevations of these points taken from the digital elevation data. The extracted x,y,z co-ordinates are then gridded to construct a horizon structure map. The technique is applied to an area of central Yemen which is characterised by a near-surface {open_quote}layer cake{close_quote} geological structure in an extremely low dipping terrain (Less than 1{degrees}). The remote sensing interpretation is validated by comparison with 2D seismic across the area. Regional flexural structures with bed dips of as little as 0.25{degrees} can be mapped. Trend analysis and residual calculations on the horizon structure map show the techniques ability to identify and quantify horizon deformation related to faulting. Surface geological structure was successfully interpolated into the subsurface indicating potential fault closure at reservoir target depths.

  6. Application of Remote Sensing Techniques for Appraising Changes in Wildlife Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, H. K.; Klett, A. T.; Johnston, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    An attempt was made to investigate the potential of airborne, multispectral, line scanner data acquisition and computer-implemented automatic recognition techniques for providing useful information about waterfowl breeding habitat in North Dakota. The spectral characteristics of the components of a landscape containing waterfowl habitat can be detected with airborne scanners. By analyzing these spectral characteristics it is possible to identify and map the landscape components through analog and digital processing methods. At the present stage of development multispectral remote sensing techniques are not ready for operational application to surveys of migratory bird habitat and other such resources. Further developments are needed to: (1) increase accuracy; (2) decrease retrieval and processing time; and (3) reduce costs.

  7. Laboratory insights into the detection of surface biosignatures by remote-sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poch, O.; Pommerol, A.; Jost, B.; Roditi, I.; Frey, J.; Thomas, N.

    2014-03-01

    With the progress of direct imaging techniques, it will be possible in the short or long-term future to retrieve more efficiently the information on the physical properties of the light reflected by rocky exoplanets (Traub et al., 2010). The search for visible-infrared absorption bands of peculiar gases (O2, CH4 etc.) in this light could give clues for the presence of life (Kaltenegger and Selsis, 2007). Even more uplifting would be the direct detection of life itself, on the surface of an exoplanet. Considering this latter possibility, what is the potential of optical remote-sensing methods to detect surface biosignatures? Reflected light from the surface of the Earth exhibits a strong surface biosignature in the form of an abrupt change of reflectance between the visible and infrared range of the spectrum (Seager et al., 2005). This spectral feature called "vegetation red-edge" is possibly the consequence of biological evolution selecting the right chemical structures enabling the plants to absorb the visible energy, while preventing them from overheating by reflecting more efficiently the infrared. Such red-edge is also found in primitive photosynthetic bacteria, cyanobacteria, that colonized the surface of the Earth ocean and continents billions of years before multicellular plants (Knacke, 2003). If life ever arose on an Earth-like exoplanet, one could hypothesize that some form of its surface-life evolves into similar photo-active organisms, also exhibiting a red-edge. In this paper, we will present our plan and preliminary results of a laboratory study aiming at precising the potentiality of remote sensing techniques in detecting such surface biosignatures. Using equipment that has been developed in our team for surface photometry studies (Pommerol 2011, Jost 2013, Pommerol 2013), we will investigate the reflectance spectra and bidirectional reflectance function of soils containing bacteria such as cyanobacteria, in various environmental conditions. We will

  8. Water impact studies. [impact of remote sensing techniques on management storage, flow, and delivery of California water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation has begun into the potential impact of using modern remote sensing techniques as an aid in managing, even on a day-to-day basis, the storage, flow, and delivery of water made available through the California Water Project. It is obvious that the amount of this impact depends upon the extent to which remote sensing is proven to be useful in improving predictions of both the amount of water that will be available and the amount that will be needed. It is also proposed to investigate the potential impact of remote sensing techniques as an aid in monitoring, and perhaps even in directing, changes in land use and life style being brought about through the increased availability of water in central and southern California as a result of the California Water Project. The impact of remote sensing can be of appreciable significance only if: (1) the induced changes are very substantial ones; (2) remote sensing is found, in this context, to be very useful and potentially very cost effective; and (3) resource managers adopt this new technology. Analyses will be conducted of the changing economic bases and the new land use demands resulting from increased water availability in central and southern California.

  9. Mapping Tamarix: New techniques for field measurements, spatial modeling and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelista, Paul H.

    peak growing months. These studies demonstrate that new techniques can further our understanding of tamarisk's impacts on ecosystem processes, predict potential distribution and new invasions, and improve our ability to detect occurrence using remote sensing techniques. Collectively, the results of my studies may increase our ability to map tamarisk distributions and better quantify its impacts over multiple spatial and temporal scales.

  10. Applications of remote sensing techniques to county land use and flood hazard mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. B.; Conn, J. S.; Miller, D. A.; Mouat, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    The application of remote sensing in Arizona is discussed. Land use and flood hazard mapping completed by the Applied Remote Sensing Program is described. Areas subject to periodic flood inundation are delineated and land use maps monitoring the growth within specific counties are provided.

  11. Feasibility of estimating rice planting area of hilly region in southern China using remote sensing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Geying; Yang, Xingwei

    1998-08-01

    The objective of the study (Zhejiang province as study area) was to estimate rice planting area of hilly region in southern part of China by remote sensing technique with NOAA/AVHRR data. The research contents mainly concerned contrast tests on practical approaches, both digital elevation model (DEM) and digital slope model (DSM) derived from the digital relief map were used for the purpose of improving the classification accuracy of AVHRR imagery in large-area hilly region. The results indicated that the accuracy of maximum-likelihood (MLH) classification could satisfy the professional requirements of estimating rice planting area and fuzzy supervised classification based on unmixing AVHRR imagery has better classification accuracy and stability than MLH. In addition, the results through using both DEM and DSM as ancillary categorization data suggests DSM may improve the results of extracting paddy field signatures from AVHRR, particularly may improve the spatial accuracy, while DEM contribute nothing to improve the accuracy mentioned above.

  12. Comparison of multispectral remote-sensing techniques for monitoring subsurface drain conditions. [Imperial Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goettelman, R. C.; Grass, L. B.; Millard, J. P.; Nixon, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    The following multispectral remote-sensing techniques were compared to determine the most suitable method for routinely monitoring agricultural subsurface drain conditions: airborne scanning, covering the visible through thermal-infrared (IR) portions of the spectrum; color-IR photography; and natural-color photography. Color-IR photography was determined to be the best approach, from the standpoint of both cost and information content. Aerial monitoring of drain conditions for early warning of tile malfunction appears practical. With careful selection of season and rain-induced soil-moisture conditions, extensive regional surveys are possible. Certain locations, such as the Imperial Valley, Calif., are precluded from regional monitoring because of year-round crop rotations and soil stratification conditions. Here, farms with similar crops could time local coverage for bare-field and saturated-soil conditions.

  13. Application of remote sensing techniques to the geology of the bonanza volcanic center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrs, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    A program is reported for evaluating remote sensing as an aid to geologic mapping for the past four years. Data tested in this evaluation include color and color infrared photography, multiband photography, low sun-angle photography, thermal infrared scanner imagery, and side-looking airborne radar. The relative utility of color and color infrared photography was tested as it was used to refine geologic maps in previously mapped areas, as field photos while mapping in the field, and in making photogeologic maps prior to field mapping. The latter technique served as a test of the maximum utility of the photography. In this application the photography was used successfully to locate 75% of all faults in a portion of the geologically complex Bonanza volcanic center and to map and correctly identify 93% of all Quaternary deposits and 62% of all areas of Tertiary volcanic outcrop in the area.

  14. Remote sensing of temperature profiles in vegetation canopies using multiple view angles and inversion techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimes, D. S.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical method is presented which allows the determination of vertical temperature profiles of vegetation canopies from multiple sensor view angles and some knowledge of the vegetation geometric structure. The technique was evaluated with data from several wheat canopies at different stages of development, and shown to be most useful in the separation of vegetation and substrate temperatures with greater accuracy in the case of intermediate and dense vegetation canopies than in sparse ones. The converse is true for substrate temperatures. Root-mean-square prediction accuracies of temperatures for intermediate-density wheat canopies were 1.8 C and 1.4 C for an exact and an overdeterminate system, respectively. The findings have implication for remote sensing research in agriculture, geology or other earth resources disciplines.

  15. A Study of Flood Evacuation Center Using GIS and Remote Sensing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustaffa, A. A.; Rosli, M. F.; Abustan, M. S.; Adib, R.; Rosli, M. I.; Masiri, K.; Saifullizan, B.

    2016-07-01

    This research demonstrated the use of Remote Sensing technique and GIS to determine the suitability of an evacuation center. This study was conducted in Batu Pahat areas that always hit by a series of flood. The data of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was obtained by ASTER database that has been used to delineate extract contour line and elevation. Landsat 8 image was used for classification purposes such as land use map. Remote Sensing incorporate with GIS techniques was used to determined the suitability location of the evacuation center from contour map of flood affected areas in Batu Pahat. GIS will calculate the elevation of the area and information about the country of the area, the road access and percentage of the affected area. The flood affected area map may provide the suitability of the flood evacuation center during the several levels of flood. The suitability of evacuation centers can be determined based on several criteria and the existing data of the evacuation center will be analysed. From the analysis among 16 evacuation center listed, there are only 8 evacuation center suitable for the usage during emergency situation. The suitability analysis was based on the location and the road access of the evacuation center toward the flood affected area. There are 10 new locations with suitable criteria of evacuation center proposed on the study area to facilitate the process of rescue and evacuating flood victims to much safer and suitable locations. The results of this study will help in decision making processes and indirectly will help organization such as fire-fighter and the Department of Social Welfare in their work. Thus, this study can contribute more towards the society.

  16. Mapping aboveground woody biomass using forest inventory, remote sensing and geostatistical techniques.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Bechu K V; Nandy, S

    2015-05-01

    Mapping forest biomass is fundamental for estimating CO₂ emissions, and planning and monitoring of forests and ecosystem productivity. The present study attempted to map aboveground woody biomass (AGWB) integrating forest inventory, remote sensing and geostatistical techniques, viz., direct radiometric relationships (DRR), k-nearest neighbours (k-NN) and cokriging (CoK) and to evaluate their accuracy. A part of the Timli Forest Range of Kalsi Soil and Water Conservation Division, Uttarakhand, India was selected for the present study. Stratified random sampling was used to collect biophysical data from 36 sample plots of 0.1 ha (31.62 m × 31.62 m) size. Species-specific volumetric equations were used for calculating volume and multiplied by specific gravity to get biomass. Three forest-type density classes, viz. 10-40, 40-70 and >70% of Shorea robusta forest and four non-forest classes were delineated using on-screen visual interpretation of IRS P6 LISS-III data of December 2012. The volume in different strata of forest-type density ranged from 189.84 to 484.36 m(3) ha(-1). The total growing stock of the forest was found to be 2,024,652.88 m(3). The AGWB ranged from 143 to 421 Mgha(-1). Spectral bands and vegetation indices were used as independent variables and biomass as dependent variable for DRR, k-NN and CoK. After validation and comparison, k-NN method of Mahalanobis distance (root mean square error (RMSE) = 42.25 Mgha(-1)) was found to be the best method followed by fuzzy distance and Euclidean distance with RMSE of 44.23 and 45.13 Mgha(-1) respectively. DRR was found to be the least accurate method with RMSE of 67.17 Mgha(-1). The study highlighted the potential of integrating of forest inventory, remote sensing and geostatistical techniques for forest biomass mapping.

  17. [A spatial adaptive algorithm for endmember extraction on multispectral remote sensing image].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chang-Ming; Luo, Jian-Cheng; Shen, Zhan-Feng; Li, Jun-Li; Hu, Xiao-Dong

    2011-10-01

    Due to the problem that the convex cone analysis (CCA) method can only extract limited endmember in multispectral imagery, this paper proposed a new endmember extraction method by spatial adaptive spectral feature analysis in multispectral remote sensing image based on spatial clustering and imagery slice. Firstly, in order to remove spatial and spectral redundancies, the principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm was used for lowering the dimensions of the multispectral data. Secondly, iterative self-organizing data analysis technology algorithm (ISODATA) was used for image cluster through the similarity of the pixel spectral. And then, through clustering post process and litter clusters combination, we divided the whole image data into several blocks (tiles). Lastly, according to the complexity of image blocks' landscape and the feature of the scatter diagrams analysis, the authors can determine the number of endmembers. Then using hourglass algorithm extracts endmembers. Through the endmember extraction experiment on TM multispectral imagery, the experiment result showed that the method can extract endmember spectra form multispectral imagery effectively. What's more, the method resolved the problem of the amount of endmember limitation and improved accuracy of the endmember extraction. The method has provided a new way for multispectral image endmember extraction.

  18. The application of remote sensing techniques to inter and intra urban analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, F. E.

    1972-01-01

    This is an effort to assess the applicability of air and spaceborne photography toward providing data inputs to urban and regional planning, management, and research. Through evaluation of remote sensing inputs to urban change detection systems, analyzing an effort to replicate an existing urban land use data file using remotely sensed data, estimating population and dwelling units from imagery, and by identifying and evaluating a system of urban places ultilizing space photography, it was determined that remote sensing can provide data concerning land use, changes in commercial structure, data for transportation planning, housing quality, residential dynamics, and population density.

  19. Spatial and functional characterization, identification and assessment of isolated wetlands in Alachua County, Florida, USA - GIS and remote sensing techniques

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing mapping techniques were developed to identify the locations of isolated wetlands in Alachua County, FL, a 2510 sq km area in north-central Florida with diverse geology and numerous isolated wetlands. The resul...

  20. Domain adaptation based on deep denoising auto-encoders for classification of remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riz, Emanuele; Demir, Begüm; Bruzzone, Lorenzo

    2016-10-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of deep learning (DL) for domain adaptation (DA) problems in the classification of remote sensing images to generate land-cover maps. To this end, we introduce two different DL architectures: 1) single-stage domain adaptation (SS-DA) architecture; and 2) hierarchal domain adaptation (H-DA) architecture. Both architectures require that a reliable training set is available only for one of the images (i.e., the source domain) from a previous analysis, whereas it is not for another image to be classified (i.e., the target domain). To classify the target domain image, the proposed architectures aim to learn a shared feature representation that is invariant across the source and target domains in a completely unsupervised fashion. To this end, both architectures are defined based on the stacked denoising auto-encoders (SDAEs) due to their high capability to define high-level feature representations. The SS-DA architecture leads to a common feature space by: 1) initially unifying the samples in source and target domains; and 2) then feeding them simultaneously into the SDAE. To further increase the robustness of the shared representations, the H-DA employs: 1) two SDAEs for learning independently the high level representations of source and target domains; and 2) a consensus SDAE to learn the domain invariant high-level features. After obtaining the domain invariant features through proposed architectures, the classifier is trained by the domain invariant labeled samples of the source domain, and then the domain invariant samples of the target domain are classified to generate the related classification map. Experimental results obtained for the classification of very high resolution images confirm the effectiveness of the proposed DL architectures.

  1. Applying remote sensing and GIS techniques in solving rural county information needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannsen, Chris J.; Fernandez, R. Norberto; Lozano-Garcia, D. Fabian

    1992-01-01

    The project designed was to acquaint county government officials and their clientele with remote sensing and GIS products that contain information about land conditions and land use. Other users determined through the course of this project were federal agencies working at the county level, agricultural businesses and others in need of spatial information. The specific project objectives were: (1) to investigate the feasibility of using remotely sensed data to identify and quantify specific land cover categories and conditions for purposes of tax assessment, cropland area measurements and land use evaluation; (2) to investigate the use of satellite remote sensing data as an aid in assessing soil management practices; and (3) to evaluate the use of remotely sensed data to assess soil resources and conditions which affect productivity.

  2. On the Estimation of Forest Resources Using 3D Remote Sensing Techniques and Point Cloud Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karjalainen, Mika; Karila, Kirsi; Liang, Xinlian; Yu, Xiaowei; Huang, Guoman; Lu, Lijun

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, 3D capable remote sensing techniques have shown great potential in forest biomass estimation because of their ability to measure the forest canopy structure, tree height and density. The objective of the Dragon3 forest resources research project (ID 10667) and the supporting ESA young scientist project (ESA contract NO. 4000109483/13/I-BG) was to study the use of satellite based 3D techniques in forest tree height estimation, and consequently in forest biomass and biomass change estimation, by combining satellite data with terrestrial measurements. Results from airborne 3D techniques were also used in the project. Even though, forest tree height can be estimated from 3D satellite SAR data to some extent, there is need for field reference plots. For this reason, we have also been developing automated field plot measurement techniques based on Terrestrial Laser Scanning data, which can be used to train and calibrate satellite based estimation models. In this paper, results of canopy height models created from TerraSAR-X stereo and TanDEM-X INSAR data are shown as well as preliminary results from TLS field plot measurement system. Also, results from the airborne CASMSAR system to measure forest canopy height from P- and X- band INSAR are presented.

  3. Comparison of remote sensing image processing techniques to identify tornado damage areas from Landsat TM data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myint, S.W.; Yuan, M.; Cerveny, R.S.; Giri, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been shown effective for large-scale damage surveys after a hazardous event in both near real-time or post-event analyses. The paper aims to compare accuracy of common imaging processing techniques to detect tornado damage tracks from Landsat TM data. We employed the direct change detection approach using two sets of images acquired before and after the tornado event to produce a principal component composite images and a set of image difference bands. Techniques in the comparison include supervised classification, unsupervised classification, and objectoriented classification approach with a nearest neighbor classifier. Accuracy assessment is based on Kappa coefficient calculated from error matrices which cross tabulate correctly identified cells on the TM image and commission and omission errors in the result. Overall, the Object-oriented Approach exhibits the highest degree of accuracy in tornado damage detection. PCA and Image Differencing methods show comparable outcomes. While selected PCs can improve detection accuracy 5 to 10%, the Object-oriented Approach performs significantly better with 15-20% higher accuracy than the other two techniques. ?? 2008 by MDPI.

  4. Comparison of Remote Sensing Image Processing Techniques to Identify Tornado Damage Areas from Landsat TM Data

    PubMed Central

    Myint, Soe W.; Yuan, May; Cerveny, Randall S.; Giri, Chandra P.

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been shown effective for large-scale damage surveys after a hazardous event in both near real-time or post-event analyses. The paper aims to compare accuracy of common imaging processing techniques to detect tornado damage tracks from Landsat TM data. We employed the direct change detection approach using two sets of images acquired before and after the tornado event to produce a principal component composite images and a set of image difference bands. Techniques in the comparison include supervised classification, unsupervised classification, and object-oriented classification approach with a nearest neighbor classifier. Accuracy assessment is based on Kappa coefficient calculated from error matrices which cross tabulate correctly identified cells on the TM image and commission and omission errors in the result. Overall, the Object-oriented Approach exhibits the highest degree of accuracy in tornado damage detection. PCA and Image Differencing methods show comparable outcomes. While selected PCs can improve detection accuracy 5 to 10%, the Object-oriented Approach performs significantly better with 15-20% higher accuracy than the other two techniques. PMID:27879757

  5. New remote sensing techniques facilitate study of earth's far-flung volcanos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Pieri, David C.

    1990-01-01

    The study of volcanos using remote sensing is discussed. The dynamics of volcanic eruptions and the interactions between volcanos and the atmosphere and ecosphere are examined. Remote sensing equipment can effectively detect mud flows, pyroclastic falls, debris avalanches, lava flows, and hazards to aircraft from eruption plumes. Consideration is given to the use of thermal IR imaging, weather satellites, and polar-orbiting satellites to study such features as lava flow, silica content, and SO2 distribution.

  6. Applied Remote Sensing Program (ARSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. D.; Foster, K. E.; Mouat, D. A.; Miller, D. A.; Conn, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    The activities and accomplishments of the Applied Remote Sensing Program during FY 1975-1976 are reported. The principal objective of the Applied Remote Sensing Program continues to be designed projects having specific decision-making impacts as a principal goal. These projects are carried out in cooperation and collaboration with local, state and federal agencies whose responsibilities lie with planning, zoning and environmental monitoring and/or assessment in the application of remote sensing techniques. The end result of the projects is the use by the involved agencies of remote sensing techniques in problem solving.

  7. Remote sensing of row crop structure and component temperatures using directional radiometric temperatures and inversion techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimes, D. S.

    1983-01-01

    A physically based sensor response model of a row crop was used as the mathematical framework from which several inversion strategies were tested for extracting row structure information and component temperatures using a series of sensor view angles. The technique was evaluated on ground-based radiometric thermal infrared data of a cotton row crop that covered 48 percent of the ground in the vertical projection. The results showed that the accuracies of the predicted row heights and widths, vegetation temperatures, and soil temperatures of the cotton row crop were on the order of 5 cm, 1 deg, and 2 deg C, respectively. The inversion techniques can be applied to directional sensor data from aircraft platforms and even space platforms if the effects of atmospheric absorption and emission can be corrected. In theory, such inversion techniques can be applied to a wide variety of vegetation types and thus can have significant implications for remote sensing research and applications in disciplines that deal with incomplete vegetation canopies.

  8. Physical fundamentals of remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanda, E.

    The physical principles describing the propagation of EM waves in the atmosphere and their interactions with matter are discussed as they apply to remote sensing, in an introductory text intended for graduate science students, environmental-science researchers, and remote-sensing practitioners. The emphasis is on basic effects rather than an specific remote-sensing techniques or observational results. Chapters are devoted to basic relations, the spectral lines of atmospheric gases, the spectral properties of condensed matter, and radiative transfer.

  9. Application of remote sensing techniques to hydrography with emphasis on bathymetry. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Meireles, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques are utilized for the determination of hydrographic characteristics, with emphasis in bathymetry. Two sensor systems were utilized: the Metric Camera Wild RC-10 and the Multispectral Scanner of LANDSAT Satellite (MSS-LANDSAT). From photographs of the metric camera, data of photographic density of points with known depth are obtained. A correlation between the variables density x depth is calculated through a regression straight line. From this line, the depth of points with known photographic density is determined. The LANDSAT MSS images are interpreted automatically in the Iterative Multispectral Analysis System (I-100) with the obtention of point subareas with the same gray level. With some simplifications done, it is assumed that the depth of a point is directly related with its gray level. Subareas with points of the same depth are then determined and isobathymetric curves are drawn. The coast line is obtained through the sensor systems already mentioned. Advantages and limitations of the techniques and of the sensor systems utilized are discussed and the results are compared with ground truth.

  10. Urban Mapping and Growth Prediction using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques, Pune, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, V.

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to map the urban area in and around Pune region between the year 1991 and 2010, and predict its probable future growth using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The Landsat TM and ETM+ satellite images of 1991, 2001 and 2010 were used for analyzing urban land use class. Urban class was extracted / mapped using supervised classification technique with maximum likelihood classifier. The accuracy assessment was carried out for classified maps. The achieved overall accuracy and Kappa statistics were 86.33 % & 0.76 respectively. Transition probability matrix and area change were obtained using different classified images. A plug-in was developed in QGIS software (open source) based on Markov Chain model algorithm for predicting probable urban growth for the future year 2021. Based on available data set, the result shows that urban area is expected to grow much higher in the year 2021 when compared to 2010. This study provides an insight into understanding of urban growth and aids in subsequent infrastructure planning, management and decision-making.

  11. Geobotanical discrimination of ultramafic parent materials An evaluation of remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouat, D. A.; Morrissey, L. A.; Horn, E. M.

    1984-01-01

    Color and color infrared aerial photography and imagery acquired from a Daedalus DEI-1260 multispectral airborne scanner were employed in an investigation to discriminate ultramafic rock types in a test site in southwest Oregon. An analysis of the relationships between vegetation characteristics and parent materials was performed using a vegetation classification and map developed for the project, lithologic information derived from published geologic maps of the region, and terrain information gathered in the field. Several analytical methods, including visual image analysis, band ratioing, principal components analysis, and contrast enhancement and subsequent color composite generation were used in the investigation. There was a close correspondence between vegetation types and major rock types. These were readily discriminated by the remote sensing techniques. It was found that ultramafic rock types were separable from non-ultramafic rock types and serpentine was distinguishable from non-serpentinized peridotite. Further investigations involving spectroradiometric and digital classification techniques are being performed to further identify rock types and to discriminate chromium and nickel-bearing rock types.

  12. Irrigated rice area estimation using remote sensing techniques: Project's proposal and preliminary results. [Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Deassuncao, G. V.; Moreira, M. A.; Novaes, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a methodology for annual estimates of irrigated rice crop in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, using remote sensing techniques is proposed. The project involves interpretation, digital analysis, and sampling techniques of LANDSAT imagery. Results are discussed from a preliminary phase for identifying and evaluating irrigated rice crop areas in four counties of the State, for the crop year 1982/1983. This first phase involved just visual interpretation techniques of MSS/LANDSAT images.

  13. Comparing the effects of Different Remote Sensing Techniques for Extracting Deciduous Broadleaf Phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilushin, D.; Richardson, A. D.; Toomey, M. P.; Pless, R.; Shapiro, A.

    2013-12-01

    Vegetation phenology, annual life cycles of plants, provides a key feedback with climate variability and change and is an important parameter in land surface models used to predict global climate. As such, there is a need to track the rhythm of the seasons with more detail. Common remote sensing methods used to track phenology are limited by their coarse temporal and/or spatial resolutions. Alternatively, I look to explore the usability of publicly available 'webcams' as an indicator of phenological trends. More specifically, I address the question of how this new measurement relates to that of satellite imagery, a common technique for remote sensing of phenology. I have used a subset of images from publically available, geo-referenced webcams from the Archive of Many Outdoor Scenes, a repository maintained by faculty at Washington University in St. Louis, as my test data. From the GCC (Greenness Chromatic Coordinate, or average greenness) time series produced from each of the 685 cameras used, I extract the phenological transition dates calculated for both spring and fall using curve fitting or threshold methods and compared these values to corresponding dates extracted from satellite imagery. Firstly, I look to the efficacy of reproducing reliable dates of phenological transition from data with missing information, with preliminary results showing that up to twenty percent of data can be missing while still resulting in reliable results. Next, I determine the relationship of differing date extraction methods on the webcams to find out their utility in arriving at dates that correspond with visual cues of phenological dates. These phenologically derived dates are further compared with their corresponding satellite imagery dates to find whether or not there exist prevailing biases between measurements calculated using the near-infrared and visual spectrum versus solely the visual spectrum. Lastly, the resulting information is compared geospatially to look for both

  14. An Adaptive Web-Based Learning Environment for the Application of Remote Sensing in Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, N.; Fuchsgruber, V.; Riembauer, G.; Siegmund, A.

    2016-06-01

    Satellite images have great educational potential for teaching on environmental issues and can promote the motivation of young people to enter careers in natural science and technology. Due to the importance and ubiquity of remote sensing in science, industry and the public, the use of satellite imagery has been included into many school curricular in Germany. However, its implementation into school practice is still hesitant, mainly due to lack of teachers' know-how and education materials that align with the curricula. In the project "Space4Geography" a web-based learning platform is developed with the aim to facilitate the application of satellite imagery in secondary school teaching and to foster effective student learning experiences in geography and other related subjects in an interdisciplinary way. The platform features ten learning modules demonstrating the exemplary application of original high spatial resolution remote sensing data (RapidEye and TerraSAR-X) to examine current environmental issues such as droughts, deforestation and urban sprawl. In this way, students will be introduced into the versatile applications of spaceborne earth observation and geospatial technologies. The integrated web-based remote sensing software "BLIF" equips the students with a toolset to explore, process and analyze the satellite images, thereby fostering the competence of students to work on geographical and environmental questions without requiring prior knowledge of remote sensing. This contribution presents the educational concept of the learning environment and its realization by the example of the learning module "Deforestation of the rainforest in Brasil".

  15. Coastal geomorphological change monitoring by remote sensing techniques in Nouakchott, Mauritania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Weicheng; Courel, Marie-Francoise; Le Rhun, Jeannine

    2003-03-01

    Since the construction of a harbour, Port de l'Amitie, an important importation gate for Nouakchott in 1987, the previous coast dynamic equilibrium had been destroyed and thus a significant littoral geomorphological change has occurred, which has produced a severe degradation of the littoral and urban environment. Our research is focused on this coastal environmental change monitoring and its potential evolution estimation by remote sensing techniques using multi-temporal SPOT images and Markov chain analysis. The objectives of this study are to understand coastline evolution particularities, measure geomorphological change rates, evaluate life-span of the harbour, produce useful data for the government to control the environment degradation and provide reference for the future similar coastal engineering. According to our research, the north beach of the harbour has extended by 0.92km2 (91.6ha) from 1989 to 2001 and the accretion will probably reach its maximum limit in about 13.4 +/- 0.5 years (in 2014-2015) and the harbour will arrive at the end of service. The south sandbar has been eroded by 1.34km2 (134ha) and the coastline has landward retreated at the maximum by 362m. Another 0.91km2 of land will be nibbled by seawater in the next 10 years. This erosion has caused several times inundation into the suburb and urban areas, provoking a deterioration of the urban environment.

  16. Feasibility study for locating archaeological village sites by satellite remote sensing techniques. [multispectral photography of Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, J. P. (Principal Investigator); Stringer, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The objective is to determine the feasibility of detecting large Alaskan archaeological sites by satellite remote sensing techniques and mapping such sites. The approach used is to develop digital multispectral signatures of dominant surface features including vegetation, exposed soils and rock, hydrological patterns and known archaeological sites. ERTS-1 scenes are then printed out digitally in a map-like array with a letter reflecting the most appropriate classification representing each pixel. Preliminary signatures were developed and tested. It was determined that there was a need to tighten up the archaeological site signature by developing accurate signatures for all naturally-occurring vegetation and surface conditions in the vicinity of the test area. These second generation signatures have been tested by means of computer printouts and classified tape displays on the University of Alaska CDU-200 and by comparison with aerial photography. It has been concluded that the archaeological signatures now in use are as good as can be developed. Plans are to print out signatures for the entire test area and locate on topographic maps the likely locations of archaeological sites within the test area.

  17. Estimation of flooded area in the Bahr El-Jebel basin using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamseddin, M. A. H.; Hata, T.; Tada, A.; Bashir, M. A.; Tanakamaru, T.

    2006-07-01

    In spite of the importance of Sudd (swamp) area estimation for any hydrological project in the southern Sudan, yet, no abroad agreement on its size, due to the inaccessibility and civil war. In this study, remote sensing techniques are used to estimate the Bahr El-Jebel flooded area. MODIS-Terra (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) level 1B satellite images are analyzed on basis of the unsupervised classification method. The annual mean of Bahr El-Jebel flooded area has been estimated at 20 400 km2, which is 96% of Sutcliffe and Park (1999) estimation on basis of water balance model prediction. And only, 53% of SEBAL (Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land) model estimation. The accuracy of the classification is 71%. The study also found the swelling and shrinkage pattern of Sudd area throughout the year is following the trends of Lake Victoria outflow patterns. The study has used two evaporation methods (open water evaporation and SEBAL model) to estimate the annual storage volume of Bahr El-Jebel River by using a water balance model. Also the storage changes due time is generated throughout the study years.

  18. Dynamic drought risk assessment using crop model and remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, H.; Su, Z.; Lv, J.; Li, L.; Wang, Y.

    2017-02-01

    Drought risk assessment is of great significance to reduce the loss of agricultural drought and ensure food security. The normally drought risk assessment method is to evaluate its exposure to the hazard and the vulnerability to extended periods of water shortage for a specific region, which is a static evaluation method. The Dynamic Drought Risk Assessment (DDRA) is to estimate the drought risk according to the crop growth and water stress conditions in real time. In this study, a DDRA method using crop model and remote sensing techniques was proposed. The crop model we employed is DeNitrification and DeComposition (DNDC) model. The drought risk was quantified by the yield losses predicted by the crop model in a scenario-based method. The crop model was re-calibrated to improve the performance by the Leaf Area Index (LAI) retrieved from MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. And the in-situ station-based crop model was extended to assess the regional drought risk by integrating crop planted mapping. The crop planted area was extracted with extended CPPI method from MODIS data. This study was implemented and validated on maize crop in Liaoning province, China.

  19. Impacts of soil sealing on potential agriculture in Egypt using remote sensing and GIS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Elsayed Said; Belal, Abdelaziz; Shalaby, Adel

    2015-10-01

    This paper highlights the impacts of soil sealing on the agricultural soils in Nile Delta using remote sensing and GIS. The current work focuses on two aims. The first aim is to evaluate soil productivity lost to urban sprawl, which is a significant cause of soil sealing in Nile Delta. The second aim is to evaluate the Land Use and Land Cover Changes (LU LC) from 2001 to 2013 in El-Gharbia governorate as a case study. Three temporal data sets of images from two different sensors: Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) with 30 m resolution acquired in 2001 and Landsat 8 acquired in 2013 with 30 m resolution, and Egypt sat acquired in 2010 with 7.8 m resolution, consequently were used. Four different supervised classification techniques (Maximum Likelihood (ML), Minimum Distance, Neural Networks (NN); and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were applied to monitor the changes of LULC in the investigated area. The results showed that the agricultural soils of the investigated area are characterized by high soil productivity depending on its chemical and physical properties. During 2010-2013, soil sealing took place on 1397 ha from the study area which characterized by soil productivity classes ranging between I and II. It is expected that the urban sprawl will be increased to 12.4% by 2020 from the study area, which means that additional 3400 ha of productive soils will be lost from agriculture. However, population growth is the most significant factor effecting urban sprawl in Nile Delta.

  20. The investigation of advanced remote sensing, radiative transfer and inversion techniques for the measurement of atmospheric constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deepak, Adarsh; Wang, Pi-Huan

    1985-01-01

    The research program is documented for developing space and ground-based remote sensing techniques performed during the period from December 15, 1977 to March 15, 1985. The program involved the application of sophisticated radiative transfer codes and inversion methods to various advanced remote sensing concepts for determining atmospheric constituents, particularly aerosols. It covers detailed discussions of the solar aureole technique for monitoring columnar aerosol size distribution, and the multispectral limb scattered radiance and limb attenuated radiance (solar occultation) techniques, as well as the upwelling scattered solar radiance method for determining the aerosol and gaseous characteristics. In addition, analytical models of aerosol size distribution and simulation studies of the limb solar aureole radiance technique and the variability of ozone at high altitudes during satellite sunrise/sunset events are also described in detail.

  1. Utilization of combined remote sensing techniques to detect environmental variables influencing malaria vector densities in rural West Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The use of remote sensing has found its way into the field of epidemiology within the last decades. With the increased sensor resolution of recent and future satellites new possibilities emerge for high resolution risk modeling and risk mapping. Methods A SPOT 5 satellite image, taken during the rainy season 2009 was used for calculating indices by combining the image's spectral bands. Besides the widely used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) other indices were tested for significant correlation against field observations. Multiple steps, including the detection of surface water, its breeding appropriateness for Anopheles and modeling of vector imagines abundance, were performed. Data collection on larvae, adult vectors and geographic parameters in the field, was amended by using remote sensing techniques to gather data on altitude (Digital Elevation Model = DEM), precipitation (Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission = TRMM), land surface temperatures (LST). Results The DEM derived altitude as well as indices calculations combining the satellite's spectral bands (NDTI = Normalized Difference Turbidity Index, NDWI Mac Feeters = Normalized Difference Water Index) turned out to be reliable indicators for surface water in the local geographic setting. While Anopheles larvae abundance in habitats is driven by multiple, interconnected factors - amongst which the NDVI - and precipitation events, the presence of vector imagines was found to be correlated negatively to remotely sensed LST and positively to the cumulated amount of rainfall in the preceding 15 days and to the Normalized Difference Pond Index (NDPI) within the 500 m buffer zone around capture points. Conclusions Remotely sensed geographical and meteorological factors, including precipitations, temperature, as well as vegetation, humidity and land cover indicators could be used as explanatory variables for surface water presence, larval development and imagines densities. This modeling

  2. Use of remote sensing techniques for inventorying and planning utilization of land resources in South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, V. I.; Frazee, C. J.; Rusche, A. E.; Moore, D. G.; Nelson, G. D.; Westin, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    The basic procedures for interpreting remote sensing imagery to rapidly develop general soils and land use inventories were developed and utilized in Pennington County, South Dakota. These procedures and remote sensing data products were illustrated and explained to many user groups, some of whom are interested in obtaining similar data. The general soils data were integrated with land soils data supplied by the county director of equalization to prepare a land value map. A computer print-out of this map indicating a land value for each quarter section is being used in tax reappraisal of Pennington County. The land use data provided the land use planners with the present use of land in Pennington County. Additional uses of remote sensing applications are also discussed including tornado damage assessment, hail damage evaluation, and presentation of soil and land value information on base maps assembled from ERTS-1 imagery.

  3. Development of satellite remote sensing techniques as an economic tool for forestry industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sader, Steven A.; Jadkowski, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    A cooperative commercial development project designed to focus on cost-effective and practical applications of satellite remote sensing in forest management is discussed. The project, initiated in September, 1988 is being executed in three phases: (1) development of a forest resource inventory and geographic information system (GIS) updating systems; (2) testing and evaluation of remote-sensing products against forest industry specifications; and (3) integration of remote-sensing services and products in an operational setting. An advisory group represented by eleven major forest-product companies will provide direct involvement of the target market. The advisory group will focus on the following questions: Does the technology work for them? How can it be packaged to provide the needed forest-management information? Can the products and information be provided in a cost-effective manner?

  4. Remote-Sensing Technique for Determination of the Volume Absorption Coefficient of Turbid Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sydor, Michael; Arnone, Robert A.; Gould, Richard W., Jr.; Terrie, Gregory E.; Ladner, Sherwin D.; Wood, Christoper G.

    1998-07-01

    We use remote-sensing reflectance from particulate R rs to determine the volume absorption coefficient a of turbid water in the 400 700-nm spectral region. The calculated and measured values of a ( ) show good agreement for 0 . 5 a 10 (m 1 ). To determine R rs from a particulate, we needed to make corrections for remote-sensing reflectance owing to surface roughness S rs . We determined the average spectral distribution of S rs from the difference in total remote-sensing reflectance measured with and without polarization. The spectral shape of S rs showed an excellent fit to theoretical formulas for glare based on Rayleigh and aerosol scattering from the atmosphere.

  5. Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture was just a taste of radar remote sensing techniques and applications. Other important areas include Stereo radar grammetry. PolInSAR for volumetric structure mapping. Agricultural monitoring, soil moisture, ice-mapping, etc. The broad range of sensor types, frequencies of observation and availability of sensors have enabled radar sensors to make significant contributions in a wide area of earth and planetary remote sensing sciences. The range of applications, both qualitative and quantitative, continue to expand with each new generation of sensors.

  6. Remote Sensing and the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosius, Craig A.; And Others

    This document is designed to help senior high school students study remote sensing technology and techniques in relation to the environmental sciences. It discusses the acquisition, analysis, and use of ecological remote data. Material is divided into three sections and an appendix. Section One is an overview of the basics of remote sensing.…

  7. Environmental modelling of Omerli catchment area in Istanbul, Turkey using remote sensing and GIS techniques.

    PubMed

    Coskun, H Gonca; Alparslan, Erhan

    2009-06-01

    Omerli Reservoir is one of the major drinking water reservoirs of Greater Metropolis Istanbul, providing 40% of the overall water demand. Istanbul where is one of the greatest metropolitan areas of the world with a population over 10 million and a rate of population increase about twice that of Turkey. As a result of population growth and industrial development, Omerli watershed is highly affected by the wastewater discharges from the residential areas and industrial plants. The main objective of this study is to investigate the temporal assessment of the land-use/cover of the Omerli Watershed and the water quality changes in the Reservoir. It is not possible to adequately control urbanization and other pollution sources affecting the water quality. Responses of these detrimental effects are due to rapidly increasing population, unplanned and illegal housing, and irrelevant industries at the protection zones of the watershed, together with insufficient infrastructure. The study is focused on the assessment of urbanization in relation to land use and water quality using Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques for all the four protection zones of the Reservoir and a time variant analyzing model is obtained. IRS-1C LISS and IRS-1C PAN, LANDSAT-5 TM satellite data of 1997, 1998, 2000, 2001 and 2006 are analyzed by confirmation through the ground truth data. RS data have been transferred into UTM coordinate system and image enhancement and classification techniques were used. Raster data were converted to vector data that belongs to study area to analyze in GIS for the purpose of planning and decision-making on protected watersheds.

  8. Detecting Subsurface Agricultural Tile Drainage using GIS and Remote Sensing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budhathoki, M.; Gokkaya, K.; Tank, J. L.; Christopher, S. F.; Hanrahan, B.

    2015-12-01

    Subsurface tile drainage is a common practice in many of the row crop dominated agricultural lands in the Upper Midwest, which increases yield by making the soil more productive. It is reported that nearly half of all cropland in Indiana benefits from some sort of artificial drainage. However, subsurface tile has a significant negative impact on surface water quality by providing a fast means of transport for nutrients from fertilizers. Therefore, generating spatial data of tile drainage in the field is important and useful for agricultural landscape and hydrological studies. Subsurface tile drains in Indiana's croplands are not widely mapped. In this study, we will delineate subsurface tile drainage in agricultural land in Shatto Ditch watershed, located in Kosciusko County, Indiana. We will use geo-spatial methodology, which was purposed by earlier researchers to detect tile drainage. We will use aerial color-infrared and satellite imagery along with Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. In order to map tile lines with possible accuracy, we will use GIS-based analysis in combination with remotely sensed data. This research will be comprised of three stages: 1) masking out the potential drainage area using a decision tree rule based on land cover information, soil drainage category, surface slope, and satellite image differencing technique, 2) delineate tile lines using image processing techniques, and 3) check the accuracy of mapped tile lines with ground control points. To our knowledge, this study will be the first to check the accuracy of mapping with ground truth data. Based on the accuracy of results, we will extend the methodology to greater spatial scales. The results are expected to contribute to better characterizing and controlling water pollution sources in Indiana, which is a major environmental problem.

  9. Laboratory and Field Application of River Depth Estimation Techniques Using Remotely Sensed Data: Annual Report Year 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Estimation Techniques Using Remotely Sensed Data: Annual Report Year 1 Jonathan M. Nelson US Geological Survey National Research Program Geomorphology ...NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) US Geological Survey National Research Program, Geomorphology and Sediment Transport Laboratory...Survey Geomorphology and Sediment Transport Laboratory (GSTL). The IR camera was mounted on a rack ~1m above the surface of the flow and oriented so that

  10. Experimental validation of a millimeter wave radar technique to remotely sense atmospheric pressure at the Earth's surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flower, D. A.; Peckham, G. E.; Bradford, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments with a millimeter wave radar operating on the NASA CV-990 aircraft which validate the technique for remotely sensing atmospheric pressure at the Earth's surface are described. Measurements show that the precise millimeter wave observations needed to deduce pressure from space with an accuracy of 1 mb are possible, that sea surface reflection properties agree with theory and that the measured variation of differential absorption with altitude corresponds to that expected from spectroscopic models.

  11. Development of a remote sensing technique to study the hydrology of earth stock tanks on a semiarid watershed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cluff, C. B.; Lovely, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    The stock tanks considered are relatively small earthen reservoirs, built in tributary stream channels and drainageways. A remote sensing technique is developed for obtaining quantitative data on water levels and water losses from stock tanks. Details of the used approaches are discussed along with some difficulties which would have to be overcome in order to determine the effects of the stock tanks on stream flow.

  12. Application of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, W. J. (Compiler)

    1973-01-01

    Remote sensing and aerial photographic interpretation are discussed along with the specific imagery techniques used for this research. The method used to select sites, the results of data analyses for the Houston metropolitan area, and the location of dredging sites along the Houston Ship Channel are presented. The work proposed for the second year of the project is described.

  13. Estimation of land remote sensing satellites productivity based on the simulation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurenkov, Vladimir I.; Kucherov, Alexander S.; Yakischik, Artem A.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of estimating land remote sensing satellites productivity is considered. Here, productivity is treated as a number of separate survey objects taken in a definite time. Appropriate mathematical models have been developed. Some results obtained with the help of the software worked out in Delphi programming support environment are presented.

  14. Morphotectonics of the Jamini River basin, Bundelkhand Craton, Central India; using remote sensing and GIS technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, K.; Mohanty, T.; Pati, J. K.; Singh, S.; Chaubey, K.

    2016-12-01

    Morphological and morphotectonic analyses have been used to obtain information that influence hydrographic basins, predominantly these are modifications of tectonic elements and the quantitative description of landforms. Discrimination of morphotectonic indices of active tectonics of the Jamini river basin consists the analyses of asymmetry factor, ruggedness number, basin relief, gradient, basin elongation ratio, drainage density analysis, and drainage pattern analysis, which have been completed for each drainage basin using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The Jamini river is one of the major tributaries of the Betwa river in central India. The Jamini river basin is divided into five subwatersheds viz. Jamrar, Onri, Sainam, Shahzad and Baragl subwatershed. The quantitative approach of watershed development of the Jamini river basin, and its four sixth (SW1-SW4) and one fifth (SW5) order subwatersheds, was carried out using Survey of India toposheets (parts of 54I, 54K, 54L, 54O, and 54P), Landsat 7 ETM+, ASTER (GDEM) data, and field data. The Jamini river has low bifurcation index which is a positive marker of tectonic imprint on the hydrographic network. The analyses show that the geomorphological progression of the study area was robustly influenced by tectonics. The analysis demonstrates to extensional tectonics system with the following alignments: NE-SW, NW-SE, NNE-SSW, ENE-WSW, E-W, and N-S. Three major trends are followed by lower order streams viz. NE-SW, NW-SE, and E-W directions which advocate that these tectonic trends were active at least up to the Late Pleistocene. The assessment of morphotectonic indices may be used to evaluate the control of active faults on the hydrographic system. The analysis points out westward tilting of the drainage basins with strong asymmetry in some reaches, marked elongation ratio of subwatersheds, and lower order streams having close alignment with lineaments (active faults). The study facilitated to considerate the

  15. Remote-sensing based technique to account for sub-grid scale variability of land surface properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosson, William L.; Laymon, Charles A.

    1995-01-01

    A method has been presented for the representation of sub-grid scale variability of surface properties within a land surface processes model. The method uses remotely-sensed data to directly or indirectly estimate probability density functions (PDF's) or key surface variables. Application of this technique in a coupled land surface-atmosphere model requires only grid-scale values of the variables of interest, obtained from low-resolution satellite imagery or surface/remote sensing data assimilation. The PDF's of each controlling surface property are superimposed on the respective grid-scale values to simulate sub-grid scale heterogeneity. Sensitivity studies will be carried out to ascertain the relative importance of the heterogeneity of several variables, and the degree to which non-linear property-process interactions impact large-scale fluxes.

  16. Monitoring soil moisture patterns in alpine meadows using ground sensor networks and remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoldi, Giacomo; Brenner, Johannes; Notarnicola, Claudia; Greifeneder, Felix; Nicolini, Irene; Della Chiesa, Stefano; Niedrist, Georg; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture content (SMC) is a key factor for numerous processes, including runoff generation, groundwater recharge, evapotranspiration, soil respiration, and biological productivity. Understanding the controls on the spatial and temporal variability of SMC in mountain catchments is an essential step towards improving quantitative predictions of catchment hydrological processes and related ecosystem services. The interacting influences of precipitation, soil properties, vegetation, and topography on SMC and the influence of SMC patterns on runoff generation processes have been extensively investigated (Vereecken et al., 2014). However, in mountain areas, obtaining reliable SMC estimations is still challenging, because of the high variability in topography, soil and vegetation properties. In the last few years, there has been an increasing interest in the estimation of surface SMC at local scales. On the one hand, low cost wireless sensor networks provide high-resolution SMC time series. On the other hand, active remote sensing microwave techniques, such as Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs), show promising results (Bertoldi et al. 2014). As these data provide continuous coverage of large spatial extents with high spatial resolution (10-20 m), they are particularly in demand for mountain areas. However, there are still limitations related to the fact that the SAR signal can penetrate only a few centimeters in the soil. Moreover, the signal is strongly influenced by vegetation, surface roughness and topography. In this contribution, we analyse the spatial and temporal dynamics of surface and root-zone SMC (2.5 - 5 - 25 cm depth) of alpine meadows and pastures in the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Area Mazia Valley (South Tyrol - Italy) with different techniques: (I) a network of 18 stations; (II) field campaigns with mobile ground sensors; (III) 20-m resolution RADARSAT2 SAR images; (IV) numerical simulations using the GEOtop hydrological model (Rigon et al

  17. Predicting Species Cover of Marine Macrophyte and Invertebrate Species Combining Hyperspectral Remote Sensing, Machine Learning and Regression Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Kotta, Jonne; Kutser, Tiit; Teeveer, Karolin; Vahtmäe, Ele; Pärnoja, Merli

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand biotic patterns and their changes in nature there is an obvious need for high-quality seamless measurements of such patterns. If remote sensing methods have been applied with reasonable success in terrestrial environment, their use in aquatic ecosystems still remained challenging. In the present study we combined hyperspectral remote sensing and boosted regression tree modelling (BTR), an ensemble method for statistical techniques and machine learning, in order to test their applicability in predicting macrophyte and invertebrate species cover in the optically complex seawater of the Baltic Sea. The BRT technique combined with remote sensing and traditional spatial modelling succeeded in identifying, constructing and testing functionality of abiotic environmental predictors on the coverage of benthic macrophyte and invertebrate species. Our models easily predicted a large quantity of macrophyte and invertebrate species cover and recaptured multitude of interactions between environment and biota indicating a strong potential of the method in the modelling of aquatic species in the large variety of ecosystems. PMID:23755113

  18. Advanced laser remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, J.; Czuchlewski, S.; Karl, R.

    1996-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Remote measurement of wind velocities is critical to a wide variety of applications such as environmental studies, weather prediction, aircraft safety, the accuracy of projectiles, bombs, parachute drops, prediction of the dispersal of chemical and biological warfare agents, and the debris from nuclear explosions. Major programs to develop remote sensors for these applications currently exist in the DoD and NASA. At present, however, there are no real-time, three-dimensional wind measurement techniques that are practical for many of these applications and we report on two new promising techniques. The first new technique uses an elastic backscatter lidar to track aerosol patterns in the atmosphere and to calculate three dimensional wind velocities from changes in the positions of the aerosol patterns. This was first done by Professor Ed Eloranta of the University of Wisconsin using post processing techniques and we are adapting Professor Eloranta`s algorithms to a real-time data processor and installing it in an existing elastic backscatter lidar system at Los Alamos (the XM94 helicopter lidar), which has a compatible data processing and control system. The second novel wind sensing technique is based on radio-frequency (RF) modulation and spatial filtering of elastic backscatter lidars. Because of their compactness and reliability, solid state lasers are the lasers of choice for many remote sensing applications, including wind sensing.

  19. Reflectance spectroscopy - Quantitative analysis techniques for remote sensing applications. [in planetary surface geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. N.; Roush, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    The empirical methods and scattering theories that are important for solving remote sensing problems are among the methods for remotely sensed reflectance data analysis presently compared. In the case of the photon mean optical path length concept's implications for reflectance spectra modeling, it is shown that the mean optical path length in a particulate surface is in roughly inverse proportion to the square root of the absorption coefficient. Absorption bands, which are Gaussian in shape when plotted as true absorptance vs photon energy, are also Gaussians in apparent absorptance, although they have a smaller intensity. An apparent continuum in a reflectance spectrum is modeled as a mathematical function that is used to isolate a particular absorption feature for analysis, and it is noted that this continuum should be removed by dividing it into the reflectance spectrum.

  20. Assessing high altitude glacier thickness, volume and area changes using field, GIS and remote sensing techniques: the case of Nevado Coropuna (Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peduzzi, P.; Herold, C.; Silverio, W.

    2010-08-01

    Higher temperatures and changes in precipitation patterns have induced an acute decrease in Andean glaciers, thus leading to additional stress on water supply. To adapt to climate changes, local governments need information on the rate of glacier area and volume losses and on current ice thickness. Remote sensing analyses of Coropuna glacier (Peru) delineate an acute glaciated area decline between 1955 and 2008. We tested how volume changes can be estimated with remote sensing and GIS techniques using digital elevation models derived from both topographic maps and satellite images. Ice thickness was measured in 2004 using a Ground Penetrating Radar coupled with a Ground Positioning System during a field expedition. It provided profiles of ice thickness on different slopes, orientations and altitudes. These were used to model the current glacier volume using Geographical Information System and statistical multiple regression techniques. The results revealed a significant glacier volume loss; however the uncertainty is higher than the measured volume loss. We also provided an estimate of the remaining volume. The field study provided the scientific evidence needed by COPASA, a local Peruvian NGO, and GTZ, the German international cooperation agency, in order to alert local governments and communities and guide them in adopting new climate change adaptation policies.

  1. Engineering studies related to geodetic and oceanographic remote sensing using short pulsed techniques. [using laser probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Theoretical basis is presented for a feasibility study of measuring global ocean surface current pattern from satellites and aircraft. The analysis is supported by some preliminary laboratory experiments. Since the ultimate goal is to establish an operational routine for monitoring the global current pattern, a nondisturbing remote sensing device using a laser probe was developed. Detailed construction of the measuring system and the results of some preliminary observations are also presented.

  2. Remote sensing for agriculture, ecosystems, and hydrology

    SciTech Connect

    Engman, E.T.

    1998-12-31

    This volume contains the proceedings of SPIE`s remote sensing symposium which was held September 22--24, 1998, in Barcelona, Spain. Topics of discussion include the following: calibration techniques for soil moisture measurements; remote sensing of grasslands and biomass estimation of meadows; evaluation of agricultural disasters; monitoring of industrial and natural radioactive elements; and remote sensing of vegetation and of forest fires.

  3. Use hyperspectral remote sensing technique to monitoring pine wood nomatode disease preliminary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Lin; Wang, Xianghong; Jiang, Jing; Yang, Xianchang; Ke, Daiyan; Li, Hongqun; Wang, Dingyi

    2016-10-01

    The pine wilt disease is a devastating disease of pine trees. In China, the first discoveries of the pine wilt disease on 1982 at Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum in Nanjing. It occurred an area of 77000 hm2 in 2005, More than 1540000 pine trees deaths in the year. Many districts of Chongqing in Three Gorges Reservoir have different degrees of pine wilt disease occurrence. It is a serious threat to the ecological environment of the reservoir area. Use unmanned airship to carry high spectrum remote sensing monitoring technology to develop the study on pine wood nematode disease early diagnosis and early warning and forecasting in this study. The hyper spectral data and the digital orthophoto map data of Fuling District Yongsheng Forestry had been achieved In September 2015. Using digital image processing technology to deal with the digital orthophoto map, the number of disease tree and its distribution is automatic identified. Hyper spectral remote sensing data is processed by the spectrum comparison algorithm, and the number and distribution of disease pine trees are also obtained. Two results are compared, the distribution area of disease pine trees are basically the same, indicating that using low air remote sensing technology to monitor the pine wood nematode distribution is successful. From the results we can see that the hyper spectral data analysis results more accurate and less affected by environmental factors than digital orthophoto map analysis results, and more environment variable can be extracted, so the hyper spectral data study is future development direction.

  4. Analysis of multispectral signatures and investigation of multi-aspect remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Hieber, R. H.; Sarno, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    Two major aspects of remote sensing with multispectral scanners (MSS) are investigated. The first, multispectral signature analysis, includes the effects on classification performance of systematic variations found in the average signals received from various ground covers as well as the prediction of these variations with theoretical models of physical processes. The foremost effects studied are those associated with the time of day airborne MSS data are collected. Six data collection runs made over the same flight line in a period of five hours are analyzed, it is found that the time span significantly affects classification performance. Variations associated with scan angle also are studied. The second major topic of discussion is multi-aspect remote sensing, a new concept in remote sensing with scanners. Here, data are collected on multiple passes by a scanner that can be tilted to scan forward of the aircraft at different angles on different passes. The use of such spatially registered data to achieve improved classification of agricultural scenes is investigated and found promising. Also considered are the possibilities of extracting from multi-aspect data, information on the condition of corn canopies and the stand characteristics of forests.

  5. Application of Remote Sensing Technique to Suspended Sediment Estimation of Pinan River, Eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. S.; Chang, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Because of the rapid compression between the Eurasian Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate, the Central Range of the Taiwan Island continued to quickly uplift. Moreover, because of being located in the subtropical area, Taiwan has abundant rainfall, and has distinct wet and dry season. Typhoons which almost brought violent rain, struck Taiwan average four times a year during the summer. This extreme tectonic and weather condition makes that a large number of sediments easily to be taken away from the mountainous area and output to the downstream estuary in a short time. These eroded sediments can be classified into two categories. One is bedrock sediments, and the other is suspended sediments which could be detected by the satellite remote sensing technique. In previous studies, some suspended sediment concentration (SSC) predictions were carried out by using optical satellites imagery in different areas. As we know, the more suspension sediment in water can directly reflect the higher reflectance of solar radiation. In addition, the exact form of the relationship between SSC and reflectance also depends on the mineralogy, color, and size of the sediments. Therefore, most studies developed unique relationships by relating field measurements of SSC to reflectance data from satellite imagery. The Pinan River is the largest river in eastern Taiwan. It rises in the Central Range and flows through Taitung County for 84 kilometers. Statistically, in Taiwan, more than 40 percent typhoons struck and landed from the Pinan River watershed. Abundant rainfall coupled with short channel caused plenty of sediments output from the Pinan River. In this study, we focus on Pinan River estuary by using SSC field data which was got from the Hydrological Year Book of Taiwan published by Water Resources Agency every year. Because of lack of field data, we got daily river discharge to establish the Rating Curve and predict daily SSC. Moreover, we also used FORMOSAT-2 imagery in band 3 and

  6. Monitoring changes in riverine forests of Sindh-Pakistan using remote sensing and GIS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, M. N.; Jamil, Z.; Afsar, J.

    Depletion in the forest area threatens the sustainability of agricultural production systems and en-dangers the economy of the country. Every year extensive areas of arable agricultural and forestlands are degraded and turned into wastelands over time, due to natural causes or human interventions. Depletion in forest cover, therefore, has an important impact on socio-economic development and ecological balance. High population growth rate in Pakistan is one of the main causes for rapid deterioration of the physical environment and natural resource base. In view of this, it was felt necessary to carryout landuse studies focusing on mapping the past and present conditions and the extent of forests and rangelands using satellite remote sensing (SRS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) technologies. The SRS and GIS technologies provide a possible means of monitoring and mapping the changes occurring in natural resources and the environment on a continuous basis. The riverine forests of Sindh mostly growing along the river Indus in the flood plains are spread over an area of 241,000 ha but are disappearing very rapidly. Construction of dams/barrages on the upper reaches of the river Indus for hydroelectric power and irrigation works have significantly reduced the discharge of fresh water into the lower Indus basin and as a result 100,000 acres of forests have disappeared. Furthermore, heavy floods that occurred in 1978, 1988, 1992 and 1997, altered the course of the River Indus in many places, especially in the lower reaches, this has also damaged the riverine forests of Sindh. An integrated approach involving analysis of SRS data from 1977 to 1998 and GIS technique have been used to evaluate the geographic extent and distribution of the riverine forests of Sindh and to monitor temporal changes in the forest cover between 1977 and 1990; 1990 and 1998; and 1977 and 1998. The integrated landuse forest cover maps have shown not only the temporal changes that occur in

  7. Realizing parameterless automatic classification of remote sensing imagery using ontology engineering and cyberinfrastructure techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ziheng; Fang, Hui; Di, Liping; Yue, Peng

    2016-09-01

    It was an untouchable dream for remote sensing experts to realize total automatic image classification without inputting any parameter values. Experts usually spend hours and hours on tuning the input parameters of classification algorithms in order to obtain the best results. With the rapid development of knowledge engineering and cyberinfrastructure, a lot of data processing and knowledge reasoning capabilities become online accessible, shareable and interoperable. Based on these recent improvements, this paper presents an idea of parameterless automatic classification which only requires an image and automatically outputs a labeled vector. No parameters and operations are needed from endpoint consumers. An approach is proposed to realize the idea. It adopts an ontology database to store the experiences of tuning values for classifiers. A sample database is used to record training samples of image segments. Geoprocessing Web services are used as functionality blocks to finish basic classification steps. Workflow technology is involved to turn the overall image classification into a total automatic process. A Web-based prototypical system named PACS (Parameterless Automatic Classification System) is implemented. A number of images are fed into the system for evaluation purposes. The results show that the approach could automatically classify remote sensing images and have a fairly good average accuracy. It is indicated that the classified results will be more accurate if the two databases have higher quality. Once the experiences and samples in the databases are accumulated as many as an expert has, the approach should be able to get the results with similar quality to that a human expert can get. Since the approach is total automatic and parameterless, it can not only relieve remote sensing workers from the heavy and time-consuming parameter tuning work, but also significantly shorten the waiting time for consumers and facilitate them to engage in image

  8. Space-borne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery noise eliminating based on CFFT self-adapted by optimal SNR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingjie; Lin, Qizhong; Wang, Liming; Wang, Qinjun; Miao, Fengxian

    2010-09-01

    Space-borne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery, supplying both spatial and spectral information for quantitative remote sensing monitoring, is easily polluted by noises from atmosphere, terrain etc. Based on spectral continuum removing and recovering, traditional fast Fourier Transform (FFT) was extended to Continuum Fast Fourier Transform (CFFT) to separate noise from target information in frequency domain (FD). Thus, low-pass filter for reserving useful information was designed for eliminating noise, with its cut-off frequency selected self-adaptively by optimal signal-tonoise ratio (SNR). Hyperion hyperspectral imageries of Beijing and Xinjiang China were singled out for noise removing to validate the filtering ability of the Continuum Fast Fourier Transform self-adapted by Optimal Signal-noise Ratio(CFFTOSNR) method with qualitative description and quantificational indexs, including mean, variance, entropy, definition and SNR etc. Experiment result shows that CFFTOSNR does well in reducing the gauss white noises in spectral domain and stripe and band-subtracting noise in spatial domain respectively, while the quantificational indexs of filtered imagery are all improved, with entropy of post-processed image obviously increased by 5 db.

  9. Multi-scale characterization of rock mass discontinuities and rock slope geometry using terrestrial remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturzenegger, Matthieu

    Terrestrial remote sensing techniques including both digital photogrammetry and laser scanning, represent useful complements to conventional field mapping and rock mass discontinuity characterization. Several studies have highlighted practical advantages at close-range (< 300 m), including the ability to map inaccessible rock exposures and hazard reduction related to both traffic and rockfall along investigated outcrops. In addition, several authors have demonstrated their potential to provide adequate quantification of discontinuity parameters. Consequently, their incorporation into rock slope stability investigations and design projects has grown substantially over recent years. As these techniques are increasingly applied by geologists and geological engineers, it is important that their use be properly evaluated. Furthermore, guidelines to optimize their application are required in a similar manner to standardization of conventional discontinuity mapping techniques. An important thesis objective is to develop recommendations for optimal applications of terrestrial remote sensing techniques for discontinuity characterization, based on a quantitative evaluation of various registration approaches, sampling bias and extended manual mapping of 3D digital models. It is shown that simple registration networks can provide adequate measurement of discontinuity geometry for engineering purposes. The bias associated with remote sensing mapping is described. The advantages of these techniques over conventional mapping are demonstrated, including reliable discontinuity orientation measurements. Persistence can be precisely quantified instead of approximately estimated, resulting in a new class for extremely persistent discontinuities being suggested. Secondary roughness and curvature can also be considered at larger scales. The techniques are suitable for the definition of discontinuity sets, and the estimation of both trace intensity and block size/shape, if sampling bias

  10. Analytical techniques for the study of some parameters of multispectral scanner systems for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiswell, E. R.; Cooper, G. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The concept of average mutual information in the received spectral random process about the spectral scene was developed. Techniques amenable to implementation on a digital computer were also developed to make the required average mutual information calculations. These techniques required identification of models for the spectral response process of scenes. Stochastic modeling techniques were adapted for use. These techniques were demonstrated on empirical data from wheat and vegetation scenes.

  11. [Thematic Issue: Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Four of the articles in this publication discuss the remote sensing of the Earth and its resources by satellites. Among the topics dealt with are the development and management of remote sensing systems, types of satellites used for remote sensing, the uses of remote sensing, and issues involved in using information obtained through remote…

  12. The technique flows of target detection using thermal infrared hyperspectral remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wen Huan; Yu, Hong; Huang, Shu Tao

    2016-10-01

    In this work, the workflow of airborne thermal infrared hyperspectral technology in the actual application process is reviewed. Using the Thermal Airborne Spectrographic Imager (TASI-600), a hyperspectral thermal infrared imager manufactured by ITRES Research Limited as a case study, the work process including instrument calibration, collecting the region information of interest, data processing and analysis is elaborated. The value and effect using thermal infrared data obtained through TASI-600 is demonstrated. This work provides ideas and references for further study and investigation on the application of airborne thermal infrared hyperspectral remote sensing.

  13. A regression technique for evaluation and quantification for water quality parameters from remote sensing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Kuo, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to define optical physics and/or environmental conditions under which the linear multiple-regression should be applicable. An investigation of the signal-response equations is conducted and the concept is tested by application to actual remote sensing data from a laboratory experiment performed under controlled conditions. Investigation of the signal-response equations shows that the exact solution for a number of optical physics conditions is of the same form as a linearized multiple-regression equation, even if nonlinear contributions from surface reflections, atmospheric constituents, or other water pollutants are included. Limitations on achieving this type of solution are defined.

  14. Remote sensing techniques applied to multispectral recognition of the Aranjuez pilot zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemos, G. L.; Salinas, J.; Rebollo, M.

    1977-01-01

    A rectangular (7 x 14 km) area 40 km S of Madrid was remote-sensed with a three-stage recognition process. Ground truth was established in the first phase, airborne sensing with a multispectral scanner and photographic cameras were used in the second phase, and Landsat satellite data were obtained in the third phase. Agronomic and hydrological photointerpretation problems are discussed. Color, black/white, and labeled areas are displayed for crop recognition in the land-use survey; turbidity, concentrations of pollutants and natural chemicals, and densitometry of the water are considered in the evaluation of water resources.

  15. Validation of satellite data through the remote sensing techniques and the inclusion of them into agricultural education pilot programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadavid, Georgios; Kountios, Georgios; Bournaris, T.; Michailidis, Anastasios; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, the remote sensing techniques have a significant role in all the fields of agricultural extensions as well as agricultural economics and education but they are used more specifically in hydrology. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the use of field spectroscopy for validation of the satellite data and how combination of remote sensing techniques and field spectroscopy can have more accurate results for irrigation purposes. For this reason vegetation indices are used which are mostly empirical equations describing vegetation parameters during the lifecycle of the crops. These numbers are generated by some combination of remote sensing bands and may have some relationship to the amount of vegetation in a given image pixel. Due to the fact that most of the commonly used vegetation indices are only concerned with red-near-infrared spectrum and can be divided to perpendicular and ratio based indices the specific goal of the research is to illustrate the effect of the atmosphere to those indices, in both categories. In this frame field spectroscopy is employed in order to derive the spectral signatures of different crops in red and infrared spectrum after a campaign of ground measurements. The main indices have been calculated using satellite images taken at interval dates during the whole lifecycle of the crops by using a GER 1500 spectro-radiomete. These indices was compared to those extracted from satellite images after applying an atmospheric correction algorithm -darkest pixel- to the satellite images at a pre-processing level so as the indices would be in comparable form to those of the ground measurements. Furthermore, there has been a research made concerning the perspectives of the inclusion of the above mentioned remote satellite techniques to agricultural education pilot programs.

  16. Regional adaptation of a dynamic global vegetation model using a remote sensing data derived land cover map of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khvostikov, S.; Venevsky, S.; Bartalev, S.

    2015-12-01

    The dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) SEVER has been regionally adapted using a remote sensing data-derived land cover map in order to improve the reconstruction conformity of the distribution of vegetation functional types over Russia. The SEVER model was modified to address noticeable divergences between modelling results and the land cover map. The model modification included a light competition method elaboration and the introduction of a tundra class into the model. The rigorous optimisation of key model parameters was performed using a two-step procedure. First, an approximate global optimum was found using the efficient global optimisation (EGO) algorithm, and afterwards a local search in the vicinity of the approximate optimum was performed using the quasi-Newton algorithm BFGS. The regionally adapted model shows a significant improvement of the vegetation distribution reconstruction over Russia with better matching with the satellite-derived land cover map, which was confirmed by both a visual comparison and a formal conformity criterion.

  17. Use of acoustic velocity methodology and remote sensing techniques to measure unsteady flow on the lower Yazoo River in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turnipseed, D. Phil; Cooper, Lance M.; Davis, Angela A.

    1998-01-01

    Methodologies have been developed for computing continuous discharge during varied, non-uniform low and medium flows on the Yazoo River at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgage below Steele Bayou near Long Lake, Mississippi, using acoustic signal processing and conventional streamgaging techniques. Procedures were also developed to compute locations of discharges during future high flow events when the stream reach is subject to hi-directional and reverse flow caused by rising stages on the Mississippi River using a combination of acoustic equipment and remote sensing technology. A description of the study area is presented. Selected results of these methods are presented for the period from March through September 1997.

  18. Use of Geophysical and Remote Sensing Techniques During the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization's Integrated Field Exercise 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labak, Peter; Sussman, Aviva; Rowlands, Aled; Chiappini, Massimo; Malich, Gregor; MacLeod, Gordon; Sankey, Peter; Sweeney, Jerry; Tuckwell, George

    2016-04-01

    The Integrated Field Exercise of 2014 (IFE14) was a field event held in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (with concurrent activities in Austria) that tested the operational and technical capabilities of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty's (CTBT) on-site inspection (OSI). During an OSI, up to 40 inspectors search a 1000km2 inspection area for evidence of a nuclear explosion. Over 250 experts from ~50 countries were involved in IFE14 (the largest simulation of an OSI to date) and worked from a number of different directions, such as the Exercise Management and Control Teams to execute the scenario in which the exercise was played, to those participants performing as members of the Inspection Team (IT). One of the main objectives of IFE14 was to test Treaty allowed inspection techniques, including a number of geophysical and remote sensing methods. In order to develop a scenario in which the simulated exercise could be carried out, a number of physical features in the IFE14 inspection area were designed and engineered by the Scenario Task Force Group (STF) that the IT could detect by applying the geophysical and remote sensing inspection technologies, as well as other techniques allowed by the CTBT. For example, in preparation for IFE14, the STF modeled a seismic triggering event that was provided to the IT to prompt them to detect and localize aftershocks in the vicinity of a possible explosion. Similarly, the STF planted shallow targets such as borehole casings and pipes for detection by other geophysical methods. In addition, airborne technologies, which included multi-spectral imaging, were deployed such that the IT could identify freshly exposed surfaces, imported materials and other areas that had been subject to modification. This presentation will introduce the CTBT and OSI, explain the IFE14 in terms of goals specific to geophysical and remote sensing methods, and show how both the preparation for and execution of IFE14 meet those goals.

  19. A fast auto-focusing technique for the long focal lens TDI CCD camera in remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dejiang; Ding, Xu; Zhang, Tao; Kuang, Haipeng

    2013-02-01

    The key issue in automatic focus adjustment for long focal lens TDI CCD camera in remote sensing applications is to achieve the optimum focus position as fast as possible. Existing auto-focusing techniques consume too much time as the mechanical focusing parts of the camera move in steps during the searching procedure. In this paper, we demonstrate a fast auto-focusing technique, which employs the internal optical elements and the TDI CCD itself to directly sense the deviations in back focal distance of the lens and restore the imaging system to a best-available focus. It is particularly advantageous for determination of the focus, due to that the relative motion between the TDI CCD and the focusing element can proceed without interruption. Moreover, the theoretical formulas describing the effect of imaging motion on the focusing precision and the effective focusing range are also developed. Finally, an experimental setup is constructed to evaluate the performance of the proposed technique. The results of the experiment show a ±5 μm precision of auto-focusing in a range of ±500 μmdefocus, and the searching procedure could be accomplished within 0.125 s, which leads to remarkable improvement on the real-time imaging capability for high resolution TDI CCD camera in remote sensing applications.

  20. An overview of GNSS remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kegen; Rizos, Chris; Burrage, Derek; Dempster, Andrew G.; Zhang, Kefei; Markgraf, Markus

    2014-12-01

    The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals are always available, globally, and the signal structures are well known, except for those dedicated to military use. They also have some distinctive characteristics, including the use of L-band frequencies, which are particularly suited for remote sensing purposes. The idea of using GNSS signals for remote sensing - the atmosphere, oceans or Earth surface - was first proposed more than two decades ago. Since then, GNSS remote sensing has been intensively investigated in terms of proof of concept studies, signal processing methodologies, theory and algorithm development, and various satellite-borne, airborne and ground-based experiments. It has been demonstrated that GNSS remote sensing can be used as an alternative passive remote sensing technology. Space agencies such as NASA, NOAA, EUMETSAT and ESA have already funded, or will fund in the future, a number of projects/missions which focus on a variety of GNSS remote sensing applications. It is envisaged that GNSS remote sensing can be either exploited to perform remote sensing tasks on an independent basis or combined with other techniques to address more complex applications. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art of this relatively new and, in some respects, underutilised remote sensing technique. Also addressed are relevant challenging issues associated with GNSS remote sensing services and the performance enhancement of GNSS remote sensing to accurately and reliably retrieve a range of geophysical parameters.

  1. Physical Principles of Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, W. G.

    2001-09-01

    Substantially revised and expanded, this new edition includes a discussion of the radiative transfer equation, atmospheric sounding techniques and interferometric radar, an expanded list of problems (with solutions), and a discussion of the Global Positioning System (GPS). This book forms the basis of an introductory course in remote sensing. The main readership will be students and researchers in remote sensing, geography, cartography, surveying, meteorology, earth sciences and environmental sciences generally, as well as physicists, mathematicians and engineers.

  2. Remote Sensing Techniques as a Tool for Geothermal Exploration: the Case Study of Blawan Ijen, East Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqua, Claudio; Verdoya, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    The use of remote sensing techniques in the initial phase of geothermal surveys represents a very cost-effective tool, which can contribute to a successful exploration program. Remote sensing allows the analysis of large surfaces and can lead to a significant improvement of the identification of surface thermal anomalies, through the use of thermal infra red data (TIR), as well as of zones of widespread and recent faulting, which can reflect larger permeability of geological formations. Generally, the fractures analysis from remote sensing can be fundamental to clarify the structural setting of an area. In a regional volcanic framework, it can also help in defining the spatial and time evolution of the different volcanic apparatuses. This paper describes the main results of a remote sensing study, conducted in the Blawan-Ijen volcanic area (East Java), which is at present subject of geothermal exploration. This area is characterized by the presence of a 15 km wide caldera originated by a collapsed strato volcano. This event was followed by the emplacement of several peri-calderic and intra-calderic volcanoes, among which G. Raung, as testified by the frequent occurrence of shallow earthquakes and by H2S emission and sulfur deposition, and G. Kawah Ijen, occurring at the eastern rim of the caldera, are still active. The summit of G. Kawah Ijen volcano consists of two interlocking craters forming an E-W elongated depression filled up by a hyperacidic lake. Along the southern shore of the lake, a small rhyolitic dome occurs, which exhibits strong fumarolic activity with temperature of as much as 600 °C. We performed an analysis based on the combined interpretation of Landsat ETM+7, Aster and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, focused on the identification of subsurface high permeability zones. The main trends of the linear features as derived from the fractures analysis, as well as their relation with the distribution of volcanic centres, were identified

  3. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Development Suitability Based on Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques - A Case Study in Jingjinji Area, China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jiang; Zhuang, Dafang; Xu, Xinliang; Ying, Lei

    2008-09-25

    Jingjinji area (namely Beijing, Tianjin and He Bei Province) is one of the three largest regional economic communities in China. Urban expansion has sped up in the past 20 years in this area due to the rapid economic and population growth. Evaluating the landuse suitability for urban growth on a regional scale is an urgent need, because the most suitable areas and the most suitable scale of urban growth can thus be determined accordingly. In order to meet this requirement, remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques were adopted, and an integrated evaluating model was developed supported by AHP method. The integrated urban development suitability index (UDSI) was calculated using this model. According to the UDSI result, the spatial distribution of urban development suitability and its driving forces were analyzed. Urban boundaries in 1995, 2000 and 2005, which were derived from Landsat TM/ETM+ satellite data, were overlaid on the UDSI map, and the suitable urban develop tendency in this area were discussed. The result of this study indicated that integrated evaluation of urban development could be conducted in an operational way using remote sensing data, GIS spatial analysis technique and AHP modeling method.

  4. Detection of terrain indices related to soil salinity and mapping salt-affected soils using remote sensing and geostatistical techniques.

    PubMed

    Triki Fourati, Hela; Bouaziz, Moncef; Benzina, Mourad; Bouaziz, Samir

    2017-04-01

    Traditional surveying methods of soil properties over landscapes are dramatically cost and time-consuming. Thus, remote sensing is a proper choice for monitoring environmental problem. This research aims to study the effect of environmental factors on soil salinity and to map the spatial distribution of this salinity over the southern east part of Tunisia by means of remote sensing and geostatistical techniques. For this purpose, we used Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer data to depict geomorphological parameters: elevation, slope, plan curvature (PLC), profile curvature (PRC), and aspect. Pearson correlation between these parameters and soil electrical conductivity (ECsoil) showed that mainly slope and elevation affect the concentration of salt in soil. Moreover, spectral analysis illustrated the high potential of short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands to identify saline soils. To map soil salinity in southern Tunisia, ordinary kriging (OK), minimum distance (MD) classification, and simple regression (SR) were used. The findings showed that ordinary kriging technique provides the most reliable performances to identify and classify saline soils over the study area with a root mean square error of 1.83 and mean error of 0.018.

  5. Advances in atmospheric light scattering theory and remote-sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Videen, Gorden; Sun, Wenbo; Gong, Wei

    2017-02-01

    This issue focuses especially on characterizing particles in the Earth-atmosphere system. The significant role of aerosol particles in this system was recognized in the mid-1970s [1]. Since that time, our appreciation for the role they play has only increased. It has been and continues to be one of the greatest unknown factors in the Earth-atmosphere system as evidenced by the most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessments [2]. With increased computational capabilities, in terms of both advanced algorithms and in brute-force computational power, more researchers have the tools available to address different aspects of the role of aerosols in the atmosphere. In this issue, we focus on recent advances in this topical area, especially the role of light scattering and remote sensing. This issue follows on the heels of four previous topical issues on this subject matter that have graced the pages of this journal [3-6].

  6. Spatial and Temporal knowledge representation techniques for traditional machine learning classifiers applied to remote sensing data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervone, G.; Kafatos, M.

    2005-12-01

    Formulating general hypotheses from limited observations is one of the fundamental principles of scientific discovery. The data mining approach consists, among others, in generating new knowledge analyzing massive amounts of data and using background knowledge. Knowledge representation is one of the fundamental topics of data mining, because the representation language dictates which algorithms to use, as well as the effective usefulness of the learned hypotheses. Programs that use richer representation languages have the advantage of generating hypotheses that are compact and easy to understand, and the disadvantage of being more complex, slower and ususally with more control parameters. On the other hand, programs that use simpler representaiton languages overcome these shortcomings, but fail to generate hypotheses that can be easily interpreted and used for problem solving and decision making. Symbolic machine learning methods, such as decision rule classifiers, use a complex representation language which can be used to describe difficult concepts, and allow to cope with spatial and temporal data, such as remote sensing data. Because data are usually collected as a sequence of observations over time and in specific locations, very often it is necessary to find relations not only in the data per se, but also in the temporal and spatial distribution of the observations. Due to the increasingly large amount of spatial and temporal data collected and analyzed in several fields such as remote sensing, geographical information systems (GIS), bioinformatics, medicine, bank transactions, etc, spatial and temporal knowledge representaion has become a problem of crucial importance. Present research investigates methods to use existing symbolic machine learning classifiers with temporal and spatial data. The data are converted in a representation language which is suitable to learn spatial and temporal relationship without modifying the existing algorithms. Results from

  7. Study on the techniques of valuation of ecosystem services based on remote sensing in Anxin County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongyan; Li, Zengyuan; Gao, Zhihai; Wang, Bengyu; Bai, Lina; Wu, Junjun; Sun, Bin; Wang, Zhibo

    2014-05-01

    The farmland ecosystem is an important component of terrestrial ecosystems and has a fundamental role in the human life. The wetland is an unique and versatile ecological system. It is important for rational development and sustainable utilization of farmland and wetland resources to study on the measurement of valuation of farmland and wetland ecosystem services. It also has important significance for improving productivity. With the rapid development of remote sensing technology, it has become a powerful tool for evaluation of the value of ecosystem services. The land cover types in Anxin County mainly was farmland and wetland, the indicator system for ecosystem services valuation was brought up based on the remote sensing data of high spatial resolution ratio(Landsat-5 TM data and SPOT-5 data), the technology system for measurement of ecosystem services value was established. The study results show that the total ecosystem services value in 2009 in Anxin was 4.216 billion yuan, and the unit area value was between 8489 yuan/hm2 and 329535 yuan/hm2. The value of natural resources, water conservation value in farmland ecosystem and eco-tourism value in wetland ecosystem were higher than the other, total of the three values reached 2.858 billion yuan, and the percentage of the total ecosystem services values in Anxin was 67.79%. Through the statistics in the nine towns and three villages of Anxin County, the juantou town has the highest services value, reached 0.736 billion yuan. Scientific and comprehensive evaluation of the ecosystem services can conducive to promoting the understanding of the importance of the ecosystem. The research results had significance to ensure the sustainable use of wetland resources and the guidance of ecological construction in Anxin County.

  8. Revised radiometric calibration technique for LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper data by the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, J.; Butlin, T.; Duff, P.; Fitzgerald, A.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of raw image data, raw radiometric calibration data, and background measurements extracted from the raw data streams on high density tape reveal major shortcomings in a technique proposed by the Canadian Center for Remote Sensing in 1982 for the radiometric correction of TM data. Results are presented which correlate measurements of the DC background with variations in both image data background and calibration samples. The effect on both raw data and data corrected using the earlier proposed technique is explained and the correction required for these factors as a function of individual scan line number for each detector is described. How the revised technique can be incorporated into an operational environment is demonstrated.

  9. Revised Radiometric Calibration Technique for LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data by the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, J.; Butlin, T.; Duff, P.; Fitzgerald, A.

    1984-01-01

    A technique for the radiometric correction of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper data was proposed by the Canada Center for Remote Sensing. Subsequent detailed observations of raw image data, raw radiometric calibration data and background measurements extracted from the raw data stream on High Density Tape highlighted major shortcomings in the proposed method which if left uncorrected, can cause severe radiometric striping in the output product. Results are presented which correlate measurements of the DC background with variations in both image data background and calibration samples. The effect on both raw data and on data corrected using the earlier proposed technique is explained, and the correction required for these factors as a function of individual scan line number for each detector is described. It is shown how the revised technique can be incorporated into an operational environment.

  10. Flood Vulnerability Analysis of the part of Karad Region, Satara District, Maharashtra using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warghat, Sumedh R.; Das, Sandipan; Doad, Atul; Mali, Sagar; Moon, Vishal S.

    2012-07-01

    Karad City is situated on the bank of confluence of river Krishna & Koyana, which is severely flood prone area. The floodwaters enter the city through the roads and disrupt the infrastructure in the whole city. Furthermore, due to negligence of the authorities and unplanned growth of the city, the people living in the city have harnessed the natural flow of water by constructing unnecessary embankments in the river Koyna. Due to this reason now river koyna is flowing in the form of a narrow channel, which very easily over-flows during very minor flooding.Flood Vulnerabilty Analysis has been done for the karad region of satara district, maharashtra using remote sensing and geographic information system technique. The aim of this study is to identify flood vulnerability zone by using GIS and RS technique and an attempt has been to demonstrat the application of remote sensing and GIS in order to map flood vulnerabilty area by utilizing ArcMap, and Erdas software. Flood vulnerabilty analysis of part the Karad Regian of Satara District, Maharashtra has been carried out with the objectives - Identify the Flood Prone area in the Koyana and Krishna river basin, Calculate surface runoff and Delineate flood sensitive areas. Delineate classified hazard Map, Evaluate the Flood affected area, Prepare the Flood Vulnerability Map by utilizing Remote Sensing and GIS technique. (C.J. Kumanan;S.M. Ramasamy)The study is based on GIS and spatial technique is used for analysis and understanding of flood problem in Karad Tahsil. The flood affected areas of the different magnitude has been identified and mapped using Arc GIS software. The analysis is useful for local planning authority for identification of risk areas and taking proper decision in right moment. In the analysis causative factors for flooding in watershed are taken into account as annual rainfall, size of watershed, basin slope, drainage density of natural channels and land use. (Dinand Alkema; Farah Aziz.)This study of

  11. Tropospheric Passive Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keafer, L. S., Jr. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The long term role of airborne/spaceborne passive remote sensing systems for tropospheric air quality research and the identification of technology advances required to improve the performance of passive remote sensing systems were discussed.

  12. Virtual Sensors: Using Data Mining Techniques to Efficiently Estimate Remote Sensing Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Ashok N.; Oza, Nikunj; Stroeve, Julienne

    2004-01-01

    Various instruments are used to create images of the Earth and other objects in the universe in a diverse set of wavelength bands with the aim of understanding natural phenomena. These instruments are sometimes built in a phased approach, with some measurement capabilities being added in later phases. In other cases, there may not be a planned increase in measurement capability, but technology may mature to the point that it offers new measurement capabilities that were not available before. In still other cases, detailed spectral measurements may be too costly to perform on a large sample. Thus, lower resolution instruments with lower associated cost may be used to take the majority of measurements. Higher resolution instruments, with a higher associated cost may be used to take only a small fraction of the measurements in a given area. Many applied science questions that are relevant to the remote sensing community need to be addressed by analyzing enormous amounts of data that were generated from instruments with disparate measurement capability. This paper addresses this problem by demonstrating methods to produce high accuracy estimates of spectra with an associated measure of uncertainty from data that is perhaps nonlinearly correlated with the spectra. In particular, we demonstrate multi-layer perceptrons (MLPs), Support Vector Machines (SVMs) with Radial Basis Function (RBF) kernels, and SVMs with Mixture Density Mercer Kernels (MDMK). We call this type of an estimator a Virtual Sensor because it predicts, with a measure of uncertainty, unmeasured spectral phenomena.

  13. Modelling submerged coastal environments: Remote sensing technologies, techniques, and comparative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Chris

    Built upon remote sensing and GIS littoral zone characterization methodologies of the past decade, a series of loosely coupled models aimed to test, compare and synthesize multi-beam SONAR (MBES), Airborne LiDAR Bathymetry (ALB), and satellite based optical data sets in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada, eco-region. Bathymetry and relative intensity metrics for the MBES and ALB data sets were run through a quantitative and qualitative comparison, which included outputs from the Benthic Terrain Modeller (BTM) tool. Substrate classification based on relative intensities of respective data sets and textural indices generated using grey level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) were investigated. A spatial modelling framework built in ArcGIS(TM) for the derivation of bathymetric data sets from optical satellite imagery was also tested for proof of concept and validation. Where possible, efficiencies and semi-automation for repeatable testing was achieved using ArcGIS(TM) ModelBuilder. The findings from this study could assist future decision makers in the field of coastal management and hydrographic studies. Keywords: Seafloor terrain characterization, Benthic Terrain Modeller (BTM), Multi-beam SONAR, Airborne LiDAR Bathymetry, Satellite Derived Bathymetry, ArcGISTM ModelBuilder, Textural analysis, Substrate classification.

  14. Species identification of mixed algal bloom in the Northern Arabian Sea using remote sensing techniques.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, R; Rafeeq, M; Smitha, B R; Padmakumar, K B; Thomas, Lathika Cicily; Sanjeevan, V N; Prakash, Prince; Raman, Mini

    2015-02-01

    Oceanic waters of the Northern Arabian Sea experience massive algal blooms during winter-spring (mid Feb-end Mar), which prevail for at least for 3 months covering the entire northern half of the basin from east to west. Ship cruises were conducted during winter-spring of 2001-2012 covering different stages of the bloom to study the biogeochemistry of the region. Phytoplankton analysis indicated the presence of green tides of dinoflagellate, Noctiluca scintillans (=N. miliaris), in the oceanic waters. Our observations indicated that diatoms are coupled and often co-exist with N. scintillans, making it a mixed-species ecosystem. In this paper, we describe an approach for detection of bloom-forming algae N. scintillans and its discrimination from diatoms using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Aqua data in a mixed-species environment. In situ remote sensing reflectance spectra were generated using Satlantic™ hyperspectral radiometer for the bloom and non-bloom waters. Spectral shapes of the reflectance spectra for different water types were distinct, and the same were used for species identification. Scatter of points representing different phytoplankton classes on a derivative plot revealed four diverse clusters, viz. N. scintillans, diatoms, non-bloom oceanic, and non-bloom coastal waters. The criteria developed for species discrimination were implemented on MODIS data and validated using inputs from a recent ship cruise conducted in March 2013.

  15. Soil salinity mapping and hydrological drought indices assessment in arid environments based on remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhag, Mohamed; Bahrawi, Jarbou A.

    2017-03-01

    Vegetation indices are mostly described as crop water derivatives. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is one of the oldest remote sensing applications that is widely used to evaluate crop vigor directly and crop water relationships indirectly. Recently, several NDVI derivatives were exclusively used to assess crop water relationships. Four hydrological drought indices are examined in the current research study. The water supply vegetation index (WSVI), the soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), the moisture stress index (MSI) and the normalized difference infrared index (NDII) are implemented in the current study as an indirect tool to map the effect of different soil salinity levels on crop water stress in arid environments. In arid environments, such as Saudi Arabia, water resources are under pressure, especially groundwater levels. Groundwater wells are rapidly depleted due to the heavy abstraction of the reserved water. Heavy abstractions of groundwater, which exceed crop water requirements in most of the cases, are powered by high evaporation rates in the designated study area because of the long days of extremely hot summer. Landsat 8 OLI data were extensively used in the current research to obtain several vegetation indices in response to soil salinity in Wadi ad-Dawasir. Principal component analyses (PCA) and artificial neural network (ANN) analyses are complementary tools used to understand the regression pattern of the hydrological drought indices in the designated study area.

  16. Basic Remote Sensing Investigations for Beach Reconnaissance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Progress is reported on three tasks designed to develop remote sensing beach reconnaissance techniques applicable to the benthic, beach intertidal...and beach upland zones. Task 1 is designed to develop remote sensing indicators of important beach composition and physical parameters which will...ultimately prove useful in models to predict beach conditions. Task 2 is designed to develop remote sensing techniques for survey of bottom features in

  17. On the detection of adobe buried archaeological structures using multiscale remote sensing techniques : Piramide Naranja in Cahuachi (Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, N.; Rizzo, E.; Lasaponara, R.; Orefici, G.

    2009-04-01

    The detection of buried adobe structures is a crucial issue for the remote sensing (ground, aerial and satellite) applied to archaeology for the widespread of sun-dried earth as building material in several ancient civilizations in Central and Southern America, Middle East and North Africa. Moreover it is complex, due to the subtle contrast existing between the archaeological features and the surrounding, especially in arid setting, as in the case of the well know Nazca Ceremonial Centre of Cahuachi, located in the desert of Nazca (Southern Peru) . During the last two decades of excavations adobe monuments dating back from the 6th century B.C. to the 4th century A.D have been highlighted by the Centro de Estudios Arqueológicos Precolombinos (CEAP), an italian-peruvian mission directed by Giuseppe Orefici. Actually, the archaeologists are excavating and restoring the core of the Ceremonial centre where is located a great pyramid (kown as Gran Piramide). Beginning from 2007 the two institutes of CNR, IMAA and IBAM, have been involved by CEAP, in order to provide a scientific and technological support for the archaeological research. Therefore, a multi-scale approach based on the integration of aerial and satellite remote sensing with geophysical techniques was employed in order to provide data useful for archaeological excavations. The abstract refers to the last investigations performed on a mound, known as "Piramide Naranja", during the 2008. The processing of an aerial imagery time series and two QuickBird satellite images acquired in 2002 and 2005, allowed for identifying some features related to shallow and buried structures. Such features were verified by means of geophysical prospections, performed by using the magnetometric method which observed changes in the magnetic field within the first few metres beneath the subsurface detecting buried walls and anomalies linked to ceramic deposits referable to possible tombs. Finally, the integration of all data

  18. Integrating Remote Sensing Data with Directional Two- Dimensional Wavelet Analysis and Open Geospatial Techniques for Efficient Disaster Monitoring and Management.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yun-Bin; Lin, Yu-Pin; Deng, Dong-Po; Chen, Kuan-Wei

    2008-02-19

    In Taiwan, earthquakes have long been recognized as a major cause oflandslides that are wide spread by floods brought by typhoons followed. Distinguishingbetween landslide spatial patterns in different disturbance regimes is fundamental fordisaster monitoring, management, and land-cover restoration. To circumscribe landslides,this study adopts the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which can bedetermined by simply applying mathematical operations of near-infrared and visible-redspectral data immediately after remotely sensed data is acquired. In real-time disastermonitoring, the NDVI is more effective than using land-cover classifications generatedfrom remotely sensed data as land-cover classification tasks are extremely time consuming.Directional two-dimensional (2D) wavelet analysis has an advantage over traditionalspectrum analysis in that it determines localized variations along a specific direction whenidentifying dominant modes of change, and where those modes are located in multi-temporal remotely sensed images. Open geospatial techniques comprise a series ofsolutions developed based on Open Geospatial Consortium specifications that can beapplied to encode data for interoperability and develop an open geospatial service for sharing data. This study presents a novel approach and framework that uses directional 2Dwavelet analysis of real-time NDVI images to effectively identify landslide patterns andshare resulting patterns via open geospatial techniques. As a case study, this study analyzedNDVI images derived from SPOT HRV images before and after the ChiChi earthquake(7.3 on the Richter scale) that hit the Chenyulan basin in Taiwan, as well as images aftertwo large typhoons (Xangsane and Toraji) to delineate the spatial patterns of landslidescaused by major disturbances. Disturbed spatial patterns of landslides that followed theseevents were successfully delineated using 2D wavelet analysis, and results of patternrecognitions of landslides were

  19. Assessment of practicality of remote sensing techniques for a study of the effects of strip mining in Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, T. H.; Dillion, A. C., III; White, J. R., Jr.; Drummond, S. E., Jr.; Hooks, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    Because of the volume of coal produced by strip mining, the proximity of mining operations, and the diversity of mining methods (e.g. contour stripping, area stripping, multiple seam stripping, and augering, as well as underground mining), the Warrior Coal Basin seemed best suited for initial studies on the physical impact of strip mining in Alabama. Two test sites, (Cordova and Searles) representative of the various strip mining techniques and environmental problems, were chosen for intensive studies of the correlation between remote sensing and ground truth data. Efforts were eventually concentrated in the Searles Area, since it is more accessible and offers a better opportunity for study of erosional and depositional processes than the Cordova Area.

  20. Mining remote sensing image data: an integration of fuzzy set theory and image understanding techniques for environmental change detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eklund, Peter W.; You, Jane; Deer, Peter

    2000-04-01

    This paper presents an image understanding approach to mine remotely sensed image data from different source dates for environmental change detection. It is focused on the immediate needs for knowledge discovery from large sets of image data for environmental monitoring. In contrast to the traditional approaches for change detection, we introduce a wavelet-based hierarchical scheme which integrates fuzzy set theory and image understanding techniques for knowledge discovery of the remote image data. The proposed approach includes algorithms for hierarchical change detection, region representations and classification. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithms is demonstrated throughout the completion of three tasks, namely hierarchial detection of change by fuzzy post classification comparisons, localization of change by B-spline based region representation, and categorization of change by hierarchial texture classification.

  1. Techniques of the environmental observer: India's earth remote sensing program in the age of global information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denicola, Lane A.

    This research examines the emergence in India of earth remote sensing (ERS), a principal medium for environmental analysis, communication, and policy-making. ERS---the science and "craft" of analyzing images of terrestrial phenomena collected by aircraft or satellite---constitutes an information technology whose predominance in environmental discourse has grown continuously since first proposed for such applications by American researchers in 1962. Raising many thorny issues in information access and control, the use and popularization of ERS has intensified dramatically since the mid-1980s. In Westernized discourse (both popular and expert), space research and industry are often depicted at a double-remove from the so-called "developing world," where exotic technologies and esoteric goals are overshadowed by patent human needs and a lack of basic infrastructure. Yet advocates hail the utility of ERS in socially relevant applications, and India has amassed upwards of five decades of experience in space, with systems and products rivaled today only by those of the United States and China. A multi-sited ethnography of a nascent visual medium, the dissertation triangulates on its topic by tracing three analytical threads: (1) a diachronic analysis of Indian ERS satellites as an allegory of statehood and participation in the global present, (2) a synchronic analysis of ERS imagery as a discursive artifact and global information commodity, and (3) an analysis of interpretive practice as observed through a single class of Indian and foreign students at the Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS), considered here as an "interpretive community" of environmental experts. The dissertation is the result of four years of research with ERS students, faculty, researchers, users and administrators in the U.S., the U.K., Turkey and India. In particular, I conducted nine months of ethnographic fieldwork in India in 2002 and 2005, the latter half of which was spent in participant

  2. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Techniques in Predicting Phycocyanin Concentrations in Cyanobacteria: A Comprehensive Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S.; Mishra, D. R.; Schluchter, W. M.

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the performance of existing spectral band ratio algorithms and develop a novel algorithm to quantify phycocyanin (PC) in cyanobacteria using hyperspectral remotely-sensed data. We performed four spectroscopic experiments on two different laboratory cultured cyanobacterial species and found that the existing band ratio algorithms are highly sensitive to chlorophylls, making them inaccurate in predicting cyanobacterial abundance in the presence of other chlorophyll-containing organisms. Our results also show that the widely used 654 nm reflectance peak in existing algorithms is highly sensitive to changes in chlorophyll-a concentration and offers poor PC predictive ability. We present a novel spectral band ratio algorithm that is least sensitive to the presence of chlorophyll. The newly developed band ratio model showed promising results by yielding low root mean squared error (RMSE, 15,260 cells mL-1) and significantly low relative root mean squared error (RMS, 101%) as compared to the existing band ratio algorithms. Natural logarithmic transformation of the new model yielded the lowest RMSE (13,885 cells mL-1) and a high coefficient of determination (0.95) between measured and predicted PC concentration. We also show that the new algorithm is species independent and accurately retrieves PC concentration in the presence of varying amount of chlorophyll-a in the system. Band setting of the model confirms that it can be used for retrieval of PC using hyperspectral sensors such as Hyperion as well as data acquired by other airborne sensors. Figure (A, B, C) Percent reflectance spectra of Synechocystis PCC 6803 from Exp I, II, III respectively. (D) Percent reflectance spectra of Anabaena from Exp IV. Data collected from these experiments were included in the evaluation of existing PC predictive models and the calibration and validation of the new spectral band ratio model.

  3. Micro - Watershed Development Plans Using Remote Sensing & GIS Techniques Panoli Village, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, Iindia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purushothuman, S.

    2013-05-01

    Sustainable development aims at maintaining the equilibrium between the human needs and economic developments within the parameters of environmental conservation through efficient use of natural resources to ensure tradeoff between desired productions - consumption levels. The well-known Brundtland Commission defined sustainability as a "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. In essence, the sustainable development is a process of change in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and instrumental changes, all are in harmony". The sustainable development of natural resources is based on maintaining the fragile ecosystem balance between the productivity functions and conservation practices through monitoring and identification of problem areas, agricultural practices, crop rotation, use of bio-fertilizers, energy efficient farming methods and reclamation of underutilized lands. Sustainable development requires a holistic approach towards natural resources after taking into account the precarious environmental conditions. Watershed development has become the main involvement in natural resource management in India. This Dissertation demonstrates the use of Remote Sensing and GIS-based modeling framework for local-level planning, incorporating the sustainability aspects of Micro-watershed development. A case study has been taken in Panoli Village, Parner Taluka, Ahmanagar District, Maharashtra state to demonstrate the implementation of these new technologies for watershed prioritization and sustainable development. Watershed development and its management is achieved through the combination of database within the watershed boundaries of a drainage area to optimally develop land, water and plant resources to meet the basic minimum needs of the people in a sustained manner.;

  4. Application of multispectral remote sensing techniques for dismissed mine sites monitoring and rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia

    2007-09-01

    Mining activities, expecially those operated in open air (open pit), present a deep impact on the sourrondings. Such an impact, and the related problems, are directly related to the correct operation of the activities, and usually strongly interact with the environment. Impact can be mainly related to the following issues: high volumes of handled material, ii) generation of dust, noise and vibrations, water pollution, visual impact and, finally, mining area recovery at the end of exploitation activities. All these aspects can be considered very important, and must be properly evaluated and monitored. Environmental impact control is usually carried out during and after the end of the mining activities, adopting methods related to the detection, collection, analysis of specific environmental indicators and with their further comparison with reference thresholding values stated by official regulations. Aim of the study was to investigate, and critically evaluate, the problems related to development of an integrated set of procedures based on the collection and the analysis of remote sensed data in order to evaluate the effect of rehabilitation of land contaminated by extractive industry activities. Starting from the results of these analyses, a monitoring and registration of the environmental impact of such operations was performed by the application and the integration of modern information technologies, as the previous mentioned Earth Observation (EO), with Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The study was developed with reference to different dismissed mine sites in India, Thailand and China. The results of the study have been utilized as input for the construction of a knowledge based decision support system finalized to help in the identification of the appropriate rehabilitation technologies for all those dismissed area previously interested by extractive industry activities. The work was financially supported within the framework of the Project ASIA IT&C - CN

  5. Deriving urban dynamic evolution rules from self-adaptive cellular automata with multi-temporal remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yingqing; Ai, Bin; Yao, Yao; Zhong, Fajun

    2015-06-01

    Cellular automata (CA) have proven to be very effective for simulating and predicting the spatio-temporal evolution of complex geographical phenomena. Traditional methods generally pose problems in determining the structure and parameters of CA for a large, complex region or a long-term simulation. This study presents a self-adaptive CA model integrated with an artificial immune system to discover dynamic transition rules automatically. The model's parameters are allowed to be self-modified with the application of multi-temporal remote sensing images: that is, the CA can adapt itself to the changed and complex environment. Therefore, urban dynamic evolution rules over time can be efficiently retrieved by using this integrated model. The proposed AIS-based CA model was then used to simulate the rural-urban land conversion of Guangzhou city, located in the core of China's Pearl River Delta. The initial urban land was directly classified from TM satellite image in the year 1990. Urban land in the years 1995, 2000, 2005, 2009 and 2012 was correspondingly used as the observed data to calibrate the model's parameters. With the quantitative index figure of merit (FoM) and pattern similarity, the comparison was further performed between the AIS-based model and a Logistic CA model. The results indicate that the AIS-based CA model can perform better and with higher precision in simulating urban evolution, and the simulated spatial pattern is closer to the actual development situation.

  6. Using passive, thermal remote sensing techniques for detecting subsurface gravel accumulations in vegetated, unconsolidated sedimentary terrains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Gregory S.; Scholen, Douglas E.

    1989-01-01

    Multiband radiometric data from an airborne imaging thermal scanner are being studied for use in finding buried gravel deposits. The techniques are based on measuring relative differences in the thermal properties between gravel-laden targets and the surrounding gravelless background. These properties are determined from modeling the spectral radiant emittance recorded over both types of surfaces in conjunction with ground measurements of the most significant heat flows above and below the surface. Thermodynamic properties of sampled materials from control sites are determined, and diurnal and annual subsurface heat waves are recorded. Thermal models that account for heat exchange at the surface, as well as varying levels of soil moisture, humidity, and vegetation, are needed for adaptation and modification to simulate the physical and radiative environments of this region.

  7. Remote sensing for urban planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Schmidt, Nicholas; Jensen, John R.; Cowen, Dave J.; Halls, Joanne; Narumalani, Sunil; Burgess, Bryan

    1994-01-01

    Utility companies are challenged to provide services to a highly dynamic customer base. With factory closures and shifts in employment becoming a routine occurrence, the utility industry must develop new techniques to maintain records and plan for expected growth. BellSouth Telecommunications, the largest of the Bell telephone companies, currently serves over 13 million residences and 2 million commercial customers. Tracking the movement of customers and scheduling the delivery of service are major tasks for BellSouth that require intensive manpower and sophisticated information management techniques. Through NASA's Commercial Remote Sensing Program Office, BellSouth is investigating the utility of remote sensing and geographic information system techniques to forecast residential development. This paper highlights the initial results of this project, which indicate a high correlation between the U.S. Bureau of Census block group statistics and statistics derived from remote sensing data.

  8. Estimating primary productivity of tropical oil palm in Malaysia using remote sensing technique and ancillary data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanniah, K. D.; Tan, K. P.; Cracknell, A. P.

    2014-10-01

    The amount of carbon sequestration by vegetation can be estimated using vegetation productivity. At present, there is a knowledge gap in oil palm net primary productivity (NPP) at a regional scale. Therefore, in this study NPP of oil palm trees in Peninsular Malaysia was estimated using remote sensing based light use efficiency (LUE) model with inputs from local meteorological data, upscaled leaf area index/fractional photosynthetically active radiation (LAI/fPAR) derived using UK-DMC 2 satellite data and a constant maximum LUE value from the literature. NPP values estimated from the model was then compared and validated with NPP estimated using allometric equations developed by Corley and Tinker (2003), Henson (2003) and Syahrinudin (2005) with diameter at breast height, age and the height of the oil palm trees collected from three estates in Peninsular Malaysia. Results of this study show that oil palm NPP derived using a light use efficiency model increases with respect to the age of oil palm trees, and it stabilises after ten years old. The mean value of oil palm NPP at 118 plots as derived using the LUE model is 968.72 g C m-2 year-1 and this is 188% - 273% higher than the NPP derived from the allometric equations. The estimated oil palm NPP of young oil palm trees is lower compared to mature oil palm trees (<10 years old), as young oil palm trees contribute to lower oil palm LAI and therefore fPAR, which is an important variable in the LUE model. In contrast, it is noted that oil palm NPP decreases with respect to the age of oil palm trees as estimated using the allomeric equations. It was found in this study that LUE models could not capture NPP variation of oil palm trees if LAI/fPAR is used. On the other hand, tree height and DBH are found to be important variables that can capture changes in oil palm NPP as a function of age.

  9. A methodological framework for the assessment and monitoring of forest degradation under the REDD+ programme based on remote sensing techniques and field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero Sanchez, Martin Enrique

    In this thesis, a methodological framework for the assessment and monitoring of forest degradation based on remote sensing techniques and field data, as part of the REDD+ programme, is presented. The framework intends to support the implementation of a national Monitoring, Verification and Report (MRV) system in developing countries. The framework proposed an operational definition of forest degradation and a set of indicators, namely Canopy Cover (CC), Aboveground Biomass (AGB) and Net Primary Productivity (NPP), derived from remote sensing data. The applicability of the framework is tested in a sub-deciduous tropical forest in the Southeast of Mexico. The results from the application of the methodological framework showed that the higher rates of forest degradation, 1596-2865 ha˙year-1, occur in areas with high population density. Estimations of aboveground biomass in these degraded areas span from 1 to 24 Mg˙ha-1, with a rate of carbon fixation ranging from 130 to 246 gC˙m2˙year. The results also showed that 43 % of the forests of the study area remain with no evident signs of degradation, as detected by the indicators selected, during the period evaluated. The integration of the different elements conforming the methodological framework for the assessment and monitoring of forest degradation enabled the identification of areas that maintain a stable condition and areas that change over the period evaluated. The methodology outlined in this thesis also allows for the identification of the temporal and spatial distributions of forest degradation based on the indicators selected, and it is expected to serve as the basis for operations of the REDD+ programme with the appropriate adaptations to the area in turn.

  10. Use of remote sensing in agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettry, D. E.; Powell, N. L.; Newhouse, M. E.

    1974-01-01

    Remote sensing studies in Virginia and Chesapeake Bay areas to investigate soil and plant conditions via remote sensing technology are reported ant the results given. Remote sensing techniques and interactions are also discussed. Specific studies on the effects of soil moisture and organic matter on energy reflection of extensively occurring Sassafras soils are discussed. Greenhouse and field studies investigating the effects of chlorophyll content of Irish potatoes on infrared reflection are presented. Selected ground truth and environmental monitoring data are shown in summary form. Practical demonstrations of remote sensing technology in agriculture are depicted and future use areas are delineated.

  11. Applications of remote sensing to watershed management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft and satellite remote sensing systems which are capable of contributing to watershed management are described and include: the multispectral scanner subsystem on LANDSAT and the basic multispectral camera array flown on high altitude aircraft such as the U-2. Various aspects of watershed management investigated by remote sensing systems are discussed. Major areas included are: snow mapping, surface water inventories, flood management, hydrologic land use monitoring, and watershed modeling. It is indicated that technological advances in remote sensing of hydrological data must be coupled with an expansion of awareness and training in remote sensing techniques of the watershed management community.

  12. An integrated study of earth resources in the state of California using remote sensing techniques. [planning and management of water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.; Churchman, C. W.; Burgy, R. H.; Schubert, G.; Estes, J. E.; Bowden, L. W.; Algazi, R.; Coulson, K. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The University of California has been conducting an investigation which seeks to determine the usefulness of modern remote sensing techniques for studying various components of California's earth resources complex. Most of the work has concentrated on California's water resources, but with some attention being given to other earth resources as well and to the interplay between them and California's water resources.

  13. A Comparison of Two Above-Ground Biomass Estimation Techniques Integrating Satellite-Based Remotely Sensed Data and Ground Data for Tropical and Semiarid Forests in Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two above-ground forest biomass estimation techniques were evaluated for the United States Territory of Puerto Rico using predictor variables acquired from satellite based remotely sensed data and ground data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA)...

  14. Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, B. H.

    1973-01-01

    The Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study was initiated as part of the research program of the NASA Earth Resources Laboratory. The objective of this study is development of remote sensing techniques to study near-shore marine waters. Included within this general objective are the following: (1) evaluate existing techniques and instruments used for remote measurement of parameters of interest within these waters; (2) develop methods for interpretation of state-of-the-art remote sensing data which are most meaningful to an understanding of processes taking place within near-shore waters; (3) define hardware development requirements and/or system specifications; (4) develop a system combining data from remote and surface measurements which will most efficiently assess conditions in near-shore waters; (5) conduct projects in coordination with appropriate operating agencies to demonstrate applicability of this research to environmental and economic problems.

  15. Study of Influence of Effluent on Ground Water Using Remote Sensing, GIS and Modeling Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, S.; Bhadra, B. K.; Sharma, J. R.

    2012-07-01

    The area lies in arid zone of western Rajasthan having very scanty rains and very low ground water reserves. Some of the other problems that are faced by the area are disposal of industrial effluent posing threat to its sustainability of water resource. Textiles, dyeing and printing industries, various mechanical process and chemical/synthetic dyes are used and considerable wastewater discharged from these textile units contains about high amount of the dyes into the adjoining drainages. This has caused degradation of water quality in this water scarce semi-arid region of the country. Pali city is located South-West, 70 Kms from Jodhpur in western Rajasthan (India). There are four Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) treating wastewater to meet the pollutant level permissible to river discharge, a huge amount of effluent water of these factories directly meets the into the river Bandi - a tributary of river Luni. In order to monitor the impact of industrial effluents on the environment, identifying the extent of the degradation and evolving possible means of minimizing the impacts studies on quality of effluents, polluted river water and water of adjoining wells, the contamination migration of the pollutants from the river to ground water were studied. Remote sensing analysis has been carried out using Resourcesat -1 multispectral satellite data along with DEM derived from IRS P5 stereo pair. GIS database generated of various thematic layers viz. base layer - inventorying all waterbodies in the vicinity, transport network and village layer, drainage, geomorphology, structure, land use. Analysis of spatial distribution of the features and change detection in land use/cover carried out. GIS maps have been used to help factor in spatial location of source and hydro-geomorphological settings. DEM & elevation contour helped in delineation of watershed and identifying flow modelling boundaries. Litholog data analysis carried out for aquifer boundaries using specialized

  16. Remote sensing. [land use mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jinich, A.

    1979-01-01

    Various imaging techniques are outlined for use in mapping, land use, and land management in Mexico. Among the techniques discussed are pattern recognition and photographic processing. The utilization of information from remote sensing devices on satellites are studied. Multispectral band scanners are examined and software, hardware, and other program requirements are surveyed.

  17. Remote Sensing in Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Thomas P.

    1983-01-01

    Describes general concepts of remote sensing and provides three examples of how its techniques have been used in the context of environmental issues. Examples focus on the use of this data gathering technique in the visible (aerial photography), near infrared, and thermal infrared ranges. (JN)

  18. Morphostructural characterization of the western edge of the Huila Plateau (SW Angola), based on remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Fernando Carlos; Pereira, Alcides José; Mantas, Vasco Manuel; Mpengo, Horácio Kativa

    2016-05-01

    Recognition of the main morphostructural features of the western edge of the Huila Plateau (SW Angola) can be done by using remote sensing techniques associated with field work. A digital elevation model (DEM) of the area was built for this purpose. This model is based on altimeter data acquired from the Aster sensor, on which image processing techniques such as enhancement techniques, contrast change and filtering were applied. Other techniques, such as RGB colour composition, were also tested. The processed satellite images were interpreted by visual process and the results were then compared with available geological maps (scale 1: 1 000 000). To facilitate both analysis and interpretation, the edge of the plateau was divided into three sectors: northern (or Chongoroi Edge), central (or Humpata Edge) and southern (or Oncocua Edge). For each sector, the main morphological aspects and main lineament systems were identified and characterized. In the specific case of the central sector, these parameters were also confirmed by field work. This study shows that the morphology of the western edge of the plateau is dominated by N50°W-N60°W, N60°E and N-S trending main tectonic systems. These results have important implications in terms of geological mapping and regional tectonics as well as in land-use planning and other areas, such as hydrogeology or geotechnics.

  19. Streamlined environmental remediation characterization using remote sensing techniques: Case studies for the US Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Carden, D.M.; Smyre, J.L.; Evers, T.K.; King, A.L.

    1996-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Remote Sensing Program and discusses how data from this program have assisted the environmental restoration program in streamlining site-characterization activities. Three case studies are described where remote sensing imagery has provided a more focused understanding of site problems with a resultant reduction in the need for costly and time-consuming, ground-based sampling approaches.

  20. Remote Sensing of Environmental Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a problem of international scope and concern. It can be subdivided into problems relating to water, air, or land pollution. Many of the problems in these three categories lend themselves to study and possible solution by remote sensing. Through the use of remote sensing systems and techniques, it is possible to detect and monitor, and in some cases, identify, measure, and study the effects of various environmental pollutants. As a guide for making decisions regarding the use of remote sensors for pollution studies, a special five-dimensional sensor/applications matrix has been designed. The matrix defines an environmental goal, ranks the various remote sensing objectives in terms of their ability to assist in solving environmental problems, lists the environmental problems, ranks the sensors that can be used for collecting data on each problem, and finally ranks the sensor platform options that are currently available.

  1. Remote Sensing in Archeology: Classifying Bajos of the Paten, Guatemala

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, James D., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    This project focuses on the adaptation of human populations to their environments from prehistoric times to the present. It emphasizes interdisciplinary research to develop ecological baselines through the use of remotely sensed imagery, in situ field work, and the modeling of human population dynamics. It utilizes cultural and biological data from dated archaeological sites to assess the subsistence and settlement patterns of human societies in response to changing climatic and environmental conditions. The utilization of remote sensing techniques in archaeology is relatively new, exciting, and opens many doors.

  2. Adaptive semisupervised feature selection without graph construction for very-high-resolution remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Qi, Jinzi; Chen, Yushi; Hua, Lizhong; Shao, Guofan

    2016-04-01

    Semisupervised feature selection methods can improve classification performance and enhance model comprehensibility with few labeled objects. However, most of the existing methods require graph construction beforehand, and the resulting heavy computational cost may bring about the failure to accurately capture the local geometry of data. To overcome the problem, adaptive semisupervised feature selection (ASFS) is proposed. In ASFS, the goodness of each feature is measured by linear objective functions based on loss functions and probability distribution matrices. By alternatively optimizing model parameters and automatically adjusting the probabilities of boundary objects, ASFS can measure the genuine characteristics of the data and then rank and select features. The experimental results attest to the effectiveness and practicality of the method in comparison with the latest and state-of-the-art methods on a Worldview II image and a Quickbird II image.

  3. Missing pixels restoration for remote sensing images using adaptive search window and linear regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Shen-Chuan; Chen, Peng-Yu; Chao, Chian-Yen

    2016-07-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems proposed an efficient image compression standard that can do lossless compression (CCSDS-ICS). CCSDS-ICS is the most widely utilized standard for satellite communications. However, the original CCSDS-ICS is weak in terms of error resilience with even a single incorrect bit possibly causing numerous missing pixels. A restoration algorithm based on the neighborhood similar pixel interpolator is proposed to fill in missing pixels. The linear regression model is used to generate the reference image from other panchromatic or multispectral images. Furthermore, an adaptive search window is utilized to sieve out similar pixels from the pixels in the search region defined in the neighborhood similar pixel interpolator. The experimental results show that the proposed methods are capable of reconstructing missing regions with good visual quality.

  4. Applying aerial digital photography as a spectral remote sensing technique for macrophytic cover assessment in small rural streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anker, Y.; Hershkovitz, Y.; Gasith, A.; Ben-Dor, E.

    2011-12-01

    Although remote sensing of fluvial ecosystems is well developed, the tradeoff between spectral and spatial resolutions prevents its application in small streams (<3m width). In the current study, a remote sensing approach for monitoring and research of small ecosystem was developed. The method is based on differentiation between two indicative vegetation species out of the ecosystem flora. Since when studied, the channel was covered mostly by a filamentous green alga (Cladophora glomerata) and watercress (Nasturtium officinale), these species were chosen as indicative; nonetheless, common reed (Phragmites australis) was also classified in order to exclude it from the stream ROI. The procedure included: A. For both section and habitat scales classifications, acquisition of aerial digital RGB datasets. B. For section scale classification, hyperspectral (HSR) dataset acquisition. C. For calibration, HSR reflectance measurements of specific ground targets, in close proximity to each dataset acquisition swath. D. For habitat scale classification, manual, in-stream flora grid transects classification. The digital RGB datasets were converted to reflectance units by spectral calibration against colored reference plates. These red, green, blue, white, and black EVA foam reference plates were measured by an ASD field spectrometer and each was given a spectral value. Each spectral value was later applied to the spectral calibration and radiometric correction of spectral RGB (SRGB) cube. Spectral calibration of the HSR dataset was done using the empirical line method, based on reference values of progressive grey scale targets. Differentiation between the vegetation species was done by supervised classification both for the HSR and for the SRGB datasets. This procedure was done using the Spectral Angle Mapper function with the spectral pattern of each vegetation species as a spectral end member. Comparison between the two remote sensing techniques and between the SRGB

  5. Sun Photometer Laser and Lamp Based Radiometric Calibrations; Comparison with the Langley Technique and Implications on Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souaidia, N.; Pietras, C.; Brown, S. W.; Lykke, K. R.; Frouin, R.; Deschamps, P.; Fargion, G.; Johnson, B. C.

    2002-12-01

    Satellite-based remote sensing of the earth is a valuable data source for biological and oceanic studies. However when using remote sensing, it is necessary to correct the measured signal for atmospheric effects. As aerosols play a major role in atmospheric scattering, correcting algorithms based on Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) data have been developed to describe the scattering of radiation by aerosols. AOT data are collected by filter radiometers measuring the solar irradiance. The AOT is then retrieved applying the Beer-Bouger-Lambert Law to those measurements. Two radiometers, called Satellite Validation for Marine Biology and Aerosol Determination (SimbadA), were calibrated in this study. These instruments measure the upwelling radiance from the ocean as well as the solar irradiance, providing information on both marine reflectance and AOT. The goals of this study were to calibrate the radiometers using independent methods, evaluate the uncertainties for each method, and assess the influence of the results in terms of the science requirements. The radiometers were calibrated in irradiance and radiance mode using a monochromatic, laser-illuminated integrating sphere, in radiance mode using two different lamp-illuminated integrating spheres, and in irradiance mode using the Langley technique. First, a limited characterization of the instrument was conducted. The instrument's temporal stability and its spectral out-of-band response were evaluated. The instrument was then calibrated in radiance mode using a laser-illuminated integrating sphere that overfilled its field of view (FOV). The absolute radiance responsivity from this calibration was compared to results from measurements of two calibrated lamp illuminated spheres. The first comparison, with the NIST portable radiometric source (NPR), was a validation as good agreement between the two methods has been reported in previous studies. The second comparison was with the Hardy sphere from the Goddard Space

  6. Mapping of groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India, using remote sensing and GIS techniques.

    PubMed

    Thilagavathi, N; Subramani, T; Suresh, M; Karunanidhi, D

    2015-04-01

    This study proposes to introduce the remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques in mapping the groundwater potential zones. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to map the groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India. Charnockites and fissile hornblende biotite gneiss are the major rock types in this region. Dunites and peridodites are the ultramafic rocks which cut across the foliation planes of the gneisses and are highly weathered. It comprises magnesite and chromite deposits which are excavated by five mining companies by adopting bench mining. The thickness of weathered and fracture zone varies from 2.2 to 50 m in gneissic formation and 5.8 to 55 m in charnockite. At the contacts of gneiss and charnockite, the thickness ranges from 9.0 to 90.8 m favoring good groundwater potential. The mine lease area is underlined by fractured and sheared hornblende biotite gneiss where groundwater potential is good. Water catchment tanks in this area of 5 km radius are small to moderate in size and are only seasonal. They remain dry during summer seasons. As perennial water resources are remote, the domestic and agricultural activities in this region depend mainly upon the groundwater resources. The mines are located in gently slope area, and accumulation of water is not observed except in mine pits even during the monsoon period. Therefore, it is essential to map the groundwater potential zones for proper management of the aquifer system. Satellite imageries were also used to extract lineaments, hydrogeomorphic landforms, drainage patterns, and land use, which are the major controlling factors for the occurrence of groundwater. Various thematic layers pertaining to groundwater existence such as geology, geomorphology, land use/land cover, lineament, lineament density, drainage, drainage density, slope, and soil were generated using GIS tools. By integrating all the above thematic layers based on the ranks and

  7. Romantic versus scientific perspective: the ruins of Radlin palace in Wielkopolska region in the light of remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilgocka, Aleksandra; Ruciński, Dominik; RÄ czkowski, Włodzimierz

    2015-06-01

    Although ruins of palace in Radlin, localized in Wielkopolska Region (Poland), could have been a great inspiration for romantic landscape painters, they were hardly considered as the subject of artistic interest. Nevertheless they stand as a marker in a landscape as a romantic background for the village on one hand and a memento for the neighbouring graveyard on another. Small scale excavations carried out in late 1950s with historical maps and analysis of still standing remains gave a general idea about wings order, localisation of main entrance and communication routs inside courtyard. Those early research thereby were the first step to change the meaning of this place from romantic to more scientific. New remote sensing technology allows move even further into scientific direction. The ruins in Radlin have been included into project ArchEO - archaeological applications of Earth Observation techniques. The main aim of the project in case of Radlin is an attempt to answer the question to what extent very high resolution optical satellite imagery might allow better understanding the spatial structure of the place. The various processing techniques were applied to facilitate the detection of archaeological features' impact on the vegetation condition. It enabled to assess the usefulness of satellite based data in recognizing specific archaeological remains. Thus, potential and limitations of satellite imagery versus other sources of spatial information like historic maps, excavation results, aerial photographs and Lidar will be discussed.

  8. Remote sensing of Italian volcanos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianchi, R.; Casacchia, R.; Coradini, A.; Duncan, A. M.; Guest, J. E.; Kahle, A.; Lanciano, P.; Pieri, D. C.; Poscolieri, M.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a July 1986 remote sensing campaign of Italian volcanoes are reviewed. The equipment and techniques used to acquire the data are described and the results obtained for Campi Flegrei and Mount Etna are reviewed and evaluated for their usefulness for the study of active and recently active volcanoes.

  9. Applied Remote Sensing Program (ARSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouat, D. A.; Johnson, J. D.; Foster, K. E.

    1977-01-01

    Descriptions of projects engaged by the Applied Remote Sensors Program in the state of Arizona are contained in an annual report for the fiscal year 1976-1977. Remote sensing techniques included thermal infrared imagery in analog and digital form and conversion of data into thermograms. Delineation of geologic areas, surveys of vegetation and inventory of resources were also presented.

  10. Monitoring the urban expansion of Athens using remote sensing and GIS techniques in the last 35 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos; Pavlopoulos, Kosmas; Chalkias, Christos; Manou, Dora

    2005-10-01

    During the last thirty-five years the capital of Greece has suffered from an enormous internal immigration. Its population has overpassed the five millions and today almost the half population of Greece is squeezed in Athens metropolitan area. Because of the significant increase of population, the urban expansion in the basin of Athens was also excessive and in some cases catastrophic. Buildings have covered all the free places, new roads have been constructed, the drainage networks have been covered or disappeared and a lot of changes have been occurred to the landforms. The construction of the new airport (Elefterios Venizelos) at the beginning of this decade created a new commercial and urban pole at the eastern part of Athens and the constructive activity has been moved to new areas around the airport. Our aim was to detect and map all the changes that occurred in the urban area, estimate the urban expansion rate and the human interferences in the natural landscape, using GIS and remote sensing techniques. We have used satellite images from three different periods (1973, 1992, 2002) and topographic maps of 1:25.000 scale. The spatial resolution of all the satellite images ranges from 5 to 10 meters and is it acceptable for the monitoring and mapping of the urban growth. Supervised classification and on screen digitizing methods have been used in order to map the changes. Finally the qualitative and quantitative results of this study are presented in this paper.

  11. Application of remote-sensing techniques to hydrologic studies in selected coal-mine areas of southeastern Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenny, J.F.; McCauley, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Disturbances resulting from intensive coal mining in the Cherry Creek basin of southeastern Kansas were investigated using color and color-infrared aerial photography in conjunction with water-quality data from simultaneously acquired samples. Imagery was used to identify the type and extent of vegetative cover on strip-mined lands and the extent and success of reclamation practices. Drainage patterns, point sources of acid mine drainage, and recharge areas for underground mines were located for onsite inspection. Comparison of these interpretations with water-quality data illustrated differences between the eastern and western parts of the Cherry Creek basin. Contamination in the eastern part is due largely to circulation of water from unreclaimed strip mines and collapse features through the network of underground mines and subsequent discharge of acidic drainage through seeps. Contamination in the western part is primarily caused by runoff and seepage from strip-mined lands in which surfaces have frequently been graded and limed but are generally devoid of mature stands of soil-anchoring vegetation. The successful use of aerial photography in the study of Cherry Creek basin indicates the potential of using remote-sensing techniques in studies of other coal-mined regions. (USGS)

  12. Remote sensing and GIS techniques for evaluation of groundwater quality in municipal corporation of Hyderabad (Zone-V), India.

    PubMed

    Asadi, S S; Vuppala, Padmaja; Reddy, M Anji

    2007-03-01

    Groundwater quality in Hyderabad has special significance and needs great attention of all concerned since it is the major alternate source of domestic, industrial and drinking water supply. The present study monitors the ground water quality, relates it to the land use / land cover and maps such quality using Remote sensing and GIS techniques for a part of Hyderabad metropolis. Thematic maps for the study are prepared by visual interpretation of SOI toposheets and linearly enhanced fused data of IRS-ID PAN and LISS-III imagery on 1:50,000 scale using AutoCAD and ARC/INFO software. Physico-chemical analysis data of the groundwater samples collected at predetermined locations forms the attribute database for the study, based on which, spatial distribution maps of major water quality parameters are prepared using curve fitting method in Arc View GIS software. Water Quality Index (WQI) was then calculated to find the suitability of water for drinking purpose. The overall view of the water quality index of the present study area revealed that most of the study area with >50 standard rating of water quality index exhibited poor, very poor and unfit water quality except in places like Banjara Hills, Erragadda and Tolichowki. Appropriate methods for improving the water quality in affected areas have been suggested.

  13. Assessment of the capability of remote sensing and GIS techniques for monitoring reclamation success in coal mine degraded lands.

    PubMed

    Karan, Shivesh Kishore; Samadder, Sukha Ranjan; Maiti, Subodh Kumar

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the present study is to monitor reclamation activity in mining areas. Monitoring of these reclaimed sites in the vicinity of mining areas and on closed Over Burden (OB) dumps is critical for improving the overall environmental condition, especially in developing countries where area around the mines are densely populated. The present study evaluated the reclamation success in the Block II area of Jharia coal field, India, using Landsat satellite images for the years 2000 and 2015. Four image processing methods (support vector machine, ratio vegetation index, enhanced vegetation index, and normalized difference vegetation index) were used to quantify the change in vegetation cover between the years 2000 and 2015. The study also evaluated the relationship between vegetation health and moisture content of the study area using remote sensing techniques. Statistical linear regression analysis revealed that Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) coupled with Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) is the best method for vegetation monitoring in the study area when compared to other indices. A strong linear relationship (r(2) > 0.86) was found between NDVI and NDMI. An increase of 21% from 213.88 ha in 2000 to 258.9 ha in 2015 was observed in the vegetation cover of the reclaimed sites for an open cast mine, indicating satisfactory reclamation activity. NDVI results indicated that vegetation health also improved over the years.

  14. Remote sensing applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The activities of the Mississippi Remote Sensing Center are described in addition to technology transfer and information dissemination, remote sensing topics such as timber identification, water quality, flood prevention, land use, erosion control, animal habitats, and environmental impact studies are also discussed.

  15. Land Remote Sensing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, Ray

    2007-01-01

    A general overview of the USGS land remote sensing program is presented. The contents include: 1) Brief overview of USGS land remote sensing program; 2) Highlights of JACIE work at USGS; 3) Update on NASA/USGS Landsat Data Continuity Mission; and 4) Notes on alternative data sources.

  16. Comparison of data inversion techniques for remotely sensed wide-angle observations of Earth emitted radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    The shape factor, parameter estimation, and deconvolution data analysis techniques were applied to the same set of Earth emitted radiation measurements to determine the effects of different techniques on the estimated radiation field. All three techniques are defined and their assumptions, advantages, and disadvantages are discussed. Their results are compared globally, zonally, regionally, and on a spatial spectrum basis. The standard deviations of the regional differences in the derived radiant exitance varied from 7.4 W-m/2 to 13.5 W-m/2.

  17. Adaptive Multi-Objective Sub-Pixel Mapping Framework Based on Memetic Algorithm for Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Y.; Zhang, L.

    2012-07-01

    Sub-pixel mapping technique can specify the location of each class within the pixels based on the assumption of spatial dependence. Traditional sub-pixel mapping algorithms only consider the spatial dependence at the pixel level. The spatial dependence of each sub-pixel is ignored and sub-pixel spatial relation is lost. In this paper, a novel multi-objective sub-pixel mapping framework based on memetic algorithm, namely MSMF, is proposed. In MSMF, the sub-pixel mapping is transformed to a multi-objective optimization problem, which maximizing the spatial dependence index (SDI) and Moran's I, synchronously. Memetic algorithm is utilized to solve the multi-objective problem, which combines global search strategies with local search heuristics. In this framework, the sub-pixel mapping problem can be solved using different evolutionary algorithms and local algorithms. In this paper, memetic algorithm based on clonal selection algorithm (CSA) and random swapping as an example is designed and applied simultaneously in the proposed MSMF. In MSMF, CSA inherits the biologic properties of human immune systems, i.e. clone, mutation, memory, to search the possible sub-pixel mapping solution in the global space. After the exploration based on CSA, the local search based on random swapping is employed to dynamically decide which neighbourhood should be selected to stress exploitation in each generation. In addition, a solution set is used in MSMF to hold and update the obtained non-dominated solutions for multi-objective problem. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach outperform traditional sub-pixel mapping algorithms, and hence provide an effective option for sub-pixel mapping of hyperspectral remote sensing imagery.

  18. An information system design for watershed-wide modeling of water loss to the atmosphere using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorram, S.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented of a study intended to develop a general location-specific remote-sensing procedure for watershed-wide estimation of water loss to the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration. The general approach involves a stepwise sequence of required information definition (input data), appropriate sample design, mathematical modeling, and evaluation of results. More specifically, the remote sensing-aided system developed to evaluate evapotranspiration employs a basic two-stage two-phase sample of three information resolution levels. Based on the discussed design, documentation, and feasibility analysis to yield timely, relatively accurate, and cost-effective evapotranspiration estimates on a watershed or subwatershed basis, work is now proceeding to implement this remote sensing-aided system.

  19. High-Sensitivity Optical Techniques for Atmospheric Spectroscopy, Kinetics and Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    A principal objective of the work supported by this Grant has been to use IntraCavity Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (ICLAS) to acquire data on weakly absorbing species of atmospheric interest that are not accessible, or cannot be determined with sufficient precision, using conventional spectroscopic instrumentation. The principal focus has been to adapt the existing instrument to carry out Kinetic studies using IntraCavity Absorption Spectroscopy (KICAS) in order to measure rate parameters for weakly absorbing, environmentally significant species. Additional related work has been carried out in collaboration with Prof. M.J. Molina's program on air pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area on modeling the role of these species in atmospheric chemistry.

  20. Remote sensing techniques for mapping range sites and estimating range yield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, L. A.; Frazee, C. J.; Waltz, F. A.; Reed, C.; Carey, R. L.; Gropper, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    Image interpretation procedures for determining range yield and for extrapolating range information were investigated for an area of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in southwestern South Dakota. Soil and vegetative data collected in the field utilizing a grid sampling design and digital film data from color infrared film and black and white films were analyzed statistically using correlation and regression techniques. The pattern recognition techniques used were K-class, mode seeking, and thresholding. The herbage yield equation derived for the detailed test site was used to predict yield for an adjacent similar field. The herbage yield estimate for the adjacent field was 1744 lbs. of dry matter per acre and was favorably compared to the mean yield of 1830 lbs. of dry matter per acre based upon ground observations. Also an inverse relationship was observed between vegetative cover and the ratio of MSS 5 to MSS 7 of ERTS-1 imagery.

  1. Evaluation of remote sensing and automatic data techniques for characterization of wetlands. [Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cartmill, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    This investigation has been conducted in the Atchafalaya River Basin of South Central Louisiana. This is a humid area of heavily forested swamps with a large volume of flow mostly from a diversion of the lower Mississippi River. Techniques to obtain enlarged imagery from computer compatible tapes of ERTS data without photographic enlargement is explained and illustrated. Techniques of extraction of environmental information from single bands and multiband pattern recognition procedures are explained and evaluated. A comparison of pattern recognition classifications of the Atchafalaya Basin by aircraft multispectral scanner and ERTS MSS data is made. Data for this comparison were gathered within three weeks of each other in the winter of 1973. Scorecards of the accuracy of the classifications are presented. Recommendations are made concerning the utilization of each sensor platform to perform specific tasks of wetlands characterization.

  2. Structural Analysis for Gold Mineralization Using Remote Sensing and Geochemical Techniques in a GIS Environment: Island of Lesvos, Hellas

    SciTech Connect

    Rokos, D. Argialas, D. Mavrantza, R. St Seymour, K.; Vamvoukakis, C.; Kouli, M.; Lamera, S.; Paraskevas, H.; Karfakis, I.; Denes, G

    2000-12-15

    Exploration for epithermal Au has been active lately in the Aegean Sea of the eastern Mediterranean Basin, both in the islands of the Quaternary arc and in those of the back-arc region. The purpose of this study was the structural mapping and analysis for a preliminary investigation of possible epithermal gold mineralization, using remotely sensed data and techniques, structural and field data, and geochemical information, for a specific area on the Island of Lesvos. Therefore, Landsat-TM and SPOT-Pan satellite images and the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the study area were processed digitally using spatial filtering techniques for the enhancement and recognition of the geologically significant lineaments, as well as algebraic operations with band ratios and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), for the identification of alteration zones. Statistical rose diagrams and a SCHMIDT projection Stereo Net were generated from the lineament maps and the collected field data (dip and strike measurements of faults, joints, and veins), respectively. The derived lineament map and the band ratio images were manipulated in a GIS environment, in order to study the relation of the tectonic pattern to both the alteration zoning and the geomorphology of the volcanic field of the study area. Target areas of high interest for possible mineralization also were specified using geochemical techniques, such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis, trace-element, and fluid-inclusion analysis. Finally, preliminary conclusions were derived about possible mineralization, the type (high or low sulfidation), and the extent of mineralization, by combining the structural information with geochemical information.

  3. A preliminary study of air-pollution measurement by active remote-sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, M. L.; Proctor, E. K.; Gasiorek, L. S.; Liston, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    Air pollutants are identified, and the needs for their measurement from satellites and aircraft are discussed. An assessment is made of the properties of these pollutants and of the normal atmosphere, including interactions with light of various wavelengths and the resulting effects on transmission and scattering of optical signals. The possible methods for active remote measurement are described; the relative performance capabilities of double-ended and single-ended systems are compared qualitatively; and the capabilities of the several single-ended or backscattering techniques are compared quantitatively. The differential-absorption lidar (DIAL) technique is shown to be superior to the other backscattering techniques. The lidar system parameters and their relationships to the environmental factors and the properties of pollutants are examined in detail. A computer program that models both the atmosphere (including pollutants) and the lidar system is described. The performance capabilities of present and future lidar components are assessed, and projections are made of prospective measurement capabilities for future lidar systems. Following a discussion of some important operational factors that affect both the design and measurement capabilities of airborne and satellite-based lidar systems, the extensive analytical results obtained through more than 1000 individual cases analyzed with the aid of the computer program are summarized and discussed. The conclusions are presented. Recommendations are also made for additional studies to investigate cases that could not be explored adequately during this study.

  4. a Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Urban Heat Island in Basin City Utilizing Remote Sensing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hsiao-Tung

    2016-06-01

    Urban Heat Island (UHI) has been becoming a key factor in deteriorating the urban ecological environment. Spatial-temporal analysis on its prototype of basin city's UHI and quantitatively evaluating effect from rapid urbanization will provide theoretical foundation for relieving UHI effect. Based on Landsat 8, ETM+ and TM images of Taipei basin areas from 1900 to 2015, this article has retrieved the land surface temperature (LST) at summer solstice of each year, and then analysed spatial-temporal pattern and evolution characters of UHI in Taipei basin in this decade. The results showed that the expansion built district, UHI area constantly expanded from centre city to the suburb areas. The prototype of UHI in Taipei basin that showed in addition to higher temperatures in the centre city also were relatively high temperatures gathered boundaries surrounded by foot of mountains side. It calls "sinking heat island". From 1900 to 2000, the higher UHI areas were different land use type change had obvious difference by public infrastructure works. And then, in next 15 years till 2015, building density of urban area has been increasing gradually. It has the trend that UHI flooding raises follow urban land use density. Hot spot of UHI in Taipei basin also has the same characteristics. The results suggest that anthropogenic heat release probably plays a significant role in the UHI effect, and must be considered in urban planning adaptation strategies.

  5. An integrated study of earth resources in the state of California using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A weighted stratified double sample design using hardcopy LANDSAT-1 and ground data was utilized in developmental studies for snow water content estimation. Study results gave a correlation coefficient of 0.80 between LANDSAT sample units estimates of snow water content and ground subsamples. A basin snow water content estimate allowable error was given as 1.00 percent at the 99 percent confidence level with the same budget level utilized in conventional snow surveys. Several evapotranspiration estimation models were selected for efficient application at each level of data to be sampled. An area estimation procedure for impervious surface types of differing impermeability adjacent to stream channels was developed. This technique employs a double sample of 1:125,000 color infrared hightflight transparency data with ground or large scale photography.

  6. Remote sensing of OH in the atmosphere using the technique of laser-induced fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    The use of a laser-induced fluorescence technique for the sensitive measurement of the atmospheric hydroxyl radical is discussed. Results of laboratory studies of the fluorescence and other spectroscopic properties of OH which allow the calculation of OH concentrations from the returned signals for various altitudes, water vapor contents and temperatures are presented. The experimental setup used for airborne OH measurements is then described, with particular attention given to the use of a telescope for excitation and light collection in a coaxial configuration and the periodic tuning of the exciting radiation necessary to obtain an OH signal in the presence of strong solar and nonresonant fluorescence backgrounds. The best detection limit obtained to date with the system is noted to be about 700,000 OH/cu cm, and it is expected that, with planned improvements in detection and tuning schemes, limits in the neighborhood of 1,000,000 OH/cu cm will be achieved routinely.

  7. Detecting river sediments to assess hazardous materials at volcanic lake using advanced remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saepuloh, Asep; Fitrianingtyas, Chintya

    2016-05-01

    The Toba Caldera formed from large depression of Quaternary volcanism is a remarkable feature at the Earth surface. The last Toba super eruptions were recorded around 73 ka and produced the Youngest Toba Tuff about 2,800 km3. Since then, there is no record of significant volcanic seismicity at Toba Volcanic Complex (TVC). However, the hydrothermal activities are still on going as presented by the existence of hot springs and alteration zones at the northwest caldera. The hydrothermal fluids probably containing some chemical compositions mixed with surficial water pollutant and contaminated the Toba Lake. Therefore, an environmental issues related to the existence of chemical composition and degradation of water clearness in the lake had been raised in the local community. The pollutant sources are debatable between natural and anthropogenic influences because some human activities grow rapidly at and around the lake such as hotels, tourisms, husbandry, aquaculture, as well as urbanization. Therefore, obtaining correct information about the source materials floating at the surface of the Toba Lake is crucial for environmental and hazard mitigation purposes. Overcoming the problem, we presented this paper to assess the source possibility of floating materials at Toba Lake, especially from natural sources such as hydrothermal activities of TVC and river stream sediments. The Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) techniques using atmospherically corrected of Landsat-8 and colour composite of Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) were used to map the distribution of floating materials. The seven ground truth points were used to confirm the correctness of proposed method. Based on the SAM and PolSAR techniques, we could detect the interface of hydrothermal fluid at the lake surfaces. Various distributions of stream sediment were also detected from the river mouth to the lake. The influence possibilities of the upwelling process from the bottom floor of Toba Lake were also

  8. The possibility of using photogrammetric and remote sensing techniques to model lavaka (gully erosion) development in Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raveloson, Andrea; Székely, Balázs; Molnár, Gábor; Rasztovits, Sascha

    2013-04-01

    Gully erosion is a worldwide problem for it has a number of undesirable effects and their development is hard to follow. Madagascar is one of the most affected countries for its highlands are densely covered with gullies named lavakas. Lavaka formation and development seems to be triggered by many regional and local causes but the actual reasons are still poorly understood. Furthermore lavakas differ from normal gullies due to their enormous size and special shape. Field surveys are time consuming and data from two-dimensional measurements and pictures (even aerial) might lack major information for morphologic studies. Therefore close range surveying technologies should be used to get three-dimensional information about these unusual and complex features. This contribution discusses which remote sensing and photogrammetric techniques are adequate to survey the development of lavakas, their volume change and sediment budget. Depending on the types and properties (such as volume, depth, shape, vegetation) of the lavaka different methods will be proposed showing pros and cons of each one of them. Our goal is to review techniques to model, survey and analyze lavakas development to better understand the cause of their formation, special size and shape. Different methods are evaluated and compared from field survey through data processing, analyzing cost-effectiveness, potential errors and accuracy for each one of them. For this purpose we will also consider time- and cost-effectiveness of the softwares able to render the images into 3D model as well as the resolution and accuracy of the outputs. Further studies will concentrate on using the three dimensional models of lavakas which will be later on used for geomorphological studies in order to understand their special shape and size. This is ILARG-contribution #07.

  9. A study and evaluation of image analysis techniques applied to remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, R. J.; Dasarathy, B. V.; Lybanon, M.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of phenomena causing nonlinearities in the transformation from Landsat multispectral scanner coordinates to ground coordinates is presented. Experimental results comparing rms errors at ground control points indicated a slight improvement when a nonlinear (8-parameter) transformation was used instead of an affine (6-parameter) transformation. Using a preliminary ground truth map of a test site in Alabama covering the Mobile Bay area and six Landsat images of the same scene, several classification methods were assessed. A methodology was developed for automatic change detection using classification/cluster maps. A coding scheme was employed for generation of change depiction maps indicating specific types of changes. Inter- and intraseasonal data of the Mobile Bay test area were compared to illustrate the method. A beginning was made in the study of data compression by applying a Karhunen-Loeve transform technique to a small section of the test data set. The second part of the report provides a formal documentation of the several programs developed for the analysis and assessments presented.

  10. Optimal spatial sampling techniques for ground truth data in microwave remote sensing of soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, R. G. S.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1977-01-01

    The paper examines optimal sampling techniques for obtaining accurate spatial averages of soil moisture, at various depths and for cell sizes in the range 2.5-40 acres, with a minimum number of samples. Both simple random sampling and stratified sampling procedures are used to reach a set of recommended sample sizes for each depth and for each cell size. Major conclusions from statistical sampling test results are that (1) the number of samples required decreases with increasing depth; (2) when the total number of samples cannot be prespecified or the moisture in only one single layer is of interest, then a simple random sample procedure should be used which is based on the observed mean and SD for data from a single field; (3) when the total number of samples can be prespecified and the objective is to measure the soil moisture profile with depth, then stratified random sampling based on optimal allocation should be used; and (4) decreasing the sensor resolution cell size leads to fairly large decreases in samples sizes with stratified sampling procedures, whereas only a moderate decrease is obtained in simple random sampling procedures.

  11. Applying satellite remote sensing technique in disastrous rainfall systems around Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gin-Rong; Chen, Kwan-Ru; Kuo, Tsung-Hua; Liu, Chian-Yi; Lin, Tang-Huang; Chen, Liang-De

    2016-05-01

    Many people in Asia regions have been suffering from disastrous rainfalls year by year. The rainfall from typhoons or tropical cyclones (TCs) is one of their key water supply sources, but from another perspective such TCs may also bring forth unexpected heavy rainfall, thereby causing flash floods, mudslides or other disasters. So far we cannot stop or change a TC route or intensity via present techniques. Instead, however we could significantly mitigate the possible heavy casualties and economic losses if we can earlier know a TC's formation and can estimate its rainfall amount and distribution more accurate before its landfalling. In light of these problems, this short article presents methods to detect a TC's formation as earlier and to delineate its rainfall potential pattern more accurate in advance. For this first part, the satellite-retrieved air-sea parameters are obtained and used to estimate the thermal and dynamic energy fields and variation over open oceans to delineate the high-possibility typhoon occurring ocean areas and cloud clusters. For the second part, an improved tropical rainfall potential (TRaP) model is proposed with better assumptions then the original TRaP for TC rainfall band rotations, rainfall amount estimation, and topographic effect correction, to obtain more accurate TC rainfall distributions, especially for hilly and mountainous areas, such as Taiwan.

  12. Comparing Remote Sensing Techniques in Detecting Salmonid Habitat, Salmon River, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shintani, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Many restoration projects in the Pacific Northwest are implemented to improve habitat quality, quantity, and complexity for fish. Although numerous engineered log structures have been constructed in the hopes of achieving these goals, relatively few projects have been rigorously monitored to determine their success. This research seeks to compare the utility and application between photogrammetric and spectral depth approaches in detecting fish habitat in order to determine which method is more accurate and affordable for monitoring channel bathymetry. While each of these techniques has been individually studied, previous research has not directly compared and quantified their differences. Channel bathymetry data were collected by combining pre- and post-restoration digital photographs of the Salmon River in Northeast Clackamas County, Oregon, using structure-from-motion (SfM). The resulting 3D point cloud will be used to estimate water depths using photogrammetry and spectral depth. The photogrammetric method applies a refraction correction to the extracted water depth from the SfM topography to derive water depth. A regression between the surveyed water depth values and digital number values of surface pixels will derive depth. The resulting water depths from these two methods will be compared to the surveyed water depths for their accuracy and precision, particularly in critical salmonid habitats. The quantification of these differences will be an important contribution to river restoration science as it will allow for more accurate measurement and monitoring of changes in fish habitat. In the future, these data will be used in an eco-hydraulic River2D model to simulate changes in salmonid habitat availability after restoration.

  13. Efficiencies of Rotational Raman, and Rayleigh Techniques for Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmospheric Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanova, I. D.; Gurdev, L. L.; Mitev, V. M.

    1992-01-01

    Various lidar methods have been developed for measuring the atmospheric temperature, making use of the temperature dependant characteristics of rotational Raman scattering (RRS) from nitrogen and oxygen, and Rayleigh or Rayleigh-Brillowin scattering (RS or RBS). These methods have various advantages and disadvantages as compared to each other but their potential accuracies are principal characteristics of their efficiency. No systematic attempt has been undertaken so far to compare the efficiences, in the above meaning, of different temperature lidar methods. Two RRS techniques have been compared. Here, we do such a comparison using two methods based on the detection and analysis of RS (RBS) spectra. Four methods are considered here for measuring the atmospheric temperature. One of them (Schwiesow and Lading, 1981) is based on an analysis of the RS linewidth with two Michelson interferometers (MI) in parallel. The second method (Shimisu et al., 1986) employs a high-resolution analysis of the RBS line shape. The third method (Cooney, 1972) employs the temperature dependance of the RRS spectrum envelope. The fourth method (Armstrong, 1974) makes use of a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) as a comb filter for processing the periodic RRS spectrum of the nitrogen. Let us denote the corresponding errors in measuring the temperature by sigma(sub MI), sigma(sub HR), sigma(sub ENV), and sigma(sub FPI). Let us also define the ratios chi(sub 1) = sigma(sub MI)/sigma(sub ENV), chi(sub 2) = sigma(sub HR)/sigma(sub ENV), and chi(sub 3) = sigma(sub FPI)/sigma(sub ENV) interpreted as relative errors with respect to sigma(sub ENV).

  14. Remote sensing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipson, W. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Built on Cornell's thirty years of experience in aerial photographic studies, the NASA-sponsored remote sensing program strengthened instruction and research in remote sensing, established communication links within and beyond the university community, and conducted research projects for or with town, county, state, federal, and private organizations in New York State. The 43 completed applied research projects are listed as well as 13 spinoff grants/contracts. The curriculum offered, consultations provided, and data processing facilities available are described. Publications engendered are listed including the thesis of graduates in the remote sensing program.

  15. Potential of a New Technique for Remote Sensing of Hydrocarbon Accumulations and Blind Uranium Deposits: Buried Lif Thermoluminescence Dosimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, F. R.; Vaz, J. E.; Lindholm, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    Buried thermoluminescence dosimeters may be useful in remote sensing of petroleum and natural gas accumulations and blind uranium deposits. They act as integrating detectors that smooth out the effects of environmental variations that affect other measuring systems and result in irregularities and poor repeatability in measurements made during gas and radiometric surveys.

  16. Monitoring land-use change by combining participatory land-use maps with standard remote sensing techniques: Showcase from a remote forest catchment on Mindanao, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mialhe, François; Gunnell, Yanni; Ignacio, J. Andres F.; Delbart, Nicolas; Ogania, Jenifer L.; Henry, Sabine

    2015-04-01

    This paper combines participatory activities (PA) with remote sensing analysis into an integrated methodology to describe and explain land-cover changes. A remote watershed on Mindanao (Philippines) is used to showcase the approach, which hypothesizes that the accuracy of expert knowledge gained from remote sensing techniques can be further enhanced by inputs from vernacular knowledge when attempting to understand complex land mosaics and past land-use changes. Six participatory sessions based on focus-group discussions were conducted. These were enhanced by community-based land-use mapping, resulting in a final total of 21 participatory land-use maps (PLUMs) co-produced by a sample of stakeholders with different sociocultural and ecological perspectives. In parallel, seven satellite images (Landsat MSS, Landsat TM, Landsat ETM+, and SPOT4) were classified following standard techniques and provided snapshots for the years 1976, 1996, and 2010. Local knowledge and collective memory contributed to define and qualify relevant land-use classes. This also provided information about what had caused the land-use changes in the past. Results show that combining PA with remote-sensing analysis provides a unique understanding of land-cover change because the two methods complement and validate one another. Substantive qualitative information regarding the chronology of land-cover change was obtained in a short amount of time across an area poorly covered by scientific literature. The remote sensing techniques contributed to test and to quantify verbal reports of land-use and land-cover change by stakeholders. We conclude that the method is particularly relevant to data-poor areas or conflict zones where rapid reconnaissance work is the only available option. It provides a preliminary but accurate baseline for capturing land changes and for reporting their causes and consequences. A discussion of the main challenges encountered (i.e. how to combine different systems of

  17. Application of remote sensing techniques to study the neotectonics in the northwestern Himalayan fold-and-thrust belt, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lize

    The northwestern Himalayan foreland fold-and-thrust belt in Pakistan is characterized by a gentle slope, extraordinary width, and abrupt lateral structural variations at the front of this belt. To understand the structures and the formation mechanism of the structural reentrants, remote sensing and seismic interpretation techniques are used to study the surface and subsurface geology. Geomorphic features are extracted from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM data. Structures are interpreted from Landsat ETM+ images and published maps. These data suggest that the varying resistance under the fold-and-thrust belt is the main cause of the distinct topographic and structural features. ASTER data are used to map the detailed lithology and structures in the Kalabagh Fault Zone, which is the largest lateral structure connecting the Salt Range and the Surghar Range at leading edge of the fold-and-thrust belt. Combining surface geology with seismic interpretations, cross sections are constructed to understand the fault geometry. Salt is found to have played an important role in the development of the Kalabagh Fault. InSAR observations are used to estimate the slip rate, and slip direction along the Kalalabagh Fault Zone. The deformation style interpreted from the interferogram is in concordance with the analogue modeling results. Integration of the geomorphologic analysis, structures, current deformation, and previous studies suggests that the foreland fold-and-thrust belt can be divided into three thrust wedges propagating on decollements with different rheological properties. The viscous salt decollement allows the Salt Range to propagate further southwards than the Surghar Range. The Kalabagh Fault accommodates different shortening between these wedges.

  18. An Integrated Use of Experimental, Modeling and Remote Sensing Techniques to Investigate Carbon and Phosphorus Dynamics in the Humid Tropics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Asner, Gregory P.; Bustamante, Mercedes M. C.

    2001-01-01

    Moist tropical forests comprise one of the world's largest and most diverse biomes, and exchange more carbon, water, and energy with the atmosphere than any other ecosystem. In recent decades, tropical forests have also become one of the globe's most threatened biomes, subjected to exceptionally high rates of deforestation and land degradation. Thus, the importance of and threats to tropical forests are undeniable, yet our understanding of basic ecosystem processes in both intact and disturbed portions of the moist tropics remains poorer than for almost any other major biome. Our approach in this project was to take a multi-scale, multi-tool approach to address two different problems. First, we wanted to test if land-use driven changes in the cycles of probable limiting nutrients in forest systems were a key driver in the frequently observed pattern of declining pasture productivity and carbon stocks. Given the enormous complexity of land use change in the tropics, in which one finds a myriad of different land use types and intensities overlain on varying climates and soil types, we also wanted to see if new remote sensing techniques would allow some novel links between parameters which could be sensed remotely, and key biogeochemical variables which cannot. Second, we addressed to general questions about the role of tropical forests in the global carbon cycle. First, we used a new approach for quantifying and minimizing non-biological artifacts in the NOAA/NASA AVHRR Pathfinder time series of surface reflectance data so that we could address potential links between Amazonian forest dynamics and ENSO cycles. Second, we showed that the disequilibrium in C-13 exchanged between land and atmosphere following tropical deforestation probably has a significant impact on the use of 13-CO2 data to predict regional fluxes in the global carbon cycle.

  19. A novel approach to model exposure of coastal-marine ecosystems to riverine flood plumes based on remote sensing techniques.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Devlin, Michelle; Teixeira da Silva, Eduardo; Petus, Caroline; Ban, Natalie C; Pressey, Robert L; Kool, Johnathan; Roberts, Jason J; Cerdeira-Estrada, Sergio; Wenger, Amelia S; Brodie, Jon

    2013-04-15

    Increased loads of land-based pollutants are a major threat to coastal-marine ecosystems. Identifying the affected marine areas and the scale of influence on ecosystems is critical to assess the impacts of degraded water quality and to inform planning for catchment management and marine conservation. Studies using remotely-sensed data have contributed to our understanding of the occurrence and influence of river plumes, and to our ability to assess exposure of marine ecosystems to land-based pollutants. However, refinement of plume modeling techniques is required to improve risk assessments. We developed a novel, complementary, approach to model exposure of coastal-marine ecosystems to land-based pollutants. We used supervised classification of MODIS-Aqua true-color satellite imagery to map the extent of plumes and to qualitatively assess the dispersal of pollutants in plumes. We used the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), the world's largest coral reef system, to test our approach. We combined frequency of plume occurrence with spatially distributed loads (based on a cost-distance function) to create maps of exposure to suspended sediment and dissolved inorganic nitrogen. We then compared annual exposure maps (2007-2011) to assess inter-annual variability in the exposure of coral reefs and seagrass beds to these pollutants. We found this method useful to map plumes and qualitatively assess exposure to land-based pollutants. We observed inter-annual variation in exposure of ecosystems to pollutants in the GBR, stressing the need to incorporate a temporal component into plume exposure/risk models. Our study contributes to our understanding of plume spatial-temporal dynamics of the GBR and offers a method that can also be applied to monitor exposure of coastal-marine ecosystems to plumes and explore their ecological influences.

  20. Plankton Biomass Models Based on GIS and Remote Sensing Technique for Predicting Marine Megafauna Hotspots in the Solor Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putra, MIH; Lewis, SA; Kurniasih, EM; Prabuning, D.; Faiqoh, E.

    2016-11-01

    Geographic information system and remote sensing techniques can be used to assist with distribution modelling; a useful tool that helps with strategic design and management plans for MPAs. This study built a pilot model of plankton biomass and distribution in the waters off Solor and Lembata, and is the first study to identify marine megafauna foraging areas in the region. Forty-three samples of zooplankton were collected every 4 km according to the range time and station of aqua MODIS. Generalized additive model (GAM) we used to modelling zooplankton biomass response from environmental properties.Thirty one samples were used to build a model of inverse distance weighting (IDW) (cell size 0.01°) and 12 samples were used as a control to verify the models accuracy. Furthermore, Getis-Ord Gi was used to identify the significance of the hotspot and cold-spot for foraging area. The GAM models was explain 88.1% response of zooplankton biomass and percent to full moon, phytopankton biomassbeing strong predictors. The sampling design was essential in order to build highly accurate models. Our models 96% accurate for phytoplankton and 88% accurate for zooplankton. The foraging behaviour was significantly related to plankton biomass hotspots, which were two times higher compared to plankton cold-spots. In addition, extremely steep slopes of the Lamakera strait support strong upwelling with highly productive waters that affect the presence of marine megafauna. This study detects that the Lamakera strait provides the planktonic requirements for marine megafauna foraging, helping to explain why this region supports such high diversity and abundance of marine megafauna.

  1. Remote sensing for exploration - An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Rock, B. N.; Rowan, L. C.

    1983-01-01

    The use of remote sensing in resource exploration is reviewed, with emphasis placed on new developments in high spectral resolution remote-sensing techniques for mineralogic and vegetation mapping. Topics discussed include aerial photography and satellite remote sensing, concepts and principles of spectral data collection, spectral properties of rocks and minerals, spectral properties of vegetation, and botanical aspects of geochemical stress. The discussion also covers applications of Landsat multispectral scanner data to lithologic and geobotanic studies and the future development of data acquisition and data interpretation techniques.

  2. Remote Sensing Information Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Douglas L.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the classification of Remote Sensing data in relation to epidemiology. Classification is a way to reduce the dimensionality and precision to something a human can understand. Classification changes SCALAR data into NOMINAL data.

  3. Remote sensing of wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roller, N. E. G.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of using remote sensing to inventory wetlands and the related topics of proper inventory design and data collection are discussed. The material presented shows that aerial photography is the form of remote sensing from which the greatest amount of wetlands information can be derived. For extensive, general-purpose wetlands inventories, however, the use of LANDSAT data may be more cost-effective. Airborne multispectral scanners and radar are, in the main, too expensive to use - unless the information that these sensors alone can gather remotely is absolutely required. Multistage sampling employing space and high altitude remote sensing data in the initial stages appears to be an efficient survey strategy for gathering non-point specific wetlands inventory data over large areas. The operational role of remote sensing insupplying inventory data for application to several typical wetlands management problems is illustrated by summary descriptions of past ERIM projects.

  4. Remote Sensing Information Gateway

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Remote Sensing Information Gateway, a tool that allows scientists, researchers and decision makers to access a variety of multi-terabyte, environmental datasets and to subset the data and obtain only needed variables, greatly improving the download time.

  5. Remote sensing estimation of the total phosphorus concentration in a large lake using band combinations and regional multivariate statistical modeling techniques.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongnian; Gao, Junfeng; Yin, Hongbin; Liu, Chuansheng; Xia, Ting; Wang, Jing; Huang, Qi

    2015-03-15

    Remote sensing has been widely used for ater quality monitoring, but most of these monitoring studies have only focused on a few water quality variables, such as chlorophyll-a, turbidity, and total suspended solids, which have typically been considered optically active variables. Remote sensing presents a challenge in estimating the phosphorus concentration in water. The total phosphorus (TP) in lakes has been estimated from remotely sensed observations, primarily using the simple individual band ratio or their natural logarithm and the statistical regression method based on the field TP data and the spectral reflectance. In this study, we investigated the possibility of establishing a spatial modeling scheme to estimate the TP concentration of a large lake from multi-spectral satellite imagery using band combinations and regional multivariate statistical modeling techniques, and we tested the applicability of the spatial modeling scheme. The results showed that HJ-1A CCD multi-spectral satellite imagery can be used to estimate the TP concentration in a lake. The correlation and regression analysis showed a highly significant positive relationship between the TP concentration and certain remotely sensed combination variables. The proposed modeling scheme had a higher accuracy for the TP concentration estimation in the large lake compared with the traditional individual band ratio method and the whole-lake scale regression-modeling scheme. The TP concentration values showed a clear spatial variability and were high in western Lake Chaohu and relatively low in eastern Lake Chaohu. The northernmost portion, the northeastern coastal zone and the southeastern portion of western Lake Chaohu had the highest TP concentrations, and the other regions had the lowest TP concentration values, except for the coastal zone of eastern Lake Chaohu. These results strongly suggested that the proposed modeling scheme, i.e., the band combinations and the regional multivariate

  6. REMOTE SENSING IN OCEANOGRAPHY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    remote sensing from satellites. Sensing of oceanographic variables from aircraft began with the photographing of waves and ice. Since then remote measurement of sea surface temperatures and wave heights have become routine. Sensors tested for oceanographic applications include multi-band color cameras, radar scatterometers, infrared spectrometers and scanners, passive microwave radiometers, and radar imagers. Remote sensing has found its greatest application in providing rapid coverage of large oceanographic areas for synoptic and analysis and

  7. Remote Sensing in Agriculture: An Introductory Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Paul J.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of remote sensing techniques to obtain locational, estimated, and mapped information at the scales varying from individual fields and farms, to entire continents and the world. (AEM)

  8. Mississippi Sound remote sensing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, B. H.; Thomann, G. C.

    1972-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques are being developed to study near shore marine waters in the Mississippi Sound. Specific elements of the investigation include: (1) evaluation of existing techniques and instrument capabilities for remote measurement of parameters which characterize near shore water; (2) integration of these parameters into a system which will make possible the definition of circulation characteristics; (3) conduct of applications experiments; and (4) definition of hardware development requirements and/or system specifications. Efforts have emphasized: (1) development of a satisfactory system of gathering ground truth over the entire area of Mississippi Sound to aid in evaluating remotely sensed data; (2) conduct of two data acquisition experiments; (3) analysis of individual sensor data from completed flights; and (4) pursuit of methods which will allow interrelations between data from individual sensors in order to add another dimension to the study.

  9. Remote sensing aids geologic mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, D. H., Jr.; Marrs, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques were applied to general geologic mapping along the Rio Grande rift zone in central Colorado. A geologic map of about 1,100 square miles was prepared utilizing (1) prior published and unpublished maps, (2) detailed and reconnaissance field maps made for this study, and (3) remote sensor data interpretations. The map is used for interpretation of the complex Cenozoic tectonic and geomorphic histories of the area.

  10. An integrated study of earth resources in the state of California using remote sensing techniques. [water and forest management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1974-01-01

    Progress and results of an integrated study of California's water resources are discussed. The investigation concerns itself primarily with the usefulness of remote sensing of relation to two categories of problems: (1) water supply; and (2) water demand. Also considered are its applicability to forest management and timber inventory. The cost effectiveness and utility of remote sensors such as the Earth Resources Technology Satellite for water and timber management are presented.

  11. Remote sensing of ecology, biodiversity and conservation: a review from the perspective of remote sensing specialists.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Franklin, Steven E; Guo, Xulin; Cattet, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing, the science of obtaining information via noncontact recording, has swept the fields of ecology, biodiversity and conservation (EBC). Several quality review papers have contributed to this field. However, these papers often discuss the issues from the standpoint of an ecologist or a biodiversity specialist. This review focuses on the spaceborne remote sensing of EBC from the perspective of remote sensing specialists, i.e., it is organized in the context of state-of-the-art remote sensing technology, including instruments and techniques. Herein, the instruments to be discussed consist of high spatial resolution, hyperspectral, thermal infrared, small-satellite constellation, and LIDAR sensors; and the techniques refer to image classification, vegetation index (VI), inversion algorithm, data fusion, and the integration of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS).

  12. Remote Sensing of Ecology, Biodiversity and Conservation: A Review from the Perspective of Remote Sensing Specialists

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Franklin, Steven E.; Guo, Xulin; Cattet, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing, the science of obtaining information via noncontact recording, has swept the fields of ecology, biodiversity and conservation (EBC). Several quality review papers have contributed to this field. However, these papers often discuss the issues from the standpoint of an ecologist or a biodiversity specialist. This review focuses on the spaceborne remote sensing of EBC from the perspective of remote sensing specialists, i.e., it is organized in the context of state-of-the-art remote sensing technology, including instruments and techniques. Herein, the instruments to be discussed consist of high spatial resolution, hyperspectral, thermal infrared, small-satellite constellation, and LIDAR sensors; and the techniques refer to image classification, vegetation index (VI), inversion algorithm, data fusion, and the integration of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS). PMID:22163432

  13. Integration of remote sensing and ground-based techniques for the study of land degradation phenomena in coastal areas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imbrenda, Vito; Coluzzi, Rosa; Calamita, Giuseppe; Luigia Giannossi, Maria; D'Emilio, Mariagrazia; Lanfredi, Maria; Makris, John; Palombo, Angelo; Pascucci, Simone; Santini, Federico; Margiotta, Salvatore; Emanuela Bonomo, Agnese; De Martino, Gregory; Perrone, Angela; Rizzo, Enzo; Pignatti, Stefano; Summa, Vito; Simoniello, Tiziana

    2015-04-01

    Land degradation processes, such as salinization and waterlogging, are increasingly affecting extensive areas devoted to agriculture threatening the sustainability of farming practices. Soil salinization typically appears as an excess accumulation of salt generally pronounced at the soil surface. Commonly, soil salinity is defined and measured by means of laboratory measurements of the electrical conductivity of liquid extracted from saturated soil-paste or different soil-water suspensions. Lab measurements are generally time consuming, costly, destructive, untimely for practical situations where the determination of the causes and/or the assessment of management practices are of interest. Recently, emerging survey techniques proved to be powerful tools to support soil salinity appraisal reducing costs and increasing the amount of spatial information. In the frame of PRO-LAND project (PO-FESR Basilicata 2007-2013) the research activities have been focused on the study of a complex salinization phenomenon occurring in a coastal environment of the Basilicata region (Southern Italy) as a result of natural and anthropic disturbances. The study area is located in the southernmost part of the Bradanic Trough along the sandy Ionian coastal plain. The hydrogeological conditions affect shallowness of the aquifer (45-50 cm below the ground) allowing the occurrence of seawater intrusion. Moreover, during last century, human activities, i.e. built-up of dams, the emergence of farms and industries, played a relevant role in the alteration of soil and groundwater quality of the area. In this work, both ground-based and remote sensing data were used. First, a geophysical mapping of electrical conductivity was carried out using a multi-frequency portable electro-magnetic induction (EMI) sensor. Based on the geophysical mapping and on optimization sampling approach, a number of locations were identified to collect soil samples for the geomineralogical characterization. Airborne

  14. Acoustic Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, David R.; Sabra, Karim G.

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic waves carry information about their source and collect information about their environment as they propagate. This article reviews how these information-carrying and -collecting features of acoustic waves that travel through fluids can be exploited for remote sensing. In nearly all cases, modern acoustic remote sensing involves array-recorded sounds and array signal processing to recover multidimensional results. The application realm for acoustic remote sensing spans an impressive range of signal frequencies (10-2 to 107 Hz) and distances (10-2 to 107 m) and involves biomedical ultrasound imaging, nondestructive evaluation, oil and gas exploration, military systems, and Nuclear Test Ban Treaty monitoring. In the past two decades, approaches have been developed to robustly localize remote sources; remove noise and multipath distortion from recorded signals; and determine the acoustic characteristics of the environment through which the sound waves have traveled, even when the recorded sounds originate from uncooperative sources or are merely ambient noise.

  15. Differential Radiometers Using Fabry-Perot Interferometric Technique for Remote Sensing Determination of Various Atmospheric Trace Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgieva, E. M.; Heaps, W. S.; Wilson, E. L.

    2007-01-01

    New type of remote sensing instrument based upon the Fabry-Perot inte rferometric technique has been developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Fabry-Perot interferometry (FPI) is a well known, powerful spectroscopic technique and one of its many applications is to be use d to measure greenhouse gases and also some harmful species in the at mosphere. With this technique, absorption of particular species is me asured and related to its concentration. A solid Fabry-Perot etalon is used as a frequency filter to restrict the measurement to particular absorption bands of the gas of interest. With adjusting the thicknes s of the etalon that separation (in frequency) of the transmitted fri nges can be made equal to the almost constant separation of the gas a bsorption lines. By adjusting the temperature of the etalon, which changes the index of refi-action of its material, the transmission fring es can be brought into nearly exact correspondence with absorption li nes of the particular species. With this alignment between absorption lines and fringes, changes in the amount of a species in the atmosph ere strongly affect the amount of light transmitted by the etalon and can be related to gas concentration. The instrument that we have dev eloped detects the absorption of various atmospheric trace gases in d irect or reflected sunlight. Our instrument employing Fabry-Perot interferometer makes use of two features to achieve high sensitivity. The first is high spectral resolution enabling one to match the width of an atmospheric absorption feature by the instrumental band pass. The second is high optical throughput enabled by using multiple spectral lines simultaneously. For any species that one wishes to measure, thi s first feature is available while the use of multiple spectral features can be employed only for species with suitable spectra and freedom from interfering species in the same wavelength region. We have deve loped an instrument for use as ground based

  16. Applied remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    The author presents selected case studies to demonstrate theories and practices of remote sensing and its value to the study of the terrestrial environment. Begins with an overview of sensor types and electromagnetic remote sensing, continuing with an examination of photographic and non-photographic systems in the study of the radiation budget, temperature structure and weather conditions of the atmosphere. Includes thorough coverage of the lithosphere, biosphere and hydrosphere, as well as the cartographic problems involved in land use/land cover and topographic mapping. Concludes with a discussion of the impact of electromagnetic computers in the development of geographic information systems.

  17. Aerosol Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenoble, Jacqueline (Editor); Remer, Lorraine (Editor); Tanre, Didier (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    This book gives a much needed explanation of the basic physical principles of radia5tive transfer and remote sensing, and presents all the instruments and retrieval algorithms in a homogenous manner. For the first time, an easy path from theory to practical algorithms is available in one easily accessible volume, making the connection between theoretical radiative transfer and individual practical solutions to retrieve aerosol information from remote sensing. In addition, the specifics and intercomparison of all current and historical methods are explained and clarified.

  18. Satellite remote sensing. An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.

    1987-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing, which is the monitoring, evaluation and prediction of the resources and features of the Earth's surface and its atmosphere from satellites, is an exciting, fast-growing technique used by environmental scientists to improve their knowledge of our planet. The non-military and non-communications satellites launched by the US, USSR, and the European Community produce digital images of the Earth's surface and its atmosphere. These images are used to search for undiscovered mineral resources, to conduct population, land use and resource censuses, to control pests and pollution, to illustrate weather movements on television and much more. This introductory book examines the physical basis of remote sensing-the sensors and satellites used to collect data, and the methods used to process these data as well as the application of satellite remote sensing in the study of vegetation, land use, geology, soils, the atmosphere and the hydrosphere. The last chapter looks at the future: space stations, international coordination, etc.

  19. Assessing Natural Disaster Impacts and Recovery Using Multifrequency, Fully-Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Optical Remote Sensing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissel, J. K.; Czuchlewski, K. R.; Kim, Y.

    2002-12-01

    Many natural disasters involving landslides, volcanic eruptions, fires, or floods entail terrain resurfacing, followed by subsequent recovery. Modern satellite and airborne remote sensing technologies, which combine broad spatial coverage and high spatial resolution with time-sequential site revisit capability, can provide important information on the extent and duration of major landscape disturbance. In humid climate settings, these hazards temporarily remove or replace a natural vegetation cover and in doing so, modify the physical properties of the land surface. In optical remote sensing, removal of vegetation alters surface albedo in the visible -- near infrared (V-NIR) waveband, particularly the high reflectance from vegetation in the NIR. For SAR remote sensing, removal of vegetation cover causes a change in dominant microwave scattering mechanism for the areas affected. SAR has operational advantages over optical sensors for rapid disaster assessment because of its day/night acquisition capability, the ability to ``see through'' smoke, clouds and dust, and the side-looking viewing geometry, which is an advantage whenever data collection directly above the site would prove dangerous. We show how multifrequency, fully-polarimetric airborne SAR data can be ``inverted'' for parameters that reflect scattering mechanism signatures diagnostic of different surface cover types. We apply a uniform approach to map landslides resulting from the 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan, volcanic flows from the major 1996 eruption of Manam volcano in Papua New Guinea, and the extent of damage from the summer 2002 Rodeo -- Chediski wildfire in Arizona. In addition, earlier work has shown that multifrequency SAR polarimetric backscatter is sensitive to total above-ground biomass. This attribute can be exploited to calculate vegetation loss during a disaster and for assessment of regrowth during the recovery phase.

  20. Use of remote sensing techniques for geological hazard surveys in vegetated urban regions. [multispectral imagery for lithological mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stow, S. H.; Price, R. C.; Hoehner, F.; Wielchowsky, C.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of using aerial photography for lithologic differentiation in a heavily vegetated region is investigated using multispectral imagery obtained from LANDSAT satellite and aircraft-borne photography. Delineating and mapping of localized vegetal zones can be accomplished by the use of remote sensing because a difference in morphology and physiology results in different natural reflectances or signatures. An investigation was made to show that these local plant zones are affected by altitude, topography, weathering, and gullying; but are controlled by lithology. Therefore, maps outlining local plant zones were used as a basis for lithologic map construction.

  1. APPLIED REMOTE SENSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote Sensing is a scientific discipline of non-contact monitoring. It includes a range of technologies that span from aerial photography to advanced spectral imaging and analytical methods. This Session is designed to demonstrate contemporary practical applications of remote se...

  2. EPA REMOTE SENSING RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 2006 transgenic corn imaging research campaign has been greatly assisted through a cooperative effort with several Illinois growers who provided planting area and crop composition. This research effort was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of remote sensed imagery of var...

  3. Solar System Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the symposium on Solar System Remote Sensing, September 20-21, 2002, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Administration and publications support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Departments at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  4. Comparative analysis of property taxation policies within Greece and Cyprus evaluating the use of GIS, CAMA, and remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimopoulos, Thomas; Labropoulos, Tassos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2014-08-01

    This paper aims to examine how CAMA, GIS and Remote Sensing are integrated to assist property taxation. Real property tax apart from its fiscal dimension is directly linked to geographic location. The value of the land and other immovable features such as buildings and structures is determined from specific parameters. All these immovable assets are visible and have specific geographic location & coordinates, materials, occupied area, land-use & utility, ownership & occupancy status and finally a specific value (ad valorem property taxation system) according to which the property tax is levied to taxpayers. Of high importance in the tax imposing procedure is that the use of CAMA, GIS and Remote Sensing tools is capable of providing effective and efficient collection of this property value determining data. Furthermore, these tools can track changes during a property's lifecycle such parcel subdivision into plots, demolition of a building and development of a new one or track a change in the planning zone. The integration of these systems also supports a full range of business processes on revenue mobilization ranging from billing to taxpayers objections management.

  5. Measuring urban sprawl on geospatial indices characterized by leap frog development using remote sensing and GIS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, N. M.; Asmawi, M. Z.; Rusni, N. A.

    2014-02-01

    Characterizing urban sprawl using spatial measures requires a concise definition of what constitutes sprawling urban spatial patterns. This research attempts to study a measurement of defining sprawl by using leapfrog development index through remote sensing and GIS approach. The IKONOS pan-sharpened and SPOT-5 with 1 and 2.5 meter resolution were used and combined with Geographical information system (GIS) database to analyze the geospatial indicators using the leapfrog development index. Kuantan city has been selected as a study area to examine the leapfrog development based on land use pattern for year 2012. The findings show Kuantan has identified as non-sprawling cities with result from characterization in leapfrog development that has been tested. However, the gap between sprawl and non-sprawling was very low. It is anticipated this research will provide a new direction in sprawl nationally that address finding of sprawl at the atomic level and present a robust analytical approach for characterizing urban development in city scale at once promoting a city via GIS & Remote Sensing technology respectively towards Digital and Green cities.

  6. Remote Sensing and the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brosius, C. A.; Gervin, J. C.; Ragusa, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A text book on remote sensing, as part of the earth resources Skylab programs, is presented. The fundamentals of remote sensing and its application to agriculture, land use, geology, water and marine resources, and environmental monitoring are summarized.

  7. Integrating Remote Sensing Data with Directional Two-Dimensional Wavelet Analysis and Open Geospatial Techniques for Efficient Disaster Monitoring and Management

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yun-Bin; Lin, Yu-Pin; Deng, Dong-Po; Chen, Kuan-Wei

    2008-01-01

    In Taiwan, earthquakes have long been recognized as a major cause of landslides that are wide spread by floods brought by typhoons followed. Distinguishing between landslide spatial patterns in different disturbance regimes is fundamental for disaster monitoring, management, and land-cover restoration. To circumscribe landslides, this study adopts the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which can be determined by simply applying mathematical operations of near-infrared and visible-red spectral data immediately after remotely sensed data is acquired. In real-time disaster monitoring, the NDVI is more effective than using land-cover classifications generated from remotely sensed data as land-cover classification tasks are extremely time consuming. Directional two-dimensional (2D) wavelet analysis has an advantage over traditional spectrum analysis in that it determines localized variations along a specific direction when identifying dominant modes of change, and where those modes are located in multi-temporal remotely sensed images. Open geospatial techniques comprise a series of solutions developed based on Open Geospatial Consortium specifications that can be applied to encode data for interoperability and develop an open geospatial service for sharing data. This study presents a novel approach and framework that uses directional 2D wavelet analysis of real-time NDVI images to effectively identify landslide patterns and share resulting patterns via open geospatial techniques. As a case study, this study analyzed NDVI images derived from SPOT HRV images before and after the ChiChi earthquake (7.3 on the Richter scale) that hit the Chenyulan basin in Taiwan, as well as images after two large typhoons (xangsane and Toraji) to delineate the spatial patterns of landslides caused by major disturbances. Disturbed spatial patterns of landslides that followed these events were successfully delineated using 2D wavelet analysis, and results of pattern recognitions

  8. Microwave remote sensing laboratory design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, E.

    1979-01-01

    Application of active and passive microwave remote sensing to the study of ocean pollution is discussed. Previous research efforts, both in the field and in the laboratory were surveyed to derive guidance for the design of a laboratory program of research. The essential issues include: choice of radar or radiometry as the observational technique; choice of laboratory or field as the research site; choice of operating frequency; tank sizes and material; techniques for wave generation and appropriate wavelength spectrum; methods for controlling and disposing of pollutants used in the research; and pollutants other than oil which could or should be studied.

  9. THE EPA REMOTE SENSING ARCHIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    What would you do if you were faced with organizing 30 years of remote sensing projects that had been haphazardly stored at two separate locations for years then combined? The EPA Remote Sensing Archive, currently located in Las Vegas, Nevada. contains the remote sensing data and...

  10. Remote sensing and image interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillesand, T. M.; Kiefer, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    A textbook prepared primarily for use in introductory courses in remote sensing is presented. Topics covered include concepts and foundations of remote sensing; elements of photographic systems; introduction to airphoto interpretation; airphoto interpretation for terrain evaluation; photogrammetry; radiometric characteristics of aerial photographs; aerial thermography; multispectral scanning and spectral pattern recognition; microwave sensing; and remote sensing from space.

  11. Remote Sensing of Aquatic Plants.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    remote sensing methods for identification and assessment of expanses of aquatic plants. Both materials and techniques are examined for cost effectiveness and capability to sense aquatic plants on both the local and regional scales. Computer simulation of photographic responses was employed; Landsat, high-altitude photography, side-looking airborne radar, and low-altitude photography were examined to determine the capabilities of each for identifying and assessing aquatic plants. Results of the study revealed Landsat to be the most cost effective for regional surveys,

  12. Remote sensing research in geographic education: An alternative view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, H.; Cary, T. K.; Goward, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    It is noted that within many geography departments remote sensing is viewed as a mere technique a student should learn in order to carry out true geographic research. This view inhibits both students and faculty from investigation of remotely sensed data as a new source of geographic knowledge that may alter our understanding of the Earth. The tendency is for geographers to accept these new data and analysis techniques from engineers and mathematicians without questioning the accompanying premises. This black-box approach hinders geographic applications of the new remotely sensed data and limits the geographer's contribution to further development of remote sensing observation systems. It is suggested that geographers contribute to the development of remote sensing through pursuit of basic research. This research can be encouraged, particularly among students, by demonstrating the links between geographic theory and remotely sensed observations, encouraging a healthy skepticism concerning the current understanding of these data.

  13. Evapotranspiration and remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.; Gurney, R.

    1982-01-01

    There are three things required for evapotranspiration to occur: (1) energy (580 cal/gm) for the change of phase of the water; (2) a source of the water, i.e., adequate soil moisture in the surface layer or in the root zone of the plant; and (3) a sink for the water, i.e., a moisture deficit in the air above the ground. Remote sensing can contribute information to the first two of these conditions by providing estimates of solar insolation, surface albedo, surface temperature, vegetation cover, and soil moisture content. In addition there have been attempts to estimate precipitation and shelter air temperature from remotely sensed data. The problem remains to develop methods for effectively using these sources of information to make large area estimates of evapotranspiration.

  14. Remote Sensing Laboratory - RSL

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    One of the primary resources supporting homeland security is the Remote Sensing Laboratory, or RSL. The Laboratory creates advanced technologies for emergency response operations, radiological incident response, and other remote sensing activities. RSL emergency response teams are on call 24-hours a day, and maintain the capability to deploy domestically and internationally in response to threats involving the loss, theft, or release of nuclear or radioactive material. Such incidents might include Nuclear Power Plant accidents, terrorist incidents involving nuclear or radiological materials, NASA launches, and transportation accidents involving nuclear materials. Working with the US Department of Homeland Security, RSL personnel equip, maintain, and conduct training on the mobile detection deployment unit, to provide nuclear radiological security at major national events such as the super bowl, the Indianapolis 500, New Year's Eve celebrations, presidential inaugurations, international meetings and conferences, just about any event where large numbers of people will gather.

  15. Remote Sensing Laboratory - RSL

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-06

    One of the primary resources supporting homeland security is the Remote Sensing Laboratory, or RSL. The Laboratory creates advanced technologies for emergency response operations, radiological incident response, and other remote sensing activities. RSL emergency response teams are on call 24-hours a day, and maintain the capability to deploy domestically and internationally in response to threats involving the loss, theft, or release of nuclear or radioactive material. Such incidents might include Nuclear Power Plant accidents, terrorist incidents involving nuclear or radiological materials, NASA launches, and transportation accidents involving nuclear materials. Working with the US Department of Homeland Security, RSL personnel equip, maintain, and conduct training on the mobile detection deployment unit, to provide nuclear radiological security at major national events such as the super bowl, the Indianapolis 500, New Year's Eve celebrations, presidential inaugurations, international meetings and conferences, just about any event where large numbers of people will gather.

  16. Natural and environmental vulnerability analysis through remote sensing and GIS techniques: a case study of Indigirka River basin, Eastern Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boori, Mukesh S.; Choudhary, Komal; Kupriyanov, Alexander; Sugimoto, Atsuko; Evers, Mariele

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this research work is to understand natural and environmental vulnerability situation and its cause such as intensity, distribution and socio-economic effect in the Indigirka River basin, Eastern Siberia, Russia. This paper identifies, assess and classify natural and environmental vulnerability using landscape pattern from multidisciplinary approach, based on remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques. A model was developed by following thematic layers: land use/cover, vegetation, wetland, geology, geomorphology and soil in ArcGIS 10.2 software. According to numerical results vulnerability classified into five levels: low, sensible, moderate, high and extreme vulnerability by mean of cluster principal. Results are shows that in natural vulnerability maximum area covered by moderate (29.84%) and sensible (38.61%) vulnerability and environmental vulnerability concentrated by moderate (49.30%) vulnerability. So study area has at medial level vulnerability. The results found that the methodology applied was effective enough in the understanding of the current conservation circumstances of the river basin in relation to their environment with the help of remote sensing and GIS. This study is helpful for decision making for eco-environmental recovering and rebuilding as well as predicting the future development.

  17. Airborne Hyperspectral Remote Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    conducted studies of the sediments, seagrass and corals . The objective is to correlate the hyperspectral imagery with the detailed in-situ measurements...seagrass and coral reefs (Mazel, 1998). In addition to the basic science there is a directed effort in remote sensing for seafloor imaging and...area includes different bottom types – coral , sand, seagrass – sometimes within the same local area, at a variety of depths. Most of the region is quite

  18. Remote sensing of soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T.

    1976-01-01

    The surface emissivity and reflectivity of soil are strong functions of its moisture content. Changes in emissivity, observed by passive microwave techniques (radiometry), and changes in reflectivity, observed by active microwave techniques (radar), can provide information on the moisture content of the 0 to 5 cm surface layer. In addition, the thermal inertia of the surface layer, which can be remotely sensed by observing the diurnal range of surface temperature, is an indicator of soil moisture content. The thermal infrared approach to remote sensing of soil moisture has little utility in the presence of cloud cover, but provides soil moisture data at high spatial resolutions and thermal data which are a potentially useful indicator of crop status. Microwave techniques can penetrate cloud covers. The passive technique has been demonstrated by both aircraft and spacecraft instruments, but spatial resolution is limited by the size of the antenna which can be flown. Active microwave systems offer the possibility of better spatial resolution, but have yet to be demonstrated from aircraft or spacecraft platforms.

  19. Remote sensing of Earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Progress report on remote sensing of Earth terrain covering the period from Jan. to June 1993 is presented. Areas of research include: radiative transfer model for active and passive remote sensing of vegetation canopy; polarimetric thermal emission from rough ocean surfaces; polarimetric passive remote sensing of ocean wind vectors; polarimetric thermal emission from periodic water surfaces; layer model with tandom spheriodal scatterers for remote sensing of vegetation canopy; application of theoretical models to active and passive remote sensing of saline ice; radiative transfer theory for polarimetric remote sensing of pine forest; scattering of electromagnetic waves from a dense medium consisting of correlated mie scatterers with size distributions and applications to dry snow; variance of phase fluctuations of waves propagating through a random medium; polarimetric signatures of a canopy of dielectric cylinders based on first and second order vector radiative transfer theory; branching model for vegetation; polarimetric passive remote sensing of periodic surfaces; composite volume and surface scattering model; and radar image classification.

  20. Role of remote sensing in documenting living resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, P. E.; Anderson, R. R.; Brun, B.; Eisenberg, M.; Genys, J. B.; Lear, D. W., Jr.; Miller, M. H.

    1978-01-01

    Specific cases of known or potentially useful applications of remote sensing in assessing biological resources are discussed. It is concluded that the more usable remote sensing techniques relate to the measurement of population fluctuations in aquatic systems. Sensing of the flora and the fauna of the Bay is considered with emphasis on direct sensing of aquatic plant populations and of water quality. Recommendations for remote sensing projects are given.

  1. High resolution derivative spectra in remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demetriades-Shah, Tanvir H.; Steven, Michael D.; Clark, Jeremy A.

    1990-01-01

    The use of derivative spectra is an established technique in analytical chemistry for the elimination of background signals and for resolving overlapping spectral features. Application of this technique for tackling analogous problems such as interference from soil background reflectance in the remote sensing of vegetation or for resolving complex spectra of several target species within individual pixels in remote sensing is proposed. Methods for generating derivatives of high spectral resolution data are reviewed. Results of experiments to test the use of derivatives for monitoring chlorosis in vegetation show that derivative spectral indices are superior to conventional broad-band spectral indices such as the near-infrared/red reflectance ratio. Conventional broad-band indices are sensitive to both leaf cover as well as leaf color. New derivative spectral indices which were able to monitor chlorosis unambiguously were identified. Potential areas for the application of this technique in remote sensing are considered.

  2. Remote sensing in operational range management programs in Western Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    A pilot program carried out in Western Canada to test remote sensing under semi-operational conditions and display its applicability to operational range management programs was described. Four agencies were involved in the program, two in Alberta and two in Manitoba. Each had different objectives and needs for remote sensing within its range management programs, and each was generally unfamiliar with remote sensing techniques and their applications. Personnel with experience and expertise in the remote sensing and range management fields worked with the agency personnel through every phase of the pilot program. Results indicate that these agencies have found remote sensing to be a cost effective tool and will begin to utilize remote sensing in their operational work during ensuing seasons.

  3. Practical applications of remote sensing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Roy A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Land managers increasingly are becoming dependent upon remote sensing and automated analysis techniques for information gathering and synthesis. Remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques provide quick and economical information gathering for large areas. The outputs of remote sensing classification and analysis are most effective when combined with a total natural resources data base within the capabilities of a computerized GIS. Some examples are presented of the successes, as well as the problems, in integrating remote sensing and geographic information systems. The need to exploit remotely sensed data and the potential that geographic information systems offer for managing and analyzing such data continues to grow. New microcomputers with vastly enlarged memory, multi-fold increases in operating speed and storage capacity that was previously available only on mainframe computers are a reality. Improved raster GIS software systems have been developed for these high performance microcomputers. Vector GIS systems previously reserved for mini and mainframe systems are available to operate on these enhanced microcomputers. One of the more exciting areas that is beginning to emerge is the integration of both raster and vector formats on a single computer screen. This technology will allow satellite imagery or digital aerial photography to be presented as a background to a vector display.

  4. Application of GIS and Remote Sensing Techniques in Multitemporal Analyses of Soil Properties in the Foreland of the Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glowienka, Ewa; Michalowska, Krystyna; Pekala, Agnieszka; Hejmanowska, Beata

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents a spatial and temporal analysis of the distribution of the soil salinity and its pH level of south-east Poland depending on selected environmental factors. The area under examination (Carpathian Foredeep, Carpathians flysch) is distinguished by its specific hydrological and geological conditions (the Vistula and the San valley). The research works were performed in relation to parameters that had been measured in-situ in 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010. Using specialist GIS software, proper interpolation procedures were performed, which enabled visualization in the form of raster and vector maps for the spatial distribution of the examined soil properties. Moreover, an analysis of remote sensing data was completed. Based on the analysis, it was discovered that the biggest changes in all examined soil parameters took place in 2010 - changes in the soil salinity and its pH level, as well as in the content of potassium (K) and sodium (Na). Those changes occurred mainly in the north and south parts of the examined area. The underlying reason for those changes might have been the flood, which hit the region in June 2010.

  5. Application of remote sensing techniques in land-use planning: Flood-plain delineation. [Cochise County, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altenstadter, J. (Principal Investigator); Clark, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The delineation of areas subject to inundation by means of remotely-sensed data acquisition represents a considerable saving in personnel time. Repeated input from aerial sensor sources provides the planner with a potent tool for the formation of a data base and for the monitoring of land use patterns over a period of time. The primary output of this project was a set of base map overlays at a scale of 1:62,500 delineating areas which require special regulations when proposed for land use involving human habitation or certain classes of storage. A secondary product of the study was county-wide maps of watershed configurations and of soil hydrologic groups. Further research is anticipated to extend the mapping of watershed areas outside the political boundaries of Cochise County, which will provide data for subsequent rainfall-runoff relationship studies in the area. All of the data provided will be incorporated into the Cochise County composite computer mapping project now operational. Results of this project have improved the pool of information available to the planning staff of Cochise County.

  6. Characterization of sediments in the Clinch River, Tennessee, using remote sensing and multi-dimensional GIS techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, D.A.; Hargrove, W.W.; Hoffman, F.

    1995-12-31

    Remotely-sensed hydro-acoustic data were used as input to spatial extrapolation tools in a GIS to develop two- and three-dimensional models of sediment densities in the Clinch River arm of Watts Bar Reservoir, Tennessee. This work delineated sediment deposition zones to streamline sediment sampling and to provide a tool for estimating sediment volumes and extrapolating contaminant concentrations throughout the system. The Clinch River arm of Watts Bar Reservoir has been accumulating sediment-bound contaminants from three Department of Energy (DOE) facilities on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee. Public concern regarding human and ecological health resulted in Watts Bar Reservoir being placed on the National Priorities List for SUPERFUND. As a result, DOE initiated and is funding the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) to perform a remedial investigation to determine the nature and extent of sediment contamination in the Watts Bar Reservoir and the Clinch River and to quantify any human or ecological health risks. The first step in characterizing Clinch River sediments was to determine the locations of deposition zones. It was also important to know the sediment type distribution within deposition zones because most sediment-bound contaminants are preferentially associated to fine particles. A dual-frequency hydro-acoustic survey was performed to determine: (1) depth to the sediment water interface, (2) depth of the sediment layer, and (3) sediment characteristics (density) with depth (approximately 0.5-foot intervals). An array of geophysical instruments was used to meet the objectives of this investigation.

  7. Remote sensing of natural resources: Quarterly literature review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A quarterly review of technical literature concerning remote sensing techniques is presented. The format contains indexed and abstracted materials with emphasis on data gathering techniques performed or obtained remotely from space, aircraft, or ground-based stations. Remote sensor applications including the remote sensing of natural resources are presented.

  8. Applications of Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacha, Charlene

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing is one of the best ways to be able to monitor and see changes in the Earth. The use of satellite images in the classroom can be a practical way to help students understand the importance and use of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). It is essential in helping students to understand that underlying individual data points are converted to a broad spatial form. The use of actual remote sensing data makes this more understandable to the students e.g. an online map of recent earthquake events, geologic maps, satellite imagery. For change detection, images of years ten or twenty years apart of the same area can be compared and observations recorded. Satellite images of different places can be available on the Internet or from the local space agency. In groups of mixed abilities, students can observe changes in land use over time and also give possible reasons and explanations to those changes. Students should answer essential questions like, how does satellite imagery offer valuable information to different faculties e.g. military, weather, environmental departments and others. Before and after images on disasters for example, volcanoes, floods and earthquakes should be obtained and observed. Key questions would be; how can scientists use these images to predict, or to change the future outcomes over time. How to manage disasters and how the archived images can assist developers in planning land use around that area in the future. Other material that would be useful includes maps and aerial photographs of the area. A flight should be organized over the area for students to acquire aerial photographs of their own; this further enhances their understanding of the concept "remote sensing". Environmental issues such as air, water and land pollution can also be identified on satellite images. Key questions for students would include causes, effects and possible solutions to the problem. Conducting a fieldwork exercise around the area would

  9. Accelerating Commercial Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Through the Visiting Investigator Program (VIP) at Stennis Space Center, Community Coffee was able to use satellites to forecast coffee crops in Guatemala. Using satellite imagery, the company can produce detailed maps that separate coffee cropland from wild vegetation and show information on the health of specific crops. The data can control coffee prices and eventually may be used to optimize application of fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation. This would result in maximal crop yields, minimal pollution and lower production costs. VIP is a mechanism involving NASA funding designed to accelerate the growth of commercial remote sensing by promoting general awareness and basic training in the technology.

  10. Remote sensing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, R. A., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    A syllabus and training materials prepared and used in a series of one-day workshops to introduce modern remote sensing technology to selected groups of professional personnel in Vermont are described. Success in using computer compatible tapes, LANDSAT imagery and aerial photographs is reported for the following applications: (1) mapping defoliation of hardwood forests by tent caterpillar and gypsy moth; (2) differentiating conifer species; (3) mapping ground cover of major lake and pond watersheds; (4) inventorying and locating artificially regenerated conifer forest stands; (5) mapping water quality; (6) ascertaining the boat population to quantify recreational activity on lakes and waterways; and (7) identifying potential aquaculture sites.

  11. [A review on polarization information in the remote sensing detection].

    PubMed

    Gong, Jie-Qiong; Zhan, Hai-Gang; Liu, Da-Zhao

    2010-04-01

    Polarization is one of the inherent characteristics. Because the surface of the target structure, internal structure, and the angle of incident light are different, the earth's surface and any target in atmosphere under optical interaction process will have their own characteristic nature of polarization. Polarimetric characteristics of radiation energy from the targets are used in polarization remote sensing detection as detective information. Polarization remote sensing detection can get the seven-dimensional information of targets in complicated backgrounds, detect well-resolved outline of targets and low-reflectance region of objectives, and resolve the problems of atmospheric detection and identification camouflage detection which the traditional remote sensing detection can not solve, having good foreground in applications. This paper introduces the development of polarization information in the remote sensing detection from the following four aspects. The rationale of polarization remote sensing detection is the base of polarization remote sensing detection, so it is firstly introduced. Secondly, the present researches on equipments that are used in polarization remote sensing detection are particularly and completely expatiated. Thirdly, the present exploration of theoretical simulation of polarization remote sensing detection is well detailed. Finally, the authors present the applications research home and abroad of the polarization remote sensing detection technique in the fields of remote sensing, atmospheric sounding, sea surface and underwater detection, biology and medical diagnosis, astronomical observation and military, summing up the current problems in polarization remote sensing detection. The development trend of polarization remote sensing detection technology in the future is pointed out in order to provide a reference for similar studies.

  12. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques applied to the noninvasive investigation of mural paintings: a feasibility study carried out on a wall painting by Beato Angelico in Florence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucci, Costanza; Picollo, Marcello; Chiarantini, Leandro; Sereni, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Nowadays hyperspectral imaging is a well-established methodology for the non-invasive diagnostics of polychrome surfaces, and is increasingly utilized in museums and conservation laboratories for documentation purposes and in support of restoration procedures. However, so far the applications of hyperspectral imaging have been mainly limited to easel paintings or paper-based artifacts. Indeed, specifically designed hyperspectral imagers, are usually used for applications in museum context. These devices work at short-distances from the targets and cover limited size surfaces. Instead, almost still unexplored remain the applications of hyperspectral imaging to the investigations of frescoes and large size mural paintings. For this type of artworks a remote sensing approach, based on sensors capable of acquiring hyperspectral data from distances of the order of tens of meters, is needed. This paper illustrates an application of hyperspectral remote sensing to an important wall-painting by Beato Angelico, located in the San Marco Museum in Florence. Measurements were carried out using a re-adapted version of the Galileo Avionica Multisensor Hyperspectral System (SIM-GA), an avionic hyperspectral imager originally designed for applications from mobile platforms. This system operates in the 400-2500 nm range with over 700 channels, thus guaranteeing acquisition of high resolution hyperspectral data exploitable for materials identification and mapping. In the present application, the SIM-GA device was mounted on a static scanning platform for ground-based applications. The preliminary results obtained on the Angelico's wall-painting are discussed, with highlights on the main technical issues addressed to optimize the SIM-GA system for new applications on cultural assets.

  13. Remote sensing techniques and in situ fluorometry as alternative methods for the determination of algae pigments in lakes - application to Lake Constance and small lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Thomas; Heege, Thomas; Schenk, Karin; Stark, Markus; Stich, Hans-Bernd

    2014-05-01

    Satellite based remote sensing techniques were used in order to assess the variability of Chlorophyll-a distributions in Lake Constance and additionally within some smaller lakes in the South of Germany. For Lake Constance we used for most investigations spatially medium resolved satellite scanners with a higher spectral resolution whereas in the case of smaller lakes having a size of 1 … 10 km spatially highly resolved satellite scanners were used having a lower spectral resolution. The satellite imagery allowed for a higher spatial as well temporal resolution of information about Chlorophyll-a distribution in these lakes compared to classical methodologies as water sampling and subsequent species analysis using microscopes and/or HPLC analysis for accessory algae pigments. We found - depending on weather and hydrodynamic conditions - highly variable Chlorophyll-a distributions under some circumstances whereas there are as well time periods when almost perfectly homogeneous distributions of Chlorophyll-a where detected in Lake Constance. Additionally we used HPLC analysis in order to validate the satellite remote sensing results showing good agreement between in situ measured and remote sensing values for Chlorophyll-a. During some measurement campaigns in Lake Constance we used an in situ fluorometer probe (BBE FluoroProbe) in order to determine the spatial fluctuations of Chlorophyll-a and additional accessory algae pigments. These algae pigments were measured along horizontal transects using a temporal sampling interval of about dt=2 … 10 seconds giving a high spatial sampling frequency in the order O[10 … 50]m. Based on these horizontal records we can get further insight into the spatial fluctuations of algae pigments and their spatial patterns in Lake Constance. Characteristics of these patterns can be quantified using some patchiness state vector (psv) summarizing different specific features of the algae distribution into some vector quantity. Special

  14. Drought index forecasting using remote sensing and long-range forecast data based on machine learning techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Jinyoung; Im, Jungho

    2016-04-01

    Three machine learning models based on Decision Tree, Random Forest, and Extremely Randomized Trees were developed and compared to spatial interpolation based on multiquadric spline to forecast drought indices of the 6-month Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI6) and the 6-month Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration (SPEI6) in ungauged areas. Input variables of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), daytime Land Surface Temperature, and nighttime Land Surface Temperature were used to represent the initial condition and the Multivariate ENSO Index and the Arctic Oscillation Index were included in order to consider large-scale atmospheric circulation. Six-month accumulated precipitation and potential evapotranspiration ending the target month were also included as input variables. The long-range forecast data were used to fill the 6-month precipitation and potential evapotranspiration during future periods and compared to the cases that use climatological data as baseline results. Classification of drought categories were performed and evaluated for the locations of 61 of Automated Synoptic Observing System gauges in South Korea. In conclusion, machine learning-based methods performed better than the interpolation method, and the methods using climatology data outperformed the methods based on long-range forecast. Although the contribution of long-range forecast for drought forecasting was not yet large, the application of machine learning modelling using remote sensing data contributed to the enhancement of drought forecasting skill. Drought forecasting based on the long-range forecast is expected to outperform the performance based on climatological data as the skill of the long-range forecast improves.

  15. Geobotanical Remote Sensing for Geothermal Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Pickles, W L; Kasameyer, P W; Martini, B A; Potts, D C; Silver, E A

    2001-05-22

    This paper presents a plan for increasing the mapped resource base for geothermal exploration in the Western US. We plan to image large areas in the western US with recently developed high resolution hyperspectral geobotanical remote sensing tools. The proposed imaging systems have the ability to map visible faults, surface effluents, historical signatures, and discover subtle hidden faults and hidden thermal systems. Large regions can be imaged at reasonable costs. The technique of geobotanical remote sensing for geothermal signatures is based on recent successes in mapping faults and effluents the Long Valley Caldera and Mammoth Mountain in California.

  16. Bringing remote sensing technology to the user community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindenlaub, J. C.; Davis, S. M.; Morrison, D. B.

    1975-01-01

    The procedures and services available for educating and training potential users of remote sensing technology are discussed along with approaches for achieving an in-house capability for the analysis of remotely sensed data using numerical techniques based on pattern recognition principles. Cost estimates are provided where appropriate.

  17. Background and principle applications of remote sensing in Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, J. A. D.

    1978-01-01

    Remote sensing, or the collection of information from objectives at a distance, crystallizes the interest in implementing techniques which assist in the search for solutions to the problems raised by the detection, exploitation, and conservation of the natural resources of the earth. An attempt is made to present an overview of the studies and achievements which have been obtained with remote sensing in Mexico.

  18. Remote sensing of earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, Herng-Aung; Kong, Jin AU

    1991-01-01

    the radar response is most sensitive to the parameters of interest; theoretically simulated data will be used to generate simple invertible models over the region. For applications to the remote sensing of sea ice, the developed theoretical models need to be tested with experimental measurements. With measured ground truth such as ice thickness, temperature, salinity, and structure, input parameters to the theoretical models can be obtained to calculate the polarimetric scattering coefficients for radars or brightness temperature for radiometers and then compare theoretical results with experimental data. Validated models will play an important role in the interpretation and classification of ice in monitoring global ice cover from space borne remote sensors in the future. We present an inversion algorithm based on a recently developed inversion method referred to as the Renormalized Source-Type Integral Equation approach. The objective of this method is to overcome some of the limitations and difficulties of the iterative Born technique. It recasts the inversion, which is nonlinear in nature, in terms of the solution of a set of linear equations; however, the final inversion equation is still nonlinear. The derived inversion equation is an exact equation which sums up the iterative Neuman (or Born) series in a closed form and, thus, is a valid representation even in the case when the Born series diverges; hence, the name Renormalized Source-Type Integral Equation Approach.

  19. Three examples of applied remote sensing of vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, J. W., Jr.; Benton, A. R., Jr.; Toler, R. W.; Haas, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    Cause studies in which remote sensing techniques were adapted to assist in the solution of particular problem situations in Texas involving vegetation are described. In each case, the final sensing technique developed for operational use by the concerned organizations employed photographic sensors which were optimized through studies of the spectral reflectance characteristics of the vegetation species and background conditions unique to the problem being considered. The three examples described are: (1) Assisting Aquatic Plant Monitoring and Control; (2) Improving Vegetation Utilization in Urban Planning; and (3) Enforcing the Quarantine of Diseased Crops.

  20. Remote sensing of the biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The current state of understanding of the biosphere is reviewed, the major scientific issues to be addressed are discussed, and techniques, existing and in need of development, for the science are evaluated. It is primarily concerned with developing the scientific capabilities of remote sensing for advancing the subject. The global nature of the scientific objectives requires the use of space-based techniques. The capability to look at the Earth as a whole was developed only recently. The space program has provided the technology to study the entire Earth from artificial satellites, and thus is a primary force in approaches to planetary biology. Space technology has also permitted comparative studies of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. These studies coupled with the growing awareness of the effects that life has on the entire Earth, are opening new lines of inquiry in science.

  1. [A review of classification methods of remote sensing imagery].

    PubMed

    Jia, Kun; Li, Qiang-Zi; Tian, Yi-Chen; Wu, Bing-Fang

    2011-10-01

    Remote sensing data classification is an important way of information extraction and a hot research topic of remote sensing technique. Classification method of remote sensing data is an important issue, and effective selection of appropriate classifier is especially significant for improving classification accuracy. Along with the development of remote sensing technique, traditional parametric classifier is difficult to meet accuracy requirement, leading to the rapid development of intelligent algorithm based non-parametric classifiers. Recently, combined classifiers become a new hot topic for its ability of utilizing complement information of single classifier. In the present paper, characters and advantages of different classifiers as well as the research prospect are analyzed. The paper provides a scientific reference for the development of remote sensing data classification technique.

  2. Application of remote sensing techniques to understand the mechanisms behind the Caspian Sea lake-level fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozyavas, Aziz

    The Caspian Sea has exhibited significantly wide range of water-level fluctuations in its history. The primary factor for these oscillations has been overwhelmingly ascribed to climate-induced variations; geologic-related processes have been suggested to be trivial and negligible. This work processed TopexPoseidon data to estimate Lake-level heights for the Caspian Sea from the beginning of 1993 to August 2005. In order to improve the accuracy, the new Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment orbits data, new Sea State Bias model, and Topex Microwave Radiometer drift correction were applied to the default altimetry data. The Caspian Sea hydrologic budget from 1998 to 2005 was also calculated using remote sensing and ground-based data. The National Center for Environmental Prediction Department of Energy Reanalysis 2 meteorological data provided all the variables necessary for the Penman method to estimate evaporation over the Caspian Sea. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission rainfall data was utilized to estimate precipitation onto the Caspian Sea. This study reveals that lake-level changes from 1998 to 2005 are essentially controlled by meteorological factors based on the fact that a relatively minor difference between the water budget residuals and CSLL changes in the Caspian Sea. Moreover, the trend observed in the Caspian Sea lake level over the last several decades is closely correlated with Lake Van and Lake Urmia. However, the relatively higher dissimilarity present in 2000 and 2001 could imply that the Caspian Sea needs to lose some of its water to attain water balance. The two significant earthquakes with normal fault focal mechanisms and magnitudes of 6.8 and 6.5 Mw could be responsible for the Caspian Sea lake-level decline in 2000 and 2001. The contribution of submarine mud volcano eruptions to increase Caspian Sea lake level is likely to be negligible on the basis of submarine mud volcanic eruptions in 2003. Both the crustal deformation based on the

  3. Structural modeling of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt (Iraq) combining field work and remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reif, D.; Grasemann, B.; Faber, R.; Lockhart, D.

    2009-04-01

    contacts) from digital elevation models. The minimum vegetation cover in the investigated area allows an accurate picking of geological planes from the digital elevation model, which has been draped with LANDSAT and ASTER satellite images in order to enhance the contrast of lithological contacts. Geological planes of finite extent are interpolated in the Fault Trace module by virtual planes, which can be translated and rotated in any spatial direction. Comparison of measured data from the field with interpolated spatial orientations from the remote sensing data demonstrate that the calculated dip and strike values can be reproduced within the measurements error of a geological field compass.

  4. Aggregation and Disaggregation Techniques Applied on Remotely Sensed Data to Obtain Optimum Resolution for Surface Energy Fluxes Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agam, N.; Kustas, W. P.; Li, F.; Anderson, M. C.

    2006-05-01

    results indicate that disaggregation of the currently available lower resolution LST to field scale sub-pixel resolutions for enabling surface energy flux monitoring for this region (LST range ~20-45C) can induce RMSE of 0.7-2.1C, increasing with resolution. This suggests higher resolution LST data is still valuable at all times and crucial under certain conditions. Errors in flux calculations at the different resolutions will be presented. * Kustas W.P., et al. 2003. Remote Sensing of Environment, 85, 429-440.

  5. Using Remotely Sensed Data for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation: A Collaborative Effort Between the Climate Change Adaptation Science Investigators Workgroup (CASI), NASA Johnson Space Center, and Jacobs Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagge, Amy

    2016-01-01

    With ever changing landscapes and environmental conditions due to human induced climate change, adaptability is imperative for the long-term success of facilities and Federal agency missions. To mitigate the effects of climate change, indicators such as above-ground biomass change must be identified to establish a comprehensive monitoring effort. Researching the varying effects of climate change on ecosystems can provide a scientific framework that will help produce informative, strategic and tactical policies for environmental adaptation. As a proactive approach to climate change mitigation, NASA tasked the Climate Change Adaptation Science Investigators Workgroup (CASI) to provide climate change expertise and data to Center facility managers and planners in order to ensure sustainability based on predictive models and current research. Generation of historical datasets that will be used in an agency-wide effort to establish strategies for climate change mitigation and adaptation at NASA facilities is part of the CASI strategy. Using time series of historical remotely sensed data is well-established means of measuring change over time. CASI investigators have acquired multispectral and hyperspectral optical and LiDAR remotely sensed datasets from NASA Earth Observation Satellites (including the International Space Station), airborne sensors, and astronaut photography using hand held digital cameras to create a historical dataset for the Johnson Space Center, as well as the Houston and Galveston area. The raster imagery within each dataset has been georectified, and the multispectral and hyperspectral imagery has been atmospherically corrected. Using ArcGIS for Server, the CASI-Regional Remote Sensing data has been published as an image service, and can be visualized through a basic web mapping application. Future work will include a customized web mapping application created using a JavaScript Application Programming Interface (API), and inclusion of the CASI data

  6. Remote Sensing Via Satellite: The Canadian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classen, Hans George

    1974-01-01

    Describes the joint effort of Canada and NASA in monitoring the Canadian environment using remote-sensing techniques. The project involves the Earth Resources Technology Satellite and has been used to observe seasonal changes, extent of snow cover, crop growth, sea ice, and land use patterns. (GS)

  7. Data compression in remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayood, Khalid

    1992-01-01

    A survey of current data compression techniques which are being used to reduce the amount of data in remote sensing applications is provided. The survey aspect is far from complete, reflecting the substantial activity in this area. The purpose of the survey is more to exemplify the different approaches being taken rather than to provide an exhaustive list of the various proposed approaches.

  8. Ocean Remote Sensing Using Ambient Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Ocean Remote Sensing Using Ambient Noise Michael G...frequency sound propagation in the ocean , and the effects of environmental variability on signal stability and coherence. We seek to understand the...fundamental limits to signal processing imposed by ocean variability to enable advanced signal processing techniques, including matched field processing

  9. Summary of 1971 land remote sensing investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooneyhan, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    Techniques to provide land use up-date information using remotely sensed data and automatic data processing technology are being developed. The approach utilizes multispectral scanners, the associated data analysis station, and the pattern recognition programs to identify and classify land surface characteristics, including wetlands, and to convert these data to demonstration type experiments in the various disciplines.

  10. Applications of Remote Sensing to Emergency Management.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-15

    Contents: Foundations of Remote Sensing : Data Acquisition and Interpretation; Availability of Remote Sensing Technology for Disaster Response...Imaging Systems, Current and Near Future Satellite and Aircraft Remote Sensing Systems; Utilization of Remote Sensing in Disaster Response: Categories of...Disasters, Phases of Monitoring Activities; Recommendations for Utilization of Remote Sensing Technology in Disaster Response; Selected Reading List.

  11. Lidar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Matthew J.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The laser radar, or lidar (for light detection and ranging) is an important tool for atmospheric studies. Lidar provides a unique and powerful method for unobtrusively profiling aerosols, wind, water vapor, temperature, and other atmospheric parameters. This brief overview of lidar remote sensing is focused on atmospheric applications involving pulsed lasers. The level of technical detail is aimed at the educated non-lidar expert and references are provided for further investigation of specific topics. The article is divided into three main sections. The first describes atmospheric scattering processes and the physics behind laser-atmosphere interactions. The second section highlights some of the primary lidar applications, with brief descriptions of each measurement capability. The third section describes the practical aspects of lidar operation, including the governing equation and operational considerations.

  12. Agricultural Production Monitoring in the Sahel Using Remote Sensing: Present Possibilities and Research Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    during the agricultural season. Satellite remote sensing can contribute significantly to such a system by collecting information on crops and on...well as techniques to derive biophysical variables from remotely-sensed data. Finally, the integration of these remote - sensing techniques with crop

  13. Field Data Collection: an Essential Element in Remote Sensing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettinger, L. R.

    1971-01-01

    Field data collected in support of remote sensing projects are generally used for the following purposes: (1) calibration of remote sensing systems, (2) evaluation of experimental applications of remote sensing imagery on small test sites, and (3) designing and evaluating operational regional resource studies and inventories which are conducted using the remote sensing imagery obtained. Field data may be used to help develop a technique for a particular application, or to aid in the application of that technique to a resource evaluation or inventory problem for a large area. Scientists at the Forestry Remote Sensing Laboratory have utilized field data for both purposes. How meaningful field data has been collected in each case is discussed.

  14. A Remote-Sensing Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkiss, Rose; Dickerson, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Sponsored by NASA and the JASON Education Foundation, the remote Sensing Earth Science Teacher Education Program (RSESTeP) trains teachers to use state-of-the art remote-sensing technology with the idea that participants bring back what they learn and incorporate it into Earth science lessons using technology. The author's participation in the…

  15. Polarimetric Interferometry - Remote Sensing Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    This lecture is mainly based on the work of S.R. Cloude and presents examples for remote sensing applications Polarimetric SAR Interferometry...PolInSAR). PolInSAR has its origins in remote sensing and was first developed for applications in 1997 using SIRC L-Band data [1,2]. In its original form it

  16. Remote sensing for cotton farming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of remote sensing technologies in agriculture began with the use of aerial photography to identify cotton root rot in the late 1920s. From then on, agricultural remote sensing has developed gradually until the introduction of precision farming technologies in the late 1980s and biotechno...

  17. THE REMOTE SENSING DATA GATEWAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Remote Sensing Data Gateway (RSDG) is a pilot project in the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) to develop a comprehensive data search, acquisition, delivery and archive mechanism for internal, national and international sources of remote sensing data for the co...

  18. Remote Sensing and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osmers, Karl

    1991-01-01

    Suggests using remote sensing technology to help students make sense of the natural world. Explains that satellite information allows observation of environmental changes over time. Identifies possible student projects based on remotely sensed data. Recommends obtaining the assistance of experts and seeking funding through effective project…

  19. Remote Sensing: A Film Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, David J.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the content of 19 films on remote sensing published between 1973 and 1980. Concludes that they are overly simplistic, notably outdated, and generally too optimistic about the potential of remote sensing from space for resource exploration and environmental problem-solving. Provides names and addresses of more current remote sensing…

  20. Remote sensing of earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, Jin AU; Yueh, Herng-Aung; Shin, Robert T.

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts from 46 refereed journal and conference papers are presented for research on remote sensing of earth terrain. The topics covered related to remote sensing include the following: mathematical models, vegetation cover, sea ice, finite difference theory, electromagnetic waves, polarimetry, neural networks, random media, synthetic aperture radar, electromagnetic bias, and others.

  1. Study of 3D remote sensing system based on optical scanning holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shihu; Yan, Lei

    2009-06-01

    High-precision and real-time remote sensing imaging system is an important part of remote sensing development. Holography is a method of wave front record and recovery which was presented by Dennis Gabor. As a new kind of holography techniques, Optical scanning holography (OSH) and remote sensing imaging are intended to be combined together and applied in acquisition and interference measurement of remote sensing. The key principles and applicability of OSH are studied and the mathematic relation between Fresnel Zone Plate number, numerical aperture and object distance was deduced, which are proved to be feasible for OSH to apply in large scale remote sensing. At last, a new three-dimensional reflected OSH remote sensing imaging system is designed with the combination of scanning technique to record hologram patterns of large scale remote sensing scenes. This scheme is helpful for expanding OSH technique to remote sensing in future.

  2. Comparison of the resulting error in data fusion techniques when used with remote sensing, earth observation, and in-situ data sets for water quality applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemba, Alexander; El Serafy, Ghada

    2016-04-01

    Ecological modeling and water quality investigations are complex processes which can require a high level of parameterization and a multitude of varying data sets in order to properly execute the model in question. Since models are generally complex, their calibration and validation can benefit from the application of data and information fusion techniques. The data applied to ecological models comes from a wide range of sources such as remote sensing, earth observation, and in-situ measurements, resulting in a high variability in the temporal and spatial resolution of the various data sets available to water quality investigators. It is proposed that effective fusion into a comprehensive singular set will provide a more complete and robust data resource with which models can be calibrated, validated, and driven by. Each individual product contains a unique valuation of error resulting from the method of measurement and application of pre-processing techniques. The uncertainty and error is further compounded when the data being fused is of varying temporal and spatial resolution. In order to have a reliable fusion based model and data set, the uncertainty of the results and confidence interval of the data being reported must be effectively communicated to those who would utilize the data product or model outputs in a decision making process[2]. Here we review an array of data fusion techniques applied to various remote sensing, earth observation, and in-situ data sets whose domains' are varied in spatial and temporal resolution. The data sets examined are combined in a manner so that the various classifications, complementary, redundant, and cooperative, of data are all assessed to determine classification's impact on the propagation and compounding of error. In order to assess the error of the fused data products, a comparison is conducted with data sets containing a known confidence interval and quality rating. We conclude with a quantification of the performance

  3. Commerical Remote Sensing Data Contract

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Commercial Remote Sensing Data Contracts (CRSDCs) provide government agencies with access to a broad range of commercially available remotely sensed airborne and satellite data. These contracts were established to support The National Map partners, other Federal Civilian agency programs, and Department of Defense programs that require data for the United States and its territories. Experience shows that centralized procurement of remotely sensed data leads to considerable cost savings to the Federal government through volume discounts, reduction of redundant contract administrative costs, and avoidance of duplicate purchases. These contracts directly support the President's Commercial Remote Sensing Space Policy, signed in 2003, by providing a centralized mechanism for civil agencies to acquire commercial remote sensing products to support their mission needs in an efficient and coordinated way. CRSDC administration is provided by the USGS Mid-Continent Mapping Center in Rolla, Missouri.

  4. Analysis of anthropogenic impacts on the hydrological state of a Pleistocene catchment area using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuschner, Annette; Merz, Christoph; Steidl, Jörg; van Gasselt, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    The water budget of a catchment area can be depicted by the complex interaction between topography and discharge as well as anthropogenic and climatic impacts. Over the last decades, the Pleistocene lowlands of North-Eastern Germany have experienced extensive anthropogenic modifications. The hydrological system has been significantly altered by the installation of artificial drainage, such as surface ditches and subsurface tile drains. It has been shown, that artificial drainage systems provide pathways for diffuse nutrients and pollutants leaching into surface and also subsurface water bodies, which is especially pronounced in lowland areas. The detection of these transport paths is important for obtaining an understanding of the regional water and substance balance and the development of strategies to improve hydrological conditions. Unfortunately, detailed data about locations of historic artificial drainage are rare or not available at all. The aim of this study was to identify the extensive anthropogenic modifications, like artificial drainage networks and land use changes, over the last decades with the aid of photogrammetric data and multispectral imagery. The detection of anthropogenic modifications is based on the method of Tetzlaff, et al. (2009), who developed an approach by interpreting aerial photographs for drained areas. We used color-infrared (CIR) aerial photographs, in order to apply different spectral techniques for obtaining information about water content and vitality status of plant cover. Although this method is sensitive to daily variations of soil moisture and plant growth as response to climate conditions, and the type of drainage pipe installation technique, we were able to identify different locations of artificial drainage. Complementary to this approach we utilized spectral classification methods for land cover in order to extract different land cover categories, and evaporation rates, depending on the land cover and surface

  5. Remote sensing in Michigan for land resource management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sattinger, I. J.; Sellman, A. N.; Istvan, L. B.; Cook, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    During the period from June 1972 to June 1973, remote sensing techniques were applied to the following tasks: (1) mapping Michigan's land resources, (2) waterfowl habitat management at Point Mouillee, (3) mapping of Lake Erie shoreline flooding, (4) highway impact assessment, (5) applications of the Earth Resources Technology Satellite, ERTS-1, (6) investigation of natural gas eruptions near Williamsburg, and (7) commercial site selection. The goal of the program was the large scale adaption, by both public agencies and private interests in Michigan, of earth-resource survey technology as an important aid in the solution of current problems in resources management and environmental protection.

  6. Methodology of remote sensing data interpretation and geological applications. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Veneziani, P.; Dosanjos, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    Elements of photointerpretation discussed include the analysis of photographic texture and structure as well as film tonality. The method used is based on conventional techniques developed for interpreting aerial black and white photographs. By defining the properties which characterize the form and individuality of dual images, homologous zones can be identified. Guy's logic method (1966) was adapted and used on functions of resolution, scale, and spectral characteristics of remotely sensed products. Applications of LANDSAT imagery are discussed for regional geological mapping, mineral exploration, hydrogeology, and geotechnical engineering in Brazil.

  7. International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, Fourth Thematic Conference: Remote Sensing for Exploration Geology, San Francisco, CA, April 1-4, 1985, Proceedings. Volumes 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    State of the art applications of remote sensing in geological exploration programs are discussed along with research and development activities aimed at increasing the future capabilities of this technology for exploration geology. The topics considered include: technical issues in the state of the art; regional exploration models; remote sensing applications for hydrocarbon exploration; commercialization of remote sensing satellites; and data integration. Also addressed are: remote sensing applications for mineral exploration; geobotanical and environmental remote sensing; image processing techniques and applications; advanced sensors, radar, and airborne systems; and engineering, logistics, and marine applications.

  8. International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, Fourth Thematic Conference: Remote Sensing for Exploration Geology, San Francisco, CA, April 1-4, 1985, Proceedings. Volumes 1 & 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    State of the art applications of remote sensing in geological exploration programs are discussed along with research and development activities aimed at increasing the future capabilities of this technology for exploration geology. The topics considered include: technical issues in the state of the art; regional exploration models; remote sensing applications for hydrocarbon exploration; commercialization of remote sensing satellites; and data integration. Also addressed are: remote sensing applications for mineral exploration; geobotanical and environmental remote sensing; image processing techniques and applications; advanced sensors, radar, and airborne systems; and engineering, logistics, and marine applications.

  9. Assessment of the vegetation cover in a burned area 22-years ago using remote sensing techniques and GIS analysis (Sierra de las Nieves, South of Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Murillo, Juan F.; Remond, Ricardo; Ruiz-Sinoga, José D.

    2015-04-01

    The study aim was to characterize the vegetation cover in a burned area 22-years ago considering the previous situation to wildfire in 1991 and the current one in 2013. The objectives were to: (i) compare the current and previous vegetation cover to widlfire; (ii) evaluate whether the current vegetation has recovered the previous cover to wildfire; and (iii) determine the spatial variability of vegetation recovery after 22-years since the wildfire. The study area is located in Sierra de las Nieves, South of Spain. It corresponds to an area affected by a wildfire in August 8th, 1991. The burned area was equal to 8156 ha. The burn severity was spatially very high. The main geographic features of the burned area are: mountainous topography (altitudes ranging from 250 m to 1500 m; slope gradient >25%; exposure mainly southfacing); igneous (peridotites), metamorphic (gneiss) and calcareous rocks (limestones); and predominant forest land use (Pinus pinaster sp. woodlands, 10%; pinus opened forest + shrubland, 40%; shrubland, 35%; and bare soil + grassland, 15%). Remote sensing techniques and GIS analysis has been applied to achieve the objectives. Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 images were used: July 13th, 1991 and July 1st, 2013, for the previous wildfire situation and 22-years after, respectively. The 1990 CORINE land cover was also considered to map 1991 land uses prior the wildfire. Likewise, the Andalucía Regional Government wildfire historic records were used to select the burned area and its geographical limit. 1991 and 2013 land cover map were obtained by means of object-oriented classifications. Also, NDVI and PVI1 vegetation indexes were calculated and mapped for both years. Finally, some images transformations and kernel density images were applied to determine the most recovered areas and to map the spatial concentration of bare soil and pine cover areas in 1991 and 2013, respectively. According to the results, the combination of remote sensing and GIS analysis let

  10. Scatter-plot-based method for noise characteristics evaluation in remote sensing images using adaptive image clustering procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramova, Victoriya V.; Abramov, Sergey K.; Lukin, Vladimir V.; Vozel, Benoit; Chehdi, Kacem

    2016-10-01

    Several modifications of scatter-plot-based method for mixed noise parameters estimation are proposed. The modifications relate to the stage of image segmentation and they are intended to adaptively separate image blocks into clusters taking into account image peculiarities and to choose a required number of clusters. Comparative performance analysis of the proposed modifications for images from TID2008 database is performed. It is shown that the best estimation accuracy is provided by a method with automatic determination of a required number of clusters followed by block separation into clusters using k-means method. This modification allows improving the accuracy of noise characteristics estimation by up to 5% for both signal-independent and signal-dependent noise components in comparison to the basic method. The results for real-life data are presented.

  11. Concordia Multi-Process Atmospheric Studies (CoMPASs): study of the vertical structure of the Antarctic atmosphere with a synergy of different remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchini, Giovanni; Argenitini, Stefania; Baldi, Massimo; Cairo, Francesco; Calzolari, Francescopiero; Casasanta, Giampietro; Conidi, Alessandro; Del Guasta, Massimo; Di Natale, Gianluca; Federico, Stefano; Lupi, Angelo; Mazzola, Mauro; De Muro, Mauro; Palchetti, Luca; Petenko, Igor; Petkov, Boyan; Snels, Marcel; Trivellone, Giuliano; Viola, Angelo; Viterbini, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    Concordia station, in the Dome C region, Antarctica, is the ideal site for the study of micro-physical, meteorological and chemical processes in unperturbed and extreme conditions: the relative absence of perturbations at the mesoscale allows highly representative observations of the atmosphere inside of the polar vortex, as well as the possibility of studying the micro-meteorological "asymptotic" conditions in the boundary layer. Given these privileged conditions, the interaction between the different processes will be especially noticeable. The CoMPASs (Concordia Multi-Process Atmospheric Studies) project has been developed in order to identify and characterize these feedbacks and interactions between processes, spanning across three different atmospheric regions: the boundary layer, the troposphere and the stratosphere. The main research themes follow the vertical structure of the atmosphere: - Characterization of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) in terms of dynamics, turbulence and radiation, especially during the winter period, in which the ABL has peculiar properties in terms of reduced thickness and extreme sensitivity to external forcing. - Study of the clouds in the free troposphere, which, in the region of Dome C, shows a remarkable variability, both daily and seasonal, and therefore requires continuous monitoring to quantify its interactions with the neighbouring atmospheric layers. - Study of the stratospheric processes within the Antarctic polar vortex, as ozone chemistry and polar stratospheric clouds, carried out throughout the year in order to constantly follow the evolution of the vortex itself. CoMPASs makes use of a strong observational component, deploying an array of different instruments all characterized by the vertical remote sensing measurement technique: stratospheric and tropospheric lidars, UV and middle/far-infrared spectroradiometers, and a high-resolution mini-sodar. The turbulence in the surface layer will be monitored with fast

  12. Synergy of tectonic geomorphology, applied geophysics and remote sensing techniques reveals new data for active extensional tectonism in NW Peloponnese (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountoulis, Ioannis; Vassilakis, Emmanuel; Mavroulis, Spyridon; Alexopoulos, John; Dilalos, Spyridon; Erkeki, Athanasia

    2015-05-01

    In tectonically active areas, such as in the northwest Peloponnese of western Greece, geomorphic processes are strongly influenced by active faulting; in many cases such faults cannot be easily identified. In this paper we apply multidisciplinary analysis (morphotectonic indices, neotectonic mapping, geophysical surveys and remote sensing techniques) to map the recently-recognized east-west trending Pineios River normal fault zone with a high degree of accuracy, and to better understand its contribution to the evolution of the ancient region of Elis during Holocene time. Fault activity seems to be related to frequent changes in river flow patterns and to displacements of the nearby shoreline. We argue that fault activity is the main reason for migration of Pineios river mouth as documented for several time periods during historical time. Quantitative constraints on deformation caused by the faulting were applied through the application of the morphotectonic indices proposed in this paper, including drainage network asymmetry and sinuosity, and mountain front sinuosity, all of which indicate that this is a highly active structure. Slip rates calculated to be as high as 0.48 mm/yr for the last 209 ka (based on previously published dating) were verified by applied geophysical methods. The fault surface discontinuity was identified at depth using vertical electrical resistivity measurements and depositional layers of different resistivity were found to be clearly offset. Displacement increases toward the west, reaching an observed maximum of 110 m. The most spectacular landform alteration due to surface deformation is the north-south migration of the river estuary into completely different open sea areas during the late Quaternary, mainly during the Holocene. The sediment transport path has been altered several times due to these changes in river geometry with and the most recent seeming to have occurred almost 2000 years ago. The river estuary migrated to its

  13. Assessment of the Accuracy of the Conventional Ray-Tracing Technique: Implications in Remote Sensing and Radiative Transfer Involving Ice Clouds.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bi, Lei; Yang, Ping; Liu, Chao; Yi, Bingqi; Baum, Bryan A.; Van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Iwabuchi, Hironobu

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental problem in remote sensing and radiative transfer simulations involving ice clouds is the ability to compute accurate optical properties for individual ice particles. While relatively simple and intuitively appealing, the conventional geometric-optics method (CGOM) is used frequently for the solution of light scattering by ice crystals. Due to the approximations in the ray-tracing technique, the CGOM accuracy is not well quantified. The result is that the uncertainties are introduced that can impact many applications. Improvements in the Invariant Imbedding T-matrix method (II-TM) and the Improved Geometric-Optics Method (IGOM) provide a mechanism to assess the aforementioned uncertainties. The results computed by the II-TMþIGOM are considered as a benchmark because the IITM solves Maxwell's equations from first principles and is applicable to particle size parameters ranging into the domain at which the IGOM has reasonable accuracy. To assess the uncertainties with the CGOM in remote sensing and radiative transfer simulations, two independent optical property datasets of hexagonal columns are developed for sensitivity studies by using the CGOM and the II-TMþIGOM, respectively. Ice cloud bulk optical properties obtained from the two datasets are compared and subsequently applied to retrieve the optical thickness and effective diameter from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements. Additionally, the bulk optical properties are tested in broadband radiative transfer (RT) simulations using the general circulation model (GCM) version of the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTMG) that is adopted in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM, version 5.1). For MODIS retrievals, the mean bias of uncertainties of applying the CGOM in shortwave bands (0.86 and 2.13 micrometers) can be up to 5% in the optical thickness and as high as 20% in the effective diameter, depending on cloud optical

  14. Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques to Detect Changes to the Prince Alfred Hamlet Conservation Area in the Western Cape, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, P.; Lewarne, M.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding and identifying the spatial-temporal changes in the natural environment is crucial for monitoring and evaluating conservation efforts, as well as understanding the impact of human activities on natural resources, informing responsible land management, and promoting better decision-making. Conservation areas are often under pressure from expanding farming and related industry, invasive alien vegetation, and an ever-increasing human settlement footprint. This study focuses on detecting changes to the Prince Alfred Hamlet commonage, near Ceres in the Cape Floral Kingdom. It was chosen for its high conservation value and significance as a critical water source area. The study area includes a fast-growing human settlement footprint in a highly productive farming landscape. There are conflicting development needs as well as risks to agricultural production, and both of these threaten the integrity of the ecosystems which supply underlying services to both demands on the land. Using a multi-disciplinary approach and high-resolution satellite imagery, land use and land cover changes can be detected and classified, and the results used to support the conservation of biodiversity and wildlife, and protect our natural resources. The aim of this research is to study the efficacy of using remote sensing and GIS techniques to detect changes to critical conservation areas where disturbances can be understood, and therefore better managed and mitigated before these areas are degraded beyond repair.

  15. Mapping land-cover and mangrove structures with remote sensing techniques: a contribution to a synoptic GIS in support of coastal management in North Brazil.

    PubMed

    Krause, Gesche; Bock, Michael; Weiers, Stefan; Braun, Gerald

    2004-09-01

    This article deals with the development and application of a cartographic database for a synoptic Geographic Information System (GIS). Its purpose is the storage and evaluation of the heterogeneous datasets of the interdisciplinary scientific research program MADAM (Mangrove Dynamics and Management), which aims to develop recommendations for a tailored integrated coastal management scheme for the mangrove ecosystem at Braganca (North Brazil). The article describes the integration of remote sensing data, aerial photographs, as well as point data provided by fieldwork from different scientific fields. Using various innovative processing techniques and different scale-resolution levels, an assessment of temporal-spatial changes of the mangrove peninsula and the adjacent rural socioeconomic impact area, the type of mangrove structure, as well as a land-use cover analyses was undertaken. The definition of the spatial level of detail was found to be a major issue in the development of the GIS, as well as during the processing and analysis procedures. A division between strong and weak patterns in the mangrove ecosystem could be made, which implies different management measures and sets of specific interdisciplinary studies and monitoring at hierarchical scales.

  16. Remote sensing at Savannah River

    SciTech Connect

    Corey, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses remote sensing systems used at the Savannah River Plant. They include three ground-based systems: ground penetrating radar, sniffers, and lasers; and four airborne systems: multispectral photography, lasers, thermal imaging, and radar systems. (ACR)

  17. Remote sensing of Earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    Research findings are summarized for projects dealing with the following: application of theoretical models to active and passive remote sensing of saline ice; radiative transfer theory for polarimetric remote sensing of pine forest; scattering of electromagnetic waves from a dense medium consisting of correlated Mie scatterers with size distribution and applications to dry snow; variance of phase fluctuations of waves propagating through a random medium; theoretical modeling for passive microwave remote sensing of earth terrain; polarimetric signatures of a canopy of dielectric cylinders based on first and second order vector radiative transfer theory; branching model for vegetation; polarimetric passive remote sensing of periodic surfaces; composite volume and surface scattering model; and radar image classification.

  18. Additional development of remote sensing techniques for observing morphology, microphysics, and radiative properties of clouds and tests using a new, robust CO{sub 2} lidar. Annual progress report, August 15, 1994--August 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhard, W.L.; Intrieri, J.M.; Brewer, W.A.

    1996-04-01

    The bulk morphology and microphysical characteristics of a cloud are both important in determining the cloud`s effect on radiative transfer. A better understanding of all these properties, and the links among them, are needed for developing adequate parameterizations of these components in climate models. The objective of this project is to develop remote sensing techniques for observing key cloud properties, including the linkages. The research has technique development and instrument development prongs.

  19. Using remote sensing and GIS techniques to estimate discharge and recharge fluxes for the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    D'Agnese, F. A.; Faunt, C.C.; Turner, A.K.; ,

    1996-01-01

    The recharge and discharge components of the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system were defined by techniques that integrated disparate data types to develop a spatially complex representation of near-surface hydrological processes. Image classification methods were applied to multispectral satellite data to produce a vegetation map. The vegetation map was combined with ancillary data in a GIS to delineate different types of wetlands, phreatophytes and wet playa areas. Existing evapotranspiration-rate estimates were used to calculate discharge volumes for these area. An empirical method of groundwater recharge estimation was modified to incorporate data describing soil-moisture conditions, and a recharge potential map was produced. These discharge and recharge maps were readily converted to data arrays for numerical modelling codes. Inverse parameter estimation techniques also used these data to evaluate the reliability and sensitivity of estimated values.The recharge and discharge components of the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system were defined by remote sensing and GIS techniques that integrated disparate data types to develop a spatially complex representation of near-surface hydrological processes. Image classification methods were applied to multispectral satellite data to produce a vegetation map. This map provided a basis for subsequent evapotranspiration and infiltration estimations. The vegetation map was combined with ancillary data in a GIS to delineate different types of wetlands, phreatophytes and wet playa areas. Existing evapotranspiration-rate estimates were then used to calculate discharge volumes for these areas. A previously used empirical method of groundwater recharge estimation was modified by GIS methods to incorporate data describing soil-moisture conditions, and a recharge potential map was produced. These discharge and recharge maps were readily converted to data arrays for numerical modelling codes. Inverse parameter

  20. A comparison of cover calculation techniques for relating point-intercept vegetation sampling to remote sensing imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate and timely spatial predictions of vegetation cover from remote imagery are an important data source for natural resource management. High-quality in situ data are needed to develop and validate these products. Point-intercept sampling techniques are a common method for obtaining quantitativ...

  1. Notes for the improvement of a remote sensing multispectral data non-supervised classification and mapping technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    Examined are: (1) the sequential clustering technique for the unsupervised automatic classification and mapping of earth resources satellite data, (2) theoretical analysis of the tests which were used, and (3) derivation of an alternative set of tests and their necessary algorithm.

  2. 1984 World Conference on remote sensing technical papers

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, K.M.

    1984-01-01

    These eleven papers were given at a conference on remote sensing of geographical data. Subjects include fingerprinting of oil spills using fluorescence spectroscopy, satellites, air pollution monitoring, uranium exploration, geomorphology, water pollution, forest diseases and ecology, plumes, and optical techniques.

  3. Basic Investigations for Remote Sensing of Coastal Areas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    for the delineation and analysis of bottom features in coastal areas. The focus is on the development of remote sensing techniques for delineating and classifying bottom features in the nearshore zone.

  4. Isosbestics in Infrared Aerosol Spectra: Proposed Applications for Remote Sensing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    droplet solutions and chemical reactions if the complex indices of refraction are known. The technique seems most applicable in the Rayleigh regime. Remote ... sensing , Isosbestics, Infrared, Infrared spectra, Atmosphere, Water, Aerosols, Rayleigh regime.

  5. REMOTE SENSING APPLICATIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND FOOD SECURITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The integration of IKONOS satellite data, airborne color infrared remote sensing, visualization, and decision support tools is discussed, within the contexts of management techniques for minimizing non-point source pollution in inland waterways, such s riparian buffer restoration...

  6. A New Computational Framework for Atmospheric and Surface Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timucin, Dogan A.

    2004-01-01

    A Bayesian data-analysis framework is described for atmospheric and surface retrievals from remotely-sensed hyper-spectral data. Some computational techniques are high- lighted for improved accuracy in the forward physics model.

  7. Application of remote sensing to state and regional problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouchillon, C. W.; Miller, W. F.; Landphair, H.; Zitta, V. L.

    1974-01-01

    The use of remote sensing techniques to help the state of Mississippi recognize and solve its environmental, resource, and socio-economic problems through inventory, analysis, and monitoring is suggested.

  8. Earth view: A business guide to orbital remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.

    1990-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: Earth view - a guide to orbital remote sensing; current orbital remote sensing systems (LANDSAT, SPOT image, MOS-1, Soviet remote sensing systems); remote sensing satellite; and remote sensing organizations.

  9. Microwave remote sensing of soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiue, J. C.; Wang, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge of soil moisture is important to many disciplines, such as agriculture, hydrology, and meteorology. Soil moisture distribution of vast regions can be measured efficiently only with remote sensing techniques from airborne or satellite platforms. At low microwave frequencies, water has a much larger dielectric constant than dry soil. This difference manifests itself in surface emissivity (or reflectivity) change between dry and wet soils, and can be measured by a microwave radiometer or radar. The Microwave Sensors and Data Communications Branch is developing microwave remote sensing techniques using both radar and radiometry, but primarily with microwave radiometry. The efforts in these areas range from developing algorithms for data interpretation to conducting feasibility studies for space systems, with a primary goal of developing a microwave radiometer for soil moisture measurement from satellites, such as EOS or the Space Station. These efforts are listed.

  10. Measurement Strategies for Remote Sensing Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.; Theiler, J.; Smith, B.; Love, S.P.; LaDelfe, P.C.; Cooke, B.J.; Clodius, W.B.; Borel, C.C.; Bender, S.C.

    1999-03-06

    Remote sensing has grown to encompass many instruments and observations, with concomitant data from a huge number of targets. As evidenced by the impressive growth in the number of published papers and presentations in this field, there is a great deal of interest in applying these capabilities. The true challenge is to transition from directly observed data sets to obtaining meaningful and robust information about remotely sensed targets. We use physics-based end-to-end modeling and analysis techniques as a framework for such a transition. Our technique starts with quantified observables and signatures of a target. The signatures are propagated through representative atmospheres to realistically modeled sensors. Simulated data are then propagated through analysis routines, yielding measurements that are directly compared to the original target attributes. We use this approach to develop measurement strategies which ensure that our efforts provide a balanced approach to obtaining substantive information on our targets.

  11. Remote sensing impact on corridor selection and placement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, F. J.; Sellman, A. N.

    1975-01-01

    Computer-aided corridor selection techniques, utilizing digitized data bases of socio-economic, census, and cadastral data, and developed for highway corridor routing are considered. Land resource data generated from various remote sensing data sources were successfully merged with the ancillary data files of a corridor selection model and prototype highway corridors were designed using the combined data set. Remote sensing derived information considered useful for highway corridor location, special considerations in geometric correction of remote sensing data to facilitate merging it with ancillary data files, and special interface requirements are briefly discussed.

  12. Remote sensing of subsurface water temperature by Raman scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, D. A.; Caputo, B.; Hoge, F. E.

    1979-01-01

    The application of Raman scattering to remote sensing of subsurface water temperature and salinity is considered, and both theoretical and experimental aspects of the technique are discussed. Recent experimental field measurements obtained in coastal waters and on a trans-Atlantic/Mediterranean research cruise are correlated with theoretical expectations. It is concluded that the Raman technique for remote sensing of subsurface water temperature has been brought from theoretical and laboratory stages to the point where practical utilization can now be developed.

  13. Techniques for the remote sensing of space plasma in the heliosphere via energetic neutral atoms - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, K. C.; Curtis, C. C.; Fan, C. Y.; Gruntman, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    A survey is conducted for state-of-the-art techniques for detecting energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) in the 100-300 keV range, in regions from the heliospheric boundary to the auroral zones where the solar wind plays a crucial role. While ENA spectrometry allows sampling of the mass and energy distributions of a distant plasma, ENA imaging gives a global view of the structures and dynamics of an extended plasma. The ENA instrument designs discussed share many components which exhibit excellent flight performance as elements in charged-particle analyzers for space missions.

  14. Comments on "comparison between orthogonal subspace projection and background subtraction techniques applied to remote-sensing data".

    PubMed

    Johnson, Steven

    2007-07-01

    Ben-David and Ren [Appl. Opt. 44, 3846 (2005)] discussed methods of estimating the concentration of chemical vapor plumes in hyperspectral images. The authors of that paper concluded that a technique called orthogonal subspace projection (OSP) produces better concentration estimates than background subtraction when certain stochastic noise conditions are present in the data. While that conclusion is correct, it is worth noting that the data can be whitened to improve the performance of the background subtraction method. In particular, if the noise is multivariate Gaussian, then whitening will ensure that the background subtraction method is superior to OSP.

  15. Technology study of quantum remote sensing imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Siwen; Lin, Xuling; Yang, Song; Wu, Zhiqiang

    2016-02-01

    According to remote sensing science and technology development and application requirements, quantum remote sensing is proposed. First on the background of quantum remote sensing, quantum remote sensing theory, information mechanism, imaging experiments and prototype principle prototype research situation, related research at home and abroad are briefly introduced. Then we expounds compress operator of the quantum remote sensing radiation field and the basic principles of single-mode compression operator, quantum quantum light field of remote sensing image compression experiment preparation and optical imaging, the quantum remote sensing imaging principle prototype, Quantum remote sensing spaceborne active imaging technology is brought forward, mainly including quantum remote sensing spaceborne active imaging system composition and working principle, preparation and injection compression light active imaging device and quantum noise amplification device. Finally, the summary of quantum remote sensing research in the past 15 years work and future development are introduced.

  16. NASA Remote Sensing Applications for Archaeology and Cultural Resources Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Mission Directorate recently completed the deployment of the Earth Observation System (EOS) which is a coordinated series of polar-orbiting and low inclination satellites for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, solid Earth, atmosphere, and oceans. One of the many applications derived from EOS is the advancement of archaeological research and applications. Using satellites, manned and unmanned airborne platform, NASA scientists and their partners have conducted archaeological research using both active and passive sensors. The NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) located in south Mississippi, near New Orleans, has been a leader in space archaeology since the mid-1970s. Remote sensing is useful in a wide range of archaeological research applications from landscape classification and predictive modeling to site discovery and mapping. Remote sensing technology and image analysis are currently undergoing a profound shift in emphasis from broad classification to detection, identification and condition of specific materials, both organic and inorganic. In the last few years, remote sensing platforms have grown increasingly capable and sophisticated. Sensors currently in use, including commercial instruments, offer significantly improved spatial and spectral resolutions. Paired with new techniques of image analysis, this technology provides for the direct detection of archaeological sites. As in all archaeological research, the application of remote sensing to archaeology requires a priori development of specific research designs and objectives. Initially targeted at broad archaeological issues, NASA space archaeology has progressed toward developing practical applications for cultural resources management (CRM). These efforts culminated with the Biloxi Workshop held by NASA and the University of Mississippi in 2002. The workshop and resulting publication specifically address the requirements of cultural resource managers through

  17. NASA Remote Sensing Research as Applied to Archaeology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giardino, Marco J.; Thomas, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    The use of remotely sensed images is not new to archaeology. Ever since balloons and airplanes first flew cameras over archaeological sites, researchers have taken advantage of the elevated observation platforms to understand sites better. When viewed from above, crop marks, soil anomalies and buried features revealed new information that was not readily visible from ground level. Since 1974 and initially under the leadership of Dr. Tom Sever, NASA's Stennis Space Center, located on the Mississippi Gulf Coast, pioneered and expanded the application of remote sensing to archaeological topics, including cultural resource management. Building on remote sensing activities initiated by the National Park Service, archaeologists increasingly used this technology to study the past in greater depth. By the early 1980s, there were sufficient accomplishments in the application of remote sensing to anthropology and archaeology that a chapter on the subject was included in fundamental remote sensing references. Remote sensing technology and image analysis are currently undergoing a profound shift in emphasis from broad classification to detection, identification and condition of specific materials, both organic and inorganic. In the last few years, remote sensing platforms have grown increasingly capable and sophisticated. Sensors currently in use, or nearing deployment, offer significantly finer spatial and spectral resolutions than were previously available. Paired with new techniques of image analysis, this technology may make the direct detection of archaeological sites a realistic goal.

  18. A Geostatistical Data Fusion Technique for Merging Remote Sensing and Ground-Based Observations of Aerosol Optical Thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, Abhishek; Michalak, Anna M.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Paradise, Susan R.; Braverman, Amy J.; Miller, Charles E.

    2010-01-01

    Particles in the atmosphere reflect incoming sunlight, tending to cool the Earth below. Some particles, such as soot, also absorb sunlight, which tens to warm the ambient atmosphere. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a measure of the amount of particulate matter in the atmosphere, and is a key input to computer models that simulate and predict Earth's changing climate. The global AOD products from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) and the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), both of which fly on the NASA Earth Observing System's Terra satellite, provide complementary views of the particles in the atmosphere. Whereas MODIS offers global coverage about four times as frequent as MISR, the multi-angle data makes it possible to separate the surface and atmospheric contributions to the observed top-of-atmosphere radiances, and also to more effectively discriminate particle type. Surface-based AERONET sun photometers retrieve AOD with smaller uncertainties than the satellite instruments, but only at a few fixed locations. So there are clear reasons to combine these data sets in a way that takes advantage of their respective strengths. This paper represents an effort at combining MISR, MODIS and AERONET AOD products over the continental US, using a common spatial statistical technique called kriging. The technique uses the correlation between the satellite data and the "ground-truth" sun photometer observations to assign uncertainty to the satellite data on a region-by-region basis. The larger fraction of the sun photometer variance that is duplicated by the satellite data, the higher the confidence assigned to the satellite data in that region. In the Western and Central US, MISR AOD correlation with AERONET are significantly higher than those with MODIS, likely due to bright surfaces in these regions, which pose greater challenges for the single-view MODIS retrievals. In the east, MODIS correlations are higher, due to more frequent sampling

  19. A practical method of determining water current velocities and diffusion coefficients in coastal waters by remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, W. P.

    1971-01-01

    A simplified procedure is presented for determining water current velocities and diffusion coefficients. Dye drops which form dye patches in the receiving water are made from an aircraft. The changes in position and size of the patches are recorded from two flights over the area. The simplified data processing procedure requires only that the ground coordinates about the dye patches be determined at the time of each flight. With an automatic recording coordinatograph for measuring coordinates and a computer for processing the data, this technique provides a practical method of determining circulation patterns and mixing characteristics of large aquatic systems. This information is useful in assessing the environmental impact of waste water discharges and for industrial plant siting.

  20. A self-trained semisupervised SVM approach to the remote sensing land cover classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Zhang, Bai; Wang, Li-min; Wang, Nan

    2013-09-01

    Support vector machines (SVM) are nowadays receiving increasing attention in remote sensing applications although this technique is very sensitive to the parameters setting and training set definition. Self-training is an effective semisupervised method, which can reduce the effort needed to prepare the training set by training the model with a small number of labeled examples and an additional set of unlabeled examples. In this study, a novel semisupervised SVM model that uses self-training approach is proposed to address the problem of remote sensing land cover classification. The key characteristics of this approach are that (1) the self-adaptive mutation particle swarm optimization algorithm is introduced to get the optimum parameters that improve the generalization performance of the SVM classifier, and (2) the Gustafson-Kessel fuzzy clustering algorithm is proposed for the selection of unlabeled points to reduce the impact of ineffective labels. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is evaluated firstly with samples from remote sensing data and then by identifying different land cover regions in the remote sensing imagery. Experimental results show that accuracy level is increased by applying this learning scheme, which results in the smallest generalization error compared with the other schemes.

  1. Understanding the 2007-2008 eruption of Anak Krakatau Volcano by combining remote sensing technique and seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustan; Kimata, Fumiaki; Pamitro, Yoga Era; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.

    2012-02-01

    One of the most violent volcanic eruptions in recorded history is the Krakatau eruption on August 27, 1883. This caldera-forming eruption destroyed two thirds of the Krakatau volcanic island in the Sunda Strait resulting in the remaining three small islands later known as the Krakatau complex. From 1927 to 1929, eruptions in the center of Krakatau complex have produced a new volcano named Anak Krakatau, which continuously builds its body through eruptions until now. One eruption event took place between 2007 and 2008 with several eruptions that lasted in total from the end of October 2007 to August 2008. Eruptions were characterized by Strombolian activity with ash columns 1 km high, as well as pyroclastic and lava flows. We monitored the ground deformation of Anak Krakatau Volcano by interfering PALSAR data from June 2007 to February 2009. The result of InSAR technique shows a complex pattern of ground deformation. Inflation up to 4 cm, together with subsidence around the crater, was measured for almost three months before the eruption with a volume increase of approximately 1 × 10 6 m 3. After the eruption, the southwest side of the volcanic cone subsided by 18 cm, whereas the northeast side of the cone uplifted 12 cm in almost two years. The observed ground deformation after the eruption can be explained by 4 m of tensile opening along a dipping rectangular tensile dislocation buried in an elastic half-space, approximately 400 m below sea level.

  2. Evaluation of remote-sensing techniques to measure decadal-scale changes of Hofsjokull ice cap, Iceland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, D.K.; Williams, R.S.; Barton, J.S.; Sigurdsson, O.; Smith, L.C.; Garvin, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Dynamic surficial changes and changes in the position of the firn line and the areal extent of Hofsjökull ice cap, Iceland, were studied through analysis of a time series (1973–98) of synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) and Landsat data. A digital elevation model of Hofsjökull, which was constructed using SAR interferometry, was used to plot the SAR backscatter coefficient (σ°) vs elevation and air temperature along transects across the ice cap. Seasonal and daily σ° patterns are caused by freezing or thawing of the ice-cap surface, and abrupt changes in σ° are noted when the air temperature ranges from ∼−5° to 0°C. Late-summer 1997 σ° (SAR) and reflectance (Landsat) boundaries agree and appear to be coincident with the firn line and a SAR σ° boundary that can be seen in the January 1998 SAR image. In January 1994 through 1998, the elevation of this σ° boundary on the ice capwas quite stable, ranging from 1000 to 1300 m, while the equilibrium-line altitude, as measured on the ground, varied considerably. Thus the equilibrium line may be obscured by firn from previous years. Techniques are established to measure long-term changes in the elevation of the firn line and changes in the position of the ice margin.

  3. A new technique for landslide mapping from a large-scale remote sensed image: A case study of Central Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Bo; Chen, Fang

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a new technique for landslide mapping from large-scale Landsat8 images. The method introduces saliency enhancement to enhance the landslide regions, making the landslides salient objects in the image. Morphological operations are applied to the enhanced image to remove most background objects. Afterwards, digital elevation model is applied to further remove the ground objects of plain areas according to the height of landscape, since most landslides occur in mountainous areas. Final landslides are extracted by the proposal regions from selective search. The study area covers 2°x2°, making it more similar with practical cases, such as emergency response and landslide inventory mappings. The proposed method performs satisfactorily by detecting 99.1% of the landslides in the image, and obtains an overall accuracy of 99.8% in the landslides/background classification problem, which gets further validated in another Landsat8 image of a different site. The experiment shows that the proposed method is feasible for landslide detection from large-scale area, which may contribute to the further landslide-related research.

  4. Diachronic analysis of salt-affected areas using remote sensing techniques: the case study of Biskra area, Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afrasinei, Gabriela M.; Melis, Maria T.; Buttau, Cristina; Bradd, John M.; Arras, Claudio; Ghiglieri, Giorgio

    2015-10-01

    In the Wadi Biskra arid and semi-arid area, sustainable development is limited by land degradation, such as secondary salinization of soils. As an important high quality date production region of Algeria, it needs continuous monitoring of desertification indicators, since the bio-physical setting defines it as highly exposed to climate-related risks. For this particular study, for which little ground truth data was possible to acquire, we set up an assessment of appropriate methods for the identification and change detection of salt-affected areas, involving image interpretation and processing techniques employing Landsat imagery. After a first phase consisting of a visual interpretation study of the land cover types, two automated classification approaches were proposed and applied for this specific study: decision tree classification and principal components analysis (PCA) of Knepper ratios. Five of the indices employed in the Decision Tree construction were set up within the current study, among which we propose a salinity index (SMI) for the extraction of highly saline areas. The results of the 1984 to 2014 diachronic analysis of salt - affected areas variation were supported by the interpreted land cover map for accuracy estimation. Connecting the outputs with auxiliary bio-physical and socio-economic data, comprehensive results are discussed, which were indispensable for the understanding of land degradation dynamics and vulnerability to desertification. One aspect that emerged was the fact that the expansion of agricultural land in the last three decades may have led and continue to contribute to a secondary salinization of soils. This study is part of the WADIS-MAR Demonstration Project, funded by the European Commission through the Sustainable Water Integrated Management (SWIM) Program (www.wadismar.eu).

  5. Improvement on the structural, failure and movements analysis of the Randa rockslide and the surrounding area using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega Orozco, Carmen; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Pedrazzini, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The Randa rockslide is one of the most studied rockslide in the world. The structural and the failure mechanism of the 1991 rock slide are now better understood. A potential unstable mass is still present in the upper part of the scar and is presently monitored by different techniques. The present study focused on the application of the high resolution digital elevation model (HRDEM) to analyze at regional and local scale rock instabilities. In particular, the structural and the morphometric characteristics lead to a preliminary susceptibility analysis. First, a regional study have carried out in order to define the main structural sets influencing the slope stability and the slope morphology of the hanging wall close to the Randa rockslide. The main discontinuity sets and their variability have been analysed on the different locations. Failure mechanisms and morphometric analysis have been carried out in order to define the most susceptible zone. The results have been successively compared to field and orthophoto observations. Second, a detailed of the structural setting of the Randa scar has been carried out and compared to previous studies (Sartori et al., 2003). Ground deformations, detected by PSInSAR data in the upper part of the Randa rockslide have been analyzed and interpreted. Using the available structural and geomorphological observations the volume of the 1991 rockslide event has been re-evaluated using DEM reconstruction and using the Sloping Local Base Level method. Based on displacement maps and structural observations the volume the new potential unstable area has been also estimated. The potential mechanisms affecting this area, postulated since the beginning of the first geodetic system (Jaboyedoff et al., 2004), have been discussed and verified with the new available displacements data (Gischig et al., 2009).

  6. Modified Conditional Merging technique: a new method to estimate a rainfall field combining remote sensed data and raingauge observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pignone, Flavio; Rebora, Nicola; Silvestro, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    The estimation of the rainfall field, especially its spatial distribution and position, is a crucial task both for rainfall nowcasting and for modeling catchment response to rainfall. Some studies of literature about multisensor datafusion prove that combining data from different sensors (especially raingauges and radar) represents the best way to obtain an enhanced ad more reliable estimation of QPE and of the associated river discharge. Sinclair and Peagram (2004) have proposed the Conditional Merging (CM) technique, a merging algorithm which extract the information content from the observed data and use it within an interpolation method to obtain the rainfall maps. The raingauges provide a punctual measure of the observed "real" rainfall while the remote sensors (radar network or satellite constellation) supply rainfall estimation maps which give an idea of the spatial correlation structure of the observed field. In this work is studied an enhanced algorithm based on CM, called Modified Conditional Merging, which can be used in real-time to produce the optimal rainfall maps. The area of interest, where the CM has been applied, is Italy, where are both available a dense network of raingauge measurements (about 3000 stations) and a QPE estimated by the Italian Radar composite. The main innovation respect to classical CM is to estimate the structure of covariance and the length of spatial correlation λ, for every raingauge, directly from the cumulated radar rainfall fields. The advantages of this method is to estimate the local characteristic of the domain to obtain information at smaller scale, very useful for convective events. A cross-validation of the new method was done and several statistical scores were applied on the results. The validation on a large number of Italian past event along with its operational use are presented and discussed.

  7. Transfer network learning based remote sensing target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Shuiping; Wang, Yuqin; Jiao, Licheng

    2009-10-01

    The target recognition accuracy of remote sensing images is not satisfied. The labels of images acquisition and recollecting are difficult and expensive. In order to solve the problem, we introduce transfer learning into Network Boosting algorithm (NB) and propose Transfer Network Learning algorithm (TNL), in which other out-date data are reused to instruct the remote sensing target recognition. TNL is suitable to improve the performance of remote sensing target recognition, in which instances transfer learning is adopted for domain adaptation. The experimental results on the MSTAR SAR data set and remote sensing data set including two-class planes show that the proposed algorithm has better performance and achieves different domains learning.

  8. Review of Remote Sensing Needs and Applications in Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2007-01-01

    Remote sensing data has had an important role in identifying and responding to inter-annual variations in the African environment during the past three decades. As a largely agricultural region with diverse but generally limited government capacity to acquire and distribute ground observations of rainfall, temperature and other parameters, remote sensing is sometimes the only reliable measure of crop growing conditions in Africa. Thus, developing and maintaining the technical and scientific capacity to analyze and utilize satellite remote sensing data in Africa is critical to augmenting the continent's local weather/climate observation networks as well as its agricultural and natural resource development and management. The report Review of Remote Sensing Needs and Applications in Africa' has as its central goal to recommend to the US Agency for International Development an appropriate approach to support sustainable remote sensing applications at African regional remote sensing centers. The report focuses on "RS applications" to refer to the acquisition, maintenance and archiving, dissemination, distribution, analysis, and interpretation of remote sensing data, as well as the integration of interpreted data with other spatial data products. The report focuses on three primary remote sensing centers: (1) The AGRHYMET Regional Center in Niamey, Niger, created in 1974, is a specialized institute of the Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS), with particular specialization in science and techniques applied to agricultural development, rural development, and natural resource management. (2) The Regional Centre for Maiming of Resources for Development (RCMRD) in Nairobi, Kenya, established in 1975 under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa and the Organization of African Unity (now the African Union), is an intergovernmental organization, with 15 member states from eastern and southern Africa. (3) The

  9. A Thermal-Based remote sensing technique for routine mapping of land-surface carbon, water and energy fluxes from field to regional scales.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Robust remote sensing methodologies for mapping instantaneous land-surface CO2 fluxes over a range of spatial scales are required to reconcile “top-down” (e.g., atmospheric) and “bottom-up” (e.g., scaled leaf) models of land-atmosphere carbon exchange. This study investigates the implementation of ...

  10. Boundary Layer Remote Sensing with Combined Active and Passive Techniques: GPS Radio Occultation and High-Resolution Stereo Imaging (WindCam) Small Satellite Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mannucci, A.J.; Wu, D.L.; Teixeira, J.; Ao, C.O.; Xie, F.; Diner, D.J.; Wood, R.; Turk, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Objective: significant progress in understanding low-cloud boundary layer processes. This is the Single largest uncertainty in climate projections. Radio occultation has unique features suited to boundary layer remote sensing (1) Cloud penetrating (2) Very high vertical resolution (approximately 50m-100m) (3) Sensitivity to thermodynamic variables

  11. Computer applications in remote sensing education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Computer applications to instruction in any field may be divided into two broad generic classes: computer-managed instruction and computer-assisted instruction. The division is based on how frequently the computer affects the instructional process and how active a role the computer affects the instructional process and how active a role the computer takes in actually providing instruction. There are no inherent characteristics of remote sensing education to preclude the use of one or both of these techniques, depending on the computer facilities available to the instructor. The characteristics of the two classes are summarized, potential applications to remote sensing education are discussed, and the advantages and disadvantages of computer applications to the instructional process are considered.

  12. Review of oil spill remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Fingas, Merv; Brown, Carl

    2014-06-15

    Remote-sensing for oil spills is reviewed. The use of visible techniques is ubiquitous, however it gives only the same results as visual monitoring. Oil has no particular spectral features that would allow for identification among the many possible background interferences. Cameras are only useful to provide documentation. In daytime oil absorbs light and remits this as thermal energy at temperatures 3-8K above ambient, this is detectable by infrared (IR) cameras. Laser fluorosensors are useful instruments because of their unique capability to identify oil on backgrounds that include water, soil, weeds, ice and snow. They are the only sensor that can positively discriminate oil on most backgrounds. Radar detects oil on water by the fact that oil will dampen water-surface capillary waves under low to moderate wave/wind conditions. Radar offers the only potential for large area searches, day/night and foul weather remote sensing.

  13. Holographic enhanced remote sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iavecchia, Helene P.; Gaynor, Edwin S.; Huff, Lloyd; Rhodes, William T.; Rothenheber, Edward H.

    1990-01-01

    The Holographic Enhanced Remote Sensing System (HERSS) consists of three primary subsystems: (1) an Image Acquisition System (IAS); (2) a Digital Image Processing System (DIPS); and (3) a Holographic Generation System (HGS) which multiply exposes a thermoplastic recording medium with sequential 2-D depth slices that are displayed on a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM). Full-parallax holograms were successfully generated by superimposing SLM images onto the thermoplastic and photopolymer. An improved HGS configuration utilizes the phase conjugate recording configuration, the 3-SLM-stacking technique, and the photopolymer. The holographic volume size is currently limited to the physical size of the SLM. A larger-format SLM is necessary to meet the desired 6 inch holographic volume. A photopolymer with an increased photospeed is required to ultimately meet a display update rate of less than 30 seconds. It is projected that the latter two technology developments will occur in the near future. While the IAS and DIPS subsystems were unable to meet NASA goals, an alternative technology is now available to perform the IAS/DIPS functions. Specifically, a laser range scanner can be utilized to build the HGS numerical database of the objects at the remote work site.

  14. Satellite based remote sensing technique as a tool for real time monitoring of leaf retention in natural rubber plantations affected by abnormal leaf fall disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradeep, B.; Meti, S.; James, J.

    2014-11-01

    Most parts of the traditional natural rubber growing regions of India, extending from Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu in the South to Kasaragod district of Kerala in the North received excess and prolonged rains during 2013. This led to severe incidence of Abnormal Leaf Fall (ALF) disease caused by the fungus, Phytophthora sp. The present study demonstrated the first time use of satellite remote sensing technique to monitor ALF disease by estimating Leaf Area Index (LAI) in natural rubber holdings in near real time. Leaf retention was monitored in between April and December 2012 and 2013 by estimating LAI using MODIS 15A2 product covering rubber holdings spread across all districts in the traditional rubber growing region of the country that was mapped using Resourcesat LISS III 2012 and 2013 data. It was found that as the monsoon advanced, LAI decreased substantially in both years, but the reduction was much more substantial and prolonged in many districts during 2013 than 2012 reflecting increased leaf fall due to ALF disease in 2013. The decline was more pronounced in central and northern Kerala than in the South. Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu is generally known to be free from ALF disease, but there was considerable leaf loss due to ALF in June 2012 and June and July 2013 even as the monsoon was unusually severe in 2013. Weighted mean LAI during for the entire period of April to December was estimated as a weighted average of LAI and per cent of total area under rubber in each district in the study area for the two years. This was markedly less in 2013 than 2012. The implications of poor leaf retention for biomass production (net primary productivity), carbon sequestration and rubber yield are discussed.

  15. A comparison of two above-ground biomass estimation techniques integrating satellite-based remotely sensed data and ground data for tropical and semiarid forests in Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iiames, J. S.; Riegel, J.; Lunetta, R.

    2013-12-01

    Two above-ground forest biomass estimation techniques were evaluated for the United States Territory of Puerto Rico using predictor variables acquired from satellite based remotely sensed data and ground data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA) program. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimated above-ground forest biomass implementing methodology first posited by the Woods Hole Research Center developed for conterminous United States (National Biomass and Carbon Dataset [NBCD2000]). For EPA's effort, spatial predictor layers for above-ground biomass estimation included derived products from the U.S. Geologic Survey (USGS) National Land Cover Dataset 2001 (NLCD) (landcover and canopy density), the USGS Gap Analysis Program (forest type classification), the USGS National Elevation Dataset, and the NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (tree heights). In contrast, the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) biomass product integrated FIA ground-based data with a suite of geospatial predictor variables including: (1) the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS)-derived image composites and percent tree cover; (2) NLCD land cover proportions; (3) topographic variables; (4) monthly and annual climate parameters; and (5) other ancillary variables. Correlations between both data sets were made at variable watershed scales to test level of agreement. Notice: This work is done in support of EPA's Sustainable Healthy Communities Research Program. The U.S EPA funded and conducted the research described in this paper. Although this work was reviewed by the EPA and has been approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy. Mention of any trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

  16. Photogrammetry - Remote Sensing and Geoinformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazaridou, M. A.; Patmio, E. N.

    2012-07-01

    Earth and its environment are studied by different scientific disciplines as geosciences, science of engineering, social sciences, geography, etc. The study of the above, beyond pure scientific interest, is useful for the practical needs of man. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS) is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. Therefore, according to this definition, photogrammetry and remote sensing can support studies of the above disciplines for acquisition of geoinformation. This paper concerns basic concepts of geosciences (geomorphology, geology, hydrology etc), and the fundamentals of photogrammetry-remote sensing, in order to aid the understanding of the relationship between photogrammetry-remote sensing and geoinformation and also structure curriculum in a brief, concise and coherent way. This curriculum can represent an appropriate research and educational outline and help to disseminate knowledge in various directions and levels. It resulted from our research and educational experience in graduate and post-graduate level (post-graduate studies relative to the protection of environment and protection of monuments and historical centers) in the Lab. of Photogrammetry - Remote Sensing in Civil Engineering Faculty of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.

  17. Editorial: Special issue on remote sensing of light pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubé, Martin; Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2016-09-01

    This special issue contains papers related to the measurement, prediction, consequences and control of light pollution. The main underlying question of the special issue is: How remote sensing and field experiments can help us to understand and monitor light pollution? Through the papers published herein, you will find answers related to the use of remote sensing techniques as diverse as hyperspectral measurements, broadband photometry, along with DSLR color cameras image analysis.

  18. Remote sensing in Michigan for land resource management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, D. S.; Istvan, L. B.; Roller, N. E.; Sattinger, I. J.; Sellman, A. N.; Wagner, T. W.

    1974-01-01

    The application of NASA earth resource survey technology to resource management and environmental protection in Michigan was investigated. Remote sensing techniques to aid Michigan government agencies were applied in the following activities: (1) land use inventory and management, (2) great lakes shorelands protection and management, (3) wetlands protection and management, and (4) soil survey. In addition, information was disseminated on remote sensing technology, and advice and assistance was provided to a number of users.

  19. Applications of airborne remote sensing in atmospheric sciences research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafin, R. J.; Szejwach, G.; Phillips, B. B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper explores the potential for airborne remote sensing for atmospheric sciences research. Passive and active techniques from the microwave to visible bands are discussed. It is concluded that technology has progressed sufficiently in several areas that the time is right to develop and operate new remote sensing instruments for use by the community of atmospheric scientists as general purpose tools. Promising candidates include Doppler radar and lidar, infrared short range radiometry, and microwave radiometry.

  20. [Passive FTIR remote sensing of gaseous pollutant in heated plume].

    PubMed

    Gao, Min-guang; Liu, Wen-qing; Zhang, Tian-shu; Liu, Cheng; Liu, Jian-guo; Wei, Qing-nong; Lu, Yi-huai; Wang, Ya-ping; Zhu, Jun; Xu, Liang

    2006-01-01

    The principle and techniques of passive remote sensing of gaseous pollutant in heated plume was illustrated and discussed in this paper. The algorithm of radiance spectra and transmittance spectra in measured region was proposed, and the method of retrieving gas concentrations with NLLS fitting algorithm was also proposed. The remote senseing of actual gaseous pollutant of smokestack was done, and the quantitative analysis of SO2 and CO2 was completed.

  1. Remote sensing and vegetation stress detection - Problems and progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duggin, M. J.; Whitehead, V.

    1983-01-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in applying remote sensing technology to vegetation monitoring, considerable problems still exist in the improvement of techniques for crop type discrimination, stress detection on a large scale, and stress quantification. In this paper, some of the problems remaining in the operational use of remote sensing technology for vegetation stress detection are discussed, and directions in which some of these problems might be solved are proposed.

  2. The Remote Sensing and GIS Software Library (RSGISLib)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunting, Peter; Clewley, Daniel; Lucas, Richard M.; Gillingham, Sam

    2014-01-01

    Key to the successful application of remotely sensed data to real world problems is software that is capable of performing commonly used functions efficiently over large datasets, whilst being adaptable to new techniques. This paper presents an open source software library that was developed through research undertaken at Aberystwyth University for environmental remote sensing, particularly in relation to vegetation science. The software was designed to fill the gaps within existing software packages and to provide a platform to ease the implementation of new and innovative algorithms and data processing techniques. Users interact with the software through an XML script, where XML tags and attributes are used to parameterise the available commands, which have now grown to more than 300. A key feature of the XML interface is that command options are easily recognisable to the user because of their logical and descriptive names. Through the XML interface, processing chains and batch processing are supported. More recently a Python binding has been added to RSGISLib allowing individual XML commands to be called as Python functions. To date the Python binding has over 100 available functions, mainly concentrating on image utilities, segmentation, calibration and raster GIS. The software has been released under a GPL3 license and makes use of a number of other open source software libraries (e.g., GDAL/OGR), a user guide and the source code are available at http://www.rsgislib.org.

  3. Information mining in remote sensing imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiang

    The volume of remotely sensed imagery continues to grow at an enormous rate due to the advances in sensor technology, and our capability for collecting and storing images has greatly outpaced our ability to analyze and retrieve information from the images. This motivates us to develop image information mining techniques, which is very much an interdisciplinary endeavor drawing upon expertise in image processing, databases, information retrieval, machine learning, and software design. This dissertation proposes and implements an extensive remote sensing image information mining (ReSIM) system prototype for mining useful information implicitly stored in remote sensing imagery. The system consists of three modules: image processing subsystem, database subsystem, and visualization and graphical user interface (GUI) subsystem. Land cover and land use (LCLU) information corresponding to spectral characteristics is identified by supervised classification based on support vector machines (SVM) with automatic model selection, while textural features that characterize spatial information are extracted using Gabor wavelet coefficients. Within LCLU categories, textural features are clustered using an optimized k-means clustering approach to acquire search efficient space. The clusters are stored in an object-oriented database (OODB) with associated images indexed in an image database (IDB). A k-nearest neighbor search is performed using a query-by-example (QBE) approach. Furthermore, an automatic parametric contour tracing algorithm and an O(n) time piecewise linear polygonal approximation (PLPA) algorithm are developed for shape information mining of interesting objects within the image. A fuzzy object-oriented database based on the fuzzy object-oriented data (FOOD) model is developed to handle the fuzziness and uncertainty. Three specific applications are presented: integrated land cover and texture pattern mining, shape information mining for change detection of lakes, and

  4. Autofocus method for scanning remote sensing cameras.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hengyi; Han, Chengshan; Xue, Xucheng; Hu, Changhong; Yao, Cheng

    2015-07-10

    Autofocus methods are conventionally based on capturing the same scene from a series of positions of the focal plane. As a result, it has been difficult to apply this technique to scanning remote sensing cameras where the scenes change continuously. In order to realize autofocus in scanning remote sensing cameras, a novel autofocus method is investigated in this paper. Instead of introducing additional mechanisms or optics, the overlapped pixels of the adjacent CCD sensors on the focal plane are employed. Two images, corresponding to the same scene on the ground, can be captured at different times. Further, one step of focusing is done during the time interval, so that the two images can be obtained at different focal plane positions. Subsequently, the direction of the next step of focusing is calculated based on the two images. The analysis shows that the method investigated operates without restriction of the time consumption of the algorithm and realizes a total projection for general focus measures and algorithms from digital still cameras to scanning remote sensing cameras. The experiment results show that the proposed method is applicable to the entire focus measure family, and the error ratio is, on average, no more than 0.2% and drops to 0% by reliability improvement, which is lower than that of prevalent approaches (12%). The proposed method is demonstrated to be effective and has potential in other scanning imaging applications.

  5. The NASA Icing Remote Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Brinker, David J.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Ryerson, Charles C.; Koenig, George G.

    2005-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) have an on-going activity to develop remote sensing technologies for the detection and measurement of icing conditions aloft. A multiple instrument approach is the current emphasis of this activity. Utilizing radar, radiometry, and lidar, a region of supercooled liquid is identified. If the liquid water content (LWC) is sufficiently high, then the region of supercooled liquid cloud is flagged as being an aviation hazard. The instruments utilized for the current effort are an X-band vertical staring radar, a radiometer that measures twelve frequencies between 22 and 59 GHz, and a lidar ceilometer. The radar data determine cloud boundaries, the radiometer determines the sub-freezing temperature heights and total liquid water content, and the ceilometer refines the lower cloud boundary. Data are post-processed with a LabVIEW program with a resultant supercooled LWC profile and aircraft hazard identification. Remotely sensed measurements gathered during the 2003-2004 Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS II) were compared to aircraft in-situ measurements. Although the comparison data set is quite small, the cases examined indicate that the remote sensing technique appears to be an acceptable approach.

  6. Remote sensing procurement package: Remote Sensing Industry Directory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A directory of over 140 firms and organizations which contains detailed information in the types of products, services and equipment which they offer is presented. Also included for each firm or organization are addresses, phone numbers, contact person(s), and experience in the remote sensing field.

  7. Monitoring land use changes in the Upper Ganga Basin, India by using Remote Sensing and GIS techniques on Landsat 5 TM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsarouchi, Georgia-Marina; Buytaert, Wouter

    2013-04-01

    The Green Revolution represents one of the largest environmental changes in India over the last century. The Upper Ganga basin is experiencing rapid rates of change of land use and irrigation practices. In combination with exploitation of groundwater resources in the northern Indian plains, this causes variations in recharge and fundamentally affects surface and groundwater resources, threatening India's water supplies. In this study, we have developed a methodology to map and investigate land-use change by applying Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques on 30m resolution multi-temporal Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for 1984, 1998 and 2010. Firstly, an automated protocol was applied to effectively correct the images for radiometric effects and remove atmospheric interference during the pre-processing analysis of satellite images. Afterwards, maximum likelihood supervised classifications were carried out on Landsat 5 TM colour composites of 1984, 1998 and 2010 with the aid of ground truth data. Post-classification change detection techniques were applied to Landsat images in order to map land cover changes in the Upper Ganga basin. Change vectors of NDVI and Tasseled Cap brightness, greenness and wetness of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images are compared with those values from the initial date of imagery to detect change from no change. Ground truth information and historic images were used to assess the accuracy of the classification results. We find that most of the land-use change is conversion from forest and barren land to agricultural areas. Results indicate that between 1984 and 2010 agricultural areas have increased by more than 150% while forest areas decreased by 28%. The classification accuracy is also examined. Results confirm the importance of field-based accuracy assessment to identify problems in a land-use map and to improve area estimates for each class. The results quantify the land cover change patterns in the

  8. Radar Remote Sensing of Waves and Currents in the Nearshore Zone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    and application of novel microwave, acoustic, and optical remote sensing techniques. The objectives of this effort are to determine the extent to which...Doppler radar techniques are useful for nearshore remote sensing applications. Of particular interest are estimates of surf zone location and extent...surface currents, waves, and bathymetry. To date, optical (video) techniques have been the primary remote sensing technology used for these applications. A key advantage of the radar is its all weather day-night operability.

  9. Satellite Remote Sensing: Aerosol Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosols are solid or liquid particles suspended in the air, and those observed by satellite remote sensing are typically between about 0.05 and 10 microns in size. (Note that in traditional aerosol science, the term "aerosol" refers to both the particles and the medium in which they reside, whereas for remote sensing, the term commonly refers to the particles only. In this article, we adopt the remote-sensing definition.) They originate from a great diversity of sources, such as wildfires, volcanoes, soils and desert sands, breaking waves, natural biological activity, agricultural burning, cement production, and fossil fuel combustion. They typically remain in the atmosphere from several days to a week or more, and some travel great distances before returning to Earth's surface via gravitational settling or washout by precipitation. Many aerosol sources exhibit strong seasonal variability, and most experience inter-annual fluctuations. As such, the frequent, global coverage that space-based aerosol remote-sensing instruments can provide is making increasingly important contributions to regional and larger-scale aerosol studies.

  10. Remote Sensing of Water Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, P. G.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing, as a tool to aid in the control of water pollution, offers a means of making rapid, economical surveys of areas that are relatively inaccessible on the ground. At the same time, it offers the only practical means of mapping pollution patterns that cover large areas. Detection of oil slicks, thermal pollution, sewage, and algae are discussed.

  11. Remote sensing of environmental disturbance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latham, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    Color, color infrared, and minus-blue films obtained by RB-57 remote sensing aircraft at an altitude of 60,000 feet over Boca Raton and Southeast Florida Earth Resources Test Site were analyzed for nine different types of photographic images of the geographic patterns of the surface. Results of these analyses are briefly described.

  12. Remote sensing for site characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuehn, Friedrich; King, Trude V.; Hoerig, Bernhard; Peters, Douglas C.; Kuehn, Friedrich; King, Trude V.; Hoerig, Bernhard; Peters, Douglas C.

    2000-01-01

    This volume, Remote Sensing for Site Characterization, describes the feasibility of aircraft- and satellite-based methods of revealing environmental-geological problems. A balanced ratio between explanations of the methodological/technical side and presentations of case studies is maintained. The comparison of case studies from North America and Germany show how the respective territorial conditions lead to distinct methodological approaches.

  13. Remote sensing and aerial application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the increasing need for global food production in the presence of dwindling productive acres, the business of modern agriculture needs to use all possible information available to maximize production. One tool that is being used to obtain this information is remote sensing. Any crop disease o...

  14. Optimizing nitrogen management for soft red winter wheat yield, grain protein, and grain quality using precision agriculture and remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrer, Dianne Carter

    The purpose of this research was to improve the management of soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in North Carolina. There were three issues addressed; the quality of the grain as affected by delayed harvest, explaining grain protein variability through nitrogen (N) management, and developing N recommendations at growth stage (GS) 30 using aerial color infrared (CIR) photography. The impact of delayed harvest on grain yield, test weight, grain protein, and 20 milling and baking quality parameters was studied in three trials in 2002 and three trials in 2003. Yield was significantly reduced in three out of five trials due to dry, warm environments, possibly indicating shattering. Test weights were significantly reduced in five out of six trials and were positively correlated to the number of precipitation events and to the number of days between harvests, indicating the negative effects of wetting and drying cycles. Grain protein was not affected by delayed harvest. Of the 20 quality parameters investigated, flour falling number, clear flour, and farinograph breakdown times were significantly reduced due to delayed harvest, while grain deoxynivalenol (DON) levels increased with a delayed harvest. Grain protein content in soft red winter wheat is highly variable across years and environments. A second study examined the effects of different nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates and times of application on grain protein variability. Seven different environments were utilized in this study. Though environment contributed about 23% of grain protein variability, the majority of that variability (52%) was attributed to N management. It was found that as grain protein levels increased at higher N rates, so did overall protein variability as indicated by the three stability indexes employed. In addition, applying the majority of total N at growth stage (GS) 30 decreased grain protein stability. Site-specific N management systems using remote sensing techniques can

  15. What is a picture worth? A history of remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Gerald K.

    1979-01-01

    Remote sensing is the use of electromagnetic energy to measure the physical properties of distant objects. It includes photography and geophysical surveying as well as newer techniques that use other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. The history of remote sensing begins with photography. The origin of other types of remote sensing can be traced to World War II, with the development of radar, sonar, and thermal infrared detection systems. Since the 1960s, sensors have been designed to operate in virtually all of the electromagnetic spectrum. Today a wide variety of remote sensing instruments are available for use in hydrological studies; satellite data, such as Skylab photographs and Landsat images are particularly suitable for regional problems and studies. Planned future satellites will provide a ground resolution of 10–80 m. Remote sensing is currently used for hydrological applications in most countries of the world. The range of applications includes groundwater exploration determination of physical water quality, snowfield mapping, flood-inundation delineation, and making inventories of irrigated land. The use of remote sensing commonly results in considerable hydrological information at minimal cost. This information can be used to speed-up the development of water resources, to improve management practices, and to monitor environmental problems.

  16. Operational Use of Remote Sensing within USDA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bethel, Glenn R.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation of remote sensing imagery within the USDA is shown. USDA Aerial Photography, Digital Sensors, Hurricane imagery, Remote Sensing Sources, Satellites used by Foreign Agricultural Service, Landsat Acquisitions, and Aerial Acquisitions are also shown.

  17. Microwave remote sensing of snowpack properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Topic concerning remote sensing capabilities for providing reliable snow cover data and measurement of snow water equivalents are discussed. Specific remote sensing technqiues discussed include those in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  18. Oil pollution signatures by remote sensing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catoe, C. E.; Mclean, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Study of the possibility of developing an effective remote sensing system for oil pollution monitoring which would be capable of detecting oil films on water, mapping the areal extent of oil slicks, measuring slick thickness, and identifying the oil types. In the spectral regions considered (ultraviolet, visible, infrared, microwave, and radar), the signatures were sufficiently unique when compared to the background so that it was possible to detect and map oil slicks. Both microwave and radar techniques are capable of operating in adverse weather. Fluorescence techniques show promise in identifying oil types. A multispectral system will be required to detect oil, map its distribution, estimate film thickness, and characterize the oil pollutant.

  19. Identification of Terrestrial Reflectance From Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Nolf, Scott R.; Stacy, Kathryn (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Correcting for atmospheric effects is an essential part of surface-reflectance recovery from radiance measurements. Model-based atmospheric correction techniques enable an accurate identification and classification of terrestrial reflectances from multi-spectral imagery. Successful and efficient removal of atmospheric effects from remote-sensing data is a key factor in the success of Earth observation missions. This report assesses the performance, robustness and sensitivity of two atmospheric-correction and reflectance-recovery techniques as part of an end-to-end simulation of hyper-spectral acquisition, identification and classification.

  20. Remote-Sensing Practice and Potential

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-05-01

    Six essential processes that must be accomplished if use of a remote - sensing system is to result in useful information are defined as problem...to be useful in remote - sensing projects are described. An overview of the current state-of-the-art of remote sensing is presented.

  1. Remote Sensing of Arctic Landscape Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Benjamin M.

    Amplified warming in the Arctic has likely increased the rate of landscape change and disturbances in northern high latitude regions. Remote sensing provides a valuable tool for assessing the spatial and temporal patterns associated with arctic landscape dynamics over annual, decadal, and centennial time scales. In this dissertation, I focused on remote sensing studies associated with four primary components of arctic landscape change and disturbance: (1) permafrost coastline erosion, (2) thermokarst lake dynamics, (3) tundra fires, and (4) using repeat airborne LiDAR for the measurement of vertical deformation in an arctic coastal lowland landscape. By combining observations from several high resolution satellite images for a 9 km segment of the Beaufort Sea Coast between 2008 and 2012, I demonstrated that the report of heightened erosion at the beginning of the 2000s was equaled or exceeded in every year except 2010 and that the mean annual erosion rate was tightly coupled to the number of open water days and the number of storms. By combining historical aerial photographs from the 1950s and 1980s with recent high-resolution satellite imagery from the mid-2000s, I assessed the expansion and drainage of thermokarst lakes on the northern Seward Peninsula. I found that more than half of the lakes in the study area were expanding as a result of permafrost degradation along their margins but that the rate of expansion was fairly consistent (0.35 and 0.39 m/yr) between the 1950s and 1980s and 1980s and mid-2000s, respectively. However, it appeared that in a number of instances that expansion of lakes led to the lateral drainage and that over the 55-year study period the total lake area decreased by 24%. While these studies highlight the utility of quantifying disturbance during the remotely sensed image archive period (~1950s to present) they are inherently limited temporally. Thus, I also demonstrated techniques in which field studies and remote sensing data could be

  2. Remote sensing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, T.

    1973-01-01

    Research projects concerning the development and application of remote sensors are discussed. Some of the research projects conducted are as follows: (1) aerial photographic inventory of natural resources, (2) detection of buried river channels, (3) delineation of interconnected waterways, (4) plant indicators of atmospheric pollution, and (5) techniques for data transfer from photographs to base maps. On-going projects involving earth resources analyses are described.

  3. EPA Remote Sensing Information Gateway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, H. K.; Szykman, J. J.; Plessel, T.; Freeman, M.; Dimmick, F.

    2009-12-01

    The Remote Sensing Information Gateway was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assist researchers in easily obtaining and combining a variety of environmental datasets related to air quality research. Current datasets available include, but are not limited to surface PM2.5 and O3 data, satellite derived aerosol optical depth , and 3-dimensional output from U.S. EPA's Models 3/Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. The presentation will include a demonstration that illustrates several scenarios of how researchers use the tool to help them visualize and obtain data for their work; with a particular focus on episode analysis related to biomass burning impacts on air quality. The presentation will provide an overview on how RSIG works and how the code has been—and can be—adapted for other projects. One example is the Virtual Estuary, which focuses on automating the retrieval and pre-processing of a variety of data needed for estuarine research. RSIG’s source codes are freely available to researchers with permission from the EPA principal investigator, Dr. Jim Szykman. RSIG is available to the community and can be accessed online at http://www.epa.gov/rsig. Once the JAVA policy file is configured on your computer you can run the RSIG applet on your computer and connect to the RSIG server to visualize and retrieve available data sets. The applet allows the user to specify the temporal/spatial areas of interest, and the types of data to retrieve. The applet then communicates with RSIG subsetter codes located on the data owners’ remote servers; the subsetter codes assemble and transfer via ordinary Internet protocols only the specified data to the researcher’s computer. This is much faster than the usual method of transferring large files via FTP and greatly reduces network traffic. The RSIG applet then visualizes the transferred data on a latitude-longitude map, automatically locating the data in the correct

  4. Remote sensing for control of tsetse flies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giddings, L. E.

    1976-01-01

    Remotely sensed information is discussed which has potential for aiding in the control or eradication of tsetse flies. Data are available from earth resources meteorological, and manned satellites, from airborne sensors, and possibly from data collection platforms. A new zone discrimination technique, based on data from meteorological satellites may also allow the identification of zones hospitable to one or another species of tsetse. For background, a review is presented of the vegetation of Tanzania and Zanzibar, and illustrations presented of automatic processing of data from these areas. In addition, a review is presented of the applicability of temperature data to tsetse areas.

  5. Remote sensing of vegetation and soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, J. A.; Shin, R. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Progress in the investigation of problems related to the remote sensing of vegetation and soil moisture is reported. Specific topics addressed include: (1) microwave scattering from periodic surfaces using a rigorous modal technique; (2) combined random rough surface and volume scattering effects; (3) the anisotropic effects of vegetation structures; (4) the application of the strong fluctuation theory to the the study of electromagnetic wave scattering from a layer of random discrete scatterers; and (5) the investigation of the scattering of a plane wave obliquely incident on a half space of densely distributed spherical dielectric scatterers using a quantum mechanical potential approach.

  6. The Role of Combination Techniques in Maximizing the Utility of Precipitation Estimates from Several Multi-Purpose Remote-Sensing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David T.; Curtis, Scott; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Multi-purpose remote-sensing products from various satellites have proved crucial in developing global estimates of precipitation. Examples of these products include low-earth-orbit and geosynchronous-orbit infrared (leo- and geo-IR), Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR), Television Infrared Operational Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) data, and passive microwave data such as that from the Special Sensor Microwave/ Imager (SSM/I). Each of these datasets has served as the basis for at least one useful quasi-global precipitation estimation algorithm; however, the quality of estimates varies tremendously among the algorithms for the different climatic regions around the globe.

  7. Geophysical aspects of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, K.

    1971-01-01

    Results obtained through the NASA Earth Resources Aircraft Program at Mill Creek, Oklahoma, provide a case history example of the application of remote sensing to the identification of geologic rock units. Thermal infrared images are interpreted by means of a sequence of models of increasing complexity. The roles of various parameters are examined: rock properties (thermal inertia, albedo, emissivity), site location (latitude), season (sun's declination), atmospheric effects (cloud cover, transmission, air temperature), and topographic orientation (slope, azimuth). The results obtained at this site also illustrate the development of an important application of remote sensing in geologic identification. Relatively pure limestones and dolomites of the Mill Creek test area can be differentiated in nighttime infrared images, and facies changes between them can be detected along and across strike. The predominance on the earth's surface of sedimentary rocks, of which limestone and dolomite are major members, indicates the importance of this discrimination.

  8. Remote sensing of foliar chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Paul J.

    1989-01-01

    Remotely sensed data are being used to estimate foliar chemical content. This paper reviews how stepwise multiple regression and deconvolution have been used to extract chemical information from foliar spectra, and concludes that both methods are useful, but neither is ideal. It is recommended that the focus of research be modeling in the long term and experimentation in the short term. Long-term research should increase our understanding of the interaction between radiation and foliar chemistry so that the focus of research can move from leaf model to canopy model to field experiment. Short-term research should aim to design experiments in which remotely sensed data are used to generate unambiguous and accurate estimates of foliar chemical content.

  9. Technology Trends and Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegener, Steve; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The science and application of remote sensing is flourishing in the digital age. Geographical information systems can provide a broad range of information tailored to the specific needs of disaster managers. Recent advances in airborne platforms, sensors and information technologies have come together provide the ability to put geo-registered, multispectral imagery on the web in near real-time. Highlights of a demonstration of NASA's First Response Experiment (FiRE) will be presented.

  10. Remote Sensing Information Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Keith C.; Scepan, Joseph; Hemphill, Jeffrey; Herold, Martin; Husak, Gregory; Kline, Karen; Knight, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    This document is the final report summarizing research conducted by the Remote Sensing Research Unit, Department of Geography, University of California, Santa Barbara under National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research Grant NAG5-10457. This document describes work performed during the period of 1 March 2001 thorough 30 September 2002. This report includes a survey of research proposed and performed within RSRU and the UCSB Geography Department during the past 25 years. A broad suite of RSRU research conducted under NAG5-10457 is also described under themes of Applied Research Activities and Information Science Research. This research includes: 1. NASA ESA Research Grant Performance Metrics Reporting. 2. Global Data Set Thematic Accuracy Analysis. 3. ISCGM/Global Map Project Support. 4. Cooperative International Activities. 5. User Model Study of Global Environmental Data Sets. 6. Global Spatial Data Infrastructure. 7. CIESIN Collaboration. 8. On the Value of Coordinating Landsat Operations. 10. The California Marine Protected Areas Database: Compilation and Accuracy Issues. 11. Assessing Landslide Hazard Over a 130-Year Period for La Conchita, California Remote Sensing and Spatial Metrics for Applied Urban Area Analysis, including: (1) IKONOS Data Processing for Urban Analysis. (2) Image Segmentation and Object Oriented Classification. (3) Spectral Properties of Urban Materials. (4) Spatial Scale in Urban Mapping. (5) Variable Scale Spatial and Temporal Urban Growth Signatures. (6) Interpretation and Verification of SLEUTH Modeling Results. (7) Spatial Land Cover Pattern Analysis for Representing Urban Land Use and Socioeconomic Structures. 12. Colorado River Flood Plain Remote Sensing Study Support. 13. African Rainfall Modeling and Assessment. 14. Remote Sensing and GIS Integration.

  11. Remote sensing of Earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, Jin AU; Shin, Robert T.; Nghiem, Son V.; Yueh, Herng-Aung; Han, Hsiu C.; Lim, Harold H.; Arnold, David V.

    1990-01-01

    Remote sensing of earth terrain is examined. The layered random medium model is used to investigate the fully polarimetric scattering of electromagnetic waves from vegetation. The model is used to interpret the measured data for vegetation fields such as rice, wheat, or soybean over water or soil. Accurate calibration of polarimetric radar systems is essential for the polarimetric remote sensing of earth terrain. A polarimetric calibration algorithm using three arbitrary in-scene reflectors is developed. In the interpretation of active and passive microwave remote sensing data from the earth terrain, the random medium model was shown to be quite successful. A multivariate K-distribution is proposed to model the statistics of fully polarimetric radar returns from earth terrain. In the terrain cover classification using the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, the applications of the K-distribution model will provide better performance than the conventional Gaussian classifiers. The layered random medium model is used to study the polarimetric response of sea ice. Supervised and unsupervised classification procedures are also developed and applied to synthetic aperture radar polarimetric images in order to identify their various earth terrain components for more than two classes. These classification procedures were applied to San Francisco Bay and Traverse City SAR images.

  12. Remote sensing of ocean pollution. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of remote sensing for the control and monitoring of ocean pollution. Citations discuss remote sensing techniques and instrumentations, including airborne and satellite-borne photography, microwave radiometry, laser fluorescence, and radar imagery. Topics include oil spills, marine ecosystems, land-based pollutants, ocean dumping, remote sensing capability and reliability, and pollution transport. (Contains a minimum of 109 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Remote sensing strategies for global resource exploration and environmental management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Frederick B.

    Since 1972, satellite remote sensing, when integrated with other exploration techniques, has demonstrated operational exploration and engineering cost savings and reduced exploration risks through improved geological mapping. Land and ocean remote sensing satellite systems under development for the 1990's by the United States, France, Japan, Canada, ESA, Russia, China, and others, will significantly increase our ability to explore for, develop, and manage energy and mineral resources worldwide. A major difference between these systems is the "Open Skies" and "Non-Discriminatory Access to Data" policies as have been practiced by the U.S. and France and the restrictive nationalistic data policies as have been practiced by Russia and India. Global exploration will use satellite remote sensing to better map regional structural and basin-like features that control the distribution of energy and mineral resources. Improved sensors will better map lithologic and stratigraphic units and identify alteration effects in rocks, soils, and vegetation cover indicative of undiscovered subsurface resources. These same sensors will also map and monitor resource development. The use of satellite remote sensing data will grow substantially through increasing integration with other geophysical, geochemical, and geologic data using improved geographic information systems (GIS). International exploration will focus on underdeveloped countries rather than on mature exploration areas such as the United States, Europe, and Japan. Energy and mineral companies and government agencies in these countries and others will utilize available remote sensing data to acquire economic intelligence on global resources. If the "Non-Discriminatory Access to Data" principle is observed by satellite producing countries, exploration will remain competitive "on the ground". In this manner, remote sensing technology will continue to be developed to better explore for and manage the world's needed resources

  14. Remote sensing for land management and planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodcock, Curtis E.; Strahler, Alan H.; Franklin, Janet

    1983-05-01

    The primary role of remote sensing in land management and planning has been to provide information concerning the physical characteristics of the land which influence the management of individual land parcels or the allocation of lands to various uses These physical characteristics have typically been assessed through aerial photography, which is used to develop resource maps and to monitor changing environmental conditions These uses are well developed and currently well integrated into the planning infrastructure at local, state, and federal levels in the United States. Many newly emerging uses of remote sensing involve digital images which are collected, stored, and processed automatically by electromechanical scanning devices and electronic computers Some scanning devices operate from aircraft or spacecraft to scan ground scenes directly; others scan conventional aerial transparencies to yield digital images. Digital imagery offers the potential for computer-based automated map production, a process that can significantly increase the amount and timeliness of information available to land managers and planners. Future uses of remote sensing in land planning and management will involve geographic information systems, which store resource information in a geocoded format. Geographic information systems allow the automated integration of disparate types of resource data through various types of spatial models so that with accompanying sample ground data, information in the form of thematic maps and/ or aerially aggregated statistics can be produced Key issues confronting the development and integration of geographic information systems into planning pathways are restoration and rectification of digital images, automated techniques for combining both quantitative and qualitative types of data in information-extracting procedures, and the compatibility of alternative data storage modes

  15. Hyperspectral remote sensing of wild oyster reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bris, Anthony; Rosa, Philippe; Lerouxel, Astrid; Cognie, Bruno; Gernez, Pierre; Launeau, Patrick; Robin, Marc; Barillé, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    The invasion of the wild oyster Crassostrea gigas along the western European Atlantic coast has generated changes in the structure and functioning of intertidal ecosystems. Considered as an invasive species and a trophic competitor of the cultivated conspecific oyster, it is now seen as a resource by oyster farmers following recurrent mass summer mortalities of oyster spat since 2008. Spatial distribution maps of wild oyster reefs are required by local authorities to help define management strategies. In this work, visible-near infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing was investigated to map two contrasted intertidal reef structures: clusters of vertical oysters building three-dimensional dense reefs in muddy areas and oysters growing horizontally creating large flat reefs in rocky areas. A spectral library, collected in situ for various conditions with an ASD spectroradiometer, was used to run Spectral Angle Mapper classifications on airborne data obtained with an HySpex sensor (160 spectral bands) and SPOT satellite HRG multispectral data (3 spectral bands). With HySpex spectral/spatial resolution, horizontal oysters in the rocky area were correctly classified but the detection was less efficient for vertical oysters in muddy areas. Poor results were obtained with the multispectral image and from spatially or spectrally degraded HySpex data, it was clear that the spectral resolution was more important than the spatial resolution. In fact, there was a systematic mud deposition on shells of vertical oyster reefs explaining the misclassification of 30% of pixels recognized as mud or microphytobenthos. Spatial distribution maps of oyster reefs were coupled with in situ biomass measurements to illustrate the interest of a remote sensing product to provide stock estimations of wild oyster reefs to be exploited by oyster producers. This work highlights the interest of developing remote sensing techniques for aquaculture applications in coastal

  16. Combining interior and exterior characteristics for remote sensing image denoising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ni; Sun, Shujin; Wang, Runsheng; Zhong, Ping

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing image denoising faces many challenges since a remote sensing image usually covers a wide area and thus contains complex contents. Using the patch-based statistical characteristics is a flexible method to improve the denoising performance. There are usually two kinds of statistical characteristics available: interior and exterior characteristics. Different statistical characteristics have their own strengths to restore specific image contents. Combining different statistical characteristics to use their strengths together may have the potential to improve denoising results. This work proposes a method combining statistical characteristics to adaptively select statistical characteristics for different image contents. The proposed approach is implemented through a new characteristics selection criterion learned over training data. Moreover, with the proposed combination method, this work develops a denoising algorithm for remote sensing images. Experimental results show that our method can make full use of the advantages of interior and exterior characteristics for different image contents and thus improve the denoising performance.

  17. Nasa's Land Remote Sensing Plans for the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higg, H. C.; Butera, K. M.; Settle, M.

    1985-01-01

    Research since the launch of LANDSAT-1 has been primarily directed to the development of analysis techniques and to the conduct of applications studies designed to address resource information needs in the United States and in many other countries. The current measurement capabilities represented by MSS, TM, and SIR-A and B, coupled with the present level of remote sensing understanding and the state of knowledge in the discipline earth sciences, form the foundation for NASA's Land Processes Program. Science issues to be systematically addressed include: energy balance, hydrologic cycle, biogeochemical cycles, biological productivity, rock cycle, landscape development, geological and botanical associations, and land surface inventory, monitoring, and modeling. A global perspective is required for using remote sensing technology for problem solving or applications context. A successful model for this kind of activity involves joint research with a user entity where the user provides a test site and ground truth and NASA provides the remote sensing techniques to be tested.

  18. Water area variations in seasonal lagoons from the Biosphere Reserve of "La Mancha Húmeda" (Spain) determined by remote sensing classification methods and data mining techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dona, Carolina; Niclòs, Raquel; Chang, Ni-Bin; Caselles, Vicente; Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Camacho, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    La Mancha Húmeda is a wetland-rich area located in central Spain that was designated as a Biosphere reserve in 1980. This area includes several dozens of temporal lagoons, mostly saline, whose water level fluctuates and usually become dry during the warmest season. Water inflows into these lagoons come from both runoff of very small catchment and, in some cases, from groundwater although some of them also receive wastewater from nearby towns. Most lack surface outlets and they behave as endorheic systems, with the main water withdrawal due to evaporation causing salt accumulation in the lake beds. Under several law protection coverage additional to that of Biosphere Reserve, including Ramsar and Natura 2000 sites, management plans are being developed in order to accomplish the goals enforced by the European Water Framework Directive and the Habitats Directive, which establish that all EU countries have to achieve a good ecological status and a favorable conservation status of these sites, and especially of their water bodies. A core task to carry out the management plans is the understanding of the hydrological trend of these lagoons with a sound monitoring scheme. To do so, an estimation of the temporal evolution of the flooded area for each lagoon, and its relationship with meteorological patterns, which can be achieved using remote sensing technologies, is a key procedure. The current study aims to develop a remote sensing methodology capable of estimating the changing water coverage areas in each lagoon with satellite remote sensing images and ground truth data sets. ETM+ images onboard Landsat-7 were used to fulfill this goal. These images are useful to monitor small-to-medium size water bodies due to its 30-m spatial resolution. In this work several methods were applied to estimate the wet and dry pixels, such as water and vegetation indexes, single bands, supervised classification methods and genetic programming. All of the results were compared with ground

  19. Dynamic Monitoring of Soil and Water Losses Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques: a Case Study of Jialing River, Yangtze River, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Zhu, Y. J.; Li, G. E.; Zhu, Y. Q.; Li, R. H.; Wang, L.; Wu, Y. J.

    2016-06-01

    Water and soil loss problems are serious in China, especially in the upper and middle reaches of big rivers. This paper dynamically observed water and soil loss in key control regions in Jialing River Basin. Based on remotely sensed images, the method used in this paper is a combination of field investigation and indoor artificial interpretation under the technologies of RS and GIS. The method was proven to be effective of improving the accuracy of interpreting. The result shows the land use types of the researched regions and how they changed among the previous years. Evaluation of water and soil conservation was made. This result can provide references for further policy-making and water and soil loss controlling.

  20. Biogeochemical cycling and remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    Research is underway at the NASA Ames Research Center that is concerned with aspects of the nitrogen cycle in terrestrial ecosystems. An interdisciplinary research group is attempting to correlate nitrogen transformations, processes, and productivity with variables that can be remotely sensed. Recent NASA and other publications concerning biogeochemical cycling at global scales identify attributes of vegetation that could be related or explain the spatial variation in biologically functional variables. These functional variables include net primary productivity, annual nitrogen mineralization, and possibly the emission rate of nitrous oxide from soils.

  1. Support for global science: Remote sensing's challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Star, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Remote sensing uses a wide variety of techniques and methods. Resulting data are analyzed by man and machine, using both analog and digital technology. The newest and most important initiatives in the U. S. civilian space program currently revolve around the space station complex, which includes the core station as well as co-orbiting and polar satellite platforms. This proposed suite of platforms and support systems offers a unique potential for facilitating long term, multidisciplinary scientific investigations on a truly global scale. Unlike previous generations of satellites, designed for relatively limited constituencies, the space station offers the potential to provide an integrated source of information which recognizes the scientific interest in investigating the dynamic coupling between the oceans, land surface, and atmosphere. Earth scientist already face problems that are truly global in extent. Problems such as the global carbon balance, regional deforestation, and desertification require new approaches, which combine multidisciplinary, multinational research teams, employing advanced technologies to produce a type, quantity, and quality of data not previously available. The challenge before the international scientific community is to continue to develop both the infrastructure and expertise to, on the one hand, develop the science and technology of remote sensing, while on the other hand, develop an integrated understanding of global life support systems, and work toward a quantiative science of the biosphere.

  2. Remote sensing inputs to water demand modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Jensen, J. R.; Tinney, L. R.; Rector, M.

    1975-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the ability of remote sensing techniques to economically generate data required by water demand models, the Geography Remote Sensing Unit, in conjunction with the Kern County Water Agency of California, developed an analysis model. As a result it was determined that agricultural cropland inventories utilizing both high altitude photography and LANDSAT imagery can be conducted cost effectively. In addition, by using average irrigation application rates in conjunction with cropland data, estimates of agricultural water demand can be generated. However, more accurate estimates are possible if crop type, acreage, and crop specific application rates are employed. An analysis of the effect of saline-alkali soils on water demand in the study area is also examined. Finally, reference is made to the detection and delineation of water tables that are perched near the surface by semi-permeable clay layers. Soil salinity prediction, automated crop identification on a by-field basis, and a potential input to the determination of zones of equal benefit taxation are briefly touched upon.

  3. Remote Sensing and Reflectance Profiling in Entomology.

    PubMed

    Nansen, Christian; Elliott, Norman

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing describes the characterization of the status of objects and/or the classification of their identity based on a combination of spectral features extracted from reflectance or transmission profiles of radiometric energy. Remote sensing can be benchtop based, and therefore acquired at a high spatial resolution, or airborne at lower spatial resolution to cover large areas. Despite important challenges, airborne remote sensing technologies will undoubtedly be of major importance in optimized management of agricultural systems in the twenty-first century. Benchtop remote sensing applications are becoming important in insect systematics and in phenomics studies of insect behavior and physiology. This review highlights how remote sensing influences entomological research by enabling scientists to nondestructively monitor how individual insects respond to treatments and ambient conditions. Furthermore, novel remote sensing technologies are creating intriguing interdisciplinary bridges between entomology and disciplines such as informatics and electrical engineering.

  4. Thematic Conference on Geologic Remote Sensing, 8th, Denver, CO, Apr. 29-May 2, 1991, Proceedings. Vols. 1 & 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings contain papers discussing the state-of-the-art exploration, engineering, and environmental applications of geologic remote sensing, along with the research and development activities aimed at increasing the future capabilities of this technology. The following topics are addressed: spectral geology, U.S. and international hydrocarbon exporation, radar and thermal infrared remote sensing, engineering geology and hydrogeology, mineral exploration, remote sensing for marine and environmental applications, image processing and analysis, geobotanical remote sensing, and data integration and geographic information systems. Particular attention is given to spectral alteration mapping with imaging spectrometers, mapping the coastal plain of the Congo with airborne digital radar, applications of remote sensing techniques to the assessment of dam safety, remote sensing of ferric iron minerals as guides for gold exploration, principal component analysis for alteration mappping, and the application of remote sensing techniques for gold prospecting in the north Fujian province.

  5. Thematic Conference on Geologic Remote Sensing, 8th, Denver, CO, Apr. 29-May 2, 1991, Proceedings. Vols. 1 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings contain papers discussing the state-of-the-art exploration, engineering, and environmental applications of geologic remote sensing, along with the research and development activities aimed at increasing the future capabilities of this technology. The following topics are addressed: spectral geology, US and international hydrocarbon exporation, radar and thermal infrared remote sensing, engineering geology and hydrogeology, mineral exploration, remote sensing for marine and environmental applications, image processing and analysis, geobotanical remote sensing, and data integration and geographic information systems. Particular attention is given to spectral alteration mapping with imaging spectrometers, mapping the coastal plain of the Congo with airborne digital radar, applications of remote sensing techniques to the assessment of dam safety, remote sensing of ferric iron minerals as guides for gold exploration, principal component analysis for alteration mappping, and the application of remote sensing techniques for gold prospecting in the north Fujian province.

  6. Past, present, and future of the INTA airborne remote sensing laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz de Aguilar, Javier; Fernandez Renau, Alix; Gomez Sanchez, Jose A.; Gutierrez de la Camara, Oscar

    2003-04-01

    The remote sensing laboratory belongs to the Earth Observation, Remote Sensing and Atmospheric Research division of INTA. INTA is a government research organization of the Spanish Department of Defense. INTA has been performing airborne remote sensing campaigns since 1975. The Remote Sensing Laboratory is devoted to the application and development of both aerial and space remote sensing technqiues. It owns both, personnel and technology suitable to perform flight campaigns in order to acquire remote sensing images and, with the help of precise image processing techniques, extract useful information. Currently has two different airborne platforms, for remote sensing and for atmospheric research, and is in the process of specification of a new platform for generation research. INTA is partner of the Concerted Action 'European Fleet for Airborne Research'. This paper describes the INTA platform, sensors, systems and its integration in the aircraft. The experience in airborne remote sensing campaigns also described. The research campaigns performed show their application in comparison with satellite remote sensing. Some examples of this are, evaluation of future space sensors, calibration and validation of images acquired by operative space platforms, environmental impact of ecological distasters, ocean surfaces characteristics, wetland mapping and fire analysis.

  7. Remote sensing of aquatic vegetation: theory and applications.

    PubMed

    Silva, Thiago S F; Costa, Maycira P F; Melack, John M; Novo, Evlyn M L M

    2008-05-01

    Aquatic vegetation is an important component of wetland and coastal ecosystems, playing a key role in the ecological functions of these environments. Surveys of macrophyte communities are commonly hindered by logistic problems, and remote sensing represents a powerful alternative, allowing comprehensive assessment and monitoring. Also, many vegetation characteristics can be estimated from reflectance measurements, such as species composition, vegetation structure, biomass, and plant physiological parameters. However, proper use of these methods requires an understanding of the physical processes behind the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and vegetation, and remote sensing of aquatic plants have some particular difficulties that have to be properly addressed in order to obtain successful results. The present paper reviews the theoretical background and possible applications of remote sensing techniques to the study of aquatic vegetation.

  8. LWIR Microgrid Polarimeter for Remote Sensing Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-28

    Polarimeter for Remote Sensing Studies 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-08-1-0295 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 1. Scott Tyo 5e. TASK...and tested at the University of Arizona, and preliminary images are shown in this final report. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Remote Sensing , polarimetry 16...7.0 LWIR Microgrid Polarimeter for Remote Sensing Studies J. Scott Tyo College of Optical Sciences University of Arizona Tucson, AZ, 85721 tyo

  9. Ocean Optical Remote Sensing Capability Statement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    illustrated in relation toIother oceanographic parameters. > reevavy programs which have supported the Remote Sensing Branch’s developments in water ...optics are described. The Navy relevance of water optics to these programs is indicated.’ "I 1 ’ ( ;j "IJl: ,t n ! /H i.i OCEAN OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING...Development Activity (NORDA) Remote Sensing Branch (Code 321) has been conducting investigative programs in water optics since 1977. The major thrust of

  10. Risk management support through India Remote Sensing Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparna, N.; Ramani, A. V.; Nagaraja, R.

    2014-11-01

    Remote Sensing along with Geographical Information System (GIS) has been proven as a very important tools for the monitoring of the Earth resources and the detection of its temporal variations. A variety of operational National applications in the fields of Crop yield estimation , flood monitoring, forest fire detection, landslide and land cover variations were shown in the last 25 years using the Remote Sensing data. The technology has proven very useful for risk management like by mapping of flood inundated areas identifying of escape routes and for identifying the locations of temporary housing or a-posteriori evaluation of damaged areas etc. The demand and need for Remote Sensing satellite data for such applications has increased tremendously. This can be attributed to the technology adaptation and also the happening of disasters due to the global climate changes or the urbanization. However, the real-time utilization of remote sensing data for emergency situations is still a difficult task because of the lack of a dedicated system (constellation) of satellites providing a day-to-day revisit of any area on the globe. The need of the day is to provide satellite data with the shortest delay. Tasking the satellite to product dissemination to the user is to be done in few hours. Indian Remote Sensing satellites with a range of resolutions from 1 km to 1 m has been supporting disasters both National & International. In this paper, an attempt has been made to describe the expected performance and limitations of the Indian Remote Sensing Satellites available for risk management applications, as well as an analysis of future systems Cartosat-2D, 2E ,Resourcesat-2R &RISAT-1A. This paper also attempts to describe the criteria of satellite selection for programming for the purpose of risk management with a special emphasis on planning RISAT-1(SAR sensor).

  11. Quarterly literature review of the remote sensing of natural resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fears, C. B. (Editor); Inglis, M. H. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    The Technology Application Center reviewed abstracted literature sources, and selected document data and data gathering techniques which were performed or obtained remotely from space, aircraft or groundbased stations. All of the documentation was related to remote sensing sensors or the remote sensing of the natural resources. Sensors were primarily those operating within the 10 to the minus 8 power to 1 meter wavelength band. Included are NASA Tech Briefs, ARAC Industrial Applications Reports, U.S. Navy Technical Reports, U.S. Patent reports, and other technical articles and reports.

  12. Energy and remote sensing. [satellite exploration, monitoring, siting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, R. A.; Smith, W. L.; Short, N. M.

    1977-01-01

    Exploration for uranium, thorium, oil, gas and geothermal activity through remote sensing techniques is considered; satellite monitoring of coal-derived CO2 in the atmosphere, and the remote assessment of strip mining and land restoration are also mentioned. Reference is made to color ratio composites based on Landsat data, which may aid in the detection of uranium deposits, and to computer-enhanced black and white airborne scanning imagery, which may locate geothermal anomalies. Other applications of remote sensing to energy resources management, including mapping of transportation networks and power plant siting, are discussed.

  13. The design of optimum remote-sensing instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peckham, G. E.; Flower, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Remote-sensing instruments allow values for certain properties of a target to be retrieved from measurements of radiation emitted, reflected or transmitted by the target. The retrieval accuracy is affected by random variations in the many target properties which affect the measurements. A method is described, by which statistical properties of the target and theoretical models of its electromagnetic behavior can be used to choose values for the instrument parameters which maximize the retrieval accuracy. The technique is applicable to a wide range of remote-sensing instruments.

  14. Design and construction of a remote sensing apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maples, D.; Hagewood, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The methods of identifying plant and soil types using remote sensing techniques are described. The equipment employed consists of a balloon system and a mobile remote sensing laboratory housing a radiometer which is mounted on a turret mechanism. The radiometer is made up of a telescope whose lenses are replaced by mirrors which channel received radiation into a monochromator. The radiation is then focused onto detectors for measurement of the intensity of the electromagnetic energy as a function of wavelength. Measurements from a wavelength of 0.2 microns to 15 microns are obtained with the system. diagrams are provided.

  15. Remote Sensing And Vegetation Stress Detection: Problems And Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggin, M. J.; Whitehead, V.

    1983-08-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in applying Remote Sensing Technology to vegetation monitoring (e.g.1), considerable problems still exist in the improvement of techniques for crop type discrimination, stress detection on a large scale and stress quantification. In this paper, we discuss some of the problems remaining in the operational use of remote sensing technology for vegetation stress detection, and propose directions in which some of these problems might be solved. For reasons of brevity we shall be selective in those areas discussed.

  16. The global troposphere - Biogeochemical cycles, chemistry, and remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, J. S.; Allario, F.

    1982-01-01

    The chemical composition of the troposphere is controlled by various biogeochemical cycles that couple the atmosphere with the oceans, the solid earth and the biosphere, and by atmospheric photochemical/chemical reactions. These cycles and reactions are discussed and a number of key questions concerning tropospheric composition and chemistry for the carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur species are identified. Next, various remote sensing techniques and instruments capable of measuring and monitoring tropospheric species from the ground, aircraft and space to address some of these key questions are reviewed. Future thrusts in remote sensing of the troposphere are also considered.

  17. [Hyperspectral remote sensing in monitoring the vegetation heavy metal pollution].

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Lü, Jian-sheng; Altemann, W

    2010-09-01

    Mine exploitation aggravates the environment pollution. The large amount of heavy metal element in the drainage of slag from the mine pollutes the soil seriously, doing harm to the vegetation growing and human health. The investigation of mining environment pollution is urgent, in which remote sensing, as a new technique, helps a lot. In the present paper, copper mine in Dexing was selected as the study area and China sumac as the study plant. Samples and spectral data in field were gathered and analyzed in lab. The regression model from spectral characteristics for heavy metal content was built, and the feasibility of hyperspectral remote sensing in environment pollution monitoring was testified.

  18. Levee Health Monitoring With Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. E.; Bawden, G. W.; Deverel, S. J.; Dudas, J.; Hensley, S.; Yun, S.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing offers the potential to augment current levee monitoring programs by providing rapid and consistent data collection over large areas irrespective of the ground accessibility of the sites of interest, at repeat intervals that are difficult or costly to maintain with ground-based surveys, and in rapid response to emergency situations. While synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has long been used for subsidence measurements over large areas, applying this technique directly to regional levee monitoring is a new endeavor, mainly because it requires both a wide imaging swath and fine spatial resolution to resolve individual levees within the scene, a combination that has not historically been available. Application of SAR remote sensing directly to levee monitoring has only been attempted in a few pilot studies. Here we describe how SAR remote sensing can be used to assess levee conditions, such as seepage, drawing from the results of two levee studies: one of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta levees in California that has been ongoing since July 2009 and a second that covered the levees near Vicksburg, Mississippi, during the spring 2011 floods. These studies have both used data acquired with NASA's UAVSAR L-band synthetic aperture radar, which has the spatial resolution needed for this application (1.7 m single-look), sufficiently wide imaging swath (22 km), and the longer wavelength (L-band, 0.238 m) required to maintain phase coherence between repeat collections over levees, an essential requirement for applying differential interferometry (DInSAR) to a time series of repeated collections for levee deformation measurement. We report the development and demonstration of new techniques that employ SAR polarimetry and differential interferometry to successfully assess levee health through the quantitative measurement of deformation on and near levees and through detection of areas experiencing seepage. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta levee study, which covers

  19. Analysis of remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiness, E. A.; Sultan, M.; Arvidson, R. E.

    1985-08-01

    A brief assessment of remote sensing applied to geological studies is given. An analysis of thematic mapping data on oak-hickory forests in southern Missouri is discussed. It was found that there is a control on the infrared reflectance (bands 4, 5, and 7 of the Thematic Mapper (TM) of the forests that correlates with rock and soil types. During the growing season, soils with low water retention capacities correlate with high infrared (band 4, lesser with band 5 and 7) signatures. A metamorphic core complex called the Meatiq located in the Eastern Desert of Egypt was studied. The dome provides exposure of most of the rock units of the Arabian-Nubian Precambrian Shield. The dome bears many resemblances to Cordilleran metamorphic complexes. LANDSAT TM data was used to improve on reconnaissance maps of the dome. The remote sensing data was interpreted in the context of field observations, petrographic, and chemical analysis of rock units in the dome, in order to map similar domes in the Eastern Desert from TM data. Mapping projects such as the one just described will help constrain the geologic evolution of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Two particular hypotheses that researchers hope to test for the development of the shield are: (1) closure of a proto-Red Sea; and (2) accretion of a primitive island arc system onto the shield.

  20. Brazil's remote sensing activities in the Eighties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raupp, M. A.; Pereiradacunha, R.; Novaes, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the remote sensing activities in Brazil have been conducted by the Institute for Space Research (INPE). This report describes briefly INPE's activities in remote sensing in the last years. INPE has been engaged in research (e.g., radiance studies), development (e.g., CCD-scanners, image processing devices) and applications (e.g., crop survey, land use, mineral resources, etc.) of remote sensing. INPE is also responsible for the operation (data reception and processing) of the LANDSATs and meteorological satellites. Data acquisition activities include the development of CCD-Camera to be deployed on board the space shuttle and the construction of a remote sensing satellite.

  1. Tools and Methods for the Registration and Fusion of Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goshtasby, Arthur Ardeshir; LeMoigne, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Tools and methods for image registration were reviewed. Methods for the registration of remotely sensed data at NASA were discussed. Image fusion techniques were reviewed. Challenges in registration of remotely sensed data were discussed. Examples of image registration and image fusion were given.

  2. Quarterly literature review of the remote sensing of natural resources, third quarter 1976. [bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Abstracts related to remote sensing instrumentation and techniques, and to the remote sensing of natural resources are presented by the Technology Application Center at the University of New Mexico. Areas of interest included theory, general surveys, and miscellaneous studies; geology and hydrology; agriculture and forestry; marine sciences; and urban and land use. An alphabetically arranged Author/Key Word index is provided.

  3. Remote sensing procurement package: A technical guide for state and local governments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The guide provides the tools and techniques for procuring remote sensing products and services. It is written for administrators, procurement officials and line agency staff who are directly involved in identifying information needs; defining remote sensing project requirements; soliciting and evaluating contract responses and negotiating, awarding, and administering contracts.

  4. Using of Remote Sensing Techniques for Monitoring the Earthquakes Activities Along the Northern Part of the Syrian Rift System (LEFT-LATERAL),SYRIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalati, Moutaz

    Earthquake mitigation can be achieved with a better knowledge of a region's infra-and substructures. High resolution Remote Sensing data can play a significant role to implement Geological mapping and it is essential to learn about the tectonic setting of a region. It is an effective method to identify active faults from different sources of Remote Sensing and compare the capability of some satellite sensors in active faults survey. In this paper, it was discussed a few digital image processing approaches to be used for enhancement and feature extraction related to faults. Those methods include band ratio, filtering and texture statistics . The experimental results show that multi-spectral images have great potentials in large scale active faults investigation. It has also got satisfied results when deal with invisible faults. Active Faults have distinct features in satellite images. Usually, there are obvious straight lines, circular structures and other distinct patterns along the faults locations. Remotely Sensed imagery Landsat ETM and SPOT XS /PAN are often used in active faults mapping. Moderate and high resolution satellite images are the best choice, because in low resolution images, the faults features may not be visible in most cases. The area under study is located Northwest of Syria that is part of one of the very active deformation belt on the Earth today. This area and the western part of Syria are located along the great rift system (Left-Lateral or African- Syrian Rift System). Those areas are tectonically active and caused a lot of seismically events. The AL-Ghab graben complex is situated within this wide area of Cenozoic deformation. The system formed, initially, as a result of the break up of the Arabian plate from the African plate. This action indicates that these sites are active and in a continual movement. In addition to that, the statistic analysis of Thematic Mapper data and the features from a digital elevation model ( DEM )produced from

  5. Remote sensing and characterization of anomalous debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridharan, R.; Beavers, W.; Lambour, R.; Gaposchkin, E. M.; Kansky, J.; Stansbery, E.

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of orbital debris data shows a band of anomalously high debris concentration in the altitude range between 800 and 1000 km. Analysis indicates that the origin is the leaking coolant fluid from nuclear power sources that powered a now defunct Soviet space-based series of ocean surveillance satellites. A project carried out to detect, track and characterize a sample of the anomalous debris is reported. The nature of the size and shape of the sample set, and the possibility of inferring the composition of the droplets were assessed. The technique used to detect, track and characterize the sample set is described and the results of the characterization analysis are presented. It is concluded that the nature of the debris is consistent with leaked Na-K fluid, although this cannot be proved with the remote sensing techniques used.

  6. Toward interactive search in remote sensing imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Reid B; Hush, Do; Harvey, Neal; Theile, James

    2010-01-01

    To move from data to information in almost all science and defense applications requires a human-in-the-loop to validate information products, resolve inconsistencies, and account for incomplete and potentially deceptive sources of information. This is a key motivation for visual analytics which aims to develop techniques that complement and empower human users. By contrast, the vast majority of algorithms developed in machine learning aim to replace human users in data exploitation. In this paper we describe a recently introduced machine learning problem, called rare category detection, which may be a better match to visual analytic environments. We describe a new design criteria for this problem, and present comparisons to existing techniques with both synthetic and real-world datasets. We conclude by describing an application in broad-area search of remote sensing imagery.

  7. The use of remote sensing for landslide studies in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofani, Veronica; Agostini, Andrea; Segoni, Samuele; Catani, Filippo; Casagli, Nicola

    2013-04-01

    The existing remote sensing techniques and their actual application in Europe for landslide detection, mapping and monitoring have been investigated. Data and information necessary to evaluate the subjects have been collected through a questionnaire, designed using a Google form, which was disseminated among end-users and researchers involved in landslide. In total, 49 answers were collected, coming from 17 European countries and from different kinds of institutions (universities, research institutes, public institutes and private companies). The spatial distribution of the answers is consistent with the distribution of landslides in Europe, the significance of landslides impact on society and the estimated landslide susceptibility in the various countries. The outcomes showed that landslide detection and mapping is mainly performed with aerial photos, often associated with optical and radar imagery. Concerning landslide monitoring, satellite radars prevail over the other types of data followed by aerial photos and meteorological sensors. Since subsampling the answers according to the different typology of institutions it is not noticeable a clear gap between research institutes and end users, it is possible to infer that in landslide remote sensing the research is advancing at the same pace as its day-to-day application. Apart from optical and radar imagery, other techniques are less widespread and some of them are not so well established, notwithstanding their performances are increasing at a fast rate as scientific and technological improvements are accomplished. Remote sensing is mainly used for detection/mapping and monitoring of slides, flows and lateral spreads with a preferably large scale of analysis (1:5000 - 1:25000). All the compilers integrate remote sensing data with other thematic data, mainly geological maps, landslide inventory maps and DTMs and derived maps. Concerning landslide monitoring, the results of the questionnaire stressed that the best

  8. Remote sensing data assimilation in land surface process modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, Heike; Mauser, Wolfram

    2002-01-01

    Land surface process models describe the energy-, water-, carbon- and nutrient-fluxes at the land surface on a regional scale by combining a given set of environmental parameters and variables (e.g. water balance model, plant physiology model, atmospheric boundary layer model, erosion model). They need spatially distributed input parameters, which can be delivered from remote sensing analyses using both optical and microwave sensors. Thus, land surface process models are the main drivers for four dimensional data assimilation (4DDA) which is based on the synergistic data utilization of remote sensing and ancillary data both in space and time. To ensure the constant flow of the necessary input parameters and variables, the development of adequate data-assimilation and data-fusion techniques is mandatory. Parameter models operate at the centre of this data fusion process to convert remote sensing measurements into a set of model input parameters and variables. Different strategies to use remote sensing derived parameters in models are demonstrated. They span from the simple delivery of static input-parameters, over the provision of dynamic model parameters, model forcing and recalibration of internal model variables, to inversion and validation of land surface process models. Examples will illustrate these different data assimilation strategies using SAR and optical data sources. The integration of land surface parameters derived from remote sensing (e.g. land use, digital terrain model, surface soil moisture) in flood forecast is a rather straight forward task. For water balance modelling, soil moisture and snow cover assessment will be illustrated. This task is already more complex, since a continuous process must be simulated and the data assimilation must avoid inconsistencies in model performance. The application of remote sensing data assimilation methods for crop growth and agricultural production models further requires complex feedback mechanisms. Examples

  9. Remote sensing for wind power potential: a prospector's handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, J.E.; Maule, P.A.; Bodvarsson, G.; Rosenfeld, C.L.; Woolley, S.G.; McClenahan, M.R.

    1983-02-01

    Remote sensing can aid in identifying and locating indicators of wind power potential from the terrestrial, marine, and atmospheric environments (i.e.: wind-deformed trees, white caps, and areas of thermal flux). It is not considered as a tool for determining wind power potential. A wide variety of remotely sensed evidence is described in terms of the scale at which evidence of wind power can be identified, and the appropriate remote sensors for finding such evidence. Remote sensing can be used for regional area prospecting using small-scale imagery. The information from such small-scale imagery is most often qualitative, and if it is transitory, examination of a number of images to verify presistence of the feature may be required. However, this evidence will allow rapid screening of a large area. Medium-scale imagery provides a better picture of the evidence obtained from small-scale imagery. At this level it is best to use existing imagery. Criteria relating to land use, accessibility, and proximity of candidate sites to nearby transmission lines can also be effectively evaluated from medium-scale imagery. Large-scale imagery provides the most quantitative evidence of the strength of wind. Wind-deformed trees can be identified at a large number of sites using only a few hours in locally chartered aircraft. A handheld 35mm camera can adequately document any evidence of wind. Three case studies that employ remote sensing prospecting techniques are described. Based on remotely sensed evidence, the wind power potential in three geographically and climatically diverse areas of the United States is estimated, and the estimates are compared to actual wind data in those regions. In addition, the cost of each survey is discussed. The results indicate that remote sensing for wind power potential is a quick, cost effective, and fairly reliable method for screening large areas for wind power potential.

  10. Remote Sensing of Earth--A New Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Robert E.

    1973-01-01

    Photographs of the earth taken from space are used to illustrate the advantages and application of remote sensing. This technique may be used in such areas as the immediate appraisal of disasters, surveillance of the oceans, monitoring of land, food and water resources, detection of natural resources, and identification of pollution. (JR)

  11. A selected bibliography: Remote sensing applications in agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draeger, William C.; McClelland, David T.

    1977-01-01

    The bibliography contains nearly 300 citations of selected publications and technical reports dealing with the application of remote-sensing techniques to the collection and analysis of agricultural information. Most of the items included were published between January 1968 and December 1975, although some earlier works of continuing interest are included.

  12. Application of remote sensing to hydrological problems and floods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Novo, E. M. L. M.

    1983-01-01

    The main applications of remote sensors to hydrology are identified as well as the principal spectral bands and their advantages and disadvantages. Some examples of LANDSAT data applications to flooding-risk evaluation are cited. Because hydrology studies the amount of moisture and water involved in each phase of hydrological cycle, remote sensing must be emphasized as a technique for hydrological data acquisition.

  13. Remote sensing of oceanographic parameters pertinent to hydrocarbon resource development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasischke, E. S.; Lyzenga, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    Information obtained from remotely sensed imagery which is potentially useful to hydrocarbon resource development is discussed in this paper. Oceanic phenomena presented include surface gravity waves, detection of bathymetric features, and deep ocean internal waves. Techniques used to extract data are presented along with pertinent examples.

  14. A selected bibliography: Remote sensing applications in geography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ripple, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    The bibliography contains 82 citations of selected publications and technical reports.  The references deal with the application of remote sensing techniques to the collection and analysis of geographic data.  All of the citations were published between January 1968 and July 1977.

  15. Symmetry in polarimetric remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Yueh, S. H.; Kwok, R.

    1993-01-01

    Relationships among polarimetric backscattering coefficients are derived from the viewpoint of symmetry groups. For both reciprocal and non-reciprocal media, symmetry encountered in remote sensing due to reflection, rotation, azimuthal, and centrical symmetry groups is considered. The derived properties are general and valid to all scattering mechanisms, including volume and surface scatterings and their interactions, in a given symmetrical configuration. The scattering coefficients calculated from theoretical models for layer random media and rough surfaces are shown to obey the symmetry relations. Use of symmetry properties in remote sensing of structural and environmental responses of scattering media is also discussed. Orientations of spheroidal scatterers described by spherical, uniform, planophile, plagiothile, erectophile, and extremophile distributions are considered to derive their polarimetric backscattering characteristics. These distributions can be identified from the observed scattering coefficients by comparison with theoretical symmetry calculations. A new parameter is then defined to study scattering structures in geophysical media. Observations from polarimetric data acquired by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory airborne synthetic aperture radar over forests, sea ice, and sea surface are presented. Experimental evidences of the symmetry relationships are shown and their use in polarimetric remote sensing is illustrated. For forests, the coniferous forest in Mt. Shasta area (California) and mixed forest near Presque Isle (Maine) exhibit characteristics of the centrical symmetry at C-band. For sea ice in the Beaufort Sea, multi-year sea ice has a cross-polarized ratio e close to e(sub 0), calculated from symmetry, due to the randomness in the scattering structure. First-year sea ice has e much smaller than e(sub 0) due to the preferential alignment of the columnar structure of the ice. From polarimetric data of a sea surface in the Bering Sea, it is

  16. Local bleaching thresholds established by remote sensing techniques vary among reefs with deviating bleaching patterns during the 2012 event in the Arabian/Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Shuail, Dawood; Wiedenmann, Jörg; D'Angelo, Cecilia; Baird, Andrew H; Pratchett, Morgan S; Riegl, Bernhard; Burt, John A; Petrov, Peter; Amos, Carl

    2016-04-30

    A severe bleaching event affected coral communities off the coast of Abu Dhabi, UAE in August/September, 2012. In Saadiyat and Ras Ghanada reefs ~40% of the corals showed signs of bleaching. In contrast, only 15% of the corals were affected on Delma reef. Bleaching threshold temperatures for these sites were established using remotely sensed sea surface temperature (SST) data recorded by MODIS-Aqua. The calculated threshold temperatures varied between locations (34.48 °C, 34.55 °C, 35.05 °C), resulting in site-specific deviations in the numbers of days during which these thresholds were exceeded. Hence, the less severe bleaching of Delma reef might be explained by the lower relative heat stress experienced by this coral community. However, the dominance of Porites spp. that is associated with the long-term exposure of Delma reef to elevated temperatures, as well as the more pristine setting may have additionally contributed to the higher coral bleaching threshold for this site.

  17. Modeling tropical land-use and land-cover change related to sugarcane crops using remote sensing and soft computing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, L. E.; Koga-Vicente, A.; Friedel, M. J.; Zullo, J.; Victoria, D.; Gomes, D.; Bayma, G.

    2013-12-01

    Agriculture is closely related to land-use/cover changes (LUCC). The increase in demand for ethanol necessitates the expansion of areas occupied by corn and sugar cane. In São Paulo state, the conversion of this land raises concern for impacts on food security, such as the decrease in traditional food crop production areas. We used remote sensing data to train and evaluate future land-cover scenarios using a machine-learning algorithm. The land cover classification procedure was based on Landsat 5 TM images, obtained from the Global Land Survey, covering three time periods over twenty years (1990 - 2010). Landsat images were segmented into homogeneous objects, which represent areas on the ground with similar spatial and spectral characteristics. These objects are related to the distinct land cover types that occur in each municipality. Based on the object shape, texture and spectral characteristics, land use/cover was visually identified, considering the following classes: sugarcane plantations, pasture lands, natural cover, forest plantation, permanent crop, short cycle crop, water bodies and urban areas. Results for the western regions of São Paulo state indicate that sugarcane crop area advanced mostly upon pasture areas with few areas of food crops being replaced by sugarcane.

  18. An information system for the utility of the ephemeral tributaries west of the Nile Valley in Sudan. Based on remote sensing and geological techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Al Biely, A.I.; Mohamed, A.H.A.; Khidir, S.O.

    1996-08-01

    Interpretation of landsat MSS and TM satellite and NOAA-AVHRR images, climatological data and conventional geological methods were integrated in this study to arrive at a rigorous scientific geoinformation system that could assist the on-going endeavours to rehabilitate areas west of the Nile Valley. The study area, which repetitively suffered severe spells of drought, extends between latitudes 12{degrees}N-18{degrees}N and longitudes 27{degrees}E-32{degrees}E. The area considered abodes four major ephemeral tributaries of the River Nile, they are Wadi Howar, Wadi El Milk, Wadi El Mugaddam and Khor Abu Habil. Visual interpretation of remotely sensed data coupled with geological investigations revealed that these ephemeral tributaries are structurally controlled and their lower courses are buried under extensive sand sheets, that block their channels from reaching the Nile Valley. Sites where those tributaries disappear could constitute huge reservoirs of groundwater that could be utilized to harness desert encroachment and to plan rehabilitation projects. It is envisaged that, surface and subsurface hydrological engineering constructions in favourable sites, across those tributaries may lead to permanent surface water ponding. The performed study demonstrated the possibility of combating the environmental degradation on the area under consideration through carefully designed rehabilitation and development projects based on the integration of available data in a geoinformation system.

  19. Analyzing suitability for urban expansion under rapid coastal urbanization with remote sensing and GIS techniques: a case study of Lianyungang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wenjun; Zhu, Xiaodong; Reenberg, Anette; Sun, Xiang

    2010-10-01

    Beginning in 2000, Lianyungang's urbanization entered a period of rapid growth, spatially as well as economically. Rapid and intensive expansion of "construction land" imposed increasing pressures on regional environment. With the support of remote sensing data and GIS tools, this paper reports a "present-capacity-potential" integrated suitability analysis framework, in order to characterize and evaluate the suitability of urban expansion in Lianyungang. We found that during the rapid coastal urbanization process from 2000 to 2008, the characteristics of physical expansion in the study area were characterized by a combination of high-density expansion and sprawling development. The land use conversion driven by urbanization and industrialization has not occurred only in city districts, but also the surrounding areas that were spatially absorbed by urban growth, while closely associated and greatly influenced by the explosive growth of industrial establishment. The over-consumption of land resources in the areas with low environmental carrying capacity, particularly in the eastern coastal area, should be strictly controlled. Compared to conventional land suitability analysis methods, the proposed integrated approach could better review the potential environmental impacts of urban expansion and provide guidance for decision makers.

  20. The remote sensing of algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    State agencies need rapid, synoptic and inexpensive methods for lake assessment to comply with the 1972 Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Low altitude aerial photography may be useful in providing information on algal type and quantity. Photography must be calibrated properly to remove sources of error including airlight, surface reflectance and scene-to-scene illumination differences. A 550-nm narrow wavelength band black and white photographic exposure provided a better correlation to algal biomass than either red or infrared photographic exposure. Of all the biomass parameters tested, depth-integrated chlorophyll a concentration correlated best to remote sensing data. Laboratory-measured reflectance of selected algae indicate that different taxonomic classes of algae may be discriminated on the basis of their reflectance spectra.

  1. Energy and remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, R. A.; Smith, W. L.; Short, N. M.

    1978-01-01

    The nature of the U.S. energy problem is examined. Based upon the best available estimates, it appears that demand for OPEC oil will exceed OPEC productive capacity in the early to mid-eighties. The upward pressure on world oil prices resulting from this supply/demand gap could have serious international consequences, both financial and in terms of foreign policy implementation. National Energy Plan objectives in response to this situation are discussed. Major strategies for achieving these objectives include a conversion of industry and utilities from oil and gas to coal and other abundant fuels. Remote sensing from aircraft and spacecraft could make significant contributions to the solution of energy problems in a number of ways, related to exploration of energy-related resources, the efficiency and safety of exploitation procedures, power plant siting, environmental monitoring and assessment, and the transportation infrastructure.

  2. NASA remote sensing programs: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, W. P.

    1981-01-01

    In the Earth remote sensing area, NASA's three functions are to understand the basic mechanics and behavior of the Earth, evaluate what resources are available (in the way of minerals, and hydrocarbons on a general scale), and to arrange a scheme for managing our national assets. The capabilities offered by LANDSAT D and technology improvements needed are discussed. The French SPOT system, its orbits, possibilities for stereo imagery, and levels of preprocessing and processing with several degrees of radiometric and geometric corrections are examined. Progress in the AgRISTARS project is mentioned as well as future R & D programs in the use of fluorescence, microwave measurements, and synthetic aperture radar. Other areas of endeaver include studying man environment interactions and Earth radiation budgets, and the establishment of data systems programs.

  3. Geological remote sensing in Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabins, Floyd F., Jr.; Bailey, G. Bryan; Abrams, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    Programs using remote sensing to obtain geologic information in Africa are reviewed. Studies include the use of Landsat MSS data to evaluate petroleum resources in sedimentary rock terrains in Kenya and Sudan and the use of Landsat TM 30-m resolution data to search for mineral deposits in an ophiolite complex in Oman. Digitally enhanced multispectral SPOT data at a scale of 1:62,000 were used to map folds, faults, diapirs, bedding attitudes, and stratigraphic units in the Atlas Mountains in northern Algeria. In another study, SIR-A data over a vegetated and faulted area of Sierra Leone were compared with data collected by the Landsat MSS and TM systems. It was found that the lineaments on the SIR-A data were more easily detected.

  4. Mojave remote sensing field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, Raymond E.; Petroy, S. B.; Plaut, J. J.; Shepard, Michael K.; Evans, D.; Farr, T.; Greeley, Ronald; Gaddis, L.; Lancaster, N.

    1991-01-01

    The Mojave Remote Sensing Field Experiment (MFE), conducted in June 1988, involved acquisition of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS); C, L, and P-band polarimetric radar (AIRSAR) data; and simultaneous field observations at the Pisgah and Cima volcanic fields, and Lavic and Silver Lake Playas, Mojave Desert, California. A LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) scene is also included in the MFE archive. TM-based reflectance and TIMS-based emissivity surface spectra were extracted for selected surfaces. Radiative transfer procedures were used to model the atmosphere and surface simultaneously, with the constraint that the spectra must be consistent with field-based spectral observations. AIRSAR data were calibrated to backscatter cross sections using corner reflectors deployed at target sites. Analyses of MFE data focus on extraction of reflectance, emissivity, and cross section for lava flows of various ages and degradation states. Results have relevance for the evolution of volcanic plains on Venus and Mars.

  5. Remote sensing of coastal wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardisky, M. A.; Klemas, V.; Gross, M. F.

    1986-01-01

    Various aircraft and satellite sensors for detecting and mapping wetlands properties are examined. The uses of color IR photography to map coastal vegetation, and of Landsat MSS and TM and SPOT data to quantify biomass and productivity for large wetland areas are discussed. For spectral estimation of biomass and productivity, the relation between radiance and biomass needs to be studied; the quantity and orientation of dead biomass and the amount of soil reflectance in comparison with vegetation reflectance in a given target area affect the spectral estimation of biomass. The radiometric evaluation of brackish wetland, and remote sensing in mangroves are described. The collection of images in narrow, contiguous spectral band using imaging spectrometry is considered.

  6. Satellite remote sensing over ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing provides unique opportunities for observing ice-covered terrain. Passive-microwave data give information on snow extent on land, sea-ice extent and type, and zones of summer melting on the polar ice sheets, with the potential for estimating snow-accumulation rates on these ice sheets. All weather, high-resolution imagery of sea ice is obtained using synthetic aperture radars, and ice-movement vectors can be deduced by comparing sequential images of the same region. Radar-altimetry data provide highly detailed information on ice-sheet topography, with the potential for deducing thickening/thinning rates from repeat surveys. The coastline of Antarctica can be mapped accurately using altimetry data, and the size and spatial distribution of icebergs can be monitored. Altimetry data also distinguish open ocean from pack ice and they give an indication of sea-ice characteristics.

  7. Remote sensing in West Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lessing, P.

    1981-01-01

    Low altitude black and white aerial photography is the prinicipal remote sensing tool for geologic investigations in West Virginia, although side looking radar and color infrared photography are also used. The first land use/cover map for the state was produced in color infrared and is being digitized. Linear features in Cabell and Wayne Counties, as revealed by LANDSAT, were evaluated to test the possible correlations with rock fractures and gas production from shales. A LANDSAT linear features map (1:250,000) was prepared for the entire state, also. Presently investigations are being made to understand karst and to predict areas that should not be used for development. Aerial photography and field mapping is being conducted to detect the location and causes of landslides.

  8. Lunar remote sensing and measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, H.J.; Boyce, J.M.; Schaber, G.G.; Scott, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing and measurements of the Moon from Apollo orbiting spacecraft and Earth form a basis for extrapolation of Apollo surface data to regions of the Moon where manned and unmanned spacecraft have not been and may be used to discover target regions for future lunar exploration which will produce the highest scientific yields. Orbital remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) relative ages and inferred absolute ages, (2) gravity, (3) magnetism, (4) chemical composition, and (5) reflection of radar waves (bistatic). Earth-based remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) reflection of sunlight, (2) reflection and scattering of radar waves, and (3) infrared eclipse temperatures. Photographs from the Apollo missions, Lunar Orbiters, and other sources provide a fundamental source of data on the geology and topography of the Moon and a basis for comparing, correlating, and testing the remote sensing and measurements. Relative ages obtained from crater statistics and then empirically correlated with absolute ages indicate that significant lunar volcanism continued to 2.5 b.y. (billion years) ago-some 600 m.y. (million years) after the youngest volcanic rocks sampled by Apollo-and that intensive bombardment of the Moon occurred in the interval of 3.84 to 3.9 b.y. ago. Estimated fluxes of crater-producing objects during the last 50 m.y. agree fairly well with fluxes measured by the Apollo passive seismic stations. Gravity measurements obtained by observing orbiting spacecraft reveal that mare basins have mass concentrations and that the volume of material ejected from the Orientale basin is near 2 to 5 million km 3 depending on whether there has or has not been isostatic compensation, little or none of which has occurred since 3.84 b.y. ago. Isostatic compensation may have occurred in some of the old large lunar basins, but more data are needed to prove it. Steady fields of remanent magnetism were detected by the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites

  9. Survey of remote sensing applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deutsch, Morris

    1974-01-01

    Data from the first earth resources technology satellite (ERTS) as well as from NASA and other aircraft, contain much of the information indicative of the distribution of groundwater and the extent of its utilization. Thermal infrared imagery from aircraft is particularly valuable in studying groundwater discharge to the sea and other surface water bodies. Color infrared photography from aircraft and space is also used to locate areas of potential groundwater development. Anomalies in vegetation, soils, moisture, and their pattern of distribution may be indicative of underlying groundwater conditions. Remote sensing may be used directly or indirectly to identify stream reaches for test holes or production wells. Similarly, location of submarine springs increase effectiveness of groundwater exploration in the coastal zone.

  10. Microwave Remote Sensing Modeling of Ocean Surface Salinity and Winds Using an Empirical Sea Surface Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, Simon H.

    2004-01-01

    Active and passive microwave remote sensing techniques have been investigated for the remote sensing of ocean surface wind and salinity. We revised an ocean surface spectrum using the CMOD-5 geophysical model function (GMF) for the European Remote Sensing (ERS) C-band scatterometer and the Ku-band GMF for the NASA SeaWinds scatterometer. The predictions of microwave brightness temperatures from this model agree well with satellite, aircraft and tower-based microwave radiometer data. This suggests that the impact of surface roughness on microwave brightness temperatures and radar scattering coefficients of sea surfaces can be consistently characterized by a roughness spectrum, providing physical basis for using combined active and passive remote sensing techniques for ocean surface wind and salinity remote sensing.

  11. Remote Sensing of Ocean Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierssen, Heidi M.; Randolph, Kaylan

    The oceans cover over 70% of the earth's surface and the life inhabiting the oceans play an important role in shaping the earth's climate. Phytoplankton, the microscopic organisms in the surface ocean, are responsible for half of the photosynthesis on the planet. These organisms at the base of the food web take up light and carbon dioxide and fix carbon into biological structures releasing oxygen. Estimating the amount of microscopic phytoplankton and their associated primary productivity over the vast expanses of the ocean is extremely challenging from ships. However, as phytoplankton take up light for photosynthesis, they change the color of the surface ocean from blue to green. Such shifts in ocean color can be measured from sensors placed high above the sea on satellites or aircraft and is called "ocean color remote sensing." In open ocean waters, the ocean color is predominantly driven by the phytoplankton concentration and ocean color remote sensing has been used to estimate the amount of chlorophyll a, the primary light-absorbing pigment in all phytoplankton. For the last few decades, satellite data have been used to estimate large-scale patterns of chlorophyll and to model primary productivity across the global ocean from daily to interannual timescales. Such global estimates of chlorophyll and primary productivity have been integrated into climate models and illustrate the important feedbacks between ocean life and global climate processes. In coastal and estuarine systems, ocean color is significantly influenced by other light-absorbing and light-scattering components besides phytoplankton. New approaches have been developed to evaluate the ocean color in relationship to colored dissolved organic matter, suspended sediments, and even to characterize the bathymetry and composition of the seafloor in optically shallow waters. Ocean color measurements are increasingly being used for environmental monitoring of harmful algal blooms, critical coastal habitats

  12. Remote sensing of vegetation structure using computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandois, Jonathan P.

    High-spatial resolution measurements of vegetation structure are needed for improving understanding of ecosystem carbon, water and nutrient dynamics, the response of ecosystems to a changing climate, and for biodiversity mapping and conservation, among many research areas. Our ability to make such measurements has been greatly enhanced by continuing developments in remote sensing technology---allowing researchers the ability to measure numerous forest traits at varying spatial and temporal scales and over large spatial extents with minimal to no field work, which is costly for large spatial areas or logistically difficult in some locations. Despite these advances, there remain several research challenges related to the methods by which three-dimensional (3D) and spectral datasets are joined (remote sensing fusion) and the availability and portability of systems for frequent data collections at small scale sampling locations. Recent advances in the areas of computer vision structure from motion (SFM) and consumer unmanned aerial systems (UAS) offer the potential to address these challenges by enabling repeatable measurements of vegetation structural and spectral traits at the scale of individual trees. However, the potential advances offered by computer vision remote sensing also present unique challenges and questions that need to be addressed before this approach can be used to improve understanding of forest ecosystems. For computer vision remote sensing to be a valuable tool for studying forests, bounding information about the characteristics of the data produced by the system will help researchers understand and interpret results in the context of the forest being studied and of other remote sensing techniques. This research advances understanding of how forest canopy and tree 3D structure and color are accurately measured by a relatively low-cost and portable computer vision personal remote sensing system: 'Ecosynth'. Recommendations are made for optimal

  13. Western Regional Remote Sensing Conference Proceedings, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Diverse applications of LANDSAT data, problem solutions, and operational goals are described by remote sensing users from 14 western states. The proposed FY82 federal budget reductions for technology transfer activities and the planned transition of the operational remote sensing system to NOAA's supervision are also considered.

  14. Remote sensing and reflectance profiling in entomology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing is about characterizing the status of objects and/or classifies their identity based on a combination of spectral features extracted from reflectance or transmission profiles of radiometric energy. Remote sensing can be ground-based, and therefore acquired at a high spatial resolutio...

  15. Sandia multispectral analyst remote sensing toolkit (SMART).

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Brian Nelson; Smith, Jody Lynn; Geib, Peter L.; Nandy, Prabal; Wang, Nancy Nairong

    2003-03-01

    This remote sensing science and exploitation work focused on exploitation algorithms and methods targeted at the analyst. SMART is a 'plug-in' to commercial remote sensing software that provides algorithms to enhance the utility of the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) and other multispectral satellite data. This toolkit has been licensed to 22 government organizations.

  16. Conference of Remote Sensing Educators (CORSE-78)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Ways of improving the teaching of remote sensing students at colleges and universities are discussed. Formal papers and workshops on various Earth resources disciplines, image interpretation, and data processing concepts are presented. An inventory of existing remote sensing and related subject courses being given in western regional universities is included.

  17. What does remote sensing do for ecology?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roughgarden, J.; Running, S. W.; Matson, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    The application of remote sensing to ecological investigations is briefly discussed. Emphasis is given to the recruitment problem in marine population dynamics, the regional analysis of terrestrial ecosystems, and the monitoring of ecological changes. Impediments to the use of remote sensing data in ecology are addressed.

  18. Planning and Implementation of Remote Sensing Experiments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: TEKTITE II experiment-upwelling detection (NASA Mx 138); Design of oceanographic experiments (Gulf of Mexico, Mx 159); Design of oceanographic experiments (Gulf of Mexico, Mx 165); Experiments on thermal pollution; Remote sensing newsletter; Symposium on remote sensing in marine biology and fishery resources.

  19. Active and Passive Remote Sensing of Ice.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    This is a report on the progress that has been made in the study of active and passive remote sensing of ice during the period of August 1, 1984...active and passive microwave remote sensing , (2) used the strong fluctuation theory and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem to calculate the brightness

  20. Ionospheric Profiles from Ultraviolet Remote Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-30

    The long-term goal of this project is to obtain ionospheric profiles from ultraviolet remote sensing of the ionosphere from orbiting space platforms... Remote sensing of the nighttime ionosphere is a more straightforward process because of the absence of the complications brought about by daytime

  1. Active and Passive Remote Sensing of Ice.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    This is a report on the progress that has been made in the study of active and passive remote sensing of ice during the period of February 1, 1984...the emissivities as functions of viewing angles and polarizations. They are used to interpret the passive microwave remote sensing data from

  2. Natural Resource Information System. Remote Sensing Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leachtenauer, J.; And Others

    A major design objective of the Natural Resource Information System entailed the use of remote sensing data as an input to the system. Potential applications of remote sensing data were therefore reviewed and available imagery interpreted to provide input to a demonstration data base. A literature review was conducted to determine the types and…

  3. Accommodating Student Diversity in Remote Sensing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, John L., III.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of teaching computer-based remote sensing to students of varying levels of computer literacy. Suggests an instructional method that accommodates all levels of technical expertise through the use of microcomputers. Presents a curriculum that includes an introduction to remote sensing, digital image processing, and…

  4. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, volume 2. [application and processing of remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Application and processing of remotely sensed data are discussed. Areas of application include: pollution monitoring, water quality, land use, marine resources, ocean surface properties, and agriculture. Image processing and scene analysis are described along with automated photointerpretation and classification techniques. Data from infrared and multispectral band scanners onboard LANDSAT satellites are emphasized.

  5. Remote sensing of some sedimentary rocks.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, P. A.; Lintz, J., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks including varying sized clastics and carbonates were overflown by aircraft between 1966 and 1971 producing data in the ultraviolet to microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. This paper reports that multispectral analysis increases the ease and rapidity of discrimination of rock types having subtle differences in physical characteristics, but fails to enhance and may degrade distinctions where physical characteristics are significantly different. Brief resumes of color and color IR photographic data are presented. Thermal infrared is found to be useful in the mapping of rock units, but limitations such as moisture variation, soil cover, and vegetation may exceed in one formation the distinction between differing lithologies. A brief review of previously published SLAR data is included for completeness. Remote sensing techniques should reduce field geological effort by as much as 50%.

  6. Remote sensing of potential aircraft icing areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuev, Vladimir V.; Nakhtigalova, Daria P.; Shelekhov, Alexander P.; Shelekhova, Evgeniya A.; Baranov, Nikolay A.; Kizhner, Lubov I.

    2015-11-01

    Remote sensing technique of detection of potential aircraft icing areas based on temperature profile measurements, using meteorological temperature profiler, and the data of the Airfield Measuring and Information System (AMIS-RF), was proposed, theoretically described and experimentally validated during the field project in 2012 - 2013 in the Tomsk Bogashevo Airport. Spatial areas of potential aircraft icing were determined using the RAP algorithm and Godske formula. The equations for the reconstruction of profiles of relative humidity and dew point using data from AMIS-RF are given. Actual data on the aircraft icing for the Tomsk Bogashevo Airport on 11 October 2012 and 17 March 2013 are presented in this paper. The RAP algorithm and Godske formula show similar results for the location of spatial areas of potential icing. Though, the results obtained using the RAP algorithm are closer to the actual data on the icing known from aircraft crew reports.

  7. Microwave Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    Because of the large contrast between the dielectric constant of liquid water and that of dry soil at microwave wavelength, there is a strong dependence of the thermal emission and radar backscatter from the soil on its moisture content. This dependence provides a means for the remote sensing of the moisture content in a surface layer approximately 5 cm thick. The feasibility of these techniques is demonstrated from field, aircraft and spacecraft platforms. The soil texture, surface roughness, and vegetative cover affect the sensitivity of the microwave response to moisture variations with vegetation being the most important. It serves as an attenuating layer which can totally obscure the surface. Research indicates that it is possible to obtain five or more levels of moisture discrimination and that a mature corn crop is the limiting vegetation situation.

  8. Benefits to world agriculture through remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffalano, A. C.; Kochanowski, P.

    1976-01-01

    Remote sensing of agricultural land permits crop classification and mensuration which can lead to improved forecasts of production. This technique is particularly important for nations which do not already have an accurate agricultural reporting system. Better forecasts have important economic effects. International grain traders can make better decisions about when to store, buy, and sell. Farmers can make better planting decisions by taking advantage of production estimates for areas out of phase with their own agricultural calendar. World economic benefits will accrue to both buyers and sellers because of increased food supply and price stabilization. This paper reviews the econometric models used to establish this scenario and estimates the dollar value of benefits for world wheat as 200 million dollars annually for the United States and 300 to 400 million dollars annually for the rest of the world.

  9. Land border monitoring with remote sensing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, Radoslaw

    2010-09-01

    The remote sensing technology has many practical applications in different fields of science and industry. There is also a need to examine its usefulness for the purpose of land border surveillance. This research started with analysis of potential direct use of Earth Observation technology for monitoring migrations of people and preventing smuggling. The research, however, proved that there are still many fields within which the EO technology needs to be improved. From that point the analysis focused on improving Border Permeability Index which utilizes EO techniques as a source of information. The result of BPI analysis with use of high resolution data provides new kind of information which can support and make more effective work of authorities from security domain.

  10. Simulating optoelectronic systems for remote sensing with SENSOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boerner, Anko

    2003-04-01

    The consistent end-to-end simulation of airborne and spaceborne remote sensing systems is an important task and sometimes the only way for the adaptation and optimization of a sensor and its observation conditions, the choice and test of algorithms for data processing, error estimation and the evaluation of the capabilities of the whole sensor system. The presented software simulator SENSOR (Software ENvironment for the Simulation of Optical Remote sensing systems) includes a full model of the sensor hardware, the observed scene, and the atmosphere in between. It allows the simulation of a wide range of optoelectronic systems for remote sensing. The simulator consists of three parts. The first part describes the geometrical relations between scene, sun, and the remote sensing system using a ray tracing algorithm. The second part of the simulation environment considers the radiometry. It calculates the at-sensor radiance using a pre-calculated multidimensional lookup-table taking the atmospheric influence on the radiation into account. Part three consists of an optical and an electronic sensor model for the generation of digital images. Using SENSOR for an optimization requires the additional application of task-specific data processing algorithms. The principle of the end-to-end-simulation approach is explained, all relevant concepts of SENSOR are discussed, and examples of its use are given. The verification of SENSOR is demonstrated.

  11. Coupling a hydro-maritime model and remotely sensed techniques to assess the shoreline positioning uncertainty: the Marsala coast study case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manno, Giorgio; Lo Re, Carlo; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; Maltese, Antonino

    2010-10-01

    The severe erosion phenomena affecting the Mediterranean coasts are strictly related to geophysical characteristics and socio-economic pressures. This suggests the need of monitoring and modelling the phenomenon in order to quantify its strength. In fact, the shoreline position, as well as its temporal evolution, provides important information for designing defence structures and for the development of a coastal management plan. The shoreline has a dynamic nature as it changes both in the short and long period. Those changes are caused by geo-morphological (e.g. bars and barrier island development etc.) and hydrodynamic (wave motion, tides and flows) processes, as well as by sudden and fast events such as sea storms, earthquakes and tsunamis. The research examines the uncertainty in positioning the shoreline coupling remotely sensed images and a hydro-maritime model. Although the assessment accuracy strongly relies on data availability and consistency, the resulting assessment of the shoreline erosion and accretion is crucial for an overall understanding of the hydro-maritime geo-morphological interaction. The study case is the Marsala coastline (western coast of Sicily, Italy), named 12th island physiographic unit. It is characterized by a low coast with sandy sediments from Holocene age. These sediments are in continuity of sedimentation on whitish debris composed by organogenic limestone from Pleistocene age. The diachronic analysis was carried out on both emerged and submerged parts of the beach and involves two distinct phases. In the first phase, geo-morphological in situ data have been compared with maps and georeferenced remote sensing images referred to the period 1994-2006. It allowed the identification of shoreline indicators [2] such as the beach cross-section and the shoreline positioning including its spatial and temporal variations. It should be noted that the comparison between EO (Earth Observation) images and cartographic maps is subjected to

  12. Three Dimensional Remote Sensing of Vegetation in Human Landscapes Using Computer Vision Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandois, J.; Ellis, E. C.

    2009-12-01

    Urban and other populated and used landscapes today cover a greater extent globally than do wild ecosystems. Methods for accurate ecological measurements on their vegetation and other ecological properties are therefore essential for ecology and earth science. Yet human landscapes are characterized by complex mosaics of vegetation and built structures that are heterogeneous at very fine spatial scales, therefore defying ecological measurements by conventional two dimensional remote sensing techniques, even when these are applied at fine spatial scales. To better measure and understand human-environment interactions within densely populated landscapes, high-spatial resolution three dimensional (3D) remote sensing techniques are needed. Current methods of remote sensing from aerial and satellite platforms are able to resolve land cover and three-dimensional structure using a combination of passive and active sensor technologies (e.g., optical imagers and LIDAR sensors). Despite such advances, there remain substantial gaps in knowledge about the distribution and biological characteristics of vegetation across all regions of earth, especially in densely populated environments. Here we present new methods for very fine scale 3D remote sensing of vegetation structure using computer vision techniques applied to standard digital photographs taken from consumer grade digital cameras mounted on low-altitude aerial platforms. Computer vision algorithms are used to produce 3D geometry from overlapping images, generating datasets very similar to LIDAR point clouds, and useful for measuring vegetation structure characteristics like canopy structure and tree height. These are then used to estimate vegetation biophysical characteristics like canopy density and biomass. Preliminary results demonstrate that this approach offers great promise as a tool for obtaining ecological measurements such as canopy height and vegetation form at the scale of individual trees in a low-cost and

  13. Estimation of Urban Growth Impact on River Ecosystems through Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques: A Case Study of the Cahaba Watershed Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliskan, S.; Campbell, K.; Cowart, K.; Foreman, M.; Keyes, D. E.; Olson, J.; Padgett-Vasquez, S.

    2011-12-01

    Landscape transformations are the most widespread and potential threat to watershed ecosystems. Different land transformations such as urbanization, deforestation, and expansion of agricultural areas impact land cover, hydrology, and terrestrial and aquatic linkages in the watershed. The Cahaba River, located in Alabama, is among the most biologically diverse rivers in North America, and supplies water to 20% of Alabama residents. The largest metropolitan area in Alabama, the city of Birmingham, is found within the upper sub-watersheds of the Cahaba River watershed. As the city and its population grow there has also been an increase in environmental concern over the recent declines of aquatic species, a rise in endangered wildlife, and issues of water quality, in particular surface runoff and sedimentation. The main objective of this research is to assess the land use and land cover changes and their impacts on the biodiversity and different aquatic habitat species on the Cahaba Watershed. To investigate the land cover changes, LandSAT 5 TM scenes from 2001, 2006 and 2010 were used to derive vegetation cover changes and apply spatio-temporal analyses. The second objective of the study is to establish a GIS model to integrate the social and physical factors impacting the biodiversity with remotely sensed data. The final objective is to apply statistical analyses to investigate the habitat degradation with results of the GIS model. Findings and end products will be vital to policy makers for the Cahaba River Society, City of Birmingham, and Alabama Department of Environmental Management in development of conservation strategies and new land-use plans pertaining to the Cahaba River watershed.

  14. Remotely Sensed Snow Data Assimilation within Distributed Snow 17 Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechant, C. M.; Leisenring, M.; Moradkhani, H.

    2009-12-01

    Accurate estimation of the quantity of water stored in seasonal snow cover, particularly in the mountainous Western United States, is an important tool for water resources management. Challenges in the estimation of Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) arise from uncertain model forcing data, model structure/parameter error, poor spatial resolution of in-situ measurements and uncertainties in remotely sensed observations. Currently, the best method for quantifying SWE is to integrate both modeled and remotely sensed estimates of snow by accounting for the relative uncertainties associated with each estimate. Data assimilation techniques account for observed and modeled errors by treating them as a stochastic variable and sequentially updating/resampling the state values. This study examines the effectiveness of three snow data assimilation techniques for creating a more accurate estimate of SWE. In this study, SWE, modeled with a distributed version of the National Weather Service’s SNOW-17 model, and model parameters in the Snow-17 model are updated with remotely sensed snow cover area (SCA). The SNOW-17 model takes precipitation and temperature as an input and estimates both SWE and SCA. Model forcing data was gathered from the North-American Land Data Assimilation (NLDAS) dataset. The SCA information used in this study is produced by the MODIS instrument flown on the NASA Terra satellite. The model runs at 1/8th degree and MODIS data is aggregated to this resolution from a 500m resolution. Remotely sensed SCA is used as the observation in three different data assimilation schemes: Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), Ensemble Kalman Smoother (EnKS) and the Particle Filter. The EnKF and EnKS both use the same update equation, which assumes normally distributed errors. The Particle Filter takes a different approach that does not require an assumption about the error distribution. The accuracy and uncertainties associated with each of these assimilation techniques are compared

  15. Remote sensing monitoring of the global ozonosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genco, S.; Bortoli, D.; Ravegnani, F.

    2013-10-01

    The use of CFCs, which are the main responsible for the ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere and the formation of the so-called "ozone hole" over Antarctic Region, was phase out by Montreal Protocol (1989). CFCs' concentration is recently reported to decrease in the free atmosphere, but severe episodes of ozone depletion in both Arctic and Antarctic regions are still occurring. Nevertheless the complete recovery of the Ozone layer is expected by about 2050. Recent simulation of perturbations in stratospheric chemistry highlight that circulation, temperature and composition are strictly correlated and they influence the global climate changes. Chemical composition plays an important role in the thermodynamic of the atmosphere, as every gaseous species can absorb and emit in different wavelengths, so their different concentration is responsible for the heating or cooling of the atmosphere. Therefore long-term observations are required to monitor the evolution of the stratospheric ozone layer. Measurements from satellite remote sensing instruments, which provide wide coverage, are supplementary to selective ground-based observations which are usually better calibrated, more stable in time and cover a wider time span. The combination of the data derived from different space-borne instruments calibrated with ground-based sensors is needed to produce homogeneous and consistent long-term data records. These last are required for robust investigations and especially for trend analysis. Here, we perform a review of the major remote-sensing techniques and of the principal datasets available to study the evolution of ozone layer in the past decades and predict future behavio

  16. Remote sensing of sagebrush canopy nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, Jessica J.; Glenn, Nancy F.; Sankey, Temuulen T.; Derryberry, DeWayne R.; Germino, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a combination of techniques suitable for remotely sensing foliar Nitrogen (N) in semiarid shrublands – a capability that would significantly improve our limited understanding of vegetation functionality in dryland ecosystems. The ability to estimate foliar N distributions across arid and semi-arid environments could help answer process-driven questions related to topics such as controls on canopy photosynthesis, the influence of N on carbon cycling behavior, nutrient pulse dynamics, and post-fire recovery. Our study determined that further exploration into estimating sagebrush canopy N concentrations from an airborne platform is warranted, despite remote sensing challenges inherent to open canopy systems. Hyperspectral data transformed using standard derivative analysis were capable of quantifying sagebrush canopy N concentrations using partial least squares (PLS) regression with an R2 value of 0.72 and an R2 predicted value of 0.42 (n = 35). Subsetting the dataset to minimize the influence of bare ground (n = 19) increased R2 to 0.95 (R2 predicted = 0.56). Ground-based estimates of canopy N using leaf mass per unit area measurements (LMA) yielded consistently better model fits than ground-based estimates of canopy N using cover and height measurements. The LMA approach is likely a method that could be extended to other semiarid shrublands. Overall, the results of this study are encouraging for future landscape scale N estimates and represent an important step in addressing the confounding influence of bare ground, which we found to be a major influence on predictions of sagebrush canopy N from an airborne platform.

  17. Emergence of the Green’s Functions from Noise and Passive Acoustic Remote Sensing of Ocean Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    Acoustic Remote Sensing of Ocean Dynamics Oleg A. Godin CIRES/Univ. of Colorado and NOAA/OAR/Earth System Research Lab., R/PSD99, 325 Broadway...characterization of a time-varying ocean where ambient acoustic noise is utilized as a probing signal. • To develop a passive remote sensing technique for...inapplicable. 3. To quantify degradation of performance of passive remote sensing techniques due to ocean surface motion and other variations of underwater

  18. Cooling Effect of Rivers on Metropolitan Taipei Using Remote Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Chang; Tan, Chih-Hung; Wei, Chiang; Su, Zi-Wen

    2014-01-01

    This study applied remote sensing technology to analyze how rivers in the urban environment affect the surface temperature of their ambient areas. While surface meteorological stations can supply accurate data points in the city, remote sensing can provide such data in a two-dimensional (2-D) manner. The goal of this paper is to apply the remote sensing technique to further our understanding of the relationship between the surface temperature and rivers in urban areas. The 2-D surface temperature data was retrieved from Landsat-7 thermal infrared images, while data collected by Formosat-2 was used to categorize the land uses in the urban area. The land surface temperature distribution is simulated by a sigmoid function with nonlinear regression analysis. Combining the aforementioned data, the range of effect on the surface temperature from rivers can be derived. With the remote sensing data collected for the Taipei Metropolitan area, factors affecting the surface temperature were explored. It indicated that the effect on the developed area was less significant than on the ambient nature zone; moreover, the size of the buffer zone between the river and city, such as the wetlands or flood plain, was found to correlate with the affected distance of the river surface temperature. PMID:24464232

  19. Drought impacts on the Amazon forest: the remote sensing perspective.

    PubMed

    Asner, Gregory P; Alencar, Ane

    2010-08-01

    Drought varies spatially and temporally throughout the Amazon basin, challenging efforts to assess ecological impacts via field measurements alone. Remote sensing offers a range of regional insights into drought-mediated changes in cloud cover and rainfall, canopy physiology, and fire. Here, we summarize remote sensing studies of Amazônia which indicate that: fires and burn scars are more common during drought years; hydrological function including floodplain area is significantly affected by drought; and land use affects the sensitivity of the forest to dry conditions and increases fire susceptibility during drought. We highlight two controversial areas of research centering on canopy physiological responses to drought and changes in subcanopy fires during drought. By comparing findings from field and satellite studies, we contend that current remote sensing observations and techniques cannot resolve these controversies using current satellite observations. We conclude that studies integrating multiple lines of evidence from physiological, disturbance-fire, and hydrological remote sensing, as well as field measurements, are critically needed to narrow our uncertainty of basin-level responses to drought and climate change.

  20. NASA Icing Remote Sensing System Comparisons From AIRS II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Brinker, David J.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.

    2005-01-01

    NASA has an on-going activity to develop remote sensing technologies for the detection and measurement of icing conditions aloft. A multiple instrument approach is the current emphasis of this activity. Utilizing radar, radiometry, and lidar, a region of supercooled liquid is identified. If the liquid water content (LWC) is sufficiently high, then the region of supercooled liquid cloud is flagged as being an aviation hazard. The instruments utilized for the current effort are an X-band vertical staring radar, a radiometer that measures twelve frequencies between 22 and 59 GHz, and a lidar ceilometer. The radar data determine cloud boundaries, the radiometer determines the sub-freezing temperature heights and total liquid water content, and the ceilometer refines the lower cloud boundary. Data is post-processed with a LabVIEW program with a resultant supercooled LWC profile and aircraft hazard identification. Individual remotely sensed measurements gathered during the 2003-2004 Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS II) were compared to aircraft in-situ measurements. Comparisons between the remote sensing system s fused icing product and in-situ measurements from the research aircraft are reviewed here. While there are areas where improvement can be made, the cases examined indicate that the fused sensor remote sensing technique appears to be a valid approach.