Science.gov

Sample records for adaptive sampling program

  1. Adaptive Sampling Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flournoy, Nancy

    Designs for sequential sampling procedures that adapt to cumulative information are discussed. A familiar illustration is the play-the-winner rule in which there are two treatments; after a random start, the same treatment is continued as long as each successive subject registers a success. When a failure occurs, the other treatment is used until…

  2. The Application of Adaptive Sampling and Analysis Program (ASAP) Techniques to NORM Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Robert; Smith, Karen P.; Quinn, John

    1999-10-29

    The results from the Michigan demonstration establish that this type of approach can be very effective for NORM sites. The advantages include (1) greatly reduced per sample analytical costs; (2) a reduced reliance on soil sampling and ex situ gamma spectroscopy analyses; (3) the ability to combine characterization with remediation activities in one fieldwork cycle; (4) improved documentation; and (5) ultimately better remediation, as measured by greater precision in delineating soils that are not in compliance with requirements from soils that are in compliance. In addition, the demonstration showed that the use of real-time technologies, such as the RadInSoil, can facilitate the implementation of a Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM)-based final status survey program

  3. Water Resource Adaptation Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Resource Adaptation Program (WRAP) contributes to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA) efforts to provide water resource managers and decision makers with the tools needed to adapt water resources to demographic and economic development, and future clim...

  4. Adaptive sampling for noisy problems

    SciTech Connect

    Cantu-Paz, E

    2004-03-26

    The usual approach to deal with noise present in many real-world optimization problems is to take an arbitrary number of samples of the objective function and use the sample average as an estimate of the true objective value. The number of samples is typically chosen arbitrarily and remains constant for the entire optimization process. This paper studies an adaptive sampling technique that varies the number of samples based on the uncertainty of deciding between two individuals. Experiments demonstrate the effect of adaptive sampling on the final solution quality reached by a genetic algorithm and the computational cost required to find the solution. The results suggest that the adaptive technique can effectively eliminate the need to set the sample size a priori, but in many cases it requires high computational costs.

  5. Adaptive Sampling in Hierarchical Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Knap, J; Barton, N R; Hornung, R D; Arsenlis, A; Becker, R; Jefferson, D R

    2007-07-09

    We propose an adaptive sampling methodology for hierarchical multi-scale simulation. The method utilizes a moving kriging interpolation to significantly reduce the number of evaluations of finer-scale response functions to provide essential constitutive information to a coarser-scale simulation model. The underlying interpolation scheme is unstructured and adaptive to handle the transient nature of a simulation. To handle the dynamic construction and searching of a potentially large set of finer-scale response data, we employ a dynamic metric tree database. We study the performance of our adaptive sampling methodology for a two-level multi-scale model involving a coarse-scale finite element simulation and a finer-scale crystal plasticity based constitutive law.

  6. Adaptive sampling in convergent beams.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Julián; Mas, David; Pérez, Jorge; Illueca, Carlos

    2008-09-01

    Numerical calculation of convergent Fresnel patterns through fast Fourier transform usually requires a large number of samples to fulfill the Nyquist sampling condition around the focus. From polynomial decomposition of the wavefront it is possible to determine which polynomial orders are the main contributors to the number of samples. This information can be used to properly modify the initial wavefront and relax the Nyquist condition thus giving a more efficient numerical algorithm.

  7. Bayesian approaches for adaptive spatial sampling : an example application.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R. L.; LePoire, D.; Huttenga, A.; Quinn, J.

    2005-05-25

    BAASS (Bayesian Approaches for Adaptive Spatial Sampling) is a set of computational routines developed to support the design and deployment of spatial sampling programs for delineating contamination footprints, such as those that might result from the accidental or intentional environmental release of radionuclides. BAASS presumes the existence of real-time measurement technologies that provide information quickly enough to affect the progress of data collection. This technical memorandum describes the application of BAASS to a simple example, compares the performance of a BAASS-based program with that of a traditional gridded program, and explores the significance of several of the underlying assumptions required by BAASS. These assumptions include the range of spatial autocorrelation present, the value of prior information, the confidence level required for decision making, and ''inside-out'' versus ''outside-in'' sampling strategies. In the context of the example, adaptive sampling combined with prior information significantly reduced the number of samples required to delineate the contamination footprint.

  8. Accurate Biomass Estimation via Bayesian Adaptive Sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Kevin R.; Knuth, Kevin H.; Castle, Joseph P.; Lvov, Nikolay

    2005-01-01

    The following concepts were introduced: a) Bayesian adaptive sampling for solving biomass estimation; b) Characterization of MISR Rahman model parameters conditioned upon MODIS landcover. c) Rigorous non-parametric Bayesian approach to analytic mixture model determination. d) Unique U.S. asset for science product validation and verification.

  9. Mission Adaptive Wing test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birk, Frank T.; Smith, Rogers E.

    1986-01-01

    With the completion of the F-111 test-bed Mission Adaptive Wing (MAW) test program's manual flight control system, emphasis has been shifted to flight testing of MAW automatic control modes. These encompass (1) cruise camber control, (2) maneuver camber control, (3) maneuver load control, and (4) maneuver enhancement and load alleviation control. The aircraft is currently cleared to a 2.5-g maneuvering limit due to generally higher variable-incidence wing pivot loads than had been anticipated, especially at the higher wing-camber settings. Buffet is noted to be somewhat higher than expected at the higher camber settings.

  10. Adaptive down-sampling video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ren-Jie; Chien, Ming-Chen; Chang, Pao-Chi

    2010-01-01

    Down-sampling coding, which sub-samples the image and encodes the smaller sized images, is one of the solutions to raise the image quality at insufficiently high rates. In this work, we propose an Adaptive Down-Sampling (ADS) coding for H.264/AVC. The overall system distortion can be analyzed as the sum of the down-sampling distortion and the coding distortion. The down-sampling distortion is mainly the loss of the high frequency components that is highly dependent of the spatial difference. The coding distortion can be derived from the classical Rate-Distortion theory. For a given rate and a video sequence, the optimum down-sampling resolution-ratio can be derived by utilizing the optimum theory toward minimizing the system distortion based on the models of the two distortions. This optimal resolution-ratio is used in both down-sampling and up-sampling processes in ADS coding scheme. As a result, the rate-distortion performance of ADS coding is always higher than the fixed ratio coding or H.264/AVC by 2 to 4 dB at low to medium rates.

  11. Stepwise two-stage sample size adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Hong; Ellenberg, Susan S; Anderson, Keaven M

    2015-01-15

    Several adaptive design methods have been proposed to reestimate sample size using the observed treatment effect after an initial stage of a clinical trial while preserving the overall type I error at the time of the final analysis. One unfortunate property of the algorithms used in some methods is that they can be inverted to reveal the exact treatment effect at the interim analysis. We propose using a step function with an inverted U-shape of observed treatment difference for sample size reestimation to lessen the information on treatment effect revealed. This will be referred to as stepwise two-stage sample size adaptation. This method applies calculation methods used for group sequential designs. We minimize expected sample size among a class of these designs and compare efficiency with the fully optimized two-stage design, optimal two-stage group sequential design, and designs based on promising conditional power. The trade-off between efficiency versus the improved blinding of the interim treatment effect will be discussed.

  12. Feature Adaptive Sampling for Scanning Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dahmen, Tim; Engstler, Michael; Pauly, Christoph; Trampert, Patrick; de Jonge, Niels; Mücklich, Frank; Slusallek, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    A new method for the image acquisition in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was introduced. The method used adaptively increased pixel-dwell times to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in areas of high detail. In areas of low detail, the electron dose was reduced on a per pixel basis, and a-posteriori image processing techniques were applied to remove the resulting noise. The technique was realized by scanning the sample twice. The first, quick scan used small pixel-dwell times to generate a first, noisy image using a low electron dose. This image was analyzed automatically, and a software algorithm generated a sparse pattern of regions of the image that require additional sampling. A second scan generated a sparse image of only these regions, but using a highly increased electron dose. By applying a selective low-pass filter and combining both datasets, a single image was generated. The resulting image exhibited a factor of ≈3 better SNR than an image acquired with uniform sampling on a Cartesian grid and the same total acquisition time. This result implies that the required electron dose (or acquisition time) for the adaptive scanning method is a factor of ten lower than for uniform scanning. PMID:27150131

  13. Accurate Biomass Estimation via Bayesian Adaptive Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, K.; Knuth, K.; Castle, P.

    2005-12-01

    Typical estimates of standing wood derived from remote sensing sources take advantage of aggregate measurements of canopy heights (e.g. LIDAR) and canopy diameters (segmentation of IKONOS imagery) to obtain a wood volume estimate by assuming homogeneous species and a fixed function that returns volume. The validation of such techniques use manually measured diameter at breast height records (DBH). Our goal is to improve the accuracy and applicability of biomass estimation methods to heterogeneous forests and transitional areas. We are developing estimates with quantifiable uncertainty using a new form of estimation function, active sampling, and volumetric reconstruction image rendering for species specific mass truth. Initially we are developing a Bayesian adaptive sampling method for BRDF associated with the MISR Rahman model with respect to categorical biomes. This involves characterizing the probability distributions of the 3 free parameters of the Rahman model for the 6 categories of biomes used by MISR. Subsequently, these distributions can be used to determine the optimal sampling methodology to distinguish biomes during acquisition. We have a remotely controlled semi-autonomous helicopter that has stereo imaging, lidar, differential GPS, and spectrometers covering wavelengths from visible to NIR. We intend to automatically vary the way points of the flight path via the Bayesian adaptive sampling method. The second critical part of this work is in automating the validation of biomass estimates via using machine vision techniques. This involves taking 2-D pictures of trees of known species, and then via Bayesian techniques, reconstructing 3-D models of the trees to estimate the distribution moments associated with wood volume. Similar techniques have been developed by the medical imaging community. This then provides probability distributions conditional upon species. The final part of this work is in relating the BRDF actively sampled measurements to species

  14. Adaptive spatial sampling of contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, L.A. Jr.

    1999-12-01

    Suppose that a residential neighborhood may have been contaminated by a nearby abandoned hazardous waste site. The suspected contamination consists of elevated soil concentrations o chemicals that are also found in the absence of site-related contamination. How should a risk manager decide which residential properties to sample and which ones to clean? This paper introduces an adaptive spatial sampling approach which uses initial observations to guide subsequent search. Unlike some recent model-based spatial data analysis methods, it does not require any specific statistical model for the spatial distribution of hazards, but instead constructs an increasingly accurate nonparametric approximation to it as sampling proceeds. Possible cost-effective sampling and cleanup decision rules are described by decision parameters such as the number of randomly selected locations used to initialize the process, the number of highest-concentration locations searched around, the number of samples taken at each location, a stopping rule, and a remediation action threshold. These decision parameters are optimized by simulating the performance of each decision rule. The simulation is performed using the data collected so far to impute multiple probably values of unknown soil concentration distributions during each simulation run.

  15. HASE - The Helsinki adaptive sample preparation line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palonen, V.; Pesonen, A.; Herranen, T.; Tikkanen, P.; Oinonen, M.

    2013-01-01

    We have designed and built an adaptive sample preparation line with separate modules for combustion, molecular sieve handling, CO2 gas cleaning, CO2 storage, and graphitization. The line is also connected to an elemental analyzer. Operation of the vacuum equipment, a flow controller, pressure sensors, ovens, and graphitization reactors are automated with a reliable NI-cRIO real-time system. Stepped combustion can be performed in two ovens at temperatures up to 900 °C. Depending on the application, CuO or O2-flow combustion can be used. A flow controller is used to adjust the O2 flow and pressure during combustion. For environmental samples, a module for molecular sieve regeneration and sample desorption is attached to the line replacing the combustion module. In the storage module, CO2 samples can be stored behind a gas-tight diaphragm valve and either stored for later graphitization or taken for measurements with separate equipment (AMS gas ion source or a separate mass spectrometer). The graphitization module consists of four automated reactors, capable of graphitizing samples with masses from 3 mg down to 50 μg.

  16. Adaptive Management Implementation: Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program Trinity River Restoration Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wittler, R.; McBain, S.; Stalnaker, C.; Bizier, P.; DeBarry, P.

    2003-01-01

    Two adaptive management programs, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP) and the Trinity River Restoration Program (TRRP) are examined. In both cases, the focus is on managing the aquatic and riparian systems downstream of a large dam and water supply project. The status of the two programs, lessons learned by the program managers and the Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management (AEAM) evolution of the TRRP are discussed. The Trinity River illustrates some of the scientific uncertainities that a program faces and the ways the program evolves from concept through implementation.

  17. TRU waste-sampling program

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.L.; Zerwekh, A.

    1985-08-01

    As part of a TRU waste-sampling program, Los Alamos National Laboratory retrieved and examined 44 drums of /sup 238/Pu- and /sup 239/Pu-contaminated waste. The drums ranged in age from 8 months to 9 years. The majority of drums were tested for pressure, and gas samples withdrawn from the drums were analyzed by a mass spectrometer. Real-time radiography and visual examination were used to determine both void volumes and waste content. Drum walls were measured for deterioration, and selected drum contents were reassayed for comparison with original assays and WIPP criteria. Each drum tested at atmospheric pressure. Mass spectrometry revealed no problem with /sup 239/Pu-contaminated waste, but three 8-month-old drums of /sup 238/Pu-contaminated waste contained a potentially hazardous gas mixture. Void volumes fell within the 81 to 97% range. Measurements of drum walls showed no significant corrosion or deterioration. All reassayed contents were within WIPP waste acceptance criteria. Five of the drums opened and examined (15%) could not be certified as packaged. Three contained free liquids, one had corrosive materials, and one had too much unstabilized particulate. Eleven drums had the wrong (or not the most appropriate) waste code. In many cases, disposal volumes had been inefficiently used. 2 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. An Adaptive Superintendent Induction Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, Jim; Donlevy, Kent; Hanna, Paulette; Gereluk, Dianne; Patterson, Peggy; Rhyason, Kath

    2014-01-01

    This study examined a recently established induction program for new superintendents in the Canadian province of Alberta over a three-year period. In keeping with principles of design-based research data were collected from a variety of sources from the 26 new superintendents and their 25 mentors to assess and adjust programming through three…

  19. Syntactic adaptability of programming languages

    SciTech Connect

    Gusev, V.V.

    1994-11-01

    Development of programming languages has to contend with a variety of conflicting criteria. Moreover, as in any other creative field, it is not always possible to arrive at a clear formulation of these criteria. Nevertheless, one of the main criteria is problem orientation, be it numerical algorithms, database management, simulation of hydraulic systems, or other applications. Idealizing, we can say that the programming language is based on a model of the application domain. This model may vary in its scope, covering some aspects of the application domain and ignoring others. Thus, for one application domain we may have a whole spectrum of models and correspondingly a whole spectrum of languages. Some are special-purpose languages designed for a specific class of problems, others are more general. Both special-purpose and general-purpose languages have definite advantages and find their own clientele, who are willing to ignore their shortcomings.

  20. Adaptive optics program at TMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, C.; Adkins, Sean; Andersen, David R.; Atwood, Jenny; Bo, Yong; Byrnes, Peter; Caputa, Kris; Cavaco, Jeff; Ellerbroek, Brent; Gilles, Luc; Gregory, James; Herriot, Glen; Hickson, Paul; Ljusic, Zoran; Manter, Darren; Marois, Christian; Otárola, Angel; Pagès, Hubert; Schoeck, Matthias; Sinquin, Jean-Christophe; Smith, Malcolm; Spano, Paolo; Szeto, Kei; Tang, Jinlong; Travouillon, Tony; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Wang, Lianqi; Wei, Kai

    2014-07-01

    The TMT first light Adaptive Optics (AO) facility consists of the Narrow Field Infra-Red AO System (NFIRAOS) and the associated Laser Guide Star Facility (LGSF). NFIRAOS is a 60 × 60 laser guide star (LGS) multi-conjugate AO (MCAO) system, which provides uniform, diffraction-limited performance in the J, H, and K bands over 17-30 arc sec diameter fields with 50 per cent sky coverage at the galactic pole, as required to support the TMT science cases. NFIRAOS includes two deformable mirrors, six laser guide star wavefront sensors, and three low-order, infrared, natural guide star wavefront sensors within each client instrument. The first light LGSF system includes six sodium lasers required to generate the NFIRAOS laser guide stars. In this paper, we will provide an update on the progress in designing, modeling and validating the TMT first light AO systems and their components over the last two years. This will include pre-final design and prototyping activities for NFIRAOS, preliminary design and prototyping activities for the LGSF, design and prototyping for the deformable mirrors, fabrication and tests for the visible detectors, benchmarking and comparison of different algorithms and processing architecture for the Real Time Controller (RTC) and development and tests of prototype candidate lasers. Comprehensive and detailed AO modeling is continuing to support the design and development of the first light AO facility. Main modeling topics studied during the last two years include further studies in the area of wavefront error budget, sky coverage, high precision astrometry for the galactic center and other observations, high contrast imaging with NFIRAOS and its first light instruments, Point Spread Function (PSF) reconstruction for LGS MCAO, LGS photon return and sophisticated low order mode temporal filtering.

  1. Adaptive Metropolis Sampling with Product Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.; Lee, Chiu Fan

    2005-01-01

    The Metropolis-Hastings (MH) algorithm is a way to sample a provided target distribution pi(z). It works by repeatedly sampling a separate proposal distribution T(x,x') to generate a random walk {x(t)}. We consider a modification of the MH algorithm in which T is dynamically updated during the walk. The update at time t uses the {x(t' less than t)} to estimate the product distribution that has the least Kullback-Leibler distance to pi. That estimate is the information-theoretically optimal mean-field approximation to pi. We demonstrate through computer experiments that our algorithm produces samples that are superior to those of the conventional MH algorithm.

  2. Adaptive sampling strategy support for the unlined chromic acid pit, chemical waste landfill, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.L.

    1993-11-01

    Adaptive sampling programs offer substantial savings in time and money when assessing hazardous waste sites. Key to some of these savings is the ability to adapt a sampling program to the real-time data generated by an adaptive sampling program. This paper presents a two-prong approach to supporting adaptive sampling programs: a specialized object-oriented database/geographical information system (SitePlanner{trademark} ) for data fusion, management, and display and combined Bayesian/geostatistical methods (PLUME) for contamination-extent estimation and sample location selection. This approach is applied in a retrospective study of a subsurface chromium plume at Sandia National Laboratories` chemical waste landfill. Retrospective analyses suggest the potential for characterization cost savings on the order of 60% through a reduction in the number of sampling programs, total number of soil boreholes, and number of samples analyzed from each borehole.

  3. Adaptive Importance Sampling for Control and Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappen, H. J.; Ruiz, H. C.

    2016-03-01

    Path integral (PI) control problems are a restricted class of non-linear control problems that can be solved formally as a Feynman-Kac PI and can be estimated using Monte Carlo sampling. In this contribution we review PI control theory in the finite horizon case. We subsequently focus on the problem how to compute and represent control solutions. We review the most commonly used methods in robotics and control. Within the PI theory, the question of how to compute becomes the question of importance sampling. Efficient importance samplers are state feedback controllers and the use of these requires an efficient representation. Learning and representing effective state-feedback controllers for non-linear stochastic control problems is a very challenging, and largely unsolved, problem. We show how to learn and represent such controllers using ideas from the cross entropy method. We derive a gradient descent method that allows to learn feed-back controllers using an arbitrary parametrisation. We refer to this method as the path integral cross entropy method or PICE. We illustrate this method for some simple examples. The PI control methods can be used to estimate the posterior distribution in latent state models. In neuroscience these problems arise when estimating connectivity from neural recording data using EM. We demonstrate the PI control method as an accurate alternative to particle filtering.

  4. Program Evaluation: Two Management-Oriented Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Kenneth Ray

    2010-01-01

    Two Management-Oriented Samples details two examples of the management-oriented approach to program evaluation. Kenneth Alford, a doctorate candidate at the University of the Cumberlands, details two separate program evaluations conducted in his school district and seeks to compare and contrast the two evaluations based upon the characteristics of…

  5. Two-stage sequential sampling: A neighborhood-free adaptive sampling procedure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salehi, M.; Smith, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    Designing an efficient sampling scheme for a rare and clustered population is a challenging area of research. Adaptive cluster sampling, which has been shown to be viable for such a population, is based on sampling a neighborhood of units around a unit that meets a specified condition. However, the edge units produced by sampling neighborhoods have proven to limit the efficiency and applicability of adaptive cluster sampling. We propose a sampling design that is adaptive in the sense that the final sample depends on observed values, but it avoids the use of neighborhoods and the sampling of edge units. Unbiased estimators of population total and its variance are derived using Murthy's estimator. The modified two-stage sampling design is easy to implement and can be applied to a wider range of populations than adaptive cluster sampling. We evaluate the proposed sampling design by simulating sampling of two real biological populations and an artificial population for which the variable of interest took the value either 0 or 1 (e.g., indicating presence and absence of a rare event). We show that the proposed sampling design is more efficient than conventional sampling in nearly all cases. The approach used to derive estimators (Murthy's estimator) opens the door for unbiased estimators to be found for similar sequential sampling designs. ?? 2005 American Statistical Association and the International Biometric Society.

  6. Improvements to the adaptive maneuvering logic program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgin, George H.

    1986-01-01

    The Adaptive Maneuvering Logic (AML) computer program simulates close-in, one-on-one air-to-air combat between two fighter aircraft. Three important improvements are described. First, the previously available versions of AML were examined for their suitability as a baseline program. The selected program was then revised to eliminate some programming bugs which were uncovered over the years. A listing of this baseline program is included. Second, the equations governing the motion of the aircraft were completely revised. This resulted in a model with substantially higher fidelity than the original equations of motion provided. It also completely eliminated the over-the-top problem, which occurred in the older versions when the AML-driven aircraft attempted a vertical or near vertical loop. Third, the requirements for a versatile generic, yet realistic, aircraft model were studied and implemented in the program. The report contains detailed tables which make the generic aircraft to be either a modern, high performance aircraft, an older high performance aircraft, or a previous generation jet fighter.

  7. A dynamic programming approach to adaptive fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, Jagdish; Craft, David; Bortfeld, Thomas; Tsitsiklis, John N.

    2012-03-01

    We conduct a theoretical study of various solution methods for the adaptive fractionation problem. The two messages of this paper are as follows: (i) dynamic programming (DP) is a useful framework for adaptive radiation therapy, particularly adaptive fractionation, because it allows us to assess how close to optimal different methods are, and (ii) heuristic methods proposed in this paper are near-optimal, and therefore, can be used to evaluate the best possible benefit of using an adaptive fraction size. The essence of adaptive fractionation is to increase the fraction size when the tumor and organ-at-risk (OAR) are far apart (a ‘favorable’ anatomy) and to decrease the fraction size when they are close together. Given that a fixed prescribed dose must be delivered to the tumor over the course of the treatment, such an approach results in a lower cumulative dose to the OAR when compared to that resulting from standard fractionation. We first establish a benchmark by using the DP algorithm to solve the problem exactly. In this case, we characterize the structure of an optimal policy, which provides guidance for our choice of heuristics. We develop two intuitive, numerically near-optimal heuristic policies, which could be used for more complex, high-dimensional problems. Furthermore, one of the heuristics requires only a statistic of the motion probability distribution, making it a reasonable method for use in a realistic setting. Numerically, we find that the amount of decrease in dose to the OAR can vary significantly (5-85%) depending on the amount of motion in the anatomy, the number of fractions and the range of fraction sizes allowed. In general, the decrease in dose to the OAR is more pronounced when: (i) we have a high probability of large tumor-OAR distances, (ii) we use many fractions (as in a hyper-fractionated setting) and (iii) we allow large daily fraction size deviations.

  8. Adaptive Sampling for High Throughput Data Using Similarity Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Bulaevskaya, V.; Sales, A. P.

    2015-05-06

    The need for adaptive sampling arises in the context of high throughput data because the rates of data arrival are many orders of magnitude larger than the rates at which they can be analyzed. A very fast decision must therefore be made regarding the value of each incoming observation and its inclusion in the analysis. In this report we discuss one approach to adaptive sampling, based on the new data point’s similarity to the other data points being considered for inclusion. We present preliminary results for one real and one synthetic data set.

  9. Parallel Programming Strategies for Irregular Adaptive Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Achieving scalable performance for dynamic irregular applications is eminently challenging. Traditional message-passing approaches have been making steady progress towards this goal; however, they suffer from complex implementation requirements. The use of a global address space greatly simplifies the programming task, but can degrade the performance for such computations. In this work, we examine two typical irregular adaptive applications, Dynamic Remeshing and N-Body, under competing programming methodologies and across various parallel architectures. The Dynamic Remeshing application simulates flow over an airfoil, and refines localized regions of the underlying unstructured mesh. The N-Body experiment models two neighboring Plummer galaxies that are about to undergo a merger. Both problems demonstrate dramatic changes in processor workloads and interprocessor communication with time; thus, dynamic load balancing is a required component.

  10. Wilsonville wastewater sampling program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1983-10-01

    As part of its contrast to design, build and operate the SRC-1 Demonstration Plant in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE), International Coal Refining Company (ICRC) was required to collect and evaluate data related to wastewater streams and wastewater treatment procedures at the SRC-1 Pilot Plant facility. The pilot plant is located at Wilsonville, Alabama and is operated by Catalytic, Inc. under the direction of Southern Company Services. The plant is funded in part by the Electric Power Research Institute and the DOE. ICRC contracted with Catalytic, Inc. to conduct wastewater sampling. Tasks 1 through 5 included sampling and analysis of various wastewater sources and points of different steps in the biological treatment facility at the plant. The sampling program ran from May 1 to July 31, 1982. Also included in the sampling program was the generation and analysis of leachate from SRC product using standard laboratory leaching procedures. For Task 6, available plant wastewater data covering the period from February 1978 to December 1981 was analyzed to gain information that might be useful for a demonstration plant design basis. This report contains a tabulation of the analytical data, a summary tabulation of the historical operating data that was evaluated and comments concerning the data. The procedures used during the sampling program are also documented.

  11. Node Based Adaptive Sampling and Advanced AUV Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-30

    is to develop and refine node based adaptive sampling and hovering technology using FAU Morpheus vehicle as a test platform. The former one is a...included two days of testing with a “dummy” vehicle followed by two days of testing with the real Morpheus . The initial tests were done with the dummy...vehicle because the Morpheus was unavailable for docking experiments at the time. These tests were conducted in order to get a better sense of

  12. Node Based Adaptive Sampling and Advanced AUV Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-30

    is to develop and refine node based adaptive sampling and hovering technology using FAU Morpheus vehicle as a test platform. The former one is a...dummy” vehicle followed by two days of testing with the real Morpheus . The initial tests were done with the dummy vehicle because the Morpheus was... Morpheus when it became available. The dummy vehicle was constructed from empty Morpheus modules with weight placed inside each at a calculated

  13. Adaptive Sampling Algorithms for Probabilistic Risk Assessment of Nuclear Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Diego Mandelli; Dan Maljovec; Bei Wang; Valerio Pascucci; Peer-Timo Bremer

    2013-09-01

    Nuclear simulations are often computationally expensive, time-consuming, and high-dimensional with respect to the number of input parameters. Thus exploring the space of all possible simulation outcomes is infeasible using finite computing resources. During simulation-based probabilistic risk analysis, it is important to discover the relationship between a potentially large number of input parameters and the output of a simulation using as few simulation trials as possible. This is a typical context for performing adaptive sampling where a few observations are obtained from the simulation, a surrogate model is built to represent the simulation space, and new samples are selected based on the model constructed. The surrogate model is then updated based on the simulation results of the sampled points. In this way, we attempt to gain the most information possible with a small number of carefully selected sampled points, limiting the number of expensive trials needed to understand features of the simulation space. We analyze the specific use case of identifying the limit surface, i.e., the boundaries in the simulation space between system failure and system success. In this study, we explore several techniques for adaptively sampling the parameter space in order to reconstruct the limit surface. We focus on several adaptive sampling schemes. First, we seek to learn a global model of the entire simulation space using prediction models or neighborhood graphs and extract the limit surface as an iso-surface of the global model. Second, we estimate the limit surface by sampling in the neighborhood of the current estimate based on topological segmentations obtained locally. Our techniques draw inspirations from topological structure known as the Morse-Smale complex. We highlight the advantages and disadvantages of using a global prediction model versus local topological view of the simulation space, comparing several different strategies for adaptive sampling in both

  14. The CHARA Array Adaptive Optics Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ten Brummelaar, Theo; Che, Xiao; McAlister, Harold A.; Ireland, Michael; Monnier, John D.; Mourard, Denis; Ridgway, Stephen T.; sturmann, judit; Sturmann, Laszlo; Turner, Nils H.; Tuthill, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The CHARA array is an optical/near infrared interferometer consisting of six 1-meter diameter telescopes the longest baseline of which is 331 meters. With sub-millisecond angular resolution, the CHARA array is able to spatially resolve nearby stellar systems to reveal the detailed structures. To improve the sensitivity and scientific throughput, the CHARA array was funded by NSF-ATI in 2011, and by NSF-MRI in 2015, for an upgrade of adaptive optics (AO) systems to all six telescopes. The initial grant covers Phase I of the adaptive optics system, which includes an on-telescope Wavefront Sensor and non-common-path (NCP) error correction. The WFS use a fairly standard Shack-Hartman design and will initially close the tip tilt servo and log wavefront errors for use in data reduction and calibration. The second grant provides the funding for deformable mirrors for each telescope which will be used closed loop to remove atmospheric aberrations from the beams. There are then over twenty reflections after the WFS at the telescopes that bring the light several hundred meters into the beam combining laboratory. Some of these, including the delay line and beam reducing optics, are powered elements, and some of them, in particular the delay lines and telescope Coude optics, are continually moving. This means that the NCP problems in an interferometer are much greater than those found in more standard telescope systems. A second, slow AO system is required in the laboratory to correct for these NCP errors. We will breifly describe the AO system, and it's current status, as well as discuss the new science enabled by the system with a focus on our YSO program.

  15. Designing and Implementing Effective Adapted Physical Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Luke E.

    2011-01-01

    "Designing and Implementing Effective Adapted Physical Education Programs" was written to assist adapted and general physical educators who are dedicated to ensuring that the physical and motor needs of all their students are addressed in physical education. While it is anticipated that adapted physical educators, where available, will typically…

  16. Examining adaptations of evidence-based programs in natural contexts.

    PubMed

    Moore, Julia E; Bumbarger, Brian K; Cooper, Brittany Rhoades

    2013-06-01

    When evidence-based programs (EBPs) are scaled up in natural, or non-research, settings, adaptations are commonly made. Given the fidelity-versus-adaptation debate, theoretical rationales have been provided for the pros and cons of adaptations. Yet the basis of this debate is theoretical; thus, empirical evidence is needed to understand the types of adaptations made in natural settings. In the present study, we introduce a taxonomy for understanding adaptations. This taxonomy addresses several aspects of adaptations made to programs including the fit (philosophical or logistical), timing (proactive or reactive), and valence, or the degree to which the adaptations align with the program's goals and theory, (positive, negative, or neutral). Self-reported qualitative data from communities delivering one of ten state-funded EBPs were coded based on the taxonomy constructs; additionally, quantitative data were used to examine the types and reasons for making adaptations under natural conditions. Forty-four percent of respondents reported making adaptations. Adaptations to the procedures, dosage, and content were cited most often. Lack of time, limited resources, and difficulty retaining participants were listed as the most common reasons for making adaptations. Most adaptations were made reactively, as a result of issues of logistical fit, and were not aligned with, or deviated from, the program's goals and theory.

  17. Adaptive Sampling of Time Series During Remote Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David R.

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with the challenge of online adaptive data collection in a time series. A remote sensor or explorer agent adapts its rate of data collection in order to track anomalous events while obeying constraints on time and power. This problem is challenging because the agent has limited visibility (all its datapoints lie in the past) and limited control (it can only decide when to collect its next datapoint). This problem is treated from an information-theoretic perspective, fitting a probabilistic model to collected data and optimizing the future sampling strategy to maximize information gain. The performance characteristics of stationary and nonstationary Gaussian process models are compared. Self-throttling sensors could benefit environmental sensor networks and monitoring as well as robotic exploration. Explorer agents can improve performance by adjusting their data collection rate, preserving scarce power or bandwidth resources during uninteresting times while fully covering anomalous events of interest. For example, a remote earthquake sensor could conserve power by limiting its measurements during normal conditions and increasing its cadence during rare earthquake events. A similar capability could improve sensor platforms traversing a fixed trajectory, such as an exploration rover transect or a deep space flyby. These agents can adapt observation times to improve sample coverage during moments of rapid change. An adaptive sampling approach couples sensor autonomy, instrument interpretation, and sampling. The challenge is addressed as an active learning problem, which already has extensive theoretical treatment in the statistics and machine learning literature. A statistical Gaussian process (GP) model is employed to guide sample decisions that maximize information gain. Nonsta tion - ary (e.g., time-varying) covariance relationships permit the system to represent and track local anomalies, in contrast with current GP approaches. Most common GP models

  18. Distributed database kriging for adaptive sampling (D²KAS)

    DOE PAGES

    Roehm, Dominic; Pavel, Robert S.; Barros, Kipton; ...

    2015-03-18

    We present an adaptive sampling method supplemented by a distributed database and a prediction method for multiscale simulations using the Heterogeneous Multiscale Method. A finite-volume scheme integrates the macro-scale conservation laws for elastodynamics, which are closed by momentum and energy fluxes evaluated at the micro-scale. In the original approach, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are launched for every macro-scale volume element. Our adaptive sampling scheme replaces a large fraction of costly micro-scale MD simulations with fast table lookup and prediction. The cloud database Redis provides the plain table lookup, and with locality aware hashing we gather input data for our predictionmore » scheme. For the latter we use kriging, which estimates an unknown value and its uncertainty (error) at a specific location in parameter space by using weighted averages of the neighboring points. We find that our adaptive scheme significantly improves simulation performance by a factor of 2.5 to 25, while retaining high accuracy for various choices of the algorithm parameters.« less

  19. Learning Adaptive Forecasting Models from Irregularly Sampled Multivariate Clinical Data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zitao; Hauskrecht, Milos

    2016-02-01

    Building accurate predictive models of clinical multivariate time series is crucial for understanding of the patient condition, the dynamics of a disease, and clinical decision making. A challenging aspect of this process is that the model should be flexible and adaptive to reflect well patient-specific temporal behaviors and this also in the case when the available patient-specific data are sparse and short span. To address this problem we propose and develop an adaptive two-stage forecasting approach for modeling multivariate, irregularly sampled clinical time series of varying lengths. The proposed model (1) learns the population trend from a collection of time series for past patients; (2) captures individual-specific short-term multivariate variability; and (3) adapts by automatically adjusting its predictions based on new observations. The proposed forecasting model is evaluated on a real-world clinical time series dataset. The results demonstrate the benefits of our approach on the prediction tasks for multivariate, irregularly sampled clinical time series, and show that it can outperform both the population based and patient-specific time series prediction models in terms of prediction accuracy.

  20. Learning Adaptive Forecasting Models from Irregularly Sampled Multivariate Clinical Data

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zitao; Hauskrecht, Milos

    2016-01-01

    Building accurate predictive models of clinical multivariate time series is crucial for understanding of the patient condition, the dynamics of a disease, and clinical decision making. A challenging aspect of this process is that the model should be flexible and adaptive to reflect well patient-specific temporal behaviors and this also in the case when the available patient-specific data are sparse and short span. To address this problem we propose and develop an adaptive two-stage forecasting approach for modeling multivariate, irregularly sampled clinical time series of varying lengths. The proposed model (1) learns the population trend from a collection of time series for past patients; (2) captures individual-specific short-term multivariate variability; and (3) adapts by automatically adjusting its predictions based on new observations. The proposed forecasting model is evaluated on a real-world clinical time series dataset. The results demonstrate the benefits of our approach on the prediction tasks for multivariate, irregularly sampled clinical time series, and show that it can outperform both the population based and patient-specific time series prediction models in terms of prediction accuracy. PMID:27525189

  1. Distributed Database Kriging for Adaptive Sampling (D2 KAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehm, Dominic; Pavel, Robert S.; Barros, Kipton; Rouet-Leduc, Bertrand; McPherson, Allen L.; Germann, Timothy C.; Junghans, Christoph

    2015-07-01

    We present an adaptive sampling method supplemented by a distributed database and a prediction method for multiscale simulations using the Heterogeneous Multiscale Method. A finite-volume scheme integrates the macro-scale conservation laws for elastodynamics, which are closed by momentum and energy fluxes evaluated at the micro-scale. In the original approach, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are launched for every macro-scale volume element. Our adaptive sampling scheme replaces a large fraction of costly micro-scale MD simulations with fast table lookup and prediction. The cloud database Redis provides the plain table lookup, and with locality aware hashing we gather input data for our prediction scheme. For the latter we use kriging, which estimates an unknown value and its uncertainty (error) at a specific location in parameter space by using weighted averages of the neighboring points. We find that our adaptive scheme significantly improves simulation performance by a factor of 2.5-25, while retaining high accuracy for various choices of the algorithm parameters.

  2. Distributed database kriging for adaptive sampling (D²KAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Roehm, Dominic; Pavel, Robert S.; Barros, Kipton; Rouet-Leduc, Bertrand; McPherson, Allen L.; Germann, Timothy C.; Junghans, Christoph

    2015-03-18

    We present an adaptive sampling method supplemented by a distributed database and a prediction method for multiscale simulations using the Heterogeneous Multiscale Method. A finite-volume scheme integrates the macro-scale conservation laws for elastodynamics, which are closed by momentum and energy fluxes evaluated at the micro-scale. In the original approach, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are launched for every macro-scale volume element. Our adaptive sampling scheme replaces a large fraction of costly micro-scale MD simulations with fast table lookup and prediction. The cloud database Redis provides the plain table lookup, and with locality aware hashing we gather input data for our prediction scheme. For the latter we use kriging, which estimates an unknown value and its uncertainty (error) at a specific location in parameter space by using weighted averages of the neighboring points. We find that our adaptive scheme significantly improves simulation performance by a factor of 2.5 to 25, while retaining high accuracy for various choices of the algorithm parameters.

  3. Adaptive sampling for learning gaussian processes using mobile sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yunfei; Choi, Jongeun

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel class of self-organizing sensing agents that adaptively learn an anisotropic, spatio-temporal gaussian process using noisy measurements and move in order to improve the quality of the estimated covariance function. This approach is based on a class of anisotropic covariance functions of gaussian processes introduced to model a broad range of spatio-temporal physical phenomena. The covariance function is assumed to be unknown a priori. Hence, it is estimated by the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) estimator. The prediction of the field of interest is then obtained based on the MAP estimate of the covariance function. An optimal sampling strategy is proposed to minimize the information-theoretic cost function of the Fisher Information Matrix. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and the adaptability of the proposed scheme.

  4. Improving Wang-Landau sampling with adaptive windows.

    PubMed

    Cunha-Netto, A G; Caparica, A A; Tsai, Shan-Ho; Dickman, Ronald; Landau, D P

    2008-11-01

    Wang-Landau sampling (WLS) of large systems requires dividing the energy range into "windows" and joining the results of simulations in each window. The resulting density of states (and associated thermodynamic functions) is shown to suffer from boundary effects in simulations of lattice polymers and the five-state Potts model. Here, we implement WLS using adaptive windows. Instead of defining fixed energy windows (or windows in the energy-magnetization plane for the Potts model), the boundary positions depend on the set of energy values on which the histogram is flat at a given stage of the simulation. Shifting the windows each time the modification factor f is reduced, we eliminate border effects that arise in simulations using fixed windows. Adaptive windows extend significantly the range of system sizes that may be studied reliably using WLS.

  5. Improving Wang-Landau sampling with adaptive windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha-Netto, A. G.; Caparica, A. A.; Tsai, Shan-Ho; Dickman, Ronald; Landau, D. P.

    2008-11-01

    Wang-Landau sampling (WLS) of large systems requires dividing the energy range into “windows” and joining the results of simulations in each window. The resulting density of states (and associated thermodynamic functions) is shown to suffer from boundary effects in simulations of lattice polymers and the five-state Potts model. Here, we implement WLS using adaptive windows. Instead of defining fixed energy windows (or windows in the energy-magnetization plane for the Potts model), the boundary positions depend on the set of energy values on which the histogram is flat at a given stage of the simulation. Shifting the windows each time the modification factor f is reduced, we eliminate border effects that arise in simulations using fixed windows. Adaptive windows extend significantly the range of system sizes that may be studied reliably using WLS.

  6. Adaptive Sampling for Learning Gaussian Processes Using Mobile Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yunfei; Choi, Jongeun

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel class of self-organizing sensing agents that adaptively learn an anisotropic, spatio-temporal Gaussian process using noisy measurements and move in order to improve the quality of the estimated covariance function. This approach is based on a class of anisotropic covariance functions of Gaussian processes introduced to model a broad range of spatio-temporal physical phenomena. The covariance function is assumed to be unknown a priori. Hence, it is estimated by the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) estimator. The prediction of the field of interest is then obtained based on the MAP estimate of the covariance function. An optimal sampling strategy is proposed to minimize the information-theoretic cost function of the Fisher Information Matrix. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and the adaptability of the proposed scheme. PMID:22163785

  7. Conservation program participation and adaptive rangeland decision-making

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper analyzes rancher participation in conservation programs in the context of a social-ecological framework for adaptive rangeland management. We argue that conservation programs are best understood as one of many strategies of adaptively managing rangelands in ways that sustain livelihoods a...

  8. Recruiting hard-to-reach United States population sub-groups via adaptations of snowball sampling strategy

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; Lee, Hau-Chen; Seung-Hwan Lim, Rod; Fullerton, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Nurse researchers and educators often engage in outreach to narrowly defined populations. This article offers examples of how variations on the snowball sampling recruitment strategy can be applied in the creation of culturally appropriate, community-based information dissemination efforts related to recruitment to health education programs and research studies. Examples from the primary author’s program of research are provided to demonstrate how adaptations of snowball sampling can be effectively used in the recruitment of members of traditionally underserved or vulnerable populations. The adaptation of snowball sampling techniques, as described in this article, helped the authors to gain access to each of the more vulnerable population groups of interest. The use of culturally sensitive recruitment strategies is both appropriate and effective in enlisting the involvement of members of vulnerable populations. Adaptations of snowball sampling strategies should be considered when recruiting participants for education programs or subjects for research studies when recruitment of a population based sample is not essential. PMID:20727089

  9. Microcomputer Network for Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT): Program Listing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quan, Baldwin; And Others

    This program listing is a supplement to the Microcomputer Network for Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT). The driver textfile program allows access to major subprograms of the CAT project. The test administration textfile program gives examinees a prescribed set of subtests. The parameter management textfile program establishes a file containing…

  10. Effect of imperfect detectability on adaptive and conventional sampling: Simulated sampling of freshwater mussels in the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Gray, B.R.; Newton, T.J.; Nichols, D.

    2010-01-01

    Adaptive sampling designs are recommended where, as is typical with freshwater mussels, the outcome of interest is rare and clustered. However, the performance of adaptive designs has not been investigated when outcomes are not only rare and clustered but also imperfectly detected. We address this combination of challenges using data simulated to mimic properties of freshwater mussels from a reach of the upper Mississippi River. Simulations were conducted under a range of sample sizes and detection probabilities. Under perfect detection, efficiency of the adaptive sampling design increased relative to the conventional design as sample size increased and as density decreased. Also, the probability of sampling occupied habitat was four times higher for adaptive than conventional sampling of the lowest density population examined. However, imperfect detection resulted in substantial biases in sample means and variances under both adaptive sampling and conventional designs. The efficiency of adaptive sampling declined with decreasing detectability. Also, the probability of encountering an occupied unit during adaptive sampling, relative to conventional sampling declined with decreasing detectability. Thus, the potential gains in the application of adaptive sampling to rare and clustered populations relative to conventional sampling are reduced when detection is imperfect. The results highlight the need to increase or estimate detection to improve performance of conventional and adaptive sampling designs.

  11. Effect of imperfect detectability on adaptive and conventional sampling: simulated sampling of freshwater mussels in the upper Mississippi River.

    PubMed

    Smith, David R; Gray, Brian R; Newton, Teresa J; Nichols, Doug

    2010-11-01

    Adaptive sampling designs are recommended where, as is typical with freshwater mussels, the outcome of interest is rare and clustered. However, the performance of adaptive designs has not been investigated when outcomes are not only rare and clustered but also imperfectly detected. We address this combination of challenges using data simulated to mimic properties of freshwater mussels from a reach of the upper Mississippi River. Simulations were conducted under a range of sample sizes and detection probabilities. Under perfect detection, efficiency of the adaptive sampling design increased relative to the conventional design as sample size increased and as density decreased. Also, the probability of sampling occupied habitat was four times higher for adaptive than conventional sampling of the lowest density population examined. However, imperfect detection resulted in substantial biases in sample means and variances under both adaptive sampling and conventional designs. The efficiency of adaptive sampling declined with decreasing detectability. Also, the probability of encountering an occupied unit during adaptive sampling, relative to conventional sampling declined with decreasing detectability. Thus, the potential gains in the application of adaptive sampling to rare and clustered populations relative to conventional sampling are reduced when detection is imperfect. The results highlight the need to increase or estimate detection to improve performance of conventional and adaptive sampling designs.

  12. Elucidating Microbial Adaptation Dynamics via Autonomous Exposure and Sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grace, Joseph M.; Verseux, Cyprien; Gentry, Diana; Moffet, Amy; Thayabaran, Ramanen; Wong, Nathan; Rothschild, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The adaptation of micro-organisms to their environments is a complex process of interaction between the pressures of the environment and of competition. Reducing this multifactorial process to environmental exposure in the laboratory is a common tool for elucidating individual mechanisms of evolution, such as mutation rates. Although such studies inform fundamental questions about the way adaptation and even speciation occur, they are often limited by labor-intensive manual techniques. Current methods for controlled study of microbial adaptation limit the length of time, the depth of collected data, and the breadth of applied environmental conditions. Small idiosyncrasies in manual techniques can have large effects on outcomes; for example, there are significant variations in induced radiation resistances following similar repeated exposure protocols. We describe here a project under development to allow rapid cycling of multiple types of microbial environmental exposure. The system allows continuous autonomous monitoring and data collection of both single species and sampled communities, independently and concurrently providing multiple types of controlled environmental pressure (temperature, radiation, chemical presence or absence, and so on) to a microbial community in dynamic response to the ecosystem's current status. When combined with DNA sequencing and extraction, such a controlled environment can cast light on microbial functional development, population dynamics, inter- and intra-species competition, and microbe-environment interaction. The project's goal is to allow rapid, repeatable iteration of studies of both natural and artificial microbial adaptation. As an example, the same system can be used both to increase the pH of a wet soil aliquot over time while periodically sampling it for genetic activity analysis, or to repeatedly expose a culture of bacteria to the presence of a toxic metal, automatically adjusting the level of toxicity based on the

  13. Elucidating Microbial Adaptation Dynamics via Autonomous Exposure and Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grace, J. M.; Verseux, C.; Gentry, D.; Moffet, A.; Thayabaran, R.; Wong, N.; Rothschild, L.

    2013-12-01

    The adaptation of micro-organisms to their environments is a complex process of interaction between the pressures of the environment and of competition. Reducing this multifactorial process to environmental exposure in the laboratory is a common tool for elucidating individual mechanisms of evolution, such as mutation rates[Wielgoss et al., 2013]. Although such studies inform fundamental questions about the way adaptation and even speciation occur, they are often limited by labor-intensive manual techniques[Wassmann et al., 2010]. Current methods for controlled study of microbial adaptation limit the length of time, the depth of collected data, and the breadth of applied environmental conditions. Small idiosyncrasies in manual techniques can have large effects on outcomes; for example, there are significant variations in induced radiation resistances following similar repeated exposure protocols[Alcántara-Díaz et al., 2004; Goldman and Travisano, 2011]. We describe here a project under development to allow rapid cycling of multiple types of microbial environmental exposure. The system allows continuous autonomous monitoring and data collection of both single species and sampled communities, independently and concurrently providing multiple types of controlled environmental pressure (temperature, radiation, chemical presence or absence, and so on) to a microbial community in dynamic response to the ecosystem's current status. When combined with DNA sequencing and extraction, such a controlled environment can cast light on microbial functional development, population dynamics, inter- and intra-species competition, and microbe-environment interaction. The project's goal is to allow rapid, repeatable iteration of studies of both natural and artificial microbial adaptation. As an example, the same system can be used both to increase the pH of a wet soil aliquot over time while periodically sampling it for genetic activity analysis, or to repeatedly expose a culture of

  14. Robust online tracking via adaptive samples selection with saliency detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jia; Chen, Xi; Zhu, QiuPing

    2013-12-01

    Online tracking has shown to be successful in tracking of previously unknown objects. However, there are two important factors which lead to drift problem of online tracking, the one is how to select the exact labeled samples even when the target locations are inaccurate, and the other is how to handle the confusors which have similar features with the target. In this article, we propose a robust online tracking algorithm with adaptive samples selection based on saliency detection to overcome the drift problem. To deal with the problem of degrading the classifiers using mis-aligned samples, we introduce the saliency detection method to our tracking problem. Saliency maps and the strong classifiers are combined to extract the most correct positive samples. Our approach employs a simple yet saliency detection algorithm based on image spectral residual analysis. Furthermore, instead of using the random patches as the negative samples, we propose a reasonable selection criterion, in which both the saliency confidence and similarity are considered with the benefits that confusors in the surrounding background are incorporated into the classifiers update process before the drift occurs. The tracking task is formulated as a binary classification via online boosting framework. Experiment results in several challenging video sequences demonstrate the accuracy and stability of our tracker.

  15. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1991 report

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Martin, M.L.; Milligan, D.J.; Sobocinski, R.W.; Lipponer, P.P.J.; Belski, D.S.

    1993-09-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) during 1991. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. When excavations began at the WIPP in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. Brine studies began as part of the Site Validation Program and were formalized as a program in its own right in 1985. During nine years of observations (1982--1991), evidence has mounted that the amount of brine seeping into the WIPP excavations is limited, local, and only a small fraction of that required to produce hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. The data through 1990 is discussed in detail and summarized by Deal and others (1991). The data presented in this report describes progress made during the calendar year 1991 and focuses on four major areas: (1) quantification of the amount of brine seeping across vertical surfaces in the WIPP excavations (brine ``weeps); (2) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes; (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) preliminary quantification of the amount of brine that might be released by squeezing the underconsolidated clays present in the Salado Formation.

  16. Taking a broad approach to public health program adaptation: adapting a family-based diabetes education program.

    PubMed

    Reinschmidt, Kerstin M; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette I; Bradford, Gail; Drummond, Rebecca L; Torres, Emma; Redondo, Floribella; Elenes, Jo Jean; Sanders, Alicia; Gastelum, Sylvia; Moore-Monroy, Martha; Barajas, Salvador; Fernandez, Lourdes; Alvidrez, Rosy; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Staten, Lisa K

    2010-04-01

    Diabetes health disparities among Hispanic populations have been countered with federally funded health promotion and disease prevention programs. Dissemination has focused on program adaptation to local cultural contexts for greater acceptability and sustainability. Taking a broader approach and drawing on our experience in Mexican American communities at the U.S.-Mexico Border, we demonstrate how interventions are adapted at the intersection of multiple cultural contexts: the populations targeted, the community- and university-based entities designing and implementing interventions, and the field team delivering the materials. Program adaptation involves negotiations between representatives of all contexts and is imperative in promoting local ownership and program sustainability.

  17. SIMCA T 1.0: A SAS Computer Program for Simulating Computer Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiche, Gilles; Blais, Jean-Guy

    2006-01-01

    Monte Carlo methodologies are frequently applied to study the sampling distribution of the estimated proficiency level in adaptive testing. These methods eliminate real situational constraints. However, these Monte Carlo methodologies are not currently supported by the available software programs, and when these programs are available, their…

  18. Sample-adaptive-prediction for HEVC SCC intra coding with ridge estimation from spatially neighboring samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Je-Won; Ryu, Soo-Kyung

    2017-02-01

    In this paper a sample-adaptive prediction technique is proposed to yield efficient coding performance in an intracoding for screen content video coding. The sample-based prediction is to reduce spatial redundancies in neighboring samples. To this aim, the proposed technique uses a weighted linear combination of neighboring samples and applies the robust optimization technique, namely, ridge estimation to derive the weights in a decoder side. The ridge estimation uses L2 norm based regularization term, and, thus the solution is more robust to high variance samples such as in sharp edges and high color contrasts exhibited in screen content videos. It is demonstrated with the experimental results that the proposed technique provides an improved coding gain as compared to the HEVC screen content video coding reference software.

  19. Adaptable Constrained Genetic Programming: Extensions and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janikow, Cezary Z.

    2005-01-01

    An evolutionary algorithm applies evolution-based principles to problem solving. To solve a problem, the user defines the space of potential solutions, the representation space. Sample solutions are encoded in a chromosome-like structure. The algorithm maintains a population of such samples, which undergo simulated evolution by means of mutation, crossover, and survival of the fittest principles. Genetic Programming (GP) uses tree-like chromosomes, providing very rich representation suitable for many problems of interest. GP has been successfully applied to a number of practical problems such as learning Boolean functions and designing hardware circuits. To apply GP to a problem, the user needs to define the actual representation space, by defining the atomic functions and terminals labeling the actual trees. The sufficiency principle requires that the label set be sufficient to build the desired solution trees. The closure principle allows the labels to mix in any arity-consistent manner. To satisfy both principles, the user is often forced to provide a large label set, with ad hoc interpretations or penalties to deal with undesired local contexts. This unfortunately enlarges the actual representation space, and thus usually slows down the search. In the past few years, three different methodologies have been proposed to allow the user to alleviate the closure principle by providing means to define, and to process, constraints on mixing the labels in the trees. Last summer we proposed a new methodology to further alleviate the problem by discovering local heuristics for building quality solution trees. A pilot system was implemented last summer and tested throughout the year. This summer we have implemented a new revision, and produced a User's Manual so that the pilot system can be made available to other practitioners and researchers. We have also designed, and partly implemented, a larger system capable of dealing with much more powerful heuristics.

  20. Adaptation Planning for the National Estuary Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is a resource for coastal communities to start planning to adapt to climate change. It describes elements, such as vulnerability assessments and stakeholder outreach, and provides examples as well as suggestions for additional resources.

  1. A Pilot Program in Adapted Physical Education: Hillsborough High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Vince

    The instructor of an adapted physical education program describes his experiences and suggests guidelines for implementing other programs. Reviewed are such aspects as program orientation, class procedures, identification of student participants, and grading procedures. Objectives, lesson plans and evaluations are presented for the following units…

  2. Adaptive strategies in designing the simultaneous global drug development program.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhilong; Chen, Gang; Huang, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Many methods have been proposed to account for the potential impact of ethnic/regional factors when extrapolating results from multiregional clinical trials (MRCTs) to targeted ethnic (TE) patients, i.e., "bridging." Most of them either focused on TE patients in the MRCT (i.e., internal bridging) or a separate local clinical trial (LCT) (i.e., external bridging). Huang et al. (2012) integrated both bridging concepts in their method for the Simultaneous Global Drug Development Program (SGDDP) which designs both the MRCT and the LCT prospectively and combines patients in both trials by ethnic origin, i.e., TE vs. non-TE (NTE). The weighted Z test was used to combine information from TE and NTE patients to test with statistical rigor whether a new treatment is effective in the TE population. Practically, the MRCT is often completed before the LCT. Thus to increase the power for the SGDDP and/or obtain more informative data in TE patients, we may use the final results from the MRCT to re-evaluate initial assumptions (e.g., effect sizes, variances, weight), and modify the LCT accordingly. We discuss various adaptive strategies for the LCT such as sample size reassessment, population enrichment, endpoint change, and dose adjustment. As an example, we extend a popular adaptive design method to re-estimate the sample size for the LCT, and illustrate it for a normally distributed endpoint.

  3. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1990 report

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Case, J.B.; Martin, M.L.; Roggenthen, W.M.; Belski, D.S.

    1991-08-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 1990. When excavations began in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. These brine occurrences were initially described as part of the Site Validation Program. Brine studies were formalized in 1985. The BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. The brine chemistry is important because it assists in understanding the origin of the brine and because it may affect possible chemical reactions in the buried waste after sealing the repository. The volume of brine and the hydrologic system that drives the brine seepage also need to be understood to assess the long-term performance of the repository. After more than eight years of observations (1982--1990), no credible evidence exists to indicate that enough naturally occurring brine will seep into the WIPP excavations to be of practical concern. The detailed observations and analyses summarized herein and in previous BSEP reports confirm the evidence apparent during casual visits to the underground workings -- that the excavations are remarkably dry.

  4. Structured estimation - Sample size reduction for adaptive pattern classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgera, S.; Cooper, D. B.

    1977-01-01

    The Gaussian two-category classification problem with known category mean value vectors and identical but unknown category covariance matrices is considered. The weight vector depends on the unknown common covariance matrix, so the procedure is to estimate the covariance matrix in order to obtain an estimate of the optimum weight vector. The measure of performance for the adapted classifier is the output signal-to-interference noise ratio (SIR). A simple approximation for the expected SIR is gained by using the general sample covariance matrix estimator; this performance is both signal and true covariance matrix independent. An approximation is also found for the expected SIR obtained by using a Toeplitz form covariance matrix estimator; this performance is found to be dependent on both the signal and the true covariance matrix.

  5. Lessons Learned from the Everglades Collaborative Adaptive Management Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent technical papers explore whether adaptive management (AM) is useful for environmental management and restoration efforts and discuss the many challenges to overcome for successful implementation, especially for large-scale restoration programs (McLain and Lee 1996; Levine ...

  6. Everglades Collaborative Adaptive Management Program Progress

    EPA Science Inventory

    When the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) was authorized in 2000, adaptive management (AM) was recognized as a necessary tool to address uncertainty in achieving the broad goals and objectives for restoring a highly managed system. The Everglades covers18,000 squ...

  7. Teaching Adaptability of Object-Oriented Programming Language Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xiao-dong

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of object-oriented programming languages includes update of their own versions, update of development environments, and reform of new languages upon old languages. In this paper, the evolution analysis of object-oriented programming languages is presented in term of the characters and development. The notion of adaptive teaching upon…

  8. The Evolution of a Prison Adaptive-Health Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Robert G.; Thomas, R. Murray

    1988-01-01

    Describes an adaptive-health program created by officials at the California Men's Colony in San Luis Obispo for inmates who suffer physical or psychological disabilities. Discusses program goals, admission requirements, learning activities, techniques for motivating participants, evaluation methods, and staffing. (JOW)

  9. Adaptive Programming Improves Outcomes in Drug Court: An Experimental Trial

    PubMed Central

    Marlowe, Douglas B.; Festinger, David S.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Benasutti, Kathleen M.; Fox, Gloria; Croft, Jason R.

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies in Drug Courts reported improved outcomes when participants were matched to schedules of judicial status hearings based on their criminological risk level. The current experiment determined whether incremental efficacy could be gained by periodically adjusting the schedule of status hearings and clinical case-management sessions in response to participants’ ensuing performance in the program. The adjustments were made pursuant to a priori criteria specified in an adaptive algorithm. Results confirmed that participants in the full adaptive condition (n = 62) were more than twice as likely as those assigned to baseline-matching only (n = 63) to be drug-abstinent during the first 18 weeks of the program; however, graduation rates and the average time to case resolution were not significantly different. The positive effects of the adaptive program appear to have stemmed from holding noncompliant participants more accountable for meeting their attendance obligations in the program. Directions for future research and practice implications are discussed. PMID:22923854

  10. Adaptive Programming Improves Outcomes in Drug Court: An Experimental Trial.

    PubMed

    Marlowe, Douglas B; Festinger, David S; Dugosh, Karen L; Benasutti, Kathleen M; Fox, Gloria; Croft, Jason R

    2012-04-01

    Prior studies in Drug Courts reported improved outcomes when participants were matched to schedules of judicial status hearings based on their criminological risk level. The current experiment determined whether incremental efficacy could be gained by periodically adjusting the schedule of status hearings and clinical case-management sessions in response to participants' ensuing performance in the program. The adjustments were made pursuant to a priori criteria specified in an adaptive algorithm. Results confirmed that participants in the full adaptive condition (n = 62) were more than twice as likely as those assigned to baseline-matching only (n = 63) to be drug-abstinent during the first 18 weeks of the program; however, graduation rates and the average time to case resolution were not significantly different. The positive effects of the adaptive program appear to have stemmed from holding noncompliant participants more accountable for meeting their attendance obligations in the program. Directions for future research and practice implications are discussed.

  11. Taking a Broad Approach to Public Health Program Adaptation: Adapting a Family-Based Diabetes Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinschmidt, Kerstin M.; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette I.; Bradford, Gail; Drummond, Rebecca L.; Torres, Emma; Redondo, Floribella; Elenes, Jo Jean; Sanders, Alicia; Gastelum, Sylvia; Moore-Monroy, Martha; Barajas, Salvador; Fernandez, Lourdes; Alvidrez, Rosy; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Staten, Lisa K.

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes health disparities among Hispanic populations have been countered with federally funded health promotion and disease prevention programs. Dissemination has focused on program adaptation to local cultural contexts for greater acceptability and sustainability. Taking a broader approach and drawing on our experience in Mexican American…

  12. Improving Voluntary Environmental Management Programs: Facilitating Learning and Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genskow, Kenneth D.; Wood, Danielle M.

    2011-05-01

    Environmental planners and managers face unique challenges understanding and documenting the effectiveness of programs that rely on voluntary actions by private landowners. Programs, such as those aimed at reducing nonpoint source pollution or improving habitat, intend to reach those goals by persuading landowners to adopt behaviors and management practices consistent with environmental restoration and protection. Our purpose with this paper is to identify barriers for improving voluntary environmental management programs and ways to overcome them. We first draw upon insights regarding data, learning, and adaptation from the adaptive management and performance management literatures, describing three key issues: overcoming information constraints, structural limitations, and organizational culture. Although these lessons are applicable to a variety of voluntary environmental management programs, we then present the issues in the context of on-going research for nonpoint source water quality pollution. We end the discussion by highlighting important elements for advancing voluntary program efforts.

  13. Enhancing Functional Performance using Sensorimotor Adaptability Training Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Brady, R.; Audas, C.; Ruttley, T. M.; Cohen, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    During the acute phase of adaptation to novel gravitational environments, sensorimotor disturbances have the potential to disrupt the ability of astronauts to perform functional tasks. The goal of this project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of functional capabilities when astronauts transition to different gravitational environments. The project conducted a series of studies that investigated the efficacy of treadmill training combined with a variety of sensory challenges designed to increase adaptability including alterations in visual flow, body loading, and support surface stability.

  14. FLEXWAL: A computer program for predicting the wall modifications for two-dimensional, solid, adaptive-wall tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everhart, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    A program called FLEXWAL for calculating wall modifications for solid, adaptive-wall wind tunnels is presented. The method used is the iterative technique of NASA TP-2081 and is applicable to subsonic and transonic test conditions. The program usage, program listing, and a sample case are given.

  15. A Comparison of Three Programming Models for Adaptive Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shan, Hong-Zhang; Singh, Jaswinder Pal; Oliker, Leonid; Biswa, Rupak; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We study the performance and programming effort for two major classes of adaptive applications under three leading parallel programming models. We find that all three models can achieve scalable performance on the state-of-the-art multiprocessor machines. The basic parallel algorithms needed for different programming models to deliver their best performance are similar, but the implementations differ greatly, far beyond the fact of using explicit messages versus implicit loads/stores. Compared with MPI and SHMEM, CC-SAS (cache-coherent shared address space) provides substantial ease of programming at the conceptual and program orchestration level, which often leads to the performance gain. However it may also suffer from the poor spatial locality of physically distributed shared data on large number of processors. Our CC-SAS implementation of the PARMETIS partitioner itself runs faster than in the other two programming models, and generates more balanced result for our application.

  16. Sample results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 9 tank 21H qualification samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.

    2015-11-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 9 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H.

  17. An adaptive two-stage sequential design for sampling rare and clustered populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, J.A.; Salehi, M.M.; Moradi, M.; Bell, G.; Smith, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    How to design an efficient large-area survey continues to be an interesting question for ecologists. In sampling large areas, as is common in environmental studies, adaptive sampling can be efficient because it ensures survey effort is targeted to subareas of high interest. In two-stage sampling, higher density primary sample units are usually of more interest than lower density primary units when populations are rare and clustered. Two-stage sequential sampling has been suggested as a method for allocating second stage sample effort among primary units. Here, we suggest a modification: adaptive two-stage sequential sampling. In this method, the adaptive part of the allocation process means the design is more flexible in how much extra effort can be directed to higher-abundance primary units. We discuss how best to design an adaptive two-stage sequential sample. ?? 2008 The Society of Population Ecology and Springer.

  18. Programmed sample delivery on a pressurized paper

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Joong Ho; Park, Juhwan; Kim, Seung Hoon; Park, Je-Kyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a method to control the fluid flow in paper-based microfluidic devices simply by pressing over the channel surface of paper, thereby decreasing the pore size and permeability of a non-woven polypropylene sheet. As a result, fluid resistance is increased in the pressed region and causes flow rate to decrease. We characterize the decrease of flow rate with respect to different amounts of pressure applied, and up to 740% decrease in flow velocity was achieved. In addition, we demonstrate flow rate control in a Y-shaped merging paper and sequential delivery of multiple color dyes in a three-branched paper. Furthermore, sequential delivery of multiple fluid samples is performed to demonstrate its application in multi-step colorimetric immunoassay, which shows a 4.3-fold signal increase via enhancement step. PMID:25584116

  19. Salton Sea sampling program: baseline studies

    SciTech Connect

    Tullis, R.E.; Carter, J.L.; Langlois, G.W.

    1981-04-13

    Baseline data are provided on three species of fish from the Salton Sea, California. The fishes considered were the orange mouth corvina (Cynoscion xanthulus), gulf croaker (Bairdiella icistius) and sargo (Anisotremus davidsonii). Morphometric and meristic data are presented as a baseline to aid in the evaluation of any physiological stress the fish may experience as a result of geothermal development. Analyses were made on muscle, liver, and bone of the fishes sampled to provide baseline data on elemental tissue burdens. The elements measured were: As, Br, Ca, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Mn, Mi, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, Zn, and Zr. These data are important if an environmentally sound progression of geothermal power production is to occur at the Salton Sea.

  20. Adaptive single replica multiple state transition interface sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Wei-Na; Bolhuis, Peter G.

    2013-07-01

    The multiple state transition path sampling method allows sampling of rare transitions between many metastable states, but has the drawback that switching between qualitatively different pathways is difficult. Combination with replica exchange transition interface sampling can in principle alleviate this problem, but requires a large number of simultaneous replicas. Here we remove these drawbacks by introducing a single replica sampling algorithm that samples only one interface at a time, while efficiently walking through the entire path space using a Wang-Landau approach or, alternatively, a fixed bias. We illustrate the method on several model systems: a particle diffusing in a simple 2D potential, isomerization in a small Lennard Jones cluster, and isomerization of the alanine dipeptide in explicit water.

  1. POF-Darts: Geometric adaptive sampling for probability of failure

    SciTech Connect

    Ebeida, Mohamed S.; Mitchell, Scott A.; Swiler, Laura P.; Romero, Vicente J.; Rushdi, Ahmad A.

    2016-06-18

    We introduce a novel technique, POF-Darts, to estimate the Probability Of Failure based on random disk-packing in the uncertain parameter space. POF-Darts uses hyperplane sampling to explore the unexplored part of the uncertain space. We use the function evaluation at a sample point to determine whether it belongs to failure or non-failure regions, and surround it with a protection sphere region to avoid clustering. We decompose the domain into Voronoi cells around the function evaluations as seeds and choose the radius of the protection sphere depending on the local Lipschitz continuity. As sampling proceeds, regions uncovered with spheres will shrink, improving the estimation accuracy. After exhausting the function evaluation budget, we build a surrogate model using the function evaluations associated with the sample points and estimate the probability of failure by exhaustive sampling of that surrogate. In comparison to other similar methods, our algorithm has the advantages of decoupling the sampling step from the surrogate construction one, the ability to reach target POF values with fewer samples, and the capability of estimating the number and locations of disconnected failure regions, not just the POF value. Furthermore, we present various examples to demonstrate the efficiency of our novel approach.

  2. POF-Darts: Geometric adaptive sampling for probability of failure

    DOE PAGES

    Ebeida, Mohamed S.; Mitchell, Scott A.; Swiler, Laura P.; ...

    2016-06-18

    We introduce a novel technique, POF-Darts, to estimate the Probability Of Failure based on random disk-packing in the uncertain parameter space. POF-Darts uses hyperplane sampling to explore the unexplored part of the uncertain space. We use the function evaluation at a sample point to determine whether it belongs to failure or non-failure regions, and surround it with a protection sphere region to avoid clustering. We decompose the domain into Voronoi cells around the function evaluations as seeds and choose the radius of the protection sphere depending on the local Lipschitz continuity. As sampling proceeds, regions uncovered with spheres will shrink,more » improving the estimation accuracy. After exhausting the function evaluation budget, we build a surrogate model using the function evaluations associated with the sample points and estimate the probability of failure by exhaustive sampling of that surrogate. In comparison to other similar methods, our algorithm has the advantages of decoupling the sampling step from the surrogate construction one, the ability to reach target POF values with fewer samples, and the capability of estimating the number and locations of disconnected failure regions, not just the POF value. Furthermore, we present various examples to demonstrate the efficiency of our novel approach.« less

  3. Robust adaptive dynamic programming and feedback stabilization of nonlinear systems.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Jiang, Zhong-Ping

    2014-05-01

    This paper studies the robust optimal control design for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems from a perspective of robust adaptive dynamic programming (RADP). The objective is to fill up a gap in the past literature of adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) where dynamic uncertainties or unmodeled dynamics are not addressed. A key strategy is to integrate tools from modern nonlinear control theory, such as the robust redesign and the backstepping techniques as well as the nonlinear small-gain theorem, with the theory of ADP. The proposed RADP methodology can be viewed as an extension of ADP to uncertain nonlinear systems. Practical learning algorithms are developed in this paper, and have been applied to the controller design problems for a jet engine and a one-machine power system.

  4. Adaptive Web Sampling - ArcPad Applet Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    10 3.1.1 Create and GPS-enable the GIS sampling design geodatabase ............................... 10...38 Appendix D: Geodatabase Design .......................................................................................................... 40...hence, it requires ESRI ArcGIS. It functions as a navigational GPS data collection and decision support tool to guide a user through the process of

  5. Adaptive dynamic programming for auto-resilient video streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Juan; Li, Xingmei; Wang, Wei; Wu, Guoping

    2007-11-01

    Wireless video transmission encounters higher error rate than in wired network, which introduces distortion into the error-sensitive compressed data, reducing the quality of the playback video. Therefore, to ensure the end-to-end quality, wireless video needs a transmission system including both efficient source coding scheme and transmission technology against the influence of the channel error. This paper tackles a dynamic programming algorithm for robust video streaming over error-prone channels. An auto-resilient multiple-description coding with optimized transmission strategy has been proposed. Further study is done on the computational complexity of rate-distortion optimized video streaming and a dynamic programming algorithm is considered. Experiment results show that video streaming with adaptive dynamic programming gains better playback video quality at the receiver when transmitted through error-prone mobile channel.

  6. Adaptive Sampling of Spatiotemporal Phenomena with Optimization Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve A.; Thompson, David R.; Hsiang, Kian

    2013-01-01

    This work was designed to find a way to optimally (or near optimally) sample spatiotemporal phenomena based on limited sensing capability, and to create a model that can be run to estimate uncertainties, as well as to estimate covariances. The goal was to maximize (or minimize) some function of the overall uncertainty. The uncertainties and covariances were modeled presuming a parametric distribution, and then the model was used to approximate the overall information gain, and consequently, the objective function from each potential sense. These candidate sensings were then crosschecked against operation costs and feasibility. Consequently, an operations plan was derived that combined both operational constraints/costs and sensing gain. Probabilistic modeling was used to perform an approximate inversion of the model, which enabled calculation of sensing gains, and subsequent combination with operational costs. This incorporation of operations models to assess cost and feasibility for specific classes of vehicles is unique.

  7. Hanford high level waste: Sample Exchange/Evaluation (SEE) Program

    SciTech Connect

    King, A.G.

    1994-08-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)/Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC)/Process Analytical Laboratory (PAL) provide analytical support services to various environmental restoration and waste management projects/programs at Hanford. In response to a US Department of Energy -- Richland Field Office (DOE-RL) audit, which questioned the comparability of analytical methods employed at each laboratory, the Sample Exchange/Exchange (SEE) program was initiated. The SEE Program is a selfassessment program designed to compare analytical methods of the PAL and ACL laboratories using sitespecific waste material. The SEE program is managed by a collaborative, the Quality Assurance Triad (Triad). Triad membership is made up of representatives from the WHC/PAL, PNL/ACL, and WHC Hanford Analytical Services Management (HASM) organizations. The Triad works together to design/evaluate/implement each phase of the SEE Program.

  8. WIPP waste characterization program sampling and analysis guidance manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Characterization Program Sampling and Analysis Guidance Manual (Guidance Manual) provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the WIPP Experimental-Waste Characterization Program (the Program). This Guidance Manual includes all of the sampling and testing methodologies accepted by the WIPP Project Office (DOE/WPO) for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP. This includes methods for characterizing representative samples of transuranic (TRU) wastes at DOE generator sites with respect to the gas generation controlling variables defined in the WIPP bin-scale and alcove test plans, as well as waste container headspace gas sampling and analytical procedures to support waste characterization requirements under the WIPP test program and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The procedures in this Guidance Manual are comprehensive and detailed and are designed to provide the necessary guidance for the preparation of site specific procedures. The use of these procedures is intended to provide the necessary sensitivity, specificity, precision, and comparability of analyses and test results. The solutions to achieving specific program objectives will depend upon facility constraints, compliance with DOE Orders and DOE facilities' operating contractor requirements, and the knowledge and experience of the TRU waste handlers and analysts. With some analytical methods, such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, the Guidance Manual procedures may be used directly. With other methods, such as nondestructive/destructive characterization, the Guidance Manual provides guidance rather than a step-by-step procedure.

  9. Effects of Calibration Sample Size and Item Bank Size on Ability Estimation in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Alper; Weiss, David J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of calibration sample size and item bank size on examinee ability estimation in computerized adaptive testing (CAT). For this purpose, a 500-item bank pre-calibrated using the three-parameter logistic model with 10,000 examinees was simulated. Calibration samples of varying sizes (150, 250, 350, 500,…

  10. 50 CFR 222.404 - Observer program sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Observer program sampling. 222.404 Section 222.404 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS GENERAL ENDANGERED AND THREATENED MARINE SPECIES...

  11. 50 CFR 222.404 - Observer program sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Observer program sampling. 222.404 Section 222.404 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS GENERAL ENDANGERED AND THREATENED MARINE SPECIES...

  12. 50 CFR 222.404 - Observer program sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Observer program sampling. 222.404 Section 222.404 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS GENERAL ENDANGERED AND THREATENED MARINE SPECIES...

  13. 50 CFR 222.404 - Observer program sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Observer program sampling. 222.404 Section 222.404 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS GENERAL ENDANGERED AND THREATENED MARINE SPECIES...

  14. 50 CFR 222.404 - Observer program sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Observer program sampling. 222.404 Section 222.404 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS GENERAL ENDANGERED AND THREATENED MARINE SPECIES...

  15. TRU Waste Sampling Program: Volume I. Waste characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Kudera, D.E.

    1985-09-01

    Volume I of the TRU Waste Sampling Program report presents the waste characterization information obtained from sampling and characterizing various aged transuranic waste retrieved from storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The data contained in this report include the results of gas sampling and gas generation, radiographic examinations, waste visual examination results, and waste compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP-WAC). A separate report, Volume II, contains data from the gas generation studies.

  16. IOPA: I/O-aware parallelism adaption for parallel programs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Liu, Yi; Qian, Chen; Qian, Depei

    2017-01-01

    With the development of multi-/many-core processors, applications need to be written as parallel programs to improve execution efficiency. For data-intensive applications that use multiple threads to read/write files simultaneously, an I/O sub-system can easily become a bottleneck when too many of these types of threads exist; on the contrary, too few threads will cause insufficient resource utilization and hurt performance. Therefore, programmers must pay much attention to parallelism control to find the appropriate number of I/O threads for an application. This paper proposes a parallelism control mechanism named IOPA that can adjust the parallelism of applications to adapt to the I/O capability of a system and balance computing resources and I/O bandwidth. The programming interface of IOPA is also provided to programmers to simplify parallel programming. IOPA is evaluated using multiple applications with both solid state and hard disk drives. The results show that the parallel applications using IOPA can achieve higher efficiency than those with a fixed number of threads. PMID:28278236

  17. Estimating the abundance of clustered animal population by using adaptive cluster sampling and negative binomial distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Yizhou; Shifa, Naima

    2013-09-01

    An estimator for finding the abundance of a rare, clustered and mobile population has been introduced. This model is based on adaptive cluster sampling (ACS) to identify the location of the population and negative binomial distribution to estimate the total in each site. To identify the location of the population we consider both sampling with replacement (WR) and sampling without replacement (WOR). Some mathematical properties of the model are also developed.

  18. SMI adaptive antenna arrays for weak interfering signals. [Sample Matrix Inversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Inder J.

    1986-01-01

    The performance of adaptive antenna arrays in the presence of weak interfering signals (below thermal noise) is studied. It is shown that a conventional adaptive antenna array sample matrix inversion (SMI) algorithm is unable to suppress such interfering signals. To overcome this problem, the SMI algorithm is modified. In the modified algorithm, the covariance matrix is redefined such that the effect of thermal noise on the weights of adaptive arrays is reduced. Thus, the weights are dictated by relatively weak signals. It is shown that the modified algorithm provides the desired interference protection.

  19. Extending cluster lot quality assurance sampling designs for surveillance programs.

    PubMed

    Hund, Lauren; Pagano, Marcello

    2014-07-20

    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) has a long history of applications in industrial quality control. LQAS is frequently used for rapid surveillance in global health settings, with areas classified as poor or acceptable performance on the basis of the binary classification of an indicator. Historically, LQAS surveys have relied on simple random samples from the population; however, implementing two-stage cluster designs for surveillance sampling is often more cost-effective than simple random sampling. By applying survey sampling results to the binary classification procedure, we develop a simple and flexible nonparametric procedure to incorporate clustering effects into the LQAS sample design to appropriately inflate the sample size, accommodating finite numbers of clusters in the population when relevant. We use this framework to then discuss principled selection of survey design parameters in longitudinal surveillance programs. We apply this framework to design surveys to detect rises in malnutrition prevalence in nutrition surveillance programs in Kenya and South Sudan, accounting for clustering within villages. By combining historical information with data from previous surveys, we design surveys to detect spikes in the childhood malnutrition rate.

  20. Developmental Cascade Effects of the New Beginnings Program on Adolescent Adaptation Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bonds, Darya D.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Winslow, Emily; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from a 6-year longitudinal follow-up sample of 240 youth who participated in a randomized experimental trial of a preventive intervention for divorced families with children ages 9–12, the current study tested alternative cascading pathways by which the intervention decreased symptoms of internalizing disorders, symptoms of externalizing disorders, substance use, and risky sexual behavior, and increased self-esteem and academic performance in mid-to late-adolescence (15–19 years old). It was hypothesized that the impact of the program on adolescent adaptation outcomes would be explained by progressive associations between program-induced changes in parenting and youth adaptation outcomes. The results supported a cascading model of program effects in which the program was related to increased mother-child relationship quality, which was related to subsequent decreases in child internalizing problems, which then was related to subsequent increases in self-esteem and decreases in symptoms of internalizing disorders in adolescence. The results also were consistent with a model in which the program was related to increased maternal effective discipline, which was related to subsequent decreases in child externalizing problems, which then was related to subsequent decreases in symptoms of externalizing disorders, less substance use and better academic performance in adolescence. There were no significant differences in the model based on level of baseline risk or adolescent gender. These results provide support for a cascading pathways model of child and adolescent development. PMID:20883581

  1. The french involvement in Mars sample return program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Counil, J.; Bonneville, R.; Rocard, F.

    The French scientific community is involved in planetary exploration for more than thirty years, at the beginning mainly in cooperation with the former USSR (e.g. missions Phobos 1 and 2 in the 80's), then through ESA (Mars - Express). In 97, following the success of the US Pathfinder mission, NASA proposed to CNES to participate to the first Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission. This idea created a tremendous excitation in the French scientific community and CNES took the decision to contribute to the MSR program. Conscious that only the very best laboratories will be selected to analyse Mars samples, the French ministry of Research has created in May 99, the CSEEM (Comité Scientifique pour l'Etude des Echantillons Martiens). This Committee mandated to coordinate the national endeavour, has released late 99 an AO aimed at implementing a national preparatory program to Mars samples analysis. More than 40 proposals have been submitted involving more than 450 scientists from around 60 French labs. Most of these proposals are interdisciplinarity jointly submitted by planetologists, mineralogists, geochemists, astrobiologists and biologists. The first stage of this preparatory program is on going and will last until mid-2003. Amongst the priorities of the preparatory program are development of dedicated instrumentation, capability of analysing as small as possible samples, measurements integration; rock-macromolecule interaction; bacteria behaviour under Martian conditions; sample transportation under quarantine conditions, etc In the late 90's, the French participation to the NASA led 2003-2005 MSR mission was mainly consisting in a sample return orbiter to be launched by an Ariane V rocket. This contribution to MSR was one of the two priorities of the CNES Mars Exploration Program named PREMIER together with the NetLander network. Unfortunately late 99, due the failure of the two NASA missions MPL and MCO, a rearchitecture of the program has been decided and the first

  2. The Effect of an Adapted Swimming Program on the Performance of an Individual with Kyphosis-Scoliosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrios, Voutsas; Dimitrios, Kokaridas

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to examine the effect of an adapted swimming program in terms of improving the performance and behaviour of an individual with kyphosis-scoliosis, with the use of an individualised education approach. The sample consisted of an adult woman with kyphosis-scoliosis. The pre-swimming phase included a…

  3. Community Adaptation of Youth Accessing Residential Programs or a Home-Based Alternative: Contact with the Law and Delinquent Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Gary; Frensch, Karen; Preyde, Michele; Quosai, Trudy Smit

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the findings from a longitudinal investigation of the prevalence of negative contact with the law for a sample of youth 12-18 months after graduating from residential and intensive children's mental health programming. Results of this study suggest serious community adaptation difficulties face many youth graduating from…

  4. Comparison of Computer Programs Which Compute Sampling Errors for Complex Samples. Technical Report 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, David A.

    This report describes and evaluates the major computer software packages capable of computing standard errors for statistics estimated from complex samples. It first describes the problem and the proposed solutions. The two major programs presently available, SUPER CARP and OSIRIS, are described in general terms. The kinds of statistics available…

  5. Implementation of time-efficient adaptive sampling function design for improved undersampled MRI reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jinhyeok; Kim, Hyeonjin

    2016-12-01

    To improve the efficacy of undersampled MRI, a method of designing adaptive sampling functions is proposed that is simple to implement on an MR scanner and yet effectively improves the performance of the sampling functions. An approximation of the energy distribution of an image (E-map) is estimated from highly undersampled k-space data acquired in a prescan and efficiently recycled in the main scan. An adaptive probability density function (PDF) is generated by combining the E-map with a modeled PDF. A set of candidate sampling functions are then prepared from the adaptive PDF, among which the one with maximum energy is selected as the final sampling function. To validate its computational efficiency, the proposed method was implemented on an MR scanner, and its robust performance in Fourier-transform (FT) MRI and compressed sensing (CS) MRI was tested by simulations and in a cherry tomato. The proposed method consistently outperforms the conventional modeled PDF approach for undersampling ratios of 0.2 or higher in both FT-MRI and CS-MRI. To fully benefit from undersampled MRI, it is preferable that the design of adaptive sampling functions be performed online immediately before the main scan. In this way, the proposed method may further improve the efficacy of the undersampled MRI.

  6. Adaptive Sampling-Based Information Collection for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaobin; Zhao, Fang; Wang, Wendong; Tian, Hui

    2016-08-31

    To collect important health information, WBAN applications typically sense data at a high frequency. However, limited by the quality of wireless link, the uploading of sensed data has an upper frequency. To reduce upload frequency, most of the existing WBAN data collection approaches collect data with a tolerable error. These approaches can guarantee precision of the collected data, but they are not able to ensure that the upload frequency is within the upper frequency. Some traditional sampling based approaches can control upload frequency directly, however, they usually have a high loss of information. Since the core task of WBAN applications is to collect health information, this paper aims to collect optimized information under the limitation of upload frequency. The importance of sensed data is defined according to information theory for the first time. Information-aware adaptive sampling is proposed to collect uniformly distributed data. Then we propose Adaptive Sampling-based Information Collection (ASIC) which consists of two algorithms. An adaptive sampling probability algorithm is proposed to compute sampling probabilities of different sensed values. A multiple uniform sampling algorithm provides uniform samplings for values in different intervals. Experiments based on a real dataset show that the proposed approach has higher performance in terms of data coverage and information quantity. The parameter analysis shows the optimized parameter settings and the discussion shows the underlying reason of high performance in the proposed approach.

  7. Adaptive Sampling-Based Information Collection for Wireless Body Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaobin; Zhao, Fang; Wang, Wendong; Tian, Hui

    2016-01-01

    To collect important health information, WBAN applications typically sense data at a high frequency. However, limited by the quality of wireless link, the uploading of sensed data has an upper frequency. To reduce upload frequency, most of the existing WBAN data collection approaches collect data with a tolerable error. These approaches can guarantee precision of the collected data, but they are not able to ensure that the upload frequency is within the upper frequency. Some traditional sampling based approaches can control upload frequency directly, however, they usually have a high loss of information. Since the core task of WBAN applications is to collect health information, this paper aims to collect optimized information under the limitation of upload frequency. The importance of sensed data is defined according to information theory for the first time. Information-aware adaptive sampling is proposed to collect uniformly distributed data. Then we propose Adaptive Sampling-based Information Collection (ASIC) which consists of two algorithms. An adaptive sampling probability algorithm is proposed to compute sampling probabilities of different sensed values. A multiple uniform sampling algorithm provides uniform samplings for values in different intervals. Experiments based on a real dataset show that the proposed approach has higher performance in terms of data coverage and information quantity. The parameter analysis shows the optimized parameter settings and the discussion shows the underlying reason of high performance in the proposed approach. PMID:27589758

  8. Temporally adaptive sampling: a case study in rare species survey design with marbled salamanders (Ambystoma opacum).

    PubMed

    Charney, Noah D; Kubel, Jacob E; Eiseman, Charles S

    2015-01-01

    Improving detection rates for elusive species with clumped distributions is often accomplished through adaptive sampling designs. This approach can be extended to include species with temporally variable detection probabilities. By concentrating survey effort in years when the focal species are most abundant or visible, overall detection rates can be improved. This requires either long-term monitoring at a few locations where the species are known to occur or models capable of predicting population trends using climatic and demographic data. For marbled salamanders (Ambystoma opacum) in Massachusetts, we demonstrate that annual variation in detection probability of larvae is regionally correlated. In our data, the difference in survey success between years was far more important than the difference among the three survey methods we employed: diurnal surveys, nocturnal surveys, and dipnet surveys. Based on these data, we simulate future surveys to locate unknown populations under a temporally adaptive sampling framework. In the simulations, when pond dynamics are correlated over the focal region, the temporally adaptive design improved mean survey success by as much as 26% over a non-adaptive sampling design. Employing a temporally adaptive strategy costs very little, is simple, and has the potential to substantially improve the efficient use of scarce conservation funds.

  9. Temporally Adaptive Sampling: A Case Study in Rare Species Survey Design with Marbled Salamanders (Ambystoma opacum)

    PubMed Central

    Charney, Noah D.; Kubel, Jacob E.; Eiseman, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Improving detection rates for elusive species with clumped distributions is often accomplished through adaptive sampling designs. This approach can be extended to include species with temporally variable detection probabilities. By concentrating survey effort in years when the focal species are most abundant or visible, overall detection rates can be improved. This requires either long-term monitoring at a few locations where the species are known to occur or models capable of predicting population trends using climatic and demographic data. For marbled salamanders (Ambystoma opacum) in Massachusetts, we demonstrate that annual variation in detection probability of larvae is regionally correlated. In our data, the difference in survey success between years was far more important than the difference among the three survey methods we employed: diurnal surveys, nocturnal surveys, and dipnet surveys. Based on these data, we simulate future surveys to locate unknown populations under a temporally adaptive sampling framework. In the simulations, when pond dynamics are correlated over the focal region, the temporally adaptive design improved mean survey success by as much as 26% over a non-adaptive sampling design. Employing a temporally adaptive strategy costs very little, is simple, and has the potential to substantially improve the efficient use of scarce conservation funds. PMID:25799224

  10. Evidence-Based Programming within Cooperative Extension: How Can We Maintain Program Fidelity While Adapting to Meet Local Needs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Jonathan R.; Welsh, Janet A.; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we describe how the recent movement towards evidence-based programming has impacted Extension. We review how the emphasis on implementing such programs with strict fidelity to an underlying program model may be at odds with Extension's strong history of adapting programming to meet the unique needs of children, youth, families,…

  11. Water vapor measurement system in global atmospheric sampling program, appendix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englund, D. R.; Dudzinski, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    The water vapor measurement system used in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is described. The system used a modified version of a commercially available dew/frostpoint hygrometer with a thermoelectrically cooled mirror sensor. The modifications extended the range of the hygrometer to enable air sample measurements with frostpoint temperatures down to -80 C at altitudes of 6 to 13 km. Other modifications were made to permit automatic, unattended operation in an aircraft environment. This report described the hygrometer, its integration with the GASP system, its calibration, and operational aspects including measurement errors. The estimated uncertainty of the dew/frostpoint measurements was + or - 1.7 Celsius.

  12. Skylab program payload integration. TO27 sample array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscari, J. A.; Westcott, P. A.

    1974-01-01

    The objective of the TO27 sample array was to determine the change in optical properties of various transmissive windows, mirrors, and diffraction gratings caused by the deposition of contaminants found about the orbital assembly. The expected information to be obtained from the total TO27 sample array program is as follows: (1) effect of space contaminants on transmittance, reflectance, grating efficiency, and polarization; (2) variations in deposition of contaminants due to substrate, solar radiation, period of exposure, direction of exposure, and geometry effects; (3) identification of contaminants and source of evolution; (4) time of contaminant evolution and lingering time; and (5) guidelines for a model of spacecraft contamination.

  13. Ozone measurement system for NASA global air sampling program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiefermann, M. W.

    1979-01-01

    The ozone measurement system used in the NASA Global Air Sampling Program is described. The system uses a commercially available ozone concentration monitor that was modified and repackaged so as to operate unattended in an aircraft environment. The modifications required for aircraft use are described along with the calibration techniques, the measurement of ozone loss in the sample lines, and the operating procedures that were developed for use in the program. Based on calibrations with JPL's 5-meter ultraviolet photometer, all previously published GASP ozone data are biased high by 9 percent. A system error analysis showed that the total system measurement random error is from 3 to 8 percent of reading (depending on the pump diaphragm material) or 3 ppbv, whichever are greater.

  14. Fostering Healthy Futures for Teens: Adaptation of an Evidence-Based Program

    PubMed Central

    Taussig, Heather; Weiler, Lindsey; Rhodes, Tara; Hambrick, Erin; Wertheimer, Robyn; Fireman, Orah; Combs, Melody

    2015-01-01

    Objective This article describes the process of adapting and implementing a complex, multicomponent intervention for a new population. Specifically, the article delineates the development and implementation of the Fostering Healthy Futures for Teens (FHF-T) program, which is an adaptation and extension of the Fostering Healthy Futures® (FHF) preventive intervention. FHF is a 9-month mentoring and skills group program for 9 to 11 year olds recently placed in foster care. Following the designation of FHF as an evidence-based intervention, there was increasing demand for the program. However, the narrow population for which FHF had demonstrated efficacy limited broader implementation of the existing intervention. FHF-T was designed to extend the reach of the program by adapting the FHF intervention for adolescents in the early years of high school who have a history of out-of-home care. Specifically, this adaptation recognizes key developmental differences between preadolescent and adolescent populations. Method After designing a program model and adapting the program components, the FHF-T mentoring program was implemented with 42 youth over 2 program years. Results Of the teens who were offered the program, 75% chose to enroll, and 88% of those graduated 9 months later. Although the program evidenced high rates of uptake and participant satisfaction, some unexpected challenges were encountered that will need to be addressed in future iterations of the program. Conclusions Too often program adaptations are made without careful consideration of important contextual issues, and too infrequently, these adapted programs are studied. Our process of program adaptation with rigorous measurement of program implementation provides a useful model for other evidence-based programs seeking thoughtful adaptation. PMID:27019678

  15. Adaptive sampling rate control for networked systems based on statistical characteristics of packet disordering.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-Na; Er, Meng-Joo; Tan, Yen-Kheng; Yu, Hai-Bin; Zeng, Peng

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates an adaptive sampling rate control scheme for networked control systems (NCSs) subject to packet disordering. The main objectives of the proposed scheme are (a) to avoid heavy packet disordering existing in communication networks and (b) to stabilize NCSs with packet disordering, transmission delay and packet loss. First, a novel sampling rate control algorithm based on statistical characteristics of disordering entropy is proposed; secondly, an augmented closed-loop NCS that consists of a plant, a sampler and a state-feedback controller is transformed into an uncertain and stochastic system, which facilitates the controller design. Then, a sufficient condition for stochastic stability in terms of Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs) is given. Moreover, an adaptive tracking controller is designed such that the sampling period tracks a desired sampling period, which represents a significant contribution. Finally, experimental results are given to illustrate the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed scheme.

  16. Formaldehyde monitoring program: development of sampling and analysis procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, T. G.; Hawthorne, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    This report outlines the scope and goals of the formaldehyde analysis program being carried out in Health and Safety Research Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory under contract of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. The outline of the sampling and analysis techniques under consideration, with reference to a time frame for developmental work and field application, is discussed. The complexity of the different techniques is addressed in instances where technical staff would be requird for accurate operation of the instrumentation.

  17. Adaptive Management for Decision Making at the Program and Project Levels of the Missouri River Recovery Program

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Anderson, Michael G.; Tyre, Drew; Fleming, Craig A.

    2009-02-28

    The paper, “Adaptive Management: Background for Stakeholders in the Missouri River Recovery Program,” introduced the concept of adaptive management (AM), its principles and how they relate to one-another, how AM is applied, and challenges for its implementation. This companion paper describes how the AM principles were applied to specific management actions within the Missouri River Recovery Program to facilitate understanding, decision-making, and stakeholder engagement. For context, we begin with a brief synopsis of the Missouri River Recovery Program (MRRP) and the strategy for implementing adaptive management (AM) within the program; we finish with an example of AM in action within Phase I of the MRPP.

  18. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale in a French-Speaking Swiss Sample: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Personality and Work Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossier, Jerome; Zecca, Gregory; Stauffer, Sarah D.; Maggiori, Christian; Dauwalder, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS) in a French-speaking Swiss sample and its relationship with personality dimensions and work engagement. The heterogeneous sample of 391 participants (M[subscript age] = 39.59, SD = 12.30) completed the CAAS-International and a short version…

  19. EML Surface Air Sampling Program, 1990--1993 data

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.J.; Sanderson, C.G.; Kada, J.

    1995-11-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of specific atmospheric radionuclides in air filter samples collected for the Environmental Measurements Laboratory`s Surface Air Sampling Program (SASP) during 1990--1993, with the exception of April 1993, indicate that anthropogenic radionuclides, in both hemispheres, were at or below the lower limits of detection for the sampling and analytical techniques that were used to collect and measure them. The occasional detection of {sup 137}Cs in some air filter samples may have resulted from resuspension of previously deposited debris. Following the April 6, 1993 accident and release of radionuclides into the atmosphere at a reprocessing plant in the Tomsk-7 military nuclear complex located 16 km north of the Siberian city of Tomsk, Russia, weekly air filter samples from Barrow, Alaska; Thule, Greenland and Moosonee, Canada were selected for special analyses. The naturally occurring radioisotopes that the authors measure, {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb, continue to be detected in most air filter samples. Variations in the annual mean concentrations of {sup 7}Be at many of the sites appear to result primarily from changes in the atmospheric production rate of this cosmogenic radionuclide. Short-term variations in the concentrations of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb continued to be observed at many sites at which weekly air filter samples were analyzed. The monthly gross gamma-ray activity and the monthly mean surface air concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}Ce, and {sup 210}Pb measured at sampling sites in SASP during 1990--1993 are presented. The weekly mean surface air concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}Ce, and {sup 210}Pb for samples collected during 1990--1993 are given for 17 sites.

  20. An adaptation of ACQI to calculate the data for MSXALPHA program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klobukowski, M.

    1982-01-01

    Title of adaptation: ADAPT HFS FOR MSXALPHA Adaptation number: 0001 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland (see application form in this issue) Reference to original program Cat. number: ACQI; Title: H.F.S. SELF-CONSISTENT FIELD; Ref. in CPC: 1 (1969) 216 Author of original program: J.-P. Desclaux Computer: Amdahl 470/V7; Installation: University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada Operating system: MTS Programming language used in adapted program: FORTRAN IV High-speed core required: 75656 bytes Number of bits in a byte: 8 Peripherals used: card reader, line printer, disk No. of cards required to effect adaptation (including directive cards): 254 Card punching code: EBCDIC 027

  1. Cultural Adaptation of the Strengthening Families Program 10-14 to Italian Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Enrique; Giannotta, Fabrizia; Latina, Delia; Ciairano, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Background: The family context has proven to be a useful target in which to apply prevention efforts aimed at child and adolescent health risk behaviors. There are currently a variety of cultural adaptation models that serve to guide the international adaptation of intervention programs. Objective: The cultural adaptation process and program…

  2. Stochastic Optimal Regulation of Nonlinear Networked Control Systems by Using Event-Driven Adaptive Dynamic Programming.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Avimanyu; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, an event-driven stochastic adaptive dynamic programming (ADP)-based technique is introduced for nonlinear systems with a communication network within its feedback loop. A near optimal control policy is designed using an actor-critic framework and ADP with event sampled state vector. First, the system dynamics are approximated by using a novel neural network (NN) identifier with event sampled state vector. The optimal control policy is generated via an actor NN by using the NN identifier and value function approximated by a critic NN through ADP. The stochastic NN identifier, actor, and critic NN weights are tuned at the event sampled instants leading to aperiodic weight tuning laws. Above all, an adaptive event sampling condition based on estimated NN weights is designed by using the Lyapunov technique to ensure ultimate boundedness of all the closed-loop signals along with the approximation accuracy. The net result is event-driven stochastic ADP technique that can significantly reduce the computation and network transmissions. Finally, the analytical design is substantiated with simulation results.

  3. Dynamically optimized Wang-Landau sampling with adaptive trial moves and modification factors.

    PubMed

    Koh, Yang Wei; Lee, Hwee Kuan; Okabe, Yutaka

    2013-11-01

    The density of states of continuous models is known to span many orders of magnitudes at different energies due to the small volume of phase space near the ground state. Consequently, the traditional Wang-Landau sampling which uses the same trial move for all energies faces difficulties sampling the low-entropic states. We developed an adaptive variant of the Wang-Landau algorithm that very effectively samples the density of states of continuous models across the entire energy range. By extending the acceptance ratio method of Bouzida, Kumar, and Swendsen such that the step size of the trial move and acceptance rate are adapted in an energy-dependent fashion, the random walker efficiently adapts its sampling according to the local phase space structure. The Wang-Landau modification factor is also made energy dependent in accordance with the step size, enhancing the accumulation of the density of states. Numerical simulations show that our proposed method performs much better than the traditional Wang-Landau sampling.

  4. An adaptive importance sampling algorithm for Bayesian inversion with multimodal distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Weixuan; Lin, Guang

    2015-08-01

    Parametric uncertainties are encountered in the simulations of many physical systems, and may be reduced by an inverse modeling procedure that calibrates the simulation results to observations on the real system being simulated. Following Bayes' rule, a general approach for inverse modeling problems is to sample from the posterior distribution of the uncertain model parameters given the observations. However, the large number of repetitive forward simulations required in the sampling process could pose a prohibitive computational burden. This difficulty is particularly challenging when the posterior is multimodal. We present in this paper an adaptive importance sampling algorithm to tackle these challenges. Two essential ingredients of the algorithm are: 1) a Gaussian mixture (GM) model adaptively constructed as the proposal distribution to approximate the possibly multimodal target posterior, and 2) a mixture of polynomial chaos (PC) expansions, built according to the GM proposal, as a surrogate model to alleviate the computational burden caused by computational-demanding forward model evaluations. In three illustrative examples, the proposed adaptive importance sampling algorithm demonstrates its capabilities of automatically finding a GM proposal with an appropriate number of modes for the specific problem under study, and obtaining a sample accurately and efficiently representing the posterior with limited number of forward simulations.

  5. An adaptive importance sampling algorithm for Bayesian inversion with multimodal distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Weixuan; Lin, Guang

    2015-03-21

    Parametric uncertainties are encountered in the simulations of many physical systems, and may be reduced by an inverse modeling procedure that calibrates the simulation results to observations on the real system being simulated. Following Bayes’ rule, a general approach for inverse modeling problems is to sample from the posterior distribution of the uncertain model parameters given the observations. However, the large number of repetitive forward simulations required in the sampling process could pose a prohibitive computational burden. This difficulty is particularly challenging when the posterior is multimodal. We present in this paper an adaptive importance sampling algorithm to tackle these challenges. Two essential ingredients of the algorithm are: 1) a Gaussian mixture (GM) model adaptively constructed as the proposal distribution to approximate the possibly multimodal target posterior, and 2) a mixture of polynomial chaos (PC) expansions, built according to the GM proposal, as a surrogate model to alleviate the computational burden caused by computational-demanding forward model evaluations. In three illustrative examples, the proposed adaptive importance sampling algorithm demonstrates its capabilities of automatically finding a GM proposal with an appropriate number of modes for the specific problem under study, and obtaining a sample accurately and efficiently representing the posterior with limited number of forward simulations.

  6. An adaptive importance sampling algorithm for Bayesian inversion with multimodal distributions

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Weixuan; Lin, Guang

    2015-03-21

    Parametric uncertainties are encountered in the simulations of many physical systems, and may be reduced by an inverse modeling procedure that calibrates the simulation results to observations on the real system being simulated. Following Bayes’ rule, a general approach for inverse modeling problems is to sample from the posterior distribution of the uncertain model parameters given the observations. However, the large number of repetitive forward simulations required in the sampling process could pose a prohibitive computational burden. This difficulty is particularly challenging when the posterior is multimodal. We present in this paper an adaptive importance sampling algorithm to tackle thesemore » challenges. Two essential ingredients of the algorithm are: 1) a Gaussian mixture (GM) model adaptively constructed as the proposal distribution to approximate the possibly multimodal target posterior, and 2) a mixture of polynomial chaos (PC) expansions, built according to the GM proposal, as a surrogate model to alleviate the computational burden caused by computational-demanding forward model evaluations. In three illustrative examples, the proposed adaptive importance sampling algorithm demonstrates its capabilities of automatically finding a GM proposal with an appropriate number of modes for the specific problem under study, and obtaining a sample accurately and efficiently representing the posterior with limited number of forward simulations.« less

  7. Local Adaptation in European Firs Assessed through Extensive Sampling across Altitudinal Gradients in Southern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Postolache, Dragos; Lascoux, Martin; Drouzas, Andreas D.; Källman, Thomas; Leonarduzzi, Cristina; Liepelt, Sascha; Piotti, Andrea; Popescu, Flaviu; Roschanski, Anna M.; Zhelev, Peter; Fady, Bruno; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Background Local adaptation is a key driver of phenotypic and genetic divergence at loci responsible for adaptive traits variations in forest tree populations. Its experimental assessment requires rigorous sampling strategies such as those involving population pairs replicated across broad spatial scales. Methods A hierarchical Bayesian model of selection (HBM) that explicitly considers both the replication of the environmental contrast and the hierarchical genetic structure among replicated study sites is introduced. Its power was assessed through simulations and compared to classical ‘within-site’ approaches (FDIST, BAYESCAN) and a simplified, within-site, version of the model introduced here (SBM). Results HBM demonstrates that hierarchical approaches are very powerful to detect replicated patterns of adaptive divergence with low false-discovery (FDR) and false-non-discovery (FNR) rates compared to the analysis of different sites separately through within-site approaches. The hypothesis of local adaptation to altitude was further addressed by analyzing replicated Abies alba population pairs (low and high elevations) across the species’ southern distribution range, where the effects of climatic selection are expected to be the strongest. For comparison, a single population pair from the closely related species A. cephalonica was also analyzed. The hierarchical model did not detect any pattern of adaptive divergence to altitude replicated in the different study sites. Instead, idiosyncratic patterns of local adaptation among sites were detected by within-site approaches. Conclusion Hierarchical approaches may miss idiosyncratic patterns of adaptation among sites, and we strongly recommend the use of both hierarchical (multi-site) and classical (within-site) approaches when addressing the question of adaptation across broad spatial scales. PMID:27392065

  8. Region and edge-adaptive sampling and boundary completion for segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Dillard, Scott E; Prasad, Lakshman; Grazzini, Jacopo A

    2010-01-01

    Edge detection produces a set of points that are likely to lie on discontinuities between objects within an image. We consider faces of the Gabriel graph of these points, a sub-graph of the Delaunay triangulation. Features are extracted by merging these faces using size, shape and color cues. We measure regional properties of faces using a novel shape-dependant sampling method that overcomes undesirable sampling bias of the Delaunay triangles. Instead, sampling is biased so as to smooth regional statistics within the detected object boundaries, and this smoothing adapts to local geometric features of the shape such as curvature, thickness and straightness.

  9. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM THE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROGRAM MACROBATCH 4 TANK 21H QUALIFICATION SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2011-06-22

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H to qualify them for use in the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) Batch 4 processing. All sample results agree with expectations based on prior analyses where available. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 4 strategy are identified. This revision includes additional data points that were not available in the original issue of the document, such as additional plutonium results, the results of the monosodium titanate (MST) sorption test and the extraction, scrub strip (ESS) test. This report covers the revision to the Tank 21H qualification sample results for Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 4 of the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). A previous document covers initial characterization which includes results for a number of non-radiological analytes. These results were used to perform aluminum solubility modeling to determine the hydroxide needs for Salt Batch 4 to prevent the precipitation of solids. Sodium hydroxide was then added to Tank 21 and additional samples were pulled for the analyses discussed in this report. This work was specified by Task Technical Request and by Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP).

  10. Adaptive Competency Acquisition: Why LPN-to-ADN Career Mobility Education Programs Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle-Rogers, Patricia G.

    Adaptive competencies are the skills required to effectively complete a particular task and are the congruencies (balance) between personal skills and task demands. The differences between the adaptive competency acquisition of students in licensed practical nurse (LPN) programs and associate degree nurse (ADN) programs were examined in a…

  11. Project ADAPT: Report Number 1: Description and Review of the MIT Orientation Program: [And Appendix].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge. Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning.

    The report of Project ADAPT (Aerospace and Defense Adaptation to Public Technology), describes the design, execution, and forthcoming evaluation of the program. The program's objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of redeploying surplus technical manpower into public service at State and local levels of government. The development of the…

  12. Maximum type 1 error rate inflation in multiarmed clinical trials with adaptive interim sample size modifications.

    PubMed

    Graf, Alexandra C; Bauer, Peter; Glimm, Ekkehard; Koenig, Franz

    2014-07-01

    Sample size modifications in the interim analyses of an adaptive design can inflate the type 1 error rate, if test statistics and critical boundaries are used in the final analysis as if no modification had been made. While this is already true for designs with an overall change of the sample size in a balanced treatment-control comparison, the inflation can be much larger if in addition a modification of allocation ratios is allowed as well. In this paper, we investigate adaptive designs with several treatment arms compared to a single common control group. Regarding modifications, we consider treatment arm selection as well as modifications of overall sample size and allocation ratios. The inflation is quantified for two approaches: a naive procedure that ignores not only all modifications, but also the multiplicity issue arising from the many-to-one comparison, and a Dunnett procedure that ignores modifications, but adjusts for the initially started multiple treatments. The maximum inflation of the type 1 error rate for such types of design can be calculated by searching for the "worst case" scenarios, that are sample size adaptation rules in the interim analysis that lead to the largest conditional type 1 error rate in any point of the sample space. To show the most extreme inflation, we initially assume unconstrained second stage sample size modifications leading to a large inflation of the type 1 error rate. Furthermore, we investigate the inflation when putting constraints on the second stage sample sizes. It turns out that, for example fixing the sample size of the control group, leads to designs controlling the type 1 error rate.

  13. Genetic adaptation to captivity in species conservation programs.

    PubMed

    Frankham, Richard

    2008-01-01

    As wild environments are often inhospitable, many species have to be captive-bred to save them from extinction. In captivity, species adapt genetically to the captive environment and these genetic adaptations are overwhelmingly deleterious when populations are returned to wild environments. I review empirical evidence on (i) the genetic basis of adaptive changes in captivity, (ii) factors affecting the extent of genetic adaptation to captivity, and (iii) means for minimizing its deleterious impacts. Genetic adaptation to captivity is primarily due to rare alleles that in the wild were deleterious and partially recessive. The extent of adaptation to captivity depends upon selection intensity, genetic diversity, effective population size and number of generation in captivity, as predicted by quantitative genetic theory. Minimizing generations in captivity provides a highly effective means for minimizing genetic adaptation to captivity, but is not a practical option for most animal species. Population fragmentation and crossing replicate captive populations provide practical means for minimizing the deleterious effects of genetic adaptation to captivity upon populations reintroduced into the wild. Surprisingly, equalization of family sizes reduces the rate of genetic adaptation, but not the deleterious impacts upon reintroduced populations. Genetic adaptation to captivity is expected to have major effects on reintroduction success for species that have spent many generations in captivity. This issue deserves a much higher priority than it is currently receiving.

  14. Self-adaptive sampling rate data acquisition in JET's correlation reflectometer

    SciTech Connect

    Arcas, G. de; Lopez, J. M.; Ruiz, M.; Barrera, E.; Vega, J.; Fonseca, A.

    2008-10-15

    Data acquisition systems with self-adaptive sampling rate capabilities have been proposed as a solution to reduce the shear amount of data collected in every discharge of present fusion devices. This paper discusses the design of such a system for its use in the KG8B correlation reflectometer at JET. The system, which is based on the ITMS platform, continuously adapts the sample rate during the acquisition depending on the signal bandwidth. Data are acquired continuously at the expected maximum sample rate and transferred to a memory buffer in the host processor. Thereafter the rest of the process is based on software. Data are read from the memory buffer in blocks and for each block an intelligent decimation algorithm is applied. The decimation algorithm determines the signal bandwidth for each block in order to choose the optimum sample rate for that block, and from there the decimation factor to be used. Memory buffers are used to adapt the throughput of the three main software modules (data acquisition, processing, and storage) following a typical producer-consumer architecture. The system optimizes the amount of data collected while maintaining the same information. Design issues are discussed and results of performance evaluation are presented.

  15. Determination of conformational free energies of peptides by multidimensional adaptive umbrella sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Gu, Yan; Liu, Haiyan

    2006-09-01

    We improve the multidimensional adaptive umbrella sampling method for the computation of conformational free energies of biomolecules. The conformational transition between the α-helical and β-hairpin conformational states of an alanine decapeptide is used as an example. Convergence properties of the weighted-histogram-analysis-based adaptive umbrella sampling can be improved by using multiple replicas in each adaptive iteration and by using adaptive updating of the bounds of the umbrella potential. Using positional root-mean-square deviations from structures of the α-helical and β-hairpin reference states as reaction coordinates, we obtained well-converged free energy surfaces of both the in-vacuum and in-solution decapeptide systems. From the free energy surfaces well-converged relative free energies between the two conformational states can be derived. Advantages and disadvantages of different methods for obtaining conformational free energies as well as implications of our results in studying conformational transitions of proteins and in improving force field are discussed.

  16. Using continuous in-situ measurements to adaptively trigger urban storm water samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, B. P.; Kerkez, B.

    2015-12-01

    Until cost-effective in-situ sensors are available for biological parameters, nutrients and metals, automated samplers will continue to be the primary source of reliable water quality measurements. Given limited samples bottles, however, autosamplers often obscure insights on nutrient sources and biogeochemical processes which would otherwise be captured using a continuous sampling approach. To that end, we evaluate the efficacy a novel method to measure first-flush nutrient dynamics in flashy, urban watersheds. Our approach reduces the number of samples required to capture water quality dynamics by leveraging an internet-connected sensor node, which is equipped with a suite of continuous in-situ sensors and an automated sampler. To capture both the initial baseflow as well as storm concentrations, a cloud-hosted adaptive algorithm analyzes the high-resolution sensor data along with local weather forecasts to optimize a sampling schedule. The method was tested in a highly developed urban catchment in Ann Arbor, Michigan and collected samples of nitrate, phosphorus, and suspended solids throughout several storm events. Results indicate that the watershed does not exhibit first flush dynamics, a behavior that would have been obscured when using a non-adaptive sampling approach.

  17. Aerosol Sampling and Analysis for the GEOTRACES Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landing, W. M.

    2008-12-01

    The GEOTRACES Science Plan emphasizes the importance of atmospheric deposition on the budgets and biogeochemistry of trace elements and isotopes in the world's oceans. With funding from the National Science Foundation, an aerosol and rainfall sampling program is being developed for use on future GEOTRACES cruises. This includes preparation and testing of dual high-volume TISCH 5170-VBL aerosol samplers for inorganic trace elements and isotopes, major ions, organic material, and isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen. A third 5170-VBL aerosol sampler is equipped with a 5-stage Sierra-style slotted impactor to collect size-fractionated aerosols for chemical measurements. The aerosol samplers will be operated using wind speed and wind sector control to avoid contamination from ship's exhaust. Duplicate automated rain samplers have also been developed to collect unfiltered and filtered rain samples. Rainfall will be filtered immediately (during collection) to avoid re-adsorption artifacts. Two intercalibration experiments are planned where aerosol and rainfall subsamples will be distributed to the community for testing and validation of analytical methods. The first experiment is being conducted in early September 2008 on the roof at RSMAS/University of Miami. Results from the GEOTRACES aerosol samplers will be compared to a multi-channel aerosol sampling system (using 47mm PCTE filters), and with ongoing aerosol collections at RSMAS. The second experiment is planned for the atmospheric sampling tower at Bellows AFB (Oahu, HI) in summer 2009. Details of the sampling equipment and sample collection methods will be discussed, along with preliminary results from the first intercalibration experiment. Community input will be solicited for planning the second intercalibration experiment.

  18. Facilitating adaptive management in a government program: A household energy efficiency case study.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Jim; Graham, Alex; Ghafoori, Eraj; Pyke, Susan; Kaufman, Stefan; Boulet, Mark

    2017-02-01

    Interim evaluations of government programs can sometimes reveal lower than expected outcomes, leading to the question of how adjustments can be made while the program is still underway. Although adaptive management frameworks can provide a practical roadmap to address this question, a lack of successful learnings and poor implementation have hampered the progress and wider application of adaptive management. Using a case study involving an energy efficiency government program targeting low-income households, this article provides supporting evidence on how adaptive management can be facilitated and applied. Factors such as proactive and responsive leadership, establishing a research-practice interface, and recognizing the skills, expertise, and contributions of multiple stakeholders guided adjustments to the program, and later paved the way for longer-term organizational learning that impacted how other programs are delivered. Implications for knowledge and practice, and a discussion of the challenges faced in the program, advance current thinking in adaptive management.

  19. University of Rhode Island Adapted Aquatics Program Manual. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomquist, Lorraine E.

    This manual provides guidelines for aquatic teachers of people with disabilities. It is based on experience in teaching American Red Cross Adapted Aquatics and is to be used to complement and accompany the Red Cross Adapted Aquatics materials. Emphasis is placed on successful experiences in a positive, safe, reinforcing environment stressing…

  20. Adaptation and Validation of the Sexual Assertiveness Scale (SAS) in a Sample of Male Drug Users.

    PubMed

    Vallejo-Medina, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos

    2015-04-21

    The aim of the present study was to adapt and validate the Sexual Assertiveness Scale (SAS) in a sample of male drug users. A sample of 326 male drug users and 322 non-clinical males was selected by cluster sampling and convenience sampling, respectively. Results showed that the scale had good psychometric properties and adequate internal consistency reliability (Initiation = .66, Refusal = .74 and STD-P = .79). An evaluation of the invariance showed strong factor equivalence between both samples. A high and moderate effect of Differential Item Functioning was only found in items 1 and 14 (∆R 2 Nagelkerke = .076 and .037, respectively). We strongly recommend not using item 1 if the goal is to compare the scores of both groups, otherwise the comparison will be biased. Correlations obtained between the CSFQ-14 and the safe sex ratio and the SAS subscales were significant (CI = 95%) and indicated good concurrent validity. Scores of male drug users were similar to those of non-clinical males. Therefore, the adaptation of the SAS to drug users provides enough guarantees for reliable and valid use in both clinical practice and research, although care should be taken with item 1.

  1. Self-organizing adaptive map: autonomous learning of curves and surfaces from point samples.

    PubMed

    Piastra, Marco

    2013-05-01

    Competitive Hebbian Learning (CHL) (Martinetz, 1993) is a simple and elegant method for estimating the topology of a manifold from point samples. The method has been adopted in a number of self-organizing networks described in the literature and has given rise to related studies in the fields of geometry and computational topology. Recent results from these fields have shown that a faithful reconstruction can be obtained using the CHL method only for curves and surfaces. Within these limitations, these findings constitute a basis for defining a CHL-based, growing self-organizing network that produces a faithful reconstruction of an input manifold. The SOAM (Self-Organizing Adaptive Map) algorithm adapts its local structure autonomously in such a way that it can match the features of the manifold being learned. The adaptation process is driven by the defects arising when the network structure is inadequate, which cause a growth in the density of units. Regions of the network undergo a phase transition and change their behavior whenever a simple, local condition of topological regularity is met. The phase transition is eventually completed across the entire structure and the adaptation process terminates. In specific conditions, the structure thus obtained is homeomorphic to the input manifold. During the adaptation process, the network also has the capability to focus on the acquisition of input point samples in critical regions, with a substantial increase in efficiency. The behavior of the network has been assessed experimentally with typical data sets for surface reconstruction, including suboptimal conditions, e.g. with undersampling and noise.

  2. F -Discrepancy for Efficient Sampling in Approximate Dynamic Programming.

    PubMed

    Cervellera, Cristiano; Maccio, Danilo

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of generating efficient state sample points for the solution of continuous-state finite-horizon Markovian decision problems through approximate dynamic programming. It is known that the selection of sampling points at which the value function is observed is a key factor when such function is approximated by a model based on a finite number of evaluations. A standard approach consists in generating these points through a random or deterministic procedure, aiming at a balanced covering of the state space. Yet, this solution may not be efficient if the state trajectories are not uniformly distributed. Here, we propose to exploit F -discrepancy, a quantity that measures how closely a set of random points represents a probability distribution, and introduce an example of an algorithm based on such concept to automatically select point sets that are efficient with respect to the underlying Markovian process. An error analysis of the approximate solution is provided, showing how the proposed algorithm enables convergence under suitable regularity hypotheses. Then, simulation results are provided concerning an inventory forecasting test problem. The tests confirm in general the important role of F -discrepancy, and show how the proposed algorithm is able to yield better results than uniform sampling, using sets even 50 times smaller.

  3. The New Weather Radar for America's Space Program in Florida: A Temperature Profile Adaptive Scan Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carey, L. D.; Petersen, W. A.; Deierling, W.; Roeder, W. P.

    2009-01-01

    A new weather radar is being acquired for use in support of America s space program at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, NASA Kennedy Space Center, and Patrick AFB on the east coast of central Florida. This new radar replaces the modified WSR-74C at Patrick AFB that has been in use since 1984. The new radar is a Radtec TDR 43-250, which has Doppler and dual polarization capability. A new fixed scan strategy was designed to best support the space program. The fixed scan strategy represents a complex compromise between many competing factors and relies on climatological heights of various temperatures that are important for improved lightning forecasting and evaluation of Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), which are the weather rules to avoid lightning strikes to in-flight rockets. The 0 C to -20 C layer is vital since most generation of electric charge occurs within it and so it is critical in evaluating Lightning LCC and in forecasting lightning. These are two of the most important duties of 45 WS. While the fixed scan strategy that covers most of the climatological variation of the 0 C to -20 C levels with high resolution ensures that these critical temperatures are well covered most of the time, it also means that on any particular day the radar is spending precious time scanning at angles covering less important heights. The goal of this project is to develop a user-friendly, Interactive Data Language (IDL) computer program that will automatically generate optimized radar scan strategies that adapt to user input of the temperature profile and other important parameters. By using only the required scan angles output by the temperature profile adaptive scan strategy program, faster update times for volume scans and/or collection of more samples per gate for better data quality is possible, while maintaining high resolution at the critical temperature levels. The temperature profile adaptive technique will also take into account earth curvature and refraction

  4. Preventing Adolescent Substance Use Through an Evidence-Based Program: Effects of the Italian Adaptation of Life Skills Training.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Veronica; Griffin, Kenneth W; Botvin, Gilbert J

    2017-03-28

    Evidence-based preventive interventions for adolescent substance use, violence, and mental health issues are increasingly being adapted and disseminated internationally. In the present paper, we report the results of an effectiveness study that was part of a comprehensive initiative by a coalition of health promotion organizations in the Lombardy region of Italy to select, culturally adapt, implement, evaluate, and sustain an evidence-based drug abuse prevention program developed in the USA. Findings are presented from a large-scale effectiveness study of the Life Skills Training prevention program among over 3000 students attending 55 middle schools in Italy. The prevention program taught drug refusal skills, antidrug norms, personal self-management skills, and general social skills. Relative to comparison group students, students who received the prevention program were less likely to initiate smoking at the post-test and 2-year follow-up, and less likely to initiate weekly drunkenness at the 1-year follow-up. The program had direct positive effects on several cognitive, attitudinal, and skill variables believed to play a protective role in adolescent substance use. The findings from this study show that a drug abuse prevention program originally designed for adolescents in the USA is effective in a sample of Italian youth when a rigorous and systematic approach to cultural adaptation is followed that incorporates the input of multiple stakeholders.

  5. Carbon monoxide measurement in the global atmospheric sampling program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudzinski, T. J.

    1979-01-01

    The carbon monoxide measurement system used in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is described. The system used a modified version of a commercially available infrared absorption analyzer. The modifications increased the sensitivity of the analyzer to 1 ppmv full scale, with a limit of detectability of 0.02 ppmv. Packaging was modified for automatic, unattended operation in an aircraft environment. The GASP system is described along with analyzer operation, calibration procedures, and measurement errors. Uncertainty of the CO measurement over a 2-year period ranged from + or - 3 to + or - 13 percent of reading, plus an error due to random fluctuation of the output signal + or - 3 to + or - 15 ppbv.

  6. Adapting a Multifaceted U.S. HIV Prevention Education Program for Girls in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiscian, Vivian Sarpomaa; Obeng, E. Kwame; Goldstein, Karen; Shea, Judy A.; Turner, Barbara J.

    2009-01-01

    We adapted a U.S. HIV prevention program to address knowledge gaps and cultural pressures that increase the risk of infection in adolescent Ghanaian girls. The theory-based nine-module HIV prevention program combines didactics and games, an interactive computer program about sugar daddies, and tie-and-dye training to demonstrate an economic…

  7. The Portuguese adaptation of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS1) in a sample of inmates.

    PubMed

    Pires, Rute; Silva, Danilo R; Ferreira, Ana Sousa

    2014-01-01

    This paper comprises two studies which address the validity of the Portuguese adaptation of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, GSS1. In study 1, the means and standard deviations for the suggestibility results of a sample of Portuguese inmates (N=40, Mage=37.5 years, SD=8.1) were compared to those of a sample of Icelandic inmates (Gudjonsson, 1997; Gudjonsson & Sigurdsson, 1996). Portuguese inmates' results were in line with the original results. In study 2, the means and standard deviations for the suggestibility results of the sample of Portuguese inmates were compared to those of a general Portuguese population sample (N=57, Mage=36.1 years, SD=12.7). The forensic sample obtained significantly higher scores in suggestibility measures than the general population sample. ANOVA confirmed that the increased suggestibility in the inmates sample was due to the limited memory capacity of this latter group. Given that the results of both studies 1 and 2 are in keeping with the author's original results (Gudjonsson, 1997), this may be regarded as a confirmation of the validity of the Portuguese GSS1.

  8. Adaptive millimeter-wave synthetic aperture imaging for compressive sampling of sparse scenes.

    PubMed

    Mrozack, Alex; Heimbeck, Martin; Marks, Daniel L; Richard, Jonathan; Everitt, Henry O; Brady, David J

    2014-06-02

    We apply adaptive sensing techniques to the problem of locating sparse metallic scatterers using high-resolution, frequency modulated continuous wave W-band RADAR. Using a single detector, a frequency stepped source, and a lateral translation stage, inverse synthetic aperture RADAR reconstruction techniques are used to search for one or two wire scatterers within a specified range, while an adaptive algorithm determined successive sampling locations. The two-dimensional location of each scatterer is thereby identified with sub-wavelength accuracy in as few as 1/4 the number of lateral steps required for a simple raster scan. The implications of applying this approach to more complex scattering geometries are explored in light of the various assumptions made.

  9. Influence of wave-front sampling in adaptive optics retinal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Laslandes, Marie; Salas, Matthias; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.; Pircher, Michael

    2017-01-01

    A wide range of sampling densities of the wave-front has been used in retinal adaptive optics (AO) instruments, compared to the number of corrector elements. We developed a model in order to characterize the link between number of actuators, number of wave-front sampling points and AO correction performance. Based on available data from aberration measurements in the human eye, 1000 wave-fronts were generated for the simulations. The AO correction performance in the presence of these representative aberrations was simulated for different deformable mirror and Shack Hartmann wave-front sensor combinations. Predictions of the model were experimentally tested through in vivo measurements in 10 eyes including retinal imaging with an AO scanning laser ophthalmoscope. According to our study, a ratio between wavefront sampling points and actuator elements of 2 is sufficient to achieve high resolution in vivo images of photoreceptors. PMID:28271004

  10. Adapting Physical Education: A Guide for Individualizing Physical Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckanavage, Robert, Ed.; And Others

    Guidelines are presented for organizing programs and modifying activities in physical education programs for children with a wide range of physical and emotional disabilities. The guidelines should result in a program that allows students to work to their maximum potential within the framework of regular physical education classes. In planning the…

  11. Improving environmental and social targeting through adaptive management in Mexico's payments for hydrological services program.

    PubMed

    Sims, Katharine R E; Alix-Garcia, Jennifer M; Shapiro-Garza, Elizabeth; Fine, Leah R; Radeloff, Volker C; Aronson, Glen; Castillo, Selene; Ramirez-Reyes, Carlos; Yañez-Pagans, Patricia

    2014-10-01

    Natural resource managers are often expected to achieve both environmental protection and economic development even when there are fundamental trade-offs between these goals. Adaptive management provides a theoretical structure for program administrators to balance social priorities in the presence of trade-offs and to improve conservation targeting. We used the case of Mexico's federal Payments for Hydrological Services program (PSAH) to illustrate the importance of adaptive management for improving program targeting. We documented adaptive elements of PSAH and corresponding changes in program eligibility and selection criteria. To evaluate whether these changes resulted in enrollment of lands of high environmental and social priority, we compared the environmental and social characteristics of the areas enrolled in the program with the characteristics of all forested areas in Mexico, all areas eligible for the program, and all areas submitted for application to the program. The program successfully enrolled areas of both high ecological and social priority, and over time, adaptive changes in the program's criteria for eligibility and selection led to increased enrollment of land scoring high on both dimensions. Three factors facilitated adaptive management in Mexico and are likely to be generally important for conservation managers: a supportive political environment, including financial backing and encouragement to experiment from the federal government; availability of relatively good social and environmental data; and active participation in the review process by stakeholders and outside evaluators.

  12. Adapting GNU random forest program for Unix and Windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirina, Marcel; Krayem, M. Said; Jirina, Marcel, Jr.

    2013-10-01

    The Random Forest is a well-known method and also a program for data clustering and classification. Unfortunately, the original Random Forest program is rather difficult to use. Here we describe a new version of this program originally written in Fortran 77. The modified program in Fortran 95 needs to be compiled only once and information for different tasks is passed with help of arguments. The program was tested with 24 data sets from UCI MLR and results are available on the net.

  13. Adaption of a corrector module to the IMP dynamics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The corrector module of the RAEIOS program and the IMP dynamics computer program were combined to achieve a date-fitting capability with the more general spacecraft dynamics models of the IMP program. The IMP dynamics program presents models of spacecraft dynamics for satellites with long, flexible booms. The properties of the corrector are discussed and a description is presented of the performance criteria and search logic for parameter estimation. A description is also given of the modifications made to add the corrector to the IMP program. This includes subroutine descriptions, common definitions, definition of input, and a description of output.

  14. High-resolution in-depth imaging of optically cleared thick samples using an adaptive SPIM

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Aurore; Escande, Paul; Frongia, Céline; Clouvel, Grégory; Ducommun, Bernard; Lorenzo, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Today, Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy (LSFM) makes it possible to image fluorescent samples through depths of several hundreds of microns. However, LSFM also suffers from scattering, absorption and optical aberrations. Spatial variations in the refractive index inside the samples cause major changes to the light path resulting in loss of signal and contrast in the deepest regions, thus impairing in-depth imaging capability. These effects are particularly marked when inhomogeneous, complex biological samples are under study. Recently, chemical treatments have been developed to render a sample transparent by homogenizing its refractive index (RI), consequently enabling a reduction of scattering phenomena and a simplification of optical aberration patterns. One drawback of these methods is that the resulting RI of cleared samples does not match the working RI medium generally used for LSFM lenses. This RI mismatch leads to the presence of low-order aberrations and therefore to a significant degradation of image quality. In this paper, we introduce an original optical-chemical combined method based on an adaptive SPIM and a water-based clearing protocol enabling compensation for aberrations arising from RI mismatches induced by optical clearing methods and acquisition of high-resolution in-depth images of optically cleared complex thick samples such as Multi-Cellular Tumour Spheroids. PMID:26576666

  15. High-resolution in-depth imaging of optically cleared thick samples using an adaptive SPIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Aurore; Escande, Paul; Frongia, Céline; Clouvel, Grégory; Ducommun, Bernard; Lorenzo, Corinne

    2015-11-01

    Today, Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy (LSFM) makes it possible to image fluorescent samples through depths of several hundreds of microns. However, LSFM also suffers from scattering, absorption and optical aberrations. Spatial variations in the refractive index inside the samples cause major changes to the light path resulting in loss of signal and contrast in the deepest regions, thus impairing in-depth imaging capability. These effects are particularly marked when inhomogeneous, complex biological samples are under study. Recently, chemical treatments have been developed to render a sample transparent by homogenizing its refractive index (RI), consequently enabling a reduction of scattering phenomena and a simplification of optical aberration patterns. One drawback of these methods is that the resulting RI of cleared samples does not match the working RI medium generally used for LSFM lenses. This RI mismatch leads to the presence of low-order aberrations and therefore to a significant degradation of image quality. In this paper, we introduce an original optical-chemical combined method based on an adaptive SPIM and a water-based clearing protocol enabling compensation for aberrations arising from RI mismatches induced by optical clearing methods and acquisition of high-resolution in-depth images of optically cleared complex thick samples such as Multi-Cellular Tumour Spheroids.

  16. ADAPT: A Piagetian-based Program for College Freshmen, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Univ., Lincoln.

    College students need a learning environment that encourages them to develop their reasoning abilities, as well as to master course content. This booklet discusses an attempt to create such an environment: the ADAPT program at the University of Nebraska. ADAPT, Accent on Developing Abstract Processes of Thought, is a comprehensive,…

  17. Designing monitoring programs in an adaptive management context for regional multiple species conservation plans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, A.J.; Trenham, P.C.; Fisher, R.N.; Hathaway, S.A.; Johnson, B.S.; Torres, S.G.; Moore, Y.C.

    2004-01-01

    critical management uncertainties; and 3) implementing long-term monitoring and adaptive management. Ultimately, the success of regional conservation planning depends on the ability of monitoring programs to confront the challenges of adaptively managing and monitoring complex ecosystems and diverse arrays of sensitive species.

  18. An Extension Education Program to Help Local Governments with Flood Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Gretchen; Allred, Shorna; LoGiudice, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Education is an important tool to increase the capacity of local government officials for community flood adaptation. To address flood adaptation and post-flood stream management in municipalities, Cornell Cooperative Extension and collaborators developed an educational program to increase municipal officials' knowledge about how to work…

  19. A Theory of Secondary Teachers' Adaptations When Implementing a Reading Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leko, Melinda M.; Roberts, Carly A.; Pek, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the causes and consequences of secondary teachers' adaptations when implementing a research-based reading intervention program. Interview, observation, and artifact data were collected on five middle school intervention teachers, leading to a grounded theory composed of the core component, reconciliation through adaptation, and…

  20. Organ sample generator for expected treatment dose construction and adaptive inverse planning optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Nie Xiaobo; Liang Jian; Yan Di

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To create an organ sample generator (OSG) for expected treatment dose construction and adaptive inverse planning optimization. The OSG generates random samples of organs of interest from a distribution obeying the patient specific organ variation probability density function (PDF) during the course of adaptive radiotherapy. Methods: Principle component analysis (PCA) and a time-varying least-squares regression (LSR) method were used on patient specific geometric variations of organs of interest manifested on multiple daily volumetric images obtained during the treatment course. The construction of the OSG includes the determination of eigenvectors of the organ variation using PCA, and the determination of the corresponding coefficients using time-varying LSR. The coefficients can be either random variables or random functions of the elapsed treatment days depending on the characteristics of organ variation as a stationary or a nonstationary random process. The LSR method with time-varying weighting parameters was applied to the precollected daily volumetric images to determine the function form of the coefficients. Eleven h and n cancer patients with 30 daily cone beam CT images each were included in the evaluation of the OSG. The evaluation was performed using a total of 18 organs of interest, including 15 organs at risk and 3 targets. Results: Geometric variations of organs of interest during h and n cancer radiotherapy can be represented using the first 3 {approx} 4 eigenvectors. These eigenvectors were variable during treatment, and need to be updated using new daily images obtained during the treatment course. The OSG generates random samples of organs of interest from the estimated organ variation PDF of the individual. The accuracy of the estimated PDF can be improved recursively using extra daily image feedback during the treatment course. The average deviations in the estimation of the mean and standard deviation of the organ variation PDF for h

  1. Low-power metabolic equivalents estimation algorithm using adaptive acceleration sampling.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Mio; Nakanishi, Motofumi; Izumi, Shintaro; Nakai, Yozaburo; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Yoshimoto, Masahiko; Tsukahara, Mio; Nakanishi, Motofumi; Izumi, Shintaro; Nakai, Yozaburo; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Yoshimoto, Masahiko; Izumi, Shintaro; Nakai, Yozaburo; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Yoshimoto, Masahiko; Tsukahara, Mio; Nakanishi, Motofumi

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes a proposed low-power metabolic equivalent estimation algorithm that can calculate the value of metabolic equivalents (METs) from triaxial acceleration at an adaptively changeable sampling rate. This algorithm uses four rates of 32, 16, 8 and 4 Hz. The mode of switching them is decided from synthetic acceleration. Applying this proposed algorithm to acceleration measured for 1 day, we achieved the low root mean squared error (RMSE) of calculated METs, with current consumption that was 41.5 % of the value at 32 Hz, and 75.4 % of the value at 16 Hz.

  2. Software Technology for Adaptable, Reliable Systems (STARS) Program: SPMS Training Class: Student Handout. Addendum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-02

    Sequence 03705-001B 30 September 1991 (3 SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY FOR ADAPTABLE, RELIABLE SYSTEMS ( STARS ) PROGRAM ELEGTE m AUG15 1991 Ö I 0 SPMS Training...September 1991 SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY FOR ADAPTABLE, RELIABLE SYSTEMS ( STARS ) PROGRAM SPMS Training Class: Student Handout Addendum to: Software...document is the student handout prepared for the "SEI/ STARS P.3 Asset Acquisition Sub-task" training class. The student handout covers basic aspects

  3. Sample results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 8 Tank 21H qualification samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Washington, II, A. L.

    2015-01-13

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 8 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and several Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). No issues with the projected Salt Batch 8 strategy are identified. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (MST) (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable average decontamination factors for plutonium of 2.62 (4 hour) and 2.90 (8 hour); and average strontium decontamination factors of 21.7 (4 hour) and 21.3 (8 hour). These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ARP tests. The two ESS tests also showed acceptable performance with extraction distribution ratios (D(Cs)) values of 52.5 and 50.4 for the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) blend (from MCU) and NGS (lab prepared), respectively. These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests. Even though the performance is acceptable, SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed in order to improve our predictive capabilities for the ESS tests.

  4. Sample Results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 8 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Washington, A. L.

    2015-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 8 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and several Extraction-Scrub- Strip (ESS) tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). No issues with the projected Salt Batch 8 strategy are identified. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (MST) (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable average decontamination factors for plutonium of 2.62 (4 hour) and 2.90 (8 hour); and average strontium decontamination factors of 21.7 (4 hour) and 21.3 (8 hour). These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ARP tests. The two ESS tests also showed acceptable performance with extraction distribution ratios (D(Cs)) values of 52.5 and 50.4 for the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) blend (from MCU) and NGS (lab prepared), respectively. These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests. Even though the performance is acceptable, SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed in order to improve our predictive capabilities for the ESS tests.

  5. Accelerating Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation by differential evolution with self-adaptive randomized subspace sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Vrugt, Jasper A; Hyman, James M; Robinson, Bruce A; Higdon, Dave; Ter Braak, Cajo J F; Diks, Cees G H

    2008-01-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods have found widespread use in many fields of study to estimate the average properties of complex systems, and for posterior inference in a Bayesian framework. Existing theory and experiments prove convergence of well constructed MCMC schemes to the appropriate limiting distribution under a variety of different conditions. In practice, however this convergence is often observed to be disturbingly slow. This is frequently caused by an inappropriate selection of the proposal distribution used to generate trial moves in the Markov Chain. Here we show that significant improvements to the efficiency of MCMC simulation can be made by using a self-adaptive Differential Evolution learning strategy within a population-based evolutionary framework. This scheme, entitled DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis or DREAM, runs multiple different chains simultaneously for global exploration, and automatically tunes the scale and orientation of the proposal distribution in randomized subspaces during the search. Ergodicity of the algorithm is proved, and various examples involving nonlinearity, high-dimensionality, and multimodality show that DREAM is generally superior to other adaptive MCMC sampling approaches. The DREAM scheme significantly enhances the applicability of MCMC simulation to complex, multi-modal search problems.

  6. Sample Results From The Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 7 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Washington, A. L. II

    2013-08-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 7 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An ARP and several ESS tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP/MCU. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 7 strategy are identified, other than the presence of visible quantities of dark colored solids. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable 4 hour average decontamination factors for Pu and Sr of 3.22 and 18.4, respectively. The Four ESS tests also showed acceptable behavior with distribution ratios (D(Cs)) values of 15.96, 57.1, 58.6, and 65.6 for the MCU, cold blend, hot blend, and Next Generation Solvent (NGS), respectively. The predicted value for the MCU solvent was 13.2. Currently, there are no models that would allow a prediction of extraction behavior for the other three solvents. SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed. While no outstanding issues were noted, the presence of solids in the samples should be investigated in future work. It is possible that the solids may represent a potential reservoir of material (such as potassium) that could have an impact on MCU performance if they were to dissolve back into the feed solution. This salt batch is intended to be the first batch to be processed through MCU entirely using the new NGS-MCU solvent.

  7. Promoting social-emotional learning in adolescent Latino ELLs: a study of the culturally adapted Strong Teens program.

    PubMed

    Castro-Olivo, Sara M

    2014-12-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of the culturally adapted Jóvenes Fuertes (Strong Teens) Social-Emotional Learning (SEL) program on the social-emotional outcomes of Latino English language learners (ELLs). A quasi-experimental design with random assignment by classrooms was used to assess the intervention's effects on students' knowledge of SEL and resiliency. A sample of 102 Spanish-dominant Latino ELLs enrolled in middle or high school participated in this study. The results indicated significant intervention effects on SEL knowledge and social-emotional resiliency. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for preventive, culturally responsive SEL programs in school settings.

  8. University of Rhode Island Adapted Aquatics Program Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scraba, Paula J.; Bloomquist, Lorraine E.

    An overview is presented of the aquatics course, adapted for persons with disabilities, at the University of Rhode Island. A description of the course includes information on course requirements, objectives, content and learning activities, assignments, modules used in the course, and a course syllabus. A description of the course organization and…

  9. Computer Adaptive Testing for Small Scale Programs and Instructional Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.; Guo, Fanmin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates measurement decision theory (MDT) as an underlying model for computer adaptive testing when the goal is to classify examinees into one of a finite number of groups. The first analysis compares MDT with a popular item response theory model and finds little difference in terms of the percentage of correct classifications. The…

  10. A Surrogate-based Adaptive Sampling Approach for History Matching and Uncertainty Quantification

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Weixuan; Zhang, Dongxiao; Lin, Guang

    2015-02-25

    A critical procedure in reservoir simulations is history matching (or data assimilation in a broader sense), which calibrates model parameters such that the simulation results are consistent with field measurements, and hence improves the credibility of the predictions given by the simulations. Often there exist non-unique combinations of parameter values that all yield the simulation results matching the measurements. For such ill-posed history matching problems, Bayesian theorem provides a theoretical foundation to represent different solutions and to quantify the uncertainty with the posterior PDF. Lacking an analytical solution in most situations, the posterior PDF may be characterized with a sample of realizations, each representing a possible scenario. A novel sampling algorithm is presented here for the Bayesian solutions to history matching problems. We aim to deal with two commonly encountered issues: 1) as a result of the nonlinear input-output relationship in a reservoir model, the posterior distribution could be in a complex form, such as multimodal, which violates the Gaussian assumption required by most of the commonly used data assimilation approaches; 2) a typical sampling method requires intensive model evaluations and hence may cause unaffordable computational cost. In the developed algorithm, we use a Gaussian mixture model as the proposal distribution in the sampling process, which is simple but also flexible to approximate non-Gaussian distributions and is particularly efficient when the posterior is multimodal. Also, a Gaussian process is utilized as a surrogate model to speed up the sampling process. Furthermore, an iterative scheme of adaptive surrogate refinement and re-sampling ensures sampling accuracy while keeping the computational cost at a minimum level. The developed approach is demonstrated with an illustrative example and shows its capability in handling the above-mentioned issues. Multimodal posterior of the history matching

  11. Building a conceptual framework to culturally adapt health promotion and prevention programs at the deep structural level.

    PubMed

    Wang-Schweig, Meme; Kviz, Frederick J; Altfeld, Susan J; Miller, Arlene M; Miller, Brenda A

    2014-07-01

    The debate on the effectiveness and merit for the amount of time, effort, and resources to culturally adapt health promotion and prevention programs continues. This may be due, in large part, to the lack of theory in commonly used methods to match programmatic content and delivery to the culture of a population, particularly at the deep structural level. This paper asserts that prior to the cultural adaptation of prevention programs, it is necessary to first develop a conceptual framework. We propose a multiphase approach to address key challenges in the science of cultural adaptation by first identifying and exploring relevant cultural factors that may affect the targeted health-related behavior prior to proceeding through steps of a stage model. The first phase involves developing an underlying conceptual framework that integrates cultural factors to ground this process. The second phase employs the different steps of a stage model. For Phase I of our approach, we offer four key steps and use our research study as an example of how these steps were applied to build a framework for the cultural adaptation of a family-based intervention to prevent adolescent alcohol use, Guiding Good Choices (GGC), to Chinese American families. We then provide a summary of the preliminary evidence from a few key relationships that were tested among our sample with the greater purpose of discussing how these findings might be used to culturally adapt GGC.

  12. Image classification with densely sampled image windows and generalized adaptive multiple kernel learning.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shengye; Xu, Xinxing; Xu, Dong; Lin, Stephen; Li, Xuelong

    2015-03-01

    We present a framework for image classification that extends beyond the window sampling of fixed spatial pyramids and is supported by a new learning algorithm. Based on the observation that fixed spatial pyramids sample a rather limited subset of the possible image windows, we propose a method that accounts for a comprehensive set of windows densely sampled over location, size, and aspect ratio. A concise high-level image feature is derived to effectively deal with this large set of windows, and this higher level of abstraction offers both efficient handling of the dense samples and reduced sensitivity to misalignment. In addition to dense window sampling, we introduce generalized adaptive l(p)-norm multiple kernel learning (GA-MKL) to learn a robust classifier based on multiple base kernels constructed from the new image features and multiple sets of prelearned classifiers from other classes. With GA-MKL, multiple levels of image features are effectively fused, and information is shared among different classifiers. Extensive evaluation on benchmark datasets for object recognition (Caltech256 and Caltech101) and scene recognition (15Scenes) demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art under a broad range of settings.

  13. Adaptive pulse width control and sampling for low power pulse oximetry.

    PubMed

    Gubbi, Sagar Venkatesh; Amrutur, Bharadwaj

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing of physiological parameters could be a cost effective approach to improving health care, and low-power sensors are essential for remote sensing because these sensors are often energy constrained. This paper presents a power optimized photoplethysmographic sensor interface to sense arterial oxygen saturation, a technique to dynamically trade off SNR for power during sensor operation, and a simple algorithm to choose when to acquire samples in photoplethysmography. A prototype of the proposed pulse oximeter built using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components is tested on 10 adults. The dynamic adaptation techniques described reduce power consumption considerably compared to our reference implementation, and our approach is competitive to state-of-the-art implementations. The techniques presented in this paper may be applied to low-power sensor interface designs where acquiring samples is expensive in terms of power as epitomized by pulse oximetry.

  14. Community Programs, Sport Clubs, and Clinics for Adapted Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Darlene

    2012-01-01

    Community programs associated with the Paralympic movement provide recreational or competitive opportunities for individuals with a disability who wish to participate in a sport or leisure activity. These community programs provide the background knowledge and specialized equipment needed for individuals with disabilities to participate safely and…

  15. A Rural Special Education Teacher Training Program: Successful Adaptations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prater, Greg; And Others

    The Rural Special Education Program (RSEP), a partnership between Northern Arizona University (NAU) and Kayenta Unified School District (KUSD), provides training for preservice special education teachers to work with Native American students and their families. To date, the program has provided training for 63 preservice special education…

  16. ADAPTING A BEGINNING READING PROGRAM FOR SPANISH-SPEAKING CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCNEIL, JOHN D.

    A BEGINNING READING PROGRAM FOR SPANISH-SPEAKING CHILDREN IS REPORTED. A STUDY, SPONSORED BY THE SOUTHWEST REGIONAL LABORATORY FOR EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (SWRL), DEVELOPED LEARNING SEQUENCES FOR A BEGINNING READING PROGRAM FOR KINDERGARTEN CLASSROOMS WITH SPANISH-SPEAKING CHILDREN THROUGHOUT THE SOUTHWEST REGION. EACH OF 21 10-MINUTE…

  17. Sample entropy-based adaptive wavelet de-noising approach for meteorologic and hydrologic time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Singh, Vijay P.; Shang, Xiaosan; Ding, Hao; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Lachun; Zou, Xinqing; Chen, Yuanfang; Chen, Xi; Wang, Shicheng; Wang, Zhenlong

    2014-07-01

    De-noising meteorologic and hydrologic time series is important to improve the accuracy and reliability of extraction, analysis, simulation, and forecasting. A hybrid approach, combining sample entropy and wavelet de-noising method, is developed to separate noise from original series and is named as AWDA-SE (adaptive wavelet de-noising approach using sample entropy). The AWDA-SE approach adaptively determines the threshold for wavelet analysis. Two kinds of meteorologic and hydrologic data sets, synthetic data set and 3 representative field measured data sets (one is the annual rainfall data of Jinan station and the other two are annual streamflow series from two typical stations in China, Yingluoxia station on the Heihe River, which is little affected by human activities, and Lijin station on the Yellow River, which is greatly affected by human activities), are used to illustrate the approach. The AWDA-SE approach is compared with three conventional de-noising methods, including fixed-form threshold algorithm, Stein unbiased risk estimation algorithm, and minimax algorithm. Results show that the AWDA-SE approach separates effectively the signal and noise of the data sets and is found to be better than the conventional methods. Measures of assessment standards show that the developed approach can be employed to investigate noisy and short time series and can also be applied to other areas.

  18. Adaptive sampling dual terahertz comb spectroscopy using dual free-running femtosecond lasers

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Takeshi; Ichikawa, Ryuji; Hsieh, Yi-Da; Hayashi, Kenta; Cahyadi, Harsono; Hindle, Francis; Sakaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Iwata, Tetsuo; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Minoshima, Kaoru; Inaba, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) dual comb spectroscopy (DCS) is a promising method for high-accuracy, high-resolution, broadband THz spectroscopy because the mode-resolved THz comb spectrum includes both broadband THz radiation and narrow-line CW-THz radiation characteristics. In addition, all frequency modes of a THz comb can be phase-locked to a microwave frequency standard, providing excellent traceability. However, the need for stabilization of dual femtosecond lasers has often hindered its wide use. To overcome this limitation, here we have demonstrated adaptive-sampling THz-DCS, allowing the use of free-running femtosecond lasers. To correct the fluctuation of the time and frequency scales caused by the laser timing jitter, an adaptive sampling clock is generated by dual THz-comb-referenced spectrum analysers and is used for a timing clock signal in a data acquisition board. The results not only indicated the successful implementation of THz-DCS with free-running lasers but also showed that this configuration outperforms standard THz-DCS with stabilized lasers due to the slight jitter remained in the stabilized lasers. PMID:26035687

  19. Motion-adapted pulse sequences for oriented sample (OS) solid-state NMR of biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Lu, George J; Opella, Stanley J

    2013-08-28

    One of the main applications of solid-state NMR is to study the structure and dynamics of biopolymers, such as membrane proteins, under physiological conditions where the polypeptides undergo global motions as they do in biological membranes. The effects of NMR radiofrequency irradiations on nuclear spins are strongly influenced by these motions. For example, we previously showed that the MSHOT-Pi4 pulse sequence yields spectra with resonance line widths about half of those observed using the conventional pulse sequence when applied to membrane proteins undergoing rapid uniaxial rotational diffusion in phospholipid bilayers. In contrast, the line widths were not changed in microcrystalline samples where the molecules did not undergo global motions. Here, we demonstrate experimentally and describe analytically how some Hamiltonian terms are susceptible to sample motions, and it is their removal through the critical π/2 Z-rotational symmetry that confers the "motion adapted" property to the MSHOT-Pi4 pulse sequence. This leads to the design of separated local field pulse sequence "Motion-adapted SAMPI4" and is generalized to an approach for the design of decoupling sequences whose performance is superior in the presence of molecular motions. It works by cancelling the spin interaction by explicitly averaging the reduced Wigner matrix to zero, rather than utilizing the 2π nutation to average spin interactions. This approach is applicable to both stationary and magic angle spinning solid-state NMR experiments.

  20. An Energy Aware Adaptive Sampling Algorithm for Energy Harvesting WSN with Energy Hungry Sensors.

    PubMed

    Srbinovski, Bruno; Magno, Michele; Edwards-Murphy, Fiona; Pakrashi, Vikram; Popovici, Emanuel

    2016-03-28

    Wireless sensor nodes have a limited power budget, though they are often expected to be functional in the field once deployed for extended periods of time. Therefore, minimization of energy consumption and energy harvesting technology in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are key tools for maximizing network lifetime, and achieving self-sustainability. This paper proposes an energy aware Adaptive Sampling Algorithm (ASA) for WSN with power hungry sensors and harvesting capabilities, an energy management technique that can be implemented on any WSN platform with enough processing power to execute the proposed algorithm. An existing state-of-the-art ASA developed for wireless sensor networks with power hungry sensors is optimized and enhanced to adapt the sampling frequency according to the available energy of the node. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using two in-field testbeds that are supplied by two different energy harvesting sources (solar and wind). Simulation and comparison between the state-of-the-art ASA and the proposed energy aware ASA (EASA) in terms of energy durability are carried out using in-field measured harvested energy (using both wind and solar sources) and power hungry sensors (ultrasonic wind sensor and gas sensors). The simulation results demonstrate that using ASA in combination with an energy aware function on the nodes can drastically increase the lifetime of a WSN node and enable self-sustainability. In fact, the proposed EASA in conjunction with energy harvesting capability can lead towards perpetual WSN operation and significantly outperform the state-of-the-art ASA.

  1. Improve Problem Solving Skills through Adapting Programming Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaykhian, Linda H.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    There are numerous ways for engineers and students to become better problem-solvers. The use of command line and visual programming tools can help to model a problem and formulate a solution through visualization. The analysis of problem attributes and constraints provide insight into the scope and complexity of the problem. The visualization aspect of the problem-solving approach tends to make students and engineers more systematic in their thought process and help them catch errors before proceeding too far in the wrong direction. The problem-solver identifies and defines important terms, variables, rules, and procedures required for solving a problem. Every step required to construct the problem solution can be defined in program commands that produce intermediate output. This paper advocates improved problem solving skills through using a programming tool. MatLab created by MathWorks, is an interactive numerical computing environment and programming language. It is a matrix-based system that easily lends itself to matrix manipulation, and plotting of functions and data. MatLab can be used as an interactive command line or a sequence of commands that can be saved in a file as a script or named functions. Prior programming experience is not required to use MatLab commands. The GNU Octave, part of the GNU project, a free computer program for performing numerical computations, is comparable to MatLab. MatLab visual and command programming are presented here.

  2. Modeling for deformable mirrors and the adaptive optics optimization program

    SciTech Connect

    Henesian, M.A.; Haney, S.W.; Trenholme, J.B.; Thomas, M.

    1997-03-18

    We discuss aspects of adaptive optics optimization for large fusion laser systems such as the 192-arm National Ignition Facility (NIF) at LLNL. By way of example, we considered the discrete actuator deformable mirror and Hartmann sensor system used on the Beamlet laser. Beamlet is a single-aperture prototype of the 11-0-5 slab amplifier design for NIF, and so we expect similar optical distortion levels and deformable mirror correction requirements. We are now in the process of developing a numerically efficient object oriented C++ language implementation of our adaptive optics and wavefront sensor code, but this code is not yet operational. Results are based instead on the prototype algorithms, coded-up in an interpreted array processing computer language.

  3. ADAPTUBL. Adaptive Digitizing and Programming of Turbine Blades

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, L.; Loucks, C.

    1994-04-01

    ADAPTUBL involves adaptively machining cast turbine blades. Due to uncontrollable warpage during solidification of cast parts, each part has unique dimensions. A structured lighting sensor, added to the workspace of a 5-axis machining center, discerns the unique geometry of each part. The processed sensor data is then used to generate the unique, 5-axis tool paths required to perform a high precision machining operation on the tip of each blade.

  4. Multi-species attributes as the condition for adaptive sampling of rare species using two-stage sequential sampling with an auxiliary variable

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panahbehagh, B.; Smith, D.R.; Salehi, M.M.; Hornbach, D.J.; Brown, D.J.; Chan, F.; Marinova, D.; Anderssen, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    Assessing populations of rare species is challenging because of the large effort required to locate patches of occupied habitat and achieve precise estimates of density and abundance. The presence of a rare species has been shown to be correlated with presence or abundance of more common species. Thus, ecological community richness or abundance can be used to inform sampling of rare species. Adaptive sampling designs have been developed specifically for rare and clustered populations and have been applied to a wide range of rare species. However, adaptive sampling can be logistically challenging, in part, because variation in final sample size introduces uncertainty in survey planning. Two-stage sequential sampling (TSS), a recently developed design, allows for adaptive sampling, but avoids edge units and has an upper bound on final sample size. In this paper we present an extension of two-stage sequential sampling that incorporates an auxiliary variable (TSSAV), such as community attributes, as the condition for adaptive sampling. We develop a set of simulations to approximate sampling of endangered freshwater mussels to evaluate the performance of the TSSAV design. The performance measures that we are interested in are efficiency and probability of sampling a unit occupied by the rare species. Efficiency measures the precision of population estimate from the TSSAV design relative to a standard design, such as simple random sampling (SRS). The simulations indicate that the density and distribution of the auxiliary population is the most important determinant of the performance of the TSSAV design. Of the design factors, such as sample size, the fraction of the primary units sampled was most important. For the best scenarios, the odds of sampling the rare species was approximately 1.5 times higher for TSSAV compared to SRS and efficiency was as high as 2 (i.e., variance from TSSAV was half that of SRS). We have found that design performance, especially for adaptive

  5. Measurement assurance program for FTIR analyses of deuterium oxide samples

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.R.; Clark, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Analytical chemistry measurements require an installed criterion based assessment program to identify and control sources of error. This program should also gauge the uncertainty about the data. A self- assessment was performed of long established quality control practices against the characteristics of a comprehensive measurement assurance program. Opportunities for improvement were identified. This paper discusses the efforts to transform quality control practices into a complete measurement assurance program. The resulting program heightened the laboratory`s confidence in the data it generated, by providing real-time statistical information to control and determine measurement quality.

  6. Adaption of G-TAG Software for Validating Touch and Go Asteroid Sample Return Design Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackmore, Lars James C.; Acikmese, Behcet; Mandic, Milan

    2012-01-01

    A software tool is used to demonstrate the feasibility of Touch and Go (TAG) sampling for Asteroid Sample Return missions. TAG is a concept whereby a spacecraft is in contact with the surface of a small body, such as a comet or asteroid, for a few seconds or less before ascending to a safe location away from the small body. Previous work at JPL developed the G-TAG simulation tool, which provides a software environment for fast, multi-body simulations of the TAG event. G-TAG is described in Multibody Simulation Software Testbed for Small-Body Exploration and Sampling, (NPO-47196) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 35, No. 11 (November 2011), p.54. This current innovation adapts this tool to a mission that intends to return a sample from the surface of an asteroid. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the TAG concept, the new software tool was used to generate extensive simulations that demonstrate the designed spacecraft meets key requirements. These requirements state that contact force and duration must be sufficient to ensure that enough material from the surface is collected in the brushwheel sampler (BWS), and that the spacecraft must survive the contact and must be able to recover and ascend to a safe position, and maintain velocity and orientation after the contact.

  7. Missouri River Recovery Program Adaptive Management Process Framework, Version 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    projects (e.g., Yellowstone Intake, Montana). The Sub-Programs and projects that comprise the MRRP, as well as the congressional authorities can... Yellowstone Intake). The role of the SPgM is to ensure successful implementation of the overall program through communication of the USACE strategic...effects of the Annual Operating Plan [AOP]) in coordination with the ISP. 1.2.10 PM for Other Congressionally and WRDA Directed Work (e.g. Yellowstone

  8. Adaptive free energy sampling in multidimensional collective variable space using boxed molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Mike; Paci, Emanuele; McIntosh-Smith, Simon; Glowacki, David R

    2016-12-22

    The past decade has seen the development of a new class of rare event methods in which molecular configuration space is divided into a set of boundaries/interfaces, and then short trajectories are run between boundaries. For all these methods, an important concern is how to generate boundaries. In this paper, we outline an algorithm for adaptively generating boundaries along a free energy surface in multi-dimensional collective variable (CV) space, building on the boxed molecular dynamics (BXD) rare event algorithm. BXD is a simple technique for accelerating the simulation of rare events and free energy sampling which has proven useful for calculating kinetics and free energy profiles in reactive and non-reactive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations across a range of systems, in both NVT and NVE ensembles. Two key developments outlined in this paper make it possible to automate BXD, and to adaptively map free energy and kinetics in complex systems. First, we have generalized BXD to multidimensional CV space. Using strategies from rigid-body dynamics, we have derived a simple and general velocity-reflection procedure that conserves energy for arbitrary collective variable definitions in multiple dimensions, and show that it is straightforward to apply BXD to sampling in multidimensional CV space so long as the Cartesian gradients ∇CV are available. Second, we have modified BXD to undertake on-the-fly statistical analysis during a trajectory, harnessing the information content latent in the dynamics to automatically determine boundary locations. Such automation not only makes BXD considerably easier to use; it also guarantees optimal boundaries, speeding up convergence. We have tested the multidimensional adaptive BXD procedure by calculating the potential of mean force for a chemical reaction recently investigated using both experimental and computational approaches - i.e., F + CD3CN → DF + D2CN in both the gas phase and a strongly coupled explicit CD3CN solvent

  9. Learner Control versus Program Control as Adaptive Strategies for Selection of Instructional Support on Math Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Steven M.; Rakow, Ernest A.

    1981-01-01

    Subjects completed a self-paced lesson on math rules in which the number of supporting examples was adapted to pretest scores through program control, selected through learner control, or kept constant (nonadaptive). Program control means were consistently highest while learner control means were lowest. (Author/BW)

  10. The process of adapting a universal dating abuse prevention program to adolescents exposed to domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Foshee, Vangie A; Dixon, Kimberly S; Ennett, Susan T; Moracco, Kathryn E; Bowling, J Michael; Chang, Ling-Yin; Moss, Jennifer L

    2015-07-01

    Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at increased risk of dating abuse, yet no evaluated dating abuse prevention programs have been designed specifically for this high-risk population. This article describes the process of adapting Families for Safe Dates (FSD), an evidenced-based universal dating abuse prevention program, to this high-risk population, including conducting 12 focus groups and 107 interviews with the target audience. FSD includes six booklets of dating abuse prevention information, and activities for parents and adolescents to do together at home. We adapted FSD for mothers who were victims of domestic violence, but who no longer lived with the abuser, to do with their adolescents who had been exposed to the violence. Through the adaptation process, we learned that families liked the program structure and valued being offered the program and that some of our initial assumptions about this population were incorrect. We identified practices and beliefs of mother victims and attributes of these adolescents that might increase their risk of dating abuse that we had not previously considered. In addition, we learned that some of the content of the original program generated negative family interactions for some. The findings demonstrate the utility of using a careful process to adapt evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to cultural sub-groups, particularly the importance of obtaining feedback on the program from the target audience. Others can follow this process to adapt EBIs to groups other than the ones for which the original EBI was designed.

  11. Understanding barriers to implementation of an adaptive land management program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, S.K.; Morris, J.K.; Sanders, J.S.; Wiley, E.N.; Brooks, M.; Bennetts, R.E.; Percival, H.F.; Marynowski, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission manages over 650,000 ha, including 26 wildlife management and environmental areas. To improve management, they developed an objective-based vegetation management (OBVM) process that focuses on desired conditions of plant communities through an adaptive management framework. Our goals were to understand potential barriers to implementing OBVM and to recommend strategies to overcome barriers. A literature review identified 47 potential barriers in six categories to implementation of adaptive and ecosystem management: logistical, communication, attitudinal, institutional, conceptual, and educational. We explored these barriers through a bureau-wide survey of 90 staff involved in OBVM and personal interviews with area managers, scientists, and administrators. The survey incorporated an organizational culture assessment instrument to gauge how institutional factors might influence OBVM implementation. The survey response rate was 69%. Logistics and communications were the greatest barriers to implementing OBVM. Respondents perceived that the agency had inadequate resources for implementing OBVM and provided inadequate information. About one-third of the respondents believed OBVM would decrease their job flexibility and perceived greater institutional barriers to the approach. The 43% of respondents who believed they would have more responsibility under OBVM also had greater attitudinal barriers. A similar percentage of respondents reported OBVM would not give enough priority to wildlife. Staff believed that current agency culture was hierarchical but preferred a culture that would provide more flexibility for adaptive management and would foster learning from land management activities. In light of the barriers to OBVM, we recommend the following: (1) mitigation of logistical barriers by addressing real and perceived constraints of staff, funds, and other resources in a participatory manner; (2) mitigation of

  12. Differentially Private Histogram Publication For Dynamic Datasets: An Adaptive Sampling Approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Haoran; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Xiong, Li; Liu, Jinfei

    2015-10-01

    Differential privacy has recently become a de facto standard for private statistical data release. Many algorithms have been proposed to generate differentially private histograms or synthetic data. However, most of them focus on "one-time" release of a static dataset and do not adequately address the increasing need of releasing series of dynamic datasets in real time. A straightforward application of existing histogram methods on each snapshot of such dynamic datasets will incur high accumulated error due to the composibility of differential privacy and correlations or overlapping users between the snapshots. In this paper, we address the problem of releasing series of dynamic datasets in real time with differential privacy, using a novel adaptive distance-based sampling approach. Our first method, DSFT, uses a fixed distance threshold and releases a differentially private histogram only when the current snapshot is sufficiently different from the previous one, i.e., with a distance greater than a predefined threshold. Our second method, DSAT, further improves DSFT and uses a dynamic threshold adaptively adjusted by a feedback control mechanism to capture the data dynamics. Extensive experiments on real and synthetic datasets demonstrate that our approach achieves better utility than baseline methods and existing state-of-the-art methods.

  13. Differentially Private Histogram Publication For Dynamic Datasets: An Adaptive Sampling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haoran; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Xiong, Li; Liu, Jinfei

    2016-01-01

    Differential privacy has recently become a de facto standard for private statistical data release. Many algorithms have been proposed to generate differentially private histograms or synthetic data. However, most of them focus on “one-time” release of a static dataset and do not adequately address the increasing need of releasing series of dynamic datasets in real time. A straightforward application of existing histogram methods on each snapshot of such dynamic datasets will incur high accumulated error due to the composibility of differential privacy and correlations or overlapping users between the snapshots. In this paper, we address the problem of releasing series of dynamic datasets in real time with differential privacy, using a novel adaptive distance-based sampling approach. Our first method, DSFT, uses a fixed distance threshold and releases a differentially private histogram only when the current snapshot is sufficiently different from the previous one, i.e., with a distance greater than a predefined threshold. Our second method, DSAT, further improves DSFT and uses a dynamic threshold adaptively adjusted by a feedback control mechanism to capture the data dynamics. Extensive experiments on real and synthetic datasets demonstrate that our approach achieves better utility than baseline methods and existing state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26973795

  14. A Bayesian adaptive blinded sample size adjustment method for risk differences.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Andrew Montgomery

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive sample size adjustment (SSA) for clinical trials consists of examining early subsets of on trial data to adjust estimates of sample size requirements. Blinded SSA is often preferred over unblinded SSA because it obviates many logistical complications of the latter and generally introduces less bias. On the other hand, current blinded SSA methods for binary data offer little to no new information about the treatment effect, ignore uncertainties associated with the population treatment proportions, and/or depend on enhanced randomization schemes that risk partial unblinding. I propose an innovative blinded SSA method for use when the primary analysis is a non-inferiority or superiority test regarding a risk difference. The method incorporates evidence about the treatment effect via the likelihood function of a mixture distribution. I compare the new method with an established one and with the fixed sample size study design, in terms of maximization of an expected utility function. The new method maximizes the expected utility better than do the comparators, under a range of assumptions. I illustrate the use of the proposed method with an example that incorporates a Bayesian hierarchical model. Lastly, I suggest topics for future study regarding the proposed methods.

  15. Adapting the Behavior Education Program for Preschool Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steed, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Behavior Education Program (BEP) is the most researched targeted intervention that is used in schoolwide positive behavior intervention and supports (PBIS). It is a daily check-in and check-out system in which students receive extra attention for positive social behavior throughout their school day. This extra attention is intended to prevent…

  16. Architectural Adaptability in Parallel Programming via Control Abstraction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    Technical Report 359 January 1991 Abstract Parallel programming involves finding the potential parallelism in an application, choos - ing an...during the development of this paper. 34 References [Albert et ai, 1988] Eugene Albert, Kathleen Knobe, Joan D. Lukas, and Guy L. Steele, Jr

  17. Accelerating the Convergence of Replica Exchange Simulations Using Gibbs Sampling and Adaptive Temperature Sets

    DOE PAGES

    Vogel, Thomas; Perez, Danny

    2015-08-28

    We recently introduced a novel replica-exchange scheme in which an individual replica can sample from states encountered by other replicas at any previous time by way of a global configuration database, enabling the fast propagation of relevant states through the whole ensemble of replicas. This mechanism depends on the knowledge of global thermodynamic functions which are measured during the simulation and not coupled to the heat bath temperatures driving the individual simulations. Therefore, this setup also allows for a continuous adaptation of the temperature set. In this paper, we will review the new scheme and demonstrate its capability. The methodmore » is particularly useful for the fast and reliable estimation of the microcanonical temperature T (U) or, equivalently, of the density of states g(U) over a wide range of energies.« less

  18. Accelerating the Convergence of Replica Exchange Simulations Using Gibbs Sampling and Adaptive Temperature Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, Thomas; Perez, Danny

    2015-08-28

    We recently introduced a novel replica-exchange scheme in which an individual replica can sample from states encountered by other replicas at any previous time by way of a global configuration database, enabling the fast propagation of relevant states through the whole ensemble of replicas. This mechanism depends on the knowledge of global thermodynamic functions which are measured during the simulation and not coupled to the heat bath temperatures driving the individual simulations. Therefore, this setup also allows for a continuous adaptation of the temperature set. In this paper, we will review the new scheme and demonstrate its capability. The method is particularly useful for the fast and reliable estimation of the microcanonical temperature T (U) or, equivalently, of the density of states g(U) over a wide range of energies.

  19. An Energy Aware Adaptive Sampling Algorithm for Energy Harvesting WSN with Energy Hungry Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Srbinovski, Bruno; Magno, Michele; Edwards-Murphy, Fiona; Pakrashi, Vikram; Popovici, Emanuel

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor nodes have a limited power budget, though they are often expected to be functional in the field once deployed for extended periods of time. Therefore, minimization of energy consumption and energy harvesting technology in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are key tools for maximizing network lifetime, and achieving self-sustainability. This paper proposes an energy aware Adaptive Sampling Algorithm (ASA) for WSN with power hungry sensors and harvesting capabilities, an energy management technique that can be implemented on any WSN platform with enough processing power to execute the proposed algorithm. An existing state-of-the-art ASA developed for wireless sensor networks with power hungry sensors is optimized and enhanced to adapt the sampling frequency according to the available energy of the node. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using two in-field testbeds that are supplied by two different energy harvesting sources (solar and wind). Simulation and comparison between the state-of-the-art ASA and the proposed energy aware ASA (EASA) in terms of energy durability are carried out using in-field measured harvested energy (using both wind and solar sources) and power hungry sensors (ultrasonic wind sensor and gas sensors). The simulation results demonstrate that using ASA in combination with an energy aware function on the nodes can drastically increase the lifetime of a WSN node and enable self-sustainability. In fact, the proposed EASA in conjunction with energy harvesting capability can lead towards perpetual WSN operation and significantly outperform the state-of-the-art ASA. PMID:27043559

  20. Real-time nutrient monitoring in rivers: adaptive sampling strategies, technological challenges and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaen, Phillip; Khamis, Kieran; Lloyd, Charlotte; Bradley, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Excessive nutrient concentrations in river waters threaten aquatic ecosystem functioning and can pose substantial risks to human health. Robust monitoring strategies are therefore required to generate reliable estimates of river nutrient loads and to improve understanding of the catchment processes that drive spatiotemporal patterns in nutrient fluxes. Furthermore, these data are vital for prediction of future trends under changing environmental conditions and thus the development of appropriate mitigation measures. In recent years, technological developments have led to an increase in the use of continuous in-situ nutrient analysers, which enable measurements at far higher temporal resolutions than can be achieved with discrete sampling and subsequent laboratory analysis. However, such instruments can be costly to run and difficult to maintain (e.g. due to high power consumption and memory requirements), leading to trade-offs between temporal and spatial monitoring resolutions. Here, we highlight how adaptive monitoring strategies, comprising a mixture of temporal sample frequencies controlled by one or more 'trigger variables' (e.g. river stage, turbidity, or nutrient concentration), can advance our understanding of catchment nutrient dynamics while simultaneously overcoming many of the practical and economic challenges encountered in typical in-situ river nutrient monitoring applications. We present examples of short-term variability in river nutrient dynamics, driven by complex catchment behaviour, which support our case for the development of monitoring systems that can adapt in real-time to rapid environmental changes. In addition, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of current nutrient monitoring techniques, and suggest new research directions based on emerging technologies and highlight how these might improve: 1) monitoring strategies, and 2) understanding of linkages between catchment processes and river nutrient fluxes.

  1. Adaptive sampling of CT data for myocardial blood flow estimation from dose-reduced dynamic CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modgil, Dimple; Bindschadler, Michael D.; Alessio, Adam M.; La Rivière, Patrick J.

    2015-03-01

    Quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) can aid in the diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, there are no widely accepted clinical methods for estimating MBF. Dynamic CT holds the promise of providing a quick and easy method to measure MBF quantitatively, however the need for repeated scans has raised concerns about the potential for high radiation dose. In our previous work, we explored techniques to reduce the patient dose by either uniformly reducing the tube current or by uniformly reducing the number of temporal frames in the dynamic CT sequence. These dose reduction techniques result in very noisy data, which can give rise to large errors in MBF estimation. In this work, we seek to investigate whether nonuniformly varying the tube current or sampling intervals can yield more accurate MBF estimates. Specifically, we try to minimize the dose and obtain the most accurate MBF estimate through addressing the following questions: when in the time attenuation curve (TAC) should the CT data be collected and at what tube current(s). We hypothesize that increasing the sampling rate and/or tube current during the time frames when the myocardial CT number is most sensitive to the flow rate, while reducing them elsewhere, can achieve better estimation accuracy for the same dose. We perform simulations of contrast agent kinetics and CT acquisitions to evaluate the relative MBF estimation performance of several clinically viable adaptive acquisition methods. We found that adaptive temporal and tube current sequences can be performed that impart an effective dose of about 5 mSv and allow for reductions in MBF estimation RMSE on the order of 11% compared to uniform acquisition sequences with comparable or higher radiation doses.

  2. Environmental sampling and mud sampling program of CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program) core hole VC-2B, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Meeker, K.; Goff, F.; Gardner, J.N.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.

    1990-03-01

    An environmental sampling and drilling mud sampling program was conducted during the drilling operations of Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) core hole VC-2B, Valles caldera, New Mexico. A suite of four springs and creeks in the Sulphur Springs area were monitored on a regular basis to ensure that the VC-2B drilling program was having no environmental impact on water quality. In addition, a regional survey of springs in and around the Jemez Mountains was conducted to provide background data for the environmental monitoring. A drilling mud monitoring program was conducted during the operations to help identify major fluid entries in the core hole. 32 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Efficient estimation of abundance for patchily distributed populations via two-phase, adaptive sampling.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conroy, M.J.; Runge, J.P.; Barker, R.J.; Schofield, M.R.; Fonnesbeck, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Many organisms are patchily distributed, with some patches occupied at high density, others at lower densities, and others not occupied. Estimation of overall abundance can be difficult and is inefficient via intensive approaches such as capture-mark-recapture (CMR) or distance sampling. We propose a two-phase sampling scheme and model in a Bayesian framework to estimate abundance for patchily distributed populations. In the first phase, occupancy is estimated by binomial detection samples taken on all selected sites, where selection may be of all sites available, or a random sample of sites. Detection can be by visual surveys, detection of sign, physical captures, or other approach. At the second phase, if a detection threshold is achieved, CMR or other intensive sampling is conducted via standard procedures (grids or webs) to estimate abundance. Detection and CMR data are then used in a joint likelihood to model probability of detection in the occupancy sample via an abundance-detection model. CMR modeling is used to estimate abundance for the abundance-detection relationship, which in turn is used to predict abundance at the remaining sites, where only detection data are collected. We present a full Bayesian modeling treatment of this problem, in which posterior inference on abundance and other parameters (detection, capture probability) is obtained under a variety of assumptions about spatial and individual sources of heterogeneity. We apply the approach to abundance estimation for two species of voles (Microtus spp.) in Montana, USA. We also use a simulation study to evaluate the frequentist properties of our procedure given known patterns in abundance and detection among sites as well as design criteria. For most population characteristics and designs considered, bias and mean-square error (MSE) were low, and coverage of true parameter values by Bayesian credibility intervals was near nominal. Our two-phase, adaptive approach allows efficient estimation of

  4. Innovative Leader Development: Evaluation of the U.S. Army Asymmetric Warfare Adaptive Leader Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    determine which provided the most useful data and provided a set of final materials to AWG based on these results. A third objective was to provide... materials suitable not only for evaluating AWALP but also for evaluating other courses or events that include adaptability training or training that...adaptability train- ing, we recommend that AWG create a training support package for AWALP with a program of instruction and supplementary materials

  5. Sequential multiple assignment randomized trial (SMART) with adaptive randomization for quality improvement in depression treatment program.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Ying Kuen; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Davidson, Karina W

    2015-06-01

    Implementation study is an important tool for deploying state-of-the-art treatments from clinical efficacy studies into a treatment program, with the dual goals of learning about effectiveness of the treatments and improving the quality of care for patients enrolled into the program. In this article, we deal with the design of a treatment program of dynamic treatment regimens (DTRs) for patients with depression post-acute coronary syndrome. We introduce a novel adaptive randomization scheme for a sequential multiple assignment randomized trial of DTRs. Our approach adapts the randomization probabilities to favor treatment sequences having comparatively superior Q-functions used in Q-learning. The proposed approach addresses three main concerns of an implementation study: it allows incorporation of historical data or opinions, it includes randomization for learning purposes, and it aims to improve care via adaptation throughout the program. We demonstrate how to apply our method to design a depression treatment program using data from a previous study. By simulation, we illustrate that the inputs from historical data are important for the program performance measured by the expected outcomes of the enrollees, but also show that the adaptive randomization scheme is able to compensate poorly specified historical inputs by improving patient outcomes within a reasonable horizon. The simulation results also confirm that the proposed design allows efficient learning of the treatments by alleviating the curse of dimensionality.

  6. Measuring Fidelity and Adaptation: Reliability of a Instrument for School-Based Prevention Programs.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Dana C; Pankratz, Melinda M; Hansen, William B; Albritton, Jordan; Albritton, Lauren; Strack, Joann

    2014-06-01

    There is a need to standardize methods for assessing fidelity and adaptation. Such standardization would allow program implementation to be examined in a manner that will be useful for understanding the moderating role of fidelity in dissemination research. This article describes a method for collecting data about fidelity of implementation for school-based prevention programs, including measures of adherence, quality of delivery, dosage, participant engagement, and adaptation. We report about the reliability of these methods when applied by four observers who coded video recordings of teachers delivering All Stars, a middle school drug prevention program. Interrater agreement for scaled items was assessed for an instrument designed to evaluate program fidelity. Results indicated sound interrater reliability for items assessing adherence, dosage, quality of teaching, teacher understanding of concepts, and program adaptations. The interrater reliability for items assessing potential program effectiveness, classroom management, achievement of activity objectives, and adaptation valences was improved by dichotomizing the response options for these items. The item that assessed student engagement demonstrated only modest interrater reliability and was not improved through dichotomization. Several coder pairs were discordant on items that overall demonstrated good interrater reliability. Proposed modifications to the coding manual and protocol are discussed.

  7. Stratospheric CCN sampling program. [volcanology, Mount Saint Helens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, C. F.; Hudson, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    Two one liter grab samples of stratospheric aerosol were returned from each of six U-2 sampling missions. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra from each sample were obtained. Interest was centered on the effects of volcanic activity. Spurious particle generation was found to be a serious problem in container 9 LFT and a much smaller problem in container 9 RT. Initial studies of an option for improved sample containers and values were completed. A CCN spectrometer, able to operate at an internal pressure of 300 mb, was designed.

  8. Corn blight review: Sampling model and ground data measurements program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    The sampling plan involved the selection of the study area, determination of the flightline and segment sample design within the study area, and determination of a field sample design. Initial interview survey data consisting of crop species acreage and land use were collected. On all corn fields, additional information such as seed type, row direction, population, planting date, ect. were also collected. From this information, sample corn fields were selected to be observed through the growing season on a biweekly basis by county extension personnel.

  9. Guidance for establishment and implementation of a national sample management program in support of EM environmental sampling and analysis activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-18

    The role of the National Sample Management Program (NSMP) proposed by the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (EM) is to be a resource for EM programs and for local Field Sample Management Programs (FSMPs). It will be a source of information on sample analysis and data collection within the DOE complex. Therefore the NSMP`s primary role is to coordinate and function as a central repository for information collected from the FSMPs. An additional role of the NSMP is to monitor trends in data collected from the FSMPs over time and across sites and laboratories. Tracking these trends will allow identification of potential problems in the sampling and analysis process.

  10. A Manual for Single Switch and Adaptive Software Programming. Computer Applications for Students with Physical, Sensory, Developmental, and Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Edward

    This manual is intended as a guide and source of ideas for using single switches in adaptive software programming for people with disabilities who cannot use a traditional keyboard. The manual and associated program disk are comprised of over 100 programs, routines and files illustrating various uses of single switch and adaptive input devices.…

  11. [Community Health Agent: status adapted with Family Health Program reality?].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Karina Tonini; Saliba, Nemre Adas; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Arcieri, Renato Moreira; Carvalho, Maria de Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the status and work reality of Community Health Agents, with the purpose of contributing to the improvement of the Brazilian Health System (SUS) in small cities. It was discussed aspects related to their participation in the team of the Family Health Program (PSF) and their interaction with the community. It was observed a lack of motivation and experience, which compromises the quality of Agents performance in the community. It is known that these findings are reflex and consequence of an established context. It is necessary the team rethink their practice, specially the managers, having always as a fundament the principles that guide the SUS and PSF.

  12. Provision of Hepatitis C Education in a Nationwide Sample of Drug Treatment Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astone, Janetta; Strauss, Shiela M.; Vassilev, Zdravko P.; Des Jarlais, Don C.

    2003-01-01

    Using a nationwide sample of drug treatment programs, reports the results of an analysis that differentiates programs providing Hepatitis C virus (HCV) education to all of their patients versus programs that do not. Fifty-four percent of the programs provide HCV education to all of their patients. Findings indicate a need to increase HCV…

  13. Regulatory perspectives on multiplicity in adaptive design clinical trials throughout a drug development program.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sue-Jane; Hung, H M James; O'Neill, Robert

    2011-07-01

    A clinical research program for drug development often consists of a sequence of clinical trials that may begin with uncontrolled and nonrandomized trials, followed by randomized trials or randomized controlled trials. Adaptive designs are not infrequently proposed for use. In the regulatory setting, the success of a drug development program can be defined to be that the experimental treatment at a specific dose level including regimen and frequency is approved based on replicated evidence from at least two confirmatory trials. In the early stage of clinical research, multiplicity issues are very broad. What is the maximum tolerable dose in an adaptive dose escalation trial? What should the dose range be to consider in an adaptive dose-ranging trial? What is the minimum effective dose in an adaptive dose-response study given the tolerability and the toxicity observable in short term or premarketing trials? Is establishing the dose-response relationship important or the ability to select a superior treatment with high probability more important? In the later stage of clinical research, multiplicity problems can be formulated with better focus, depending on whether the study is for exploration to estimate or select design elements or for labeling consideration. What is the study objective for an early-phase versus a later phase adaptive clinical trial? How many doses are to be studied in the early exploratory adaptive trial versus in the confirmatory adaptive trial? Is the intended patient population well defined or is the applicable patient population yet to be adaptively selected in the trial due to the potential patient and/or disease heterogeneity? Is the primary efficacy endpoint well defined or still under discussion providing room for adaptation? What are the potential treatment indications that may adaptively lead to an intended-to-treat patient population and the primary efficacy endpoint? In this work we stipulate the multiplicity issues with adaptive

  14. Recursive dynamic programming for adaptive sequence and structure alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Thiele, R.; Zimmer, R.; Lengauer, T.

    1995-12-31

    We propose a new alignment procedure that is capable of aligning protein sequences and structures in a unified manner. Recursive dynamic programming (RDP) is a hierarchical method which, on each level of the hierarchy, identifies locally optimal solutions and assembles them into partial alignments of sequences and/or structures. In contrast to classical dynamic programming, RDP can also handle alignment problems that use objective functions not obeying the principle of prefix optimality, e.g. scoring schemes derived from energy potentials of mean force. For such alignment problems, RDP aims at computing solutions that are near-optimal with respect to the involved cost function and biologically meaningful at the same time. Towards this goal, RDP maintains a dynamic balance between different factors governing alignment fitness such as evolutionary relationships and structural preferences. As in the RDP method gaps are not scored explicitly, the problematic assignment of gap cost parameters is circumvented. In order to evaluate the RDP approach we analyse whether known and accepted multiple alignments based on structural information can be reproduced with the RDP method.

  15. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  16. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM THE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROGRAM MACROBATCH 5 TANK 21H QUALIFICATION MST, ESS AND PODD SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2012-04-24

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed experiments on qualification material for use in the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) Batch 5 processing. This qualification material was a composite created from recent samples from Tank 21H and archived samples from Tank 49H to match the projected blend from these two tanks. Additionally, samples of the composite were used in the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and extraction-scrub-strip (ESS) tests. ARP and ESS test results met expectations. A sample from Tank 21H was also analyzed for the Performance Objectives Demonstration Document (PODD) requirements. SRNL was able to meet all of the requirements, including the desired detection limits for all the PODD analytes. This report details the results of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP), Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) and Performance Objectives Demonstration Document (PODD) samples of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 5 of the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP).

  17. MPH program adaptability in a competitive marketplace: the case for continued assessment.

    PubMed

    Caron, Rosemary M; Tutko, Holly

    2010-06-01

    In the last several years, the number of Master of Public Health (MPH) programs has increased rapidly in the US. As such, MPH programs, particularly smaller-sized ones, need to critically examine how their programs are meeting the needs and preferences of local public health practitioners. To assist in this necessity, the University of New Hampshire conducted a comprehensive educational assessment of its effectiveness as a smaller-sized, accredited MPH program. The aim of the assessment was to review the MPH program from the perspective of all stakeholders and then to agree on changes that would contribute to the fulfillment of the program's mission, as well as improve program quality and reach. The program's stakeholders examined the following components: policy development and implementation; target audience; marketing strategies; marketplace position; delivery model; curriculum design; and continuing education. Though assessment activities explored a wide array of program attributes, target audience, curriculum design, and delivery strategy presented significant challenges and opportunities for our smaller MPH Program to remain competitive. The effort put forth into conducting an in-depth assessment of the core components of our program also allowed for a comparison to the increasing number of MPH programs developing regionally. Since public health practice is changing and the education of public health practitioners must be adaptable, we propose that a routine assessment of an institution's MPH program could not only meet this need but also assist with keeping smaller, unbranded MPH programs competitive in a burgeoning marketplace.

  18. Retained Gas Sampling Results for the Flammable Gas Program

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Bates; L.A. Mahoney; M.E. Dahl; Z.I. Antoniak

    1999-11-18

    The key phenomena of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue are generation of the gas mixture, the modes of gas retention, and the mechanisms causing release of the gas. An understanding of the mechanisms of these processes is required for final resolution of the safety issue. Central to understanding is gathering information from such sources as historical records, tank sampling data, tank process data (temperatures, ventilation rates, etc.), and laboratory evaluations conducted on tank waste samples.

  19. Sample Program Structure for Medium-Size Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park. Inst. of Public Administration.

    Program structure is the means employed to organize information concerning the work performed in government, the resources consumed to carry out that work, the effect upon individuals and the environment, and the relationship of this information to goals and objectives. The structure described in this document is intended as an aid for medium size…

  20. A ``Limited First Sample'' Approach to Mars Sample Return — Lessons from the Apollo Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppler, D. B.; Draper, D.; Gruener, J.

    2012-06-01

    Complex, multi-opportunity Mars sample return approaches have failed to be selected as a new start twice since 1985. We advocate adopting a simpler strategy of "grab-and-go" for the initial sample return, similar to the approach taken on Apollo 11.

  1. Sample Results From The Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 6 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

    2012-12-20

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 6 for the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP). This document reports partial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 6 strategy are identified.

  2. Sample Results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 6 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

    2012-12-11

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 6 for the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP). This document reports partial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 6 strategy are identified.

  3. Program on Promoting Climate Change Adaptation Technologies Bridging Policy Making and Science Research in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Y.; Chiang, W.; Sui, C.; Tung, C.; Ho, H.; Li, M.; Chan, S.; Climate Change Adaptation Technologies Program, National Science Council, Taiwan

    2010-12-01

    Climate changes adaptation needs innovative technological revolution on demand for transdisciplinary studies in various temporal and spatial scales. In our proposed program, a systematic and scientific framework will be developed to promote innovative adaptation technologies with respect to providing decision making information for government sectors, enhancing applicability of scientific research output, strengthening national research capabilities, and integrating both academic and non-academic resources. The objectives of this program are to identify key issues, required technologies, and scientific knowledge for climate change adaptations, and to build a transdisciplinary platform bridging science-supported technologies required by government sectors and demand-oriented scientific research conducted by academic communities. The approach proposed herein will be practiced in vulnerable regions, such as urban, rural, mountain, river basin, and coastal areas, which are particularly sensitive to climate change. The first phase of 3-year (2011~2013) work is to deploy framework and strategies of climate change impact assessment and adaptation measures between related government sectors and researchers from academic communities. The proposed framework involves three principle research groups, namely Environmental System, Vulnerability Assessment, and Risk Management and Adaptation Technology. The goal of the first group, Environmental System, is to combine climate change projections with enhanced scientific and environmental monitoring technologies for better adaptations to future scenarios in different social, economic, and environmental sectors to support adaptation measures planning and to reduce uncertainties on assessing vulnerability. The goal of the second group, Vulnerability Assessment, is to identify interfaces and information structures of climate change vulnerably issues and to develop protocol, models, and indices for vulnerability assessment. The goal of

  4. Users Handbook for the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vorres, K.S.

    1993-10-01

    This Users Handbook for the Argonne Premium Coal Samples provides the recipients of those samples with information that will enhance the value of the samples, to permit greater opportunities to compare their work with that of others, and aid in correlations that can improve the value to all users. It is hoped that this document will foster a spirit of cooperation and collaboration such that the field of basic coal chemistry may be a more efficient and rewarding endeavor for all who participate. The different sections are intended to stand alone. For this reason some of the information may be found in several places. The handbook is also intended to be a dynamic document, constantly subject to change through additions and improvements. Please feel free to write to the editor with your comments and suggestions.

  5. The tug-of-war: fidelity versus adaptation throughout the health promotion program life cycle.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Melissa; Saunders, Ruth P; Lattimore, Diana

    2013-06-01

    Researchers across multiple fields have described the iterative and nonlinear phases of the translational research process from program development to dissemination. This process can be conceptualized within a "program life cycle" framework that includes overlapping and nonlinear phases: development, adoption, implementation, maintenance, sustainability or termination, and dissemination or diffusion, characterized by tensions between fidelity to the original plan and adaptation for the setting and population. In this article, we describe the life cycle (phases) for research-based health promotion programs, the key influences at each phase, and the issues related to the tug-of-war between fidelity and adaptation throughout the process using a fictionalized case study based on our previous research. This article suggests the importance of reconceptualizing intervention design, involving stakeholders, and monitoring fidelity and adaptation throughout all phases to maintain implementation fidelity and completeness. Intervention fidelity should be based on causal mechanisms to ensure effectiveness, while allowing for appropriate adaption to ensure maximum implementation and sustainability. Recommendations for future interventions include considering the determinants of implementation including contextual factors at each phase, the roles of stakeholders, and the importance of developing a rigorous, adaptive, and flexible definition of implementation fidelity and completeness.

  6. French Adaptation of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory in a Belgian French-Speaking Sample.

    PubMed

    Braun, Stéphanie; Kempenaers, Chantal; Linkowski, Paul; Loas, Gwenolé

    2016-01-01

    The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is the most widely used self-report scale to assess the construct of narcissism, especially in its grandiosity expression. Over the years, several factor models have been proposed in order to improve the understanding of the multidimensional aspect of this construct. The available data are heterogeneous, suggesting one to at least seven factors. In this study, we propose a French adaptation of the NPI submitted to a sample of Belgian French-speaking students (n = 942). We performed a principal component analysis on a tetrachoric correlation matrix to explore its factor structure. Unlike previous studies, our study shows that a first factor explains the largest part of the variance. Internal consistency is excellent and we reproduced the sex differences reported when using the original scale. Correlations with social desirability are taken into account in the interpretation of our results. Altogether, the results of this study support a unidimensional structure for the NPI using the total score as a self-report measure of the Narcissistic Personality Disorder in its grandiose form. Future studies including confirmatory factor analysis and gender invariance measurement are also discussed.

  7. French Adaptation of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory in a Belgian French-Speaking Sample

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Stéphanie; Kempenaers, Chantal; Linkowski, Paul; Loas, Gwenolé

    2016-01-01

    The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is the most widely used self-report scale to assess the construct of narcissism, especially in its grandiosity expression. Over the years, several factor models have been proposed in order to improve the understanding of the multidimensional aspect of this construct. The available data are heterogeneous, suggesting one to at least seven factors. In this study, we propose a French adaptation of the NPI submitted to a sample of Belgian French-speaking students (n = 942). We performed a principal component analysis on a tetrachoric correlation matrix to explore its factor structure. Unlike previous studies, our study shows that a first factor explains the largest part of the variance. Internal consistency is excellent and we reproduced the sex differences reported when using the original scale. Correlations with social desirability are taken into account in the interpretation of our results. Altogether, the results of this study support a unidimensional structure for the NPI using the total score as a self-report measure of the Narcissistic Personality Disorder in its grandiose form. Future studies including confirmatory factor analysis and gender invariance measurement are also discussed. PMID:28066299

  8. Characteristics of Stafford Loan Program Defaulters: A National Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beanblossom, Gary F.; Rodriguez, Blanca Rosa

    This study examined characteristics differentiating defaulters on Stafford student loans (formerly Guaranteed Student Loans) from non-defaulters. Data were drawn from a sample of 100,000 records randomly selected from the fiscal year 1987 guarantee agency cumulative borrower file. A cohort of 7,382 borrowers taking out their last loan in FY 1983…

  9. Treaty verification sample analysis program analytical results: UNSCOM 65 samples. Final report, December 1993-January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Szafraniec, L.L.; Beaudry, W.T.; Bossle, P.C.; Durst, H.D.; Ellzy, M.W.

    1994-07-01

    Nineteen samples from the United Nations Special Commission 65 on Iraq (UNSCOM 65) were analyzed for chemical warfare (CW) related compounds using a variety of highly sophisticated spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. The samples consisted of six water, six soil, two vegetation, one cloth, one wood, and two mortar shell crosscut sections. No sulfur or nitrogen mustards, Lewsite, or any of their degradation products were detected. No nerve agents were observed, and no tin was detected precluding the presence of stannic chloride, a component of NC, a World War I choking agent. Diethyl phosphoric acid was unambiguously identified in three water samples, and ethyl phosphoric acid was tentatively identified, at very low levels, in one water sample. These phosphoric acids are degradation products of Amiton, many commercially available pesticides, as well as Tabun, and impurities in munitions-grade Tabun. No definitive conclusions concerning the source of these two chemicals could be drawn from the analytical results.

  10. An Interactive Computer Program to Construct Adaptive Landscapes and to Simulate the Changes Expected with Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Peter

    1978-01-01

    Describes an interactive computer program which can be used by students to construct adaptive landscapes of two types as an illustration of the expected effects of selection. Simulates effects of selection on populations of this type and changes of gene frequency can be plotted on the same contour map. (Author/MA)

  11. Exploring the Identity Formation of Youth Involved in an Adapted Sports Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groff, Diane G.; Kleiber, Douglas A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between involvement in an after-school adapted sports program and identity formation among adolescents with physical disabilities. Participant interviews indicated that participation provided most adolescents with a heightened sense of competence and opportunities to express their true selves. It also led to decreased…

  12. Establishing Adaptive Sports Programs for Youth with Moderate to Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Cadorette, Deborah; Hodge, Janie; Markham, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Children with disabilities are at increased risk of health risk factors including obesity, often because of low levels of physical activity and limited participation in sports. However, organized adaptive sports programs are increasingly available for individuals with disabilities. This article provides recommendations for establishing successful…

  13. Program of Adaptation Assistance in Foster Families and Particular Features of Its Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakirova, Venera G.; Gaysina, Guzel I.; Zhumabaeva, Asia

    2015-01-01

    Relevance of the problem stated in the article, conditioned by the fact that the successful adaptation of orphans in a foster family requires specialized knowledge and skills, as well as the need of professional support. Therefore, this article aims at substantiation of the effectiveness of the developed pilot program psycho-pedagogical support of…

  14. The Constructivist Resume: Promoting the Career Adaptability of Graduate Students in Counseling Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Mark B.; Cascone, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The authors present the constructivist resume, an original approach developed to promote professional identity development and career adaptability (i.e., concern, curiosity, confidence, and control) in students completing graduate-level counselor training programs. The authors discuss underlying theories, including Super's (1990; Super, Savickas,…

  15. Adapting to Changing Expectations: Post-Graduate Students' Experience of an E-Learning Tax Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Elmarie

    2005-01-01

    In response to the impact of information and communication technology on traditional business and commerce practices, and the empowerment of individuals by the growth of information available on the Internet, educators are challenged to adapt the curricula and delivery modes of educational programs for knowledge workers, such as tax accountants.…

  16. ADAPTING THE FFA TO A CHANGING PROGRAM OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE. RESEARCH SERIES IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KANTER, EARL F.; BENDER, RALPH E.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS NATIONAL STUDY WAS TO SUGGEST WAYS OF ADAPTING THE FUTURE FARMERS OF AMERICA (FFA) TO A CHANGING PROGRAM OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE THROUGH IDENTIFYING NEW PURPOSES OF THE FFA AND EVALUATING SELECTED OPERATIONAL GUIDELINES AND NATIONAL AND STATE FFA ACTIVITIES. MEMBERS OF THE UNITED STATES OFFICE OF EDUCATION, HEAD STATE…

  17. An Adapted Dialogic Reading Program for Turkish Kindergarteners from Low Socio-Economic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergül, Cevriye; Akoglu, Gözde; Sarica, Ayse D.; Karaman, Gökçe; Tufan, Mümin; Bahap-Kudret, Zeynep; Zülfikar, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the effectiveness of the Adapted Dialogic Reading Program (ADR) on the language and early literacy skills of Turkish kindergarteners from low socio-economic (SES) backgrounds. The effectiveness of ADR was investigated across six different treatment conditions including classroom and home based implementations in various…

  18. Release Storage and Disposal Program Product Sampling Support

    SciTech Connect

    CALMUS, R.B.

    2000-07-19

    This document includes recommended capabilities and/or services to support transport, analysis, and disposition of Immobilized High-Level and Low-Activity Waste samples as requested by the US DOE-Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) as specified in the Privatization Contract between DOE-ORP and BNFL Inc. In addition, an approved implementation path forward is presented which includes use of existing Hanford Site services to provide the required support capabilities.

  19. Computer program for sample sizes required to determine disease incidence in fish populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ossiander, Frank J.; Wedemeyer, Gary

    1973-01-01

    A computer program is described for generating the sample size tables required in fish hatchery disease inspection and certification. The program was designed to aid in detection of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) in salmonids, but it is applicable to any fish disease inspection when the sampling plan follows the hypergeometric distribution.

  20. Urine fingerprinting: detection of sample tampering in an opiate dependency program.

    PubMed

    Kapur, B; Hershkop, S; Koren, G; Gaughan, V

    1999-04-01

    Methadone treatment programs commonly monitor patient compliance by screening urine samples for drugs of abuse. Our experience suggests that re-submission of urine samples (for example, providing a urine sample that is either not that of the patient or was previously submitted) is often used as a method of sample tampering. We have developed an algorithm that combines urine sodium, chloride, creatinine and pH values with urine drug screening results to effectively detect resubmitted samples. Given the widespread use of urine drug screening in drug and alcohol rehabilitation programs, we believe this technique has significant practical benefits. This technique may also have an application in forensic identification of duplicate samples.

  1. An adaptive structure data acquisition system using a graphical-based programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baroth, Edmund C.; Clark, Douglas J.; Losey, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    An example of the implementation of data fusion using a PC and a graphical programming language is discussed. A schematic of the data acquisition system and user interface panel for an adaptive structure test are presented. The computer programs (a series of icons 'wired' together) are also discussed. The way in which using graphical-based programming software to control a data acquisition system can simplify analysis of data, promote multidisciplinary interaction, and provide users a more visual key to understanding their data are shown.

  2. Hanford Environmental Monitoring Program schedule for samples, analyses, and measurements for calendar year 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Blumer, P.J.; Price, K.R.; Eddy, P.A.; Carlile, J.M.V.

    1984-12-01

    This report provides the CY 1985 schedule of data collection for the routine Hanford Surface Environmental Monitoring and Ground-Water Monitoring Programs at the Hanford Site. The purpose is to evaluate and report the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5484.1. The routine sampling schedule provided herein does not include samples scheduled to be collected during FY 1985 in support of special studies, special contractor support programs, or for quality control purposes. In addition, the routine program outlined in this schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in site operations, program requirements, or unusual sample results.

  3. A comparison of three programming models for adaptive applications on the Origin2000

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, Hongzhang; Singh, Jaswinder Pal; Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak

    2001-05-30

    Adaptive applications have computational workloads and communication patterns which change unpredictably at runtime, requiring dynamic load balancing to achieve scalable performance on parallel machines. Efficient parallel implementations of such adaptive applications is therefore a challenging task. In this paper, we compare the performance of and the programming effort required for two major classes of adaptive applications under three leading parallel programming models on an SGI Origin2000 system, a machine which supports all three models efficiently. Results indicate that the three models deliver comparable performance; however, the implementations differ significantly beyond merely using explicit messages versus implicit loads/stores even though the basic parallel algorithms are similar. Compared with the message-passing (using MPI) and SHMEM programming models, the cache-coherent shared address space (CC-SAS) model provides substantial ease of programming at both the conceptual and program orchestration levels, often accompanied by performance gains. However, CC-SAS currently has portability limitations and may suffer from poor spatial locality of physically distributed shared data on large numbers of processors.

  4. Fuzzy physical programming for Space Manoeuvre Vehicles trajectory optimization based on hp-adaptive pseudospectral method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Runqi; Savvaris, Al; Tsourdos, Antonios

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a fuzzy physical programming (FPP) method has been introduced for solving multi-objective Space Manoeuvre Vehicles (SMV) skip trajectory optimization problem based on hp-adaptive pseudospectral methods. The dynamic model of SMV is elaborated and then, by employing hp-adaptive pseudospectral methods, the problem has been transformed to nonlinear programming (NLP) problem. According to the mission requirements, the solutions were calculated for each single-objective scenario. To get a compromised solution for each target, the fuzzy physical programming (FPP) model is proposed. The preference function is established with considering the fuzzy factor of the system such that a proper compromised trajectory can be acquired. In addition, the NSGA-II is tested to obtain the Pareto-optimal solution set and verify the Pareto optimality of the FPP solution. Simulation results indicate that the proposed method is effective and feasible in terms of dealing with the multi-objective skip trajectory optimization for the SMV.

  5. A model for estimating the value of sampling programs and the optimal number of samples for contaminated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, Pär-Erik

    2007-04-01

    A model is presented for estimating the value of information of sampling programs for contaminated soil. The purpose is to calculate the optimal number of samples when the objective is to estimate the mean concentration. A Bayesian risk-cost-benefit decision analysis framework is applied and the approach is design-based. The model explicitly includes sample uncertainty at a complexity level that can be applied to practical contaminated land problems with limited amount of data. Prior information about the contamination level is modelled by probability density functions. The value of information is expressed in monetary terms. The most cost-effective sampling program is the one with the highest expected net value. The model was applied to a contaminated scrap yard in Göteborg, Sweden, contaminated by metals. The optimal number of samples was determined to be in the range of 16-18 for a remediation unit of 100 m2. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the perspective of the decision-maker is important, and that the cost of failure and the future land use are the most important factors to consider. The model can also be applied for other sampling problems, for example, sampling and testing of wastes to meet landfill waste acceptance procedures.

  6. XAFSmass: a program for calculating the optimal mass of XAFS samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klementiev, K.; Chernikov, R.

    2016-05-01

    We present a new implementation of the XAFSmass program that calculates the optimal mass of XAFS samples. It has several improvements as compared to the old Windows based program XAFSmass: 1) it is truly platform independent, as provided by Python language, 2) it has an improved parser of chemical formulas that enables parentheses and nested inclusion-to-matrix weight percentages. The program calculates the absorption edge height given the total optical thickness, operates with differently determined sample amounts (mass, pressure, density or sample area) depending on the aggregate state of the sample and solves the inverse problem of finding the elemental composition given the experimental absorption edge jump and the chemical formula.

  7. Adapting an evidence based parenting program for child welfare involved teens and their caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Barkan, Susan E.; Salazar, Amy M.; Estep, Kara; Mattos, Leah M.; Eichenlaub, Caroline; Haggerty, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    The scarcity of caregivers and the unique vulnerability of teens involved with the child welfare system necessitate effective strategies for ensuring that caregivers are prepared and supported in the important role they play with children and youth within the child welfare system. They are in a position, through the establishment of a strong, positive, supportive connection with the youth, to potentially minimize the impacts of recent trauma and interrupt a negative trajectory by preventing the youth’s initiation of high-risk behavior. In this paper we describe the process used to systematically adapt Staying Connected with Your Teen™, an evidence-based, prevention-focused parenting program found in other studies to reduce the initiation of teens‘ risky behaviors, for use with foster teens and their relative or foster caregivers. This work has been guided by the ADAPT-ITT framework developed by Wingood and DiClemente (2008) for adapting evidence-based interventions. Qualitative work conducted in Phase 1 of this study identified the need for the development of a trusted connection between foster youth and their caregivers, as well as tools for helping them access community resources, social services, and educational supports. This paper describes the process used to develop new and adapted program activities in response to the needs identified in Phase 1. We conducted a theater test with dyads of foster youth and their caregivers to get feedback on the new activities. Findings from the theater test are provided and next steps in the research are discussed which include examining program usability, fidelity, feasibility, and testing this new prevention program that has been tailored for child welfare involved youth and their caregivers. This intervention program has the potential to fill an important gap in the availability of preventive programming for caregivers of teens in foster care. PMID:26052172

  8. An Adaptive Defect Weighted Sampling Algorithm to Design Pseudoknotted RNA Secondary Structures

    PubMed Central

    Zandi, Kasra; Butler, Gregory; Kharma, Nawwaf

    2016-01-01

    Computational design of RNA sequences that fold into targeted secondary structures has many applications in biomedicine, nanotechnology and synthetic biology. An RNA molecule is made of different types of secondary structure elements and an important RNA element named pseudoknot plays a key role in stabilizing the functional form of the molecule. However, due to the computational complexities associated with characterizing pseudoknotted RNA structures, most of the existing RNA sequence designer algorithms generally ignore this important structural element and therefore limit their applications. In this paper we present a new algorithm to design RNA sequences for pseudoknotted secondary structures. We use NUPACK as the folding algorithm to compute the equilibrium characteristics of the pseudoknotted RNAs, and describe a new adaptive defect weighted sampling algorithm named Enzymer to design low ensemble defect RNA sequences for targeted secondary structures including pseudoknots. We used a biological data set of 201 pseudoknotted structures from the Pseudobase library to benchmark the performance of our algorithm. We compared the quality characteristics of the RNA sequences we designed by Enzymer with the results obtained from the state of the art MODENA and antaRNA. Our results show our method succeeds more frequently than MODENA and antaRNA do, and generates sequences that have lower ensemble defect, lower probability defect and higher thermostability. Finally by using Enzymer and by constraining the design to a naturally occurring and highly conserved Hammerhead motif, we designed 8 sequences for a pseudoknotted cis-acting Hammerhead ribozyme. Enzymer is available for download at https://bitbucket.org/casraz/enzymer. PMID:27499762

  9. Adaptive geostatistical sampling enables efficient identification of malaria hotspots in repeated cross-sectional surveys in rural Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Chipeta, Michael G.; McCann, Robert S.; Phiri, Kamija S.; van Vugt, Michèle; Takken, Willem; Diggle, Peter; Terlouw, Anja D.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In the context of malaria elimination, interventions will need to target high burden areas to further reduce transmission. Current tools to monitor and report disease burden lack the capacity to continuously detect fine-scale spatial and temporal variations of disease distribution exhibited by malaria. These tools use random sampling techniques that are inefficient for capturing underlying heterogeneity while health facility data in resource-limited settings are inaccurate. Continuous community surveys of malaria burden provide real-time results of local spatio-temporal variation. Adaptive geostatistical design (AGD) improves prediction of outcome of interest compared to current random sampling techniques. We present findings of continuous malaria prevalence surveys using an adaptive sampling design. Methods We conducted repeated cross sectional surveys guided by an adaptive sampling design to monitor the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and anaemia in children below five years old in the communities living around Majete Wildlife Reserve in Chikwawa district, Southern Malawi. AGD sampling uses previously collected data to sample new locations of high prediction variance or, where prediction exceeds a set threshold. We fitted a geostatistical model to predict malaria prevalence in the area. Findings We conducted five rounds of sampling, and tested 876 children aged 6–59 months from 1377 households over a 12-month period. Malaria prevalence prediction maps showed spatial heterogeneity and presence of hotspots—where predicted malaria prevalence was above 30%; predictors of malaria included age, socio-economic status and ownership of insecticide-treated mosquito nets. Conclusions Continuous malaria prevalence surveys using adaptive sampling increased malaria prevalence prediction accuracy. Results from the surveys were readily available after data collection. The tool can assist local managers to target malaria control interventions in areas with the

  10. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  11. An Experimental Trial of Adaptive Programming in Drug Court: Outcomes at 6, 12 and 18 Months

    PubMed Central

    Marlowe, Douglas B.; Festinger, David S.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Benasutti, Kathleen M.; Fox, Gloria; Harron, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Test whether an adaptive program improves outcomes in drug court by adjusting the schedule of court hearings and clinical case-management sessions pursuant to a priori performance criteria. Methods Consenting participants in a misdemeanor drug court were randomly assigned to the adaptive program (n = 62) or to a baseline-matching condition (n = 63) in which they attended court hearings based on the results of a criminal risk assessment. Outcome measures were re-arrest rates at 18 months post-entry to the drug court and urine drug test results and structured interview results at 6 and 12 months post-entry. Results Although previously published analyses revealed significantly fewer positive drug tests for participants in the adaptive condition during the first 18 weeks of drug court, current analyses indicate the effects converged during the ensuing year. Between-group differences in new arrest rates, urine drug test results and self-reported psychosocial problems were small and non-statistically significant at 6, 12 and 18 months post-entry. A non-significant trend (p = .10) suggests there may have been a small residual impact (Cramer's ν = .15) on new misdemeanor arrests after 18 months. Conclusions Adaptive programming shows promise for enhancing short-term outcomes in drug courts; however, additional efforts are needed to extend the effects beyond the first 4 to 6 months of enrollment. PMID:25346652

  12. Surprise and opportunity for learning in Grand Canyon: the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melis, Theodore S.; Walters, Carl; Korman, Josh

    2015-01-01

    With a focus on resources of the Colorado River ecosystem below Glen Canyon Dam, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program has included a variety of experimental policy tests, ranging from manipulation of water releases from the dam to removal of non-native fish within Grand Canyon National Park. None of these field-scale experiments has yet produced unambiguous results in terms of management prescriptions. But there has been adaptive learning, mostly from unanticipated or surprising resource responses relative to predictions from ecosystem modeling. Surprise learning opportunities may often be viewed with dismay by some stakeholders who might not be clear about the purpose of science and modeling in adaptive management. However, the experimental results from the Glen Canyon Dam program actually represent scientific successes in terms of revealing new opportunities for developing better river management policies. A new long-term experimental management planning process for Glen Canyon Dam operations, started in 2011 by the U.S. Department of the Interior, provides an opportunity to refocus management objectives, identify and evaluate key uncertainties about the influence of dam releases, and refine monitoring for learning over the next several decades. Adaptive learning since 1995 is critical input to this long-term planning effort. Embracing uncertainty and surprise outcomes revealed by monitoring and ecosystem modeling will likely continue the advancement of resource objectives below the dam, and may also promote efficient learning in other complex programs.

  13. The Parent Version of the Preschool Social Skills Rating System: Psychometric Analysis and Adaptation with a German Preschool Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Markus; Scheithauer, Herbert; Kleiber, Dieter; Wille, Nora; Erhart, Michael; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    The Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) developed by Gresham and Elliott (1990) is a multirater, norm-referenced instrument measuring social skills and adaptive behavior in preschool children. The aims of the present study were (a) to test the factorial structure of the Parent Form of the SSRS for the first time with a German preschool sample (391…

  14. Some Features of the Sampling Distribution of the Ability Estimate in Computerized Adaptive Testing According to Two Stopping Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blais, Jean-Guy; Raiche, Gilles

    This paper examines some characteristics of the statistics associated with the sampling distribution of the proficiency level estimate when the Rasch model is used. These characteristics allow the judgment of the meaning to be given to the proficiency level estimate obtained in adaptive testing, and as a consequence, they can illustrate the…

  15. The Savannah River Site`s groundwater monitoring program: 1990 sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, C.D.

    1991-02-07

    This schedule provides a final record of the 1990 sampling schedule for the SRS groundwater monitoring program conducted by the Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Section (EPD/EMS). It includes all the wells monitored by EPD/EMS at SRS during 1990 and identifies the constituents sampled, the sampling frequency, and the reasons for sampling. Sampling requests are incorporated into the schedule throughout the year. Drafts of the schedule are produced and revised quarterly.

  16. A comparison of adaptive sampling designs and binary spatial models: A simulation study using a census of Bromus inermis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irvine, Kathryn M.; Thornton, Jamie; Backus, Vickie M.; Hohmann, Matthew G.; Lehnhoff, Erik A.; Maxwell, Bruce D.; Michels, Kurt; Rew, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Commonly in environmental and ecological studies, species distribution data are recorded as presence or absence throughout a spatial domain of interest. Field based studies typically collect observations by sampling a subset of the spatial domain. We consider the effects of six different adaptive and two non-adaptive sampling designs and choice of three binary models on both predictions to unsampled locations and parameter estimation of the regression coefficients (species–environment relationships). Our simulation study is unique compared to others to date in that we virtually sample a true known spatial distribution of a nonindigenous plant species, Bromus inermis. The census of B. inermis provides a good example of a species distribution that is both sparsely (1.9 % prevalence) and patchily distributed. We find that modeling the spatial correlation using a random effect with an intrinsic Gaussian conditionally autoregressive prior distribution was equivalent or superior to Bayesian autologistic regression in terms of predicting to un-sampled areas when strip adaptive cluster sampling was used to survey B. inermis. However, inferences about the relationships between B. inermis presence and environmental predictors differed between the two spatial binary models. The strip adaptive cluster designs we investigate provided a significant advantage in terms of Markov chain Monte Carlo chain convergence when trying to model a sparsely distributed species across a large area. In general, there was little difference in the choice of neighborhood, although the adaptive king was preferred when transects were randomly placed throughout the spatial domain.

  17. Fetal programming: adaptive life-history tactics or making the best of a bad start?

    PubMed

    Jones, James Holland

    2005-01-01

    Fetal programming is an ontogenetic phenomenon of increasing interest to human biologists. Because the downstream consequences of fetal programming have clear impacts on specific life-history traits (e.g., age at first reproduction and the general age-pattern of reproductive investments), a number of authors have raised the question of the adaptive significance of fetal programming. In this paper, I review in some detail several classical models in life-history theory and discuss their relative merits and weaknesses for human biology. I suggest that an adequate model of human life-history evolution must account for the highly structured nature of the human life cycle, with its late age at first reproduction, large degree of iteroparity, highly overlapping generations, and extensive, post-weaning parental investment. I further suggest that an understanding of stochastic demography is essential for answering the question of the adaptive significance of fetal programming, and specifically the finding of low birth weight on smaller adult body size and earlier age at first reproduction. Using a stage-structured stochastic population model, I show that the downstream consequences of early deprivation may be "making the best of a bad start" rather than an adaptation per se. When a high-investment strategy entails survival costs, the alternate strategy of early reproduction with relatively low investment may have higher fitness than trying to play the high-investment strategy and failing.

  18. Spruce budworm sampling program for Husky Hunter Field data recorders. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, F.H.

    1993-07-01

    A program for receiving sampling data for all immature stages of the western spruce budworm (Choristoneua occidentalis Freeman) is described. Versions were designed to be used on field data recorders with either CP/M or DOS operating systems, such as the HUSKY HUNTER (Models 1, 2, and 16), but they also may be used on personal computers with compatible operating systems. The program allows the user to review the current plot statistics, including sampling precision, at any time while still sampling the plot. It also allows the user to determine how many more trees need to be sampled to arrive at a sampling precision specified by the user.

  19. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of the Coastal Ocean: Adaptive Sampling and Forecasting of In situ Optical Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-30

    integrated observation system that is being coupled to a data assimilative hydrodynamic bio-optical ecosystem model. The system was used adaptively to develop hyperspectral remote sensing techniques in optically complex nearshore coastal waters.

  20. Wide Area Recovery and Resilency Program (WARRP). Video - Aggressive Air Sampling for B. anthracis Spores

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-14

    34Systematic Evaluation of Aggressive Air Sampling for Bacillus anthracis Spores", in which aggressive air sampling, used for asbestos fiber detection, was...Sep 2012 Final 01 Feb 2011 - 01 Sep 2012 Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Video - Aggressive Air Sampling for B. anthracis Spores

  1. Adaptation of G-TAG Software for Validating Touch-and-Go Comet Surface Sampling Design Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandic, Milan; Acikmese, Behcet; Blackmore, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The G-TAG software tool was developed under the R&TD on Integrated Autonomous Guidance, Navigation, and Control for Comet Sample Return, and represents a novel, multi-body dynamics simulation software tool for studying TAG sampling. The G-TAG multi-body simulation tool provides a simulation environment in which a Touch-and-Go (TAG) sampling event can be extensively tested. TAG sampling requires the spacecraft to descend to the surface, contact the surface with a sampling collection device, and then to ascend to a safe altitude. The TAG event lasts only a few seconds but is mission-critical with potentially high risk. Consequently, there is a need for the TAG event to be well characterized and studied by simulation and analysis in order for the proposal teams to converge on a reliable spacecraft design. This adaptation of the G-TAG tool was developed to support the Comet Odyssey proposal effort, and is specifically focused to address comet sample return missions. In this application, the spacecraft descends to and samples from the surface of a comet. Performance of the spacecraft during TAG is assessed based on survivability and sample collection performance. For the adaptation of the G-TAG simulation tool to comet scenarios, models are developed that accurately describe the properties of the spacecraft, approach trajectories, and descent velocities, as well as the models of the external forces and torques acting on the spacecraft. The adapted models of the spacecraft, descent profiles, and external sampling forces/torques were more sophisticated and customized for comets than those available in the basic G-TAG simulation tool. Scenarios implemented include the study of variations in requirements, spacecraft design (size, locations, etc. of the spacecraft components), and the environment (surface properties, slope, disturbances, etc.). The simulations, along with their visual representations using G-View, contributed to the Comet Odyssey New Frontiers proposal

  2. Adaptation and psychometric properties of the student career construction inventory for a Portuguese sample: formative and reflective constructs.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Magda; Guimarães, Maria Isabel

    2012-12-01

    The adaptation of the student career construction inventory was carried out with a Portuguese sample of 356 first-year economics, management, psychology, nursing, nutrition sciences, bio-engineering, and biosciences students (244 women, 112 men; M age = 19.4, SD = 4.4) in the Catholic University of Portugal, Porto. Confirmatory factorial analysis supported the prior structure of the reflective models, with acceptable fit indexes. Internal consistency coefficients for the scales were poor to acceptable (.51 to .89). The formative nature of career adaptability was supported in a complex model identified by structural relations for which the fit indexes were weak but acceptable for a preliminary study.

  3. Architecture-Adaptive Computing Environment: A Tool for Teaching Parallel Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorband, John E.; Aburdene, Maurice F.

    2002-01-01

    Recently, networked and cluster computation have become very popular. This paper is an introduction to a new C based parallel language for architecture-adaptive programming, aCe C. The primary purpose of aCe (Architecture-adaptive Computing Environment) is to encourage programmers to implement applications on parallel architectures by providing them the assurance that future architectures will be able to run their applications with a minimum of modification. A secondary purpose is to encourage computer architects to develop new types of architectures by providing an easily implemented software development environment and a library of test applications. This new language should be an ideal tool to teach parallel programming. In this paper, we will focus on some fundamental features of aCe C.

  4. Innate and adaptive immunity in bacteria: mechanisms of programmed genetic variation to fight bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Bikard, David; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2012-02-01

    Bacteria are constantly challenged by bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria), the most abundant microorganism on earth. Bacteria have evolved a variety of immunity mechanisms to resist bacteriophage infection. In response, bacteriophages can evolve counter-resistance mechanisms and launch a 'virus versus host' evolutionary arms race. In this context, rapid evolution is fundamental for the survival of the bacterial cell. Programmed genetic variation mechanisms at loci involved in immunity against bacteriophages generate diversity at a much faster rate than random point mutation and enable bacteria to quickly adapt and repel infection. Diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs) and phase variation mechanisms enhance the generic (innate) immune response against bacteriophages. On the other hand, the integration of small bacteriophage sequences in CRISPR loci provide bacteria with a virus-specific and sequence-specific adaptive immune response. Therefore, although using different molecular mechanisms, both prokaryotes and higher organisms rely on programmed genetic variation to increase genetic diversity and fight rapidly evolving infectious agents.

  5. On-line replacement of program modules using AdaPT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldrop, Raymond S.; Volz, Richard A.; Smith, Gary W.; Holzbacher-Valero, A. A.; Goldsack, Stephen J.

    1992-01-01

    One purpose of our research is the investigation of the effectiveness and expressiveness of AdaPT(1), a set of language extensions to Ada 83, for distributed systems. As a part of that effort, we are now investigating the subject of replacing, e.g., upgrading, software modules while the software system remains in operation. The AdaPT language extension provide a good basis for this investigation for several reasons: (1) they include the concept of specific, self-contained program modules which can be manipulated; (2) support for program configuration is included in the language; and (3) although the discussion will be in terms of the AdaPT language, the AdaPT to Ada 83 conversion methodology being developed as another part of this project will provide a basis for the application of our findings to Ada 83 systems. The purpose of this investigation is to explore the basic mechanisms to the replacement process. Thus, while replacement in the presence of real-time deadlines, heterogeneous systems, and unreliable networks is certainly a topic of interest, we will first gain an understanding of the basic processes in the absence of such concerns. The extension of the replacement process to more complex situations can be made later. This report will establish an overview of the on-line upgrade problem, and present a taxonomy of the various aspects of the replacement process.

  6. Use of Culturally Focused Theoretical Frameworks for Adapting Diabetes Prevention Programs: A Qualitative Review

    PubMed Central

    Johnson-Jennings, Michelle; Baumann, Ana A.; Proctor, Enola

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes disproportionately affects underserved racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Diabetes prevention interventions positively influence health; however, further evaluation is necessary to determine what role culture plays in effective programming. We report on the status of research that examines cultural adaptations of diabetes prevention programs. Methods We conducted database searches in March and April 2014. We included studies that were conducted in the United States and that focused on diabetes prevention among African Americans, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, and Latinos. Results A total of 58 studies were identified for review; 29 were excluded from evaluation. Few adaptations referenced or followed recommendations for cultural adaptation nor did they justify the content modifications by providing a rationale or evidence. Cultural elements unique to racial/ethnic populations were not assessed. Conclusion Future cultural adaptations should use recommended processes to ensure that culture’s role in diabetes prevention–related behavioral changes contributes to research. PMID:25950567

  7. Sample results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 8 tank 21H qualification MST solids sample

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Washington, A. L.

    2015-02-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 8 for Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) processing. As part of this qualification work, SRNL performed an Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and several Extraction, Scrub, Strip (ESS) tests. This document reports characterization of the monosodium titanate (MST) solids from the ARP test. The results of these analyses are reported and are within historical precedent.

  8. Multilevel adaptive solution procedure for material nonlinear problems in visual programming environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D.; Ghanem, R.

    1994-12-31

    Multigrid solution technique to solve a material nonlinear problem in a visual programming environment using the finite element method is discussed. The nonlinear equation of equilibrium is linearized to incremental form using Newton-Rapson technique, then multigrid solution technique is used to solve linear equations at each Newton-Rapson step. In the process, adaptive mesh refinement, which is based on the bisection of a pair of triangles, is used to form grid hierarchy for multigrid iteration. The solution process is implemented in a visual programming environment with distributed computing capability, which enables more intuitive understanding of solution process, and more effective use of resources.

  9. Translation, cultural adaptation and field-testing of the Thinking Healthy Program for Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression and anxiety are prevalent among women in low- and lower-middle income countries who are pregnant or have recently given birth. There is promising evidence that culturally-adapted, evidence-informed, perinatal psycho-educational programs implemented in local communities are effective in reducing mental health problems. The Thinking Healthy Program (THP) has proved effective in Pakistan. The aims were to adapt the THP for rural Vietnam; establish the program’s comprehensibility, acceptability and salience for universal use, and investigate whether administration to small groups of women might be of equivalent effectiveness to administration in home visits to individual women. Methods The THP Handbook and Calendar were made available in English by the program developers and translated into Vietnamese. Cultural adaptation and field-testing were undertaken using WHO guidance. Field-testing of the four sessions of THP Module One was undertaken in weekly sessions with a small group in a rural commune and evaluated using baseline, process and endline surveys. Results The adapted Vietnamese version of the Thinking Healthy Program (THP-V) was found to be understandable, meaningful and relevant to pregnant women, and commune health centre and Women’s Union representatives in a rural district. It was delivered effectively by trained local facilitators. Role-play, brainstorming and small-group discussions to find shared solutions to common problems were appraised as helpful learning opportunities. Conclusions The THP-V is safe and comprehensible, acceptable and salient to pregnant women without mental health problems in rural Vietnam. Delivery in facilitated small groups provided valued opportunities for role-play rehearsal and shared problem solving. Local observers found the content and approach highly relevant to local needs and endorsed the approach as a mental health promotion strategy with potential for integration into local universal maternal

  10. Cameron - Optimized Compilation of Visual Programs for Image Processing on Adaptive Computing Systems (ACS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    the Cameron project. The goal of the Cameron project is to make FPGAs and other adaptive computer systems available to more applications programmers...loops onto an FPGA , but this is invisible. SA-C therefore makes recon- gurable processors accessible to applications programmers with no hardware...happens that for SA-C programs, the host executable off-loads the processing of loops onto an FPGA , but this is invisible. SA-C therefore makes

  11. Outcomes of a type 2 diabetes education program adapted to the cultural contexts of Saudi women

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bannay, Hana R.; Jongbloed, Lyn E.; Jarus, Tal; Alabdulwahab, Sami S.; Khoja, Tawfik A.; Dean, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the outcomes of a pilot intervention of a type 2 diabetes (T2D) education program, based on international standards, and adapted to the cultural and religious contexts of Saudi women. Methods: This study is an experiment of a pilot intervention carried out between August 2011 and January 2012 at the primary health clinics in Dammam. Women at risk of or diagnosed with T2D (N=35 including dropouts) were assigned to one of 2 groups; an intervention group participated in a pilot intervention of T2D education program, based on international standards and tailored to their cultural and religious contexts; and a usual care group received the usual care for diabetes in Saudi Arabia. Outcomes included blood glucose, body composition, 6-minute walk distance, life satisfaction, quality of life, and diabetes knowledge. The intervention group participated in a focus group of their program experience. Data analysis was based on mixed methods. Results: Based on 95% confidence interval comparisons, improvements were noted in blood sugar, 6-minute walk distance, quality of life, and diabetes knowledge in participants of the intervention group. They also reported improvements in lifestyle-related health behaviors after the education program. Conclusion: Saudi women may benefit from a T2D education program based on international standards and adapted to their cultural and religious contexts. PMID:26108595

  12. An adaptive maneuvering logic computer program for the simulation of one-to-one air-to-air combat. Volume 2: Program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgin, G. H.; Owens, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the computer programs in order to provide an understanding of the mathematical and geometrical relationships as implemented in the programs. The individual sbbroutines and their underlying mathematical relationships are described, and the required input data and the output provided by the program are explained. The relationship of the adaptive maneuvering logic program with the program to drive the differential maneuvering simulator is discussed.

  13. The new image segmentation algorithm using adaptive evolutionary programming and fuzzy c-means clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fang

    2011-06-01

    Image segmentation remains one of the major challenges in image analysis and computer vision. Fuzzy clustering, as a soft segmentation method, has been widely studied and successfully applied in mage clustering and segmentation. The fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm is the most popular method used in mage segmentation. However, most clustering algorithms such as the k-means and the FCM clustering algorithms search for the final clusters values based on the predetermined initial centers. The FCM clustering algorithms does not consider the space information of pixels and is sensitive to noise. In the paper, presents a new fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm with adaptive evolutionary programming that provides image clustering. The features of this algorithm are: 1) firstly, it need not predetermined initial centers. Evolutionary programming will help FCM search for better center and escape bad centers at local minima. Secondly, the spatial distance and the Euclidean distance is also considered in the FCM clustering. So this algorithm is more robust to the noises. Thirdly, the adaptive evolutionary programming is proposed. The mutation rule is adaptively changed with learning the useful knowledge in the evolving process. Experiment results shows that the new image segmentation algorithm is effective. It is providing robustness to noisy images.

  14. Sample preparation and biomass determination of SRF model mixture using cryogenic milling and the adapted balance method

    SciTech Connect

    Schnöller, Johannes Aschenbrenner, Philipp; Hahn, Manuel; Fellner, Johann; Rechberger, Helmut

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • An alternative sample comminution procedure for SRF is tested. • Proof of principle is shown on a SRF model mixture. • The biogenic content of the SRF is analyzed with the adapted balance method. • The novel method combines combustion analysis and a data reconciliation algorithm. • Factors for the variance of the analysis results are statistically quantified. - Abstract: The biogenic fraction of a simple solid recovered fuel (SRF) mixture (80 wt% printer paper/20 wt% high density polyethylene) is analyzed with the in-house developed adapted balance method (aBM). This fairly new approach is a combination of combustion elemental analysis (CHNS) and a data reconciliation algorithm based on successive linearisation for evaluation of the analysis results. This method shows a great potential as an alternative way to determine the biomass content in SRF. However, the employed analytical technique (CHNS elemental analysis) restricts the probed sample mass to low amounts in the range of a few hundred milligrams. This requires sample comminution to small grain sizes (<200 μm) to generate representative SRF specimen. This is not easily accomplished for certain material mixtures (e.g. SRF with rubber content) by conventional means of sample size reduction. This paper presents a proof of principle investigation of the sample preparation and analysis of an SRF model mixture with the use of cryogenic impact milling (final sample comminution) and the adapted balance method (determination of biomass content). The so derived sample preparation methodology (cutting mills and cryogenic impact milling) shows a better performance in accuracy and precision for the determination of the biomass content than one solely based on cutting mills. The results for the determination of the biogenic fraction are within 1–5% of the data obtained by the reference methods, selective dissolution method (SDM) and {sup 14}C-method ({sup 14}C-M)

  15. Implementing Teacher Work Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinne, Lenore J.; Watson, Dwight C.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how the teacher work sample methodology of the Renaissance Partnership for Improving Teacher Quality was implemented within the teacher education program at a small liberal arts college. Resulting program improvements are described, as well as on-going challenges. The adapted teacher work sample prompt and scoring rubric are…

  16. Master schedule for CY-1984 Hanford environmental surveillance routine sampling program

    SciTech Connect

    Blumer, P.J.; Price, K.R.; Eddy, P.A.; Carlile, J.M.V.

    1983-12-01

    This report provides the current schedule of data collection for the routine Hanford environmental surveillance and ground-water Monitoring Programs at the Hanford Site. The purpose is to evaluate and report the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. The routine sampling schedule provided herein does not include samples that are planned to be collected during FY-1984 in support of special studies, special contractor support programs, or for quality control purposes.

  17. Psychometric Properties of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality in a PTSD Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Erika J.; Harrington, Kelly M.; Miller, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric characteristics of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP; Clark, 1996) in 280 individuals who screened positive for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The SNAP validity, trait, temperament, and personality disorder (PD) scales were compared with scales on the Brief Form of the…

  18. Produce and fish sampling program of Los Alamos National Laboratory's Environmental Surveillance Group

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, J.G.

    1984-09-01

    This report describes produce and fish sampling procedures of the Environmental Surveillance Group at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The program monitors foodstuffs and fish for possible radioactive contamination from Laboratory operations. Data gathered in this program on radionuclide concentrations help to estimate radiation doses to Laboratory personnel and the public. 3 references, 7 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Adaption of egg and larvae sampling techniques for lake sturgeon and broadcast spawning fishes in a deep river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseman, Edward F.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Craig, Jaquelyn; Boase, James; Soper, Karen

    2011-01-01

    In this report we describe how we adapted two techniques for sampling lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) and other fish early life history stages to meet our research needs in the Detroit River, a deep, flowing Great Lakes connecting channel. First, we developed a buoy-less method for sampling fish eggs and spawning activity using egg mats deployed on the river bottom. The buoy-less method allowed us to fish gear in areas frequented by boaters and recreational anglers, thus eliminating surface obstructions that interfered with recreational and boating activities. The buoy-less method also reduced gear loss due to drift when masses of floating aquatic vegetation would accumulate on buoys and lines, increasing the drag on the gear and pulling it downstream. Second, we adapted a D-frame drift net system formerly employed in shallow streams to assess larval lake sturgeon dispersal for use in the deeper (>8 m) Detroit River using an anchor and buoy system.

  20. STUDIES OF BYPASSING AS A WAY OF ADAPTING SELF-INSTRUCTION PROGRAMS TO INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRIGGS, LESLIE J.; CAMPBELL, VINCENT N.

    POTENTIAL ECONOMIC FORMS OF ADAPTIVE, SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS WHICH WOULD BE OF PRACTICAL USE IN ADJUSTING TO INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES WERE INVESTIGATED. "PARALLEL" PROGRAMS (ONE STUDENT LEARNING BEST BY ONE PROGRAM AND A SECOND STUDENT BENEFITING MOST FROM ANOTHER) WERE FIRST EXPLORED AS A WAY TO ADJUST TO INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES. THIS…

  1. Teaching Multiethnic Urban Adolescents How To Enhance Their Competencies: Effects of a Middle School Primary Prevention Program on Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayotte, Violaine; Saucier, Jean-Francois; Bowen, Francois; Laurendeau, Marie-Claire; Fournier, Michel; Blais, Jean-Guy

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates a program that promoted adaptation of students in their first year of secondary school. The program focused on developing healthy self-perceptions, and cognitive, affective and behavioral skills. Analyses revealed the predicted positive effects of the program on psychological and social outcomes. Findings underline the need to address…

  2. Adapting Animal-Assisted Therapy Trials to Prison-Based Animal Programs.

    PubMed

    Allison, Molly; Ramaswamy, Megha

    2016-09-01

    Prison-based animal programs have shown promise when it comes to increased sociability, responsibility, and levels of patience for inmates who participate in these programs. Yet there remains a dearth of scientific research that demonstrates the impact of prison-based animal programs on inmates' physical and mental health. Trials of animal-assisted therapy interventions, a form of human-animal interaction therapy most often used with populations affected by depression/anxiety, mental illness, and trauma, may provide models of how prison-based animal program research can have widespread implementation in jail and prison settings, whose populations have high rates of mental health problems. This paper reviews the components of prison-based animal programs most commonly practiced in prisons today, presents five animal-assisted therapy case studies, evaluates them based on their adaptability to prison-based animal programs, and discusses the institutional constraints that act as barriers for rigorous prison-based animal program research implementation. This paper can serve to inform the development of a research approach to animal-assisted therapy that nurses and other public health researchers can use in working with correctional populations.

  3. The Army Family Research Program: Sampling Plan for the CORE Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    Because FSUs and SSUs will vary considerably with respect to numbers of personnel, the sample will be chosen with minimum replacement ( Chromy 1979...comunity: The plan for research. Research Triangle Park, NC: Research Triangle Institute. Chromy , J. (1979). Sequential sampling selection methods. In...Effects (1.25) Power Sample Size and Participation Failure Rate (.05) .10 48 62 .30 129 170 .50 218 287 .60 271 357 .70 324 440 .80 418 551 .90 552 726

  4. Fast and intuitive programming of adaptive laser cutting of lace enabled by machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaamonde, Iago; Souto-López, Álvaro; García-Díaz, Antón

    2015-07-01

    A machine vision system has been developed, validated, and integrated in a commercial laser robot cell. It permits an offline graphical programming of laser cutting of lace. The user interface allows loading CAD designs and aligning them with images of lace pieces. Different thread widths are discriminated to generate proper cutting program templates. During online operation, the system aligns CAD models of pieces and lace images, pre-checks quality of lace cuts and adapts laser parameters to thread widths. For pieces detected with the required quality, the program template is adjusted by transforming the coordinates of every trajectory point. A low-cost lace feeding system was also developed for demonstration of full process automation.

  5. Coupled rotor/airframe vibration analysis program manual. Volume 2: Sample input and output listings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassarino, S.; Sopher, R.

    1982-01-01

    Sample input and output listings obtained with the base program (SIMVIB) of the coupled rotor/airframe vibration analysis and the external programs, G400/F389 and E927 are presented. Results for five of the base program test cases are shown. They represent different applications of the SIMVIB program to study the vibration characteristics of various dynamic configurations. Input and output listings obtained for one cycle of the G400/F389 coupled program are presented. Results from the rotor aeroelastic analysis E927 also appear. A brief description of the check cases is provided. A summary of the check cases for all the external programs interacting with the SIMVIB program is illustrated.

  6. CERCLA Site discharges to POTWs CERCLA site sampling program: Detailed data report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    The document contains wastewater data obtained from sampling at seventeen CERCLA sites during a study of wastewater discharges from CERCLA sites to publicly owned treatment works (POTWs). The document serves as an appendix to the report summarizing the findings of the CERCLA site sampling program in Section 3 (CERCLA Site Data Report) in the USEPA CERCLA Site Discharges to POTWs Treatability Manual.

  7. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of the Coastal Ocean: Adaptive Sampling and Forecasting of In situ Optical Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-30

    We are developing an integrated rapid environmental assessment capability that will be used to feed an ocean nowcast/forecast system. The goal is to develop a capacity for predicting the dynamics in inherent optical properties in coastal waters. This is being accomplished by developing an integrated observation system that is being coupled to a data assimilative hydrodynamic bio-optical ecosystem model. The system was used adaptively to calibrate hyperspectral remote sensing sensors in optically complex nearshore coastal waters.

  8. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Environmental Monitoring program. Volume 1 - sampling progrom report. Baseline Sampling Program report

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, L.M.

    1994-05-27

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) project at its Sparrows Point, Maryland Coke Oven Plant. This innovative coke oven gas cleaning system combines several existing technologies into an integrated system for removing impurities from Coke Oven Gas (COG) to make it an acceptable fuel. DOE provided cost-sharing under a Cooperative Agreement with BSC. This Cooperative Agreement requires BSC to develop and conduct and Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Clean Coal Technology project and to report the status of the EMP on a quarterly basis. It also requires the preparation of a final report on the results of the Baseline Compliance and Supplemental Sampling Programs that are part of the EMP and which were conducted prior to the startup of the innovative coke oven gas cleaning system. This report is the Baseline Sampling Program report.

  9. Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results for 2010

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 10 and 11, 2010. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, analyzed the samples. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectroscopy and for tritium using the conventional and enriched methods.

  10. Rio Blanco, Colorado, Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results for 2009

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site, for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 13 and 14, 2009. Samples were analyzed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Radiation&Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectroscopy and tritium using the conventional and enriched methods.

  11. Teacher Adaptations to a Core Reading Program: Increasing Access to Curriculum for Elementary Students in Urban Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniates, Helen

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how three urban elementary school teachers adapted pedagogical strategies from a school district--adopted core reading program to increase their students' access to the curriculum. Using teacher interviews and classroom observations to construct a descriptive case study of teacher adaptation, analysis reveals that the…

  12. Sociocultural Adaptation of U.S. Education Abroad Students in Greece: The Effects of Program Duration and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonakopoulou, Efi

    2013-01-01

    There is no evidence in the literature for direct comparison of the sociocultural adaptation brought by the participation of U.S. students in education abroad programs of different lengths. This study attempts to address this gap by comparing the sociocultural adaptation of education abroad students that results from their participation in both…

  13. Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicle Tracking Control Based on Adaptive Dynamic Programming.

    PubMed

    Mu, Chaoxu; Ni, Zhen; Sun, Changyin; He, Haibo

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a data-driven supplementary control approach with adaptive learning capability for air-breathing hypersonic vehicle tracking control based on action-dependent heuristic dynamic programming (ADHDP). The control action is generated by the combination of sliding mode control (SMC) and the ADHDP controller to track the desired velocity and the desired altitude. In particular, the ADHDP controller observes the differences between the actual velocity/altitude and the desired velocity/altitude, and then provides a supplementary control action accordingly. The ADHDP controller does not rely on the accurate mathematical model function and is data driven. Meanwhile, it is capable to adjust its parameters online over time under various working conditions, which is very suitable for hypersonic vehicle system with parameter uncertainties and disturbances. We verify the adaptive supplementary control approach versus the traditional SMC in the cruising flight, and provide three simulation studies to illustrate the improved performance with the proposed approach.

  14. Referral hospitals in the Democratic Republic of Congo as complex adaptive systems: similar program, different dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Karemere, Hermès; Ribesse, Nathalie; Kahindo, Jean-Bosco; Macq, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In many African countries, first referral hospitals received little attention from development agencies until recently. We report the evolution of two of them in an unstable region like Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo when receiving the support from development aid program. Specifically, we aimed at studying how actors’ network and institutional framework evolved over time and what could matter the most when looking at their performance in such an environment. Methods We performed two cases studies between 2006 and 2010. We used multiple sources of data: reports to document events; health information system for hospital services production, and “key-informants” interviews to interpret the relation between interventions and services production. Our analysis was inspired from complex adaptive system theory. It started from the analysis of events implementation, to explore interaction process between the main agents in each hospital, and the consequence it could have on hospital health services production. This led to the development of new theoretical propositions. Results Two events implemented in the frame of the development aid program were identified by most of the key-informants interviewed as having the greatest impact on hospital performance: the development of a hospital plan and the performance based financing. They resulted in contrasting interaction process between the main agents between the two hospitals. Two groups of services production were reviewed: consultation at outpatient department and admissions, and surgery. The evolution of both groups of services production were different between both hospitals. Conclusion By studying two first referral hospitals through the lens of a Complex Adaptive System, their performance in a context of development aid takes a different meaning. Success is not only measured through increased hospital production but through meaningful process of hospital agents’” network adaptation. Expected

  15. Overcoming the Curse of Dimension: Methods Based on Sparse Representation and Adaptive Sampling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-28

    carried out mainly by him, together with our joint post-doc Haijun Yu. Please refer to his report for the progress made in this direction. 3 Exploring...multiscale modeling using sparse representation”, Comm. Comp. Phys., 4(5), pp. 1025–1033 (2008). [3] X. Zhou and W. Ren and W. E, “Adaptive minimum...action method for the study of rare events”, J. Chem. Phys., 128, 10, 2008. [4] X. Wan, X. Zhou and W. E, “Noise-induced transitions in the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation”, preprint, submitted. 4

  16. Adaptive sample size modification in clinical trials: start small then ask for more?

    PubMed

    Jennison, Christopher; Turnbull, Bruce W

    2015-12-20

    We consider sample size re-estimation in a clinical trial, in particular when there is a significant delay before the measurement of patient response. Mehta and Pocock have proposed methods in which sample size is increased when interim results fall in a 'promising zone' where it is deemed worthwhile to increase conditional power by adding more subjects. Our analysis reveals potential pitfalls in applying this approach. Mehta and Pocock use results of Chen, DeMets and Lan to identify when increasing sample size, but applying a conventional level α significance test at the end of the trial does not inflate the type I error rate: we have found the greatest gains in power per additional observation are liable to lie outside the region defined by this method. Mehta and Pocock increase sample size to achieve a particular conditional power, calculated under the current estimate of treatment effect: this leads to high increases in sample size for a small range of interim outcomes, whereas we have found it more efficient to make moderate increases in sample size over a wider range of cases. If the aforementioned pitfalls are avoided, we believe the broad framework proposed by Mehta and Pocock is valuable for clinical trial design. Working in this framework, we propose sample size rules that apply explicitly the principle of adding observations when they are most beneficial. The resulting trial designs are closely related to efficient group sequential tests for a delayed response proposed by Hampson and Jennison.

  17. The Glen Canyon Dam adaptive management program: progress and immediate challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamill, John F.; Melis, Theodore S.; Boon, Philip J.; Raven, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive management emerged as an important resource management strategy for major river systems in the United States (US) in the early 1990s. The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (‘the Program’) was formally established in 1997 to fulfill a statutory requirement in the 1992 Grand Canyon Protection Act (GCPA). The GCPA aimed to improve natural resource conditions in the Colorado River corridor in the Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona that were affected by the Glen Canyon dam. The Program achieves this by using science and a variety of stakeholder perspectives to inform decisions about dam operations. Since the Program started the ecosystem is now much better understood and several biological and physical improvements have been achieved. These improvements include: (i) an estimated 50% increase in the adult population of endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) between 2001 and 2008, following previous decline; (ii) a 90% decrease in non-native rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), which are known to compete with and prey on native fish, as a result of removal experiments; and (iii) the widespread reappearance of sandbars in response to an experimental high-flow release of dam water in March 2008.Although substantial progress has been made, the Program faces several immediate challenges. These include: (i) defining specific, measurable objectives and desired future conditions for important natural, cultural and recreational attributes to inform science and management decisions; (ii) implementing structural and operational changes to improve collaboration among stakeholders; (iii) establishing a long-term experimental programme and management plan; and (iv) securing long-term funding for monitoring programmes to assess ecosystem and other responses to management actions. Addressing these challenges and building on recent progress will require strong and consistent leadership from the US Department of the Interior

  18. The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program: An experiment in science-based resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    kaplinski, m

    2001-12-01

    In 1996, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management (GCDAMP) program was established to provide input on Glen Canyon Dam operations and their affect on the Colorado Ecosystem in Grand Canyon. The GCDAMP is a bold experiment in federal resource management that features a governing partnership with all relevant stakeholders sitting at the same table. It is a complicated, difficult process where stakeholder-derived management actions must balance resource protection with water and power delivery compacts, the Endangered Species Act, the National Historical Preservation Act, the Grand Canyon Protection Act, National Park Service Policy, and other stakeholder concerns. The program consists of four entities: the Adaptive Management Workgroup (AMWG), the Technical Workgroup (TWG), the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC), and independent review panels. The AMWG and TWG are federal advisory committees that consists of federal and state resource managers, Native American tribes, power, environmental and recreation interests. The AMWG is develops, evaluates and recommends alternative dam operations to the Secretary. The TWG translates AMWG policy and goals into management objectives and information needs, provides questions that serve as the basis for long-term monitoring and research activities, interprets research results from the GCMRC, and prepares reports as required for the AMWG. The GCMRC is an independent science center that is responsible for all GCDAMP monitoring and research activities. The GCMRC utilizes proposal requests with external peer review and an in-house staff that directs and synthesizes monitoring and research results. The GCMRC meets regularly with the TWG and AMWG and provides scientific information on the consequences of GCDAMP actions. Independent review panels consist of external peer review panels that provide reviews of scientific activities and the program in general, technical advice to the GCMRC, TWG and AMWG, and play a critical

  19. NASA Lunar Sample Education Disk Program - Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers and Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    NASA is eager for students and the public to experience lunar Apollo rocks and regolith soils first hand. Lunar samples embedded in plastic are available for educators to use in their classrooms, museums, science centers, and public libraries for education activities and display. The sample education disks are valuable tools for engaging students in the exploration of the Solar System. Scientific research conducted on the Apollo rocks has revealed the early history of our Earth-Moon system. The rocks help educators make the connections to this ancient history of our planet as well as connections to the basic lunar surface processes - impact and volcanism. With these samples educators in museums, science centers, libraries, and classrooms can help students and the public understand the key questions pursued by missions to Moon. The Office of the Curator at Johnson Space Center is in the process of reorganizing and renewing the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program to increase reach, security and accountability. The new program expands the reach of these exciting extraterrestrial rocks through increased access to training and educator borrowing. One of the expanded opportunities is that trained certified educators from science centers, museums, and libraries may now borrow the extraterrestrial rock samples. Previously the loan program was only open to classroom educators so the expansion will increase the public access to the samples and allow educators to make the critical connections of the rocks to the exciting exploration missions taking place in our solar system. Each Lunar Disk contains three lunar rocks and three regolith soils embedded in Lucite. The anorthosite sample is a part of the magma ocean formed on the surface of Moon in the early melting period, the basalt is part of the extensive lunar mare lava flows, and the breccias sample is an important example of the violent impact history of the Moon. The disks also include two regolith soils and

  20. Random Transect with Adaptive Clustering Sampling Design - ArcPad Applet Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    sampling design geodatabase ................................. 6 3.1.2 Create features in geodatabase ...developed for ArcPad®, a mobile geographical information software (GIS) for field applications developed by ESRI ® of Redlands, CA. ArcPad is designed to...occurrence maps (Rew et al. 2005) to guide future surveying and management efforts. The RTAC combines features of the two NIS sampling designs described

  1. Calculation of the exchange ratio for the Adaptive Maneuvering Logic program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuman, F.; Erzberger, H.

    1985-01-01

    Improvements were made to the Adaptive Maneuvering Logic (AML) computer program, a computer-generated, air-to-air combat opponent. The primary improvement was incorporating a measure of performance, the exchange ratio, defined as the statistical measure of number of enemy kills divided by number of friendly losses. This measure was used to test a new modification of the AML's combat tactics. When the new version of the AML competed against the old version, the new version won with an exchange ratio of 1.4.

  2. iAPBS: a programming interface to Adaptive Poisson-Boltzmann Solver

    SciTech Connect

    Konecny, Robert; Baker, Nathan A.; McCammon, J. A.

    2012-07-26

    The Adaptive Poisson-Boltzmann Solver (APBS) is a state-of-the-art suite for performing Poisson-Boltzmann electrostatic calculations on biomolecules. The iAPBS package provides a modular programmatic interface to the APBS library of electrostatic calculation routines. The iAPBS interface library can be linked with a Fortran or C/C++ program thus making all of the APBS functionality available from within the application. Several application modules for popular molecular dynamics simulation packages -- Amber, NAMD and CHARMM are distributed with iAPBS allowing users of these packages to perform implicit solvent electrostatic calculations with APBS.

  3. Adaptation of an alcohol and HIV school-based prevention program for teens.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Rosy; Springer, Carolyn; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Ghosh, Shivnath; Sharma, Sunil Kumar; Rapkin, Bruce

    2010-08-01

    Given the current status of HIV infection in youth in India, developing and implementing HIV education and prevention interventions is critical. The goal for School-based Teenage Education Program (STEP) was to demonstrate that a HIV/AIDS and alcohol abuse educational program built with specific cultural, linguistic, and community-specific characteristics could be effective. Utilizing the Train-the-Trainer model, the instructors (17-21 years) were trained to present the 10 session manualized program to primarily rural and tribal youth aged 13-16 years in 23 schools (N = 1,421) in the northern state of Himachal Pradesh in India. The intervention had a greater impact on girls; girls evidenced greater communication skills and a trend towards greater self efficacy and reduced risk taking behavior. The STEP has been successfully adapted by the community organizations that were involved in coordinating the program at the local level. Their intention to continue STEP beyond extra funding shows that utilizing the local community in designing, implementing and evaluating programs promotes ownership and sustainability.

  4. Adaptation of an Alcohol and HIV School-Based Prevention Program for Teens

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Carolyn; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Ghosh, Shivnath; Sharma, Sunil Kumar; Rapkin, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Given the current status of HIV infection in youth in India, developing and implementing HIV education and prevention interventions is critical. The goal for School-based Teenage Education Program (STEP) was to demonstrate that a HIV/AIDS and alcohol abuse educational program built with specific cultural, linguistic, and community-specific characteristics could be effective. Utilizing the Train-the-Trainer model, the instructors (17–21 years) were trained to present the 10 session manualized program to primarily rural and tribal youth aged 13–16 years in 23 schools (N = 1,421) in the northern state of Himachal Pradesh in India. The intervention had a greater impact on girls; girls evidenced greater communication skills and a trend towards greater self efficacy and reduced risk taking behavior. The STEP has been successfully adapted by the community organizations that were involved in coordinating the program at the local level. Their intention to continue STEP beyond extra funding shows that utilizing the local community in designing, implementing and evaluating programs promotes ownership and sustainability. PMID:20589528

  5. An adaptive sampling algorithm for Doppler-shift fluorescence velocimetry in high-speed flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Page, Laurent M.; O'Byrne, Sean

    2017-03-01

    We present an approach to improving the efficiency of obtaining samples over a given domain for the peak location of Gaussian line-shapes. The method uses parameter estimates obtained from previous measurements to determine subsequent sampling locations. The method may be applied to determine the location of a spectral peak, where the monetary or time cost is too high to allow a less efficient search method, such as sampling at uniformly distributed domain locations, to be used. We demonstrate the algorithm using linear least-squares fitting of log-scaled planar laser-induced fluorescence data combined with Monte-Carlo simulation of measurements, to accurately determine the Doppler-shifted fluorescence peak frequency for each pixel of a fluorescence image. A simulated comparison between this approach and a uniformly spaced sampling approach is carried out using fits both for a single pixel and for a collection of pixels representing the fluorescence images that would be obtained in a hypersonic flow facility. In all cases, the peak location of Doppler-shifted line-shapes were determined to a similar precision with fewer samples than could be achieved using the more typical uniformly distributed sampling approach.

  6. Propulsion Technology Development for Sample Return Missions Under NASA's ISPT Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David J.; Pencil, Eric J.; Vento, Daniel; Dankanich, John W.; Munk, Michelle M.; Hahne, David

    2011-01-01

    The In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Program was tasked in 2009 to start development of propulsion technologies that would enable future sample return missions. Sample return missions could be quite varied, from collecting and bringing back samples of comets or asteroids, to soil, rocks, or atmosphere from planets or moons. The paper will describe the ISPT Program s propulsion technology development activities relevant to future sample return missions. The sample return propulsion technology development areas for ISPT are: 1) Sample Return Propulsion (SRP), 2) Planetary Ascent Vehicles (PAV), 3) Entry Vehicle Technologies (EVT), and 4) Systems/mission analysis and tools that focuses on sample return propulsion. The Sample Return Propulsion area is subdivided into: a) Electric propulsion for sample return and low cost Discovery-class missions, b) Propulsion systems for Earth Return Vehicles (ERV) including transfer stages to the destination, and c) Low TRL advanced propulsion technologies. The SRP effort will continue work on HIVHAC thruster development in FY2011 and then transitions into developing a HIVHAC system under future Electric Propulsion for sample return (ERV and transfer stages) and low-cost missions. Previous work on the lightweight propellant-tanks will continue under advanced propulsion technologies for sample return with direct applicability to a Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission and with general applicability to all future planetary spacecraft. A major effort under the EVT area is multi-mission technologies for Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEV), which will leverage and build upon previous work related to Earth Entry Vehicles (EEV). The major effort under the PAV area is the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). The MAV is a new development area to ISPT, and builds upon and leverages the past MAV analysis and technology developments from the Mars Technology Program (MTP) and previous MSR studies.

  7. QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM FOR WET DEPOSITION SAMPLING AND CHEMICAL ANALYSES FOR THE NATIONAL TRENDS NETWORK.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroder, LeRoy J.; Malo, Bernard A.; ,

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of the National Trends Network is to delineate the major inorganic constituents in the wet deposition in the United States. The approach chosen to monitor the Nation's wet deposition is to install approximately 150 automatic sampling devices with at least one collector in each state. Samples are collected at one week intervals, removed from collectors, and transported to an analytical laboratory for chemical analysis. The quality assurance program has divided wet deposition monitoring into 5 parts: (1) Sampling site selection, (2) sampling device, (3) sample container, (4) sample handling, and (5) laboratory analysis. Each of these five components is being examined using existing designs or new designs. Each existing or proposed sampling site is visited and a criteria audit is performed.

  8. Self-Learning Adaptive Umbrella Sampling Method for the Determination of Free Energy Landscapes in Multiple Dimensions.

    PubMed

    Wojtas-Niziurski, Wojciech; Meng, Yilin; Roux, Benoit; Bernèche, Simon

    2013-04-09

    The potential of mean force describing conformational changes of biomolecules is a central quantity that determines the function of biomolecular systems. Calculating an energy landscape of a process that depends on three or more reaction coordinates might require a lot of computational power, making some of multidimensional calculations practically impossible. Here, we present an efficient automatized umbrella sampling strategy for calculating multidimensional potential of mean force. The method progressively learns by itself, through a feedback mechanism, which regions of a multidimensional space are worth exploring and automatically generates a set of umbrella sampling windows that is adapted to the system. The self-learning adaptive umbrella sampling method is first explained with illustrative examples based on simplified reduced model systems, and then applied to two non-trivial situations: the conformational equilibrium of the pentapeptide Met-enkephalin in solution and ion permeation in the KcsA potassium channel. With this method, it is demonstrated that a significant smaller number of umbrella windows needs to be employed to characterize the free energy landscape over the most relevant regions without any loss in accuracy.

  9. Evolution of the Marginal Ice Zone: Adaptive Sampling with Autonomous Gliders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    dynamics of the upper ocean. OBJECTIVES The Seaglider program focuses on: 1. Characterizing vertical structure ( temperature , salinity, density), internal...turbulent mixing rates (via micro- temperature ) in the upper water column. • Measure multi-spectral downwelling irradiance in the upper water column...access marginal ice zone. When operating in ice-covered waters, gliders navigate by trilateration from acoustic sound sources (or dead reckoning should

  10. Short-term effects on substance use of the keepin' it REAL pilot prevention program: Linguistically adapted for youth in Jalisco, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Booth, Jaime M.; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Nuño-Gutierrez, Bertha L.; Kulis, Stephen; Hoffman, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the short-term effects of a pilot study of keepin' it REAL(Manténte REAL) conducted in central Mexico by a bi-national team of investigators. This middle school-based model program for preventing substance use was adapted for Mexico linguistically but not culturally. Two Guadalajara public middle schools were recruited and randomly assigned to either implement the prevention program or serve as a control site. The program was implemented in the treatment site by the students' regular teachers, who were trained by the research team. Seventh graders in ten classrooms in the treatment and control schools (N = 432) completed a pretest and post-test survey in Spanish similar to the survey utilized in the original efficacy trial of keepin' it REAL in the US. T-tests and OLS regressions were conducted to determine the effects of the intervention on substance use outcomes. Differences between treatment and control groups in frequency of use of alcohol and tobacco, the two substances of choice in this sample, were significant and in the desired direction. Differences in amount of use were also in the preferred direction but were not significant for alcohol and only marginally significant for tobacco. When the sample was split by gender, statistically significant treatment effects remained for females but were not observed among males. Effects of the linguistically adapted version of keepin' it REAL appears to be driven by the change in female use, however the difference in male and female outcomes was not statistically significant. Implications for cultural adaptation and prevention in Mexico are discussed from a communication competency perspective. The promising results of the pilot study suggest that the linguistic adaptation was effective but that a comprehensive cultural adaptation of keepin' it REAL in partnership with Mexican investigators and communities may be warranted. PMID:23877541

  11. Adaptive optimal control of highly dissipative nonlinear spatially distributed processes with neuro-dynamic programming.

    PubMed

    Luo, Biao; Wu, Huai-Ning; Li, Han-Xiong

    2015-04-01

    Highly dissipative nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) are widely employed to describe the system dynamics of industrial spatially distributed processes (SDPs). In this paper, we consider the optimal control problem of the general highly dissipative SDPs, and propose an adaptive optimal control approach based on neuro-dynamic programming (NDP). Initially, Karhunen-Loève decomposition is employed to compute empirical eigenfunctions (EEFs) of the SDP based on the method of snapshots. These EEFs together with singular perturbation technique are then used to obtain a finite-dimensional slow subsystem of ordinary differential equations that accurately describes the dominant dynamics of the PDE system. Subsequently, the optimal control problem is reformulated on the basis of the slow subsystem, which is further converted to solve a Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation. HJB equation is a nonlinear PDE that has proven to be impossible to solve analytically. Thus, an adaptive optimal control method is developed via NDP that solves the HJB equation online using neural network (NN) for approximating the value function; and an online NN weight tuning law is proposed without requiring an initial stabilizing control policy. Moreover, by involving the NN estimation error, we prove that the original closed-loop PDE system with the adaptive optimal control policy is semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded. Finally, the developed method is tested on a nonlinear diffusion-convection-reaction process and applied to a temperature cooling fin of high-speed aerospace vehicle, and the achieved results show its effectiveness.

  12. Acquiring Peak Samples from Phytoplankton Thin Layers and Intermediate Nepheloid Layers by an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle with Adaptive Triggering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; McEwen, R.; Ryan, J. P.; Bellingham, J. G.; Harvey, J.; Vrijenhoek, R.

    2010-12-01

    Phytoplankton thin layers (PTLs) affect many fundamental aspects of coastal ocean ecology including primary productivity, development of harmful algal blooms (HABs) and the survival and growth of zooplankton and fish larvae. Intermediate nepheloid layers (INLs) that contain suspended particulate matter transported from the bottom boundary layer of continental shelves and slopes also affect biogeochemistry and ecology of ocean margins. To better understand the impacts of these types of layers, we have developed an adaptive sampling method for an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) to detect a layer (adjusting detection parameters in situ), acquire water samples from peaks in the layer, and acquire control samples outside the layer. We have used the method in a number of field experiments with the AUV Dorado, which is equipped with ten water samplers (called "gulpers"). In real time, the algorithm tracks background levels of fluorescence and optical backscatter and the peaks' baseline to ensure that detection is tuned to the ambient conditions. The algorithm cross-checks fluorescence and backscatter signals to differentiate PTLs from INLs. To capture peak water samples with minimal delay, the algorithm exploits the AUV's sawtooth (i.e., yo-yo) trajectory: the vehicle crosses the detected layer twice in one yo-yo cycle. At the first crossing, it detects the layer's peak and saves its signal height. Sampling is triggered at the second crossing when the signal reaches the saved peak height plus meeting additional timing and depth conditions. The algorithm is also capable of triggering gulpers to acquire control samples outside the layer for comparison with ambient water. The sequence of peak and control samples can be set based on need. In recent AUV Dorado missions, the algorithm triggered the gulpers to acquire peak and control samples from INLs and PTLs in Monterey Bay. Zooplankton analysis of some peak samples showed very high concentrations of mussel and barnacle

  13. Reliability and Validity of the Spanish Adaptation of EOSS, Comparing Normal and Clinical Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valero-Aguayo, Luis; Ferro-Garcia, Rafael; Lopez-Bermudez, Miguel Angel; de Huralde, Ma. Angeles Selva-Lopez

    2012-01-01

    The Experiencing of Self Scale (EOSS) was created for the evaluation of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (Kohlenberg & Tsai, 1991, 2001, 2008) in relation to the concept of the experience of personal self as socially and verbally constructed. This paper presents a reliability and validity study of the EOSS with a Spanish sample (582…

  14. Demonstration of multi- and single-reader sample size program for diagnostic studies software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillis, Stephen L.; Schartz, Kevin M.

    2015-03-01

    The recently released software Multi- and Single-Reader Sample Size Sample Size Program for Diagnostic Studies, written by Kevin Schartz and Stephen Hillis, performs sample size computations for diagnostic reader-performance studies. The program computes the sample size needed to detect a specified difference in a reader performance measure between two modalities, when using the analysis methods initially proposed by Dorfman, Berbaum, and Metz (DBM) and Obuchowski and Rockette (OR), and later unified and improved by Hillis and colleagues. A commonly used reader performance measure is the area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve. The program can be used with typical common reader-performance measures which can be estimated parametrically or nonparametrically. The program has an easy-to-use step-by-step intuitive interface that walks the user through the entry of the needed information. Features of the software include the following: (1) choice of several study designs; (2) choice of inputs obtained from either OR or DBM analyses; (3) choice of three different inference situations: both readers and cases random, readers fixed and cases random, and readers random and cases fixed; (4) choice of two types of hypotheses: equivalence or noninferiority; (6) choice of two output formats: power for specified case and reader sample sizes, or a listing of case-reader combinations that provide a specified power; (7) choice of single or multi-reader analyses; and (8) functionality in Windows, Mac OS, and Linux.

  15. Georges Bank benthic infauna monitoring program. Final report for third year of sampling. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Maciolek-Blake, N.; Grassle, J.F.; Neff, J.M.

    1985-04-15

    Concerns about the potential effects of oil- and gas-exploration activities on Georges Bank led to the initiation of a monitoring program in July 1981. The program included sampling of the benthic communities near, upcurrent, and downcurrent of the drilling rigs, analysis of bottom photographs for epifauna and microtopography, trawl collections, total organic carbon and sediment grain size analysis. Additional aspects of the program included a detailed life history analysis of 23 dominant species, and a study which linked fish feeding with benthic production. No biological impacts that could be attributed to drilling activities were detected at any station.

  16. Georges Bank benthic infauna monitoring program. Final report for third year of sampling. Volume 3. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Maciolek-Blake, N.; Grassle, J.F.; Neff, J.M.

    1985-04-15

    Concerns about the potential effects of oil- and gas-exploration activities on Georges Bank led to the initiation of a monitoring program in July 1981. The program included sampling of the benthic communities near, upcurrent, and downcurrent of the drilling rigs, analysis of bottom photographs for epifauna and microtopography, trawl collections, total organic carbon and sediment grain size analysis. Additional aspects of the program included a detailed life history analysis of 23 dominant species, and a study which linked fish feeding with benthic production. No biological impacts that could be attributed to drilling activities were detected at any station.

  17. An Evaluation of Levels of Adaptation Used in the Teaching of Foreign University Degree Programs in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Many universities now deliver courses and programs in overseas markets such as China. Often these programs are delivered by foreign academics who teach in these overseas locations. This style and format of educational delivery raises the issue of the degree to which subject material and teaching styles need to be adapted to meet the needs of…

  18. Teaching the Fluctuation Test "In Silico" by Using Mutate: A Program to Distinguish between the Adaptive and Spontaneous Mutation Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvajal-Rodriguez, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Mutate is a program developed for teaching purposes to impart a virtual laboratory class for undergraduate students of Genetics in Biology. The program emulates the so-called fluctuation test whose aim is to distinguish between spontaneous and adaptive mutation hypotheses in bacteria. The plan is to train students in certain key multidisciplinary…

  19. Effectiveness of a Culturally Adapted Strengthening Families Program 12-16-Years for High-Risk Irish Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumpfer, Karol L.; Xie, Jing; O'Driscoll, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based programs (EBPs) targeting effective family skills are the most cost effective for improving adolescent behavioural health. Cochrane Reviews have found the "Strengthening Families Program" (SFP) to be the most effective substance abuse prevention intervention. Standardized cultural adaptation processes resulted…

  20. National Summary of Aquatic Education Materials Developed by, or Adapted for Use with, State and Territorial Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Natural Resources, Des Moines.

    This document summarizes materials on aquatic education used by state programs. Emphasis is on materials developed by, or adapted for use with, programs in various states and territories. The 234 entries are categorized as activity books, brochures, newsletters, posters, videos, and other materials. Major subjects include fishing, boating and…

  1. Adaptive management of large aquatic ecosystem recovery programs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Thom, Ronald; St Clair, Tom; Burns, Rebecca; Anderson, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Adaptive management (AM) is being employed in a number of programs in the United States to guide actions to restore aquatic ecosystems because these programs are both expensive and are faced with significant uncertainties. Many of these uncertainties are associated with prioritizing when, where, and what kind of actions are needed to meet the objectives of enhancing ecosystem services and recovering threatened and endangered species. We interviewed nine large-scale aquatic ecosystem restoration programs across the United States to document the lessons learned from implementing AM. In addition, we recorded information on ecological drivers (e.g., endangered fish species) for the program, and inferred how these drivers reflected more generic ecosystem services. Ecosystem services (e.g., genetic diversity, cultural heritage), albeit not explicit drivers, were either important to the recovery or enhancement of the drivers, or were additional benefits associated with actions to recover or enhance the program drivers. Implementing programs using AM lessons learned has apparently helped achieve better results regarding enhancing ecosystem services and restoring target species populations. The interviews yielded several recommendations. The science and AM program must be integrated into how the overall restoration program operates in order to gain understanding and support, and effectively inform management decision-making. Governance and decision-making varied based on its particular circumstances. Open communication within and among agency and stakeholder groups and extensive vetting lead up to decisions. It was important to have an internal agency staff member to implement the AM plan, and a clear designation of roles and responsibilities, and long-term commitment of other involved parties. The most important management questions and information needs must be identified up front. It was imperative to clearly identify, link and continually reinforce the essential

  2. Interactive programs with preschool children bring smiles and conversation to older adults: time-sampling study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Keeping older adults healthy and active is an emerging challenge of an aging society. Despite the importance of personal relationships to their health and well-being, changes in family structure have resulted in a lower frequency of intergenerational interactions. Limited studies have been conducted to compare different interaction style of intergenerational interaction. The present study aimed to compare the changes in visual attention, facial expression, engagement/behaviour, and intergenerational conversation in older adults brought about by a performance-based intergenerational (IG) program and a social-oriented IG program to determine a desirable interaction style for older adults. Methods The subjects of this study were 25 older adults who participated in intergenerational programs with preschool children aged 5 to 6 years at an adult day care centre in Tokyo. We used time sampling to perform a structured observation study. The 25 older participants of intergenerational programs were divided into two groups based on their interaction style: performance-based IG program (children sing songs and dance) and social-oriented IG program (older adults and children play games together). Based on the 5-minute video observation, we compared changes in visual attention, facial expression, engagement/behaviour, and intergenerational conversation between the performance-based and social-oriented IG programs. Results Constructive behaviour and intergenerational conversation were significantly higher in the social-oriented IG programming group than the performance-based IG programming group (p<0.001). No significant differences were observed in frequency of smiles, however, when weighted smiling rate was used, smiles were significantly more frequently observed in the social-oriented IG programming group than the performance-based IG programming (p<0.05). The visual attention occurred between the generations was significantly higher in the performance-based IG

  3. Substance Use Prevention for Urban American Indian Youth: A Efficacy Trial of the Culturally Adapted Living in 2 Worlds Program.

    PubMed

    Kulis, Stephen S; Ayers, Stephanie L; Harthun, Mary L

    2017-04-01

    This article describes a small efficacy trial of the Living in 2 Worlds (L2W) substance use prevention curriculum, a culturally adapted version of keepin' it REAL (kiR) redesigned for urban American Indian (AI) middle school students. Focused on strengthening resiliency and AI cultural engagement, L2W teaches drug resistance skills, decision making, and culturally grounded prevention messages. Using cluster random assignment, the research team randomized three urban middle schools with enrichment classes for AI students. AI teachers of these classes delivered the L2W curriculum in two schools; the remaining school implemented kiR, unadapted, and became the comparison group. AI students (N = 107) completed a pretest questionnaire before they received the manualized curriculum lessons, and a posttest (85% completion) 1 month after the final lesson. We assessed the adapted L2W intervention, compared to kiR, with paired t tests, baseline adjusted general linear models, and effect size estimates (Cohen's d). Differences between the L2W and kiR groups reached statistically significant thresholds for four outcomes. Youth receiving L2W, compared to kiR, reported less growth in cigarette use from pretest to posttest, less frequent use of the Leave drug resistance strategy, and less loss of connections to AI spirituality and cultural traditions. For other substance use behaviors and antecedents, the direction of the non-significant effects in small sample tests was toward more positive outcomes in L2W and small to medium effect sizes. Results suggest that evidence-based substance use prevention programs that are culturally adapted for urban AI adolescents, like L2W, can be a foundation for prevention approaches to help delay initiation and slow increases in substance use. In addition to study limitations, we discuss implementation challenges in delivering school-based interventions for urban AI populations.

  4. Selective determination of methyl mercury in biological samples by means of programmed temperature gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, R A; Carro, A; Rubí, E; Casais, C; Cela, R

    1993-01-01

    A programmed temperature gas chromatographic method is presented by which it is possible to carry out routine analysis of methyl mercury in biological samples prepared according to the AOAC official first action recommendations without the need for preliminary treatment of the columns. This method greatly extends the life of the columns as well as the useful time for analysis; it has good linearity and repeatability. With the proposed method a total of 36 samples can be analyzed daily.

  5. Social Daydreaming and Adjustment: An Experience-Sampling Study of Socio-Emotional Adaptation During a Life Transition

    PubMed Central

    Poerio, Giulia L.; Totterdell, Peter; Emerson, Lisa-Marie; Miles, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    Estimates suggest that up to half of waking life is spent daydreaming; that is, engaged in thought that is independent of, and unrelated to, one’s current task. Emerging research indicates that daydreams are predominately social suggesting that daydreams may serve socio-emotional functions. Here we explore the functional role of social daydreaming for socio-emotional adjustment during an important and stressful life transition (the transition to university) using experience-sampling with 103 participants over 28 days. Over time, social daydreams increased in their positive characteristics and positive emotional outcomes; specifically, participants reported that their daydreams made them feel more socially connected and less lonely, and that the content of their daydreams became less fanciful and involved higher quality relationships. These characteristics then predicted less loneliness at the end of the study, which, in turn was associated with greater social adaptation to university. Feelings of connection resulting from social daydreams were also associated with less emotional inertia in participants who reported being less socially adapted to university. Findings indicate that social daydreaming is functional for promoting socio-emotional adjustment to an important life event. We highlight the need to consider the social content of stimulus-independent cognitions, their characteristics, and patterns of change, to specify how social thoughts enable socio-emotional adaptation. PMID:26834685

  6. Sample Results From The Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 7 Tank 21H Qualification MST Solids Sample

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.

    2013-09-19

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed experiments on qualification material for use in the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) Batch 7 processing. The Marcrobatch 7 material was received with visible fine particulate solids, atypical for these samples. The as received material was allowed to settle for a period greater than 24 hours. The supernatant was then decanted and utilized as our clarified feed material. As part of this qualification work, SRNL performed an Actinide Removal Process (ARP) test using the clarified feed material. From this test, the residual monosodium titanate (MST) was analyzed for radionuclide uptake after filtration from H-Tank Farm (HTF) feed salt solution. The results of these analyses are reported and are within historical precedent.

  7. Whole genome resequencing of a laboratory-adapted Drosophila melanogaster population sample.

    PubMed

    Gilks, William P; Pennell, Tanya M; Flis, Ilona; Webster, Matthew T; Morrow, Edward H

    2016-01-01

    As part of a study into the molecular genetics of sexually dimorphic complex traits, we used high-throughput sequencing to obtain data on genomic variation in an outbred laboratory-adapted fruit fly ( Drosophila melanogaster) population. We successfully resequenced the whole genome of 220 hemiclonal females that were heterozygous for the same Berkeley reference line genome (BDGP6/dm6), and a unique haplotype from the outbred base population (LH M). The use of a static and known genetic background enabled us to obtain sequences from whole-genome phased haplotypes. We used a BWA-Picard-GATK pipeline for mapping sequence reads to the dm6 reference genome assembly, at a median depth-of coverage of 31X, and have made the resulting data publicly-available in the NCBI Short Read Archive (Accession number SRP058502). We used Haplotype Caller to discover and genotype 1,726,931 small genomic variants (SNPs and indels, <200bp). Additionally we detected and genotyped 167 large structural variants (1-100Kb in size) using GenomeStrip/2.0. Sequence and genotype data are publicly-available at the corresponding NCBI databases: Short Read Archive, dbSNP and dbVar (BioProject PRJNA282591). We have also released the unfiltered genotype data, and the code and logs for data processing and summary statistics ( https://zenodo.org/communities/sussex_drosophila_sequencing/).

  8. Whole genome resequencing of a laboratory-adapted Drosophila melanogaster population sample

    PubMed Central

    Gilks, William P.; Pennell, Tanya M.; Flis, Ilona; Webster, Matthew T.; Morrow, Edward H.

    2016-01-01

    As part of a study into the molecular genetics of sexually dimorphic complex traits, we used high-throughput sequencing to obtain data on genomic variation in an outbred laboratory-adapted fruit fly ( Drosophila melanogaster) population. We successfully resequenced the whole genome of 220 hemiclonal females that were heterozygous for the same Berkeley reference line genome (BDGP6/dm6), and a unique haplotype from the outbred base population (LH M). The use of a static and known genetic background enabled us to obtain sequences from whole-genome phased haplotypes. We used a BWA-Picard-GATK pipeline for mapping sequence reads to the dm6 reference genome assembly, at a median depth-of coverage of 31X, and have made the resulting data publicly-available in the NCBI Short Read Archive (Accession number SRP058502). We used Haplotype Caller to discover and genotype 1,726,931 small genomic variants (SNPs and indels, <200bp). Additionally we detected and genotyped 167 large structural variants (1-100Kb in size) using GenomeStrip/2.0. Sequence and genotype data are publicly-available at the corresponding NCBI databases: Short Read Archive, dbSNP and dbVar (BioProject PRJNA282591). We have also released the unfiltered genotype data, and the code and logs for data processing and summary statistics ( https://zenodo.org/communities/sussex_drosophila_sequencing/). PMID:27928499

  9. Psychometric properties of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality in a PTSD sample.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Erika J; Harrington, Kelly M; Miller, Mark W

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric characteristics of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP; Clark, 1996) in 280 individuals who screened positive for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The SNAP validity, trait, temperament, and personality disorder (PD) scales were compared with scales on the Brief Form of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (Patrick, Curtin, & Tellegen, 2002). In a subsample of 86 veterans, the SNAP PD, trait, and temperament scales were also evaluated in comparison to the International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE; Loranger, 1999), a semistructured diagnostic interview. Results revealed that the SNAP scales have good convergent validity, as evidenced by their pattern of associations with related measures of personality and PD. However, evidence for their discriminant validity in relationship to other measures of personality and PD was more mixed, and test scores on the SNAP trait and temperament scales left much unexplained variance in IPDE-assessed PDs. The diagnostic scoring of the SNAP PD scales greatly inflated prevalence estimates of PDs relative to the IPDE and showed poor agreement with the IPDE. In contrast, the dimensional SNAP scores yielded far stronger associations with continuous scores on the IPDE. The SNAP scales also largely evidenced expected patterns of association with a measure of PTSD severity. Overall, findings support the use of this measure in this population and contribute to our conceptualization of the association between temperament, PTSD, and Axis II psychopathology.

  10. Adaptive robust image registration approach based on adequately sampling polar transform and weighted angular projection function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhao; Tao, Feng; Jun, Wang

    2013-10-01

    An efficient, robust, and accurate approach is developed for image registration, which is especially suitable for large-scale change and arbitrary rotation. It is named the adequately sampling polar transform and weighted angular projection function (ASPT-WAPF). The proposed ASPT model overcomes the oversampling problem of conventional log-polar transform. Additionally, the WAPF presented as the feature descriptor is robust to the alteration in the fovea area of an image, and reduces the computational cost of the following registration process. The experimental results show two major advantages of the proposed method. First, it can register images with high accuracy even when the scale factor is up to 10 and the rotation angle is arbitrary. However, the maximum scaling estimated by the state-of-the-art algorithms is 6. Second, our algorithm is more robust to the size of the sampling region while not decreasing the accuracy of the registration.

  11. Compact Ocean Models Enable Onboard AUV Autonomy and Decentralized Adaptive Sampling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    synoptic information on-board a mobile platform. 2. To benefit from additional information provided by synoptic models, we developed a combination...properties ( chlorophyll -a and absorption due to phytoplankton), the model was able to reproduce intensity and tendencies in surface and subsurface... chlorophyll distributions observed at water samples locations in the Monterey Bay, CA (Figure 3). 5 2a) MODIS Chl-a 2b) without data

  12. Adaptive use of bubble wrap for storing liquid samples and performing analytical assays.

    PubMed

    Bwambok, David K; Christodouleas, Dionysios C; Morin, Stephen A; Lange, Heiko; Phillips, Scott T; Whitesides, George M

    2014-08-05

    This paper demonstrates that the gas-filled compartments in the packing material commonly called "bubble wrap" can be repurposed in resource-limited regions as containers to store liquid samples, and to perform bioanalyses. The bubbles of bubble wrap are easily filled by injecting the samples into them using a syringe with a needle or a pipet tip, and then sealing the hole with nail hardener. The bubbles are transparent in the visible range of the spectrum, and can be used as "cuvettes" for absorbance and fluorescence measurements. The interiors of these bubbles are sterile and allow storage of samples without the need for expensive sterilization equipment. The bubbles are also permeable to gases, and can be used to culture and store micro-organisms. By incorporating carbon electrodes, these bubbles can be used as electrochemical cells. This paper demonstrates the capabilities of the bubbles by culturing E. coli, growing C. elegans, measuring glucose and hemoglobin spectrophotometrically, and measuring ferrocyanide electrochemically, all within the bubbles.

  13. Virtual-system-coupled adaptive umbrella sampling to compute free-energy landscape for flexible molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Higo, Junichi; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Mashimo, Tadaaki; Kasahara, Kota; Fukunishi, Yoshifumi; Nakamura, Haruki

    2015-07-30

    A novel enhanced conformational sampling method, virtual-system-coupled adaptive umbrella sampling (V-AUS), was proposed to compute 300-K free-energy landscape for flexible molecular docking, where a virtual degrees of freedom was introduced to control the sampling. This degree of freedom interacts with the biomolecular system. V-AUS was applied to complex formation of two disordered amyloid-β (Aβ30-35 ) peptides in a periodic box filled by an explicit solvent. An interpeptide distance was defined as the reaction coordinate, along which sampling was enhanced. A uniform conformational distribution was obtained covering a wide interpeptide distance ranging from the bound to unbound states. The 300-K free-energy landscape was characterized by thermodynamically stable basins of antiparallel and parallel β-sheet complexes and some other complex forms. Helices were frequently observed, when the two peptides contacted loosely or fluctuated freely without interpeptide contacts. We observed that V-AUS converged to uniform distribution more effectively than conventional AUS sampling did.

  14. Massively parallel sampling of lattice proteins reveals foundations of thermal adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venev, Sergey V.; Zeldovich, Konstantin B.

    2015-08-01

    Evolution of proteins in bacteria and archaea living in different conditions leads to significant correlations between amino acid usage and environmental temperature. The origins of these correlations are poorly understood, and an important question of protein theory, physics-based prediction of types of amino acids overrepresented in highly thermostable proteins, remains largely unsolved. Here, we extend the random energy model of protein folding by weighting the interaction energies of amino acids by their frequencies in protein sequences and predict the energy gap of proteins designed to fold well at elevated temperatures. To test the model, we present a novel scalable algorithm for simultaneous energy calculation for many sequences in many structures, targeting massively parallel computing architectures such as graphics processing unit. The energy calculation is performed by multiplying two matrices, one representing the complete set of sequences, and the other describing the contact maps of all structural templates. An implementation of the algorithm for the CUDA platform is available at http://www.github.com/kzeldovich/galeprot and calculates protein folding energies over 250 times faster than a single central processing unit. Analysis of amino acid usage in 64-mer cubic lattice proteins designed to fold well at different temperatures demonstrates an excellent agreement between theoretical and simulated values of energy gap. The theoretical predictions of temperature trends of amino acid frequencies are significantly correlated with bioinformatics data on 191 bacteria and archaea, and highlight protein folding constraints as a fundamental selection pressure during thermal adaptation in biological evolution.

  15. Adaption of egg and larvae sampling techniques for lake sturgeon and broadcast spawning fishes in a deep river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseman, E.F.; Boase, J.; Kennedy, G.; Craig, J.; Soper, K.

    2011-01-01

    In this report we describe how we adapted two techniques for sampling lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) and other fish early life history stages to meet our research needs in the Detroit River, a deep, flowing Great Lakes connecting channel. First, we developed a buoy-less method for sampling fish eggs and spawning activity using egg mats deployed on the river bottom. The buoy-less method allowed us to fish gear in areas frequented by boaters and recreational anglers, thus eliminating surface obstructions that interfered with recreational and boating activities. The buoy-less method also reduced gear loss due to drift when masses of floating aquatic vegetation would accumulate on buoys and lines, increasing the drag on the gear and pulling it downstream. Second, we adapted a D-frame drift net system formerly employed in shallow streams to assess larval lake sturgeon dispersal for use in the deeper (>8m) Detroit River using an anchor and buoy system. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  16. Adaptive decision making in a dynamic environment: a test of a sequential sampling model of relative judgment.

    PubMed

    Vuckovic, Anita; Kwantes, Peter J; Neal, Andrew

    2013-09-01

    Research has identified a wide range of factors that influence performance in relative judgment tasks. However, the findings from this research have been inconsistent. Studies have varied with respect to the identification of causal variables and the perceptual and decision-making mechanisms underlying performance. Drawing on the ecological rationality approach, we present a theory of the judgment and decision-making processes involved in a relative judgment task that explains how people judge a stimulus and adapt their decision process to accommodate their own uncertainty associated with those judgments. Undergraduate participants performed a simulated air traffic control conflict detection task. Across two experiments, we systematically manipulated variables known to affect performance. In the first experiment, we manipulated the relative distances of aircraft to a common destination while holding aircraft speeds constant. In a follow-up experiment, we introduced a direct manipulation of relative speed. We then fit a sequential sampling model to the data, and used the best fitting parameters to infer the decision-making processes responsible for performance. Findings were consistent with the theory that people adapt to their own uncertainty by adjusting their criterion and the amount of time they take to collect evidence in order to make a more accurate decision. From a practical perspective, the paper demonstrates that one can use a sequential sampling model to understand performance in a dynamic environment, allowing one to make sense of and interpret complex patterns of empirical findings that would otherwise be difficult to interpret using standard statistical analyses.

  17. Using Set Covering with Item Sampling to Analyze the Infeasibility of Linear Programming Test Assembly Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huitzing, Hiddo A.

    2004-01-01

    This article shows how set covering with item sampling (SCIS) methods can be used in the analysis and preanalysis of linear programming models for test assembly (LPTA). LPTA models can construct tests, fulfilling a set of constraints set by the test assembler. Sometimes, no solution to the LPTA model exists. The model is then said to be…

  18. MULTICORR: A Computer Program for Fast, Accurate, Small-Sample Testing of Correlational Pattern Hypotheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiger, James H.

    1979-01-01

    The program presented computes a chi-square statistic for testing pattern hypotheses on correlation matrices. The statistic is based on a multivariate generalization of the Fisher r-to-z transformation. This statistic has small sample performance which is superior to an analogous likelihood ratio statistic obtained via the analysis of covariance…

  19. Development of sample handling procedures for foods under USDA's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) was implemented in 1997 to update and improve the quality of food composition data maintained in the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. NFNAP was designed to sample and analyze fre...

  20. A program to calculate sample size, power, and least detectable relative risk using a programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Muhm, J M; Olshan, A F

    1989-01-01

    A program for the Hewlett Packard 41 series programmable calculator that determines sample size, power, and least detectable relative risk for comparative studies with independent groups is described. The user may specify any ratio of cases to controls (or exposed to unexposed subjects) and, if calculating least detectable relative risks, may specify whether the study is a case-control or cohort study.

  1. Status of Sample Return Propulsion Technology Development Under NASA's ISPT Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David J.; Glaab, Louis J.; Munk, Michelle M.; Pencil, Eric; Dankanich, John; Peterson, Todd T.

    2012-01-01

    The In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program was tasked in 2009 to start development of propulsion technologies that would enable future sample return missions. ISPT s sample return technology development areas are diverse. Sample Return Propulsion (SRP) addresses electric propulsion for sample return and low cost Discovery-class missions, propulsion systems for Earth Return Vehicles (ERV) including transfer stages to the destination, and low technology readiness level (TRL) advanced propulsion technologies. The SRP effort continues work on HIVHAC thruster development to transition into developing a Hall-effect propulsion system for sample return (ERV and transfer stages) and low-cost missions. Previous work on the lightweight propellant-tanks continues for sample return with direct applicability to a Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission with general applicability to all future planetary spacecraft. The Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) work focuses on building a fundamental base of multi-mission technologies for Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEV). The main focus of the Planetary Ascent Vehicles (PAV) area is technology development for the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV), which builds upon and leverages the past MAV analysis and technology developments from the Mars Technology Program (MTP) and previous MSR studies

  2. Methods for collecting algal samples as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, Stephen D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Meador, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Benthic algae (periphyton) and phytoplankton communities are characterized in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program as part of an integrated physical, chemical, and biological assessment of the Nation's water quality. This multidisciplinary approach provides multiple lines of evidence for evaluating water-quality status and trends, and for refining an understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions locally, regionally, and nationally. Water quality can be characterized by evaluating the results of qualitative and quantitative measurements of the algal community. Qualitative periphyton samples are collected to develop of list of taxa present in the sampling reach. Quantitative periphyton samples are collected to measure algal community structure within selected habitats. These samples of benthic algal communities are collected from natural substrates, using the sampling methods that are most appropriate for the habitat conditions. Phytoplankton samples may be collected in large nonwadeable streams and rivers to meet specific program objectives. Estimates of algal biomass (chlorophyll content and ash-free dry mass) also are optional measures that may be useful for interpreting water-quality conditions. A nationally consistent approach provides guidance on site, reach, and habitat selection, as well as information on methods and equipment for qualitative and quantitative sampling. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control guidelines are used to maximize the ability to analyze data locally, regionally, and nationally.

  3. Sampling bias in an international internet survey of diversion programs in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Hartford, Kathleen; Carey, Robert; Mendonca, James

    2007-03-01

    Despite advances in the storage and retrieval of information within health care systems, health researchers conducting surveys for evaluations still face technical barriers that may lead to sampling bias. The authors describe their experience in administering a Web-based, international survey to English-speaking countries. Identifying the sample was a multistage effort involving (a) searching for published e-mail addresses, (b) conducting Web searches for publicly funded agencies, and (c) performing literature searches, personal contacts, and extensive Internet searches for individuals. After pretesting, the survey was converted into an electronic format accessible by multiple Web browsers. Sampling bias arose from (a) system incompatibility, which did not allow potential respondents to open the survey, (b) varying institutional gate-keeping policies that "recognized" the unsolicited survey as spam, (c) culturally unique program terminology, which confused some respondents, and (d) incomplete sampling frames. Solutions are offered to the first three problems, and the authors note that sampling bias remains a crucial problem.

  4. Focussing over the edge: adaptive subsurface laser fabrication up to the sample face.

    PubMed

    Salter, P S; Booth, M J

    2012-08-27

    Direct laser writing is widely used for fabrication of subsurface, three dimensional structures in transparent media. However, the accessible volume is limited by distortion of the focussed beam at the sample edge. We determine the aberrated focal intensity distribution for light focused close to the edge of the substrate. Aberrations are modelled by dividing the pupil into two regions, each corresponding to light passing through the top and side facets. Aberration correction is demonstrated experimentally using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator for femtosecond microfabrication in fused silica. This technique allows controlled subsurface fabrication right up to the edge of the substrate. This can benefit a wide range of applications using direct laser writing, including the manufacture of waveguides and photonic crystals.

  5. Family physician program in Iran: considerations for adapting the policy in urban settings.

    PubMed

    Khayatzadeh-Mahani, Akram; Takian, Amirhossein

    2014-11-01

    Nationwide implementation of Family Physician (FP) program started in 2005 and targeted almost 25,000,000 citizens residing in rural areas and cities with less than 20,000 populations in Iran. Despite its blatant initiation that resulted in some modest achievements, the future of FP looks unclear in Iran. Thus far, no longitudinal evaluation of the implementation and impact of FP program has been conducted. However, meager evidence highlights the facilitating role of an existing and strong Primary Health Care (PHC) network in the implementation of FP in rural areas in Iran. A longstanding challenge, however, as emphasized by most stakeholders, remains to be the expansion of FP program into urban settings, where the PHC is undeveloped and fragile as well as the powerful private sector is resistant. Using an adapted conceptual framework of institutions, ideas, and interests, this policy perspective aims to shed light on main difficulties of FP implementation in urban areas of Iran. We analyze FP policy in the context of ongoing interactions and conflicts among institutions (the structures and rules that shape policies), interests (the groups and individuals influencing policy), and ideas (discourses around policies). Our argument will, we envisage, help plan for more appropriate implementation of FP in cities in Iran, and hopefully beyond.

  6. Real Time Updating Genetic Network Programming for Adapting to the Change of Stock Prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan; Mabu, Shingo; Shimada, Kaoru; Hirasawa, Kotaro

    The key in stock trading model is to take the right actions for trading at the right time, primarily based on the accurate forecast of future stock trends. Since an effective trading with given information of stock prices needs an intelligent strategy for the decision making, we applied Genetic Network Programming (GNP) to creating a stock trading model. In this paper, we propose a new method called Real Time Updating Genetic Network Programming (RTU-GNP) for adapting to the change of stock prices. There are three important points in this paper: First, the RTU-GNP method makes a stock trading decision considering both the recommendable information of technical indices and the candlestick charts according to the real time stock prices. Second, we combine RTU-GNP with a Sarsa learning algorithm to create the programs efficiently. Also, sub-nodes are introduced in each judgment and processing node to determine appropriate actions (buying/selling) and to select appropriate stock price information depending on the situation. Third, a Real Time Updating system has been firstly introduced in our paper considering the change of the trend of stock prices. The experimental results on the Japanese stock market show that the trading model with the proposed RTU-GNP method outperforms other models without real time updating. We also compared the experimental results using the proposed method with Buy&Hold method to confirm its effectiveness, and it is clarified that the proposed trading model can obtain much higher profits than Buy&Hold method.

  7. Design and Development of a Sample "Computer Programming" Course Tool via Story-Based E-Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kose, Utku; Koc, Durmus; Yucesoy, Suleyman Anil

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces a story-based e-learning oriented course tool that was designed and developed for using within "computer programming" courses. With this tool, students can easily adapt themselves to the subjects in the context of computer programming principles, thanks to the story-based, interactive processes. By using visually…

  8. EPA Water Resources Adaptation Program (WRAP) Research and Development Activities Methods and Techniques

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptation to environmental change is not a new concept. Humans have shown throughout history a capacity for adapting to different climates and environmental changes. Farmers, foresters, civil engineers, have all been forced to adapt to numerous challenges to overcome adversity...

  9. Evaluation of single and two-stage adaptive sampling designs for estimation of density and abundance of freshwater mussels in a large river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Rogala, J.T.; Gray, B.R.; Zigler, S.J.; Newton, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Reliable estimates of abundance are needed to assess consequences of proposed habitat restoration and enhancement projects on freshwater mussels in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR). Although there is general guidance on sampling techniques for population assessment of freshwater mussels, the actual performance of sampling designs can depend critically on the population density and spatial distribution at the project site. To evaluate various sampling designs, we simulated sampling of populations, which varied in density and degree of spatial clustering. Because of logistics and costs of large river sampling and spatial clustering of freshwater mussels, we focused on adaptive and non-adaptive versions of single and two-stage sampling. The candidate designs performed similarly in terms of precision (CV) and probability of species detection for fixed sample size. Both CV and species detection were determined largely by density, spatial distribution and sample size. However, designs did differ in the rate that occupied quadrats were encountered. Occupied units had a higher probability of selection using adaptive designs than conventional designs. We used two measures of cost: sample size (i.e. number of quadrats) and distance travelled between the quadrats. Adaptive and two-stage designs tended to reduce distance between sampling units, and thus performed better when distance travelled was considered. Based on the comparisons, we provide general recommendations on the sampling designs for the freshwater mussels in the UMR, and presumably other large rivers.

  10. Physical properties of repressurized samples recovered during the 2006 National Gas Hydrate Program expedition offshore India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winters, William J.; Waite, William F.; Mason, David H.; Kumar, P.

    2008-01-01

    As part of an international cooperative research program, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and researchers from the National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) of India are studying the physical properties of sediment recovered during the NGHP-01 cruise conducted offshore India during 2006. Here we report on index property, acoustic velocity, and triaxial shear test results for samples recovered from the Krishna-Godavari Basin. In addition, we discuss the effects of sample storage temperature, handling, and change in structure of fine-grained sediment. Although complex, sub-vertical planar gas-hydrate structures were observed in the silty clay to clayey silt samples prior to entering the Gas Hydrate And Sediment Test Laboratory Instrument (GHASTLI), the samples yielded little gas post test. This suggests most, if not all, gas hydrate dissociated during sample transfer. Mechanical properties of hydrate-bearing marine sediment are best measured by avoiding sample depressurization. By contrast, mechanical properties of hydrate-free sediments, that are shipped and stored at atmospheric pressure can be approximated by consolidating core material to the original in situ effective stress.

  11. Error bounds of adaptive dynamic programming algorithms for solving undiscounted optimal control problems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Derong; Li, Hongliang; Wang, Ding

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we establish error bounds of adaptive dynamic programming algorithms for solving undiscounted infinite-horizon optimal control problems of discrete-time deterministic nonlinear systems. We consider approximation errors in the update equations of both value function and control policy. We utilize a new assumption instead of the contraction assumption in discounted optimal control problems. We establish the error bounds for approximate value iteration based on a new error condition. Furthermore, we also establish the error bounds for approximate policy iteration and approximate optimistic policy iteration algorithms. It is shown that the iterative approximate value function can converge to a finite neighborhood of the optimal value function under some conditions. To implement the developed algorithms, critic and action neural networks are used to approximate the value function and control policy, respectively. Finally, a simulation example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed algorithms.

  12. Optimisation of substrate blends in anaerobic co-digestion using adaptive linear programming.

    PubMed

    García-Gen, Santiago; Rodríguez, Jorge; Lema, Juan M

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of multiple substrates has the potential to enhance biogas productivity by making use of the complementary characteristics of different substrates. A blending strategy based on a linear programming optimisation method is proposed aiming at maximising COD conversion into methane, but simultaneously maintaining a digestate and biogas quality. The method incorporates experimental and heuristic information to define the objective function and the linear restrictions. The active constraints are continuously adapted (by relaxing the restriction boundaries) such that further optimisations in terms of methane productivity can be achieved. The feasibility of the blends calculated with this methodology was previously tested and accurately predicted with an ADM1-based co-digestion model. This was validated in a continuously operated pilot plant, treating for several months different mixtures of glycerine, gelatine and pig manure at organic loading rates from 1.50 to 4.93 gCOD/Ld and hydraulic retention times between 32 and 40 days at mesophilic conditions.

  13. Hamiltonian-Driven Adaptive Dynamic Programming for Continuous Nonlinear Dynamical Systems.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongliang; Wunsch, Donald; Yin, Yixin

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a Hamiltonian-driven framework of adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) for continuous time nonlinear systems, which consists of evaluation of an admissible control, comparison between two different admissible policies with respect to the corresponding the performance function, and the performance improvement of an admissible control. It is showed that the Hamiltonian can serve as the temporal difference for continuous-time systems. In the Hamiltonian-driven ADP, the critic network is trained to output the value gradient. Then, the inner product between the critic and the system dynamics produces the value derivative. Under some conditions, the minimization of the Hamiltonian functional is equivalent to the value function approximation. An iterative algorithm starting from an arbitrary admissible control is presented for the optimal control approximation with its convergence proof. The implementation is accomplished by a neural network approximation. Two simulation studies demonstrate the effectiveness of Hamiltonian-driven ADP.

  14. Policy iteration optimal tracking control for chaotic systems by using an adaptive dynamic programming approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qing-Lai; Liu, De-Rong; Xu, Yan-Cai

    2015-03-01

    A policy iteration algorithm of adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) is developed to solve the optimal tracking control for a class of discrete-time chaotic systems. By system transformations, the optimal tracking problem is transformed into an optimal regulation one. The policy iteration algorithm for discrete-time chaotic systems is first described. Then, the convergence and admissibility properties of the developed policy iteration algorithm are presented, which show that the transformed chaotic system can be stabilized under an arbitrary iterative control law and the iterative performance index function simultaneously converges to the optimum. By implementing the policy iteration algorithm via neural networks, the developed optimal tracking control scheme for chaotic systems is verified by a simulation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61034002, 61233001, 61273140, 61304086, and 61374105) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. 4132078).

  15. Efficacy of the Social Cognition Training Program in a sample of schizophrenic outpatients.

    PubMed

    Gil-Sanz, David; Fernández-Modamio, Mar; Bengochea-Seco, Rosario; Arrieta-Rodríguez, Marta; Pérez-Fuentes, Gabriela

    2014-02-04

    Objective: Social cognition is recognized to be a deficit in individuals suffering from schizophrenia. Numerous studies have explored the relationship between social cognition and social functioning in outpatients with schizophrenia through the use of different social cognition training programs. This study examines the efficacy of the Social Cognition Training Program (PECS in Spanish) in adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Methods: Data were derived from a sample of 44 non-hospitalized adult patients, who presented with a DSM-IV-R Axis I diagnosis of schizophrenia, and 39 healthy controls. Patients were divided into an experimental group and a control task group, that received cognitive training. Healthy controls did not receive any treatment. Sociodemographic and clinic variables correlates were computed. 2-way ANOVA was conducted to examine differences between groups in pre and post-treatment measures. Intragroup differences were explores using the paired-samples t-test. Results: At the end of the training, patients in the experimental group showed a higher performance compared to patients in the control task group, in the Hinting Task Test and in the emotion recognition of sadness, anger, fear, and disgust. Conclusions: The PECS proved to be effective in the improvement of some areas of theory of mind and emotion recognition, in outpatients with schizophrenia. The PECS is one of the first programs developed in Spanish to train social cognition, and the data obtained support the importance of expand the social cognition programs to non-English language samples.

  16. “When Will Your Program Be Available in Spanish?” Adapting an Early Parenting Intervention for Latino Families

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Jean E.; Arriaga, Ximena; Begle, Angela Moreland; Longoria, Zayra

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the Spanish adaptation of PACE—Parenting Our Children to Excellence. Successfully offered in preschools and daycare centers since 2002, PACE is a research-based preventive intervention to support families in their parenting task through discussions and activities that address practical childrearing issues and promote child coping-competence. Developed in response to community calls, the new program is known as CANNE –Criando a Nuestros Niños hacia el Éxito. The paper makes the processes linking original and adapted versions explicit by accounting for the conceptual and practical decisions that were made as CANNE was being developed. We begin by summarizing the challenges of adapting and translating a behavioral intervention, and by describing the coping-competence model that informs both versions of the program. We turn then to a detailed account of the adaptation itself and of its results. Specifically, we describe: (a) the consultation process at the origin of this adaptation, (b) the adaptation of the manual and the steps taken to establish the extent to which the English and Spanish versions correspond (adaptation fidelity), and (c) the translation of the manual and the cross-language comparison of measures to demonstrate that they yield comparable data when administered in English and Spanish. PMID:20607140

  17. Signatures of local adaptation in lowland and highland teosintes from whole-genome sequencing of pooled samples.

    PubMed

    Fustier, M-A; Brandenburg, J-T; Boitard, S; Lapeyronnie, J; Eguiarte, L E; Vigouroux, Y; Manicacci, D; Tenaillon, M I

    2017-03-03

    Spatially varying selection triggers differential adaptation of local populations. Here, we mined the determinants of local adaptation at the genomewide scale in the two closest maize wild relatives, the teosintes Zea mays ssp parviglumis and ssp. mexicana. We sequenced 120 individuals from six populations: two lowland, two intermediate and two highland populations sampled along two altitudinal gradients. We detected 8 479 581 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covered in the six populations with an average sequencing depth per site per population ranging from 17.0× to 32.2×. Population diversity varied from 0.10 to 0.15, and linkage disequilibrium decayed very rapidly. We combined two differentiation-based methods, and correlation of allele frequencies with environmental variables to detect outlier SNPs. Outlier SNPs displayed significant clustering. From clusters, we identified 47 candidate regions. We further modified a haplotype-based method to incorporate genotype uncertainties in haplotype calling, and applied it to candidate regions. We retrieved evidence for selection at the haplotype level in 53% of our candidate regions, and in 70% of the cases the same haplotype was selected in the two lowland or the two highland populations. We recovered a candidate region located within a previously characterized inversion on chromosome 1. We found evidence of a soft sweep at a locus involved in leaf macrohair variation. Finally, our results revealed frequent colocalization between our candidate regions and loci involved in the variation of traits associated with plant-soil interactions such as root morphology, aluminium and low phosphorus tolerance. Soil therefore appears to be a major driver of local adaptation in teosintes.

  18. Speed-up of Markov Chain Monte Carlo Simulation Using Self-Adaptive Different Evolution with Subspace Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrugt, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods are widely used in fields ranging from physics and chemistry, to finance, economics and statistical inference for estimating the average properties of complex systems. The convergence rate of MCMC schemes is often observed, however to be disturbingly low, limiting its practical use in many applications. This is frequently caused by an inappropriate selection of the proposal distribution used to generate trial moves. Here we show that significant improvements to the efficiency of MCMC algorithms can be made by using a self-adaptive Differential Evolution search strategy within a population-based evolutionary framework. This scheme differs fundamentally from existing MCMC algorithms, in that trial jumps are simply a fixed multiple of the difference of randomly chosen members of the population using various genetic operators that are adaptively updated during the search. In addition, the algorithm includes randomized subspace sampling to further improve convergence and acceptance rate. Detailed balance and ergodicity of the algorithm are proved, and hydrologic examples show that the proposed method significantly enhances the efficiency and applicability of MCMC simulations to complex, multi-modal search problems.

  19. Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results for 2012 at Rulison, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 8, 2012. The samples were shipped to GEL Laboratories in Charleston, South Carolina, for analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry; tritium was analyzed using two methods. The conventional tritium method has a detection limit on the order of 400 pCi/L, and a select set of samples was analyzed for tritium using the enriched method, which has a detection limit on the order of 3 pCi/L.

  20. NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) data report for tape VL0006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gauntner, D. J.; Holdeman, J. D.; Humenik, F. M.

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is obtaining measurements of atmospheric trace constituents in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere using fully automated air sampling systems on board several commercial B-747 aircraft in routine airline service. Atmospheric ozone, and related flight and meteorological data were obtained during 245 flights of a Qantas Airways of Australia B-747 and two Pan American World Airways B-747s from July 1976 through September 1976. In addition, whole air samples, obtained during three flights, were analyzed for trichlorofluoromethane, and filter samples, obtained during four flights, were analyzed for sulfates, nitrates, fluorides, and chlorides. Flight routes and dates, instrumentation, data processing procedures, data tape specifications, and selected analyses are discussed.

  1. NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) data report for tape VL0004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.; Humenik, F. M.; Lezberg, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    The NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is obtaining measurements of atmospheric trace constituents in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere using fully automated air sampling systems on board several commercial B-747 aircraft in routine airline service. Atmospheric ozone, water vapor, and related flight and meteorological data were obtained during 139 flights of a United Airlines B-747 and a Pan American World Airways B-747 from December 1975 through March 1976. In addition, sample bottles were exposed during three flights and analyzed for trichlorofluoromethane, and filter samples were exposed during five flights and analyzed for sulfates, nitrates, and chlorides. Flight routes and dates, instrumentation, data processing procedures, data tape specifications, and selected analyses are discussed.

  2. Particle System Based Adaptive Sampling on Spherical Parameter Space to Improve the MDL Method for Construction of Statistical Shape Models

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiangrong; Hirano, Yasushi; Tachibana, Rie; Hara, Takeshi; Kido, Shoji; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Minimum description length (MDL) based group-wise registration was a state-of-the-art method to determine the corresponding points of 3D shapes for the construction of statistical shape models (SSMs). However, it suffered from the problem that determined corresponding points did not uniformly spread on original shapes, since corresponding points were obtained by uniformly sampling the aligned shape on the parameterized space of unit sphere. We proposed a particle-system based method to obtain adaptive sampling positions on the unit sphere to resolve this problem. Here, a set of particles was placed on the unit sphere to construct a particle system whose energy was related to the distortions of parameterized meshes. By minimizing this energy, each particle was moved on the unit sphere. When the system became steady, particles were treated as vertices to build a spherical mesh, which was then relaxed to slightly adjust vertices to obtain optimal sampling-positions. We used 47 cases of (left and right) lungs and 50 cases of livers, (left and right) kidneys, and spleens for evaluations. Experiments showed that the proposed method was able to resolve the problem of the original MDL method, and the proposed method performed better in the generalization and specificity tests. PMID:23861721

  3. Adaptation of a speciation sampling cartridge for measuring ammonia flux from cattle feedlots using relaxed eddy accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, K. A.; Ham, J. M.

    Improved measurements of ammonia losses from cattle feedlots are needed to quantify the national NH 3 emissions inventory and evaluate management techniques for reducing emissions. Speciation cartridges composed of glass honeycomb denuders and filter packs were adapted to measure gaseous NH 3 and aerosol NH 4+ fluxes using relaxed eddy accumulation (REA). Laboratory testing showed that a cartridge equipped with four honeycomb denuders had a total capture capacity of 1800 μg of NH 3. In the field, a pair of cartridges was deployed adjacent to a sonic anemometer and an open-path gas analyzer on a mobile tower. High-speed valves were attached to the inlets of the cartridges and controlled by a datalogger so that up- and down-moving eddies were independently sampled based on direction of the vertical wind speed and a user-defined deadband. Air flowed continuously through the cartridges even when not sampling by means of a recirculating air handling system. Eddy covariance measurement of CO 2 and H 2O, as measured by the sonic and open-path gas analyzer, were used to determine the relaxation factor needed to compute REA-based fluxes. The REA system was field tested at the Beef Research Unit at Kansas State University in the summer and fall of 2007. Daytime NH 3 emissions ranged between 68 and 127 μg m -2 s -1; fluxes tended to follow a diurnal pattern correlated with latent heat flux. Daily fluxes of NH 3 were between 2.5 and 4.7 g m -2 d -1 and on average represented 38% of fed nitrogen. Aerosol NH 4+ fluxes were negligible compared with NH 3 emissions. An REA system designed around the high-capacity speciation cartridges can be used to measure NH 3 fluxes from cattle feedlots and other strong sources. The system could be adapted to measure fluxes of other gases and aerosols.

  4. Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program - Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers, and Libraries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Jaclyn; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Huynh, P.; Tobola, K.; Loftin, L.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is eager for students and the public to experience lunar Apollo samples and meteorites first hand. Lunar rocks and soil, embedded in Lucite disks, are available for educators to use in their classrooms, museums, science centers, and public libraries for education activities and display. The sample education disks are valuable tools for engaging students in the exploration of the Solar System. Scientific research conducted on the Apollo rocks reveals the early history of our Earth-Moon system and meteorites reveal much of the history of the early solar system. The rocks help educators make the connections to this ancient history of our planet and solar system and the basic processes accretion, differentiation, impact and volcanism. With these samples, educators in museums, science centers, libraries, and classrooms can help students and the public understand the key questions pursued by many NASA planetary missions. The Office of the Curator at Johnson Space Center is in the process of reorganizing and renewing the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program to increase reach, security and accountability. The new program expands the reach of these exciting extraterrestrial rocks through increased access to training and educator borrowing. One of the expanded opportunities is that trained certified educators from science centers, museums, and libraries may now borrow the extraterrestrial rock samples. Previously the loan program was only open to classroom educators so the expansion will increase the public access to the samples and allow educators to make the critical connections to the exciting exploration missions taking place in our solar system. Each Lunar Disk contains three lunar rocks and three regolith soils embedded in Lucite. The anorthosite sample is a part of the magma ocean formed on the surface of Moon in the early melting period, the basalt is part of the extensive lunar mare lava flows, and the breccias sample is an important example of the

  5. Asbestos-containing materials in school buildings: Bulk-sample analysis quality-assurance program. Bulk sample rounds 16, 17 and 18

    SciTech Connect

    Starner, K.K.; Perkins, R.L.; Harvey, B.W.; Westbrook, S.H.

    1990-02-01

    The report presents the performance results of laboratories participating in the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth rounds of the Bulk Sample Analysis Quality Assurance Program sponsored by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA). Round 16 of the program operated along the guidelines established in previous rounds and was a voluntary quality assurance program. The Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act of 1986 (AHERA), directed the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to establish and maintain a laboratory accreditation program for bulk sample analysis of asbestos. The program began in October 1988 by evaluating enrolled polariscope laboratories in the interim prior to the initiation of the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) for bulk asbestos laboratories, sponsored by NIST.

  6. The Effectiveness of Adapted Versions of an Evidence-based Prevention Program in Reducing Alcohol Use among Alternative School Students

    PubMed Central

    Hopson, Laura M.; Holleran Steiker, Lori K.

    2010-01-01

    Although there is a strong evidence base for effective substance abuse prevention programs for youth, there is a need to facilitate the implementation and evaluation of these programs in real world settings. This study evaluates the effectiveness of adapted versions of an evidence-based prevention program, keepin’ it REAL (kiR), with alternative school students. Programs are often adapted when used in schools and other community settings for a variety of reasons. The kiR adaptations, developed during an earlier phase of this study, were created to make the curriculum more appropriate for alternative high school youth. The adaptations were evaluated using a quasi-experimental design in which questionnaires were administered at pretest, posttest, and follow-up, and focus groups were conducted at posttest. MANOVA analyses indicate significantly reduced intentions to accept alcohol and, for younger participants, reduced alcohol use. Focus group data support the need for age appropriate prevention content. The authors discuss implications for practitioners implementing prevention programs in schools. PMID:20622971

  7. A weight-loss intervention program designed for Mexican-American women: Cultural adaptations and results

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Nangel M.; Stevens, Victor J.; Vega-López, Sonia; Kauffman, Tia; Calderón, Mariana Rosales; Cervantes, María Antonieta

    2013-01-01

    Background This study assessed the feasibility of a culturally-appropriate weight-loss intervention targeting obese Spanish-speaking Mexican women. Methods This 12-month weight-loss program was based on behavioral interventions previously used successfully with English-speaking participants. Cultural adaptations included: female interventionists, minimal written materials, emphasis on group activities, focus on Mexican traditions and beliefs, and skill-building approach to food measurement. All sessions were conducted in Spanish. The study had few exclusionary criteria, which allowed participation of women with a wide range of literacy levels. Results Recruitment exceeded expectations, with 47 participants enrolling in the program. Not counting participants who became pregnant during the study, attendance at 6 and 12 months was 62% and 50% respectively. Mean weight loss at 6 and 12 months was 5.3 kg and 7.2 kg, respectively, with a mean reduction in BMI of 4.0 kg/m2 and 5.5 kg/m2 from baseline to 6 and 12 months, respectively. Discussion This pilot study shows that it is feasible to develop and implement culturally-appropriate behavioral lifestyle interventions for obesity treatment in Mexican-American women. PMID:22460538

  8. A weight-loss intervention program designed for Mexican-American women: cultural adaptations and results.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Nangel M; Stevens, Victor J; Vega-López, Sonia; Kauffman, Tia L; Calderón, Mariana Rosales; Cervantes, María Antonieta

    2012-12-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of a culturally-appropriate weight-loss intervention targeting obese Spanish-speaking Mexican women. This 12-month weight-loss program was based on behavioral interventions previously used successfully with English-speaking participants. Cultural adaptations included: female interventionists, minimal written materials, emphasis on group activities, focus on Mexican traditions and beliefs, and skill-building approach to food measurement. All sessions were conducted in Spanish. The study had few exclusionary criteria, which allowed participation of women with a wide range of literacy levels. Recruitment exceeded expectations, with 47 participants enrolling in the program. Not counting participants who became pregnant during the study, attendance at 6 and 12 months was 62 and 50 % respectively. Mean weight loss at 6 and 12 months was 5.3 and 7.2 kg, respectively, with a mean reduction in BMI of 4.0 and 5.5 kg/m(2) from baseline to 6 and 12 months, respectively. This pilot study shows that it is feasible to develop and implement culturally-appropriate behavioral lifestyle interventions for obesity treatment in Mexican-American women.

  9. A user-friendly robotic sample preparation program for fully automated biological sample pipetting and dilution to benefit the regulated bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Ouyang, Zheng; Zeng, Jianing; Yuan, Long; Zheng, Naiyu; Jemal, Mohammed; Arnold, Mark E

    2012-06-01

    Biological sample dilution is a rate-limiting step in bioanalytical sample preparation when the concentrations of samples are beyond standard curve ranges, especially when multiple dilution factors are needed in an analytical run. We have developed and validated a Microsoft Excel-based robotic sample preparation program (RSPP) that automatically transforms Watson worklist sample information (identification, sequence and dilution factor) to comma-separated value (CSV) files. The Freedom EVO liquid handler software imports and transforms the CSV files to executable worklists (.gwl files), allowing the robot to perform sample dilutions at variable dilution factors. The dynamic dilution range is 1- to 1000-fold and divided into three dilution steps: 1- to 10-, 11- to 100-, and 101- to 1000-fold. The whole process, including pipetting samples, diluting samples, and adding internal standard(s), is accomplished within 1 h for two racks of samples (96 samples/rack). This platform also supports online sample extraction (liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, protein precipitation, etc.) using 96 multichannel arms. This fully automated and validated sample dilution and preparation process has been applied to several drug development programs. The results demonstrate that application of the RSPP for fully automated sample processing is efficient and rugged. The RSPP not only saved more than 50% of the time in sample pipetting and dilution but also reduced human errors. The generated bioanalytical data are accurate and precise; therefore, this application can be used in regulated bioanalysis.

  10. Linear Regression Modeling of Selected Analytes from the Balad Air Sampling Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-05

    Spearman correlation coefficient – Option is used in the IBM SPSS® Statistics V20 program when comparing two variables (weather – analyte...The positive Spearman correlation coefficient value (0.598) indicates analyte concentration for benzo[a]pyrene increased during the four sampling...Cadmium The negative Spearman correlation coefficient value (-0.318) indicates that the analyte concentration of cadmium decreased over the four

  11. Review of geochemical reference sample programs since G-1 and W-1: progress to date and remaining challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    A brief history of programs to develop geochemical reference samples and certified reference samples for use in geochemical analysis is presented. While progress has been made since G-1 and W-1 were issued, many challenges remain. ?? 1991.

  12. Community-based Participatory Process – Climate Change and Health Adaptation Program for Northern First Nations and Inuit in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Peace, Diane McClymont; Myers, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Health Canada's Program for Climate Change and Health Adaptation in Northern First Nation and Inuit Communities is unique among Canadian federal programs in that it enables community-based participatory research by northern communities. Study design The program was designed to build capacity by funding communities to conduct their own research in cooperation with Aboriginal associations, academics, and governments; that way, communities could develop health-related adaptation plans and communication materials that would help in adaptation decision-making at the community, regional, national and circumpolar levels with respect to human health and a changing environment. Methods Community visits and workshops were held to familiarize northerners with the impacts of climate change on their health, as well as methods to develop research proposals and budgets to meet program requirements. Results Since the launch of the Climate Change and Health Adaptation Program in 2008, Health Canada has funded 36 community projects across Canada's North that focus on relevant health issues caused by climate change. In addition, the program supported capacity-building workshops for northerners, as well as a Pan-Arctic Results Workshop to bring communities together to showcase the results of their research. Results include: numerous films and photo-voice products that engage youth and elders and are available on the web; community-based ice monitoring, surveillance and communication networks; and information products on land, water and ice safety, drinking water, food security and safety, and traditional medicine. Conclusions Through these efforts, communities have increased their knowledge and understanding of the health effects related to climate change and have begun to develop local adaptation strategies. PMID:22584509

  13. ADAPTIVE ANNEALED IMPORTANCE SAMPLING FOR MULTIMODAL POSTERIOR EXPLORATION AND MODEL SELECTION WITH APPLICATION TO EXTRASOLAR PLANET DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bin

    2014-07-01

    We describe an algorithm that can adaptively provide mixture summaries of multimodal posterior distributions. The parameter space of the involved posteriors ranges in size from a few dimensions to dozens of dimensions. This work was motivated by an astrophysical problem called extrasolar planet (exoplanet) detection, wherein the computation of stochastic integrals that are required for Bayesian model comparison is challenging. The difficulty comes from the highly nonlinear models that lead to multimodal posterior distributions. We resort to importance sampling (IS) to estimate the integrals, and thus translate the problem to be how to find a parametric approximation of the posterior. To capture the multimodal structure in the posterior, we initialize a mixture proposal distribution and then tailor its parameters elaborately to make it resemble the posterior to the greatest extent possible. We use the effective sample size (ESS) calculated based on the IS draws to measure the degree of approximation. The bigger the ESS is, the better the proposal resembles the posterior. A difficulty within this tailoring operation lies in the adjustment of the number of mixing components in the mixture proposal. Brute force methods just preset it as a large constant, which leads to an increase in the required computational resources. We provide an iterative delete/merge/add process, which works in tandem with an expectation-maximization step to tailor such a number online. The efficiency of our proposed method is tested via both simulation studies and real exoplanet data analysis.

  14. Exploring equivalence domain in nonlinear inverse problems using Covariance Matrix Adaption Evolution Strategy (CMAES) and random sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayver, Alexander V.; Kuvshinov, Alexey V.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a methodology to sample equivalence domain (ED) in nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE)-constrained inverse problems. For this purpose, we first applied state-of-the-art stochastic optimization algorithm called Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMAES) to identify low-misfit regions of the model space. These regions were then randomly sampled to create an ensemble of equivalent models and quantify uncertainty. CMAES is aimed at exploring model space globally and is robust on very ill-conditioned problems. We show that the number of iterations required to converge grows at a moderate rate with respect to number of unknowns and the algorithm is embarrassingly parallel. We formulated the problem by using the generalized Gaussian distribution. This enabled us to seamlessly use arbitrary norms for residual and regularization terms. We show that various regularization norms facilitate studying different classes of equivalent solutions. We further show how performance of the standard Metropolis-Hastings Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm can be substantially improved by using information CMAES provides. This methodology was tested by using individual and joint inversions of magneotelluric, controlled-source electromagnetic (EM) and global EM induction data.

  15. Active tracking of rejected dried blood samples in a large program in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Inalegwu, Auchi; Phillips, Sunny; Datir, Rawlings; Chime, Christopher; Ozumba, Petronilla; Peters, Samuel; Ogbanufe, Obinna; Mensah, Charles; Abimiku, Alash’Le; Dakum, Patrick; Ndembi, Nicaise

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To study the impact of rejection at different levels of health care by retrospectively reviewing records of dried blood spot samples received at the molecular laboratory for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) early infant diagnosis (EID) between January 2008 and December 2012. METHODS: The specimen rejection rate, reasons for rejection and the impact of rejection at different levels of health care was examined. The extracted data were cleaned and checked for consistency and then de-duplicated using the unique patient and clinic identifiers. The cleaned data were ciphered and exported to SPSS version 19 (SPSS 2010 IBM Corp, New York, United States) for statistical analyses. RESULTS: Sample rejection rate of 2.4% (n = 786/32552) and repeat rate of 8.8% (n = 69/786) were established. The mean age of infants presenting for first HIV molecular test among accepted valid samples was 17.83 wk (95%CI: 17.65-18.01) vs 20.30 wk (95%CI: 16.53-24.06) for repeated samples. HIV infection rate was 9.8% vs 15.9% for accepted and repeated samples. Compared to tertiary healthcare clinics, secondary and primary clinics had two-fold and three-fold higher likelihood of sample rejection, respectively (P < 0.05). We observed a significant increase in sample rejection rate with increasing number of EID clinics (r = 0.893, P = 0.041). The major reasons for rejection were improper sample collection (26.3%), improper labeling (16.4%) and insufficient blood (14.8%). CONCLUSION: Programs should monitor pre-analytical variables and incorporate continuous quality improvement interventions to reduce errors associated with sample rejection and improve patient retention. PMID:27175352

  16. Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results for 2011 at Rulison, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    2012-05-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 18, 2011. The samples were shipped to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, for analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed, with the exception of the determination of tritium concentration by the enrichment method. The laboratory no longer provides that service. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and for tritium using the conventional method. Starting in 2012, DOE will retain a different laboratory that provides the enriched tritium analysis service.

  17. Decomposition and (importance) sampling techniques for multi-stage stochastic linear programs

    SciTech Connect

    Infanger, G.

    1993-11-01

    The difficulty of solving large-scale multi-stage stochastic linear programs arises from the sheer number of scenarios associated with numerous stochastic parameters. The number of scenarios grows exponentially with the number of stages and problems get easily out of hand even for very moderate numbers of stochastic parameters per stage. Our method combines dual (Benders) decomposition with Monte Carlo sampling techniques. We employ importance sampling to efficiently obtain accurate estimates of both expected future costs and gradients and right-hand sides of cuts. The method enables us to solve practical large-scale problems with many stages and numerous stochastic parameters per stage. We discuss the theory of sharing and adjusting cuts between different scenarios in a stage. We derive probabilistic lower and upper bounds, where we use importance path sampling for the upper bound estimation. Initial numerical results turned out to be promising.

  18. Which uncertainty? Using expert elicitation and expected value of information to design an adaptive program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, Michael C.; Converse, Sarah J.; Lyons, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Natural resource management is plagued with uncertainty of many kinds, but not all uncertainties are equally important to resolve. The promise of adaptive management is that learning in the short-term will improve management in the long-term; that promise is best kept if the focus of learning is on those uncertainties that most impede achievement of management objectives. In this context, an existing tool of decision analysis, the expected value of perfect information (EVPI), is particularly valuable in identifying the most important uncertainties. Expert elicitation can be used to develop preliminary predictions of management response under a series of hypotheses, as well as prior weights for those hypotheses, and the EVPI can be used to determine how much management could improve if uncertainty was resolved. These methods were applied to management of whooping cranes (Grus americana), an endangered migratory bird that is being reintroduced in several places in North America. The Eastern Migratory Population of whooping cranes had exhibited almost no successful reproduction through 2009. Several dozen hypotheses can be advanced to explain this failure, and many of them lead to very different management responses. An expert panel articulated the hypotheses, provided prior weights for them, developed potential management strategies, and made predictions about the response of the population to each strategy under each hypothesis. Multi-criteria decision analysis identified a preferred strategy in the face of uncertainty, and analysis of the expected value of information identified how informative each strategy could be. These results provide the foundation for design of an adaptive management program.

  19. 2015 Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results at Rio Blanco, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Findlay, Rick; Kautsky, Mark

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 20–21, 2015. This report documents the analytical results of the Rio Blanco annual monitoring event, the trip report, and the data validation package. The groundwater and surface water monitoring samples were shipped to the GEL Group Inc. laboratories for conventional analysis of tritium and analysis of gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry. A subset of water samples collected from wells near the Rio Blanco site was also sent to GEL Group Inc. for enriched tritium analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed. Samples were collected from a total of four onsite wells, including two that are privately owned. Samples were also collected from two additional private wells at nearby locations and from nine surface water locations. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry, and they were analyzed for tritium using the conventional method with a detection limit on the order of 400 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Four locations (one well and three surface locations) were analyzed using the enriched tritium method, which has a detection limit on the order of 3 pCi/L. The enriched locations included the well at the Brennan Windmill and surface locations at CER-1, CER-4, and Fawn Creek 500 feet upstream.

  20. Science, Uncertainty, and Adaptive Management in Large River Restoration Programs: Trinity River example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBain, S.

    2002-12-01

    Following construction of Trinity and Lewiston dams on the upper Trinity River in 1964, dam induced changes to streamflows and sediment regime had severely simplified channel morphology and aquatic habitat downstream of the dams. This habitat change, combined with blocked access to over 100 miles of salmon and steelhead habitat upstream of the dams, caused salmon and steelhead populations to quickly plummet. An instream flow study was initiated in 1984 to address the flow needs to restore the fishery, and this study relied on the Physical Habitat Simulation (PHABSIM) Model to quantify instream flow needs. In 1992, geomorphic and riparian studies were integrated into the instream flow study, with the overall study completed in 1999 (USFWS 1999). This 13-year process continued through three presidential administrations, several agency managers, and many turnovers of the agency technical staff responsible for conducting the study. This process culminated in 1996-1998 when a group of scientists were convened to integrate all the studies and data to produce the final instream flow study document. This 13-year, non-linear process, resulted in many uncertainties that could not be resolved in the short amount of time allowed for completing the instream flow study document. Shortly after completion of the instream flow study document, the Secretary of Interior issued a Record of Decision to implement the recommendations contained in the instream flow study document. The uncertainties encountered as the instream flow study report was prepared were highlighted in the report, and the Record of Decision initiated an Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management program to address these existing uncertainties and improve future river management. There have been many lessons learned going through this process, and the presentation will summarize: 1)The progression of science used to develop the instream flow study report; 2)How the scientists preparing the report addressed

  1. Effects of a Family Literacy Program Adapting Parental Intervention to First Graders' Evolution of Reading and Writing Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Laurent, Lise; Giasson, Jocelyne

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on the effects of a family literacy program for first graders that had three main characteristics: (1) book reading with parents that adapts parental intervention to the child's gradually increasing skills in reading during the school year, (2) support for writing activities, and (3) enjoyable home activities complementing the…

  2. Promoting Social-Emotional Learning in Adolescent Latino ELLs: A Study of the Culturally Adapted "Strong Teens" Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Olivo, Sara M.

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of the culturally adapted "Jóvenes Fuertes" ("Strong Teens") Social-Emotional Learning (SEL) program on the social-emotional outcomes of Latino English language learners (ELLs). A quasi-experimental design with random assignment by classrooms was used to assess the intervention's…

  3. Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Scholastic Aptitude Test Program Used for Grade 9 Students under Different Reviewing Test Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khunkrai, Naruemon; Sawangboon, Tatsirin; Ketchatturat, Jatuphum

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to study the accurate prediction of comparing test information and evaluation result by multidimensional computerized adaptive scholastic aptitude test program used for grade 9 students under different reviewing test conditions. Grade 9 students of the Secondary Educational Service Area Office in the North-east of…

  4. StreaMorph: A Case for Synthesizing Energy-Efficient Adaptive Programs Using High-Level Abstractions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-12

    awards \\#0720882 ( CSR -EHS: PRET), \\#0931843 (CPS: Large: ActionWebs), and \\#1035672 (CPS: Medium: Ptides)), the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL \\#N0013-12...1- G015), and the following companies : Bosch, National Instruments, and Toyota. StreaMorph: A Case for Synthesizing Energy-Efficient Adaptive Programs

  5. Effects of a Peer Tutor Training Program on Tutors and Tutees with Severe Disabilities in Adapted Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonlintel, Drew James

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation examines the efficacy of peer tutor training in adapted physical education (APE). A peer tutor evaluation form was created to assess the skills of untrained peer tutors (n = 12). Once skills were assessed, a peer tutor training protocol was created. The protocol was implemented in a peer tutor training program. After peer tutors…

  6. Cardio Respiratory Adaptations with Long Term Personalized Exercise Program in a T12 Spinal Cord Injured Person

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasiliadis, Angelo; Christoulas, Kosmas; Evaggelinou, Christina; Vrabas, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological adaptations in cardio respiratory endurance with a personalized exercise program with arm-cranking exercise in a paraplegic person (incomplete T12 spinal cord injury). A 32 year-old man with spinal cord injury (T12) participated in the present study performing 30 minutes arm cranking…

  7. Description of a computer program to calculate reacting supersonic internal flow fields with shock waves using viscous characteristics: Program manual and sample calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalleri, R. J.; Agnone, A. M.

    1972-01-01

    A computer program for calculating internal supersonic flow fields with chemical reactions and shock waves typical of supersonic combustion chambers with either wall or mid-stream injectors is described. The usefulness and limitations of the program are indicated. The program manual and listing are presented along with a sample calculation.

  8. Adaptive Function in Preschoolers in Relation to Developmental Delay and Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Insights from a Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Susan L.; McDonald, Jenny L.; Comino, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explore the relationship between developmental ability, autism and adaptive skills in preschoolers. Adaptive function was assessed in 152 preschoolers with autism, with and without developmental delay, and without autism, with and without developmental delay. Their overall adaptive function, measured by the general adaptive…

  9. Towards Motivation-Based Adaptation of Difficulty in E-Learning Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endler, Anke; Rey, Gunter Daniel; Butz, Martin V.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if an e-learning environment may use measurements of the user's current motivation to adapt the level of task difficulty for more effective learning. In the reported study, motivation-based adaptation was applied randomly to collect a wide range of data for different adaptations in a variety of…

  10. Helping General Physical Educators and Adapted Physical Educators Address the Office of Civil Rights Dear Colleague Guidance Letter: Part III--Practitioners and Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulin, David; Martinez, David; Aenchbacher, Amy; Aiello, Rocco; Doyle, Mike; Hilgenbrinck, Linda; Busse, Sean; Cappuccio, Jim

    2013-01-01

    In Part III of the feature, physical educators and adapted physical educators offer current best practices as models of implementation for readers. Contributions included are: (1) Answer to the Dear Colleague Letter from the Anchorage School District's Adapted Sport Program (David Poulin); (2) Georgia's Adapted Physical Educators Response to the…

  11. UPDATED USER-FRIENDLY COMPUTER PROGRAMS FOR SOLVING SAMPLING AND STATISTICAL PROBLEMS (FOR MICROCOMPUTERS) (DATE OF COVERAGE: 1993). - SOFTWARE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The product contains user-friendly computer programs for solving sampling and related statistical problems. All have been updated as well and more programs have been added. Specific, detailed written instructions and examples built into the programs are provided so that the user ...

  12. Implementing watershed investment programs to restore fire-adapted forests for watershed services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    Payments for ecosystems services and watershed investment programs have created new solutions for restoring upland fire-adapted forests to support downstream surface-water and groundwater uses. Water from upland forests supports not only a significant percentage of the public water supplies in the U.S., but also extensive riparian, aquatic, and groundwater dependent ecosystems. Many rare, endemic, threatened, and endangered species are supported by the surface-water and groundwater generated from the forested uplands. In the Ponderosa pine forests of the Southwestern U.S., post Euro-American settlement forest management practices, coupled with climate change, has significantly impacted watershed functionality by increasing vegetation cover and associated evapotranspiration and decreasing runoff and groundwater recharge. A large Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program project known as the Four Forests Restoration Initiative is developing landscape scale processes to make the forests connected to these watersheds more resilient. However, there are challenges in financing the initial forest treatments and subsequent maintenance treatments while garnering supportive public opinion to forest thinning projects. A solution called the Flagstaff Watershed Protection Project is utilizing City tax dollars collected through a public bond to finance forest treatments. Exit polling from the bond election documented the reasons for the 73 % affirmative vote on the bond measure. These forest treatments have included in their actions restoration of associated ephemeral stream channels and spring ecosystems, but resources still need to be identified for these actions. A statewide strategy for developing additional forest restoration resources outside of the federal financing is being explored by state and local business and governmental leaders. Coordination, synthesis, and modeling supported by a NSF Water Sustainability and Climate project has been instrumental in

  13. Effects of a Military Parenting Program on Parental Distress and Suicidal Ideation: After Deployment Adaptive Parenting Tools.

    PubMed

    Gewirtz, Abigail H; DeGarmo, David S; Zamir, Osnat

    2016-04-01

    Few studies have examined whether parenting prevention programs might mitigate risk for suicidality in parents, yet parent suicidality is a strong risk factor for offspring suicidality. We report results from a randomized controlled trial of a parenting program for deployed National Guard and Reserve families with a school-aged child. Intent-to-treat analyses showed that random assignment to the parenting program (ADAPT) was associated with improved parenting locus of control (LOC). Improved parenting LOC was concurrently associated with strengthened emotion regulation which predicted reductions in psychological distress and suicidal ideation at 12 months postbaseline. Results are discussed in the context of ongoing efforts to reduce suicide rates in military populations.

  14. An examination of stress, coping, and adaptation in nurses in a recovery and monitoring program.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Marie Katherine; Taylor, Kathleen P; Marcus-Aiyeku, Ulanda; Krause-Parello, Cheryl A

    2012-10-01

    Addiction rates in nurses are higher than in the general population. The relationship between stress, coping, and adaptation in nurses (N = 82) enrolled in a recovery and monitoring program in the state of New Jersey was examined. Social support, a variable tested as a mediator of this relationship, was also examined. Participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and Psychological General Well-Being Index. Negative relationships were found between stress and social support and stress and well-being, and a positive relationship was found between social support and well-being (all ps < .05). The direct relationship between stress and well-being was decreased in the presence of social support. The findings of this research suggest that, to assist nurses, an increased awareness of stress and its injurious effects on overall well-being must be identified so proactive measures can be implemented to prevent potential untoward consequences. Ultimately, methods to strengthen social support and social networks will enhance the probability of sustained recovery, relapse prevention, and safe reentry into nursing practice. Implications for behavioral health providers and health care practitioners are discussed.

  15. Iterative Adaptive Dynamic Programming for Solving Unknown Nonlinear Zero-Sum Game Based on Online Data.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuanheng; Zhao, Dongbin; Li, Xiangjun

    2017-03-01

    H∞ control is a powerful method to solve the disturbance attenuation problems that occur in some control systems. The design of such controllers relies on solving the zero-sum game (ZSG). But in practical applications, the exact dynamics is mostly unknown. Identification of dynamics also produces errors that are detrimental to the control performance. To overcome this problem, an iterative adaptive dynamic programming algorithm is proposed in this paper to solve the continuous-time, unknown nonlinear ZSG with only online data. A model-free approach to the Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaacs equation is developed based on the policy iteration method. Control and disturbance policies and value are approximated by neural networks (NNs) under the critic-actor-disturber structure. The NN weights are solved by the least-squares method. According to the theoretical analysis, our algorithm is equivalent to a Gauss-Newton method solving an optimization problem, and it converges uniformly to the optimal solution. The online data can also be used repeatedly, which is highly efficient. Simulation results demonstrate its feasibility to solve the unknown nonlinear ZSG. When compared with other algorithms, it saves a significant amount of online measurement time.

  16. Policy iteration adaptive dynamic programming algorithm for discrete-time nonlinear systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Derong; Wei, Qinglai

    2014-03-01

    This paper is concerned with a new discrete-time policy iteration adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) method for solving the infinite horizon optimal control problem of nonlinear systems. The idea is to use an iterative ADP technique to obtain the iterative control law, which optimizes the iterative performance index function. The main contribution of this paper is to analyze the convergence and stability properties of policy iteration method for discrete-time nonlinear systems for the first time. It shows that the iterative performance index function is nonincreasingly convergent to the optimal solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. It is also proven that any of the iterative control laws can stabilize the nonlinear systems. Neural networks are used to approximate the performance index function and compute the optimal control law, respectively, for facilitating the implementation of the iterative ADP algorithm, where the convergence of the weight matrices is analyzed. Finally, the numerical results and analysis are presented to illustrate the performance of the developed method.

  17. Fair Energy Scheduling for Vehicle-to-Grid Networks Using Adaptive Dynamic Programming.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shengli; Zhong, Weifeng; Xie, Kan; Yu, Rong; Zhang, Yan

    2016-08-01

    Research on the smart grid is being given enormous supports worldwide due to its great significance in solving environmental and energy crises. Electric vehicles (EVs), which are powered by clean energy, are adopted increasingly year by year. It is predictable that the huge charge load caused by high EV penetration will have a considerable impact on the reliability of the smart grid. Therefore, fair energy scheduling for EV charge and discharge is proposed in this paper. By using the vehicle-to-grid technology, the scheduler controls the electricity loads of EVs considering fairness in the residential distribution network. We propose contribution-based fairness, in which EVs with high contributions have high priorities to obtain charge energy. The contribution value is defined by both the charge/discharge energy and the timing of the action. EVs can achieve higher contribution values when discharging during the load peak hours. However, charging during this time will decrease the contribution values seriously. We formulate the fair energy scheduling problem as an infinite-horizon Markov decision process. The methodology of adaptive dynamic programming is employed to maximize the long-term fairness by processing online network training. The numerical results illustrate that the proposed EV energy scheduling is able to mitigate and flatten the peak load in the distribution network. Furthermore, contribution-based fairness achieves a fast recovery of EV batteries that have deeply discharged and guarantee fairness in the full charge time of all EVs.

  18. Value Iteration Adaptive Dynamic Programming for Optimal Control of Discrete-Time Nonlinear Systems.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qinglai; Liu, Derong; Lin, Hanquan

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a value iteration adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) algorithm is developed to solve infinite horizon undiscounted optimal control problems for discrete-time nonlinear systems. The present value iteration ADP algorithm permits an arbitrary positive semi-definite function to initialize the algorithm. A novel convergence analysis is developed to guarantee that the iterative value function converges to the optimal performance index function. Initialized by different initial functions, it is proven that the iterative value function will be monotonically nonincreasing, monotonically nondecreasing, or nonmonotonic and will converge to the optimum. In this paper, for the first time, the admissibility properties of the iterative control laws are developed for value iteration algorithms. It is emphasized that new termination criteria are established to guarantee the effectiveness of the iterative control laws. Neural networks are used to approximate the iterative value function and compute the iterative control law, respectively, for facilitating the implementation of the iterative ADP algorithm. Finally, two simulation examples are given to illustrate the performance of the present method.

  19. Space adaptation syndrome: Incidence and operational implications for the space transportation system program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homick, J. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Vanderploeg, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    Better methods for the prediction, prevention, and treatment of the space adaptation syndome (SAS) were developed. A systematic, long range program of operationally oriented data collection on all individuals flying space shuttle missions was initiated. Preflight activities include the use of a motion experience questionnaire, laboratory tests of susceptibility to motion sickness induced by Coriolis stimuli and determinations of antimotion sickness drug efficacy and side effects. During flight, each crewmember is required to provide a daily report of symptom status, use of medications, and other vestibular related sensations. Additional data are obtained postflight. During the first nine shuttle missions, the reported incidence of SAS has been48%. Self-induced head motions and unusual visual orientation attitudes appear to be the principal triggering stimuli. Antimotion sickness medication, was of limited therapeutic value. Complete recovery from symptoms occurred by mission day three or four. Also of relevance is the lack of a statistically significant correlation between the ground based Coriolis test and SAS. The episodes of SAS have resulted in no impact to shuttle mission objectives and, no significant impact to mission timelines.

  20. Parenting in 2 Worlds: Pilot Results from a Culturally Adapted Parenting Program for Urban American Indians

    PubMed Central

    Kulis, Stephen; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Baker, Tahnee

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the implementation and feasibility of a culturally adapted parenting curriculum, Parenting in 2 Worlds (P2W), which we designed specifically for urban American Indian families by means of community-based participatory research and then pilot tested in three Arizona cities. Data come from matched pre- and post-test surveys completed in 2012 by 75 American Indian parents of adolescents aged 10–17 who participated in the pilot version of P2W. P2W is a 10-workshop program administered twice a week for five weeks by trained American Indian community facilitators. Parents completed pretest surveys during Workshop 1 and post-test surveys five weeks later during Workshop 10. Paired t tests assessed changes in parenting outcomes, cultural identity, and child anti-social behavior. Changes from pre- to post-test demonstrated statistically significant improvements in several parenting outcomes (discipline, involvement, self-agency, and supervision), a strengthened sense of ethnic and cultural identity and Native spirituality, and a decrease in the child’s anti-social behavior. These results, which show significant if preliminary improvements in parenting skills and family functioning, suggest the feasibility of implementing a culturally grounded parenting intervention for urban American Indian parents. PMID:25367804

  1. Parenting in 2 Worlds: pilot results from a culturally adapted parenting program for urban American Indians.

    PubMed

    Kulis, Stephen; Ayers, Stephanie L; Baker, Tahnee

    2015-02-01

    This study reports the implementation and feasibility of a culturally adapted parenting curriculum, Parenting in 2 Worlds (P2W), which we designed specifically for urban American Indian families by means of community-based participatory research and then pilot tested in three Arizona cities. Data come from matched pre- and post-test surveys completed in 2012 by 75 American Indian parents of adolescents aged 10-17 who participated in the pilot version of P2W. P2W is a 10-workshop program administered twice a week for 5 weeks by trained American Indian community facilitators. Parents completed pre-test surveys during Workshop 1 and post-test surveys 5 weeks later during Workshop 10. Paired t tests assessed changes in parenting outcomes, cultural identity, and child anti-social behavior. Changes from pre- to post-test demonstrated statistically significant improvements in several parenting outcomes (discipline, involvement, self-agency, and supervision), a strengthened sense of ethnic and cultural identity and Native spirituality, and a decrease in the child's anti-social behavior. These results, which show significant preliminary improvements in parenting skills and family functioning, suggest the feasibility of implementing a culturally grounded parenting intervention for urban American Indian parents.

  2. Design of a program in Matlab environment for gamma spectrum analysis of geological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, M.; Correa, R.

    2016-05-01

    In this work we present the analysis of gamma ray spectra Ammonites found in different places. One of the fossils was found near the city of Cusco (Perú) and the other in “Cajón del Maipo” in Santiago (Chile). Spectra were taken with a hyperpure germanium detector (HPGe) in an environment cooled with liquid nitrogen, with the technique of high-resolution gamma spectroscopy. A program for automatic detection and classifying of the samples was developed in Matlab. It program has the advantage of being able to make direct interventions or generalize it even more, or make it automate for specific spectra and make comparison between them. For example it can calibrate the spectrum automatically, only by giving the calibration spectrum, without the necessity of putting them. Finally, it also erases the external noise.

  3. Effects of an adapted physical activity program in a group of elderly subjects with flexed posture: clinical and instrumental assessment

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Maria Grazia; Berti, Lisa; Presti, Chiara; Frizziero, Antonio; Giannini, Sandro

    2008-01-01

    Background Flexed posture commonly increases with age and is related to musculoskeletal impairment and reduced physical performance. The purpose of this clinical study was to systematically compare the effects of a physical activity program that specifically address the flexed posture that marks a certain percentage of elderly individuals with a non specific exercise program for 3 months. Methods Participants were randomly divided into two groups: one followed an Adapted Physical Activity program for flexed posture and the other one completed a non-specific physical activity protocol for the elderly. A multidimensional clinical assessment was performed at baseline and at 3 months including anthropometric data, clinical profile, measures of musculoskeletal impairment and disability. The instrumental assessment of posture was realized using a stereophotogrammetric system and a specific biomechanical model designed to describe the reciprocal position of the body segments on the sagittal plane in a upright posture. Results The Adapted Physical Activity program determined a significant improvement in several key parameters of the multidimensional assessment in comparison to the non-specific protocol: decreased occiput-to-wall distance, greater lower limb range of motion, better flexibility of pectoralis, hamstrings and hip flexor muscles, increased spine extensor muscles strength. Stereophotogrammetric analysis confirmed a reduced protrusion of the head and revealed a reduction in compensative postural adaptations to flexed posture characterized by knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion in the participants of the specific program. Conclusion The Adapted Physical Activity program for flexed posture significantly improved postural alignment and musculoskeletal impairment of the elderly. The stereophotogrammetric evaluation of posture was useful to measure the global postural alignment and especially to analyse the possible compensatory strategies at lower limbs in flexed

  4. Adaptation of an Evidence-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening Program Using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research

    PubMed Central

    Esplin, Andrea; Baldwin, Laura-Mae

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) provide primary care to low-income and uninsured patients in the United States. FQHCs are required to report annual measurements and provide evidence of improvement for quality measures; effective methods to improve quality in FQHCs are needed. Systems of Support (SOS) is a proactive, mail-based, colorectal cancer screening program that was developed and tested in an integrated health care system. The objective of this study was to adapt SOS for use in an FQHC system, guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). Methods We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews in 2014 with organizational leadership, medical staff, and nursing staff to identify facilitators of and barriers to implementation of SOS in an FQHC system. The interview guide was based on the CFIR framework. Interview transcripts were analyzed using Template Analysis. We adapted SOS and planned implementation strategies to address identified barriers. Results Facilitators of implementation of SOS were previous quality improvement experience and engagement of clinic and administrative leadership. Barriers to implementation were a more diverse patient population, a decentralized administrative structure, and communication challenges throughout the organization. Program adaptations focused on patient instructions and educational materials as well as elimination of follow-up phone calls. Implementation strategies included early and frequent engagement with organizational leadership and a smaller pilot program before organization-wide implementation. Conclusions Use of CFIR identified facilitators of and barriers to implementation of the evidence-based colorectal cancer screening program. Program adaptations and implementation strategies based on this study may generalize to other FQHC systems that are considering implementation of a proactive, mail-based colorectal cancer screening program. PMID:26632954

  5. A Microswitch-Cluster Program to Foster Adaptive Responses and Head Control in Students with Multiple Disabilities: Replication and Validation Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta; Gatti, Michela; Manfredi, Francesco; Megna, Gianfranco; La Martire, Maria L.; Tota, Alessia; Smaldone, Angela; Groeneweg, Jop

    2008-01-01

    A program relying on microswitch clusters (i.e., combinations of microswitches) and preferred stimuli was recently developed to foster adaptive responses and head control in persons with multiple disabilities. In the last version of this program, preferred stimuli (a) are scheduled for adaptive responses occurring in combination with head control…

  6. A Comparative Study of the Preliminary Effects in the Levels of Adaptive Behaviors: Learning Program for the Development of Children with Autism (LPDCA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sunwoo; Koh, Myung-sook; Yeo, Moon-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate preliminary intervention effects of the adaptive behavior on the autism intervention program known as the Learning Program for the Development of Children with Autism (LPDCA). The adaptive behavior scores of two groups of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were compared, with one group…

  7. Increasing Adaptive Responses and Reducing Finger Mouthing in an Adolescent with Multiple Disabilities: Evaluation of an Upgraded Microswitch-Cluster Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta; Cingolani, Eleonora; D'Oro, Lega F.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated an upgraded version of a microswitch-cluster program used for promoting adaptive foot and head responses and reducing finger mouthing with a boy with multiple disabilities. The boy had been exposed to an early version of the program, which ensured that positive stimulation followed only adaptive responses occurring free from finger…

  8. Asymmetrical booster ascent guidance and control system design study. Volume 4: Sampled data stability analysis program (SADSAP) user's guide. [space shuttle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    A users guide to the Sampled Data Stability Analysis Program (SADSAP) is provided. This program is a general purpose sampled data Stability Analysis Program capable of providing frequency response on root locus data.

  9. Effects of an adapted physical activity program on psychophysical health in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Giuseppe; Bellafiore, Marianna; Alesi, Marianna; Paoli, Antonio; Bianco, Antonino; Palma, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown the positive effects of adapted physical activity (APA) on physical and mental health (MH) during the lifetime. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a specific APA intervention program in the improvement of the health-related quality of life (QOL) and functional condition of spine in elderly women. Methods Thirty women were recruited from a senior center and randomly assigned to two groups: control group (CG; age: 69.69±7.94 years, height: 1.57±0.06 m, weight: 68.42±8.18 kg, body mass index [BMI]: 27.88±2.81) and trained group (TG; age: 68.35±6.04 years, height: 1.55±0.05 m, weight: 64.78±10.16 kg, BMI: 26.98±3.07). The APA program was conducted for 8 weeks, with two training sessions/week. CG did not perform any physical activity during the study. Spinal angles were evaluated by SpinalMouse® (Idiag, Volkerswill, Switzerland); health-related QOL was evaluated by SF-36 Health Survey, which assesses physical component summary (PCS-36), mental component summary (MCS-36), and eight subscales: physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, general health perception, role-emotional, social functioning, vitality, and MH. All measures were recorded before and after the experimental period. Results In TG, compared to CG, the two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures with Bonferroni post hoc test showed a relevant improvement in lumbar spinal angle (°) and in SF-36 outcomes after the intervention period. We showed a significant increase in physical functioning, bodily pain, and MH subscales and in PCS-36 and MCS-36 scores in TG compared to CG. In particular, from baseline to posttest, we found that in TG, the PCS-36 and MCS-36 scores increased by 13.20% and 11.64%, respectively. Conclusion We believe that an 8-week APA intervention program is able to improve psychophysical heath in elderly people. During the aging process, a dynamic lifestyle, including regular physical activity, is a crucial

  10. A FORTRAN program for the analysis of linear continuous and sample-data systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    A FORTRAN digital computer program which performs the general analysis of linearized control systems is described. State variable techniques are used to analyze continuous, discrete, and sampled data systems. Analysis options include the calculation of system eigenvalues, transfer functions, root loci, root contours, frequency responses, power spectra, and transient responses for open- and closed-loop systems. A flexible data input format allows the user to define systems in a variety of representations. Data may be entered by inputing explicit data matrices or matrices constructed in user written subroutines, by specifying transfer function block diagrams, or by using a combination of these methods.

  11. Surprise and Opportunity for Learning in Grand Canyon: the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, T. S.; Walters, C. J.; Korman, J.

    2013-12-01

    With a focus on resources of the Colorado River ecosystem downstream of Glen Canyon Dam in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area (GCNRA) and Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) of northern Arizona, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program has evaluated experimental flow and nonflow policy tests since 1990. Flow experiments have consisted of a variety of water releases from the dam within pre-existing annual downstream delivery agreements. The daily experimental dam operation, termed the Modified Low Fluctuating Flow (MLFF), implemented in 1996 to increase daily low flows and decrease daily peaks were intended to limit daily flow range to conserve tributary sand inputs and improve navigation among other objectives, including hydropower energy. Other flow tests have included controlled floods with some larger releases bypassing the dam's hydropower plant to rebuild and maintain eroded sandbars in GCNP. Experimental daily hydropeaking tests beyond MLFF have also been evaluated for managing the exotic recreational rainbow trout fishery in the dam's GCNRA tailwater. Experimental nonflow policies, such as physical removal of exotic fish below the tailwater, and experimental translocation of endangered native humpback chub from spawning habitats in the Little Colorado River (the largest natal origin site for chub in the basin) to other tributaries within GCNP have also been monitored. None of these large-scale field experiments has yet produced unambiguous results in terms of management prescriptions, owing to inadequate monitoring programs and confounding of treatment effects with effects of ongoing natural changes; most notably, a persistent warming of the river resulting from reduced storage in the dam's reservoir after 2003. But there have been several surprising results relative to predictions from models developed to identify monitoring needs and evaluate experimental design options at the start of the adaptive ecosystem assessment and management program in 1997

  12. Development of an adaptive harvest management program for Taiga bean geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Alhainen, Mikko; Fox, Anthony D.; Madsen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    This report describes recent progress in specifying the elements of an adaptive harvest program for taiga bean goose. It describes harvest levels appropriate for first rebuilding the population of the Central Management Unit and then maintaining it near the goal specified in the AEWA International Single Species Action Plan (ISSAP). This report also provides estimates of the length of time it would take under ideal conditions (no density dependence and no harvest) to rebuild depleted populations in the Western and Eastern Management Units. We emphasize that our estimates are a first approximation because detailed demographic information is lacking for taiga bean geese. Using allometric relationships, we estimated parameters of a thetalogistic matrix population model. The mean intrinsic rate of growth was estimated as r = 0.150 (90% credible interval: 0.120 – 0.182). We estimated the mean form of density dependence as   2.361 (90% credible interval: 0.473 – 11.778), suggesting the strongest density dependence occurs when the population is near its carrying capacity. Based on expert opinion, carrying capacity (i.e., population size expected in the absence of hunting) for the Central Management Unit was estimated as K  87,900 (90% credible interval: 82,000 – 94,100). The ISSAP specifies a population goal for the Central Management Unit of 60,000 – 80,000 individuals in winter; thus, we specified a preliminary objective function as one which would minimize the difference between this goal and population size. Using the concept of stochastic dominance to explicitly account for uncertainty in demography, we determined that optimal harvest rates for 5, 10, 15, and 20-year time horizons were h = 0.00, 0.02, 0.05, and 0.06, respectively. These optima represent a tradeoff between the harvest rate and the time required to achieve and maintain a population size within desired bounds. We recognize, however, that regulation of absolute harvest rather than

  13. Methods for collecting benthic invertebrate samples as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Meador, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Benthic invertebrate communities are evaluated as part of the ecological survey component of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These biological data are collected along with physical and chemical data to assess water-quality conditions and to develop an understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions locally, regionally, and nationally. The objectives of benthic invertebrate community characterizations are to (1) develop for each site a list of tax a within the associated stream reach and (2) determine the structure of benthic invertebrate communities within selected habitats of that reach. A nationally consistent approach is used to achieve these objectives. This approach provides guidance on site, reach, and habitat selection and methods and equipment for qualitative multihabitat sampling and semi-quantitative single habitat sampling. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control guidelines are used to maximize the ability to analyze data within and among study units.

  14. Sample Collection for Investigation of Mars (SCIM): An Early Mars Sample Return Mission Through the Mars Scout Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leshin, L. A.; Yen, A.; Bomba, J.; Clark, B.; Epp, C.; Forney, L.; Gamber, T.; Graves, C.; Hupp, J.; Jones, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Sample Collection for Investigation of Mars (SCIM) mission is designed to: (1) make a 40 km pass through the Martian atmosphere; (2) collect dust and atmospheric gas; and (3) return the samples to Earth for analysis. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. Sampling design optimization of a mussel watch-type monitoring program, the French Monitoring Network

    SciTech Connect

    Beliaeff, B.; Claisse, D.; Smith, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    In the French Monitoring Network, trace element and organic concentration in biota has been measured for 15 years on a quarterly basis at over 80 sites scattered along the French coastline. A reduction in the sampling effort may be needed as a result of budget restrictions. A constant budget, however, would allow the advancement of certain research and development projects, such as the feasibility of new chemical analysis. The basic problem confronting the program sampling design optimization is finding optimal numbers of sites in a given non-heterogeneous area and of sampling events within a year at each site. First, they determine a site specific cost function integrating analysis, personnel, and computer costs. Then, within-year and between-site variance components are estimated from the results of a linear model which includes a seasonal component. These two steps provide a cost-precision optimum for each contaminant. An example is given using the data from the 4 sites of the Loire estuary. Over all sites, significant `U`-shaped trends are estimated for Pb, PCBs, {Sigma}DDT and {alpha}-HCH, while PAHs show a significant inverted `U`-shaped curve. For most chemicals the within-year variance appears to be much higher than the between sites variance. This leads to the conclusion that, for this case, reducing the number of sites by two is preferable economically and in terms of monitoring efficiency to reducing the sampling frequency by the same factor. Further implications for the French Monitoring Network are discussed.

  16. 2015 Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results Report for Project Rulison, Co

    SciTech Connect

    Findlay, Rick; Kautsky, Mark

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 20–22 and 27, 2015. Several of the land owners were not available to allow access to their respective properties, which created the need for several sample collection trips. This report documents the analytical results of the Rulison monitoring event and includes the trip report and the data validation package (Appendix A). The groundwater and surface water monitoring were shipped to the GEL Group Inc. laboratories for analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high- resolution gamma spectrometry. Tritium was analyzed using two methods, the conventional tritium method, which has a detection limit on the order of 400 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), and the enriched method (for selected samples), which has a detection limit on the order of 3 pCi/L.

  17. Astrobiology Sample Analysis Program (ASAP) for Advanced Life Detection Instrumentation Development and Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel; Brinkerhoff, Will; Dworkin, Jason; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Franz, Heather; Mahaffy, Paul; Stern, Jen; Blake, Daid; Sandford, Scott; Fries, marc; Steele, Andrew; Amashukeli, Xenia; Fisher, Anita; Grunthaner, Frank; Aubrey, Andrew; Bada, Jeff; Chiesl, Tom; Stockton, Amanda; Mathies, Rich

    2008-01-01

    Scientific ground-truth measurements for near-term Mars missions, such as the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, are essential for validating current in situ flight instrumentation and for the development of advanced instrumentation technologies for life-detection missions over the next decade. The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) has recently funded a consortium of researchers called the Astrobiology Sample Analysis Program (ASAP) to analyze an identical set of homogenized martian analog materials in a "round-robin" style using both state-of-the-art laboratory techniques as well as in-situ flight instrumentation including the SAM gas chromatograph mass spectrometer and CHEMIN X-ray diffraction/fluorescence instruments on MSL and the Urey and MOMA organic analyzer instruments under development for the 2013 ExoMars missions. The analog samples studied included an Atacama Desert soil from Chile, the Murchison meteorite, a gypsum sample from the 2007 AMASE Mars analog site, jarosite from Panoche Valley, CA, a hydrothermal sample from Rio Tinto, Spain, and a "blind" sample collected during the 2007 MSL slow-motion field test in New Mexico. Each sample was distributed to the team for analysis to: (1) determine the nature and inventory of organic compounds, (2) measure the bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition, (3) investigate elemental abundances, mineralogy and matrix, and (4) search for biological activity. The experimental results obtained from the ASAP Mars analog research consortium will be used to build a framework for understanding the biogeochemistry of martian analogs, help calibrate current spaceflight instrumentation, and enhance the scientific return from upcoming missions.

  18. Game Theory, Adaptation, and Genetic Programming: Some Perspectives on Operations Research for Counter-IED

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    memes ” (Dawkins, 1989; Gabora, 1995; Boal & Schultz, 2007). As Weeks & Galunic (2003) point out: “ Memes are the replicators in cultural evolution ...the process of social and organisational adaptation through meme evolution . It is a more general approach than the evolutionary adaptation of...adaptivity, because of its ability to simulate the innovation and evolution of organisational “ memes .” 8. References Angeline, P.J. & Pollack, J.B

  19. Individual and Public-Program Adaptation: Coping with Heat Waves in Five Cities in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Alberini, Anna; Gans, Will; Alhassan, Mustapha

    2011-01-01

    Heat Alert and Response Systems (HARS) are currently undergoing testing and implementation in Canada. These programs seek to reduce the adverse health effects of heat waves on human health by issuing weather forecasts and warnings, informing individuals about possible protections from excessive heat, and providing such protections to vulnerable subpopulations and individuals at risk. For these programs to be designed effectively, it is important to know how individuals perceive the heat, what their experience with heat-related illness is, how they protect themselves from excessive heat, and how they acquire information about such protections. In September 2010, we conducted a survey of households in 5 cities in Canada to study these issues. At the time of the survey, these cities had not implemented heat outreach and response systems. The study results indicate that individuals’ recollections of recent heat wave events were generally accurate. About 21% of the sample reported feeling unwell during the most recent heat spell, but these illnesses were generally minor. Only in 25 cases out of 243, these illnesses were confirmed or diagnosed by a health care professional. The rate at which our respondents reported heat-related illnesses was higher among those with cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, was higher among younger respondents and bore no relationship with the availability of air conditioning at home. Most of the respondents indicated that they would not dismiss themselves as “not at risk” and that they would cope with excessive heat by staying in air conditioned environments and keeping well hydrated. Despite the absence of heat outreach and education programs in their city, our respondents at least a rough idea of how to take care of themselves. The presence of air conditioning and knowledge of cooling centers is location-specific, which provides opportunities for targeting HARS interventions. PMID:22408596

  20. Detection and Elimination of Corynebacterium bovis from Barrier Rooms by Using an Environmental Sampling Surveillance Program.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Christopher; Pugazhenthi, Umarani; Spiegel, Shannon; Leszczynski, Jori

    2017-02-16

    Rodent health-monitoring programs based on sampling an IVC system's exhaust air dust (EAD) has enhanced and evenreplaced traditional sentinels for some rodent pathogens. EAD testing by qPCR assay is an optimal surveillance methodfor the rapid detection of Corynebacterium bovis-infected immunodeficient mice. Here we demonstrate that an active EADsurveillance program for C. bovis can be used to maintain nude mice C. bovis-free after the transition from historically enzootically infected colonies. During 3 events over 3 y, rapid detection of infection, elimination of infected mice, aggressivequarantine measures, and local decontamination prevented the spread of C. bovis within 2 barrier rooms. In total, 4 cages ofinfected nude mice were identified and removed, preventing the spread of infection to 469 other cages of immunodeficientmice. In addition, we present data regarding a refinement to EAD testing which enables row-specific surveillance of an IVCrack. This technique systemically decreases the amount of testing required to locate an individually infected cage. Due to ourability to rapidly detect and localize an infected cage, we were able to investigate the route of C. bovis introduction into ourbarrier rooms. Our epidemiologic investigation suggested that the transmission of C. bovis occurred through contaminated,cryopreserved, patient-derived xenograft tumor tissue. This previously unknown source of C. bovis can infect mice used topropagate these tumors. Together, these data demonstrate that a remediation program that combines rapid detection, testand-cull, and local decontamination under quarantine conditions can eliminate C. bovis from a mouse colony.

  1. Report on the audit of the Savannah River Site`s quality control program for groundwater sampling

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-20

    The Savannah River Site`s groundwater remediation program was managed by the Department of Energy`s (Department) management and operating contractor for the site, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (Westinghouse). One component of the remediation program was the quality control program. The goal of the groundwater quality control program was to ensure that the results of laboratory analyses of groundwater samples were accurate and precise so that they could be relied upon for making remediation decisions. The objective of this audit was to determine whether Westinghouse acquired the minimal number of laboratory analyses required to ensure that groundwater sampling results met this criteria.

  2. Sample results from the integrated salt disposition program macrobatch 6 tank 21H qualifications MST solids sample

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.

    2013-02-26

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed experiments on qualification material for use in the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) Batch 6 processing. As part of this qualification work, SRNL performed an Actinide Removal Process (ARP) test. From this test, the residual monosodium titanate (MST) was analyzed for radionuclide uptake. The results of these analyses are reported and are within historical precedent.

  3. Developing an Instructional Material Using a Concept Cartoon Adapted to the 5E Model: A Sample of Teaching Erosion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birisci, Salih; Metin, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Using different instructional materials adapted within the constructivist learning theory will enhance students' conceptual understanding. From this point of view, an instructional instrument using a concept cartoon adapted with 5E model has developed and introduced in this study. The study has some deficiencies in investigating students'…

  4. Diagnosing Intellectual Disability in a Forensic Sample: Gender and Age Effects on the Relationship between Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Susan C.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The relationship between adaptive behaviour and cognitive functioning in offenders with intellectual disabilities is not well researched. This study aims to examine gender and age effects on the relationship between these two areas of functioning. Method: The "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales" (VABS) and the "Kaufman…

  5. Design and Evaluation of the User-Adapted Program Scheduling system based on Bayesian Network and Constraint Satisfaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Hirotoshi; Sega, Shinichiro; Hiraishi, Hironori; Mizoguchi, Fumio

    In recent years, lots of music content can be stored in mobile computing devices, such as a portable digital music player and a car navigation system. Moreover, various information content like news or traffic information can be acquired always anywhere by a cellular communication and a wireless LAN. However, usability issues arise from the simple interfaces of mobile computing devices. Moreover, retrieving and selecting such content poses safety issues, especially while driving. Thus, it is important for the mobile system to recommend content automatically adapted to user's preference and situation. In this paper, we present the user-adapted program scheduling that generates sequences of content (Program) suiting user's preference and situation based on the Bayesian network and the Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) technique. We also describe the design and evaluation of its realization system, the Personal Program Producer (P3). First, preference such as a genre ratio of content in a program is learned as a Bayesian network model using simple operations such as a skip behavior. A model including each content tends to become large-scale. In order to make it small, we present the model separation method that carries out losslessly compression of the model. Using the model, probabilistic distributions of preference to generate constraints are inferred. Finally satisfying the constraints, a program is produced. This kind of CSP has an issue of which the number of variables is not fixedness. In order to make it variable, we propose a method using metavariables. To evaluate the above methods, we applied them to P3 on a car navigation system. User evaluations helped us clarify that the P3 can produce the program that a user prefers and adapt it to the user.

  6. Maize canopy architecture and adaptation to high plant density in long term selection programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain yield since the 1930s has increased more than five-fold in large part due to improvements in adaptation to high plant density. Changes to plant architecture that associated with improved light interception have made a major contribution to improved adaptation to high plant density. Improved ...

  7. A Pilot Study of an Adaptive, Idiographic, and Multi-Component Attention Bias Modification Program for Social Anxiety Disorder.

    PubMed

    Amir, Nader; Kuckertz, Jennie M; Strege, Marlene V

    2016-10-01

    An attentional bias toward threat may be one mechanism underlying clinical anxiety. Attention bias modification (ABM) aims to reduce symptoms of anxiety disorders by directly modifying this deficit. However, existing ABM training programs have not consistently modified attentional bias and may not reflect optimal learning needs of participants (i.e., lack of explicit instruction, training goal unclear to participants, lack of feedback, non-adaptive, inability to differentiate or target different components of attentional bias). In the current study, we introduce a new adaptive ABM program (AABM) and test its feasibility in individuals with social anxiety disorder. We report task characteristics and preliminary evidence that this task consistently modifies attentional bias and that changes in attentional bias (but not number of trials) correlate with the level of symptom reduction. These results suggest that AABM may be a targeted method for the next generation of studies examining the utility of attention training.

  8. Mexican American women's perspectives on a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy guided self-help program for binge eating.

    PubMed

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary M; Gutierrez, Guadalupe; Wang, Sherry; Phimphasone, Phoutdavone

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) among Latinas is comparable to those of the general population; however, few interventions and treatment trial research have focused on this group. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for binge eating related disorders. CBT-based guided self-help (CBTgsh)-a low-cost minimal intervention-has also been shown effective in improving binge eating related symptom, but the effectiveness of the CBTgsh among ethnic minority women is not well understood. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based treatments can be an important step for promoting treatment accessibility and engagement among underserved groups. This qualitative study was part of a larger investigation that examined the feasibility and efficacy of a culturally adapted CBTgsh program among Mexican American women with binge eating disorders. Posttreatment focus groups were conducted with 12 Mexican American women with BN or BED who participated in the intervention. Data were analyzed with the grounded theory methodology (Corbin & Strauss, 2008). Three themes emerged from the data: (a) eating behavior and body ideals are socially and culturally constructed, (b) multifaceted support system is crucial to Mexican American women's treatment engagement and success, and (c) the culturally adapted CBTgsh program is feasible and relevant to Mexican American women's experience, but it can be strengthened with increased family and peer involvement. The findings provide suggestions for further adaptation and refinement of the CBTgsh, and implications for future research as well as early intervention for disordered eating in organized care settings.

  9. A Study of Program Management Procedures in the Campus-Based and Basic Grant Programs. Technical Report No. 1: Sample Design, Student Survey Yield and Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael J.; Ellis, Richard

    Part of a study of program management procedures in the campus-based and Basic Educational Opportunity Grant programs reports on the design of the site visit component of the study and the results of the student survey, both in terms of the yield obtained and the quality of the data. Chapter 2 describes the design of sampling methodology employed…

  10. AIDS Drug Assistance Programs: managers confront uncertainty and need to adapt as the Affordable Care Act kicks in.

    PubMed

    Martin, Erika G; Meehan, Terence; Schackman, Bruce R

    2013-06-01

    With the Affordable Care Act set to expand insurance coverage to millions more Americans next year, existing discretionary health programs that receive federal support might find themselves competing for funds as the health reform law is fully implemented. To assess the implications the Affordable Care Act might have for discretionary health programs, we focused on state AIDS Drug Assistance Programs, which provide free medications to low-income HIV patients. We conducted semistructured interviews with program managers from twenty-two states. Many of the managers predicted that their programs will change focus to provide "wrap-around services," such as helping newly insured clients finance out-of-pocket expenses, including copayments, deductibles, and premiums. Although program managers acknowledged that they must adapt to a changing environment, many said that they were overwhelmed by the complexity of the Affordable Care Act, and some expressed fear that state AIDS Drug Assistance Programs would be eliminated entirely. To remain viable, such programs must identify and justify the need for services in the context of the Affordable Care Act and receive sufficient political support and funding.

  11. Adapting a successful inquiry-based immersion program to create an Authentic, Hands- on, Field based Curriculum in Environmental Science at Barnard College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenna, T. C.; Pfirman, S.; Mailloux, B. J.; Martin, S.; Kelsey, R.; Bower, P.

    2008-12-01

    Adapting a successful inquiry-based immersion program to create an Authentic, Hands-on, Field based Curriculum in Environmental Science at Barnard College T. C. Kenna, S. Pfirman, B. J. Mailloux, M. Stute, R. Kelsey, and P. Bower By adapting a successful inquiry-based immersion program (SEA semester) to the typical college format of classes, we are improving the technical and quantitative skills of undergraduate women and minorities in environmental science and improving their critical thinking and problem-solving by exposing our students to open-ended real-world environmental issues. Our approach uses the Hudson River Estuary as a natural laboratory. In a series of hands-on inquiry-based activities, students use advanced equipment to collect data and samples. Each class session introduces new analytical and data analysis techniques. All classes have the connecting theme of the river. Working with real data is open-ended. Our major findings as indicated by surveys as well as journaling throughout the semester are that the field- based experience significantly contributed to student learning and engagement. Journaling responses indicated that nearly all students discussed the importance and excitement of an authentic research experience. Some students were frustrated with data irregularities, uncertainty in methods and data, and the general challenge of a curriculum with inherent ambiguity. The majority were satisfied with the aims of the course to provide an integrative experience. All students demonstrated transfer of learned skills. This project has had a significant impact on our undergraduate female students: several students have pursued senior thesis projects stemming from grant activities, stating that the field activities were the highlight of their semester. Some students love the experience and want more. Others decide that they want to pursue a different career. All learn how science is conducted and have a better foundation to understand concepts such

  12. Water Reserves Program. An adaptation strategy to balance water in nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Perez, M.; Barrios, E.; Salinas-Rodriguez, S.; Wickel, B.; Villon, R. A.

    2013-05-01

    -allocation takes place. The strategy is to identify and protect basins with an availability of water that is close to their natural flow regime and that also have a high conservation value (based on prior national conservation priority definitions such as protected areas, and biodiversity conservation gap analyses) in order to implement legal restrictions on water resource development. With such protection, these systems will be best positioned to adjust and respond to water shortages, and regime shifts. To date, 189 basins around the country were identified as potential water reserves. The next step will be the nomination of these water reserves to be integrated in the National Water Reserves Program. This program forms the core of the official Mexican government adaptation strategy towards climate prepared water management, which recognizes that water reserves are the buffer society needs to face uncertainty, and reduce water scarcity risk. The development of activities that alter the natural flow regime such as dams and levees are closely examined, and would potentially be restricted.

  13. Water Reserves Program. An adaptation strategy to prevent imbalance of water in nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas-Rodriguez, S. A.; López Pérez, M.; Barrios Ordóñez, J.; Wickel, B.; Villón Bracamonte, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    allocated, and where the flow regime is then protected before over-allocation takes place. The strategy has been to identify and protect basins with an availability of water that is close to their natural flow regime and that also have a high conservation value (based on prior national conservation priority definitions such as protected areas, and biodiversity conservation gap analyses) in order to implement legal restrictions on water resource development. With such protection, these systems will be best positioned to adjust and respond to water shortages, and regime shifts. To date, 189 basins around the country were identified as potential water reserves. The next step will be the nomination of these water reserves to be integrated in the National Water Reserves Program. This program forms the core of the official Mexican government adaptation strategy towards climate prepared water management, which recognizes that water reserves are the buffer society needs to face uncertainty, imbalance of the man-made, global changes, and thus to reduce water scarcity risk. The development of activities that alter the natural flow regime such as dams and levees are closely examined, and would potentially be restricted.

  14. Ask-Elle: An Adaptable Programming Tutor for Haskell Giving Automated Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Alex; Heeren, Bastiaan; Jeuring, Johan; van Binsbergen, L. Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Ask-Elle is a tutor for learning the higher-order, strongly-typed functional programming language Haskell. It supports the stepwise development of Haskell programs by verifying the correctness of incomplete programs, and by providing hints. Programming exercises are added to Ask-Elle by providing a task description for the exercise, one or more…

  15. Evaluating Ethanol-based Sample Preservation to Facilitate Use of DNA Barcoding in Routine Freshwater Biomonitoring Programs Using Benthic Macroinvertebrates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Molecular methods, such as DNA barcoding, have the potential in enhance biomonitoring programs worldwide. Altering routinely used sample preservation methods to protect DNA from degradation may pose a potential impediment to application of DNA barcoding and metagenomics for biom...

  16. Flight summaries and temperature climatology at airliner cruise altitudes from GASP (Global Atmospheric Sampling Program) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nastrom, G. D.; Jasperson, W. H.

    1983-01-01

    Temperature data obtained by the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) during the period March 1975 to July 1979 are compiled to form flight summaries of static air temperature and a geographic temperature climatology. The flight summaries include the height and location of the coldest observed temperature and the mean flight level, temperature and the standard deviation of temperature for each flight as well as for flight segments. These summaries are ordered by route and month. The temperature climatology was computed for all statistically independent temperture data for each flight. The grid used consists of 5 deg latitude, 30 deg longitude and 2000 feet vertical resolution from FL270 to FL430 for each month of the year. The number of statistically independent observations, their mean, standard deviation and the empirical 98, 50, 16, 2 and .3 probability percentiles are presented.

  17. Results of an indoor size fractionated PM school sampling program in Libby, Montana.

    PubMed

    Ward, Tony J; Noonan, Curtis W; Hooper, Kathi

    2007-07-01

    Libby, Montana is the only PM(2.5) non-attainment area in the western United States with the exceptions of parts of southern California. During January through March 2005, a particulate matter (PM) sampling program was conducted within Libby's elementary and middle schools to establish baseline indoor PM concentrations before a wood stove change-out program is implemented over the next several years. As part of this program, indoor concentrations of PM mass, organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) in five different size fractions (>2.5, 1.0-2.5, 0.5-1.0, 0.25-0.5, and <0.25 microm) were measured. Total measured PM mass concentrations were much higher inside the elementary school, with particle size fraction (>2.5, 0.5-1.0, 0.25-0.5, and <0.25 microm) concentrations between 2 and 5 times higher when compared to the middle school. The 1.0-2.5 microm fraction had the largest difference between the two sites, with elementary school concentrations nearly 10 times higher than the middle school values. The carbon component for the schools' indoor PM was found to be predominantly composed of OC. Measured total OC and EC concentrations, as well as concentrations within individual size fractions, were an average of two to five times higher at the elementary school when compared to the middle school. For the ultrafine fraction (<0.25), EC concentrations were similar between each of the schools. Despite the differences in concentrations between the schools at the various fraction levels, the OC/EC ratio was determined to be similar.

  18. Detection and Elimination of Corynebacterium bovis from Barrier Rooms by Using an Environmental Sampling Surveillance Program.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Christopher A; Pugazhenthi, Umarani; Spiegel, Shannon P; Leszczynski, Jori K

    2017-03-01

    Rodent health-monitoring programs based on sampling an IVC system's exhaust air dust (EAD) has enhanced and even replaced traditional sentinels for some rodent pathogens. EAD testing by qPCR assay is an optimal surveillance method for the rapid detection of Corynebacterium bovis-infected immunodeficient mice. Here we demonstrate that an active EAD surveillance program for C. bovis can be used to maintain nude mice C. bovis-free after the transition from historically enzootically infected colonies. During 3 events over 3 y, rapid detection of infection, elimination of infected mice, aggressive quarantine measures, and local decontamination prevented the spread of C. bovis within 2 barrier rooms. In total, 4 cages of infected nude mice were identified and removed, preventing the spread of infection to 469 other cages of immunodeficient mice. In addition, we present data regarding a refinement to EAD testing which enables row-specific surveillance of an IVC rack. This technique systemically decreases the amount of testing required to locate an individually infected cage. Due to our ability to rapidly detect and localize an infected cage, we were able to investigate the route of C. bovis introduction into our barrier rooms. Our epidemiologic investigation suggested that the transmission of C. bovis occurred through contaminated, cryopreserved, patient-derived xenograft tumor tissue. This previously unknown source of C. bovis can infect mice used to propagate these tumors. Together, these data demonstrate that a remediation program that combines rapid detection, test-and-cull, and local decontamination under quarantine conditions can eliminate C. bovis from a mouse colony.

  19. Causes and consequences of continental breakup in the South Atlantic: lessons learned from the SAMPLE program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumbull, Robert B.

    2014-05-01

    Since 2009 the SAMPLE program (www.spp-sample.de) provides a platform for research into the causes and effects of continental breakup and the evolution of passive margins. SAMPLE encompasses 28 projects from 13 German institutions and many international partnerships. The 6-year program will run through 2015. At the core of the program are observational studies that are interlinked by modelling projects examining the interplay of deep mantle dynamics, lithospheric stress fields, pre-rift fabric and melt-weaking on localizing rifting. Geophysics teams collect and integrate existing data from wide-angle seismic profiles, reprocessed multichannel seismics, as well as gravity, magnetics and heat-flow studies to construct self-consistent lithospheric-scale 3-D models along the conjugate margins. Key interests are variations in margin architecture, distribution of magmatic features and the evolution of sedimentary basins (subsidence and thermal histories). An exciting new contribution of SAMPLE geophysics is a linked set of seismic, seismologic and magnetotelluric experiments along the Walvis Ridge, including onshore NW Namibia and the Tristan da Cunha hotspot. In the deep mantle, we examine evidence from global seismic tomography for dramatic low seismic-velocity regions near the core-mantle boundary beneath southern Africa and their implications for dynamics in the deep Earth and the thermo-chemical nature of plumes. Petrologic studies focus on near-primary mantle melts represented by Mg-rich mafic dikes. Projects address the origin of magmas and crust-mantle interaction, and the environmental impact of mega-scale volcanism during breakup. Thermobarometry results from the African margin reveal a N-to-S decrease in mantle potential temperatures from 1520°C (N) to 1380° (S), which supports a thermal plume origin for excessive melt production in the north. Thermochronology data from both conjugate margins reveal complex and puzzling patterns in the denudation history

  20. RESIN, a FORTRAN IV program for determining the area of influence of samples or drill holes in resource target search

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    A FORTRAN IV program that calculates the area of influence of drill holes or samples with respect to the size and shape of elliptical or circular resource targets is presented. Program options include determination of the degree to which areas within a region have been explored and estimation of probabilities that points are centers of undiscovered deposits. Errors of recognition can be utilized in the program input. ?? 1976.

  1. Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples.

    PubMed

    Ghiglione, Claudio; Alvaro, Maria Chiara; Griffiths, Huw J; Linse, Katrin; Schiaparelli, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP) on board the R/V "Italica" in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500μm. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data). Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species), 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species), 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species), 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species), 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species) and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species). This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA), Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project "BAMBi" (PNRA 2010/A1.10).

  2. Incorporating precision, accuracy and alternative sampling designs into a continental monitoring program for colonial waterbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinkamp, Melanie J.; Peterjohn, B.G.; Keisman, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive monitoring program for colonial waterbirds in North America has never existed. At smaller geographic scales, many states and provinces conduct surveys of colonial waterbird populations. Periodic regional surveys are conducted at varying times during the breeding season using a variety of survey methods, which complicates attempts to estimate population trends for most species. The US Geological Survey Patuxent Wildlife Research Center has recently started to coordinate colonial waterbird monitoring efforts throughout North America. A centralized database has been developed with an Internet-based data entry and retrieval page. The extent of existing colonial waterbird surveys has been defined, allowing gaps in coverage to be identified and basic inventories completed where desirable. To enable analyses of comparable data at regional or larger geographic scales, sampling populations through statistically sound sampling designs should supersede obtaining counts at every colony. Standardized breeding season survey techniques have been agreed upon and documented in a monitoring manual. Each survey in the manual has associated with it recommendations for bias estimation, and includes specific instructions on measuring detectability. The methods proposed in the manual are for developing reliable, comparable indices of population size to establish trend information at multiple spatial and temporal scales, but they will not result in robust estimates of total population numbers.

  3. Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples

    PubMed Central

    Ghiglione, Claudio; Alvaro, Maria Chiara; Griffiths, Huw J.; Linse, Katrin; Schiaparelli, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP) on board the R/V “Italica” in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500μm. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data). Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species), 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species), 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species), 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species), 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species) and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species). This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA), Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project “BAMBi” (PNRA 2010/A1.10). PMID:24146597

  4. The Adolescent Behavioral Activation Program: Adapting Behavioral Activation as a Treatment for Depression in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Elizabeth; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Schloredt, Kelly; Martell, Christopher; Rhew, Isaac; Hubley, Samuel; Dimidjian, Sona

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine implementation feasibility and initial treatment outcomes of a behavioral activation (BA) based treatment for adolescent depression, the Adolescent Behavioral Activation Program (A-BAP). A randomized, controlled trial was conducted with 60 clinically referred adolescents with a depressive disorder who were randomized to receive either 14 sessions of A-BAP or uncontrolled evidenced-based practice for depression. The urban sample was 64% female, predominantly Non-Hispanic White (67%), and had an average age of 14.9 years. Measures of depression, global functioning, activation, and avoidance were obtained through clinical interviews and/or through parent and adolescent self-report at preintervention and end of intervention. Intent-to-treat linear mixed effects modeling and logistic regression analysis revealed that both conditions produced statistically significant improvement from pretreatment to end of treatment in depression, global functioning, and activation and avoidance. There were no significant differences across treatment conditions. These findings provide the first step in establishing the efficacy of BA as a treatment for adolescent depression and support the need for ongoing research on BA as a way to enhance the strategies available for treatment of depression in this population.

  5. Evaluating an Adaptive and Interactive mHealth Smoking Cessation and Medication Adherence Program: A Randomized Pilot Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Melissa L; Bradley, Katharine; An, Lawrence C; Catz, Sheryl L

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobile health (mHealth) interventions hold great promise for helping smokers quit since these programs can have wide reach and facilitate access to comprehensive, interactive, and adaptive treatment content. However, the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of these programs remain largely untested. Objective To assess feasibility and acceptability of the My Mobile Advice Program (MyMAP) smoking cessation program and estimate its effects on smoking cessation and medication adherence to inform future research planning. Methods Sixty-six smokers ready to quit were recruited from a large regional health care system and randomized to one of two mHealth programs: (1) standard self-help including psychoeducational materials and guidance how to quit smoking or (2) an adaptive and interactive program consisting of the same standard mHealth self-help content as controls received plus a) real-time, adaptively tailored advice for managing nicotine withdrawal symptoms and medication side-effects and b) asynchronous secure messaging with a cessation counselor. Participants in both arms were also prescribed a 12-week course of varenicline. Follow-up assessments were conducted at 2 weeks post-target quit date (TQD), 3 months post-TQD, and 5 months post-TQD. Indices of program feasibility and acceptability included acceptability ratings, utilization metrics including use of each MyMAP program component (self-help content, secure messaging, and adaptively tailored advice), and open-ended feedback from participants. Smoking abstinence and medication adherence were also assessed to estimate effects on these treatment outcomes. Results Utilization data indicated the MyMAP program was actively used, with higher mean program log-ins by experimental than control participants (10.6 vs 2.7, P<.001). The majority of experimental respondents thought the MyMAP program could help other people quit smoking (22/24, 92%) and consistently take their stop-smoking medication (17

  6. 78 FR 53017 - Changes to the Salmonella Verification Sampling Program: Analysis of Raw Beef for Shiga Toxin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... Beef for Shiga Toxin-Producin Escherichia coli and Salmonella AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection...-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) analysis. Therefore, FSIS will begin analyzing for Salmonella all samples... sampling program and under project code ``MT43'' as part of the E. coli O157:H7 verification...

  7. Analytical Results for Agricultural Soils Samples from a Monitoring Program Near Deer Trail, Colorado (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crock, J.G.; Smith, D.B.; Yager, T.J.B.

    2009-01-01

    Since late 1993, Metro Wastewater Reclamation District of Denver (Metro District, MWRD), a large wastewater treatment plant in Denver, Colorado, has applied Grade I, Class B biosolids to about 52,000 acres of nonirrigated farmland and rangeland near Deer Trail, Colorado, USA. In cooperation with the Metro District in 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began monitoring groundwater at part of this site. In 1999, the USGS began a more comprehensive monitoring study of the entire site to address stakeholder concerns about the potential chemical effects of biosolids applications to water, soil, and vegetation. This more comprehensive monitoring program has recently been extended through 2010. Monitoring components of the more comprehensive study include biosolids collected at the wastewater treatment plant, soil, crops, dust, alluvial and bedrock groundwater, and stream bed sediment. Soils for this study were defined as the plow zone of the dry land agricultural fields - the top twelve inches of the soil column. This report presents analytical results for the soil samples collected at the Metro District farm land near Deer Trail, Colorado, during three separate sampling events during 1999, 2000, and 2002. Soil samples taken in 1999 were to be a representation of the original baseline of the agricultural soils prior to any biosolids application. The soil samples taken in 2000 represent the soils after one application of biosolids to the middle field at each site and those taken in 2002 represent the soils after two applications. There have been no biosolids applied to any of the four control fields. The next soil sampling is scheduled for the spring of 2010. Priority parameters for biosolids identified by the stakeholders and also regulated by Colorado when used as an agricultural soil amendment include the total concentrations of nine trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc), plutonium isotopes, and gross

  8. Adapting Computer Programming Self-Efficacy Scale and Engineering Students' Self-Efficacy Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korkmaz, Özgen; Altun, Halis

    2014-01-01

    Students might have different type and different level of perceptions: Positive or negative perceptions on programming; a perception on benefit of programming, perceptions related to difficulties of programming process etc. The perception of student on their own competence is defined as self-efficacy. Based on the discussions reported in…

  9. Effect of the Adapted NASA Mission X International Child Fitness Program on Young Children and their Parents in South Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, Jungwon; Kim, Gilsook; Lim, Hyunjung; Carvajal, Nubia A.; Lloyd, Charles W.; Wang, Youfa; Reeves, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has become a global epidemic. Childhood obesity is global public health concern including in South Korea where 16.2% of boys and 9.9% of girls are overweight or obese in 2011. Effective and sustainable intervention programs are needed for prevention of childhood obesity. Obesity prevention programs for young children may have a greater intervention effect than in older children. The NASA Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut (MX) program was developed to promote children's exercise and healthy eating by tapping into their excitement for training like an astronaut. This study aimed to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of the adapted NASA MX intervention in promoting PA in young children and in improving parents' related perspectives.

  10. Evaluation of proposed sampling and analytical methods for carbonaceous hazardous air pollutants for the Clean Coal Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Mazurek, M.A.; Hildemann, L.M.

    1993-03-01

    At present, no single stack sampling protocol (EPA5, MEPA5, REPA5, and dilution sampling methods) is adequate for evaluating completely stack gas emissions that will be tested as part of the CCTP. REPA5 yields emissions data for organic compounds that are not representative of the physical or chemical composition of the aerosol. As an alternative method, dilution sampling of stack gases produces more accurate particle phase organic emissions data, but does not furnish information on volatile organics. A synthesis of the dilution sampling method and REPA5 sampling and analytical technologies will produce the high quality stack emissions data needed for future CCTP programs.

  11. Revised Protocols for Sampling Algal, Invertebrate, and Fish Communities as Part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moulton, Stephen R.; Kennen, Jonathan G.; Goldstein, Robert M.; Hambrook, Julie A.

    2002-01-01

    Algal, invertebrate, and fish communities are characterized as part of ecological studies in the U.S. Geological Survey.s National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Information from these ecological studies, together with chemical and physical data, provide an integrated assessment of water quality at local, regional, and national scales. Analysis and interpretation of water-quality data at these various geographic scales require accurate and consistent application of sampling protocols and sample-processing procedures. This report revises and unifies into a single document the algal, invertebrate, and fish community sampling protocols used in the National Water-Quality Assessment Program.

  12. Testing Set-Point Theory in a Swiss National Sample: Reaction and Adaptation to Major Life Events

    PubMed Central

    Anusic, Ivana; Yap, Stevie C. Y.; Lucas, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Set-point theory posits that individuals react to the experience of major life events, but quickly adapt back to pre-event baseline levels of subjective well-being in the years following the event. A large, nationally representative panel study of Swiss households was used to examine set-point theory by investigating the extent of adaptation following the experience of marriage, childbirth, widowhood, unemployment, and disability. Our results demonstrate that major life events are associated with marked change in life satisfaction and, for some events (e.g., marriage, disability), these changes are relatively long lasting even when accounting for normative, age related change. PMID:25419036

  13. Presentation from 2016 STAR Tribal Research Meeting: ANTHC Rural Alaska Monitoring Program (RAMP): Assessing, Monitoring, and Adapting to Emerging Environmental Human and Wildlife Health Threats

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, ANTHC Rural Alaska Monitoring Program (RAMP): Assessing, Monitoring, and Adapting to Emerging Environmental Human and Wildlife Health Threats, was given at the 2016 STAR Tribal Research Meeting held on Sept. 20-21, 2016.

  14. A Feedfordward Adaptive Controller to Reduce the Imaging Time of Large-Sized Biological Samples with a SPM-Based Multiprobe Station

    PubMed Central

    Otero, Jorge; Guerrero, Hector; Gonzalez, Laura; Puig-Vidal, Manel

    2012-01-01

    The time required to image large samples is an important limiting factor in SPM-based systems. In multiprobe setups, especially when working with biological samples, this drawback can make impossible to conduct certain experiments. In this work, we present a feedfordward controller based on bang-bang and adaptive controls. The controls are based in the difference between the maximum speeds that can be used for imaging depending on the flatness of the sample zone. Topographic images of Escherichia coli bacteria samples were acquired using the implemented controllers. Results show that to go faster in the flat zones, rather than using a constant scanning speed for the whole image, speeds up the imaging process of large samples by up to a 4× factor. PMID:22368491

  15. A case study of quality improvement methods for complex adaptive systems applied to an academic hepatology program.

    PubMed

    Fontanesi, John; Martinez, Anthony; Boyo, Toritsesan O; Gish, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Although demands for greater access to hepatology services that are less costly and achieve better outcomes have led to numerous quality improvement initiatives, traditional quality management methods may be inappropriate for hepatology. We empirically tested a model for conducting quality improvement in an academic hepatology program using methods developed to analyze and improve complex adaptive systems. We achieved a 25% increase in volume using 15% more clinical sessions with no change in staff or faculty FTEs, generating a positive margin of 50%. Wait times for next available appointments were reduced from five months to two weeks; unscheduled appointment slots dropped from 7% to less than 1%; "no-show" rates dropped to less than 10%; Press-Ganey scores increased to the 100th percentile. We conclude that framing hepatology as a complex adaptive system may improve our understanding of the complex, interdependent actions required to improve quality of care, patient satisfaction, and cost-effectiveness.

  16. Optimizing trial design in pharmacogenetics research: comparing a fixed parallel group, group sequential, and adaptive selection design on sample size requirements.

    PubMed

    Boessen, Ruud; van der Baan, Frederieke; Groenwold, Rolf; Egberts, Antoine; Klungel, Olaf; Grobbee, Diederick; Knol, Mirjam; Roes, Kit

    2013-01-01

    Two-stage clinical trial designs may be efficient in pharmacogenetics research when there is some but inconclusive evidence of effect modification by a genomic marker. Two-stage designs allow to stop early for efficacy or futility and can offer the additional opportunity to enrich the study population to a specific patient subgroup after an interim analysis. This study compared sample size requirements for fixed parallel group, group sequential, and adaptive selection designs with equal overall power and control of the family-wise type I error rate. The designs were evaluated across scenarios that defined the effect sizes in the marker positive and marker negative subgroups and the prevalence of marker positive patients in the overall study population. Effect sizes were chosen to reflect realistic planning scenarios, where at least some effect is present in the marker negative subgroup. In addition, scenarios were considered in which the assumed 'true' subgroup effects (i.e., the postulated effects) differed from those hypothesized at the planning stage. As expected, both two-stage designs generally required fewer patients than a fixed parallel group design, and the advantage increased as the difference between subgroups increased. The adaptive selection design added little further reduction in sample size, as compared with the group sequential design, when the postulated effect sizes were equal to those hypothesized at the planning stage. However, when the postulated effects deviated strongly in favor of enrichment, the comparative advantage of the adaptive selection design increased, which precisely reflects the adaptive nature of the design.

  17. Measuring the effect of an eight-week adaptive yoga program on the physical and psychological status of individuals with Parkinson's disease. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Boulgarides, L K; Barakatt, E; Coleman-Salgado, B

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects muscle tone, strength, flexibility, motor control, psychological outlook, cognition, and function. Exercise has been found to improve physical ability and psychological outlook, but the effect of yoga on individuals with PD has not been well researched. The purposes of this study were to identify outcome measures that were responsive to change in individuals with PD after an 8-week adaptive yoga program and to determine appropriate sample sizes for future studies. In a repeated measures design, 10 participants with a Hoehn and Yahr stage of 2 or 3 were tested prior to and after an 8-week control phase and again after they underwent an 8-week adaptive yoga program. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests revealed differences in time of measure that approached significance for the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) (p = 0.008) and the 30-Second Chair Stand (TSCS) (p = 0.013). The interaction between time of measure and gender approached significance for the Sit-and-Reach Test (SRT) (p = 0.08 and 0.03, right and left respectively), with male participants improving in sit-and-reach flexibility compared with female participants after intervention. The interaction between time of measure and age approached significance for the Single-Leg Balance test (SLB) (p = 0.007), with younger participants improving in SLB time after intervention. Power calculations found that a sample size ranging from 33 to 153 would be required to achieve significance at the 0.01 level in the various outcome measures in a future study of this design. The depression subscale of the HADS, the TSCS, the SLB, and the right and left SRT were the measures that changed following the yoga intervention and are recommended as outcome measures in future studies investigating the effectiveness of yoga for individuals with PD. This preliminary study supports further investigation of adaptive yoga using a

  18. Footwall rotation in an oceanic core complex quantified using reoriented Integrated Ocean Drilling Program core samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, A.; Gee, J. S.; Pressling, N.; John, B. E.; MacLeod, C. J.; Grimes, C. B.; Searle, R. C.

    2009-09-01

    Oceanic core complexes expose lower crustal and upper mantle rocks on the seafloor by tectonic unroofing in the footwalls of large-slip detachment faults. The common occurrence of these structures in slow and ultra-slow spread oceanic crust suggests that they accommodate a significant component of plate divergence. However, the subsurface geometry of detachment faults in oceanic core complexes remains unclear. Competing models involve either: (a) displacement on planar, low-angle faults with little tectonic rotation; or (b) progressive shallowing by rotation of initially steeply dipping faults as a result of flexural unloading (the "rolling-hinge" model). We address this debate using palaeomagnetic remanences as markers for tectonic rotation within a unique 1.4 km long footwall section of gabbroic rocks recovered by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) sampling at Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). These rocks contain a complex record of multipolarity magnetizations that are unrelated to alteration and igneous stratigraphy in the sampled section and are inferred to result from progressive cooling of the footwall section over geomagnetic polarity chrons C1r.2r, C1r.1n (Jaramillo) and C1r.1r. For the first time we have independently reoriented drill-core samples of lower crustal gabbros, that were initially azimuthally unconstrained, to a true geographic reference frame by correlating structures in individual core pieces with those identified from oriented imagery of the borehole wall. This allows reorientation of the palaeomagnetic data, placing far more rigorous constraints on the tectonic history than those possible using only palaeomagnetic inclination data. Analysis of the reoriented high temperature reversed component of magnetization indicates a 46° ± 6° anticlockwise rotation of the footwall around a MAR-parallel horizontal axis trending 011° ± 6°. Reoriented lower temperature components of normal and reversed

  19. "When Will Your Program Be Available in Spanish?" Adapting an Early Parenting Intervention for Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Jean E.; Arriaga, Ximena; Begle, Angela Moreland; Longoria, Zayra

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the Spanish adaptation of PACE--"Parenting Our Children to Excellence." Successfully offered in preschools and daycare centers since 2002, PACE is a research-based preventive intervention to support families in their parenting task through discussions and activities that address practical childrearing issues and promote child…

  20. Learning to Be a Community: Schools Need Adaptable Models to Create Successful Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ermeling, Bradley A.; Gallimore, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Making schools learning places for teachers as well as students is a timeless and appealing vision. The growing number of professional learning communities is a hopeful sign that profound change is on the way. This is the challenge learning communities face: Schools and districts need implementation models flexible enough to adapt to local…

  1. Project ADAPT: A Program to Assess Depression and Provide Proactive Treatment in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luptak, Marilyn; Kaas, Merrie J.; Artz, Margaret; McCarthy, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We describe and evaluate a project designed to pilot test an evidence-based clinical intervention for assessing and treating depression in older adults in rural primary care clinics. Project ADAPT--Assuring Depression Assessment and Proactive Treatment--utilized existing primary care resources to overcome barriers to sustainability…

  2. Mitigation and adaptation within a climate change policy portfolio: A research program

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is now recognized that optimal global climate policy is a portfolio of the two key responses for reducing the risks of climate change: mitigation and adaptation. Significant differences between the two responses have inhibited understanding of how to appropriately view these...

  3. Adaptive Technology that Provides Access to Computers. DO-IT Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle.

    This brochure describes the different types of barriers individuals with mobility impairments, blindness, low vision, hearing impairments, and specific learning disabilities face in providing computer input, interpreting output, and reading documentation. The adaptive hardware and software that has been developed to provide functional alternatives…

  4. Teacher Knows Best: Adaptations to District-Adopted Math Program as Shared by Elementary Math Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Anne Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Despite the resources and training provided, teachers make decisions to adapt from the written curriculum throughout their day. Some would argue that the teacher's ability to not only recognize when students are struggling, but to also be able to select adequate instructional strategies to reteach the concept, is their most valuable asset. The…

  5. Adaptive Competency Acquisition: Whey LPN-to-AND Career Mobility Education Programs Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle-Rogers, Patricia G.

    2001-01-01

    Scores on an adaptive competency profile for 30 Licensed Practical Nurse graduate candidates and 41 second-level Associate Degree in Nursing candidates indicated that there was no significant difference between the two groups. Results suggest that a variety of educational backgrounds foster development of nursing competence. (Contains 23…

  6. Adaptive and Motivated: Psychological Qualities of College Students in Teacher Education Programs in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hsiou-huai

    2012-01-01

    Teacher quality has been a perennial issue in the field of education. In addition to academic ability, psychological and motivational characteristics are regarded as increasingly important dimensions of teacher quality. This study has established a multidimensional framework of teacher quality including social competency, adaptive ability and…

  7. 76 FR 584 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program Work Group (AMWG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... assessments, (3) Colorado River Basin hydrology, (4) and the Long-Term Experimental and Management Plan. In... provided to Glen Knowles, Bureau of Reclamation, Upper Colorado Regional Office, 125 South State Street.... Glen Knowles, Chief, Adaptive Management Work Group, Environmental Resources Division, Upper...

  8. The use of recurrent signals about adaptation for subsequent saccade programming depends on object structure.

    PubMed

    Doré-Mazars, Karine; Vergilino-Perez, Dorine; Collins, Thérèse; Bohacova, Katarina; Beauvillain, Cécile

    2006-10-03

    Executing sequences of accurate saccadic eye movements supposes the use of signals carrying information about the first saccade for updating the predetermined motor plan of the subsequent saccades. The present study examines the signals used in planning a second saccade when subjects made two successive saccades towards one long or two short peripheral objects displayed before the first saccade execution. Different first eye movement signals could be used: desired eye movement signals, representing the movement necessary for attaining the intended target, or actual eye movement signals, representing the movement actually executed. Experimental dissociation of desired and actual eye movement signals is made possible by adaptive modifications of the first saccade, obtained by transfer of single saccade adaptation, during which the motor vector was progressively modified in response to the systematic intra-saccadic step of a single target. Whether the second saccade used the actual eye movement signal to compensate or not for the adaptive changes in the first saccade depended on which object properties were relevant for saccade planning. Compensation was observed for saccades that aimed for a new object (between-object saccades) because adaptation modifies relative object location. No compensation was observed for saccades that explored an extended object (within-object saccades). Implications for the on-line control of subsequent eye movements are discussed.

  9. Firestar-"D": Computerized Adaptive Testing Simulation Program for Dichotomous Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Seung W.; Podrabsky, Tracy; McKinney, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) enables efficient and flexible measurement of latent constructs. The majority of educational and cognitive measurement constructs are based on dichotomous item response theory (IRT) models. An integral part of developing various components of a CAT system is conducting simulations using both known and empirical…

  10. Well installation and documentation, and ground-water sampling protocols for the pilot National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardy, M.A.; Leahy, P.P.; Alley, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    Several pilot projects are being conducted as part of the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The purpose of the pilot program is to test and refine concepts for a proposed full-scale program. Three of the pilot projects are specifically designed to assess groundwater. The purpose of this report is to describe the criteria that are being used in the NAWQA pilot projects for selecting and documenting wells, installing new wells, and sampling wells for different water quality constituents. Guidelines are presented for the selection of wells for sampling. Information needed to accurately document each well includes site characteristics related to the location of the well, land use near the well, and important well construction features. These guidelines ensure the consistency of the information collected and will provide comparable data for interpretive purposes. Guidelines for the installation of wells are presented and include procedures that need to be followed for preparations prior to drilling, the selection of the drilling technique and casing type, the grouting procedure, and the well-development technique. A major component of the protocols is related to water quality sampling. Tasks are identified that need to be completed prior to visiting the site for sampling. Guidelines are presented for purging the well prior t sampling, both in terms of the volume of water pumped and the chemical stability of field parameters. Guidelines are presented concerning sampler selection as related to both inorganic and organic constituents. Documentation needed to describe the measurements and observations related to sampling each well and treating and preserving the samples are also presented. Procedures are presented for the storage and shipping of water samples, equipment cleaning, and quality assurance. Quality assurance guidelines include the description of the general distribution of the various quality assurance samples (blanks, spikes, duplicates, and

  11. Human cytomegalovirus and human umbilical vein endothelial cells: restriction of primary isolation to blood samples and susceptibilities of clinical isolates from other sources to adaptation.

    PubMed

    Gerna, Giuseppe; Percivalle, Elena; Sarasini, Antonella; Revello, M Grazia

    2002-01-01

    In immunocompromised patients with disseminated infection, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is widespread in the microvascular endothelium of multiple organs. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used in parallel to human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELF) to recover HCMV from blood samples of immunocompromised patients. Using the shell vial technique, comparable median numbers of p72-positive HUVEC and HELF cells were found with the 26 HCMV-positive buffy coat samples out of 150 examined. Analysis of other clinical samples inoculated as controls revealed, in the presence of highly infected HELF monolayers, either the presence of very few infected HUVEC with urine specimens (n = 10 samples) or the lack of infected HUVEC with throat washes (n = 3) or amniotic fluid samples (n = 2). Thus, peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) appear essential for primary isolation of HCMV in HUVEC. In this respect, HCMV strains, recovered from clinical samples other than buffy coats in HELF only, could be readily adapted to growth in HUVEC by coculturing PBL from healthy blood donors with infected HELF and then inoculating infected PBL onto HUVEC. Recently elucidated mechanisms of interaction of leukocytes and HUVEC with bidirectional transfer of virus seem to provide the basis for the restriction of HCMV primary isolation in HUVEC to blood samples. However, virus strains recovered from only HELF could be adapted to growth in HUVEC when inoculated with HELF-derived (either cell-associated or cell-free) HCMV strains upon primary isolation. In conclusion, due to the in vitro selection of virus variants provided with both PBL tropism and HUVEC tropism, HCMV recovery in HUVEC is PBL mediated and substantially restricted to blood samples. Lack of HCMV recovery in HUVEC from clinical samples other than blood leads to the assumption that epithelial cells, such as urinary, amniotic, or pharyngeal cells, do not possess adequate adhesion molecules to establish close contacts with HUVEC.

  12. Adaptation of the chronic disease self-management program for cancer survivors: feasibility, acceptability, and lessons for implementation.

    PubMed

    Risendal, B; Dwyer, A; Seidel, R; Lorig, K; Katzenmeyer, C; Coombs, L; Kellar-Guenther, Y; Warren, L; Franco, A; Ory, M

    2014-12-01

    Self-management in chronic disease has been shown to improve patient-reported and health care-related outcomes. However, relatively little information about its utility in cancer survivorship is known. We evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of the delivery of an adaptation of the evidence-based Chronic Disease Self-management Program (Stanford) called Cancer Thriving and Surviving (CTS). Triangulated mixed methods were used to capture baseline characteristics and post-program experiences using a combination of closed- and open-ended survey items; emergent coding and simple descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. Twenty-seven workshops were delivered by 22 CTS leaders to 244 participants between August 2011 and January 2013 in a variety of settings (48 % community, 30 % health care, 22 % regional/community cancer center). Representing a variety of cancer types, about half the participants were 1-3 years post-diagnosis and 45 % were 4 or more years from diagnosis. Program attendance was high with 84 % of participants attending four or more of the six sessions in the workshop. Overall, 95 % of the participants were satisfied with the program content and leaders, and would recommend the program to friends and family. These results confirm the feasibility and acceptability of delivery of a high-fidelity, peer-led model for self-management support for cancer survivors. Expansion of the CTS represents a powerful tool toward improving health-related outcomes in this at-risk population.

  13. Modification and Adaptation of the Program Evaluation Standards in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alyami, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    The Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation's Program Evaluation Standards is probably the most recognized and applied set of evaluation standards globally. The most recent edition of The Program Evaluation Standards includes five categories and 30 standards. The five categories are Utility, Feasibility, Propriety, Accuracy, and…

  14. Cultural Adaptation of a Preventive Program for Ultra-Orthodox Preschool Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilboa, Yafit

    2016-01-01

    Cultural factors significantly influence the effectiveness of pediatric screening that enables the prevention of developmental disturbances. The formulation of intervention programs must match the needs of the child, his or her family, and educators. Recognizing the importance of creating an intervention program accessible to the culture of the…

  15. Geriatric Education across 94 Million Acres: Adapting Conference Programming in a Rural State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy-Southwick, Colleen; McBride, Melen

    2006-01-01

    Montana, a predominantly rural state, with a unique blend of geography and history, low population density, and cultural diversity represents the challenges for program development and implementation across remote areas. The paper discusses two statewide multidisciplinary geriatric education programs for health professionals offered by the…

  16. Swim Free. A 10 Day Program of Aquatic Exercises Adapted from Life in the Waterworld.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberhardt, Lorraine; Sanborn, Laura

    The completely waterproof book contains instructions for an alternative form of swimming exercises based on the movements of 19 water creatures. The exercises can be used by groups or individuals to enhance training programs, to serve as part of a structured synchronized swimming program, or to supplement recreational activities. The book provides…

  17. The Effect of Adapting Instructional Design to Individual Learning Style Pathways on Learning Outcome in a Combat Pilot Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malachowski, James A.

    2012-01-01

    This study used a convenience sample military officers from the U.S. Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps enrolled in an undergraduate pilot training course but awaiting the start of their program. All participants were 4-year college graduates with a median age of 23. Of the 114 participants, 87% were male and 13% were female. Participants were…

  18. Social Science at the Center for Adaptive Optics: Synergistic Systems of Program Evaluation, Applied Research, Educational Assessment, and Pedagogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goza, B. K.; Hunter, L.; Shaw, J. M.; Metevier, A. J.; Raschke, L.; Espinoza, E.; Geaney, E. R.; Reyes, G.; Rothman, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes the interaction of four elements of social science as they have evolved in concert with the Center for Adaptive Optics Professional Development Program (CfAO PDP). We hope these examples persuade early-career scientists and engineers to include social science activities as they develop grant proposals and carry out their research. To frame our discussion we use a metaphor from astronomy. At the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC), the CfAO PDP and the Educational Partnership Center (EPC) are two young stars in the process of forming a solar system. Together, they are surrounded by a disk of gas and dust made up of program evaluation, applied research, educational assessment, and pedagogy. An idea from the 2001 PDP intensive workshops program evaluation developed into the Assessing Scientific Inquiry and Leadership Skills (AScILS) applied research project. In iterative cycles, AScILS researchers participated in subsequent PDP intensive workshops, teaching social science while piloting AScILS measurement strategies. Subsequent "orbits" of the PDP program evaluation gathered ideas from the applied research and pedagogy. The denser regions of this disk of social science are in the process of forming new protoplanets as tools for research and teaching are developed. These tools include problem-solving exercises or simulations of adaptive optics explanations and scientific reasoning; rubrics to evaluate the scientific reasoning simulation responses, knowledge regarding inclusive science education, and student explanations of science/engineering inquiry investigations; and a scientific reasoning curriculum. Another applied research project is forming with the design of a study regarding how to assess engineering explanations. To illustrate the mutual shaping of the cross-disciplinary, intergenerational group of educational researchers and their projects, the paper ends with a description of the professional trajectories of some of the

  19. Tools to Help the NPDES Program Adapt to Fluctuating Environmental Conditions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Climate-related circumstances pose challenges for permittees and permit writers. Managing discharges to protect water quality can be aided by the refinement of the methods, tools and information used to develop and implement NPDES permits and programs.

  20. Data-Driven Tracking Control With Adaptive Dynamic Programming for a Class of Continuous-Time Nonlinear Systems.

    PubMed

    Mu, Chaoxu; Ni, Zhen; Sun, Changyin; He, Haibo

    2016-04-22

    A data-driven adaptive tracking control approach is proposed for a class of continuous-time nonlinear systems using a recent developed goal representation heuristic dynamic programming (GrHDP) architecture. The major focus of this paper is on designing a multivariable tracking scheme, including the filter-based action network (FAN) architecture, and the stability analysis in continuous-time fashion. In this design, the FAN is used to observe the system function, and then generates the corresponding control action together with the reference signals. The goal network will provide an internal reward signal adaptively based on the current system states and the control action. This internal reward signal is assigned as the input for the critic network, which approximates the cost function over time. We demonstrate its improved tracking performance in comparison with the existing heuristic dynamic programming (HDP) approach under the same parameter and environment settings. The simulation results of the multivariable tracking control on two examples have been presented to show that the proposed scheme can achieve better control in terms of learning speed and overall performance.

  1. Comparing oncology clinical programs by use of innovative designs and expected net present value optimization: Which adaptive approach leads to the best result?

    PubMed

    Parke, Tom; Marchenko, Olga; Anisimov, Vladimir; Ivanova, Anastasia; Jennison, Christopher; Perevozskaya, Inna; Song, Guochen

    2017-01-01

    Designing an oncology clinical program is more challenging than designing a single study. The standard approaches have been proven to be not very successful during the last decade; the failure rate of Phase 2 and Phase 3 trials in oncology remains high. Improving a development strategy by applying innovative statistical methods is one of the major objectives of a drug development process. The oncology sub-team on Adaptive Program under the Drug Information Association Adaptive Design Scientific Working Group (DIA ADSWG) evaluated hypothetical oncology programs with two competing treatments and published the work in the Therapeutic Innovation and Regulatory Science journal in January 2014. Five oncology development programs based on different Phase 2 designs, including adaptive designs and a standard two parallel arm Phase 3 design were simulated and compared in terms of the probability of clinical program success and expected net present value (eNPV). In this article, we consider eight Phase2/Phase3 development programs based on selected combinations of five Phase 2 study designs and three Phase 3 study designs. We again used the probability of program success and eNPV to compare simulated programs. For the development strategies, we considered that the eNPV showed robust improvement for each successive strategy, with the highest being for a three-arm response adaptive randomization design in Phase 2 and a group sequential design with 5 analyses in Phase 3.

  2. A Large Sample Evaluation of a Court-Mandated Batterer Intervention Program: Investigating Differential Program Effect for African American and Caucasian Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttell, Frederick P.; Carney, Michelle Mohr

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to (a) evaluate a 26-week batterer intervention program by investigating changes in psychological variables related to abuse (i.e., truthfulness, violence, lethality, control, alcohol use, drug use, and stress coping abilities) between pretreatment and posttreatment assessments in a large sample of…

  3. Linking Program Implementation and Effectiveness: Lessons from a Pooled Sample of Welfare-to-Work Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.; Hill, Carolyn J.; Riccio, James A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the question: How does implementation influence the effectiveness of mandatory welfare-to-work programs? Data from three large-scale, multi-site random assignment experiments were pooled; quantitative measures of program implementation were constructed; and multilevel statistical modeling was used to examine the relationship…

  4. Re-evaluation of a Programmed Method To Teach Generalized Identity Matching to Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, William V.; Serna, Richard W.

    1998-01-01

    Programmed identity-matching training was given to five participants with severe mental retardation and histories of failures in assessments and training attempts. When an intermediate goal of establishing one-trial discrimination learning was eliminated, four participants completed the program and passed tests for generalized identity matching…

  5. Adapting to the Needs of the Public Health Workforce: An Integrated Case-Based Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Sibbald, Shannon L.; Speechley, Mark; Thind, Amardeep

    2016-01-01

    The goal of any public health education at the Masters level is to transmit knowledge and skills to meet current and future public health challenges. We suggest an innovative multi-modal approach to public health education using a case-based pedagogy combined with competency-based curriculum and a team-based approach to foster truly experiential learning. We describe each pedagogical approach in connection to the relevance of optimal methods for training public health professionals. Western University’s Schulich Interfaculty Masters of Public Health (MPH) program (ON, Canada) provides a unique interprofessional education through case-based learning and competency-based curriculum. This Masters program has attracted applicants from around the world to learn in a supportive interprofessional environment and to foster them as they become learners and leaders in public health changes. To our knowledge, we are the first condensed MPH program using integrated case-based pedagogy as our main pedagogical approach. PMID:27790608

  6. Adaptation of a program for nonlinear finite element analysis to the CDC STAR 100 computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pifko, A. B.; Ogilvie, P. L.

    1978-01-01

    The conversion of a nonlinear finite element program to the CDC STAR 100 pipeline computer is discussed. The program called DYCAST was developed for the crash simulation of structures. Initial results with the STAR 100 computer indicated that significant gains in computation time are possible for operations on gloval arrays. However, for element level computations that do not lend themselves easily to long vector processing, the STAR 100 was slower than comparable scalar computers. On this basis it is concluded that in order for pipeline computers to impact the economic feasibility of large nonlinear analyses it is absolutely essential that algorithms be devised to improve the efficiency of element level computations.

  7. Hourglass Sampling of Participants in the Human Reliability Program (HRP) for Drug and Alcohol (D&A) Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Ivan R. Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Hourglass Sampling of Participants in the Human Reliability Program (HRP) for Alcohol and Drug Testing Ivan R. Thomas Idaho National Laboratory The random sampling with replacement of Human Reliability Program (HRP) participants for alcohol and drug testing can have the disadvantage that some participants are selected multiple times while others might not be chosen during an annual testing period. To alleviate this inefficiency, an “hourglass” sampling scheme has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the random selection of HRP participants. With this scheme, all HRP participants are placed in a primary population at the beginning of the calendar year, and throughout the year, sequential random samples (generally of a fixed sample size) are drawn without replacement until the population is emptied. Thus, each participant is guaranteed to be tested at least once annually; but due to the random selection, the time of the initial test is unknown. After initial testing, the participants drawn from the primary population are transferred to a secondary population for potential retesting. Each time that the primary population is sampled, the secondary population is likewise sampled, but the sampling is with replacement. Thus, while the primary population decreases at a constant rate, the secondary population increases at the same rate through the accrual and retention of previously-tested participants, hence the hourglass concept. The replacement sampling of participants from the secondary population is through an increasing sample size (a fixed percentage of those currently in the population). Thus, once in the secondary population, each participant has a constant probability of being reselected, but the number of annual reselections is less than would be realized through traditional replacement sampling from a single population. Furthermore, the objective of maintaining suspense on the part of the HRP participant is retained, that is, all participants

  8. Samoan body and soul: adapting an evidence-based obesity and cancer prevention program.

    PubMed

    Cassel, Kevin D; Braun, Kathryn; Ka'opua, Lana; Soa, Fuamaila; Nigg, Claudio

    2014-12-01

    Obesity-associated chronic diseases persist in Samoan populations in the United States. Samoans and African Americans share cultural similarities such as church affiliation, perceptions of weight and body size, and obesity-related health risks. Adapting an effective energy balance intervention originally designed for African Americans--Body and Soul--might be useful in reducing obesity among U.S. Samoans. To determine potential attractiveness and adaptations, we used aspects of grounded theory to analyze key-informant and focus group interviews with 31 purposively selected Samoans in Hawaii. We incorporated participatory features into the research with Samoan community members conducting parts of the study. From interview narratives, we identified relevant themes from Samoan culture, such as "fa'aSamoa", or the Samoan way, and specific energy balance activities to include in an obesity and cancer prevention intervention for U.S.-dwelling Samoans. Our findings describe methods to address health disparities by incorporating culturally appropriate health concepts into existing evidence-based interventions.

  9. Samoan Body and Soul: Adapting an Evidence-Based Obesity and Cancer Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Cassel, Kevin D.; Braun, Kathryn; Ka’opua, Lana; Soa, Fuamaila; Nigg, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Obesity-associated chronic diseases persist in Samoan populations in the United States. Samoans and African Americans share cultural similarities such as church affiliation, perceptions of weight and body size, and obesity-related health risks. Adapting an effective energy balance intervention originally designed for African Americans—Body and Soul— might be useful in reducing obesity among U.S. Samoans. To determine potential attractiveness and adaptations, we used aspects of grounded theory to analyze key-informant and focus group interviews with 31 purposively selected Samoans in Hawaii. We incorporated participatory features into the research with Samoan community members conducting parts of the study. From interview narratives, we identified relevant themes from Samoan culture, such as fa’aSamoa or the Samoan way, and specific energy balance activities to include in an obesity and cancer prevention intervention for U.S.-dwelling Samoans. Our findings describe methods to address health disparities by incorporating culturally appropriate health concepts into existing evidence-based interventions. PMID:25212854

  10. Development of sample handling procedures for foods under USDA’s National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program

    PubMed Central

    Trainer, D.; Pehrsson, P.R.; Haytowitz, D.B.; Holden, J.M.; Phillips, K.M.; Rasor, A.S.; Conley, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    The National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) was implemented in 1997 to update and improve the quality of food composition data maintained by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). NFNAP was designed to sample and analyze frequently consumed foods in the U.S. food supply using statistically rigorous sampling plans, established sample handling procedures, and qualified analytical laboratories. Methods for careful handling of food samples from acquisition to analysis were developed to ensure the integrity of the samples and subsequent generation of accurate nutrient values. The infrastructure of NFNAP, under which over 1500 foods have been sampled, mandates tested sample handling protocols for a wide variety of foods. The majority of these foods were categorized into several major areas: 1) frozen foods; 2) fresh produce and/or highly perishable foods requiring refrigeration; 3) fast foods and prepared foods; 4) shelf-stable foods; 5) specialized study and non-retail (point of production) foods; and 6) foods from remote areas (e.g. American Indian reservations). This paper describes the sample handling approaches, from the collection and receipt of the food items to the preparation of the analytical samples, with emphasis on the strategies developed for those foods. It provides a foundation for developing sample handling protocols of foods to be analyzed under NFNAP and for other researchers working on similar projects. PMID:21516233

  11. Cross-cultural adaptation of an adolescent HIV prevention program: social validation of social contexts and behavior among Botswana adolescents.

    PubMed

    St Lawrence, Janet S; Seloilwe, Esther; Magowe, Mabel; Dithole, Kefalotse; Kgosikwena, Billy; Kokoro, Elija; Lesaane, Dipuo

    2013-08-01

    An evidence-based HIV prevention intervention was adapted for Botswana youth with qualitative interviews, input from an adolescent panel, and social validation. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 40 boys and girls ages 13-19. An adolescent panel then drafted scenarios reflecting social situations described in the interviews that posed risk for HIV. A social validation sample (N = 65) then indicated the prevalence and difficulty of each situation. Youth described informational needs, pressures to use alcohol and drugs, peer pressure for unprotected sex, and intergenerational sex initiations as risk-priming situations. From 17% to 57% of the social validation sample had personally experienced the situations drafted by the adolescent panel. There were no differences in the ratings of boys versus girls, but youth over age 16 more often reported that they had experienced these risky situations. The results were embedded into the intervention. Major changes to the intervention resulted from this three-phase process.

  12. Mobile membrane introduction tandem mass spectrometry for on-the-fly measurements and adaptive sampling of VOCs around oil and gas projects in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krogh, E.; Gill, C.; Bell, R.; Davey, N.; Martinsen, M.; Thompson, A.; Simpson, I. J.; Blake, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    The release of hydrocarbons into the environment can have significant environmental and economic consequences. The evolution of smaller, more portable mass spectrometers to the field can provide spatially and temporally resolved information for rapid detection, adaptive sampling and decision support. We have deployed a mobile platform membrane introduction mass spectrometer (MIMS) for the in-field simultaneous measurement of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds. In this work, we report instrument and data handling advances that produce geographically referenced data in real-time and preliminary data where these improvements have been combined with high precision ultra-trace VOCs analysis to adaptively sample air plumes near oil and gas operations in Alberta, Canada. We have modified a commercially available ion-trap mass spectrometer (Griffin ICX 400) with an in-house temperature controlled capillary hollow fibre polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer membrane interface and in-line permeation tube flow cell for a continuously infused internal standard. The system is powered by 24 VDC for remote operations in a moving vehicle. Software modifications include the ability to run continuous, interlaced tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments for multiple contaminants/internal standards. All data are time and location stamped with on-board GPS and meteorological data to facilitate spatial and temporal data mapping. Tandem MS/MS scans were employed to simultaneously monitor ten volatile and semi-volatile analytes, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX), reduced sulfur compounds, halogenated organics and naphthalene. Quantification was achieved by calibrating against a continuously infused deuterated internal standard (toluene-d8). Time referenced MS/MS data were correlated with positional data and processed using Labview and Matlab to produce calibrated, geographical Google Earth data-visualizations that enable adaptive sampling protocols

  13. Adapting Stanford's Chronic Disease Self-Management Program to Hawaii's Multicultural Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomioka, Michiyo; Braun, Kathryn L.; Compton, Merlita; Tanoue, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Stanford's Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) has been proven to increase patients' ability to manage distress. We describe how we replicated CDSMP in Asian and Pacific Islander (API) communities. Design and Methods: We used the "track changes" tool to deconstruct CDSMP into its various components…

  14. Mathematical description and program documentation for CLASSY, an adaptive maximum likelihood clustering method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennington, R. K.; Rassbach, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    Discussed in this report is the clustering algorithm CLASSY, including detailed descriptions of its general structure and mathematical background and of the various major subroutines. The report provides a development of the logic and equations used with specific reference to program variables. Some comments on timing and proposed optimization techniques are included.

  15. Fostering Integrative Thinking: Adapting the Executive Education Model to the MBA Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Gary; Latham, Soosan D.; Whyte, Glen

    2004-01-01

    Many full-time MBA programs limit their effectiveness by clinging to functionalism. At best, they have made incremental changes to meet the market demand for MBA graduates. These changes, in most cases, have failed to integrate the various functional facets of complex business challenges. For insights into how to do so, many business schools need…

  16. Cross-Cultural Competency Adaptability of Dental Hygiene Educators in Entry Level Dental Hygiene Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engeswick, Lynnette Marie

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to discover the extent dental hygiene educators in 25 entry-level dental hygiene programs from the Upper Midwest demonstrate Emotional Resilience, Flexibility and Openness, Perceptual Acuity, and Personal Autonomy as they relate to their level of education and multicultural experiences. An additional purpose was to examine…

  17. Adaptation and Re-Use of Spacecraft Power System Models for the Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Ayres, Mark; Han, Augustina H.; Adamson, Adrian M.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program is embarking on a new era of space exploration, returning to the Moon and beyond. The Constellation architecture will consist of a number of new spacecraft elements, including the Orion crew exploration vehicle, the Altair lunar lander, and the Ares family of launch vehicles. Each of these new spacecraft elements will need an electric power system, and those power systems will need to be designed to fulfill unique mission objectives and to survive the unique environments encountered on a lunar exploration mission. As with any new spacecraft power system development, preliminary design work will rely heavily on analysis to select the proper power technologies, size the power system components, and predict the system performance throughout the required mission profile. Constellation projects have the advantage of leveraging power system modeling developments from other recent programs such as the International Space Station (ISS) and the Mars Exploration Program. These programs have developed mature power system modeling tools, which can be quickly modified to meet the unique needs of Constellation, and thus provide a rapid capability for detailed power system modeling that otherwise would not exist.

  18. Exploring the Impact of an Outdoor Orientation Program on Adaptation to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribbe, Robert, Jr.; Cyrus, Rachael; Langan, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor orientation programming as a means for orientating students to college has experienced significant growth and expanded use over the past decade. An increase in rigorous research has accompanied this growth as colleges and universities seek to understand and meet the needs of young adults in transition. In this study, two research questions…

  19. Program Adaptations for Students in Four Selected Sports: Badminton, Golf, Archery, and Tennis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowart, Jim

    1982-01-01

    The booklet reviews ways in which students with crutches may be helped to successfully participate in four specific sports. General guidelines for modifying programs for this group include the importance of thorough assessment, attention to details of the game play, and consideration of equipment and supply alterations. Each of the four sports is…

  20. Adaptive, Active and Multifunctional Composite and Hybrid Materials Program: Composite and Hybrid Materials ERA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    were exposed to a spray of polar solvent or polar solvent/ water absorbing polymer . When compared to the control, the doped yarns doubled in... Polymer Nanocomposite Synthesis ................................25 4.6.2 Polymeric Nanocomposite Battery Materials...merged into the ERA bridge program: in-house polymer synthesis and processing projects of graded preceramic polymeric hybrid materials, a laser