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Sample records for adaptive search procedures

  1. Parallel automated adaptive procedures for unstructured meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shephard, M. S.; Flaherty, J. E.; Decougny, H. L.; Ozturan, C.; Bottasso, C. L.; Beall, M. W.

    1995-01-01

    Consideration is given to the techniques required to support adaptive analysis of automatically generated unstructured meshes on distributed memory MIMD parallel computers. The key areas of new development are focused on the support of effective parallel computations when the structure of the numerical discretization, the mesh, is evolving, and in fact constructed, during the computation. All the procedures presented operate in parallel on already distributed mesh information. Starting from a mesh definition in terms of a topological hierarchy, techniques to support the distribution, redistribution and communication among the mesh entities over the processors is given, and algorithms to dynamically balance processor workload based on the migration of mesh entities are given. A procedure to automatically generate meshes in parallel, starting from CAD geometric models, is given. Parallel procedures to enrich the mesh through local mesh modifications are also given. Finally, the combination of these techniques to produce a parallel automated finite element analysis procedure for rotorcraft aerodynamics calculations is discussed and demonstrated.

  2. Adaptive Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Unconstrained Optimization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Modification of the intensification and diversification approaches in the recently developed cuckoo search algorithm (CSA) is performed. The alteration involves the implementation of adaptive step size adjustment strategy, and thus enabling faster convergence to the global optimal solutions. The feasibility of the proposed algorithm is validated against benchmark optimization functions, where the obtained results demonstrate a marked improvement over the standard CSA, in all the cases. PMID:25298971

  3. Adaptive cuckoo search algorithm for unconstrained optimization.

    PubMed

    Ong, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Modification of the intensification and diversification approaches in the recently developed cuckoo search algorithm (CSA) is performed. The alteration involves the implementation of adaptive step size adjustment strategy, and thus enabling faster convergence to the global optimal solutions. The feasibility of the proposed algorithm is validated against benchmark optimization functions, where the obtained results demonstrate a marked improvement over the standard CSA, in all the cases. PMID:25298971

  4. Adaptive Distributed Environment for Procedure Training (ADEPT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domeshek, Eric; Ong, James; Mohammed, John

    2013-01-01

    ADEPT (Adaptive Distributed Environment for Procedure Training) is designed to provide more effective, flexible, and portable training for NASA systems controllers. When creating a training scenario, an exercise author can specify a representative rationale structure using the graphical user interface, annotating the results with instructional texts where needed. The author's structure may distinguish between essential and optional parts of the rationale, and may also include "red herrings" - hypotheses that are essential to consider, until evidence and reasoning allow them to be ruled out. The system is built from pre-existing components, including Stottler Henke's SimVentive? instructional simulation authoring tool and runtime. To that, a capability was added to author and exploit explicit control decision rationale representations. ADEPT uses SimVentive's Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG)- based interactive graphic display capability as the basis of the tool for quickly noting aspects of decision rationale in graph form. The ADEPT prototype is built in Java, and will run on any computer using Windows, MacOS, or Linux. No special peripheral equipment is required. The software enables a style of student/ tutor interaction focused on the reasoning behind systems control behavior that better mimics proven Socratic human tutoring behaviors for highly cognitive skills. It supports fast, easy, and convenient authoring of such tutoring behaviors, allowing specification of detailed scenario-specific, but content-sensitive, high-quality tutor hints and feedback. The system places relatively light data-entry demands on the student to enable its rationale-centered discussions, and provides a support mechanism for fostering coherence in the student/ tutor dialog by including focusing, sequencing, and utterance tuning mechanisms intended to better fit tutor hints and feedback into the ongoing context.

  5. Visual search behaviour during laparoscopic cadaveric procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Leng; Chen, Yan; Gale, Alastair G.; Rees, Benjamin; Maxwell-Armstrong, Charles

    2014-03-01

    Laparoscopic surgery provides a very complex example of medical image interpretation. The task entails: visually examining a display that portrays the laparoscopic procedure from a varying viewpoint; eye-hand coordination; complex 3D interpretation of the 2D display imagery; efficient and safe usage of appropriate surgical tools, as well as other factors. Training in laparoscopic surgery typically entails practice using surgical simulators. Another approach is to use cadavers. Viewing previously recorded laparoscopic operations is also a viable additional approach and to examine this a study was undertaken to determine what differences exist between where surgeons look during actual operations and where they look when simply viewing the same pre-recorded operations. It was hypothesised that there would be differences related to the different experimental conditions; however the relative nature of such differences was unknown. The visual search behaviour of two experienced surgeons was recorded as they performed three types of laparoscopic operations on a cadaver. The operations were also digitally recorded. Subsequently they viewed the recording of their operations, again whilst their eye movements were monitored. Differences were found in various eye movement parameters when the two surgeons performed the operations and where they looked when they simply watched the recordings of the operations. It is argued that this reflects the different perceptual motor skills pertinent to the different situations. The relevance of this for surgical training is explored.

  6. Interactive solution-adaptive grid generation procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Todd L.; Choo, Yung K.; Lee, Ki D.

    1992-01-01

    TURBO-AD is an interactive solution adaptive grid generation program under development. The program combines an interactive algebraic grid generation technique and a solution adaptive grid generation technique into a single interactive package. The control point form uses a sparse collection of control points to algebraically generate a field grid. This technique provides local grid control capability and is well suited to interactive work due to its speed and efficiency. A mapping from the physical domain to a parametric domain was used to improve difficulties encountered near outwardly concave boundaries in the control point technique. Therefore, all grid modifications are performed on the unit square in the parametric domain, and the new adapted grid is then mapped back to the physical domain. The grid adaption is achieved by adapting the control points to a numerical solution in the parametric domain using control sources obtained from the flow properties. Then a new modified grid is generated from the adapted control net. This process is efficient because the number of control points is much less than the number of grid points and the generation of the grid is an efficient algebraic process. TURBO-AD provides the user with both local and global controls.

  7. Particle Swarm Based Collective Searching Model for Adaptive Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Xiaohui; Patton, Robert M; Potok, Thomas E; Treadwell, Jim N

    2007-01-01

    This report presents a pilot study of an integration of particle swarm algorithm, social knowledge adaptation and multi-agent approaches for modeling the collective search behavior of self-organized groups in an adaptive environment. The objective of this research is to apply the particle swarm metaphor as a model of social group adaptation for the dynamic environment and to provide insight and understanding of social group knowledge discovering and strategic searching. A new adaptive environment model, which dynamically reacts to the group collective searching behaviors, is proposed in this research. The simulations in the research indicate that effective communication between groups is not the necessary requirement for whole self-organized groups to achieve the efficient collective searching behavior in the adaptive environment.

  8. Particle Swarm Based Collective Searching Model for Adaptive Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Xiaohui; Patton, Robert M; Potok, Thomas E; Treadwell, Jim N

    2008-01-01

    This report presents a pilot study of an integration of particle swarm algorithm, social knowledge adaptation and multi-agent approaches for modeling the collective search behavior of self-organized groups in an adaptive environment. The objective of this research is to apply the particle swarm metaphor as a model of social group adaptation for the dynamic environment and to provide insight and understanding of social group knowledge discovering and strategic searching. A new adaptive environment model, which dynamically reacts to the group collective searching behaviors, is proposed in this research. The simulations in the research indicate that effective communication between groups is not the necessary requirement for whole self-organized groups to achieve the efficient collective searching behavior in the adaptive environment.

  9. Robust local search for spacecraft operations using adaptive noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukunaga, Alex S.; Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve

    2004-01-01

    Randomization is a standard technique for improving the performance of local search algorithms for constraint satisfaction. However, it is well-known that local search algorithms are constraints satisfaction. However, it is well-known that local search algorithms are to the noise values selected. We investigate the use of an adaptive noise mechanism in an iterative repair-based planner/scheduler for spacecraft operations. Preliminary results indicate that adaptive noise makes the use of randomized repair moves safe and robust; that is, using adaptive noise makes it possible to consistently achieve, performance comparable with the best tuned noise setting without the need for manually tuning the noise parameter.

  10. The Search for the Adaptable ICT Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Vyver, Glen

    2009-01-01

    The "new" ICT professional should be an articulate problem-solver who understands business and technology, in particular how technology can solve business problems. Furthermore, the ideal ICT student should be adaptable. The adaptable student embraces change, learns quickly, understands the job market, thrives on variety, is autonomous, predicts…

  11. Guided Text Search Using Adaptive Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A; Symons, Christopher T; Senter, James K; DeNap, Frank A

    2012-10-01

    This research demonstrates the promise of augmenting interactive visualizations with semi- supervised machine learning techniques to improve the discovery of significant associations and insights in the search and analysis of textual information. More specifically, we have developed a system called Gryffin that hosts a unique collection of techniques that facilitate individualized investigative search pertaining to an ever-changing set of analytical questions over an indexed collection of open-source documents related to critical national infrastructure. The Gryffin client hosts dynamic displays of the search results via focus+context record listings, temporal timelines, term-frequency views, and multiple coordinate views. Furthermore, as the analyst interacts with the display, the interactions are recorded and used to label the search records. These labeled records are then used to drive semi-supervised machine learning algorithms that re-rank the unlabeled search records such that potentially relevant records are moved to the top of the record listing. Gryffin is described in the context of the daily tasks encountered at the US Department of Homeland Security s Fusion Center, with whom we are collaborating in its development. The resulting system is capable of addressing the analysts information overload that can be directly attributed to the deluge of information that must be addressed in the search and investigative analysis of textual information.

  12. An Upgrading Procedure for Adaptive Assessment of Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Anselmi, Pasquale; Robusto, Egidio; Stefanutti, Luca; de Chiusole, Debora

    2016-06-01

    In knowledge space theory, existing adaptive assessment procedures can only be applied when suitable estimates of their parameters are available. In this paper, an iterative procedure is proposed, which upgrades its parameters with the increasing number of assessments. The first assessments are run using parameter values that favor accuracy over efficiency. Subsequent assessments are run using new parameter values estimated on the incomplete response patterns from previous assessments. Parameter estimation is carried out through a new probabilistic model for missing-at-random data. Two simulation studies show that, with the increasing number of assessments, the performance of the proposed procedure approaches that of gold standards. PMID:27071952

  13. Procedures for Processing Requests for Computerized Literature Searches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Library Development.

    The New York State Library is conducting two regional pilot programs to provide on-line information services to public, academic, and special library patrons. These procedures and guidelines were written for reference librarians in participating libraries who will act as the intermediaries between their patrons and the search analysts at the State…

  14. Effect of cooling procedure on final denture base adaptation.

    PubMed

    Ganzarolli, S M; Rached, R N; Garcia, R C M R; Del Bel Cury, A A

    2002-08-01

    Well-fitted dentures prevent hyperplasic lesions, provide chewing efficiency and promote patient's comfort. Several factors may affect final adaptation of dentures, as the type of the acrylic resin, the flask cooling procedure and the water uptake. This investigation evaluated the effect of water storage and two different cooling procedures [bench cooling (BC) for 2 h; running water (RW) at 20 degrees C for 45 min] on the final adaptation of denture bases. A heat-cured acrylic resin (CL, Clássico, Clássico Artigos Odontológicos) and two microwave-cured acrylic resins [Acron MC, (AC) GC Dent. Ind. Corp.; Onda Cryl (OC), Clássico Artigos Odontológicos] were used to make the bases. Adaptation was assessed by measuring the weight of an intervening layer of silicone impression material between the base and the master die. Data was submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test (0.05). The following means were found: (BC) CL=0.72 +/- 0.03 a; AC=0.70 +/- 0.03 b; OC=0.76 +/- 0.04 c//(RW) CL= 1.00 +/- 0.11 a; AC=1.00 +/- 0.12 a; OC=0.95 +/- 0.10 a. Different labels join groups that are not statistically different (P > 0.05). Comparisons are made among groups submitted to the same cooling procedure (BC or RW). The conclusions are: interaction of type of material and cooling procedure had a statistically significant effect on the final adaptation of the denture bases (P < 0.05); water storage was not detected as a source of variance (P > 0.05) on the final adaptation. PMID:12220348

  15. Searching for adaptive traits in genetic resources - phenology based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, Abdallah

    2015-04-01

    Searching for adaptive traits in genetic resources - phenology based approach Abdallah Bari, Kenneth Street, Eddy De Pauw, Jalal Eddin Omari, and Chandra M. Biradar International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, Rabat Institutes, Rabat, Morocco Phenology is an important plant trait not only for assessing and forecasting food production but also for searching in genebanks for adaptive traits. Among the phenological parameters we have been considering to search for such adaptive and rare traits are the onset (sowing period) and the seasonality (growing period). Currently an application is being developed as part of the focused identification of germplasm strategy (FIGS) approach to use climatic data in order to identify crop growing seasons and characterize them in terms of onset and duration. These approximations of growing period characteristics can then be used to estimate flowering and maturity dates for dryland crops, such as wheat, barley, faba bean, lentils and chickpea, and assess, among others, phenology-related traits such as days to heading [dhe] and grain filling period [gfp]. The approach followed here is based on first calculating long term average daily temperatures by fitting a curve to the monthly data over days from beginning of the year. Prior to the identification of these phenological stages the onset is extracted first from onset integer raster GIS layers developed based on a model of the growing period that considers both moisture and temperature limitations. The paper presents some examples of real applications of the approach to search for rare and adaptive traits.

  16. Locally-adaptive and memetic evolutionary pattern search algorithms.

    PubMed

    Hart, William E

    2003-01-01

    Recent convergence analyses of evolutionary pattern search algorithms (EPSAs) have shown that these methods have a weak stationary point convergence theory for a broad class of unconstrained and linearly constrained problems. This paper describes how the convergence theory for EPSAs can be adapted to allow each individual in a population to have its own mutation step length (similar to the design of evolutionary programing and evolution strategies algorithms). These are called locally-adaptive EPSAs (LA-EPSAs) since each individual's mutation step length is independently adapted in different local neighborhoods. The paper also describes a variety of standard formulations of evolutionary algorithms that can be used for LA-EPSAs. Further, it is shown how this convergence theory can be applied to memetic EPSAs, which use local search to refine points within each iteration. PMID:12804096

  17. DMM assessments of attachment and adaptation: Procedures, validity and utility.

    PubMed

    Farnfield, Steve; Hautamäki, Airi; Nørbech, Peder; Sahhar, Nicola

    2010-07-01

    This article gives a brief over view of the Dynamic-Maturational Model of attachment and adaptation (DMM; Crittenden, 2008) together with the various DMM assessments of attachment that have been developed for specific stages of development. Each assessment is discussed in terms of procedure, outcomes, validity, advantages and limitations, comparable procedures and areas for further research and validation. The aims are twofold: to provide an introduction to DMM theory and its application that underlie the articles in this issue of CCPP; and to provide researchers and clinicians with a guide to DMM assessments. PMID:20603420

  18. A novel hyperbolic grid generation procedure with inherent adaptive dissipation

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, C.H.; Yin, S.L.; Soong, C.Y.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports a novel hyperbolic grid-generation with an inherent adaptive dissipation (HGAD), which is capable of improving the oscillation and overlapping of grid lines. In the present work upwinding differencing is applied to discretize the hyperbolic system and, thereby, to develop the adaptive dissipation coefficient. Complex configurations with the features of geometric discontinuity, exceptional concavity and convexity are used as the test cases for comparison of the present HGAD procedure with the conventional hyerbolic and elliptic ones. The results reveal that the HGAD method is superior in orthogonality and smoothness of the grid system. In addition, the computational efficiency of the flow solver may be improved by using the present HGAD procedure. 15 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Self-Adaptive Stepsize Search Applied to Optimal Structural Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolle, L.; Bland, J. A.

    Structural engineering often involves the design of space frames that are required to resist predefined external forces without exhibiting plastic deformation. The weight of the structure and hence the weight of its constituent members has to be as low as possible for economical reasons without violating any of the load constraints. Design spaces are usually vast and the computational costs for analyzing a single design are usually high. Therefore, not every possible design can be evaluated for real-world problems. In this work, a standard structural design problem, the 25-bar problem, has been solved using self-adaptive stepsize search (SASS), a relatively new search heuristic. This algorithm has only one control parameter and therefore overcomes the drawback of modern search heuristics, i.e. the need to first find a set of optimum control parameter settings for the problem at hand. In this work, SASS outperforms simulated-annealing, genetic algorithms, tabu search and ant colony optimization.

  20. Query-Adaptive Reciprocal Hash Tables for Nearest Neighbor Search.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianglong; Deng, Cheng; Lang, Bo; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2016-02-01

    Recent years have witnessed the success of binary hashing techniques in approximate nearest neighbor search. In practice, multiple hash tables are usually built using hashing to cover more desired results in the hit buckets of each table. However, rare work studies the unified approach to constructing multiple informative hash tables using any type of hashing algorithms. Meanwhile, for multiple table search, it also lacks of a generic query-adaptive and fine-grained ranking scheme that can alleviate the binary quantization loss suffered in the standard hashing techniques. To solve the above problems, in this paper, we first regard the table construction as a selection problem over a set of candidate hash functions. With the graph representation of the function set, we propose an efficient solution that sequentially applies normalized dominant set to finding the most informative and independent hash functions for each table. To further reduce the redundancy between tables, we explore the reciprocal hash tables in a boosting manner, where the hash function graph is updated with high weights emphasized on the misclassified neighbor pairs of previous hash tables. To refine the ranking of the retrieved buckets within a certain Hamming radius from the query, we propose a query-adaptive bitwise weighting scheme to enable fine-grained bucket ranking in each hash table, exploiting the discriminative power of its hash functions and their complement for nearest neighbor search. Moreover, we integrate such scheme into the multiple table search using a fast, yet reciprocal table lookup algorithm within the adaptive weighted Hamming radius. In this paper, both the construction method and the query-adaptive search method are general and compatible with different types of hashing algorithms using different feature spaces and/or parameter settings. Our extensive experiments on several large-scale benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed techniques can significantly outperform both

  1. An Adaptive Ridge Procedure for L0 Regularization

    PubMed Central

    Frommlet, Florian; Nuel, Grégory

    2016-01-01

    Penalized selection criteria like AIC or BIC are among the most popular methods for variable selection. Their theoretical properties have been studied intensively and are well understood, but making use of them in case of high-dimensional data is difficult due to the non-convex optimization problem induced by L0 penalties. In this paper we introduce an adaptive ridge procedure (AR), where iteratively weighted ridge problems are solved whose weights are updated in such a way that the procedure converges towards selection with L0 penalties. After introducing AR its specific shrinkage properties are studied in the particular case of orthogonal linear regression. Based on extensive simulations for the non-orthogonal case as well as for Poisson regression the performance of AR is studied and compared with SCAD and adaptive LASSO. Furthermore an efficient implementation of AR in the context of least-squares segmentation is presented. The paper ends with an illustrative example of applying AR to analyze GWAS data. PMID:26849123

  2. An Adaptive Image Enhancement Technique by Combining Cuckoo Search and Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhiwei; Wang, Mingwei; Hu, Zhengbing; Liu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Image enhancement is an important procedure of image processing and analysis. This paper presents a new technique using a modified measure and blending of cuckoo search and particle swarm optimization (CS-PSO) for low contrast images to enhance image adaptively. In this way, contrast enhancement is obtained by global transformation of the input intensities; it employs incomplete Beta function as the transformation function and a novel criterion for measuring image quality considering three factors which are threshold, entropy value, and gray-level probability density of the image. The enhancement process is a nonlinear optimization problem with several constraints. CS-PSO is utilized to maximize the objective fitness criterion in order to enhance the contrast and detail in an image by adapting the parameters of a novel extension to a local enhancement technique. The performance of the proposed method has been compared with other existing techniques such as linear contrast stretching, histogram equalization, and evolutionary computing based image enhancement methods like backtracking search algorithm, differential search algorithm, genetic algorithm, and particle swarm optimization in terms of processing time and image quality. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is robust and adaptive and exhibits the better performance than other methods involved in the paper. PMID:25784928

  3. An adaptive image enhancement technique by combining cuckoo search and particle swarm optimization algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhiwei; Wang, Mingwei; Hu, Zhengbing; Liu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Image enhancement is an important procedure of image processing and analysis. This paper presents a new technique using a modified measure and blending of cuckoo search and particle swarm optimization (CS-PSO) for low contrast images to enhance image adaptively. In this way, contrast enhancement is obtained by global transformation of the input intensities; it employs incomplete Beta function as the transformation function and a novel criterion for measuring image quality considering three factors which are threshold, entropy value, and gray-level probability density of the image. The enhancement process is a nonlinear optimization problem with several constraints. CS-PSO is utilized to maximize the objective fitness criterion in order to enhance the contrast and detail in an image by adapting the parameters of a novel extension to a local enhancement technique. The performance of the proposed method has been compared with other existing techniques such as linear contrast stretching, histogram equalization, and evolutionary computing based image enhancement methods like backtracking search algorithm, differential search algorithm, genetic algorithm, and particle swarm optimization in terms of processing time and image quality. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is robust and adaptive and exhibits the better performance than other methods involved in the paper. PMID:25784928

  4. Radiographic skills learning: procedure simulation using adaptive hypermedia.

    PubMed

    Costaridou, L; Panayiotakis, G; Pallikarakis, N; Proimos, B

    1996-10-01

    The design and development of a simulation tool supporting learning of radiographic skills is reported. This tool has by textual, graphical and iconic resources, organized according to a building-block, adaptive hypermedia approach, which is described and supported by an image base of radiographs. It offers interactive user-controlled simulation of radiographic imaging procedures. The development is based on a commercially available environment (Toolbook 3.0, Asymetrix Corporation). The core of the system is an attributed precedence (priority) graph, which represents a task outline (concept and resources structure), which is dynamically adjusted to selected procedures. The user interface imitates a conventional radiography system, i.e. operating console, tube, table, patient and cassette. System parameters, such as patient positioning, focus-to-patient distance, magnification, field dimensions, tube voltage and mAs are under user control. Their effects on image quality are presented, by means of an image base acquired under controlled exposure conditions. Innovative use of hypermedia, computer based learning and simulation principles and technology in the development of this tool resulted in an enhanced interactive environment providing radiographic parameter control and visualization of parameter effects on image quality. PMID:9038530

  5. Generalized pattern search algorithms with adaptive precision function evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Polak, Elijah; Wetter, Michael

    2003-05-14

    In the literature on generalized pattern search algorithms, convergence to a stationary point of a once continuously differentiable cost function is established under the assumption that the cost function can be evaluated exactly. However, there is a large class of engineering problems where the numerical evaluation of the cost function involves the solution of systems of differential algebraic equations. Since the termination criteria of the numerical solvers often depend on the design parameters, computer code for solving these systems usually defines a numerical approximation to the cost function that is discontinuous with respect to the design parameters. Standard generalized pattern search algorithms have been applied heuristically to such problems, but no convergence properties have been stated. In this paper we extend a class of generalized pattern search algorithms to a form that uses adaptive precision approximations to the cost function. These numerical approximations need not define a continuous function. Our algorithms can be used for solving linearly constrained problems with cost functions that are at least locally Lipschitz continuous. Assuming that the cost function is smooth, we prove that our algorithms converge to a stationary point. Under the weaker assumption that the cost function is only locally Lipschitz continuous, we show that our algorithms converge to points at which the Clarke generalized directional derivatives are nonnegative in predefined directions. An important feature of our adaptive precision scheme is the use of coarse approximations in the early iterations, with the approximation precision controlled by a test. Such an approach leads to substantial time savings in minimizing computationally expensive functions.

  6. A Search for a General Phenomenon of Adaptive Mutability

    PubMed Central

    Galitski, T.; Roth, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    The most prominent systems for the study of adaptive mutability depend on the specialized activities of genetic elements like bacteriophage Mu and the F plasmid. Searching for general adaptive mutability, we have investigated the behavior of Salmonella typhimurium strains with chromosomal lacZ mutations. We have studied 30 revertible nonsense, missense, frameshift, and insertion alleles. One-third of the mutants produced >=10 late revertant colonies (appearing three to seven days after plating on selective medium). For the prolific mutants, the number of late revertants showed rank correlation with the residual β-galactosidase activity; for the same mutants, revertant number showed no correlation with the nonselective reversion rate (from fluctuation tests). Leaky mutants, which grew slowly on selective medium, produced late revertants whereas tight nongrowing mutants generally did not produce late revertants. However, the number of late revertants was not proportional to residual growth. Using total residual growth and the nonselective reversion rate, the expected number of late revertants was calculated. For several leaky mutants, the observed revertant number exceeded the expected number. We suggest that excess late revertants from these mutants arise from general adaptive mutability available to any chromosomal gene. PMID:8725216

  7. A Novel Adaptive Cuckoo Search for Optimal Query Plan Generation

    PubMed Central

    Gomathi, Ramalingam; Sharmila, Dhandapani

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of multiple web pages day by day leads to the development of the semantic web technology. A World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standard for storing semantic web data is the resource description framework (RDF). To enhance the efficiency in the execution time for querying large RDF graphs, the evolving metaheuristic algorithms become an alternate to the traditional query optimization methods. This paper focuses on the problem of query optimization of semantic web data. An efficient algorithm called adaptive Cuckoo search (ACS) for querying and generating optimal query plan for large RDF graphs is designed in this research. Experiments were conducted on different datasets with varying number of predicates. The experimental results have exposed that the proposed approach has provided significant results in terms of query execution time. The extent to which the algorithm is efficient is tested and the results are documented. PMID:25215330

  8. A novel adaptive Cuckoo search for optimal query plan generation.

    PubMed

    Gomathi, Ramalingam; Sharmila, Dhandapani

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of multiple web pages day by day leads to the development of the semantic web technology. A World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standard for storing semantic web data is the resource description framework (RDF). To enhance the efficiency in the execution time for querying large RDF graphs, the evolving metaheuristic algorithms become an alternate to the traditional query optimization methods. This paper focuses on the problem of query optimization of semantic web data. An efficient algorithm called adaptive Cuckoo search (ACS) for querying and generating optimal query plan for large RDF graphs is designed in this research. Experiments were conducted on different datasets with varying number of predicates. The experimental results have exposed that the proposed approach has provided significant results in terms of query execution time. The extent to which the algorithm is efficient is tested and the results are documented. PMID:25215330

  9. Accelerated search for materials with targeted properties by adaptive design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Dezhen; Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Hogden, John; Theiler, James; Xue, Deqing; Lookman, Turab

    2016-04-01

    Finding new materials with targeted properties has traditionally been guided by intuition, and trial and error. With increasing chemical complexity, the combinatorial possibilities are too large for an Edisonian approach to be practical. Here we show how an adaptive design strategy, tightly coupled with experiments, can accelerate the discovery process by sequentially identifying the next experiments or calculations, to effectively navigate the complex search space. Our strategy uses inference and global optimization to balance the trade-off between exploitation and exploration of the search space. We demonstrate this by finding very low thermal hysteresis (ΔT) NiTi-based shape memory alloys, with Ti50.0Ni46.7Cu0.8Fe2.3Pd0.2 possessing the smallest ΔT (1.84 K). We synthesize and characterize 36 predicted compositions (9 feedback loops) from a potential space of ~800,000 compositions. Of these, 14 had smaller ΔT than any of the 22 in the original data set.

  10. Accelerated search for materials with targeted properties by adaptive design.

    PubMed

    Xue, Dezhen; Balachandran, Prasanna V; Hogden, John; Theiler, James; Xue, Deqing; Lookman, Turab

    2016-01-01

    Finding new materials with targeted properties has traditionally been guided by intuition, and trial and error. With increasing chemical complexity, the combinatorial possibilities are too large for an Edisonian approach to be practical. Here we show how an adaptive design strategy, tightly coupled with experiments, can accelerate the discovery process by sequentially identifying the next experiments or calculations, to effectively navigate the complex search space. Our strategy uses inference and global optimization to balance the trade-off between exploitation and exploration of the search space. We demonstrate this by finding very low thermal hysteresis (ΔT) NiTi-based shape memory alloys, with Ti50.0Ni46.7Cu0.8Fe2.3Pd0.2 possessing the smallest ΔT (1.84 K). We synthesize and characterize 36 predicted compositions (9 feedback loops) from a potential space of ∼800,000 compositions. Of these, 14 had smaller ΔT than any of the 22 in the original data set. PMID:27079901

  11. Accelerated search for materials with targeted properties by adaptive design

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Dezhen; Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Hogden, John; Theiler, James; Xue, Deqing; Lookman, Turab

    2016-01-01

    Finding new materials with targeted properties has traditionally been guided by intuition, and trial and error. With increasing chemical complexity, the combinatorial possibilities are too large for an Edisonian approach to be practical. Here we show how an adaptive design strategy, tightly coupled with experiments, can accelerate the discovery process by sequentially identifying the next experiments or calculations, to effectively navigate the complex search space. Our strategy uses inference and global optimization to balance the trade-off between exploitation and exploration of the search space. We demonstrate this by finding very low thermal hysteresis (ΔT) NiTi-based shape memory alloys, with Ti50.0Ni46.7Cu0.8Fe2.3Pd0.2 possessing the smallest ΔT (1.84 K). We synthesize and characterize 36 predicted compositions (9 feedback loops) from a potential space of ∼800,000 compositions. Of these, 14 had smaller ΔT than any of the 22 in the original data set. PMID:27079901

  12. Methodological aspects of an adaptive multidirectional pattern search to optimize speech perception using three hearing-aid algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, Bas A. M.; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Lyzenga, Johannes

    2004-12-01

    In this study we investigated the reliability and convergence characteristics of an adaptive multidirectional pattern search procedure, relative to a nonadaptive multidirectional pattern search procedure. The procedure was designed to optimize three speech-processing strategies. These comprise noise reduction, spectral enhancement, and spectral lift. The search is based on a paired-comparison paradigm, in which subjects evaluated the listening comfort of speech-in-noise fragments. The procedural and nonprocedural factors that influence the reliability and convergence of the procedure are studied using various test conditions. The test conditions combine different tests, initial settings, background noise types, and step size configurations. Seven normal hearing subjects participated in this study. The results indicate that the reliability of the optimization strategy may benefit from the use of an adaptive step size. Decreasing the step size increases accuracy, while increasing the step size can be beneficial to create clear perceptual differences in the comparisons. The reliability also depends on starting point, stop criterion, step size constraints, background noise, algorithms used, as well as the presence of drifting cues and suboptimal settings. There appears to be a trade-off between reliability and convergence, i.e., when the step size is enlarged the reliability improves, but the convergence deteriorates. .

  13. Adaptive nowcasting of influenza outbreaks using Google searches

    PubMed Central

    Preis, Tobias; Moat, Helen Susannah

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal influenza outbreaks and pandemics of new strains of the influenza virus affect humans around the globe. However, traditional systems for measuring the spread of flu infections deliver results with one or two weeks delay. Recent research suggests that data on queries made to the search engine Google can be used to address this problem, providing real-time estimates of levels of influenza-like illness in a population. Others have however argued that equally good estimates of current flu levels can be forecast using historic flu measurements. Here, we build dynamic ‘nowcasting’ models; in other words, forecasting models that estimate current levels of influenza, before the release of official data one week later. We find that when using Google Flu Trends data in combination with historic flu levels, the mean absolute error (MAE) of in-sample ‘nowcasts’ can be significantly reduced by 14.4%, compared with a baseline model that uses historic data on flu levels only. We further demonstrate that the MAE of out-of-sample nowcasts can also be significantly reduced by between 16.0% and 52.7%, depending on the length of the sliding training interval. We conclude that, using adaptive models, Google Flu Trends data can indeed be used to improve real-time influenza monitoring, even when official reports of flu infections are available with only one week's delay. PMID:26064532

  14. Adaptive nowcasting of influenza outbreaks using Google searches.

    PubMed

    Preis, Tobias; Moat, Helen Susannah

    2014-10-01

    Seasonal influenza outbreaks and pandemics of new strains of the influenza virus affect humans around the globe. However, traditional systems for measuring the spread of flu infections deliver results with one or two weeks delay. Recent research suggests that data on queries made to the search engine Google can be used to address this problem, providing real-time estimates of levels of influenza-like illness in a population. Others have however argued that equally good estimates of current flu levels can be forecast using historic flu measurements. Here, we build dynamic 'nowcasting' models; in other words, forecasting models that estimate current levels of influenza, before the release of official data one week later. We find that when using Google Flu Trends data in combination with historic flu levels, the mean absolute error (MAE) of in-sample 'nowcasts' can be significantly reduced by 14.4%, compared with a baseline model that uses historic data on flu levels only. We further demonstrate that the MAE of out-of-sample nowcasts can also be significantly reduced by between 16.0% and 52.7%, depending on the length of the sliding training interval. We conclude that, using adaptive models, Google Flu Trends data can indeed be used to improve real-time influenza monitoring, even when official reports of flu infections are available with only one week's delay. PMID:26064532

  15. Adapting Assessment Procedures for Delivery via an Automated Format.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Karen L.; And Others

    The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) decided to explore alternative examining procedures for positions covered by the Administrative Careers with America (ACWA) examination. One requirement for new procedures was that they be automated for use with OPM's recently developed Microcomputer Assisted Rating System (MARS), a highly efficient system…

  16. Adaptive search in mobile peer-to-peer databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfson, Ouri (Inventor); Xu, Bo (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Information is stored in a plurality of mobile peers. The peers communicate in a peer to peer fashion, using a short-range wireless network. Occasionally, a peer initiates a search for information in the peer to peer network by issuing a query. Queries and pieces of information, called reports, are transmitted among peers that are within a transmission range. For each search additional peers are utilized, wherein these additional peers search and relay information on behalf of the originator of the search.

  17. Optimal color filter array design: quantitative conditions and an efficient search procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yue M.; Vetterli, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Most digital cameras employ a spatial subsampling process, implemented as a color filter array (CFA), to capture color images. The choice of CFA patterns has a great impact on the performance of subsequent reconstruction (demosaicking) algorithms. In this work, we propose a quantitative theory for optimal CFA design. We view the CFA sampling process as an encoding (low-dimensional approximation) operation and, correspondingly, demosaicking as the best decoding (reconstruction) operation. Finding the optimal CFA is thus equivalent to finding the optimal approximation scheme for the original signals with minimum information loss. We present several quantitative conditions for optimal CFA design, and propose an efficient computational procedure to search for the best CFAs that satisfy these conditions. Numerical experiments show that the optimal CFA patterns designed from the proposed procedure can effectively retain the information of the original full-color images. In particular, with the designed CFA patterns, high quality demosaicking can be achieved by using simple and efficient linear filtering operations in the polyphase domain. The visual qualities of the reconstructed images are competitive to those obtained by the state-of-the-art adaptive demosaicking algorithms based on the Bayer pattern.

  18. Licensee Event Report sequence coding and search procedure workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, W.B.; Gallaher, R.B.

    1981-03-01

    Since mid-1980, the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has been developing procedures for the systematic review and analysis of Licensee Event Reports (LERs). These procedures generally address several areas of concern, including identification of significant trends and patterns, event sequence of occurrences, component failures, and system and plant effects. The AEOD and NSIC conducted a workshop on the new coding procedure at the American Museum of Science and Energy in Oak Ridge, TN, on November 24, 1980.

  19. Spatial adaptation procedures on tetrahedral meshes for unsteady aerodynamic flow calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rausch, Russ D.; Batina, John T.; Yang, Henry T. Y.

    1993-01-01

    Spatial adaptation procedures for the accurate and efficient solution of steady and unsteady inviscid flow problems are described. The adaptation procedures were developed and implemented within a three-dimensional, unstructured-grid, upwind-type Euler code. These procedures involve mesh enrichment and mesh coarsening to either add points in high gradient regions of the flow or remove points where they are not needed, respectively, to produce solutions of high spatial accuracy at minimal computational cost. A detailed description of the enrichment and coarsening procedures are presented and comparisons with experimental data for an ONERA M6 wing and an exact solution for a shock-tube problem are presented to provide an assessment of the accuracy and efficiency of the capability. Steady and unsteady results, obtained using spatial adaptation procedures, are shown to be of high spatial accuracy, primarily in that discontinuities such as shock waves are captured very sharply.

  20. Parameter estimation for chaotic systems using a hybrid adaptive cuckoo search with simulated annealing algorithm.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Shudao; Zhou, Bihua

    2014-03-01

    This paper introduces a novel hybrid optimization algorithm to establish the parameters of chaotic systems. In order to deal with the weaknesses of the traditional cuckoo search algorithm, the proposed adaptive cuckoo search with simulated annealing algorithm is presented, which incorporates the adaptive parameters adjusting operation and the simulated annealing operation in the cuckoo search algorithm. Normally, the parameters of the cuckoo search algorithm are kept constant that may result in decreasing the efficiency of the algorithm. For the purpose of balancing and enhancing the accuracy and convergence rate of the cuckoo search algorithm, the adaptive operation is presented to tune the parameters properly. Besides, the local search capability of cuckoo search algorithm is relatively weak that may decrease the quality of optimization. So the simulated annealing operation is merged into the cuckoo search algorithm to enhance the local search ability and improve the accuracy and reliability of the results. The functionality of the proposed hybrid algorithm is investigated through the Lorenz chaotic system under the noiseless and noise condition, respectively. The numerical results demonstrate that the method can estimate parameters efficiently and accurately in the noiseless and noise condition. Finally, the results are compared with the traditional cuckoo search algorithm, genetic algorithm, and particle swarm optimization algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and superior performance of the proposed algorithm. PMID:24697395

  1. Parameter estimation for chaotic systems using a hybrid adaptive cuckoo search with simulated annealing algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Bihua; Zhou, Shudao

    2014-03-15

    This paper introduces a novel hybrid optimization algorithm to establish the parameters of chaotic systems. In order to deal with the weaknesses of the traditional cuckoo search algorithm, the proposed adaptive cuckoo search with simulated annealing algorithm is presented, which incorporates the adaptive parameters adjusting operation and the simulated annealing operation in the cuckoo search algorithm. Normally, the parameters of the cuckoo search algorithm are kept constant that may result in decreasing the efficiency of the algorithm. For the purpose of balancing and enhancing the accuracy and convergence rate of the cuckoo search algorithm, the adaptive operation is presented to tune the parameters properly. Besides, the local search capability of cuckoo search algorithm is relatively weak that may decrease the quality of optimization. So the simulated annealing operation is merged into the cuckoo search algorithm to enhance the local search ability and improve the accuracy and reliability of the results. The functionality of the proposed hybrid algorithm is investigated through the Lorenz chaotic system under the noiseless and noise condition, respectively. The numerical results demonstrate that the method can estimate parameters efficiently and accurately in the noiseless and noise condition. Finally, the results are compared with the traditional cuckoo search algorithm, genetic algorithm, and particle swarm optimization algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and superior performance of the proposed algorithm.

  2. Parameter estimation for chaotic systems using a hybrid adaptive cuckoo search with simulated annealing algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Shudao; Zhou, Bihua

    2014-03-01

    This paper introduces a novel hybrid optimization algorithm to establish the parameters of chaotic systems. In order to deal with the weaknesses of the traditional cuckoo search algorithm, the proposed adaptive cuckoo search with simulated annealing algorithm is presented, which incorporates the adaptive parameters adjusting operation and the simulated annealing operation in the cuckoo search algorithm. Normally, the parameters of the cuckoo search algorithm are kept constant that may result in decreasing the efficiency of the algorithm. For the purpose of balancing and enhancing the accuracy and convergence rate of the cuckoo search algorithm, the adaptive operation is presented to tune the parameters properly. Besides, the local search capability of cuckoo search algorithm is relatively weak that may decrease the quality of optimization. So the simulated annealing operation is merged into the cuckoo search algorithm to enhance the local search ability and improve the accuracy and reliability of the results. The functionality of the proposed hybrid algorithm is investigated through the Lorenz chaotic system under the noiseless and noise condition, respectively. The numerical results demonstrate that the method can estimate parameters efficiently and accurately in the noiseless and noise condition. Finally, the results are compared with the traditional cuckoo search algorithm, genetic algorithm, and particle swarm optimization algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and superior performance of the proposed algorithm.

  3. Features: Real-Time Adaptive Feature and Document Learning for Web Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zhixiang; Meng, Xiannong; Fowler, Richard H.; Zhu, Binhai

    2001-01-01

    Describes Features, an intelligent Web search engine that is able to perform real-time adaptive feature (i.e., keyword) and document learning. Explains how Features learns from users' document relevance feedback and automatically extracts and suggests indexing keywords relevant to a search query, and learns from users' keyword relevance feedback…

  4. Differential Effects of Two Spelling Procedures on Acquisition, Maintenance and Adaption to Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Gary L.; Dunne, Megan; Erkfritz, Karyn N.; Kivisto, Aaron; Lee, Nicole; Wierzbicki, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    An alternating treatments design was used to assess the effects of a constant time delay (CTD) procedure and a cover-copy-compare (CCC) procedure on three students' acquisition, subsequent maintenance, and adaptation (i.e., application) of acquired spelling words to reading passages. Students were randomly presented two trials of word lists from…

  5. Neural network based adaptive control of nonlinear plants using random search optimization algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boussalis, Dhemetrios; Wang, Shyh J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a method for utilizing artificial neural networks for direct adaptive control of dynamic systems with poorly known dynamics. The neural network weights (controller gains) are adapted in real time using state measurements and a random search optimization algorithm. The results are demonstrated via simulation using two highly nonlinear systems.

  6. University of South Florida Libraries Search Committee Procedure Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilos, Lawrence J.; And Others

    This handbook of procedures developed by the Committee on Professional Concerns (COPC) of the University of South Florida (USF) describes the process to be used in recruiting and hiring qualified candidates for positions on the USF library faculty. The publication is divided into six sections: (1) information on the USF equal employment…

  7. Analysis of ERIC On-Line File Searching Procedures and Guidelines for Searching. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourne, Charles P.; And Others

    In order to identify and explain the reasons for differences in average on-line search rates among terminal installations, the operations and performance of several facilities using the Lockheed DIALOG system for on-line searching of the ERIC data base were studied. Detailed examinations were made of such aspects as the DIALOG system response time…

  8. An adaptive embedded mesh procedure for leading-edge vortex flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Kenneth G.; Beer, Michael A.; Law, Glenn W.

    1989-01-01

    A procedure for solving the conical Euler equations on an adaptively refined mesh is presented, along with a method for determining which cells to refine. The solution procedure is a central-difference cell-vertex scheme. The adaptation procedure is made up of a parameter on which the refinement decision is based, and a method for choosing a threshold value of the parameter. The refinement parameter is a measure of mesh-convergence, constructed by comparison of locally coarse- and fine-grid solutions. The threshold for the refinement parameter is based on the curvature of the curve relating the number of cells flagged for refinement to the value of the refinement threshold. Results for three test cases are presented. The test problem is that of a delta wing at angle of attack in a supersonic free-stream. The resulting vortices and shocks are captured efficiently by the adaptive code.

  9. Stochastic Leader Gravitational Search Algorithm for Enhanced Adaptive Beamforming Technique

    PubMed Central

    Darzi, Soodabeh; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Tiong, Sieh Kiong; Kibria, Salehin; Singh, Mandeep

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, stochastic leader gravitational search algorithm (SL-GSA) based on randomized k is proposed. Standard GSA (SGSA) utilizes the best agents without any randomization, thus it is more prone to converge at suboptimal results. Initially, the new approach randomly choses k agents from the set of all agents to improve the global search ability. Gradually, the set of agents is reduced by eliminating the agents with the poorest performances to allow rapid convergence. The performance of the SL-GSA was analyzed for six well-known benchmark functions, and the results are compared with SGSA and some of its variants. Furthermore, the SL-GSA is applied to minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) beamforming technique to ensure compatibility with real world optimization problems. The proposed algorithm demonstrates superior convergence rate and quality of solution for both real world problems and benchmark functions compared to original algorithm and other recent variants of SGSA. PMID:26552032

  10. Stochastic Leader Gravitational Search Algorithm for Enhanced Adaptive Beamforming Technique.

    PubMed

    Darzi, Soodabeh; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Tiong, Sieh Kiong; Kibria, Salehin; Singh, Mandeep

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, stochastic leader gravitational search algorithm (SL-GSA) based on randomized k is proposed. Standard GSA (SGSA) utilizes the best agents without any randomization, thus it is more prone to converge at suboptimal results. Initially, the new approach randomly choses k agents from the set of all agents to improve the global search ability. Gradually, the set of agents is reduced by eliminating the agents with the poorest performances to allow rapid convergence. The performance of the SL-GSA was analyzed for six well-known benchmark functions, and the results are compared with SGSA and some of its variants. Furthermore, the SL-GSA is applied to minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) beamforming technique to ensure compatibility with real world optimization problems. The proposed algorithm demonstrates superior convergence rate and quality of solution for both real world problems and benchmark functions compared to original algorithm and other recent variants of SGSA. PMID:26552032

  11. Through the interaction of neutral and adaptive mutations, evolutionary search finds a way.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tina; Miller, Julian Francis

    2006-01-01

    An evolutionary system that supports the interaction of neutral and adaptive mutations is investigated. Experimental results on a Boolean function and needle-in-haystack problems show that this system enables evolutionary search to find better solutions faster. Through a novel analysis based on the ratio of neutral to adaptive mutations, we identify this interaction as an engine that automatically adjusts the relative amounts of exploration and exploitation to achieve effective search (i.e., it is self-adaptive). Moreover, a hypothesis to describe the search process in this system is proposed and investigated. Our findings lead us to counter the arguments of those who dismiss the usefulness of neutrality. We argue that the benefits of neutrality are intimately related to its implementation, so that one must be cautious about making general claims about its merits or demerits. PMID:16953784

  12. Dementia alters standing postural adaptation during a visual search task in older adult men

    PubMed Central

    Joŕdan, Azizah J.; McCarten, J. Riley; Rottunda, Susan; Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Manor, Brad; Wade, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dementia on standing postural adaptation during performance of a visual search task. We recruited 16 older adults with dementia and 15 without dementia. Postural sway was assessed by recording medial-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) center-of-pressure when standing with and without a visual search task; i.e., counting target letter frequency within a block of displayed randomized letters. ML sway variability was significantly higher in those with dementia during visual search as compared to those without dementia and compared to both groups during the control condition. AP sway variability was significantly greater in those with dementia as compared to those without dementia, irrespective of task condition. In the ML direction, the absolute and percent change in sway variability between the control condition and visual search (i.e., postural adaptation) was greater in those with dementia as compared to those without. In contrast, postural adaptation to visual search was similar between groups in the AP direction. As compared to those without dementia, those with dementia identified fewer letters on the visual task. In the non-dementia group only, greater increases in postural adaptation in both the ML and AP direction, correlated with lower performance on the visual task. The observed relationship between postural adaptation during the visual search task and visual search task performance—in the non-dementia group only—suggests a critical link between perception and action. Dementia reduces the capacity to perform a visual-based task while standing and thus appears to disrupt this perception-action synergy. PMID:25770830

  13. Length-adaptive graph search for automatic segmentation of pathological features in optical coherence tomography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Brenton; Cunefare, David; Grewal, Dilraj S.; Mahmoud, Tamer H.; Izatt, Joseph A.; Farsiu, Sina

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a metric in graph search and demonstrate its application for segmenting retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of macular pathology. Our proposed "adjusted mean arc length" (AMAL) metric is an adaptation of the lowest mean arc length search technique for automated OCT segmentation. We compare this method to Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm, which we utilized previously in our popular graph theory and dynamic programming segmentation technique. As an illustrative example, we show that AMAL-based length-adaptive segmentation outperforms the shortest path in delineating the retina/vitreous boundary of patients with full-thickness macular holes when compared with expert manual grading.

  14. Procedures for conducting underwater searches for invasive mussels (Dreissena sp.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Noah

    2010-01-01

    available also can kill other aquatic life. Early implementation of containment and eradication efforts requires getting reliable information to confirm the location of the infestation. One way to get this information is through the use of properly trained SCUBA divers. This document provides SCUBA divers with the necessary information to conduct underwater searchers for mussels. However, using SCUBA divers to search for mussels over a large geographic area is relatively expensive and inefficient. Early detection monitoring methods can be used to optimize the use of SCUBA divers. Early detection monitoring can be accomplished by collecting water samples or deploying artificial settlement substrates (fig. 1). Water samples are used to look for free-swimming larval mussels (called veligers). Because the veligers cannot be identified with the naked eye, the water samples are sent to a laboratory where they are examined under a microscope and/or analyzed using molecular techniques to detect veligers. To detect the presences of adult mussels, artificial substrates are deployed and periodically retrieved to determine if mussels have settled on the substrate. If veligers or adults are identified, SCUBA divers can be deployed to confirm the presence of mussels.

  15. A trellis-searched APC (adaptive predictive coding) speech coder

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, K.T. ); Fischer, T.R. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we formulate a speech coding system that incorporates trellis coded vector quantization (TCVQ) and adaptive predictive coding (APC). A method for optimizing'' the TCVQ codebooks is presented and experimental results concerning survivor path mergings are reported. Simulation results are given for encoding rates of 16 and 9.6 kbps for a variety of coder parameters. The quality of the encoded speech is deemed excellent at an encoding rate of 16 kbps and very good at 9.6 kbps. 13 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. A Procedure for Controlling General Test Overlap in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shu-Ying

    2010-01-01

    To date, exposure control procedures that are designed to control test overlap in computerized adaptive tests (CATs) are based on the assumption of item sharing between pairs of examinees. However, in practice, examinees may obtain test information from more than one previous test taker. This larger scope of information sharing needs to be…

  17. Query-Adaptive Hash Code Ranking for Large-Scale Multi-View Visual Search.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianglong; Huang, Lei; Deng, Cheng; Lang, Bo; Tao, Dacheng

    2016-10-01

    Hash-based nearest neighbor search has become attractive in many applications. However, the quantization in hashing usually degenerates the discriminative power when using Hamming distance ranking. Besides, for large-scale visual search, existing hashing methods cannot directly support the efficient search over the data with multiple sources, and while the literature has shown that adaptively incorporating complementary information from diverse sources or views can significantly boost the search performance. To address the problems, this paper proposes a novel and generic approach to building multiple hash tables with multiple views and generating fine-grained ranking results at bitwise and tablewise levels. For each hash table, a query-adaptive bitwise weighting is introduced to alleviate the quantization loss by simultaneously exploiting the quality of hash functions and their complement for nearest neighbor search. From the tablewise aspect, multiple hash tables are built for different data views as a joint index, over which a query-specific rank fusion is proposed to rerank all results from the bitwise ranking by diffusing in a graph. Comprehensive experiments on image search over three well-known benchmarks show that the proposed method achieves up to 17.11% and 20.28% performance gains on single and multiple table search over the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:27448359

  18. Job Search for Non-Readers. Training Procedures. Special Demonstration 310 Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Mary Catherine

    This manual outlines the procedures for recruiting, preparing, scheduling, presenting, and evaluating a workshop for tutors participating in a program to help nonreaders develop job search skills. The following topics are discussed: an overview of the program; recruitment of tutors; recruitment of students; preparation for the workshop (space and…

  19. Broadcasting satellite service synthesis using gradient and cyclic coordinate search procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, C. H.; Mount-Campbell, C. A.; Gonsalvez, D. J.; Martin, C. H.; Levis, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    Two search techniques are considered for solving satellite synthesis problems. Neither is likely to find a globally optimal solution. In order to determine which method performs better and what factors affect their performance, an experiment is designed and the same problem is solved under a variety of starting solution configuration-algorithm combinations. Since there is no randomization in the experiment, results of practical, rather than statistical, significance are presented. Implementation of a cyclic coordinate search procedure clearly finds better synthesis solutions than implementation of a gradient search procedure does with the objective of maximizing the minimum C/I ratio computed at test points on the perimeters of the intended service areas. The length of the available orbital arc and the configuration of the starting solution are shown to affect the quality of the solutions found.

  20. Broadcasting satellite service synthesis using gradient and cyclic coordinate search procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, C. H.; Mount-Campbell, C. A.; Gonsalvez, D. J.; Martin, C. H.; Levis, C. A.; Wang, C. W.

    1986-01-01

    Two search techniques are considered for solving satellite synthesis problems. Neither is likely to find a globally optimal solution. In order to determine which method performs better and what factors affect their performance, we design an experiment and solve the same problem under a variety of starting solution configuration-algorithm combinations. Since there is no randomization in the experiment, we present results of practical, rather than statistical, significance. Our implementation of a cyclic coordinate search procedure clearly finds better synthesis solutions than our implementation of a gradient search procedure does with our objective of maximizing the minimum C/I ratio computed at test points on the perimeters of the intended service areas. The length of the available orbital arc and the configuration of the starting solution are shown to affect the quality of the solutions found.

  1. Lost in Search: (Mal-)Adaptation to Probabilistic Decision Environments in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betsch, Tilmann; Lehmann, Anne; Lindow, Stefanie; Lang, Anna; Schoemann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive decision making in probabilistic environments requires individuals to use probabilities as weights in predecisional information searches and/or when making subsequent choices. Within a child-friendly computerized environment (Mousekids), we tracked 205 children's (105 children 5-6 years of age and 100 children 9-10 years of age) and 103…

  2. A Need for an Adaptive Search Tool for Teachers: Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyedarabi, Faezeh; Seyedarabi, Arefeh

    2005-01-01

    Whether intentionally or not, teachers are excluded from having the full benefit of the new technologies developed and adapted by the search engine developers, while all the current and proposed research and developments are focused mainly on the end users (students/learners, businesses and/the government) and not specifically on teachers who act…

  3. How to adapt broad-band gravitational-wave searches for r-modes

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, Benjamin J.

    2010-11-15

    Up to now there has been no search for gravitational waves from the r-modes of neutron stars in spite of the theoretical interest in the subject. Several oddities of r-modes must be addressed to obtain an observational result: The gravitational radiation field is dominated by the mass current (gravitomagnetic) quadrupole rather than the usual mass quadrupole, and the consequent difference in polarization affects detection statistics and parameter estimation. To astrophysically interpret a detection or upper limit it is necessary to convert the gravitational-wave amplitude to an r-mode amplitude. Also, it is helpful to know indirect limits on gravitational-wave emission to gauge the interest of various searches. Here I address these issues, thereby providing the ingredients to adapt broad-band searches for continuous gravitational waves to obtain r-mode results. I also show that searches of existing data can already have interesting sensitivities to r-modes.

  4. SAXO, the eXtreme Adaptive Optics System of SPHERE: overview and calibration procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvage, J.-F.; Fusco, T.; Petit, C.; Meimon, S.; Fedrigo, E.; Suarez Valles, M.; Kasper, M.; Hubin, N.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Charton, J.; Costille, A.; Rabou, P., .; Mouillet, D.; Baudoz, P.; Buey, T.; Sevin, A.; Wildi, F.; Dohlen, K.

    2010-07-01

    The direct imaging of exoplanet is a challenging goal of todays astronomy. The light transmitted by exoplanet atmosphere is of a great interest as it may witness for life sign. SPHERE is a second generation instrument for the VLT, dedicated to exoplanet imaging, detection, and characterisation. SPHERE is a global project of an European consortium of 11 institutes from 5 countries. We present here the state of the art of the AIT of the Adaptive Optics part of the instrument. In addition we present fine calibration procedures dedicated to eXtreme Adaptive Optics systems. First we emphasized on vibration and turbulence identification for optimization of the control law. Then, we describe a procedure able to measure and compensate for NCPA with a coronagraphic system.

  5. A new procedure for dynamic adaption of three-dimensional unstructured grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Rupak; Strawn, Roger

    1993-01-01

    A new procedure is presented for the simultaneous coarsening and refinement of three-dimensional unstructured tetrahedral meshes. This algorithm allows for localized grid adaption that is used to capture aerodynamic flow features such as vortices and shock waves in helicopter flowfield simulations. The mesh-adaption algorithm is implemented in the C programming language and uses a data structure consisting of a series of dynamically-allocated linked lists. These lists allow the mesh connectivity to be rapidly reconstructed when individual mesh points are added and/or deleted. The algorithm allows the mesh to change in an anisotropic manner in order to efficiently resolve directional flow features. The procedure has been successfully implemented on a single processor of a Cray Y-MP computer. Two sample cases are presented involving three-dimensional transonic flow. Computed results show good agreement with conventional structured-grid solutions for the Euler equations.

  6. An adaptive mesh-moving and refinement procedure for one-dimensional conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Rupak; Flaherty, Joseph E.; Arney, David C.

    1993-01-01

    We examine the performance of an adaptive mesh-moving and /or local mesh refinement procedure for the finite difference solution of one-dimensional hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. Adaptive motion of a base mesh is designed to isolate spatially distinct phenomena, and recursive local refinement of the time step and cells of the stationary or moving base mesh is performed in regions where a refinement indicator exceeds a prescribed tolerance. These adaptive procedures are incorporated into a computer code that includes a MacCormack finite difference scheme wih Davis' artificial viscosity model and a discretization error estimate based on Richardson's extrapolation. Experiments are conducted on three problems in order to qualify the advantages of adaptive techniques relative to uniform mesh computations and the relative benefits of mesh moving and refinement. Key results indicate that local mesh refinement, with and without mesh moving, can provide reliable solutions at much lower computational cost than possible on uniform meshes; that mesh motion can be used to improve the results of uniform mesh solutions for a modest computational effort; that the cost of managing the tree data structure associated with refinement is small; and that a combination of mesh motion and refinement reliably produces solutions for the least cost per unit accuracy.

  7. Inversion for Refractivity Parameters Using a Dynamic Adaptive Cuckoo Search with Crossover Operator Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhihua; Sheng, Zheng; Shi, Hanqing; Fan, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Using the RFC technique to estimate refractivity parameters is a complex nonlinear optimization problem. In this paper, an improved cuckoo search (CS) algorithm is proposed to deal with this problem. To enhance the performance of the CS algorithm, a parameter dynamic adaptive operation and crossover operation were integrated into the standard CS (DACS-CO). Rechenberg's 1/5 criteria combined with learning factor were used to control the parameter dynamic adaptive adjusting process. The crossover operation of genetic algorithm was utilized to guarantee the population diversity. The new hybrid algorithm has better local search ability and contributes to superior performance. To verify the ability of the DACS-CO algorithm to estimate atmospheric refractivity parameters, the simulation data and real radar clutter data are both implemented. The numerical experiments demonstrate that the DACS-CO algorithm can provide an effective method for near-real-time estimation of the atmospheric refractivity profile from radar clutter. PMID:27212938

  8. Inversion for Refractivity Parameters Using a Dynamic Adaptive Cuckoo Search with Crossover Operator Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhihua; Sheng, Zheng; Shi, Hanqing; Fan, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Using the RFC technique to estimate refractivity parameters is a complex nonlinear optimization problem. In this paper, an improved cuckoo search (CS) algorithm is proposed to deal with this problem. To enhance the performance of the CS algorithm, a parameter dynamic adaptive operation and crossover operation were integrated into the standard CS (DACS-CO). Rechenberg's 1/5 criteria combined with learning factor were used to control the parameter dynamic adaptive adjusting process. The crossover operation of genetic algorithm was utilized to guarantee the population diversity. The new hybrid algorithm has better local search ability and contributes to superior performance. To verify the ability of the DACS-CO algorithm to estimate atmospheric refractivity parameters, the simulation data and real radar clutter data are both implemented. The numerical experiments demonstrate that the DACS-CO algorithm can provide an effective method for near-real-time estimation of the atmospheric refractivity profile from radar clutter. PMID:27212938

  9. Improving GPU-accelerated adaptive IDW interpolation algorithm using fast kNN search.

    PubMed

    Mei, Gang; Xu, Nengxiong; Xu, Liangliang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient parallel Adaptive Inverse Distance Weighting (AIDW) interpolation algorithm on modern Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). The presented algorithm is an improvement of our previous GPU-accelerated AIDW algorithm by adopting fast k-nearest neighbors (kNN) search. In AIDW, it needs to find several nearest neighboring data points for each interpolated point to adaptively determine the power parameter; and then the desired prediction value of the interpolated point is obtained by weighted interpolating using the power parameter. In this work, we develop a fast kNN search approach based on the space-partitioning data structure, even grid, to improve the previous GPU-accelerated AIDW algorithm. The improved algorithm is composed of the stages of kNN search and weighted interpolating. To evaluate the performance of the improved algorithm, we perform five groups of experimental tests. The experimental results indicate: (1) the improved algorithm can achieve a speedup of up to 1017 over the corresponding serial algorithm; (2) the improved algorithm is at least two times faster than our previous GPU-accelerated AIDW algorithm; and (3) the utilization of fast kNN search can significantly improve the computational efficiency of the entire GPU-accelerated AIDW algorithm. PMID:27610308

  10. A self-adaptive memeplexes robust search scheme for solving stochastic demands vehicle routing problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xianshun; Feng, Liang; Ong, Yew Soon

    2012-07-01

    In this article, we proposed a self-adaptive memeplex robust search (SAMRS) for finding robust and reliable solutions that are less sensitive to stochastic behaviours of customer demands and have low probability of route failures, respectively, in vehicle routing problem with stochastic demands (VRPSD). In particular, the contribution of this article is three-fold. First, the proposed SAMRS employs the robust solution search scheme (RS 3) as an approximation of the computationally intensive Monte Carlo simulation, thus reducing the computation cost of fitness evaluation in VRPSD, while directing the search towards robust and reliable solutions. Furthermore, a self-adaptive individual learning based on the conceptual modelling of memeplex is introduced in the SAMRS. Finally, SAMRS incorporates a gene-meme co-evolution model with genetic and memetic representation to effectively manage the search for solutions in VRPSD. Extensive experimental results are then presented for benchmark problems to demonstrate that the proposed SAMRS serves as an efficable means of generating high-quality robust and reliable solutions in VRPSD.

  11. Prism Adaptation and Aftereffect: Specifying the Properties of a Procedural Memory System

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Ruiz, Juan; Díaz, Rosalinda

    1999-01-01

    Prism adaptation, a form of procedural learning, is a phenomenon in which the motor system adapts to new visuospatial coordinates imposed by prisms that displace the visual field. Once the prisms are withdrawn, the degree and strength of the adaptation can be measured by the spatial deviation of the motor actions in the direction opposite to the visual displacement imposed by the prisms, a phenomenon known as aftereffect. This study was designed to define the variables that affect the acquisition and retention of the aftereffect. Subjects were required to throw balls to a target in front of them before, during, and after lateral displacement of the visual field with prismatic spectacles. The diopters of the prisms and the number of throws were varied among different groups of subjects. The results show that the adaptation process is dependent on the number of interactions between the visual and motor system, and not on the time spent wearing the prisms. The results also show that the magnitude of the aftereffect is highly correlated with the magnitude of the adaptation, regardless of the diopters of the prisms or the number of throws. Finally, the results suggest that persistence of the aftereffect depends on the number of throws after the adaptation is complete. On the basis of these results, we propose that the system underlying this kind of learning stores at least two different parameters, the contents (measured as the magnitude of displacement) and the persistence (measured as the number of throws to return to the baseline) of the learned information. PMID:10355523

  12. General tuning procedure for the nonlinear balance-based adaptive controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stebel, Krzysztof; Czeczot, Jacek; Laszczyk, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the intuitive and ready-to-use, general procedure for tuning the balance-based adaptive controller (B-BAC) based on its equivalence to the controller with PI term and with additional improvements shown for the linearised approximation of the dynamics of the nonlinear controlled process. The simple formulas are suggested to calculate the B-BAC tunings based on the PI tunings determined by any PI tuning procedure chosen accordingly to the desired closed-loop performance. This methodology is verified by comparing the closed-loop performance of the equivalently tuned B-BAC and PI/PI+feedforward controllers under the same scenario, both by the simulation and practical experiments.

  13. An adaptive procedure for the numerical parameters of a particle simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galitzine, Cyril; Boyd, Iain D.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a computational procedure that automatically determines the optimum time step, cell weight and species weights for steady-state multi-species DSMC (direct simulation Monte Carlo) simulations is presented. The time step is required to satisfy the basic requirements of the DSMC method while the weight and relative weights fields are chosen so as to obtain a user-specified average number of particles in all cells of the domain. The procedure allows the conduct of efficient DSMC simulations with minimal user input and is integrable into existing DSMC codes. The adaptive method is used to simulate a test case consisting of two counterflowing jets at a Knudsen number of 0.015. Large accuracy gains for sampled number densities and velocities over a standard simulation approach for the same number of particles are observed.

  14. Persistence and Adaptation in Immunity: T Cells Balance the Extent and Thoroughness of Search

    PubMed Central

    Fricke, G. Matthew; Letendre, Kenneth A.; Moses, Melanie E.; Cannon, Judy L.

    2016-01-01

    Effective search strategies have evolved in many biological systems, including the immune system. T cells are key effectors of the immune response, required for clearance of pathogenic infection. T cell activation requires that T cells encounter antigen-bearing dendritic cells within lymph nodes, thus, T cell search patterns within lymph nodes may be a crucial determinant of how quickly a T cell immune response can be initiated. Previous work suggests that T cell motion in the lymph node is similar to a Brownian random walk, however, no detailed analysis has definitively shown whether T cell movement is consistent with Brownian motion. Here, we provide a precise description of T cell motility in lymph nodes and a computational model that demonstrates how motility impacts T cell search efficiency. We find that both Brownian and Lévy walks fail to capture the complexity of T cell motion. Instead, T cell movement is better described as a correlated random walk with a heavy-tailed distribution of step lengths. Using computer simulations, we identify three distinct factors that contribute to increasing T cell search efficiency: 1) a lognormal distribution of step lengths, 2) motion that is directionally persistent over short time scales, and 3) heterogeneity in movement patterns. Furthermore, we show that T cells move differently in specific frequently visited locations that we call “hotspots” within lymph nodes, suggesting that T cells change their movement in response to the lymph node environment. Our results show that like foraging animals, T cells adapt to environmental cues, suggesting that adaption is a fundamental feature of biological search. PMID:26990103

  15. Persistence and Adaptation in Immunity: T Cells Balance the Extent and Thoroughness of Search.

    PubMed

    Fricke, G Matthew; Letendre, Kenneth A; Moses, Melanie E; Cannon, Judy L

    2016-03-01

    Effective search strategies have evolved in many biological systems, including the immune system. T cells are key effectors of the immune response, required for clearance of pathogenic infection. T cell activation requires that T cells encounter antigen-bearing dendritic cells within lymph nodes, thus, T cell search patterns within lymph nodes may be a crucial determinant of how quickly a T cell immune response can be initiated. Previous work suggests that T cell motion in the lymph node is similar to a Brownian random walk, however, no detailed analysis has definitively shown whether T cell movement is consistent with Brownian motion. Here, we provide a precise description of T cell motility in lymph nodes and a computational model that demonstrates how motility impacts T cell search efficiency. We find that both Brownian and Lévy walks fail to capture the complexity of T cell motion. Instead, T cell movement is better described as a correlated random walk with a heavy-tailed distribution of step lengths. Using computer simulations, we identify three distinct factors that contribute to increasing T cell search efficiency: 1) a lognormal distribution of step lengths, 2) motion that is directionally persistent over short time scales, and 3) heterogeneity in movement patterns. Furthermore, we show that T cells move differently in specific frequently visited locations that we call "hotspots" within lymph nodes, suggesting that T cells change their movement in response to the lymph node environment. Our results show that like foraging animals, T cells adapt to environmental cues, suggesting that adaption is a fundamental feature of biological search. PMID:26990103

  16. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  17. Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor with large dynamic range by adaptive spot search method.

    PubMed

    Shinto, Hironobu; Saita, Yusuke; Nomura, Takanori

    2016-07-10

    A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS) that consists of a microlens array and an image sensor has been used to measure the wavefront aberrations of human eyes. However, a conventional SHWFS has finite dynamic range depending on the diameter of the each microlens. The dynamic range cannot be easily expanded without a decrease of the spatial resolution. In this study, an adaptive spot search method to expand the dynamic range of an SHWFS is proposed. In the proposed method, spots are searched with the help of their approximate displacements measured with low spatial resolution and large dynamic range. By the proposed method, a wavefront can be correctly measured even if the spot is beyond the detection area. The adaptive spot search method is realized by using the special microlens array that generates both spots and discriminable patterns. The proposed method enables expanding the dynamic range of an SHWFS with a single shot and short processing time. The performance of the proposed method is compared with that of a conventional SHWFS by optical experiments. Furthermore, the dynamic range of the proposed method is quantitatively evaluated by numerical simulations. PMID:27409319

  18. An adaptive gating approach for x-ray dose reduction during cardiac interventional procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Malek, A.; Yassa, F.; Bloomer, J. )

    1994-03-01

    The increasing number of cardiac interventional procedures has resulted in a tremendous increase in the absorbed x-ray dose by radiologists as well as patients. A new method is presented for x-ray dose reduction which utilizes adaptive tube pulse-rate scheduling in pulsed fluoroscopic systems. In the proposed system, pulse-rate scheduling depends on the heart muscle activity phase determined through continuous guided segmentation of the patient's electrocardiogram (ECG). Displaying images generated at the proposed adaptive nonuniform rate is visually unacceptable; therefore, a frame-filling approach is devised to ensure a 30 frame/sec display rate. The authors adopted two approaches for the frame-filling portion of the system depending on the imaging mode used in the procedure. During cine-mode imaging (high x-ray dose), collected image frame-to-frame pixel motion is estimated using a pel-recursive algorithm followed by motion-based pixel interpolation to estimate the frames necessary to increase the rate to 30 frames/sec. The other frame-filling approach is adopted during fluoro-mode imaging (low x-ray dose), characterized by low signal-to-noise ratio images. This approach consists of simply holding the last collected frame for as many frames as necessary to maintain the real-time display rate.

  19. Adjoint-based error estimation and mesh adaptation for the correction procedure via reconstruction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Lei; Wang, Z. J.

    2015-08-01

    Adjoint-based mesh adaptive methods are capable of distributing computational resources to areas which are important for predicting an engineering output. In this paper, we develop an adjoint-based h-adaptation approach based on the high-order correction procedure via reconstruction formulation (CPR) to minimize the output or functional error. A dual-consistent CPR formulation of hyperbolic conservation laws is developed and its dual consistency is analyzed. Super-convergent functional and error estimate for the output with the CPR method are obtained. Factors affecting the dual consistency, such as the solution point distribution, correction functions, boundary conditions and the discretization approach for the non-linear flux divergence term, are studied. The presented method is then used to perform simulations for the 2D Euler and Navier-Stokes equations with mesh adaptation driven by the adjoint-based error estimate. Several numerical examples demonstrate the ability of the presented method to dramatically reduce the computational cost comparing with uniform grid refinement.

  20. Random walks with efficient search and contextually adapted image similarity for deformable registration.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lisa Y W; Hamarneh, Ghassan

    2013-01-01

    We develop a random walk-based image registration method that incorporates two novelties: 1) a progressive optimization scheme that conducts the solution search efficiently via a novel use of information derived from the obtained probabilistic solution, and 2) a data-likelihood re-weighting step that contextually performs feature selection in a spatially adaptive manner so that the data costs are based primarily on trusted information sources. Synthetic experiments on three public datasets of different anatomical regions and modalities showed that our method performed efficient search without sacrificing registration accuracy. Experiments performed on 60 real brain image pairs from a public dataset also demonstrated our method's better performance over existing non-probabilistic image registration methods. PMID:24579122

  1. qPR: An adaptive partial-report procedure based on Bayesian inference

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jongsoo; Lesmes, Luis Andres; Lu, Zhong-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Iconic memory is best assessed with the partial report procedure in which an array of letters appears briefly on the screen and a poststimulus cue directs the observer to report the identity of the cued letter(s). Typically, 6–8 cue delays or 600–800 trials are tested to measure the iconic memory decay function. Here we develop a quick partial report, or qPR, procedure based on a Bayesian adaptive framework to estimate the iconic memory decay function with much reduced testing time. The iconic memory decay function is characterized by an exponential function and a joint probability distribution of its three parameters. Starting with a prior of the parameters, the method selects the stimulus to maximize the expected information gain in the next test trial. It then updates the posterior probability distribution of the parameters based on the observer's response using Bayesian inference. The procedure is reiterated until either the total number of trials or the precision of the parameter estimates reaches a certain criterion. Simulation studies showed that only 100 trials were necessary to reach an average absolute bias of 0.026 and a precision of 0.070 (both in terms of probability correct). A psychophysical validation experiment showed that estimates of the iconic memory decay function obtained with 100 qPR trials exhibited good precision (the half width of the 68.2% credible interval = 0.055) and excellent agreement with those obtained with 1,600 trials of the conventional method of constant stimuli procedure (RMSE = 0.063). Quick partial-report relieves the data collection burden in characterizing iconic memory and makes it possible to assess iconic memory in clinical populations. PMID:27580045

  2. An adaptive knowledge-driven medical image search engine for interactive diffuse parenchymal lung disease quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yimo; Zhou, Xiang Sean; Bi, Jinbo; Jerebkoa, Anna; Wolf, Matthias; Salganicoff, Marcos; Krishnana, Arun

    2009-02-01

    Characterization and quantification of the severity of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs) using Computed Tomography (CT) is an important issue in clinical research. Recently, several classification-based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems [1-3] for DPLD have been proposed. For some of those systems, a degradation of performance [2] was reported on unseen data because of considerable inter-patient variances of parenchymal tissue patterns. We believe that a CAD system of real clinical value should be robust to inter-patient variances and be able to classify unseen cases online more effectively. In this work, we have developed a novel adaptive knowledge-driven CT image search engine that combines offline learning aspects of classification-based CAD systems with online learning aspects of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) systems. Our system can seamlessly and adaptively fuse offline accumulated knowledge with online feedback, leading to an improved online performance in detecting DPLD in both accuracy and speed aspects. Our contribution lies in: (1) newly developed 3D texture-based and morphology-based features; (2) a multi-class offline feature selection method; and, (3) a novel image search engine framework for detecting DPLD. Very promising results have been obtained on a small test set.

  3. Adaptive Lévy Processes and Area-Restricted Search in Human Foraging

    PubMed Central

    Hills, Thomas T.; Kalff, Christopher; Wiener, Jan M.

    2013-01-01

    A considerable amount of research has claimed that animals’ foraging behaviors display movement lengths with power-law distributed tails, characteristic of Lévy flights and Lévy walks. Though these claims have recently come into question, the proposal that many animals forage using Lévy processes nonetheless remains. A Lévy process does not consider when or where resources are encountered, and samples movement lengths independently of past experience. However, Lévy processes too have come into question based on the observation that in patchy resource environments resource-sensitive foraging strategies, like area-restricted search, perform better than Lévy flights yet can still generate heavy-tailed distributions of movement lengths. To investigate these questions further, we tracked humans as they searched for hidden resources in an open-field virtual environment, with either patchy or dispersed resource distributions. Supporting previous research, for both conditions logarithmic binning methods were consistent with Lévy flights and rank-frequency methods–comparing alternative distributions using maximum likelihood methods–showed the strongest support for bounded power-law distributions (truncated Lévy flights). However, goodness-of-fit tests found that even bounded power-law distributions only accurately characterized movement behavior for 4 (out of 32) participants. Moreover, paths in the patchy environment (but not the dispersed environment) showed a transition to intensive search following resource encounters, characteristic of area-restricted search. Transferring paths between environments revealed that paths generated in the patchy environment were adapted to that environment. Our results suggest that though power-law distributions do not accurately reflect human search, Lévy processes may still describe movement in dispersed environments, but not in patchy environments–where search was area-restricted. Furthermore, our results indicate that

  4. Adaptive remapping procedure for electronic cleansing of fecal tagging CT colonography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morra, Lia; Delsanto, Silvia; Campanella, Delia; Regge, Daniele; Bert, Alberto

    2009-02-01

    Fecal tagging preparations are attracting notable interest as a way to increase patients' compliance to virtual colonoscopy. Patient-friendly preparations, however, often result in less homogeneous tagging. Electronic cleansing algorithms should be capable of dealing with such preparations and yield good quality 2D and 3D images; moreover, successful electronic cleansing lays the basis for the application of Computer Aided Detection schemes. In this work, we present a cleansing algorithm based on an adaptive remapping procedure, which is based on a model of how partial volume affects both the air-tissue and the soft-tissue interfaces. Partial volume at the stool-soft tissue interface is characterized in terms of the local characteristics of tagged regions, in order to account for variations in tagging intensity throughout the colon. The two models are then combined in order to obtain a remapping equation relating the observed intensity to the that of the cleansed colon. The electronic cleansed datasets were then processed by a CAD scheme composed of three main steps: colon surface extraction, polyp candidate segmentation through curvature-based features, and linear classifier-based discrimination between true polyps and false alarms. Results obtained were compared with a previous version of the cleansing algorithm, in which a simpler remapping procedure was used. Performances are increased both in terms of the visual quality of the 2D cleansed images and 3D rendered volumes, and of CAD performances on a sameday FT virtual colonoscopy dataset.

  5. Procedures for Computing Transonic Flows for Control of Adaptive Wind Tunnels. Ph.D. Thesis - Technische Univ., Berlin, Mar. 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebstock, Rainer

    1987-01-01

    Numerical methods are developed for control of three dimensional adaptive test sections. The physical properties of the design problem occurring in the external field computation are analyzed, and a design procedure suited for solution of the problem is worked out. To do this, the desired wall shape is determined by stepwise modification of an initial contour. The necessary changes in geometry are determined with the aid of a panel procedure, or, with incident flow near the sonic range, with a transonic small perturbation (TSP) procedure. The designed wall shape, together with the wall deflections set during the tunnel run, are the input to a newly derived one-step formula which immediately yields the adapted wall contour. This is particularly important since the classical iterative adaptation scheme is shown to converge poorly for 3D flows. Experimental results obtained in the adaptive test section with eight flexible walls are presented to demonstrate the potential of the procedure. Finally, a method is described to minimize wall interference in 3D flows by adapting only the top and bottom wind tunnel walls.

  6. An Adaptive Landscape Classification Procedure using Geoinformatics and Artificial Neural Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Andre Michael

    2008-06-01

    The Adaptive Landscape Classification Procedure (ALCP), which links the advanced geospatial analysis capabilities of Geographic Information Systems (GISs) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and particularly Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs), is proposed as a method for establishing and reducing complex data relationships. Its adaptive and evolutionary capability is evaluated for situations where varying types of data can be combined to address different prediction and/or management needs such as hydrologic response, water quality, aquatic habitat, groundwater recharge, land use, instrumentation placement, and forecast scenarios. The research presented here documents and presents favorable results of a procedure that aims to be a powerful and flexible spatial data classifier that fuses the strengths of geoinformatics and the intelligence of SOMs to provide data patterns and spatial information for environmental managers and researchers. This research shows how evaluation and analysis of spatial and/or temporal patterns in the landscape can provide insight into complex ecological, hydrological, climatic, and other natural and anthropogenic-influenced processes. Certainly, environmental management and research within heterogeneous watersheds provide challenges for consistent evaluation and understanding of system functions. For instance, watersheds over a range of scales are likely to exhibit varying levels of diversity in their characteristics of climate, hydrology, physiography, ecology, and anthropogenic influence. Furthermore, it has become evident that understanding and analyzing these diverse systems can be difficult not only because of varying natural characteristics, but also because of the availability, quality, and variability of spatial and temporal data. Developments in geospatial technologies, however, are providing a wide range of relevant data, and in many cases, at a high temporal and spatial resolution. Such data resources can take the form of high

  7. Determining thresholds using adaptive procedures and psychometric fits: evaluating efficiency using theory, simulations, and human experiments.

    PubMed

    Karmali, Faisal; Chaudhuri, Shomesh E; Yi, Yongwoo; Merfeld, Daniel M

    2016-03-01

    When measuring thresholds, careful selection of stimulus amplitude can increase efficiency by increasing the precision of psychometric fit parameters (e.g., decreasing the fit parameter error bars). To find efficient adaptive algorithms for psychometric threshold ("sigma") estimation, we combined analytic approaches, Monte Carlo simulations, and human experiments for a one-interval, binary forced-choice, direction-recognition task. To our knowledge, this is the first time analytic results have been combined and compared with either simulation or human results. Human performance was consistent with theory and not significantly different from simulation predictions. Our analytic approach provides a bound on efficiency, which we compared against the efficiency of standard staircase algorithms, a modified staircase algorithm with asymmetric step sizes, and a maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) procedure. Simulation results suggest that optimal efficiency at determining threshold is provided by the MLE procedure targeting a fraction correct level of 0.92, an asymmetric 4-down, 1-up staircase targeting between 0.86 and 0.92 or a standard 6-down, 1-up staircase. Psychometric test efficiency, computed by comparing simulation and analytic results, was between 41 and 58% for 50 trials for these three algorithms, reaching up to 84% for 200 trials. These approaches were 13-21% more efficient than the commonly used 3-down, 1-up symmetric staircase. We also applied recent advances to reduce accuracy errors using a bias-reduced fitting approach. Taken together, the results lend confidence that the assumptions underlying each approach are reasonable and that human threshold forced-choice decision making is modeled well by detection theory models and mimics simulations based on detection theory models. PMID:26645306

  8. Incorporating Deeply Uncertain Factors into the Many Objective Search Process: Improving Adaptation to Environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprzyk, J. R.; Watson, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Deep uncertainty refers to situations in which decision makers or stakeholders do not know, or cannot fully agree upon, the full suite of risk factors within a planning problem. This phenomenon is especially important when considering scenarios of future environmental change, since there exist multiple trajectories of environmental forcings (e.g., streamflow timing and magnitude) and socioeconomic factors (e.g., population growth). This presentation first briefly reviews robust optimization and scenario approaches that have been proposed to plan for systems under deep uncertainty. One recently introduced framework is Many Objective Robust Decision Making (MORDM). MORDM combines two techniques: evolutionary algorithm search is used to generate planning alternatives, and robust decision making methods are used to sample performance over a large range of plausible factors and, subsequently, choose a robust solution. Within MORDM, Pareto approximate tradeoff sets of solutions are used to balance objectives and examine alternatives. However, MORDM does not currently incorporate the deeply uncertain scenario information into the search process itself. In this presentation, we suggest several avenues for doing so, that are focused on modifying the suite of uncertain data that is selected within the search process. Visualizations that compare tradeoff sets across different sets of assumptions can be used to guide decision makers' learning and, ultimately, their selection of several candidate solutions for further planning. For example, the baseline assumptions about probability distributions can be compared to optimization results under severe events to determine adaptive management strategies. A case study of water planning in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) in Texas is used to demonstrate the approach. Our LRGV results compare baseline optimization with new solution sets that examine optimal management strategies under scenarios characterized by lower than average

  9. Adaptive correction procedure for TVL1 image deblurring under impulse noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Minru; Zhang, Xiongjun; Shao, Qianqian

    2016-08-01

    For the problem of image restoration of observed images corrupted by blur and impulse noise, the widely used TVL1 model may deviate from both the data-acquisition model and the prior model, especially for high noise levels. In order to seek a solution of high recovery quality beyond the reach of the TVL1 model, we propose an adaptive correction procedure for TVL1 image deblurring under impulse noise. Then, a proximal alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) is presented to solve the corrected TVL1 model and its convergence is also established under very mild conditions. It is verified by numerical experiments that our proposed approach outperforms the TVL1 model in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values and visual quality, especially for high noise levels: it can handle salt-and-pepper noise as high as 90% and random-valued noise as high as 70%. In addition, a comparison with a state-of-the-art method, the two-phase method, demonstrates the superiority of the proposed approach.

  10. Effects of Estimation Bias on Multiple-Category Classification with an IRT-Based Adaptive Classification Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Xiangdong; Poggio, John C.; Glasnapp, Douglas R.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of five ability estimators, that is, maximum likelihood estimator, weighted likelihood estimator, maximum a posteriori, expected a posteriori, and Owen's sequential estimator, on the performances of the item response theory-based adaptive classification procedure on multiple categories were studied via simulations. The following…

  11. A procedure of multiple period searching in unequally spaced time-series with the Lomb-Scargle method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dongen, H. P.; Olofsen, E.; VanHartevelt, J. H.; Kruyt, E. W.; Dinges, D. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Periodogram analysis of unequally spaced time-series, as part of many biological rhythm investigations, is complicated. The mathematical framework is scattered over the literature, and the interpretation of results is often debatable. In this paper, we show that the Lomb-Scargle method is the appropriate tool for periodogram analysis of unequally spaced data. A unique procedure of multiple period searching is derived, facilitating the assessment of the various rhythms that may be present in a time-series. All relevant mathematical and statistical aspects are considered in detail, and much attention is given to the correct interpretation of results. The use of the procedure is illustrated by examples, and problems that may be encountered are discussed. It is argued that, when following the procedure of multiple period searching, we can even benefit from the unequal spacing of a time-series in biological rhythm research.

  12. Job-Search Strategies and Reemployment Quality: The Impact of Career Adaptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koen, Jessie; Klehe, Ute-Christine; Van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; Zikic, Jelena; Nauta, Aukje

    2010-01-01

    Past job-search research has focused on how hard unemployed people search for a job, but we still know little about the strategies that people use during their search and how we can predict the quality of the reemployment found. The first aim of this study was to predict the use of different job-search strategies via job-seekers' career…

  13. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  14. Multidisciplinary Procedures for Designing Housing Adaptations for People with Mobility Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Sukkay, Sasicha

    2016-01-01

    Based on a 2013 statistic published by Thai with Disability foundation, five percent of Thailand's population are disabled people. Six hundred thousand of them have mobility disability, and the number is increasing every year. To support them, the Thai government has implemented a number of disability laws and policies. One of the policies is to better disabled people's quality of life by adapting their houses to facilitate their activities. However, the policy has not been fully realized yet-there is still no specific guideline for housing adaptation for people with disabilities. This study is an attempt to address the lack of standardized criteria for such adaptation by developing a number of effective ones. Our development had 3 objectives: first, to identify the body functioning of a group of people with mobility disability according to the international classification functioning concept (ICF); second, to perform post-occupancy evaluation of this group and their houses; and third, with the collected data, to have a group of multidisciplinary experts cooperatively develop criteria for housing adaptation. The major findings were that room dimensions and furniture materials really had an impact on accessibility and toilet as well as bed room were the most difficult areas to access. PMID:27534326

  15. Adaptation of Decoy Fusion Strategy for Existing Multi-Stage Search Workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Mark V.; Levitsky, Lev I.; Gorshkov, Mikhail V.

    2016-09-01

    A number of proteomic database search engines implement multi-stage strategies aiming at increasing the sensitivity of proteome analysis. These approaches often employ a subset of the original database for the secondary stage of analysis. However, if target-decoy approach (TDA) is used for false discovery rate (FDR) estimation, the multi-stage strategies may violate the underlying assumption of TDA that false matches are distributed uniformly across the target and decoy databases. This violation occurs if the numbers of target and decoy proteins selected for the second search are not equal. Here, we propose a method of decoy database generation based on the previously reported decoy fusion strategy. This method allows unbiased TDA-based FDR estimation in multi-stage searches and can be easily integrated into existing workflows utilizing popular search engines and post-search algorithms.

  16. Adaptation of Decoy Fusion Strategy for Existing Multi-Stage Search Workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Mark V.; Levitsky, Lev I.; Gorshkov, Mikhail V.

    2016-06-01

    A number of proteomic database search engines implement multi-stage strategies aiming at increasing the sensitivity of proteome analysis. These approaches often employ a subset of the original database for the secondary stage of analysis. However, if target-decoy approach (TDA) is used for false discovery rate (FDR) estimation, the multi-stage strategies may violate the underlying assumption of TDA that false matches are distributed uniformly across the target and decoy databases. This violation occurs if the numbers of target and decoy proteins selected for the second search are not equal. Here, we propose a method of decoy database generation based on the previously reported decoy fusion strategy. This method allows unbiased TDA-based FDR estimation in multi-stage searches and can be easily integrated into existing workflows utilizing popular search engines and post-search algorithms.

  17. Adaptation of Decoy Fusion Strategy for Existing Multi-Stage Search Workflows.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Mark V; Levitsky, Lev I; Gorshkov, Mikhail V

    2016-09-01

    A number of proteomic database search engines implement multi-stage strategies aiming at increasing the sensitivity of proteome analysis. These approaches often employ a subset of the original database for the secondary stage of analysis. However, if target-decoy approach (TDA) is used for false discovery rate (FDR) estimation, the multi-stage strategies may violate the underlying assumption of TDA that false matches are distributed uniformly across the target and decoy databases. This violation occurs if the numbers of target and decoy proteins selected for the second search are not equal. Here, we propose a method of decoy database generation based on the previously reported decoy fusion strategy. This method allows unbiased TDA-based FDR estimation in multi-stage searches and can be easily integrated into existing workflows utilizing popular search engines and post-search algorithms. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27349255

  18. EEG-Based BCI System Using Adaptive Features Extraction and Classification Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Mangia, Anna Lisa; Cappello, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Motor imagery is a common control strategy in EEG-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). However, voluntary control of sensorimotor (SMR) rhythms by imagining a movement can be skilful and unintuitive and usually requires a varying amount of user training. To boost the training process, a whole class of BCI systems have been proposed, providing feedback as early as possible while continuously adapting the underlying classifier model. The present work describes a cue-paced, EEG-based BCI system using motor imagery that falls within the category of the previously mentioned ones. Specifically, our adaptive strategy includes a simple scheme based on a common spatial pattern (CSP) method and support vector machine (SVM) classification. The system's efficacy was proved by online testing on 10 healthy participants. In addition, we suggest some features we implemented to improve a system's “flexibility” and “customizability,” namely, (i) a flexible training session, (ii) an unbalancing in the training conditions, and (iii) the use of adaptive thresholds when giving feedback.

  19. EEG/ERP adaptive noise canceller design with controlled search space (CSS) approach in cuckoo and other optimization algorithms.

    PubMed

    Ahirwal, M K; Kumar, Anil; Singh, G K

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the migration of adaptive filtering with swarm intelligence/evolutionary techniques employed in the field of electroencephalogram/event-related potential noise cancellation or extraction. A new approach is proposed in the form of controlled search space to stabilize the randomness of swarm intelligence techniques especially for the EEG signal. Swarm-based algorithms such as Particles Swarm Optimization, Artificial Bee Colony, and Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm with their variants are implemented to design optimized adaptive noise canceler. The proposed controlled search space technique is tested on each of the swarm intelligence techniques and is found to be more accurate and powerful. Adaptive noise canceler with traditional algorithms such as least-mean-square, normalized least-mean-square, and recursive least-mean-square algorithms are also implemented to compare the results. ERP signals such as simulated visual evoked potential, real visual evoked potential, and real sensorimotor evoked potential are used, due to their physiological importance in various EEG studies. Average computational time and shape measures of evolutionary techniques are observed 8.21E-01 sec and 1.73E-01, respectively. Though, traditional algorithms take negligible time consumption, but are unable to offer good shape preservation of ERP, noticed as average computational time and shape measure difference, 1.41E-02 sec and 2.60E+00, respectively. PMID:24407307

  20. Unique Search and Track Procedures Utilizing the Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) Worldwide Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruck, R.; Peppard, T.

    2012-09-01

    The GEODSS Vela Search Team, in conjunction with the Air Force, developed revolutionary new procedures to search for man-made objects in deep space. In the first-ever aggressive, proactive campaign against a series of lost satellites, three GEODSS optical detachments were employed to find Vela communication satellites launched in the 1960s. These satellites, in highly eccentric orbits, had not been tracked in over 40 years. The Team exploited GEODSS telescopes and technology for a mission they were not designed to perform by employing modified optical viewing parameters and new search techniques. Using the sun to provide illumination, while modifying optical parameters, the GEODSS team found 5 lost Vela satellites and enhanced the Air Force Space Command satellite catalog. In addition, the Team developed two new tactics, techniques & procedures to capture very hard-to-track objects. Revisit time was increased from intermittent and yearly tracking to weeks or better to find 3 Velas lost for over four decades. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSPOC) analysts stated that the Vela search and tracking was a great success. Additionally, a GEODSS Tactics Development Team was the first to use a deep space observing telescope to track satellites in near earth orbits and outside of the traditional observing period. The team was able to observe and provide metric track data on the International Space Station, Hubble Space Telescope and several other satellites in Near Earth Orbits. Additionally, data was collected before the civil sunset observing period on the Phobos-Grunt re-entry and an Iridium Communications Satellite in Low Earth Orbit. The ability to observe and then successfully repeat the process was an astronomical achievement. The GEODSS team accomplishments pushed the boundaries of the GEODSS system design and proved existing capabilities that had not yet been considered. Lessons learned were established for Vela & other orbit types.

  1. Detecting DIF for Polytomously Scored Items: An Adaptation of the SIBTEST Procedure. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Hua-Hua; And Others

    Recently, R. Shealy and W. Stout (1993) proposed a procedure for detecting differential item functioning (DIF) called SIBTEST. Current versions of SIBTEST can only be used for dichotomously scored items, but this paper presents an extension to handle polytomous items. The paper presents: (1) a discussion of an appropriate definition of DIF for…

  2. Bayesian Procedures for Identifying Aberrant Response-Time Patterns in Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Guo, Fanmin

    2008-01-01

    In order to identify aberrant response-time patterns on educational and psychological tests, it is important to be able to separate the speed at which the test taker operates from the time the items require. A lognormal model for response times with this feature was used to derive a Bayesian procedure for detecting aberrant response times.…

  3. Multilevel adaptive solution procedure for material nonlinear problems in visual programming environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D.; Ghanem, R.

    1994-12-31

    Multigrid solution technique to solve a material nonlinear problem in a visual programming environment using the finite element method is discussed. The nonlinear equation of equilibrium is linearized to incremental form using Newton-Rapson technique, then multigrid solution technique is used to solve linear equations at each Newton-Rapson step. In the process, adaptive mesh refinement, which is based on the bisection of a pair of triangles, is used to form grid hierarchy for multigrid iteration. The solution process is implemented in a visual programming environment with distributed computing capability, which enables more intuitive understanding of solution process, and more effective use of resources.

  4. Dissociating proportion congruent and conflict adaptation effects in a Simon-Stroop procedure.

    PubMed

    Torres-Quesada, Maryem; Funes, Maria Jesús; Lupiáñez, Juan

    2013-02-01

    Proportion congruent and conflict adaptation are two well known effects associated with cognitive control. A critical open question is whether they reflect the same or separate cognitive control mechanisms. In this experiment, in a training phase we introduced a proportion congruency manipulation for one conflict type (i.e. Simon), whereas in pre-training and post-training phases two conflict types (e.g. Simon and Spatial Stroop) were displayed with the same incongruent-to-congruent ratio. The results supported the sustained nature of the proportion congruent effect, as it transferred from the training to the post-training phase. Furthermore, this transfer generalized to both conflict types. By contrast, the conflict adaptation effect was specific to conflict type, as it was only observed when the same conflict type (either Simon or Stroop) was presented on two consecutive trials (no effect was observed on conflict type alternation trials). Results are interpreted as supporting the reactive and proactive control mechanisms distinction. PMID:23337083

  5. Steady inviscid transonic flows over planar airfoils: A search for a simplified procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnus, R.; Yoshihara, H.

    1973-01-01

    A finite difference procedure based upon a system of unsteady equations in proper conservation form with either exact or small disturbance steady terms is used to calculate the steady flows over several classes of airfoils. The airfoil condition is fulfilled on a slab whose upstream extremity is a semi-circle overlaying the airfoil leading edge circle. The limitations of the small disturbance equations are demonstrated in an extreme example of a blunt-nosed, aft-cambered airfoil. The necessity of using the equations in proper conservation form to capture the shock properly is stressed. Ability of the steady relaxation procedures to capture the shock is briefly examined.

  6. Evaluation of discretization procedures for transition elements in adaptive mesh refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, K. C.; Levit, Itzak; Stanley, Gary M.

    1991-01-01

    Three transition interpolation schemes for use in h-or r-refinement have been analyzed in terms of accuracy, implementation ease and extendability. They include blending-function interpolation, displacement averaging, and strain matching at discrete points along the transition edge lines. The results suggest that the choice of matching depends strongly on the element formulations, (viz. displacement or assumed strain, etc.) and mesh refinement criteria employed, and to a lesser extent the choice of computer architecture (serial vs. parallel) and the equation solution procedures. A recommended pairing of some of the elements with the choice factors is suggested.

  7. Never Use the Complete Search Space: a Concept to Enhance the Optimization Procedure for Monitoring Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bode, F.; Reuschen, S.; Nowak, W.

    2015-12-01

    Drinking-water well catchments include many potential sources of contaminations like gas stations or agriculture. Finding optimal positions of early-warning monitoring wells is challenging because there are various parameters (and their uncertainties) that influence the reliability and optimality of any suggested monitoring location or monitoring network.The overall goal of this project is to develop and establish a concept to assess, design and optimize early-warning systems within well catchments. Such optimal monitoring networks need to optimize three competing objectives: a high detection probability, which can be reached by maximizing the "field of vision" of the monitoring network, a long early-warning time such that there is enough time left to install counter measures after first detection, and the overall operating costs of the monitoring network, which should ideally be reduced to a minimum. The method is based on numerical simulation of flow and transport in heterogeneous porous media coupled with geostatistics and Monte-Carlo, scenario analyses for real data, respectively, wrapped up within the framework of formal multi-objective optimization using a genetic algorithm.In order to speed up the optimization process and to better explore the Pareto-front, we developed a concept that forces the algorithm to search only in regions of the search space where promising solutions can be expected. We are going to show how to define these regions beforehand, using knowledge of the optimization problem, but also how to define them independently of problem attributes. With that, our method can be used with and/or without detailed knowledge of the objective functions.In summary, our study helps to improve optimization results in less optimization time by meaningful restrictions of the search space. These restrictions can be done independently of the optimization problem, but also in a problem-specific manner.

  8. An adaptive large neighborhood search heuristic for Two-Echelon Vehicle Routing Problems arising in city logistics

    PubMed Central

    Hemmelmayr, Vera C.; Cordeau, Jean-François; Crainic, Teodor Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an adaptive large neighborhood search heuristic for the Two-Echelon Vehicle Routing Problem (2E-VRP) and the Location Routing Problem (LRP). The 2E-VRP arises in two-level transportation systems such as those encountered in the context of city logistics. In such systems, freight arrives at a major terminal and is shipped through intermediate satellite facilities to the final customers. The LRP can be seen as a special case of the 2E-VRP in which vehicle routing is performed only at the second level. We have developed new neighborhood search operators by exploiting the structure of the two problem classes considered and have also adapted existing operators from the literature. The operators are used in a hierarchical scheme reflecting the multi-level nature of the problem. Computational experiments conducted on several sets of instances from the literature show that our algorithm outperforms existing solution methods for the 2E-VRP and achieves excellent results on the LRP. PMID:23483764

  9. A formal protocol test procedure for the Survivable Adaptable Fiber Optic Embedded Network (SAFENET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    High, Wayne

    1993-03-01

    This thesis focuses upon a new method for verifying the correct operation of a complex, high speed fiber optic communication network. These networks are of growing importance to the military because of their increased connectivity, survivability, and reconfigurability. With the introduction and increased dependence on sophisticated software and protocols, it is essential that their operation be correct. Because of the speed and complexity of fiber optic networks being designed today, they are becoming increasingly difficult to test. Previously, testing was accomplished by application of conformance test methods which had little connection with an implementation's specification. The major goal of conformance testing is to ensure that the implementation of a profile is consistent with its specification. Formal specification is needed to ensure that the implementation performs its intended operations while exhibiting desirable behaviors. The new conformance test method presented is based upon the System of Communicating Machine model which uses a formal protocol specification to generate a test sequence. The major contribution of this thesis is the application of the System of Communicating Machine model to formal profile specifications of the Survivable Adaptable Fiber Optic Embedded Network (SAFENET) standard which results in the derivation of test sequences for a SAFENET profile. The results applying this new method to SAFENET's OSI and Lightweight profiles are presented.

  10. Image retargeting using non-uniform scaling with adaptive local search window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shanshan; Abdel-Dayem, Amr

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a new content-aware image-retargeting scheme, based on non-uniform scaling, to adaptively adjust the image's dimensions for various screen sizes. Based on an importance map, the energy contribution for each line in the reduced dimension to the overall energy within the image is computed. Then, the image is adaptively mapped and resampled based on the energy contribution function. Experimental results showed that the performance of the proposed scheme is comparable to seam carving in visual quality. However, it is computationally less expensive.

  11. A CLOSE COMPANION SEARCH AROUND L DWARFS USING APERTURE MASKING INTERFEROMETRY AND PALOMAR LASER GUIDE STAR ADAPTIVE OPTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Bernat, David; Bouchez, Antonin H.; Cromer, John L.; Dekany, Richard G.; Moore, Anna M.; Ireland, Michael; Tuthill, Peter; Martinache, Frantz; Angione, John; Burruss, Rick S.; Guiwits, Stephen R.; Henning, John R.; Hickey, Jeff; Kibblewhite, Edward; McKenna, Daniel L.; Petrie, Harold L.; Roberts, Jennifer; Shelton, J. Chris; Thicksten, Robert P.; Trinh, Thang

    2010-06-01

    We present a close companion search around 16 known early L dwarfs using aperture masking interferometry with Palomar laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS AO). The use of aperture masking allows the detection of close binaries, corresponding to projected physical separations of 0.6-10.0 AU for the targets of our survey. This survey achieved median contrast limits of {Delta}K {approx} 2.3 for separations between 1.2 {lambda}/D-4{lambda}/D and {Delta}K {approx} 1.4 at 2/3 {lambda}/D. We present four candidate binaries detected with moderate-to-high confidence (90%-98%). Two have projected physical separations less than 1.5 AU. This may indicate that tight-separation binaries contribute more significantly to the binary fraction than currently assumed, consistent with spectroscopic and photometric overluminosity studies. Ten targets of this survey have previously been observed with the Hubble Space Telescope as part of companion searches. We use the increased resolution of aperture masking to search for close or dim companions that would be obscured by full aperture imaging, finding two candidate binaries. This survey is the first application of aperture masking with LGS AO at Palomar. Several new techniques for the analysis of aperture masking data in the low signal-to-noise regime are explored.

  12. Practical High-Order Adaptive Optics Systems For Extrasolar Planet Searches

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B A; Olivier, S; Bauman, B; Brase, J; Carr, E; Carrano, C J; Gavel, D; Max, C E; Patience, J

    2001-08-29

    Direct detection of photons emitted or reflected by an extrasolar planet is an extremely difficult but extremely exciting application of adaptive optics. Typical contrast levels for an extrasolar planet would be 10{sup 9}-Jupiter is a billion times fainter than the sun. Current adaptive optics systems can only achieve contrast levels of 10{sup 6}, but so-called ''extreme'' adaptive optics systems with 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} degrees of freedom could potentially detect extrasolar planets. We explore the scaling laws defining the performance of these systems, first set out by Angel (1994), and derive a different definition of an optimal system. Our sensitivity predictions are somewhat more pessimistic than the original paper, due largely to slow decorrelation timescales for some noise sources, though choosing to site an ExAO system at a location with exceptional r{sub 0} (e.g. Mauna Kea) can offset this. We also explore the effects of segment aberrations in a Keck-like telescope on ExAO; although the effects are significant, they can be mitigated through Lyot coronagraphy.

  13. MO-A-16A-01: QA Procedures and Metrics: In Search of QA Usability

    SciTech Connect

    Sathiaseelan, V; Thomadsen, B

    2014-06-15

    Radiation therapy has undergone considerable changes in the past two decades with a surge of new technology and treatment delivery methods. The complexity of radiation therapy treatments has increased and there has been increased awareness and publicity about the associated risks. In response, there has been proliferation of guidelines for medical physicists to adopt to ensure that treatments are delivered safely. Task Group recommendations are copious, and clinical physicists' hours are longer, stretched to various degrees between site planning and management, IT support, physics QA, and treatment planning responsibilities.Radiation oncology has many quality control practices in place to ensure the delivery of high-quality, safe treatments. Incident reporting systems have been developed to collect statistics about near miss events at many radiation oncology centers. However, tools are lacking to assess the impact of these various control measures. A recent effort to address this shortcoming is the work of Ford et al (2012) who recently published a methodology enumerating quality control quantification for measuring the effectiveness of safety barriers. Over 4000 near-miss incidents reported from 2 academic radiation oncology clinics were analyzed using quality control quantification, and a profile of the most effective quality control measures (metrics) was identified.There is a critical need to identify a QA metric to help the busy clinical physicists to focus their limited time and resources most effectively in order to minimize or eliminate errors in the radiation treatment delivery processes. In this symposium the usefulness of workflows and QA metrics to assure safe and high quality patient care will be explored.Two presentations will be given:Quality Metrics and Risk Management with High Risk Radiation Oncology ProceduresStrategies and metrics for quality management in the TG-100 Era Learning Objectives: Provide an overview and the need for QA usability

  14. Enhancing artificial bee colony algorithm with self-adaptive searching strategy and artificial immune network operators for global optimization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tinggui; Xiao, Renbin

    2014-01-01

    Artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm, inspired by the intelligent foraging behavior of honey bees, was proposed by Karaboga. It has been shown to be superior to some conventional intelligent algorithms such as genetic algorithm (GA), artificial colony optimization (ACO), and particle swarm optimization (PSO). However, the ABC still has some limitations. For example, ABC can easily get trapped in the local optimum when handing in functions that have a narrow curving valley, a high eccentric ellipse, or complex multimodal functions. As a result, we proposed an enhanced ABC algorithm called EABC by introducing self-adaptive searching strategy and artificial immune network operators to improve the exploitation and exploration. The simulation results tested on a suite of unimodal or multimodal benchmark functions illustrate that the EABC algorithm outperforms ACO, PSO, and the basic ABC in most of the experiments. PMID:24772023

  15. Enhancing Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm with Self-Adaptive Searching Strategy and Artificial Immune Network Operators for Global Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tinggui; Xiao, Renbin

    2014-01-01

    Artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm, inspired by the intelligent foraging behavior of honey bees, was proposed by Karaboga. It has been shown to be superior to some conventional intelligent algorithms such as genetic algorithm (GA), artificial colony optimization (ACO), and particle swarm optimization (PSO). However, the ABC still has some limitations. For example, ABC can easily get trapped in the local optimum when handing in functions that have a narrow curving valley, a high eccentric ellipse, or complex multimodal functions. As a result, we proposed an enhanced ABC algorithm called EABC by introducing self-adaptive searching strategy and artificial immune network operators to improve the exploitation and exploration. The simulation results tested on a suite of unimodal or multimodal benchmark functions illustrate that the EABC algorithm outperforms ACO, PSO, and the basic ABC in most of the experiments. PMID:24772023

  16. Identification of Unknown Interface Locations in a Source/Shield System Using the Mesh Adaptive Direct Search Method

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Jerawan C.; Favorite, Jeffrey A.

    2012-06-20

    The Levenberg-Marquardt (or simply Marquardt) and differential evolution (DE) optimization methods were recently applied to solve inverse transport problems. The Marquardt method is fast but convergence of the method is dependent on the initial guess. While it has been shown to work extremely well at finding an optimum independent of the initial guess, the DE method does not provide a global optimal solution in some problems. In this paper, we apply the Mesh Adaptive Direct Search (MADS) algorithm to solve the inverse problem of material interface location identification in one-dimensional spherical radiation source/shield systems, and we compare the results obtained by MADS to those obtained by Levenberg-Marquardt and DE.

  17. Design for a region-wide adaptive search for the ivorybilled woodpecker with the objective of estimating occupancy and related parameters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, R.J.; Mordecai, Rua S.; Mattsson, B.G.; Conroy, M.J.; Pacifici, K.; Peterson, J.T.; Moore, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a survey design and field protocol for the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) search effort that will: (1) allow estimation of occupancy, use, and detection probability for habitats at two spatial scales within the bird?s former range, (2) assess relationships between occupancy, use, and habitat characteristics at those scales, (3) eventually allow the development of a population viability model that depends on patch occupancy instead of difficult-to-measure demographic parameters, and (4) be adaptive, allowing newly collected information to update the above models and search locations. The approach features random selection of patches to be searched from a sampling frame stratified and weighted by patch quality, and requires multiple visits per patch. It is adaptive within a season in that increased search activity is allowed in and around locations of strong visual and/or aural evidence, and adaptive among seasons in that habitat associations allow modification of stratum weights. This statistically rigorous approach is an improvement over simply visiting the ?best? habitat in an ad hoc fashion because we can learn from prior effort and modify the search accordingly. Results from the 2006-07 search season indicate weak relationships between occupancy and habitat (although we suggest modifications of habitat measurement protocols), and a very low detection probability, suggesting more visits per patch are required. Sample size requirements will be discussed.

  18. Searching for the dust/molecular torus in a typical AGN using adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, O.; Alloin, D.

    Adaptive optics systems are now routinely operated on several 4 meter class telescopes, allowing to achieve angular resolutions down to 70 msec in the near-infrared. Although these systems have excellent performances, their use for exploring the physics and structure of AGN is still limited for the following reasons: the limiting magnitude of the wavefront sensor is too high, the sensitivity of infrared detectors does not give access to medium/high spectral solution spectroscopy and the angular resolution achieved does not always fit the apparent size of the physical components responsible for emission features close to the central engine. The new generation of 8-10m class telescopes bring improvements in this matter. However, some interesting results have been obtained so far with Adonis, the ESO La Silla adaptive optics system on the 3.60 meter telescope, in the investigation of AGN structure. In particular, a prominent structure has been detected in the central arcsec core of NGC 1068, which might feature the dusty/molecular torus expected on theoretical grounds.

  19. Searching for the Dust/Molecular Torus in a Typical AGN using Adaptive Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, O.; Alloin, D.

    Adaptive Optics systems are now routinely operated on several 4 meter class telescopes, allowing to achieve angular resolutions down to 70 msec in the near-infrared. Although these systems have excellent performances, their use for exploring the physics and structure of AGN is still limited for the following reasons: the limiting magnitude of the wavefront sensor is too high, the sensitivity of infrared detectors does not give access to medium/high spectral resolution spectroscopy and the angular resolution achieved does not always fit the apparent size of the physical components responsible for emission features close to the central engine. The new generation of 8-10 m class telescopes bring improvements in this matter. However, some interesting results have been obtained so far with Adonis, the ESO La Silla adaptive optics system on the 3.60 meter telescope, in the investigation of AGN structure. In particular, a prominent structure has been detected in the central arcs! ec core of NGC1068, which might feature the dusty/molecular torus expected on theoretical grounds.

  20. Small Infrared Target Detection by Region-Adaptive Clutter Rejection for Sea-Based Infrared Search and Track

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungho; Lee, Joohyoung

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a region-adaptive clutter rejection method for small target detection in sea-based infrared search and track. In the real world, clutter normally generates many false detections that impede the deployment of such detection systems. Incoming targets (missiles, boats, etc.) can be located in the sky, horizon and sea regions, which have different types of clutters, such as clouds, a horizontal line and sea-glint. The characteristics of regional clutter were analyzed after the geometrical analysis-based region segmentation. The false detections caused by cloud clutter were removed by the spatial attribute-based classification. Those by the horizontal line were removed using the heterogeneous background removal filter. False alarms by sun-glint were rejected using the temporal consistency filter, which is the most difficult part. The experimental results of the various cluttered background sequences show that the proposed region adaptive clutter rejection method produces fewer false alarms than that of the mean subtraction filter (MSF) with an acceptable degradation detection rate. PMID:25054633

  1. Small infrared target detection by region-adaptive clutter rejection for sea-based infrared search and track.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungho; Lee, Joohyoung

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a region-adaptive clutter rejection method for small target detection in sea-based infrared search and track. In the real world, clutter normally generates many false detections that impede the deployment of such detection systems. Incoming targets (missiles, boats, etc.) can be located in the sky, horizon and sea regions, which have different types of clutters, such as clouds, a horizontal line and sea-glint. The characteristics of regional clutter were analyzed after the geometrical analysis-based region segmentation. The false detections caused by cloud clutter were removed by the spatial attribute-based classification. Those by the horizontal line were removed using the heterogeneous background removal filter. False alarms by sun-glint were rejected using the temporal consistency filter, which is the most difficult part. The experimental results of the various cluttered background sequences show that the proposed region adaptive clutter rejection method produces fewer false alarms than that of the mean subtraction filter (MSF) with an acceptable degradation detection rate. PMID:25054633

  2. A Comparison of Content-Balancing Procedures for Estimating Multiple Clinical Domains in Computerized Adaptive Testing: Relative Precision, Validity, and Detection of Persons with Misfitting Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Barth B.; Dennis, Michael L.; Conrad, Kendon J.

    2010-01-01

    This simulation study sought to compare four different computerized adaptive testing (CAT) content-balancing procedures designed for use in a multidimensional assessment with respect to measurement precision, symptom severity classification, validity of clinical diagnostic recommendations, and sensitivity to atypical responding. The four…

  3. The local enhancement conundrum: in search of the adaptive value of a social learning mechanism.

    PubMed

    Arbilly, Michal; Laland, Kevin N

    2014-02-01

    Social learning mechanisms are widely thought to vary in their degree of complexity as well as in their prevalence in the natural world. While learning the properties of a stimulus that generalize to similar stimuli at other locations (stimulus enhancement) prima facie appears more useful to an animal than learning about a specific stimulus at a specific location (local enhancement), empirical evidence suggests that the latter is much more widespread in nature. Simulating populations engaged in a producer-scrounger game, we sought to deploy mathematical models to identify the adaptive benefits of reliance on local enhancement and/or stimulus enhancement, and the alternative conditions favoring their evolution. Surprisingly, we found that while stimulus enhancement readily evolves, local enhancement is advantageous only under highly restricted conditions: when generalization of information was made unreliable or when error in social learning was high. Our results generate a conundrum over how seemingly conflicting empirical and theoretical findings can be reconciled. Perhaps the prevalence of local enhancement in nature is due to stimulus enhancement costs independent of the learning task itself (e.g. predation risk), perhaps natural habitats are often characterized by unreliable yet highly rewarding payoffs, or perhaps local enhancement occurs less frequently, and stimulus enhancement more frequently, than widely believed. PMID:24044984

  4. Biogenic hydrogen peroxide as a possible adaptation of life on Mars: the search for biosignatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houtkooper, J. M.; Schulze-Makuch, D.

    2007-08-01

    The hypothesis that putative Martian organisms incorporate H2O2 into their intracellular liquids (Houtkooper and Schulze-Makuch, 2007) has significant implications, as it explains the Viking observations quite well; it provides a functional adaptation to Martian environmental conditions; and, it is feasible as an adaptation based on the biochemistry of terrestrial organisms. It would explain many of the puzzling Viking observations such as (1) the lack of organics detected by GC-MS, (2) the lack of detected oxidant(s) to support a chemical explanation, (3) evolution of O2 upon wetting (GEx experiment), (4) limited organic synthesis reactions (PR experiment), and (5) the gas release observations made (LR experiment). An intracellular liquid containing a high concentration of H2O2 has advantages such as providing a low freezing point, a source of oxygen, and hygroscopicity, allowing an organism to obtain water vapor from the Martian atmosphere or from the adsorbed layers of water molecules on mineral grains. Perhaps surprisingly, H2O2 is used by many terrestrial organisms for diverse purposes, e.g., metabolism (Acetobacter peroxidans), as defense mechanism (Bombardier beetle), and also to mediate diverse physiological responses such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. The detection of H2O2-containing organisms may well suffer from the same problems as the Viking experiments: Because of the excess oxidative contents, as derived from the GEx experiment, the organisms may decompose completely into H2O, CO2, O2 and N2. This can happen when exposed to an excess of water vapor (through hyperhydration), too high a temperature or a combination of both. Therefore, the addition of too much water vapor may be fatal. Moreover, employing pyrolysis in order to detect organic molecules may result in the organisms autooxidizing completely. Although the instrument suite aboard the Phoenix Lander offers some interesting possibilities (Schulze-Makuch and Houtkooper

  5. Cerebellar cathodal tDCS interferes with recalibration and spatial realignment during prism adaptation procedure in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Panico, Francesco; Sagliano, Laura; Grossi, Dario; Trojano, Luigi

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify the specific role of the cerebellum during prism adaptation procedure (PAP), considering its involvement in early prism exposure (i.e., in the recalibration process) and in post-exposure phase (i.e., in the after-effect, related to spatial realignment). For this purpose we interfered with cerebellar activity by means of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), while young healthy individuals were asked to perform a pointing task on a touch screen before, during and after wearing base-left prism glasses. The distance from the target dot in each trial (in terms of pixels) on horizontal and vertical axes was recorded and served as an index of accuracy. Results on horizontal axis, that was shifted by prism glasses, revealed that participants who received cathodal stimulation showed increased rightward deviation from the actual position of the target while wearing prisms and a larger leftward deviation from the target after prisms removal. Results on vertical axis, in which no shift was induced, revealed a general trend in the two groups to improve accuracy through the different phases of the task, and a trend, more visible in cathodal stimulated participants, to worsen accuracy from the first to the last movements in each phase. Data on horizontal axis allow to confirm that the cerebellum is involved in all stages of PAP, contributing to early strategic recalibration process, as well as to spatial realignment. On vertical axis, the improving performance across the different stages of the task and the worsening accuracy within each task phase can be ascribed, respectively, to a learning process and to the task-related fatigue. PMID:27031676

  6. PANMIN: sequential and parallel global optimization procedures with a variety of options for the local search strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theos, F. V.; Lagaris, I. E.; Papageorgiou, D. G.

    2004-05-01

    We present two sequential and one parallel global optimization codes, that belong to the stochastic class, and an interface routine that enables the use of the Merlin/MCL environment as a non-interactive local optimizer. This interface proved extremely important, since it provides flexibility, effectiveness and robustness to the local search task that is in turn employed by the global procedures. We demonstrate the use of the parallel code to a molecular conformation problem. Program summaryTitle of program: PANMIN Catalogue identifier: ADSU Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADSU Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: PANMIN is designed for UNIX machines. The parallel code runs on either shared memory architectures or on a distributed system. The code has been tested on a SUN Microsystems ENTERPRISE 450 with four CPUs, and on a 48-node cluster under Linux, with both the GNU g77 and the Portland group compilers. The parallel implementation is based on MPI and has been tested with LAM MPI and MPICH Installation: University of Ioannina, Greece Programming language used: Fortran-77 Memory required to execute with typical data: Approximately O( n2) words, where n is the number of variables No. of bits in a word: 64 No. of processors used: 1 or many Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: Parallelized using MPI No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 147163 No. of lines in distributed program, including the test data, etc.: 14366 Distribution format: gzipped tar file Nature of physical problem: A multitude of problems in science and engineering are often reduced to minimizing a function of many variables. There are instances that a local optimum does not correspond to the desired physical solution and hence the search for a better solution is required. Local optimization techniques can be

  7. High-contrast Adaptive Optics and a Search for Late-type Companions to Hyades FGK Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morzinski, Katie M.

    2011-01-01

    The Hyades is an intermediate-age open cluster with hundreds of main-sequence stars and is thus well-suited to stellar formation and evolution studies. Being nearby with high proper motion, it is a choice cluster for direct-imaging surveys. We conduct a high-contrast adaptive optics (AO) search for late-type companions as faint as MH 15 (late-L/early-T) within 5-230 AU around 88 FGK main-sequence Hyades dwarfs. Departures from the ideal point-spread function (PSF) in the image plane are caused by phase and amplitude errors that redistribute stellar light and limit the achievable contrast. An AO system on a ground-based telescope mitigates the phase errors in the pupil, but constructive interference of spatially coherent light causes amplitude spikes in the PSF called speckles. The locally-optimized combination of images (LOCI) algorithm is used to identify and subtract the quasistatic speckles and static PSF structure, allowing imaging of faint point-source companions. We use LOCI on deep near-infrared AO Hyad imaging at Keck and Lick Observatories. Background objects are subsequently ruled out by comparing relative astrometry in two epochs separated by five years. We present our confirmed Hyades companions. Furthermore, we look ahead to AO for exoplanet-imaging wherein a ''dark hole'' in the PSF facilitates high-contrast imaging. The size of the dark hole is set by the highest spatial frequency controllable by the deformable mirror (DM). Decreasing rejection at increasing spatial frequencies reduces the correction efficiency within the high-contrast region, owing to the nature of the MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) DM transfer function. This effect can be mitigated by a dual-DM ''woofer/tweeter'' AO system whereby each DM controls a different spatial frequency regime. We present empirical results on selecting a woofer DM in order to maintain the dark hole for the upcoming Gemini Planet Imager. (Supported by NASA Michelson Fellowship, NSF Center for

  8. Characterization of the non-uniqueness of used nuclear fuel burnup signatures through a Mesh-Adaptive Direct Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skutnik, Steven E.; Davis, David R.

    2016-05-01

    The use of passive gamma and neutron signatures from fission indicators is a common means of estimating used fuel burnup, enrichment, and cooling time. However, while characteristic fission product signatures such as 134Cs, 137Cs, 154Eu, and others are generally reliable estimators for used fuel burnup within the context where the assembly initial enrichment and the discharge time are known, in the absence of initial enrichment and/or cooling time information (such as when applying NDA measurements in a safeguards/verification context), these fission product indicators no longer yield a unique solution for assembly enrichment, burnup, and cooling time after discharge. Through the use of a new Mesh-Adaptive Direct Search (MADS) algorithm, it is possible to directly probe the shape of this "degeneracy space" characteristic of individual nuclides (and combinations thereof), both as a function of constrained parameters (such as the assembly irradiation history) and unconstrained parameters (e.g., the cooling time before measurement and the measurement precision for particular indicator nuclides). In doing so, this affords the identification of potential means of narrowing the uncertainty space of potential assembly enrichment, burnup, and cooling time combinations, thereby bounding estimates of assembly plutonium content. In particular, combinations of gamma-emitting nuclides with distinct half-lives (e.g., 134Cs with 137Cs and 154Eu) in conjunction with gross neutron counting (via 244Cm) are able to reasonably constrain the degeneracy space of possible solutions to a space small enough to perform useful discrimination and verification of fuel assemblies based on their irradiation history.

  9. A hybrid, auto-adaptive and rule-based multi-agent approach using evolutionary algorithms for improved searching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izquierdo, Joaquín; Montalvo, Idel; Campbell, Enrique; Pérez-García, Rafael

    2016-08-01

    Selecting the most appropriate heuristic for solving a specific problem is not easy, for many reasons. This article focuses on one of these reasons: traditionally, the solution search process has operated in a given manner regardless of the specific problem being solved, and the process has been the same regardless of the size, complexity and domain of the problem. To cope with this situation, search processes should mould the search into areas of the search space that are meaningful for the problem. This article builds on previous work in the development of a multi-agent paradigm using techniques derived from knowledge discovery (data-mining techniques) on databases of so-far visited solutions. The aim is to improve the search mechanisms, increase computational efficiency and use rules to enrich the formulation of optimization problems, while reducing the search space and catering to realistic problems.

  10. Anatomy of Student Models in Adaptive Learning Systems: A Systematic Literature Review of Individual Differences from 2001 to 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakic, Jelena; Granic, Andrina; Glavinic, Vlado

    2015-01-01

    This study brings an evidence-based review of user individual characteristics employed as sources of adaptation in recent adaptive learning systems. Twenty-two user individual characteristics were explored in a systematically designed search procedure, while 17 of them were identified as sources of adaptation in final selection. The content…

  11. Genetic-Algorithm Tool For Search And Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Lui; Bayer, Steven

    1995-01-01

    SPLICER computer program used to solve search and optimization problems. Genetic algorithms adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem-solving methods) based loosely on processes of natural selection and Darwinian "survival of fittest." Algorithms apply genetically inspired operators to populations of potential solutions in iterative fashion, creating new populations while searching for optimal or nearly optimal solution to problem at hand. Written in Think C.

  12. Adapted Physical Education, Occupational Therapy, and Physical Therapy in the Public School. Procedures and Recommended Guidelines (Revised 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This manual is designed to assist Colorado personnel in developing and providing adapted physical education, occupational therapy, and physical therapy to Colorado public school students who have needs in the motor area. Guidelines are presented that have been developed to focus on the problems encountered by students with needs in the physical…

  13. Expanding Talent Search Procedures by Including Measures of Spatial Ability: CTY's Spatial Test Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stumpf, Heinrich; Mills, Carol J.; Brody, Linda E.; Baxley, Philip G.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of spatial ability for success in a variety of domains, particularly in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), is widely acknowledged. Yet, students with high spatial ability are rarely identified, as Talent Searches for academically talented students focus on identifying high mathematical and verbal abilities.…

  14. Model Specification Searches in Structural Equation Modeling Using Tabu Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcoulides, George A.; Drezner, Zvi; Schumacker, Randall E.

    1998-01-01

    Introduces an alternative structural equation modeling (SEM) specification search approach based on the Tabu search procedure. Using data with known structure, the procedure is illustrated, and its capabilities for specification searches in SEM are demonstrated. (Author/SLD)

  15. Objectively-assessed outcome measures: a translation and cross-cultural adaptation procedure applied to the Chedoke McMaster Arm and Hand Activity Inventory (CAHAI)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Standardised translation and cross-cultural adaptation (TCCA) procedures are vital to describe language translation, cultural adaptation, and to evaluate quality factors of transformed outcome measures. No TCCA procedure for objectively-assessed outcome (OAO) measures exists. Furthermore, no official German version of the Canadian Chedoke Arm and Hand Activity Inventory (CAHAI) is available. Methods An eight-step for TCCA procedure for OAO was developed (TCCA-OAO) based on the existing TCCA procedure for patient-reported outcomes. The TCCA-OAO procedure was applied to develop a German version of the CAHAI (CAHAI-G). Inter-rater reliability of the CAHAI-G was determined through video rating of CAHAI-G. Validity evaluation of the CAHAI-G was assessed using the Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment (CMSA). All ratings were performed by trained, independent raters. In a cross-sectional study, patients were tested within 31 hours after the initial CAHAI-G scoring, for their motor function level using the subscales for arm and hand of the CMSA. Inpatients and outpatients of the occupational therapy department who experienced a cerebrovascular accident or an intracerebral haemorrhage were included. Results Performance of 23 patients (mean age 69.4, SD 12.9; six females; mean time since stroke onset: 1.5 years, SD 2.5 years) have been assessed. A high inter-rater reliability was calculated with ICCs for 4 CAHAI-G versions (13, 9, 8, 7 items) ranging between r = 0.96 and r = 0.99 (p < 0.001). Correlation between the CAHAI-G and CMSA subscales for hand and arm was r = 0.74 (p < 0.001) and r = 0.67 (p < 0.001) respectively. Internal consistency of the CAHAI-G for all four versions ranged between α = 0.974 and α = 0.979. Conclusions The TCCA-OAO procedure was validated regarding its feasibility and applicability for objectively-assessed outcome measures. The resulting German CAHAI can be used as a valid and reliable assessment for bilateral upper limb performance in

  16. SPIN or LURCH : a Comparative Assessment of Model Checking and Stochastic Search for Temporal Properties in Procedural Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, John D.; Owens, David; Menzies, Tim

    2004-01-01

    The difficulty of how to test large systems, such as the one on board a NASA robotic remote explorer (RRE) vehicle, is fundamentally a search issue: the global state space representing all possible has yet to be solved, even after many decades of work. Randomized algorithms have been known to outperform their deterministic counterparts for search problems representing a wide range of applications. In the case study presented here, the LURCH randomized algorithm proved to be adequate to the task of testing a NASA RRE vehicle. LURCH found all the errors found by an earlier analysis of a more complete method (SPIN). Our empirical results are that LURCH can scale to much larger models than standard model checkers like SMV and SPIN. Further, the LURCH analysis was simpler than the SPIN analysis. The simplicity and scalability of LURCH are two compelling reasons for experimenting further with this tool.

  17. Measuring acuity of the approximate number system reliably and validly: the evaluation of an adaptive test procedure

    PubMed Central

    Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter; Poom, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Two studies investigated the reliability and predictive validity of commonly used measures and models of Approximate Number System acuity (ANS). Study 1 investigated reliability by both an empirical approach and a simulation of maximum obtainable reliability under ideal conditions. Results showed that common measures of the Weber fraction (w) are reliable only when using a substantial number of trials, even under ideal conditions. Study 2 compared different purported measures of ANS acuity as for convergent and predictive validity in a within-subjects design and evaluated an adaptive test using the ZEST algorithm. Results showed that the adaptive measure can reduce the number of trials needed to reach acceptable reliability. Only direct tests with non-symbolic numerosity discriminations of stimuli presented simultaneously were related to arithmetic fluency. This correlation remained when controlling for general cognitive ability and perceptual speed. Further, the purported indirect measure of ANS acuity in terms of the Numeric Distance Effect (NDE) was not reliable and showed no sign of predictive validity. The non-symbolic NDE for reaction time was significantly related to direct w estimates in a direction contrary to the expected. Easier stimuli were found to be more reliable, but only harder (7:8 ratio) stimuli contributed to predictive validity. PMID:23964256

  18. Constrained Self-adaptive Solutions Procedures for Structure Subject to High Temperature Elastic-plastic Creep Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padovan, J.; Tovichakchaikul, S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper will develop a new solution strategy which can handle elastic-plastic-creep problems in an inherently stable manner. This is achieved by introducing a new constrained time stepping algorithm which will enable the solution of creep initiated pre/postbuckling behavior where indefinite tangent stiffnesses are encountered. Due to the generality of the scheme, both monotone and cyclic loading histories can be handled. The presentation will give a thorough overview of current solution schemes and their short comings, the development of constrained time stepping algorithms as well as illustrate the results of several numerical experiments which benchmark the new procedure.

  19. Searching for signatures of cold adaptations in modern and archaic humans: hints from the brown adipose tissue genes.

    PubMed

    Sazzini, M; Schiavo, G; De Fanti, S; Martelli, P L; Casadio, R; Luiselli, D

    2014-09-01

    Adaptation to low temperatures has been reasonably developed in the human species during the colonization of the Eurasian landmass subsequent to Out of Africa migrations of anatomically modern humans. In addition to morphological and cultural changes, also metabolic ones are supposed to have favored human isolation from cold and body heat production and this can be hypothesized also for most Neandertal and at least for some Denisovan populations, which lived in geographical areas that strongly experienced the last glacial period. Modulation of non-shivering thermogenesis, for which adipocytes belonging to the brown adipose tissue are the most specialized cells, might have driven these metabolic adaptations. To perform an exploratory analysis aimed at looking into this hypothesis, variation at 28 genes involved in such functional pathway was investigated in modern populations from different climate zones, as well as in Neandertal and Denisovan genomes. Patterns of variation at the LEPR gene, strongly related to increased heat dissipation by mitochondria, appeared to have been shaped by positive selection in modern East Asians, but not in Europeans. Moreover, a single potentially cold-adapted LEPR allele, different from the supposed adaptive one identified in Homo sapiens, was found also in Neandertal and Denisovan genomes. These findings suggest that independent mechanisms for cold adaptations might have been developed in different non-African human groups, as well as that the evolution of possible enhanced thermal efficiency in Neandertals and in some Denisovan populations has plausibly entailed significant changes also in other functional pathways than in the examined one. PMID:24667833

  20. Searching for signatures of cold adaptations in modern and archaic humans: hints from the brown adipose tissue genes

    PubMed Central

    Sazzini, M; Schiavo, G; De Fanti, S; Martelli, P L; Casadio, R; Luiselli, D

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation to low temperatures has been reasonably developed in the human species during the colonization of the Eurasian landmass subsequent to Out of Africa migrations of anatomically modern humans. In addition to morphological and cultural changes, also metabolic ones are supposed to have favored human isolation from cold and body heat production and this can be hypothesized also for most Neandertal and at least for some Denisovan populations, which lived in geographical areas that strongly experienced the last glacial period. Modulation of non-shivering thermogenesis, for which adipocytes belonging to the brown adipose tissue are the most specialized cells, might have driven these metabolic adaptations. To perform an exploratory analysis aimed at looking into this hypothesis, variation at 28 genes involved in such functional pathway was investigated in modern populations from different climate zones, as well as in Neandertal and Denisovan genomes. Patterns of variation at the LEPR gene, strongly related to increased heat dissipation by mitochondria, appeared to have been shaped by positive selection in modern East Asians, but not in Europeans. Moreover, a single potentially cold-adapted LEPR allele, different from the supposed adaptive one identified in Homo sapiens, was found also in Neandertal and Denisovan genomes. These findings suggest that independent mechanisms for cold adaptations might have been developed in different non-African human groups, as well as that the evolution of possible enhanced thermal efficiency in Neandertals and in some Denisovan populations has plausibly entailed significant changes also in other functional pathways than in the examined one. PMID:24667833

  1. Tuning into Scorpius X-1: adapting a continuous gravitational-wave search for a known binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadors, Grant David; Goetz, Evan; Riles, Keith

    2016-05-01

    We describe how the TwoSpect data analysis method for continuous gravitational waves (GWs) has been tuned for directed sources such as the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB), Scorpius X-1 (Sco X-1). A comparison of five search algorithms generated simulations of the orbital and GW parameters of Sco X-1. Whereas that comparison focused on relative performance, here the simulations help quantify the sensitivity enhancement and parameter estimation abilities of this directed method, derived from an all-sky search for unknown sources, using doubly Fourier-transformed data. Sensitivity is shown to be enhanced when the source sky location and period are known, because we can run a fully templated search, bypassing the all-sky hierarchical stage using an incoherent harmonic sum. The GW strain and frequency, as well as the projected semi-major axis of the binary system, are recovered and uncertainty estimated, for simulated signals that are detected. Upper limits for GW strain are set for undetected signals. Applications to future GW observatory data are discussed. Robust against spin-wandering and computationally tractable despite an unknown frequency, this directed search is an important new tool for finding gravitational signals from LMXBs.

  2. Deconvolution of post-adaptive optics images of faint circumstellar environments by means of the inexact Bregman procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benfenati, A.; La Camera, A.; Carbillet, M.

    2016-02-01

    Aims: High-dynamic range images of astrophysical objects present some difficulties in their restoration because of the presence of very bright point-wise sources surrounded by faint and smooth structures. We propose a method that enables the restoration of this kind of images by taking these kinds of sources into account and, at the same time, improving the contrast enhancement in the final image. Moreover, the proposed approach can help to detect the position of the bright sources. Methods: The classical variational scheme in the presence of Poisson noise aims to find the minimum of a functional compound of the generalized Kullback-Leibler function and a regularization functional: the latter function is employed to preserve some characteristic in the restored image. The inexact Bregman procedure substitutes the regularization function with its inexact Bregman distance. This proposed scheme allows us to take under control the level of inexactness arising in the computed solution and permits us to employ an overestimation of the regularization parameter (which balances the trade-off between the Kullback-Leibler and the Bregman distance). This aspect is fundamental, since the estimation of this kind of parameter is very difficult in the presence of Poisson noise. Results: The inexact Bregman procedure is tested on a bright unresolved binary star with a faint circumstellar environment. When the sources' position is exactly known, this scheme provides us with very satisfactory results. In case of inexact knowledge of the sources' position, it can in addition give some useful information on the true positions. Finally, the inexact Bregman scheme can be also used when information about the binary star's position concerns a connected region instead of isolated pixels.

  3. Searching for Binary Y dwarfs with the Gemini GeMS Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opitz, Daniela; Tinney, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has delivered an exceptional harvest of new ultra-cool Y-type brown dwarfs. We present results from a diffraction-limited study of the binary status of a sample of Y dwarfs observed with the Gemini GeMS Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System. We report no evidence of equal mass/luminosity binaries at separations larger than ˜ 0.5-2.0 AU for five Y dwarfs.

  4. The Search for Relevant Climate Change Information to Support Adaptation Decision Makers: Lessons from Reductionism, Emergence and the Past (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stainforth, D.; Harrison, S.; Smith, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    The reality of anthropogenic climate change is founded on well understood scientific principles and is now widely accepted. The need for international efforts to limit the extent of future changes in climate - climate change mitigation - is therefore clear. Since anthropogenic climate change is well underway, however, and the planet is committed to further changes based on past emissions alone, there will certainly be a need for global society to adapt to the consequences. The physical sciences are increasingly being looked to as sources of information and guidance on adaptation policy and decision making. Unlike mitigation efforts such decisions generally require information on local or regional scales. What is the source of such information? How can we tell when it is robust and fit for the purpose of supporting a specific decision? The availability of rapidly increasing computational resources has led to a steady increase in the resolution of global climate models and of embedded regional climate models. They are approaching a point where they can provide data at a resolution which may be usable in adaptation decision support. Yet models are not equivalent to reality and model errors are significant even at the global scale. By contrast scientific understanding of climatic processes now and in the past can provide information about plausible responses which are more qualitative but may be equally useful. This talk will focus on the relative roles of fundamentally reductionist, model approaches with alternatives based on observations and process understanding. The latter, although more qualitative, are able to inform us about emergent properties; properties which may be difficult or impossible to reproduce within a reductionist paradigm. The contrast between emergent and reductionist approaches has a long history in the physical sciences; a history which provides valuable lessons for the relationship between climate science and societal / policy decisions. Here

  5. VLT adaptive optics search for luminous substructures in the lens galaxy towards SDSS J0924+0219

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faure, C.; Sluse, D.; Cantale, N.; Tewes, M.; Courbin, F.; Durrer, P.; Meylan, G.

    2011-12-01

    The anomalous flux ratios between quasar images are suspected of being caused by substructures in lens galaxies. We present new deep and high-resolution H and Ks imaging of the strongly lensed quasar SDSS J0924+0219 obtained using the ESO VLT with adaptive optics and the laser guide star system. SDSS J0924+0219 is particularly interesting because the observed flux ratio between the quasar images vastly disagree with the predictions from smooth mass models. With our adaptive optics observations we find a luminous object, Object L, located ~0.3'' to the north of the lens galaxy, but we show that it cannot be responsible for the anomalous flux ratios. Object L as well as a luminous extension of the lens galaxy to the south are seen in the archival HST/ACS image in the F814W filter. This suggests that Object L is part of a bar in the lens galaxy, as also supported by the presence of a significant disk component in the light profile of the lens galaxy. Finally, we find no evidence of any other luminous substructure that may explain the quasar images flux ratios. However, owing to the persistence of the flux ratio anomaly over time (~7 years), a combination of microlensing and millilensing is the favorite explanation for the observations. Based on observations obtained with the ESO VLT at Paranal observatory (Prog ID 084.A-0762(A); PI: Meylan). Also based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with the CASTLES (Cfa-Arizona Space Telescope LEns Survey) survey (ID: 9744, PI: C. S. Kochanek).

  6. Genetic algorithms in adaptive fuzzy control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, C. Lucas; Harper, Tony R.

    1992-01-01

    Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines have developed adaptive process control systems in which genetic algorithms (GA's) are used to augment fuzzy logic controllers (FLC's). GA's are search algorithms that rapidly locate near-optimum solutions to a wide spectrum of problems by modeling the search procedures of natural genetics. FLC's are rule based systems that efficiently manipulate a problem environment by modeling the 'rule-of-thumb' strategy used in human decision making. Together, GA's and FLC's possess the capabilities necessary to produce powerful, efficient, and robust adaptive control systems. To perform efficiently, such control systems require a control element to manipulate the problem environment, an analysis element to recognize changes in the problem environment, and a learning element to adjust fuzzy membership functions in response to the changes in the problem environment. Details of an overall adaptive control system are discussed. A specific computer-simulated chemical system is used to demonstrate the ideas presented.

  7. Searching for Binary Y dwarfs with the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opitz, Daniela; Tinney, Chris

    2015-08-01

    The NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has discovered almost all the known members of the new class of Y-type brown dwarfs. Most of these Y dwarfs have been identified as isolated objects in the field. It is known that binaries with L- and T-type brown dwarf primaries are less prevalent than either M-dwarf or solar-type primaries, they tend to be closely separated and are more frequently detected in near-equal mass configurations. The binary status of Y- type brown dwarfs is still unclear and therefore, determining if Y-type primaries hold the same trend, is of considerable interest. In addition, the detection of binary companions to very cool Y dwarfs may well be the best means available for discovering even colder objects. We present results from a diffraction-limited study of a sample of five WISE Y dwarfs observed with the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS). We find no evidence for binary companions in these data, which suggests these systems are not equal luminosity (or equivalently equal mass) binaries at separations larger than ~ 0.3-1.9 AU.

  8. Study of ion transport across biopsies of ileostomy in vitro: search for evidence of intestinal 'adaptation' after colectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Hawker, P C; Morris, A I; McKay, J; Turnberg, L A

    1980-01-01

    To explore the possibility that small intestinal 'adaptation' may occur after colectomy we examined the ability of ileal mucosal biopsies, taken from patients with ileostomies, to transport electrolytes in vitro. Ileostomy mucosal electrical potential difference was higher (5.4+/-0.5 mV) than in normal mucosa (3.3+/-0.3, P less than 0.001), resistance was higher (98+/-12, against 40.3+/-2.8 omega cm-2), while short circuit current was lower (54.8+/-6.0; against 89.9+/-6.1 muA.cm-2). Net sodium absorption, 1.25+/-0.41 mumol.cm-2.h-1 (n=6), rose on addition of glucose (15 mM.1-1) to 11.57+/-0.8 mumol.cm-2.h-1 (n=4), and these were similar to results from normal ileum. Net chloride transport was also similar to noraml. In one subject, with intermittent ileostomy diarrhoea, net sodium absorption was normal, 2.14 mumol.cm-2.h-1, but there was marked active chloride secretion, 14.03 mumol.cm-2.h-1. These studies do not provide any evidence of enhanced electrolyte absorption across ileal mucosa as a response to colectomy. Some cases of ileostomy diarrhoea may be due to active chloride secretion. PMID:7380338

  9. Searching for Binary Y Dwarfs with the Gemini Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opitz, Daniela; Tinney, C. G.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Sweet, Sarah; Gelino, Christopher R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy

    2016-03-01

    The NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has discovered almost all the known members of the new class of Y-type brown dwarfs. Most of these Y dwarfs have been identified as isolated objects in the field. It is known that binaries with L- and T-type brown dwarf primaries are less prevalent than either M-dwarf or solar-type primaries, they tend to have smaller separations and are more frequently detected in near-equal mass configurations. The binary statistics for Y-type brown dwarfs, however, are sparse, and so it is unclear if the same trends that hold for L- and T-type brown dwarfs also hold for Y-type ones. In addition, the detection of binary companions to very cool Y dwarfs may well be the best means available for discovering even colder objects. We present results for binary properties of a sample of five WISE Y dwarfs with the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System. We find no evidence for binary companions in these data, which suggests these systems are not equal-luminosity (or equal-mass) binaries with separations larger than ˜0.5-1.9 AU. For equal-mass binaries at an age of 5 Gyr, we find that the binary binding energies ruled out by our observations (i.e., 1042 erg) are consistent with those observed in previous studies of hotter ultra-cool dwarfs.

  10. Evaluation of total effective dose due to certain environmentally placed naturally occurring radioactive materials using a procedural adaptation of RESRAD code.

    PubMed

    Beauvais, Z S; Thompson, K H; Kearfott, K J

    2009-07-01

    Due to a recent upward trend in the price of uranium and subsequent increased interest in uranium mining, accurate modeling of baseline dose from environmental sources of radioactivity is of increasing interest. Residual radioactivity model and code (RESRAD) is a program used to model environmental movement and calculate the dose due to the inhalation, ingestion, and exposure to radioactive materials following a placement. This paper presents a novel use of RESRAD for the calculation of dose from non-enhanced, or ancient, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). In order to use RESRAD to calculate the total effective dose (TED) due to ancient NORM, a procedural adaptation was developed to negate the effects of time progressive distribution of radioactive materials. A dose due to United States' average concentrations of uranium, actinium, and thorium series radionuclides was then calculated. For adults exposed in a residential setting and assumed to eat significant amounts of food grown in NORM concentrated areas, the annual dose due to national average NORM concentrations was 0.935 mSv y(-1). A set of environmental dose factors were calculated for simple estimation of dose from uranium, thorium, and actinium series radionuclides for various age groups and exposure scenarios as a function of elemental uranium and thorium activity concentrations in groundwater and soil. The values of these factors for uranium were lowest for an adult exposed in an industrial setting: 0.00476 microSv kg Bq(-1) y(-1) for soil and 0.00596 microSv m(3) Bq(-1) y(-1) for water (assuming a 1:1 234U:238U activity ratio in water). The uranium factors were highest for infants exposed in a residential setting and assumed to ingest food grown onsite: 34.8 microSv kg Bq(-1) y(-1) in soil and 13.0 microSv m(3) Bq(-1) y(-1) in water. PMID:19509509

  11. Null steering of adaptive beamforming using linear constraint minimum variance assisted by particle swarm optimization, dynamic mutated artificial immune system, and gravitational search algorithm.

    PubMed

    Darzi, Soodabeh; Kiong, Tiong Sieh; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Ismail, Mahamod; Kibria, Salehin; Salem, Balasem

    2014-01-01

    Linear constraint minimum variance (LCMV) is one of the adaptive beamforming techniques that is commonly applied to cancel interfering signals and steer or produce a strong beam to the desired signal through its computed weight vectors. However, weights computed by LCMV usually are not able to form the radiation beam towards the target user precisely and not good enough to reduce the interference by placing null at the interference sources. It is difficult to improve and optimize the LCMV beamforming technique through conventional empirical approach. To provide a solution to this problem, artificial intelligence (AI) technique is explored in order to enhance the LCMV beamforming ability. In this paper, particle swarm optimization (PSO), dynamic mutated artificial immune system (DM-AIS), and gravitational search algorithm (GSA) are incorporated into the existing LCMV technique in order to improve the weights of LCMV. The simulation result demonstrates that received signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR) of target user can be significantly improved by the integration of PSO, DM-AIS, and GSA in LCMV through the suppression of interference in undesired direction. Furthermore, the proposed GSA can be applied as a more effective technique in LCMV beamforming optimization as compared to the PSO technique. The algorithms were implemented using Matlab program. PMID:25147859

  12. Null Steering of Adaptive Beamforming Using Linear Constraint Minimum Variance Assisted by Particle Swarm Optimization, Dynamic Mutated Artificial Immune System, and Gravitational Search Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Sieh Kiong, Tiong; Tariqul Islam, Mohammad; Ismail, Mahamod; Salem, Balasem

    2014-01-01

    Linear constraint minimum variance (LCMV) is one of the adaptive beamforming techniques that is commonly applied to cancel interfering signals and steer or produce a strong beam to the desired signal through its computed weight vectors. However, weights computed by LCMV usually are not able to form the radiation beam towards the target user precisely and not good enough to reduce the interference by placing null at the interference sources. It is difficult to improve and optimize the LCMV beamforming technique through conventional empirical approach. To provide a solution to this problem, artificial intelligence (AI) technique is explored in order to enhance the LCMV beamforming ability. In this paper, particle swarm optimization (PSO), dynamic mutated artificial immune system (DM-AIS), and gravitational search algorithm (GSA) are incorporated into the existing LCMV technique in order to improve the weights of LCMV. The simulation result demonstrates that received signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR) of target user can be significantly improved by the integration of PSO, DM-AIS, and GSA in LCMV through the suppression of interference in undesired direction. Furthermore, the proposed GSA can be applied as a more effective technique in LCMV beamforming optimization as compared to the PSO technique. The algorithms were implemented using Matlab program. PMID:25147859

  13. Search for associations containing young stars (SACY). VI. Is multiplicity universal? Stellar multiplicity in the range 3-1000 au from adaptive-optics observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, P.; Huélamo, N.; Bouy, H.; Bayo, A.; Melo, C. H. F.; Torres, C. A. O.; Sterzik, M. F.; Quast, G. R.; Chauvin, G.; Barrado, D.

    2015-08-01

    Context. Young loose nearby associations are unique samples of close (<150 pc), young (≈5-100 Myr) pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars. A significant number of members of these associations have been identified in the SACY (search for associations containing young stars) collaboration. We can use the proximity and youth of these members to investigate key ingredients in star formation processes, such as multiplicity. Aims: With the final goal of better understanding multiplicity properties at different evolutionary stages of PMS stars, we present the statistics of identified multiple systems from 113 confirmed SACY members. We derive multiplicity frequencies, mass-ratio, and physical separation distributions in a consistent parameter space, and compare our results to other PMS populations and the field. Methods: We have obtained adaptive-optics assisted near-infrared observations with the Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System and Near-Infrared Imager and Spectrograph (NACO), ESO/VLT, and the Infrared Camera for Adaptive optics at Lick observatory (IRCAL), Lick Observatory, for at least one epoch of all 113 SACY members. We have identified multiple systems using co-moving proper-motion analysis for targets with multi-epoch data, and using contamination estimates in terms of mass-ratio and physical separation for targets with single-epoch data. We have explored ranges in projected separation and mass-ratio of a [3-1000 au], and q [0.1-1], respectively. Results: We have identified 31 multiple systems (28 binaries and 3 triples). We derive a multiplicity frequency (MF) of MF3-1000 au=28.4+4.7_{-3.9}% and a triple frequency (TF) of TF3-1000 au =2.8 +2.5-0.8% in the separation range of 3-1000 au. We do not find any evidence for an increase in the MF with primary mass. The estimated mass-ratio of our statistical sample (with power-law index γ = -0.04 ± 0.14) is consistent with a flat distribution (γ = 0). Conclusions: Analysis from previous work using tight binaries indicated

  14. Standardization of Keyword Search Mode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Di

    2010-01-01

    In spite of its popularity, keyword search mode has not been standardized. Though information professionals are quick to adapt to various presentations of keyword search mode, novice end-users may find keyword search confusing. This article compares keyword search mode in some major reference databases and calls for standardization. (Contains 3…

  15. Tabu search based strategies for conformational search.

    PubMed

    Stepanenko, Svetlana; Engels, Bernd

    2009-10-29

    This paper presents an application of the new nonlinear global optimization routine gradient only tabu search (GOTS) to conformational search problems. It is based on the tabu search strategy which tries to determine the global minimum of a function by the steepest descent-modest ascent strategy. The refinement of ranking procedure of the original GOTS method and the exploitation of simulated annealing elements are described, and the modifications of the GOTS algorithm necessary to adopt it to conformation searches are explained. The utility of the GOTS for conformational search problems is tested using various examples. PMID:19769347

  16. Tabu Search Based Strategies for Conformational Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanenko, Svetlana; Engels, Bernd

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents an application of the new nonlinear global optimization routine gradient only tabu search (GOTS) to conformational search problems. It is based on the tabu search strategy which tries to determine the global minimum of a function by the steepest descent-modest ascent strategy. The refinement of ranking procedure of the original GOTS method and the exploitation of simulated annealing elements are described, and the modifications of the GOTS algorithm necessary to adopt it to conformation searches are explained. The utility of the GOTS for conformational search problems is tested using various examples.

  17. Adaptive process control using fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines have developed adaptive process control systems in which genetic algorithms (GA's) are used to augment fuzzy logic controllers (FLC's). GA's are search algorithms that rapidly locate near-optimum solutions to a wide spectrum of problems by modeling the search procedures of natural genetics. FLC's are rule based systems that efficiently manipulate a problem environment by modeling the 'rule-of-thumb' strategy used in human decision making. Together, GA's and FLC's possess the capabilities necessary to produce powerful, efficient, and robust adaptive control systems. To perform efficiently, such control systems require a control element to manipulate the problem environment, and a learning element to adjust to the changes in the problem environment. Details of an overall adaptive control system are discussed. A specific laboratory acid-base pH system is used to demonstrate the ideas presented.

  18. Adaptive Process Control with Fuzzy Logic and Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines have developed adaptive process control systems in which genetic algorithms (GA's) are used to augment fuzzy logic controllers (FLC's). GA's are search algorithms that rapidly locate near-optimum solutions to a wide spectrum of problems by modeling the search procedures of natural genetics. FLC's are rule based systems that efficiently manipulate a problem environment by modeling the 'rule-of-thumb' strategy used in human decision-making. Together, GA's and FLC's possess the capabilities necessary to produce powerful, efficient, and robust adaptive control systems. To perform efficiently, such control systems require a control element to manipulate the problem environment, an analysis element to recognize changes in the problem environment, and a learning element to adjust to the changes in the problem environment. Details of an overall adaptive control system are discussed. A specific laboratory acid-base pH system is used to demonstrate the ideas presented.

  19. A Comparison of Item Selection Procedures Using Different Ability Estimation Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing Based on the Generalized Partial Credit Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Tsung-Han

    2010-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) provides a highly efficient alternative to the paper-and-pencil test. By selecting items that match examinees' ability levels, CAT not only can shorten test length and administration time but it can also increase measurement precision and reduce measurement error. In CAT, maximum information (MI) is the most…

  20. A Multi-Start Evolutionary Local Search for the Two-Echelon Location Routing Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Viet-Phuong; Prins, Christian; Prodhon, Caroline

    This paper presents a new hybrid metaheuristic between a greedy randomized adaptive search procedure (GRASP) and an evolutionary/iterated local search (ELS/ILS), using Tabu list to solve the two-echelon location routing problem (LRP-2E). The GRASP uses in turn three constructive heuristics followed by local search to generate the initial solutions. From a solution of GRASP, an intensification strategy is carried out by a dynamic alternation between ELS and ILS. In this phase, each child is obtained by mutation and evaluated through a splitting procedure of giant tour followed by a local search. The tabu list, defined by two characteristics of solution (total cost and number of trips), is used to avoid searching a space already explored. The results show that our metaheuristic clearly outperforms all previously published methods on LRP-2E benchmark instances. Furthermore, it is competitive with the best meta-heuristic published for the single-echelon LRP.

  1. Adaptive Image Denoising by Mixture Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Enming; Chan, Stanley H; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2016-10-01

    We propose an adaptive learning procedure to learn patch-based image priors for image denoising. The new algorithm, called the expectation-maximization (EM) adaptation, takes a generic prior learned from a generic external database and adapts it to the noisy image to generate a specific prior. Different from existing methods that combine internal and external statistics in ad hoc ways, the proposed algorithm is rigorously derived from a Bayesian hyper-prior perspective. There are two contributions of this paper. First, we provide full derivation of the EM adaptation algorithm and demonstrate methods to improve the computational complexity. Second, in the absence of the latent clean image, we show how EM adaptation can be modified based on pre-filtering. The experimental results show that the proposed adaptation algorithm yields consistently better denoising results than the one without adaptation and is superior to several state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:27416593

  2. Direct tabu search algorithm for the fiber Bragg grating distributed strain sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, F.; Seddiki, O.

    2010-09-01

    A direct tabu search (DTS) algorithm used for determining the strain profile along a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) from its reflection spectrum has been demonstrated. By combining the transfer matrix method (TMM) for calculating the reflection spectrum of an FBG and the DTS method, we obtain a new method for the distributed sensing. Direct search based strategies are used to direct a tabu search. These strategies are based on a new pattern search procedure called an adaptive pattern search (APS). In addition, the well-known Nelder-Mead (NME) algorithm is used as a local search method in the final stage of the optimization process. The numerical simulations show good agreement between the original and the reconstructed strain profiles.

  3. Searching for Pedagogical Adaptations by Exploring Teacher's Tacit Knowledge and Interactional Co-Regulation in the Education of Pupils with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rama, Irene; Kontu, Elina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce a research design, which aims to find useful pedagogical adaptations for teaching pupils with autism. Autism is a behavioural syndrome characterised by disabilities and dysfunctions in interaction and communication, which is why it is interesting to explore educational processes particularly from an…

  4. A finite difference Davidson procedure to sidestep full ab initio hessian calculation: Application to characterization of stationary points and transition state searches

    SciTech Connect

    Sharada, Shaama Mallikarjun; Bell, Alexis T. E-mail: bell@cchem.berkeley.edu; Head-Gordon, Martin E-mail: bell@cchem.berkeley.edu

    2014-04-28

    The cost of calculating nuclear hessians, either analytically or by finite difference methods, during the course of quantum chemical analyses can be prohibitive for systems containing hundreds of atoms. In many applications, though, only a few eigenvalues and eigenvectors, and not the full hessian, are required. For instance, the lowest one or two eigenvalues of the full hessian are sufficient to characterize a stationary point as a minimum or a transition state (TS), respectively. We describe here a method that can eliminate the need for hessian calculations for both the characterization of stationary points as well as searches for saddle points. A finite differences implementation of the Davidson method that uses only first derivatives of the energy to calculate the lowest eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the hessian is discussed. This method can be implemented in conjunction with geometry optimization methods such as partitioned-rational function optimization (P-RFO) to characterize stationary points on the potential energy surface. With equal ease, it can be combined with interpolation methods that determine TS guess structures, such as the freezing string method, to generate approximate hessian matrices in lieu of full hessians as input to P-RFO for TS optimization. This approach is shown to achieve significant cost savings relative to exact hessian calculation when applied to both stationary point characterization as well as TS optimization. The basic reason is that the present approach scales one power of system size lower since the rate of convergence is approximately independent of the size of the system. Therefore, the finite-difference Davidson method is a viable alternative to full hessian calculation for stationary point characterization and TS search particularly when analytical hessians are not available or require substantial computational effort.

  5. Synthesis of chirped apodized fiber Bragg grating parameters using Direct Tabu Search algorithm: Application to the determination of thermo-optic and thermal expansion coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Fethallah; Seddiki, Omar

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, Direct Tabu Search (DTS) is proposed to synthesize the physical parameters of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) numerically from its reflection response. A reflected spectrum is being calculated by using the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM). Direct search based strategies are used to direct a tabu search. These strategies are based on a new pattern search procedure called Adaptive Pattern Search (APS). In addition, the well-known Nelder-Mead (NME) algorithm is used as a local search method at the final stage of the optimization process. Direct Tabu Search (DTS) is applied for reconstruction of a raised cosine chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG) and a Gaussian multi channel fiber grating. The method is then used to synthesize a CFBG from its reflectivity taken at different temperatures. It gives a good estimate of the thermal expansion coefficient and the thermo-optic coefficient of the fiber.

  6. Effect of qubit losses on Grover's quantum search algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, D. D. Bhaktavatsala; Mølmer, Klaus

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the performance of Grover's quantum search algorithm on a register that is subject to a loss of particles that carry qubit information. Under the assumption that the basic steps of the algorithm are applied correctly on the correspondingly shrinking register, we show that the algorithm converges to mixed states with 50% overlap with the target state in the bit positions still present. As an alternative to error correction, we present a procedure that combines the outcome of different trials of the algorithm to determine the solution to the full search problem. The procedure may be relevant for experiments where the algorithm is adapted as the loss of particles is registered and for experiments with Rydberg blockade interactions among neutral atoms, where monitoring of atom losses is not even necessary.

  7. A parallel algorithm for random searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wosniack, M. E.; Raposo, E. P.; Viswanathan, G. M.; da Luz, M. G. E.

    2015-11-01

    We discuss a parallelization procedure for a two-dimensional random search of a single individual, a typical sequential process. To assure the same features of the sequential random search in the parallel version, we analyze the former spatial patterns of the encountered targets for different search strategies and densities of homogeneously distributed targets. We identify a lognormal tendency for the distribution of distances between consecutively detected targets. Then, by assigning the distinct mean and standard deviation of this distribution for each corresponding configuration in the parallel simulations (constituted by parallel random walkers), we are able to recover important statistical properties, e.g., the target detection efficiency, of the original problem. The proposed parallel approach presents a speedup of nearly one order of magnitude compared with the sequential implementation. This algorithm can be easily adapted to different instances, as searches in three dimensions. Its possible range of applicability covers problems in areas as diverse as automated computer searchers in high-capacity databases and animal foraging.

  8. Behavior of adaptive digital erosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuciurean-Zapan, Clara; Dougherty, Edward R.; Chen, Yidong

    1996-10-01

    Design of statistically optimal erosion-based filters is problematic due to the complexity of the search process. Specialized search techniques and constraints on optimality are used to mitigate the full search. Adaptation of structuring elements has also ben employed. The present paper looks at the behavior of an adaptive filter relative to the actual optimal filter for a single erosion in two models, signal-union-noise and dilation. It does so in the context of state transitions, where filter states are stacks that determine the structuring element upon thresholding.

  9. Bomb Threats and Bomb Search Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet explains how to be prepared and plan for bomb threats and describes procedures to follow once a call has been received. The content covers (1) preparation for bomb threats, (2) evacuation procedures, (3) room search methods, (4) procedures to follow once a bomb has been located, and (5) typical problems that search teams will…

  10. New Martian satellite search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The approach pictures taken by the Viking 1 and Viking 2 spacecrafts two days before their Mars orbital insertion maneuvers were analyzed in order to search for new satellites within the orbit of Phobos. To accomplish this task, search procedure and analysis strategy were formulated, developed and executed using the substantial image processing capabilities of the Image Processing Laboratory at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The development of these new search capabilities should prove to be valuable to NASA in processing of image data obtained from other spacecraft missions. The result of applying the search procedures to the Viking approach pictures was as follows: no new satellites of comparable size (approx. 20 km) and brightness to Phobos or Demios were detected within the orbit of Phobos.

  11. Adapting Assessment Procedures: The Black Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Asa G., III

    This speech deals with the assumptions and approaches underlying educational assessment and suggests alternatives to standardized testing. It is proposed that the assumption that test items can be standardized is at the base of assessment problems; while there are standard mental functions which children develop, there are no standard items that…

  12. Subaru adaptive-optics high-spatial-resolution infrared K- and L'-band imaging search for deeply buried dual AGNs in merging galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Saito, Yuriko

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of infrared K- (2.2 μm) and L'-band (3.8 μm) high-spatial-resolution (<0.''2) imaging observations of nearby gas- and dust-rich infrared luminous merging galaxies, assisted by the adaptive optics system on the Subaru 8.2 m telescope. We investigate the presence and frequency of red K – L' compact sources, which are sensitive indicators of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), including AGNs that are deeply buried in gas and dust. We observed 29 merging systems and confirmed at least one AGN in all but one system. However, luminous dual AGNs were detected in only four of the 29 systems (∼14%), despite our method's being sensitive to buried AGNs. For multiple nuclei sources, we compared the estimated AGN luminosities with supermassive black hole (SMBH) masses inferred from large-aperture K-band stellar emission photometry in individual nuclei. We found that mass accretion rates onto SMBHs are significantly different among multiple SMBHs, such that larger-mass SMBHs generally show higher mass accretion rates when normalized to SMBH mass. Our results suggest that non-synchronous mass accretion onto SMBHs in gas- and dust-rich infrared luminous merging galaxies hampers the observational detection of kiloparsec-scale multiple active SMBHs. This could explain the significantly smaller detection fraction of kiloparsec-scale dual AGNs when compared with the number expected from simple theoretical predictions. Our results also indicate that mass accretion onto SMBHs is dominated by local conditions, rather than by global galaxy properties, reinforcing the importance of observations to our understanding of how multiple SMBHs are activated and acquire mass in gas- and dust-rich merging galaxies.

  13. Search Cloud

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/cloud.html Search Cloud To use the sharing features on this page, ... Top 110 zoster vaccine Share the MedlinePlus search cloud with your users by embedding our search cloud ...

  14. Search Cloud

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/cloud.html Search Cloud To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Share the MedlinePlus search cloud with your users by embedding our search cloud ...

  15. Developing Competency in Payroll Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Allen L.

    1975-01-01

    The author describes a sequence of units that provides for competency in payroll procedures. The units could be the basis for a four to six week minicourse and are adaptable, so that the student, upon completion, will be able to apply his learning to any payroll procedures system. (Author/AJ)

  16. Prism Adaptation in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Nirav O.; Turner, Beth M.; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Paulsen, Jane S.; O'Leary, Daniel S.; Ho, Beng-Choon

    2006-01-01

    The prism adaptation test examines procedural learning (PL) in which performance facilitation occurs with practice on tasks without the need for conscious awareness. Dynamic interactions between frontostriatal cortices, basal ganglia, and the cerebellum have been shown to play key roles in PL. Disruptions within these neural networks have also…

  17. Adaptive Sampling Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flournoy, Nancy

    Designs for sequential sampling procedures that adapt to cumulative information are discussed. A familiar illustration is the play-the-winner rule in which there are two treatments; after a random start, the same treatment is continued as long as each successive subject registers a success. When a failure occurs, the other treatment is used until…

  18. Procurement of Literature Searching Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Jonathan G.; McCann, Anne

    1979-01-01

    A project for the cyclic review of the safety of food additives initiated by the Food and Drug Administration's Bureau of Foods is outlined, and contractual arrangements and procedures for procuring the necessary literature searches are discussed. (CWM)

  19. Quark search at the CBA

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.C.; Leipuner, L.B.; Morse, W.M.; Adair, R.K.; Kasha, H.; Schmidt, M.P.

    1983-03-13

    An experiment to search for quarks at the CBA is described. The cross sections for the production of massive quark-antiquark pairs in nucleon-nucleon interactions is estimated, and the experimental design and procedures are described. (WHK)

  20. Adaptive Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive managem...

  1. [Examination procedures].

    PubMed

    Vassault, A; Arnaud, J; Szymanovicz, A

    2010-12-01

    Examination procedures have to be written for each examination according to the standard requirements. Using CE marked devices, technical inserts can be used, but because of their lack of homogeneity, it could be easier to document their use as a standard procedure. Document control policy applies for those procedures, the content of which could be as provided in this document. Electronic manuals can be used as well. PMID:21613016

  2. Application of adaptive cluster sampling to low-density populations of freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Villella, R.F.; Lemarie, D.P.

    2003-01-01

    Freshwater mussels appear to be promising candidates for adaptive cluster sampling because they are benthic macroinvertebrates that cluster spatially and are frequently found at low densities. We applied adaptive cluster sampling to estimate density of freshwater mussels at 24 sites along the Cacapon River, WV, where a preliminary timed search indicated that mussels were present at low density. Adaptive cluster sampling increased yield of individual mussels and detection of uncommon species; however, it did not improve precision of density estimates. Because finding uncommon species, collecting individuals of those species, and estimating their densities are important conservation activities, additional research is warranted on application of adaptive cluster sampling to freshwater mussels. However, at this time we do not recommend routine application of adaptive cluster sampling to freshwater mussel populations. The ultimate, and currently unanswered, question is how to tell when adaptive cluster sampling should be used, i.e., when is a population sufficiently rare and clustered for adaptive cluster sampling to be efficient and practical? A cost-effective procedure needs to be developed to identify biological populations for which adaptive cluster sampling is appropriate.

  3. Binocular self-calibration performed via adaptive genetic algorithm based on laser line imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apolinar Muñoz Rodríguez, J.; Mejía Alanís, Francisco Carlos

    2016-07-01

    An accurate technique to perform binocular self-calibration by means of an adaptive genetic algorithm based on a laser line is presented. In this calibration, the genetic algorithm computes the vision parameters through simulated binary crossover (SBX). To carry it out, the genetic algorithm constructs an objective function from the binocular geometry of the laser line projection. Then, the SBX minimizes the objective function via chromosomes recombination. In this algorithm, the adaptive procedure determines the search space via line position to obtain the minimum convergence. Thus, the chromosomes of vision parameters provide the minimization. The approach of the proposed adaptive genetic algorithm is to calibrate and recalibrate the binocular setup without references and physical measurements. This procedure leads to improve the traditional genetic algorithms, which calibrate the vision parameters by means of references and an unknown search space. It is because the proposed adaptive algorithm avoids errors produced by the missing of references. Additionally, the three-dimensional vision is carried out based on the laser line position and vision parameters. The contribution of the proposed algorithm is corroborated by an evaluation of accuracy of binocular calibration, which is performed via traditional genetic algorithms.

  4. Adaptive Assessment for Nonacademic Secondary Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hittleman, Daniel R.

    Adaptive assessment procedures are a means of determining the quality of a reader's performance in a variety of reading situations and on a variety of written materials. Such procedures are consistent with the idea that there are functional competencies which change with the reading task. Adaptive assessment takes into account that a lack of…

  5. Confidential Searches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Linda Chion

    2003-01-01

    Will the stealth superintendent hunt in Cincinnati become tomorrow's standard approach? Search consultants and superintendents offer their views on how far confidentiality should go. Also includes a search firm's process for shielding identities and a confidentiality pledge. (MLF)

  6. Savvy Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacso, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Explains desktop metasearch engines, which search the databases of several search engines simultaneously. Reviews two particular versions, the Copernic 2001 Pro and the BullsEye Pro 3, comparing costs, subject categories, display capabilities, and layout for presenting results. (LRW)

  7. 25 CFR 11.305 - Search warrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Search warrants. 11.305 Section 11.305 Indians BUREAU OF... Criminal Procedure § 11.305 Search warrants. (a) Each magistrate of a Court of Indian Offenses shall have the authority to issue a warrant for the search of premises and for the seizure of physical...

  8. 25 CFR 11.305 - Search warrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Search warrants. 11.305 Section 11.305 Indians BUREAU OF... Criminal Procedure § 11.305 Search warrants. (a) Each magistrate of a Court of Indian Offenses shall have the authority to issue a warrant for the search of premises and for the seizure of physical...

  9. 25 CFR 11.305 - Search warrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Search warrants. 11.305 Section 11.305 Indians BUREAU OF... Criminal Procedure § 11.305 Search warrants. (a) Each magistrate of a Court of Indian Offenses shall have the authority to issue a warrant for the search of premises and for the seizure of physical...

  10. 25 CFR 11.305 - Search warrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Search warrants. 11.305 Section 11.305 Indians BUREAU OF... Criminal Procedure § 11.305 Search warrants. (a) Each magistrate of a Court of Indian Offenses shall have the authority to issue a warrant for the search of premises and for the seizure of physical...

  11. 25 CFR 11.305 - Search warrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Search warrants. 11.305 Section 11.305 Indians BUREAU OF... Criminal Procedure § 11.305 Search warrants. (a) Each magistrate of a Court of Indian Offenses shall have the authority to issue a warrant for the search of premises and for the seizure of physical...

  12. Suspicionless Searches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2000-01-01

    In a federal case involving a vice-principal's pat-down search of middle-school students in a cafeteria (for a missing pizza knife), the court upheld the search, saying it was relatively unintrusive and met "TLO's" reasonable-suspicion standards. Principals need reasonable justification for searching a group. (Contains 18 references.) (MLH)

  13. Dewey Searches!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity for young children that helps them conduct subject searches using an automated system that allows customization of access to a library's collection. Explains a timed game that makes use of subject searching and word searching on the topic of dinosaurs. (LRW)

  14. Analytical Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses analytical searching, a process that enables searchers of electronic resources to develop a planned strategy by combining words or phrases with Boolean operators. Defines simple and complex searching, and describes search strategies developed with Boolean logic and truncation. Provides guidelines for teaching students analytical…

  15. Partition search

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsberg, M.L.

    1996-12-31

    We introduce a new form of game search called partition search that incorporates dependency analysis, allowing substantial reductions in the portion of the tree that needs to be expanded. Both theoretical results and experimental data are presented. For the game of bridge, partition search provides approximately as much of an improvement over existing methods as {alpha}-{beta} pruning provides over minimax.

  16. Adaptive SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Freed, Melanie; Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Clarkson, Eric; Whitaker, Meredith K.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive imaging systems alter their data-acquisition configuration or protocol in response to the image information received. An adaptive pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system might acquire an initial scout image to obtain preliminary information about the radiotracer distribution and then adjust the configuration or sizes of the pinholes, the magnifications, or the projection angles in order to improve performance. This paper briefly describes two small-animal SPECT systems that allow this flexibility and then presents a framework for evaluating adaptive systems in general, and adaptive SPECT systems in particular. The evaluation is in terms of the performance of linear observers on detection or estimation tasks. Expressions are derived for the ideal linear (Hotelling) observer and the ideal linear (Wiener) estimator with adaptive imaging. Detailed expressions for the performance figures of merit are given, and possible adaptation rules are discussed. PMID:18541485

  17. Study of a global search algorithm for optimal control.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brocker, D. H.; Kavanaugh, W. P.; Stewart, E. C.

    1967-01-01

    Adaptive random search algorithm utilizing boundary cost-function hypersurfaces measurement to implement Pontryagin maximum principle, discussing hybrid computer use, iterative solution and convergence properties

  18. Investigations in adaptive processing of multispectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriegler, F. J.; Horwitz, H. M.

    1973-01-01

    Adaptive data processing procedures are applied to the problem of classifying objects in a scene scanned by multispectral sensor. These procedures show a performance improvement over standard nonadaptive techniques. Some sources of error in classification are identified and those correctable by adaptive processing are discussed. Experiments in adaptation of signature means by decision-directed methods are described. Some of these methods assume correlation between the trajectories of different signature means; for others this assumption is not made.

  19. Structured adaptive grid generation using algebraic methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Jiann-Cherng; Soni, Bharat K.; Roger, R. P.; Chan, Stephen C.

    1993-01-01

    The accuracy of the numerical algorithm depends not only on the formal order of approximation but also on the distribution of grid points in the computational domain. Grid adaptation is a procedure which allows optimal grid redistribution as the solution progresses. It offers the prospect of accurate flow field simulations without the use of an excessively timely, computationally expensive, grid. Grid adaptive schemes are divided into two basic categories: differential and algebraic. The differential method is based on a variational approach where a function which contains a measure of grid smoothness, orthogonality and volume variation is minimized by using a variational principle. This approach provided a solid mathematical basis for the adaptive method, but the Euler-Lagrange equations must be solved in addition to the original governing equations. On the other hand, the algebraic method requires much less computational effort, but the grid may not be smooth. The algebraic techniques are based on devising an algorithm where the grid movement is governed by estimates of the local error in the numerical solution. This is achieved by requiring the points in the large error regions to attract other points and points in the low error region to repel other points. The development of a fast, efficient, and robust algebraic adaptive algorithm for structured flow simulation applications is presented. This development is accomplished in a three step process. The first step is to define an adaptive weighting mesh (distribution mesh) on the basis of the equidistribution law applied to the flow field solution. The second, and probably the most crucial step, is to redistribute grid points in the computational domain according to the aforementioned weighting mesh. The third and the last step is to reevaluate the flow property by an appropriate search/interpolate scheme at the new grid locations. The adaptive weighting mesh provides the information on the desired concentration

  20. Prism adaptation in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, Nirav O; Turner, Beth M; Andreasen, Nancy C; Paulsen, Jane S; O'Leary, Daniel S; Ho, Beng-Choon

    2006-08-01

    The prism adaptation test examines procedural learning (PL) in which performance facilitation occurs with practice on tasks without the need for conscious awareness. Dynamic interactions between frontostriatal cortices, basal ganglia, and the cerebellum have been shown to play key roles in PL. Disruptions within these neural networks have also been implicated in schizophrenia, and such disruptions may manifest as impairment in prism adaptation test performance in schizophrenia patients. This study examined prism adaptation in a sample of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (N=91) and healthy normal controls (N=58). Quantitative indices of performance during prism adaptation conditions with and without visual feedback were studied. Schizophrenia patients were significantly more impaired in adapting to prism distortion and demonstrated poorer quality of PL. Patients did not differ from healthy controls on aftereffects when the prisms were removed, but they had significantly greater difficulties in reorientation. Deficits in prism adaptation among schizophrenia patients may be due to abnormalities in motor programming arising from the disruptions within the neural networks that subserve PL. PMID:16510223

  1. Adaptive EAGLE dynamic solution adaptation and grid quality enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luong, Phu Vinh; Thompson, J. F.; Gatlin, B.; Mastin, C. W.; Kim, H. J.

    1992-01-01

    In the effort described here, the elliptic grid generation procedure in the EAGLE grid code was separated from the main code into a subroutine, and a new subroutine which evaluates several grid quality measures at each grid point was added. The elliptic grid routine can now be called, either by a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to generate a new adaptive grid based on flow variables and quality measures through multiple adaptation, or by the EAGLE main code to generate a grid based on quality measure variables through static adaptation. Arrays of flow variables can be read into the EAGLE grid code for use in static adaptation as well. These major changes in the EAGLE adaptive grid system make it easier to convert any CFD code that operates on a block-structured grid (or single-block grid) into a multiple adaptive code.

  2. Adaptive building skin structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Grosso, A. E.; Basso, P.

    2010-12-01

    The concept of adaptive and morphing structures has gained considerable attention in the recent years in many fields of engineering. In civil engineering very few practical applications are reported to date however. Non-conventional structural concepts like deployable, inflatable and morphing structures may indeed provide innovative solutions to some of the problems that the construction industry is being called to face. To give some examples, searches for low-energy consumption or even energy-harvesting green buildings are amongst such problems. This paper first presents a review of the above problems and technologies, which shows how the solution to these problems requires a multidisciplinary approach, involving the integration of architectural and engineering disciplines. The discussion continues with the presentation of a possible application of two adaptive and dynamically morphing structures which are proposed for the realization of an acoustic envelope. The core of the two applications is the use of a novel optimization process which leads the search for optimal solutions by means of an evolutionary technique while the compatibility of the resulting configurations of the adaptive envelope is ensured by the virtual force density method.

  3. Search and heuristics

    SciTech Connect

    Pearl, J.

    1983-01-01

    This work is comprised of articles which are representative of current research on search and heuristics. The general theme is the quest for understanding the workings of heuristic knowledge; how it is acquired, stored and used by people, how it can be represented and utilized by machines and what makes one heuristic succeed where others fail. Topics covered include the following: search and reasoning in problem solving; theory formation by heuristic search; the nature of heuristics II: background and examples; Eurisko: a program that learns new heuristics and domain concepts; the nature of heuristics III: program design and results; searching for an optimal path in a tree with random costs; search rearrangement backtracking and polynomial average time; consistent-labeling problems and their algorithms: expected-complexities and theory-based heuristics; general branch and bound formulation for understanding and synthesizing and/or tree search procedures; a minimax algorithm better than alpha-beta. yes and no; and pathology on game trees revisited, and an alternative to minimaxing.

  4. Dental Procedures.

    PubMed

    Ramponi, Denise R

    2016-01-01

    Dental problems are a common complaint in emergency departments in the United States. There are a wide variety of dental issues addressed in emergency department visits such as dental caries, loose teeth, dental trauma, gingival infections, and dry socket syndrome. Review of the most common dental blocks and dental procedures will allow the practitioner the opportunity to make the patient more comfortable and reduce the amount of analgesia the patient will need upon discharge. Familiarity with the dental equipment, tooth, and mouth anatomy will help prepare the practitioner for to perform these dental procedures. PMID:27482994

  5. Are search committees really searching?

    PubMed

    Hoffmeir, Patricia A

    2003-02-01

    Academic chair searches are admittedly a labor-intensive process, but they are made more difficult and often lead to less-than-optimal outcomes because search committees spend their time "advertising," "looking," but not truly searching for academic chairs. At the onset, certain "realities" must be acknowledged, including (1) understanding that unless your organization is renowned in the specialty for which you are conducting the search, candidates won't be pounding at your door for a job, (2) searches that fail to include an overall assessment of the department in question are likely to miss the mark, (3) chairs must have demonstrated not only clinical expertise but also business savvy, (4) the best candidate is not necessarily someone who is already a department chair, (5) when it comes to chair searches, it's a buyer's market, and (6) the search process is inextricably linked to the success of the search. Key to the process of conducting an academic chair search are the judicious formation of the search committee; committee members' willingness to do their homework, attend all committee meeting, and keep the committee's activities confidential; crafting, not revising, the current job description for the open chair position; interviewing viable candidates rather than all candidates and adhering to a coordinated interviewing process; and evaluating internal and external candidates according to the same parameters. PMID:12584089

  6. QUEST - A Bayesian adaptive psychometric method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, A. B.; Pelli, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    An adaptive psychometric procedure that places each trial at the current most probable Bayesian estimate of threshold is described. The procedure takes advantage of the common finding that the human psychometric function is invariant in form when expressed as a function of log intensity. The procedure is simple, fast, and efficient, and may be easily implemented on any computer.

  7. Foraging search: Prototypical intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobus, George

    2000-05-01

    We think because we eat. Or as Descartes might have said, on a little more reflection, "I need to eat, therefore I think." Animals that forage for a living repeatedly face the problem of searching for a sparsely distributed resource in a vast space. Furthermore, the resource may occur sporadically and episodically under conditions of true uncertainty (nonstationary, complex and non-linear dynamics). I assert that this problem is the canonical problem solved by intelligence. It's solution is the basis for the evolution of more advanced intelligence in which the space of search includes that of concepts (objects and relations) encoded in cortical structures. In humans the conscious experience of searching through concept space we call thinking. The foraging search model is based upon a higher-order autopoeitic system (the forager) employing anticipatory processing to enhance its success at finding food while avoiding becoming food or having accidents in a hostile world. I present a semi-formal description of the general foraging search problem and an approach to its solution. The latter is a brain-like structure employing dynamically adaptive neurons. A physical robot, MAVRIC, embodies some principles of foraging. It learns cues that lead to improvements in finding targets in a dynamic and nonstationary environment. This capability is based on a unique learning mechanism that encodes causal relations in the neural-like processing element. An argument is advanced that searching for resources in the physical world, as per the foraging model, is a prototype for generalized search for conceptual resources as when we think. A problem represents a conceptual disturbance in a homeostatic sense. The finding of a solution restores the homeostatic balance. The establishment of links between conceptual cues and solutions (resources) and the later use of those cues to think through to solutions of quasi-isomorphic problems is, essentially, foraging for ideas. It is a quite

  8. Application of Sequential Interval Estimation to Adaptive Mastery Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yuan-chin Ivan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we apply sequential one-sided confidence interval estimation procedures with beta-protection to adaptive mastery testing. The procedures of fixed-width and fixed proportional accuracy confidence interval estimation can be viewed as extensions of one-sided confidence interval procedures. It can be shown that the adaptive mastery…

  9. Electronic Procedures for Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Electronic procedures are replacing text-based documents for recording the steps in performing medical operations aboard the International Space Station. S&K Aerospace, LLC, has developed a content-based electronic system-based on the Extensible Markup Language (XML) standard-that separates text from formatting standards and tags items contained in procedures so they can be recognized by other electronic systems. For example, to change a standard format, electronic procedures are changed in a single batch process, and the entire body of procedures will have the new format. Procedures can be quickly searched to determine which are affected by software and hardware changes. Similarly, procedures are easily shared with other electronic systems. The system also enables real-time data capture and automatic bookmarking of current procedure steps. In Phase II of the project, S&K Aerospace developed a Procedure Representation Language (PRL) and tools to support the creation and maintenance of electronic procedures for medical operations. The goal is to develop these tools in such a way that new advances can be inserted easily, leading to an eventual medical decision support system.

  10. Procedural simulation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Aalpen A; Glaiberman, Craig; Gould, Derek A

    2007-06-01

    In the past few decades, medicine has started to look at the potential use of simulators in medical education. Procedural medicine lends itself well to the use of simulators. Efforts are under way to establish national agendas to change the way medical education is approached and thereby improve patient safety. Universities, credentialing organizations, and hospitals are investing large sums of money to build and use simulation centers for undergraduate and graduate medical education. PMID:17574195

  11. Efficiency of tabu-search-based conformational search algorithms.

    PubMed

    Grebner, Christoph; Becker, Johannes; Stepanenko, Svetlana; Engels, Bernd

    2011-07-30

    Efficient conformational search or sampling approaches play an integral role in molecular modeling, leading to a strong demand for even faster and more reliable conformer search algorithms. This article compares the efficiency of a molecular dynamics method, a simulated annealing method, and the basin hopping (BH) approach (which are widely used in this field) with a previously suggested tabu-search-based approach called gradient only tabu search (GOTS). The study emphasizes the success of the GOTS procedure and, more importantly, shows that an approach which combines BH and GOTS outperforms the single methods in efficiency and speed. We also show that ring structures built by a hydrogen bond are useful as starting points for conformational search investigations of peptides and organic ligands with biological activities, especially in structures that contain multiple rings. PMID:21541959

  12. A Prototype Search Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knepper, Margaret M.; Fox, Kevin L.; Frieder, Ophir

    Information overload is now a reality. We no longer worry about obtaining a sufficient volume of data; we now are concerned with sifting and understanding the massive volumes of data available to us. To do so, we developed an integrated information processing toolkit that provides the user with a variety of ways to view their information. The views include keyword search results, a domain specific ranking system that allows for adaptively capturing topic vocabularies to customize and focus the search results, navigation pages for browsing, and a geospatial and temporal component to visualize results in time and space, and provide “what if” scenario playing. Integrating the information from different tools and sources gives the user additional information and another way to analyze the data. An example of the integration is illustrated on reports of the avian influenza (bird flu).

  13. A novel method of wide searching scope and fast searching speed for image block matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fei; Li, Chao; Mei, Qiang; Lin, Zhe

    2015-10-01

    When the image matching method is used for motion estimation, the performance parameters like searching scope, searching speed, accuracy and robustness of the method normally are significant and need enhancement. In this paper, a novel method of block matching containing the wide range image block matching strategy and the strategy of multi-start points and parallel searching are presented. In the wide range matching strategy, the size of template block and searching block are same. And the average value of cumulative results by pixels in calculation is taken to ensure matching parameters can accurately represent the matching degree. In the strategy of multi-start points and parallel searching, the way of choosing starting points evenly is presented based on the characteristic of the block matching search, and the adaptive conditions and adaptive schedule is established based on the searching region. In the processing of iteration, the new strategy can not only adapt to the solution that lead the objective to the correct direction, but also adapt to the solution that have a little offset comparing with the objective. Therefore the multi-start points and parallel searching algorithm can be easy to keep from the trap of local minima effectively. The image processing system based on the DSP chip of TMS320C6415 is used to make the experiment for the video image stabilization. The results of experiment show that, the application of two methods can improve the range of motion estimation and reduce the searching computation.

  14. Adaptive Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop and demonstrate innovative adaptive seal technologies that can lead to dramatic improvements in engine performance, life, range, and emissions, and enhance operability for next generation gas turbine engines. This work is concentrated on the development of self-adaptive clearance control systems for gas turbine engines. Researchers have targeted the high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade tip seal location for following reasons: Current active clearance control (ACC) systems (e.g., thermal case-cooling schemes) cannot respond to blade tip clearance changes due to mechanical, thermal, and aerodynamic loads. As such they are prone to wear due to the required tight running clearances during operation. Blade tip seal wear (increased clearances) reduces engine efficiency, performance, and service life. Adaptive sealing technology research has inherent impact on all envisioned 21st century propulsion systems (e.g. distributed vectored, hybrid and electric drive propulsion concepts).

  15. The SMART CLUSTER METHOD - adaptive earthquake cluster analysis and declustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Andreas; Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2016-04-01

    Earthquake declustering is an essential part of almost any statistical analysis of spatial and temporal properties of seismic activity with usual applications comprising of probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (PSHAs) and earthquake prediction methods. The nature of earthquake clusters and subsequent declustering of earthquake catalogues plays a crucial role in determining the magnitude-dependent earthquake return period and its respective spatial variation. Various methods have been developed to address this issue from other researchers. These have differing ranges of complexity ranging from rather simple statistical window methods to complex epidemic models. This study introduces the smart cluster method (SCM), a new methodology to identify earthquake clusters, which uses an adaptive point process for spatio-temporal identification. Hereby, an adaptive search algorithm for data point clusters is adopted. It uses the earthquake density in the spatio-temporal neighbourhood of each event to adjust the search properties. The identified clusters are subsequently analysed to determine directional anisotropy, focussing on a strong correlation along the rupture plane and adjusts its search space with respect to directional properties. In the case of rapid subsequent ruptures like the 1992 Landers sequence or the 2010/2011 Darfield-Christchurch events, an adaptive classification procedure is applied to disassemble subsequent ruptures which may have been grouped into an individual cluster using near-field searches, support vector machines and temporal splitting. The steering parameters of the search behaviour are linked to local earthquake properties like magnitude of completeness, earthquake density and Gutenberg-Richter parameters. The method is capable of identifying and classifying earthquake clusters in space and time. It is tested and validated using earthquake data from California and New Zealand. As a result of the cluster identification process, each event in

  16. Adapting Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedman, John; Wedman, Judy

    1985-01-01

    The "Animals" program found on the Apple II and IIe system master disk can be adapted for use in the mathematics classroom. Instructions for making the necessary changes and suggestions for using it in lessons related to geometric shapes are provided. (JN)

  17. Adaptive Thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Bremer, P. -T.

    2014-08-26

    ADAPT is a topological analysis code that allow to compute local threshold, in particular relevance based thresholds for features defined in scalar fields. The initial target application is vortex detection but the software is more generally applicable to all threshold based feature definitions.

  18. Adaptive homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kelvin J A

    2016-06-01

    Homeostasis is a central pillar of modern Physiology. The term homeostasis was invented by Walter Bradford Cannon in an attempt to extend and codify the principle of 'milieu intérieur,' or a constant interior bodily environment, that had previously been postulated by Claude Bernard. Clearly, 'milieu intérieur' and homeostasis have served us well for over a century. Nevertheless, research on signal transduction systems that regulate gene expression, or that cause biochemical alterations to existing enzymes, in response to external and internal stimuli, makes it clear that biological systems are continuously making short-term adaptations both to set-points, and to the range of 'normal' capacity. These transient adaptations typically occur in response to relatively mild changes in conditions, to programs of exercise training, or to sub-toxic, non-damaging levels of chemical agents; thus, the terms hormesis, heterostasis, and allostasis are not accurate descriptors. Therefore, an operational adjustment to our understanding of homeostasis suggests that the modified term, Adaptive Homeostasis, may be useful especially in studies of stress, toxicology, disease, and aging. Adaptive Homeostasis may be defined as follows: 'The transient expansion or contraction of the homeostatic range in response to exposure to sub-toxic, non-damaging, signaling molecules or events, or the removal or cessation of such molecules or events.' PMID:27112802

  19. Reporting Child Language Sampling Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Payesteh, Bita; Disher, Jill Rentmeester; Julien, Hannah M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Despite the long history of language sampling use in the study of child language development and disorders, there are no set guidelines specifying the reporting of language sampling procedures. The authors propose reporting standards for use by investigators who employ language samples in their research. Method The authors conducted a literature search of child-focused studies published in journals of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association between January 2000 and December 2011 that included language sampling procedures to help characterize child participants or to derive measures to serve as dependent variables. Following this search, they reviewed each study and documented the language sampling procedures reported. Results The authors’ synthesis revealed that approximately 25% of all child-focused studies use language samples to help characterize participants and/or derive dependent variables. They found remarkable inconsistencies in the reporting of language sampling procedures. Conclusion To maximize the conclusions drawn from research using language samples, the authors strongly encourage investigators of child language to consistently report language sampling procedures using the proposed reporting checklist. PMID:25399013

  20. Procedural knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgeff, Michael P.; Lansky, Amy L.

    1986-01-01

    Much of commonsense knowledge about the real world is in the form of procedures or sequences of actions for achieving particular goals. In this paper, a formalism is presented for representing such knowledge using the notion of process. A declarative semantics for the representation is given, which allows a user to state facts about the effects of doing things in the problem domain of interest. An operational semantics is also provided, which shows how this knowledge can be used to achieve particular goals or to form intentions regarding their achievement. Given both semantics, the formalism additionally serves as an executable specification language suitable for constructing complex systems. A system based on this formalism is described, and examples involving control of an autonomous robot and fault diagnosis for NASA's Space Shuttle are provided.

  1. AN EFFICIENT AUTOMATED VALIDATION PROCEDURE FOR EXOPLANET TRANSIT CANDIDATES

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, Timothy D.

    2012-12-10

    Surveys searching for transiting exoplanets have found many more candidates than they have been able to confirm as true planets. This situation is especially acute with the Kepler survey, which has found over 2300 candidates but has to date confirmed only a small fraction of them as planets. I present here a general procedure that can quickly be applied to any planet candidate to calculate its false positive probability. This procedure takes into account the period, depth, duration, and shape of the signal; the colors of the target star; arbitrary spectroscopic or imaging follow-up observations; and informed assumptions about the populations and distributions of field stars and multiple-star properties. Applying these methods to a sample of known Kepler planets, I demonstrate that many signals can be validated with very limited follow-up observations: in most cases with only a spectrum and an adaptive optics image. Additionally, I demonstrate that this procedure can reliably identify false positive signals. Because of the computational efficiency of this analysis, it is feasible to apply it to all Kepler planet candidates in the near future, and it will streamline the follow-up efforts for Kepler and other current and future transit surveys.

  2. Organization of Distributed Adaptive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vengerov, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The growing sensitivity of various systems and parts of industry, society, and even everyday individual life leads to the increased volume of changes and needs for adaptation and learning. This creates a new situation where learning from being purely academic knowledge transfer procedure is becoming a ubiquitous always-on essential part of all…

  3. Camera lens adapter magnifies image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffitt, F. L.

    1967-01-01

    Polaroid Land camera with an illuminated 7-power magnifier adapted to the lens, photographs weld flaws. The flaws are located by inspection with a 10-power magnifying glass and then photographed with this device, thus providing immediate pictorial data for use in remedial procedures.

  4. Adaptation of the pseudo-metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor technique to ultrathin silicon-on-insulator wafers characterization: Improved set-up, measurement procedure, parameter extraction, and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Den Daele, W.; Malaquin, C.; Baumel, N.; Kononchuk, O.; Cristoloveanu, S.

    2013-10-01

    This paper revisits and adapts of the pseudo-MOSFET (Ψ-MOSFET) characterization technique for advanced fully depleted silicon on insulator (FDSOI) wafers. We review the current challenges for standard Ψ-MOSFET set-up on ultra-thin body (12 nm) over ultra-thin buried oxide (25 nm BOX) and propose a novel set-up enabling the technique on FDSOI structures. This novel configuration embeds 4 probes with large tip radius (100-200 μm) and low pressure to avoid oxide damage. Compared with previous 4-point probe measurements, we introduce a simplified and faster methodology together with an adapted Y-function. The models for parameters extraction are revisited and calibrated through systematic measurements of SOI wafers with variable film thickness. We propose an in-depth analysis of the FDSOI structure through comparison of experimental data, TCAD (Technology Computed Aided Design) simulations, and analytical modeling. TCAD simulations are used to unify previously reported thickness-dependent analytical models by analyzing the BOX/substrate potential and the electrical field in ultrathin films. Our updated analytical models are used to explain the results and to extract correct electrical parameters such as low-field electron and hole mobility, subthreshold slope, and film/BOX interface traps density.

  5. Information Search Services for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Sharon; And Others

    Based on information provided primarily by two existing state-based information services, this handbook presents a clear, practical look at possible activities, procedures, and requirements of search services for educators. Descriptions of the two services that serve as models--Oklahoma's Sooner Exchange for Educational Knowledge (SEEK) and Texas'…

  6. Preview Search and Contextual Cuing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodsoll, John P.; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the effect of contextual cuing (M. M. Chun & Y. Jiang, 1998) within the preview paradigm (D. G. Watson & G. W. Humphreys, 1997). Contextual cuing was shown with a 10-item letter search but not with more crowded 20-item displays. However, contextual learning did occur in a preview procedure in which 10 preview items were followed by…

  7. In Search of a Community College President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libby, Patricia A.

    Designed for governing boards, search committee members, and aspiring community college presidents, this booklet examines different institutional procedures involved in the search for and selection of a community college president, and outlines relevant problems and issues that should be considered at various phases of the process. After…

  8. Adaptive Units of Learning and Educational Videogames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno-Ger, Pablo; Thomas, Pilar Sancho; Martinez-Ortiz, Ivan; Sierra, Jose Luis; Fernandez-Manjon, Baltasar

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose three different ways of using IMS Learning Design to support online adaptive learning modules that include educational videogames. The first approach relies on IMS LD to support adaptation procedures where the educational games are considered as Learning Objects. These games can be included instead of traditional content…

  9. Connector adapter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacker, Scott C. (Inventor); Dean, Richard J. (Inventor); Burge, Scott W. (Inventor); Dartez, Toby W. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An adapter for installing a connector to a terminal post, wherein the connector is attached to a cable, is presented. In an embodiment, the adapter is comprised of an elongated collet member having a longitudinal axis comprised of a first collet member end, a second collet member end, an outer collet member surface, and an inner collet member surface. The inner collet member surface at the first collet member end is used to engage the connector. The outer collet member surface at the first collet member end is tapered for a predetermined first length at a predetermined taper angle. The collet includes a longitudinal slot that extends along the longitudinal axis initiating at the first collet member end for a predetermined second length. The first collet member end is formed of a predetermined number of sections segregated by a predetermined number of channels and the longitudinal slot.

  10. Adaptive sampler

    DOEpatents

    Watson, Bobby L.; Aeby, Ian

    1982-01-01

    An adaptive data compression device for compressing data having variable frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.

  11. Adaptive sampler

    DOEpatents

    Watson, B.L.; Aeby, I.

    1980-08-26

    An adaptive data compression device for compressing data is described. The device has a frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.

  12. Adaptive antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, P.

    1987-04-01

    The basic principles of adaptive antennas are outlined in terms of the Wiener-Hopf expression for maximizing signal to noise ratio in an arbitrary noise environment; the analogy with generalized matched filter theory provides a useful aid to understanding. For many applications, there is insufficient information to achieve the above solution and thus non-optimum constrained null steering algorithms are also described, together with a summary of methods for preventing wanted signals being nulled by the adaptive system. The three generic approaches to adaptive weight control are discussed; correlation steepest descent, weight perturbation and direct solutions based on sample matrix conversion. The tradeoffs between hardware complexity and performance in terms of null depth and convergence rate are outlined. The sidelobe cancellor technique is described. Performance variation with jammer power and angular distribution is summarized and the key performance limitations identified. The configuration and performance characteristics of both multiple beam and phase scan array antennas are covered, with a brief discussion of performance factors.

  13. Adaptive bidirectional associative memories.

    PubMed

    Kosko, B

    1987-12-01

    Bidirectionality, forward and backward information flow, is introduced in neural networks to produce two-way associative search for stored stimulus-response associations (A(i),B(i)). Two fields of neurons, F(A) and F(B), are connected by an n x p synaptic marix M. Passing information through M gives one direction, passing information through its transpose M(T) gives the other. Every matrix is bidirectionally stable for bivalent and for continuous neurons. Paired data (A(i),B(i)) are encoded in M by summing bipolar correlation matrices. The bidirectional associative memory (BAM) behaves as a two-layer hierarchy of symmetrically connected neurons. When the neurons in F(A) and F(B) are activated, the network quickly evolves to a stable state of twopattern reverberation, or pseudoadaptive resonance, for every connection topology M. The stable reverberation corresponds to a system energy local minimum. An adaptive BAM allows M to rapidly learn associations without supervision. Stable short-term memory reverberations across F(A) and F(B) gradually seep pattern information into the long-term memory connections M, allowing input associations (A(i),B(i)) to dig their own energy wells in the network state space. The BAM correlation encoding scheme is extended to a general Hebbian learning law. Then every BAM adaptively resonates in the sense that all nodes and edges quickly equilibrate in a system energy local minimum. A sampling adaptive BAM results when many more training samples are presented than there are neurons in F(B) and F(B), but presented for brief pulses of learning, not allowing learning to fully or nearly converge. Learning tends to improve with sample size. Sampling adaptive BAMs can learn some simple continuous mappings and can rapidly abstract bivalent associations from several noisy gray-scale samples. PMID:20523473

  14. Feline onychectomy and elective procedures.

    PubMed

    Young, William Phillip

    2002-05-01

    The development of the carbon dioxide (CO2) surgical laser has given veterinarians a new perspective in the field of surgery. Recently developed techniques and improvisations of established procedures have opened the field of surgery to infinite applications never before dreamed of as little as 10 years ago. Today's CO2 surgical laser is an adaptable, indispensable tool for the everyday veterinary practitioner. Its use is becoming a common occurrence in offices of veterinarians around the world. PMID:12064043

  15. Dynamic optimization of a copolymerization reactor using tabu search.

    PubMed

    Anand, P; Rao, M Bhagvanth; Venkateswarlu, Ch

    2015-03-01

    A novel multistage dynamic optimization strategy based on meta-heuristic tabu search (TS) is proposed and evaluated through sequential and simultaneous implementation procedures by applying it to a semi-batch styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) copolymerization reactor. The adaptive memory and responsive exploration features of TS are exploited to design the dynamic optimization strategy and compute the optimal control policies for temperature and monomer addition rate so as to achieve the desired product quality parameters expressed in terms of single and multiple objectives. The dynamic optimization results of TS sequential and TS simultaneous implementation strategies are analyzed and compared with those of a conventional optimization technique based on iterative dynamic programming (IDP). The simulation results demonstrate the usefulness of TS for optimal control of transient dynamic systems. PMID:25466914

  16. Adaptive Sampling in Hierarchical Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Knap, J; Barton, N R; Hornung, R D; Arsenlis, A; Becker, R; Jefferson, D R

    2007-07-09

    We propose an adaptive sampling methodology for hierarchical multi-scale simulation. The method utilizes a moving kriging interpolation to significantly reduce the number of evaluations of finer-scale response functions to provide essential constitutive information to a coarser-scale simulation model. The underlying interpolation scheme is unstructured and adaptive to handle the transient nature of a simulation. To handle the dynamic construction and searching of a potentially large set of finer-scale response data, we employ a dynamic metric tree database. We study the performance of our adaptive sampling methodology for a two-level multi-scale model involving a coarse-scale finite element simulation and a finer-scale crystal plasticity based constitutive law.

  17. Evaluating Content Alignment in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Steven L.; Kingsbury, G. Gage; Webb, Norman L.

    2015-01-01

    The alignment between a test and the content domain it measures represents key evidence for the validation of test score inferences. Although procedures have been developed for evaluating the content alignment of linear tests, these procedures are not readily applicable to computerized adaptive tests (CATs), which require large item pools and do…

  18. Adaptive sequential testing for multiple comparisons.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ping; Liu, Lingyun; Mehta, Cyrus

    2014-01-01

    We propose a Markov process theory-based adaptive sequential testing procedure for multiple comparisons. The procedure can be used for confirmative trials involving multi-comparisons, including dose selection or population enrichment. Dose or subpopulation selection and sample size modification can be made at any interim analysis. Type I error control is exact. PMID:24926848

  19. Adaptive optics imaging of the retina

    PubMed Central

    Battu, Rajani; Dabir, Supriya; Khanna, Anjani; Kumar, Anupama Kiran; Roy, Abhijit Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive optics is a relatively new tool that is available to ophthalmologists for study of cellular level details. In addition to the axial resolution provided by the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, adaptive optics provides an excellent lateral resolution, enabling visualization of the photoreceptors, blood vessels and details of the optic nerve head. We attempt a mini review of the current role of adaptive optics in retinal imaging. PubMed search was performed with key words Adaptive optics OR Retina OR Retinal imaging. Conference abstracts were searched from the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) and American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) meetings. In total, 261 relevant publications and 389 conference abstracts were identified. PMID:24492503

  20. Model Specification Searches Using Ant Colony Optimization Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcoulides, George A.; Drezner, Zvi

    2003-01-01

    Ant colony optimization is a recently proposed heuristic procedure inspired by the behavior of real ants. This article applies the procedure to model specification searches in structural equation modeling and reports the results. The results demonstrate the capabilities of ant colony optimization algorithms for conducting automated searches.

  1. Adaptive and Adaptable Automation Design: A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Future Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kaber, David B.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a review of literature on approaches to adaptive and adaptable task/function allocation and adaptive interface technologies for effective human management of complex systems that are likely to be issues for the Next Generation Air Transportation System, and a focus of research under the Aviation Safety Program, Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck Project. Contemporary literature retrieved from an online database search is summarized and integrated. The major topics include the effects of delegation-type, adaptable automation on human performance, workload and situation awareness, the effectiveness of various automation invocation philosophies and strategies to function allocation in adaptive systems, and the role of user modeling in adaptive interface design and the performance implications of adaptive interface technology.

  2. 25 CFR 11.306 - Search without a warrant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Search without a warrant. 11.306 Section 11.306 Indians... ORDER CODE Criminal Procedure § 11.306 Search without a warrant. No law enforcement officer shall conduct any search without a valid warrant except: (a) Incident to making a lawful arrest; or (b) With...

  3. 25 CFR 11.306 - Search without a warrant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Search without a warrant. 11.306 Section 11.306 Indians... ORDER CODE Criminal Procedure § 11.306 Search without a warrant. No law enforcement officer shall conduct any search without a valid warrant except: (a) Incident to making a lawful arrest; or (b) With...

  4. 25 CFR 11.306 - Search without a warrant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Search without a warrant. 11.306 Section 11.306 Indians... ORDER CODE Criminal Procedure § 11.306 Search without a warrant. No law enforcement officer shall conduct any search without a valid warrant except: (a) Incident to making a lawful arrest; or (b) With...

  5. 25 CFR 11.306 - Search without a warrant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Search without a warrant. 11.306 Section 11.306 Indians... ORDER CODE Criminal Procedure § 11.306 Search without a warrant. No law enforcement officer shall conduct any search without a valid warrant except: (a) Incident to making a lawful arrest; or (b) With...

  6. 25 CFR 11.306 - Search without a warrant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Search without a warrant. 11.306 Section 11.306 Indians... ORDER CODE Criminal Procedure § 11.306 Search without a warrant. No law enforcement officer shall conduct any search without a valid warrant except: (a) Incident to making a lawful arrest; or (b) With...

  7. Adaptation of the Illness Trajectory Theory to Describe the Work of Transitional Cancer Survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Klimmek, Rachel; Wenzel, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives Although frameworks for understanding survivorship continue to evolve, most are abstract and do not address the complex context of survivors’ transition following treatment completion. The purpose of this theory adaptation was to examine and refine the Illness Trajectory Theory, which describes the work of managing chronic illness, to address transitional cancer survivorship. Data Sources CINAHL, PubMed, and relevant Institute of Medicine reports were searched for survivors’ experiences during the year following treatment. Data Synthesis Using an abstraction tool, sixty-eight articles were selected from the initial search (N>700). Abstracted data were placed into a priori categories refined according to recommended procedures for theory derivation, followed by expert review. Conclusions Derivation resulted in a framework describing “the work of transitional cancer survivorship” (TCS work). TCS work is defined as survivor tasks, performed alone or with others, to carry out a plan of action for managing one or more aspects of life following primary cancer treatment. Theoretically, survivors engage in 3 reciprocally-interactive lines of work: (1) illness-related; (2) biographical; and (3) everyday life work. Adaptation resulted in refinement of these domains and the addition of survivorship care planning under “illness-related work”. Implications for Nursing Understanding this process of work may allow survivors/co-survivors to better prepare for the post-treatment period. This adaptation provides a framework for future testing and development. Validity and utility of this framework within specific survivor populations should also be explored. PMID:23107863

  8. Countermeasures to Enhance Sensorimotor Adaptability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R. A.; Batson, C. C.; Miller, C. A.; Cohen, H. S.

    2011-01-01

    adaptability. These results indicate that SA training techniques can be added to existing treadmill exercise equipment and procedures to produce a single integrated countermeasure system to improve performance of astro/cosmonauts during prolonged exploratory space missions.

  9. Analyzing Hedges in Verbal Communication: An Adaptation-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yuling

    2010-01-01

    Based on Adaptation Theory, the article analyzes the production process of hedges. The procedure consists of the continuous making of choices in linguistic forms and communicative strategies. These choices are made just for adaptation to the contextual correlates. Besides, the adaptation process is dynamic, intentional and bidirectional.

  10. Cognitive adaptation to nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Czajkowska, Zofia; Radiotis, George; Roberts, Nicole; Körner, Annett

    2013-01-01

    Taylor's (1983) cognitive adaptation theory posits that when people go through life transitions, such as being diagnosed with a chronic disease, they adjust to their new reality. The adjustment process revolves around three themes: search for positive meaning in the experience or optimism, attempt to regain a sense of mastery in life, as well as an effort to enhance self-esteem. In the sample of 57 patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer the Cognitive Adaptation Index successfully predicted participants' distress (p < .001) accounting for 60% of the variance and lending support for the Taylor's theory of cognitive adaptation in this population. PMID:23844920

  11. A search for radiative neutrino decay from supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Richard S.; Svoboda, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    This document presents the data analysis procedures proposed for use with the COMPTEL instrument aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) in the search for radiative neutrino decay from supernovae. The proposed analysis methodology is an extension of a standard procedure used by the COMPTEL team in searching for a variety of source types. We have applied the procedures to a set of simulated data to demonstrate the feasibility of the method to this project.

  12. Free Online Searching in a Public Library System: An Unscientific Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donati, Georgia Fox; Kreisel, Martha Moss

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the implementation of free online search services at the Mount Vernon Public Library for all registered borrowers of the county library system. Policy decisions and planning, operating procedures, publicity, and usage evaluation are noted. Retrieval procedures, search request forms, and sample searches are appended. (EJS)

  13. Optimal adaptive two-stage designs for phase II cancer clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Englert, Stefan; Kieser, Meinhard

    2013-11-01

    In oncology, single-arm two-stage designs with binary endpoint are widely applied in phase II for the development of cytotoxic cancer therapies. Simon's optimal design with prefixed sample sizes in both stages minimizes the expected sample size under the null hypothesis and is one of the most popular designs. The search algorithms that are currently used to identify phase II designs showing prespecified characteristics are computationally intensive. For this reason, most authors impose restrictions on their search procedure. However, it remains unclear to what extent this approach influences the optimality of the resulting designs. This article describes an extension to fixed sample size phase II designs by allowing the sample size of stage two to depend on the number of responses observed in the first stage. Furthermore, we present a more efficient numerical algorithm that allows for an exhaustive search of designs. Comparisons between designs presented in the literature and the proposed optimal adaptive designs show that while the improvements are generally moderate, notable reductions in the average sample size can be achieved for specific parameter constellations when applying the new method and search strategy. PMID:23868324

  14. Web Search Engines: Search Syntax and Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojala, Marydee

    2002-01-01

    Presents a chart that explains the search syntax, features, and commands used by the 12 most widely used general Web search engines. Discusses Web standardization, expanded types of content searched, size of databases, and search engines that include both simple and advanced versions. (LRW)

  15. Limits of adaptation, residual interferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mokry, Miroslav (Editor); Erickson, J. C., Jr.; Goodyer, Michael J.; Mignosi, Andre; Russo, Giuseppe P.; Smith, J.; Wedemeyer, Erich H.; Newman, Perry A.

    1990-01-01

    Methods of determining linear residual wall interference appear to be well established theoretically; however they need to be validated, for example by comparative studies of test data on the same model in different adaptive-wall wind tunnels as well as in passive, ventilated-wall tunnels. The GARTEur CAST 7 and the CAST 10/DOA 2 investigations are excellent examples of such comparative studies. Results to date in both one-variable and two-variable methods for nonlinear wall interference indicate that a great deal more research and validation are required. The status in 2D flow is advanced over that in 3D flow as is the case generally with adaptive-wall development. Nevertheless, it is now well established that for transonic testing with extensive supercritical flow present, significant wall interference is likely to exist in conventional ventilated test sections. Consequently, residual correction procedures require further development hand-in-hand with further adaptive-wall development.

  16. Linearly-Constrained Adaptive Signal Processing Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Lloyd J.

    1988-01-01

    In adaptive least-squares estimation problems, a desired signal d(n) is estimated using a linear combination of L observation values samples xi (n), x2(n), . . . , xL-1(n) and denoted by the vector X(n). The estimate is formed as the inner product of this vector with a corresponding L-dimensional weight vector W. One particular weight vector of interest is Wopt which minimizes the mean-square between d(n) and the estimate. In this context, the term `mean-square difference' is a quadratic measure such as statistical expectation or time average. The specific value of W which achieves the minimum is given by the prod-uct of the inverse data covariance matrix and the cross-correlation between the data vector and the desired signal. The latter is often referred to as the P-vector. For those cases in which time samples of both the desired and data vector signals are available, a variety of adaptive methods have been proposed which will guarantee that an iterative weight vector Wa(n) converges (in some sense) to the op-timal solution. Two which have been extensively studied are the recursive least-squares (RLS) method and the LMS gradient approximation approach. There are several problems of interest in the communication and radar environment in which the optimal least-squares weight set is of interest and in which time samples of the desired signal are not available. Examples can be found in array processing in which only the direction of arrival of the desired signal is known and in single channel filtering where the spectrum of the desired response is known a priori. One approach to these problems which has been suggested is the P-vector algorithm which is an LMS-like approximate gradient method. Although it is easy to derive the mean and variance of the weights which result with this algorithm, there has never been an identification of the corresponding underlying error surface which the procedure searches. The purpose of this paper is to suggest an alternative

  17. A novel model for simultaneous study of neointestinal regeneration and intestinal adaptation.

    PubMed

    Jwo, Shyh-Chuan; Tang, Shye-Jye; Chen, Jim-Ray; Chiang, Kun-Chun; Huang, Ting-Shou; Chen, Huang-Yang

    2013-01-01

    The use of autologous grafts, fabricated from tissue-engineered neointestine, to enhance insufficient compensation of intestinal adaptation for severe short bowel syndrome is a compelling idea. Unfortunately, current approaches and knowledge for neointestinal regeneration, unlike intestinal adaptation, are still unsatisfactory. Thus, we have designed a novel model of intestinal adaptation with simultaneous neointestinal regeneration and evaluated its feasibility for future basic research and clinical application. Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250-350 g underwent this procedure and sacrificed at 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Spatiotemporal analyses were carried out by gross, histology, and DNA/protein quantification. Three rats died of operative complications. In early experiments, the use of hard silicone stent as tissue scaffold in 11 rats was unsatisfactory for neointestinal regeneration. In later experiments, when a soft silastic tube was used, the success rate increased up to 90.9%. Further analyses revealed that no neointestine developed without donor intestine; regenerated lengths of mucosa and muscle were positively related to time postsurgery but independent of donor length with 0.5 or 1 cm. Other parameters of neointestinal regeneration or intestinal adaptation showed no relationship to both time postsurgery and donor length. In conclusion, this is a potentially important model for investigators searching for solutions to short bowel syndrome. PMID:23441784

  18. Randomised Trial Support for Orthopaedic Surgical Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyeung C.; Adie, Sam; Naylor, Justine M.; Harris, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the proportion of orthopaedic procedures supported by evidence from randomised controlled trials comparing operative procedures to a non-operative alternative. Orthopaedic procedures conducted in 2009, 2010 and 2011 across three metropolitan teaching hospitals were identified, grouped and ranked according to frequency. Searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) were performed to identify RCTs evaluating the most commonly performed orthopaedic procedures. Included studies were categorised as “supportive” or “not supportive” of operative treatment. A risk of bias analysis was conducted for included studies using the Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias tool. A total of 9,392 orthopaedic procedures were performed across the index period. 94.6% (8886 procedures) of the total volume, representing the 32 most common operative procedure categories, were used for this analysis. Of the 83 included RCTs, 22.9% (19/83) were classified as supportive of operative intervention. 36.9% (3279/8886) of the total volume of procedures performed were supported by at least one RCT showing surgery to be superior to a non-operative alternative. 19.6% (1743/8886) of the total volume of procedures performed were supported by at least one low risk of bias RCT showing surgery to be superior to a non-operative alternative. The level of RCT support for common orthopaedic procedures compares unfavourably with other fields of medicine. PMID:24927114

  19. Adaptive Behavior for Mobile Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance

    2009-01-01

    The term "System for Mobility and Access to Rough Terrain" (SMART) denotes a theoretical framework, a control architecture, and an algorithm that implements the framework and architecture, for enabling a land-mobile robot to adapt to changing conditions. SMART is intended to enable the robot to recognize adverse terrain conditions beyond its optimal operational envelope, and, in response, to intelligently reconfigure itself (e.g., adjust suspension heights or baseline distances between suspension points) or adapt its driving techniques (e.g., engage in a crabbing motion as a switchback technique for ascending steep terrain). Conceived for original application aboard Mars rovers and similar autonomous or semi-autonomous mobile robots used in exploration of remote planets, SMART could also be applied to autonomous terrestrial vehicles to be used for search, rescue, and/or exploration on rough terrain.

  20. Adaptive Confidence Bands for Nonparametric Regression Functions

    PubMed Central

    Cai, T. Tony; Low, Mark; Ma, Zongming

    2014-01-01

    A new formulation for the construction of adaptive confidence bands in non-parametric function estimation problems is proposed. Confidence bands are constructed which have size that adapts to the smoothness of the function while guaranteeing that both the relative excess mass of the function lying outside the band and the measure of the set of points where the function lies outside the band are small. It is shown that the bands adapt over a maximum range of Lipschitz classes. The adaptive confidence band can be easily implemented in standard statistical software with wavelet support. Numerical performance of the procedure is investigated using both simulated and real datasets. The numerical results agree well with the theoretical analysis. The procedure can be easily modified and used for other nonparametric function estimation models. PMID:26269661

  1. ADAPTATION AND ADAPTABILITY, THE BELLEFAIRE FOLLOWUP STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALLERHAND, MELVIN E.; AND OTHERS

    A RESEARCH TEAM STUDIED INFLUENCES, ADAPTATION, AND ADAPTABILITY IN 50 POORLY ADAPTING BOYS AT BELLEFAIRE, A REGIONAL CHILD CARE CENTER FOR EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILDREN. THE TEAM ATTEMPTED TO GAUGE THE SUCCESS OF THE RESIDENTIAL TREATMENT CENTER IN TERMS OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL PATTERNS AND ROLE PERFORMANCES OF THE BOYS DURING INDIVIDUAL CASEWORK…

  2. Structured programming: Principles, notation, procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    JOST

    1978-01-01

    Structured programs are best represented using a notation which gives a clear representation of the block encapsulation. In this report, a set of symbols which can be used until binding directives are republished is suggested. Structured programming also allows a new method of procedure for design and testing. Programs can be designed top down, that is, they can start at the highest program plane and can penetrate to the lowest plane by step-wise refinements. The testing methodology also is adapted to this procedure. First, the highest program plane is tested, and the programs which are not yet finished in the next lower plane are represented by so-called dummies. They are gradually replaced by the real programs.

  3. Search-based optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Ward C.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of determining the minimum cost hypothetical ancestral sequences for a given cladogram is known to be NP-complete (Wang and Jiang, 1994). Traditionally, point estimations of hypothetical ancestral sequences have been used to gain heuristic, upper bounds on cladogram cost. These include procedures with such diverse approaches as non-additive optimization of multiple sequence alignment, direct optimization (Wheeler, 1996), and fixed-state character optimization (Wheeler, 1999). A method is proposed here which, by extending fixed-state character optimization, replaces the estimation process with a search. This form of optimization examines a diversity of potential state solutions for cost-efficient hypothetical ancestral sequences and can result in greatly more parsimonious cladograms. Additionally, such an approach can be applied to other NP-complete phylogenetic optimization problems such as genomic break-point analysis. c2003 The Willi Hennig Society. Published by Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  4. Search-based optimization.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Ward C

    2003-08-01

    The problem of determining the minimum cost hypothetical ancestral sequences for a given cladogram is known to be NP-complete (Wang and Jiang, 1994). Traditionally, point estimations of hypothetical ancestral sequences have been used to gain heuristic, upper bounds on cladogram cost. These include procedures with such diverse approaches as non-additive optimization of multiple sequence alignment, direct optimization (Wheeler, 1996), and fixed-state character optimization (Wheeler, 1999). A method is proposed here which, by extending fixed-state character optimization, replaces the estimation process with a search. This form of optimization examines a diversity of potential state solutions for cost-efficient hypothetical ancestral sequences and can result in greatly more parsimonious cladograms. Additionally, such an approach can be applied to other NP-complete phylogenetic optimization problems such as genomic break-point analysis. PMID:14531408

  5. A Procedure for Estimating Intrasubject Behavior Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Jose M.; Rubio, Victor J.; Revuelta, Javier; Santacreu, Jose

    2006-01-01

    Trait psychology implicitly assumes consistency of the personal traits. Mischel, however, argued against the idea of a general consistency of human beings. The present article aims to design a statistical procedure based on an adaptation of the pi* statistic to measure the degree of intraindividual consistency independently of the measure used.…

  6. Strategies: Office Procedures with Communications Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Univ., Laramie. Coll. of Education.

    This booklet contains 30 one-page strategies for teaching mathematical skills needed for office procedures. All the strategies are suitable for or can be adapted for special needs students. Each strategy is a classroom activity and is matched with the skill that it develops and its technology/content area (communications and/or mathematics). Some…

  7. Regional adaptation of a dynamic global vegetation model using a remote sensing data derived land cover map of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khvostikov, S.; Venevsky, S.; Bartalev, S.

    2015-12-01

    The dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) SEVER has been regionally adapted using a remote sensing data-derived land cover map in order to improve the reconstruction conformity of the distribution of vegetation functional types over Russia. The SEVER model was modified to address noticeable divergences between modelling results and the land cover map. The model modification included a light competition method elaboration and the introduction of a tundra class into the model. The rigorous optimisation of key model parameters was performed using a two-step procedure. First, an approximate global optimum was found using the efficient global optimisation (EGO) algorithm, and afterwards a local search in the vicinity of the approximate optimum was performed using the quasi-Newton algorithm BFGS. The regionally adapted model shows a significant improvement of the vegetation distribution reconstruction over Russia with better matching with the satellite-derived land cover map, which was confirmed by both a visual comparison and a formal conformity criterion.

  8. Probing the Search Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Energy Search, Geography Search, Geology Search, Archeology Search, and Community Search are microcomputer software games, usable in grades five to nine, which provide educational simulations, numbers and situational choices, and calculation of implications of decisions. The series is a pathfinder usable by entire class and requiring only one…

  9. Survey of adaptive control using Liapunov design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindorff, D. P.; Carroll, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    A survey was made of the literature devoted to the synthesis of model-tracking adaptive systems based on application of Liapunov's second method. The basic synthesis procedure is introduced and a critical review of extensions made to the theory since 1966 is made. The extensions relate to design for relative stability, reduction of order techniques, design with disturbance, design with time variable parameters, multivariable systems, identification, and an adaptive observer.

  10. Auto-adaptive finite element meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, Roland; Leyland, Penelope

    1995-01-01

    Accurate capturing of discontinuities within compressible flow computations is achieved by coupling a suitable solver with an automatic adaptive mesh algorithm for unstructured triangular meshes. The mesh adaptation procedures developed rely on non-hierarchical dynamical local refinement/derefinement techniques, which hence enable structural optimization as well as geometrical optimization. The methods described are applied for a number of the ICASE test cases are particularly interesting for unsteady flow simulations.

  11. Research in digital adaptive flight controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H.

    1976-01-01

    A design study of adaptive control logic suitable for implementation in modern airborne digital flight computers was conducted. Both explicit controllers which directly utilize parameter identification and implicit controllers which do not require identification were considered. Extensive analytical and simulation efforts resulted in the recommendation of two explicit digital adaptive flight controllers. Interface weighted least squares estimation procedures with control logic were developed using either optimal regulator theory or with control logic based upon single stage performance indices.

  12. Towards Expert Systems for the Selection of Search Keys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidel, Raya

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of the searching behavior of human intermediaries revealed a routine for selection of search keys--free-text or controlled vocabulary--along a decision tree. Examples of decision rules demonstrate that these rules can be automated to significantly enhance the adaptability of intermediary expert systems. Eight sources are given. (EJS)

  13. Searching the PASCAL database - A user's perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, Robert F.

    1989-01-01

    The operation of PASCAL, a bibliographic data base covering broad subject areas in science and technology, is discussed. The data base includes information from about 1973 to the present, including topics in engineering, chemistry, physics, earth science, environmental science, biology, psychology, and medicine. Data from 1986 to the present may be searched using DIALOG. The procedures and classification codes for searching PASCAL are presented. Examples of citations retrieved from the data base are given and suggestions are made concerning when to use PASCAL.

  14. Design procedures for compressor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starken, H.

    1983-01-01

    The conventional methods for the design of the blades in the case of axial turbomachines are considered, taking into account difficulties concerning the determination of optimal blade profiles. These difficulties have been partly overcome as a consequence of the introduction of new numerical methods during the last few years. It is pointed out that, in the case of the subsonic range, a new procedure is now available for the determination of the form of blade profile on the basis of a given velocity distribution on the profile surface. The search for a profile form with favorable characteristics is consequently transformed into a search for a favorable velocity or pressure distribution on the blade. The distribution of velocities depends to a large degree on the characteristics of the profile boundary layers. The considered concept is not new. However, its practical implementation has only recently become possible. The employment of the new design procedure is illustrated with the aid of an example involving a concrete design problem.

  15. Intestinal adaptation after massive intestinal resection

    PubMed Central

    Weale, A; Edwards, A; Bailey, M; Lear, P

    2005-01-01

    Patients with short bowel syndrome require long term parenteral nutrition support. However, after massive intestinal resection the intestine undergoes adaptation and nutritional autonomy may be obtained. Given that the complications of parenteral nutrition may be life threatening or result in treatment failure and the need for intestinal transplantation, a more attractive option is to wean patients off nutrition support by optimising the adaptive process. The article examines the evidence that after extensive small bowel resection adaptation occurs in humans and focuses on the factors that influence adaptation and the strategies that have been used to optimise this process. The review is based on an English language Medline search with secondary references obtained from key articles. There is evidence that adaptation occurs in humans. Adaptation is a complex process that results in response to nutrient and non-nutrient stimuli. Successful and reproducible strategies to improve adaptation remain elusive despite an abundance of experimental data. Nevertheless given the low patient survival and quality of life associated with other treatments for irreversible intestinal failure it is imperative that clinical research continues into the optimisation of the adaptation. PMID:15749794

  16. 'Net Search Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Suzanne S.

    1997-01-01

    Provides strategies for effective Internet searches. Categorizes queries into four types and describes tools: subject lists; indexes/directories; keyword search engines; Usenet newsgroups; and special purpose search tools. Discusses the importance of deciphering information and adjusting to changes. (AEF)

  17. Second Graders Learn Animal Adaptations through Form and Function Analogy Object Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.; Baldwin, Samantha; Schell, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the use of form and function analogy object boxes to teach second graders (n = 21) animal adaptations. The study used a pretest-posttest design to examine animal adaptation content learned through focused analogy activities as compared with reading and Internet searches for information about adaptations of animals followed by…

  18. Principles, Procedures and Rules in an Expert System for Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoval, Peretz

    1985-01-01

    Describes an expert system which provides users who have information needs with terms to express search queries; introduces principles on which the system's behavior is based; describes the system's main procedures and decision rules; presents an example of system use; and outlines possible improvements in system search and evaluation procedures.…

  19. Habituation of visual adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xue; Gao, Yi; Lv, Lili; Bao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Our sensory system adjusts its function driven by both shorter-term (e.g. adaptation) and longer-term (e.g. learning) experiences. Most past adaptation literature focuses on short-term adaptation. Only recently researchers have begun to investigate how adaptation changes over a span of days. This question is important, since in real life many environmental changes stretch over multiple days or longer. However, the answer to the question remains largely unclear. Here we addressed this issue by tracking perceptual bias (also known as aftereffect) induced by motion or contrast adaptation across multiple daily adaptation sessions. Aftereffects were measured every day after adaptation, which corresponded to the degree of adaptation on each day. For passively viewed adapters, repeated adaptation attenuated aftereffects. Once adapters were presented with an attentional task, aftereffects could either reduce for easy tasks, or initially show an increase followed by a later decrease for demanding tasks. Quantitative analysis of the decay rates in contrast adaptation showed that repeated exposure of the adapter appeared to be equivalent to adaptation to a weaker stimulus. These results suggest that both attention and a non-attentional habituation-like mechanism jointly determine how adaptation develops across multiple daily sessions. PMID:26739917

  20. Habituation of visual adaptation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xue; Gao, Yi; Lv, Lili; Bao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Our sensory system adjusts its function driven by both shorter-term (e.g. adaptation) and longer-term (e.g. learning) experiences. Most past adaptation literature focuses on short-term adaptation. Only recently researchers have begun to investigate how adaptation changes over a span of days. This question is important, since in real life many environmental changes stretch over multiple days or longer. However, the answer to the question remains largely unclear. Here we addressed this issue by tracking perceptual bias (also known as aftereffect) induced by motion or contrast adaptation across multiple daily adaptation sessions. Aftereffects were measured every day after adaptation, which corresponded to the degree of adaptation on each day. For passively viewed adapters, repeated adaptation attenuated aftereffects. Once adapters were presented with an attentional task, aftereffects could either reduce for easy tasks, or initially show an increase followed by a later decrease for demanding tasks. Quantitative analysis of the decay rates in contrast adaptation showed that repeated exposure of the adapter appeared to be equivalent to adaptation to a weaker stimulus. These results suggest that both attention and a non-attentional habituation-like mechanism jointly determine how adaptation develops across multiple daily sessions. PMID:26739917

  1. Curating the Web: Building a Google Custom Search Engine for the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennesy, Cody; Bowman, John

    2008-01-01

    Google's first foray onto the web made search simple and results relevant. With its Co-op platform, Google has taken another step toward dramatically increasing the relevancy of search results, further adapting the World Wide Web to local needs. Google Custom Search Engine, a tool on the Co-op platform, puts one in control of his or her own search…

  2. Computerized procedures system

    DOEpatents

    Lipner, Melvin H.; Mundy, Roger A.; Franusich, Michael D.

    2010-10-12

    An online data driven computerized procedures system that guides an operator through a complex process facility's operating procedures. The system monitors plant data, processes the data and then, based upon this processing, presents the status of the current procedure step and/or substep to the operator. The system supports multiple users and a single procedure definition supports several interface formats that can be tailored to the individual user. Layered security controls access privileges and revisions are version controlled. The procedures run on a server that is platform independent of the user workstations that the server interfaces with and the user interface supports diverse procedural views.

  3. Choice in a Successive-Encounters Procedure and Hyperbolic Decay of Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, James E.

    2007-01-01

    Pigeons responded in a successive-encounters procedure that consisted of a search state, a choice state, and a handling state. The search state was either a fixed-interval or mixed-interval schedule presented on the center key of a three-key chamber. Upon completion of the search state, the choice state was presented, in which the center key was…

  4. Competing intelligent search agents in global optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Streltsov, S.; Vakili, P.; Muchnik, I.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we present a new search methodology that we view as a development of intelligent agent approach to the analysis of complex system. The main idea is to consider search process as a competition mechanism between concurrent adaptive intelligent agents. Agents cooperate in achieving a common search goal and at the same time compete with each other for computational resources. We propose a statistical selection approach to resource allocation between agents that leads to simple and efficient on average index allocation policies. We use global optimization as the most general setting that encompasses many types of search problems, and show how proposed selection policies can be used to improve and combine various global optimization methods.

  5. Self-adaptive genetic algorithms with simulated binary crossover.

    PubMed

    Deb, K; Beyer, H G

    2001-01-01

    Self-adaptation is an essential feature of natural evolution. However, in the context of function optimization, self-adaptation features of evolutionary search algorithms have been explored mainly with evolution strategy (ES) and evolutionary programming (EP). In this paper, we demonstrate the self-adaptive feature of real-parameter genetic algorithms (GAs) using a simulated binary crossover (SBX) operator and without any mutation operator. The connection between the working of self-adaptive ESs and real-parameter GAs with the SBX operator is also discussed. Thereafter, the self-adaptive behavior of real-parameter GAs is demonstrated on a number of test problems commonly used in the ES literature. The remarkable similarity in the working principle of real-parameter GAs and self-adaptive ESs shown in this study suggests the need for emphasizing further studies on self-adaptive GAs. PMID:11382356

  6. 49 CFR 572.142 - Head assembly and test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Head assembly and test procedure. 572.142 Section...-year-Old Child Crash Test Dummy, Alpha Version § 572.142 Head assembly and test procedure. (a) The head assembly (refer to § 572.140(a)(1)(i)) for this test consists of the head (drawing 210-1000), adapter...

  7. 49 CFR 572.142 - Head assembly and test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Head assembly and test procedure. 572.142 Section...-year-Old Child Crash Test Dummy, Alpha Version § 572.142 Head assembly and test procedure. (a) The head assembly (refer to § 572.140(a)(1)(i)) for this test consists of the head (drawing 210-1000), adapter...

  8. Evaluation of the CATSIB DIF Procedure in a Pretest Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nandakumar, Ratna; Roussos, Louis

    2004-01-01

    A new procedure, CATSIB, for assessing differential item functioning (DIF) on computerized adaptive tests (CATs) is proposed. CATSIB, a modified SIBTEST procedure, matches test takers on estimated ability and controls for impact-induced Type 1 error inflation by employing a CAT version of the IBTEST "regression correction." The performance of…

  9. Procedural Effectiveness of International Humanitarian Assistance.

    PubMed

    Moslehi, Shandiz; Ardalan, Ali; Tirone, Daniel C; Waugh, William L; Akbarisari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Procedural effectiveness relates to the impact assessment; so, the objective of this study is to identify the procedural effectiveness indicators and develop a conceptual mapping of existing impact indicators in the field of International Humanitarian Assistance (IHA). We conducted a literature review and searched the websites of humanitarian assistance organizations. Documents were included if they focused on IHA procedural effectiveness or impact evaluations. Reviewers identified the eligible studies and extracted data. A conceptual framework was used to categorize the indicators of secured (protection, good health and food security) and avoided (illness, death and malnutrition) issues. 10 documents were included and categorized based on the framework. It was found that there is no agreed and unique methodology and indicators to assess the impact of humanitarian assistance projects. This study could be the step toward understanding of IHA procedural effectiveness indicators and also the findings can make a base line to start more research. PMID:27241416

  10. Mathematics Education: Procedures, Rituals and Man's Search for Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinner, Shlomo

    2007-01-01

    An attempt is made to analyze mathematical behavior from more general psychological perspectives. The mathematical language is a special case of the human language, which is a form of expression. Many people use common language in a meaningless way. The same is true about the mathematical language. Rituals are other forms of expression. Many…

  11. Multimethod evolutionary search for the regional calibration of rainfall-runoff models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardi, Laura; Castiglioni, Simone; Toth, Elena; Castellarin, Attilio; Montanari, Alberto

    2010-05-01

    The study focuses on regional calibration for a generic rainfall-runoff model. The maximum likelihood function in the spectral domain proposed by Whittle is approximated in the time domain by maximising the simultaneous fit (through a multiobjective optimisation) of selected statistics of streamflow values, with the aim to propose a calibration procedure that can be applied at regional scale. The method may in fact be applied without the availability of actual time series of streamflow observations, since it is based exclusively on the selected statistics, that are here obtained on the basis of the dominant climate and catchment characteristics, through regional regression relationships. The multiobjective optimisation was carried out by using a recently proposed multimethod evolutionary search algorithm (AMALGAM, Vrugt and Robinson, 2007), that runs simultaneously, for population evolution, a set of different optimisation methods (namely NSGA-II, Differential Evolution, Adaptive Metropolis Search and Particle Swarm Optimisation), resulting in a combination of the respective strengths by adaptively updating the weights of these individual methods based on their reproductive success. This ensures a fast, reliable and computationally efficient solution to multiobjective optimisation problems. The proposed technique is applied to the case study of some catchments located in central Italy, which are treated as ungauged and are located in a region where detailed hydrological and geomorfoclimatic information is available. The results obtained with the regional calibration are compared with those provided by a classical least squares calibration in the time domain. The outcomes of the analysis confirm the potentialities of the proposed methodology.

  12. The successively temporal error concealment algorithm using error-adaptive block matching principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yu-Hsuan; Wu, Tsai-Hsing; Chen, Chao-Chyun

    2014-09-01

    Generally, the temporal error concealment (TEC) adopts the blocks around the corrupted block (CB) as the search pattern to find the best-match block in previous frame. Once the CB is recovered, it is referred to as the recovered block (RB). Although RB can be the search pattern to find the best-match block of another CB, RB is not the same as its original block (OB). The error between the RB and its OB limits the performance of TEC. The successively temporal error concealment (STEC) algorithm is proposed to alleviate this error. The STEC procedure consists of tier-1 and tier-2. The tier-1 divides a corrupted macroblock into four corrupted 8 × 8 blocks and generates a recovering order for them. The corrupted 8 × 8 block with the first place of recovering order is recovered in tier-1, and remaining 8 × 8 CBs are recovered in tier-2 along the recovering order. In tier-2, the error-adaptive block matching principle (EA-BMP) is proposed for the RB as the search pattern to recover remaining corrupted 8 × 8 blocks. The proposed STEC outperforms sophisticated TEC algorithms on average PSNR by 0.3 dB on the packet error rate of 20% at least.

  13. Online Database Searching Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlejohn, Alice C.; Parker, Joan M.

    Designed primarily for use by first-time searchers, this workbook provides an overview of online searching. Following a brief introduction which defines online searching, databases, and database producers, five steps in carrying out a successful search are described: (1) identifying the main concepts of the search statement; (2) selecting a…

  14. Search Alternatives and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    Internet search has become a routine computing activity, with regular visits to a search engine--usually Google--the norm for most people. The vast majority of searchers, as recent studies of Internet search behavior reveal, search only in the most basic of ways and fail to avail themselves of options that could easily and effortlessly improve…

  15. Online Search Optimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homan, Michael; Worley, Penny

    This course syllabus describes methods for optimizing online searching, using as an example searching on the National Library of Medicine (NLM) online system. Four major activities considered are the online interview, query analysis and search planning, online interaction, and post-search analysis. Within the context of these activities, concepts…

  16. Computerized Adaptive Testing with Item Cloning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Cees A. W.; van der Linden, Wim J.

    2003-01-01

    Developed a multilevel item response (IRT) model that allows for differences between the distributions of item parameters of families of item clones. Results from simulation studies based on an item pool from the Law School Admission Test illustrate the accuracy of the item pool calibration and adaptive testing procedures based on the model. (SLD)

  17. Adapting Aquatic Circuit Training for Special Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thome, Kathleen

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses how land activities can be adapted to water so that individuals with handicapping conditions can participate in circuit training activities. An initial section lists such organizational procedures as providing vocal and/or visual cues for activities, having assistants accompany the performers throughout the circuit, and…

  18. Expressing Adaptation Strategies Using Adaptation Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemirline, N.; Bourda, Y.; Reynaud, C.

    2012-01-01

    Today, there is a real challenge to enable personalized access to information. Several systems have been proposed to address this challenge including Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHSs). However, the specification of adaptation strategies remains a difficult task for creators of such systems. In this paper, we consider the problem of the definition…

  19. Bioinformatics: searching the Net.

    PubMed

    Kastin, S; Wexler, J

    1998-04-01

    During the past 30 years, there has been an explosion in the volume of published medical information. As this volume has increased, so has the need for efficient methods for searching the data. MEDLINE, the primary medical database, is currently limited to abstracts of the medical literature. MEDLINE searches use AND/OR/NOT logical searching for keywords that have been assigned to each article and for textwords included in article abstracts. Recently, the complete text of some scientific journals, including figures and tables, has become accessible electronically. Keyword and textword searches can provide an overwhelming number of results. Search engines that use phrase searching, or searches that limit the number of words between two finds, improve the precision of search engines. The development of the Internet as a vehicle for worldwide communication, and the emergence of the World Wide Web (WWW) as a common vehicle for communication have made instantaneous access to much of the entire body of medical information an exciting possibility. There is more than one way to search the WWW for information. At the present time, two broad strategies have emerged for cataloging the WWW: directories and search engines. These allow more efficient searching of the WWW. Directories catalog WWW information by creating categories and subcategories of information and then publishing pointers to information within the category listings. Directories are analogous to yellow pages of the phone book. Search engines make no attempt to categorize information. They automatically scour the WWW looking for words and then automatically create an index of those words. When a specific search engine is used, its index is searched for a particular word. Usually, search engines are nonspecific and produce voluminous results. Use of AND/OR/NOT and "near" and "adjacent" search refinements greatly improve the results of a search. Search engines that limit their scope to specific sites, and

  20. Public Sector Impasse Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadakin, James C.

    The subject of collective bargaining negotiation impasse procedures in the public sector, which includes public school systems, is a broad one. In this speech, the author introduces the various procedures, explains how they are used, and lists their advantages and disadvantages. Procedures discussed are mediation, fact-finding, arbitration,…

  1. Rapid, generalized adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech

    PubMed Central

    Van der Burg, Erik; Goodbourn, Patrick T.

    2015-01-01

    The brain is adaptive. The speed of propagation through air, and of low-level sensory processing, differs markedly between auditory and visual stimuli; yet the brain can adapt to compensate for the resulting cross-modal delays. Studies investigating temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech have used prolonged adaptation procedures, suggesting that adaptation is sluggish. Here, we show that adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech occurs rapidly. Participants viewed a brief clip of an actor pronouncing a single syllable. The voice was either advanced or delayed relative to the corresponding lip movements, and participants were asked to make a synchrony judgement. Although we did not use an explicit adaptation procedure, we demonstrate rapid recalibration based on a single audiovisual event. We find that the point of subjective simultaneity on each trial is highly contingent upon the modality order of the preceding trial. We find compelling evidence that rapid recalibration generalizes across different stimuli, and different actors. Finally, we demonstrate that rapid recalibration occurs even when auditory and visual events clearly belong to different actors. These results suggest that rapid temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech is primarily mediated by basic temporal factors, rather than higher-order factors such as perceived simultaneity and source identity. PMID:25716790

  2. Rapid, generalized adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech.

    PubMed

    Van der Burg, Erik; Goodbourn, Patrick T

    2015-04-01

    The brain is adaptive. The speed of propagation through air, and of low-level sensory processing, differs markedly between auditory and visual stimuli; yet the brain can adapt to compensate for the resulting cross-modal delays. Studies investigating temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech have used prolonged adaptation procedures, suggesting that adaptation is sluggish. Here, we show that adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech occurs rapidly. Participants viewed a brief clip of an actor pronouncing a single syllable. The voice was either advanced or delayed relative to the corresponding lip movements, and participants were asked to make a synchrony judgement. Although we did not use an explicit adaptation procedure, we demonstrate rapid recalibration based on a single audiovisual event. We find that the point of subjective simultaneity on each trial is highly contingent upon the modality order of the preceding trial. We find compelling evidence that rapid recalibration generalizes across different stimuli, and different actors. Finally, we demonstrate that rapid recalibration occurs even when auditory and visual events clearly belong to different actors. These results suggest that rapid temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech is primarily mediated by basic temporal factors, rather than higher-order factors such as perceived simultaneity and source identity. PMID:25716790

  3. A Further Search for Social Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Martin E.; Tisak, Marie S.

    1983-01-01

    A behavioral effectiveness criterion was employed to conceptually and operationally define social intelligence. Using Keating's "A Search for Social Intelligence" as a methodological model, the present study examined four measures of academic intelligence and six measures of social intelligence using three different correlational procedures.…

  4. Small Can Be Beautiful: An Experiment with Online Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Jean

    1986-01-01

    Describes the introduction of an online searching service at the Phillips Memorial Library, Providence College (Rhode Island). Highlights include the acquisition of a microcomputer, vendor choice, cost considerations, setting up the workstation and establishing procedures, search sessions, and benefits to all elements of college community. Twelve…

  5. How Safe Are Kid-Safe Search Engines?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson-Krum, Hope

    2001-01-01

    Examines search tools available to elementary and secondary school students, both human-compiled and crawler-based, to help direct them to age-appropriate Web sites; analyzes the procedures of search engines labeled family-friendly or kid safe that use filters; and tests the effectiveness of these services to students in school libraries. (LRW)

  6. Search and Seizure: What Your School's Rights Are.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefkovich, Jacqueline A.; O'Brien, G. Michaele

    1996-01-01

    Unlike most school-security strategies, search and seizure procedures can be largely determined by studying landmark court cases. The U.S. Supreme Court set standards for conducting school searches in "New Jersey v. T.L.O." (1985) and for drug testing student athletes in "Vernonia School District v. Acton" (1995). School officials should also be…

  7. An efficient cuckoo search algorithm for numerical function optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Pauline; Zainuddin, Zarita

    2013-04-01

    Cuckoo search algorithm which reproduces the breeding strategy of the best known brood parasitic bird, the cuckoos has demonstrated its superiority in obtaining the global solution for numerical optimization problems. However, the involvement of fixed step approach in its exploration and exploitation behavior might slow down the search process considerably. In this regards, an improved cuckoo search algorithm with adaptive step size adjustment is introduced and its feasibility on a variety of benchmarks is validated. The obtained results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the standard cuckoo search algorithm in terms of convergence characteristic while preserving the fascinating features of the original method.

  8. Parallel Adaptive Multi-Mechanics Simulations using Diablo

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, D; Solberg, J

    2004-12-03

    Coupled multi-mechanics simulations (such as thermal-stress and fluidstructure interaction problems) are of substantial interest to engineering analysts. In addition, adaptive mesh refinement techniques present an attractive alternative to current mesh generation procedures and provide quantitative error bounds that can be used for model verification. This paper discusses spatially adaptive multi-mechanics implicit simulations using the Diablo computer code. (U)

  9. Adaptive Assessment of Young Children with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiter, Selma; Nakken, Han; Janssen, Marleen; Van Der Meulen, Bieuwe; Looijestijn, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of adaptations for children with low vision of the Bayley Scales, a standardized developmental instrument widely used to assess development in young children. Low vision adaptations were made to the procedures, item instructions and play material of the Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant…

  10. Adaptive multiconfigurational wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Evangelista, Francesco A.

    2014-03-28

    A method is suggested to build simple multiconfigurational wave functions specified uniquely by an energy cutoff Λ. These are constructed from a model space containing determinants with energy relative to that of the most stable determinant no greater than Λ. The resulting Λ-CI wave function is adaptive, being able to represent both single-reference and multireference electronic states. We also consider a more compact wave function parameterization (Λ+SD-CI), which is based on a small Λ-CI reference and adds a selection of all the singly and doubly excited determinants generated from it. We report two heuristic algorithms to build Λ-CI wave functions. The first is based on an approximate prescreening of the full configuration interaction space, while the second performs a breadth-first search coupled with pruning. The Λ-CI and Λ+SD-CI approaches are used to compute the dissociation curve of N{sub 2} and the potential energy curves for the first three singlet states of C{sub 2}. Special attention is paid to the issue of energy discontinuities caused by changes in the size of the Λ-CI wave function along the potential energy curve. This problem is shown to be solvable by smoothing the matrix elements of the Hamiltonian. Our last example, involving the Cu{sub 2}O{sub 2}{sup 2+} core, illustrates an alternative use of the Λ-CI method: as a tool to both estimate the multireference character of a wave function and to create a compact model space to be used in subsequent high-level multireference coupled cluster computations.

  11. Adapting ASPEN for Orbital Express

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chouinard, Caroline; Tran, Daniel; Jones, Grailing; Dang, Van; Knight, Russell

    2010-01-01

    By studying the Orbital Express mission, modeling the spacecraft and scenarios, and testing the system, a technique has been developed that uses recursive decomposition to represent procedural actions declaratively, schema-level uncertainty reasoning to make uncertainty reasoning tractable, and lightweight, natural language processing to automatically parse procedures to produce declarative models. Schema-level uncertainty reasoning has, at its core, the basic assumption that certain variables are uncertain, but not independent. Once any are known, then the others become known. This is important where a variable is uncertain for an action and many actions of the same type exist in the plan. For example, if the number of retries to purge pump lines was unknown (but bounded), and each attempt required a sub-plan, then, once the correct number of attempts required for a purge was known, it would likely be the same for all subsequent purges. This greatly reduces the space of plans that needs to be searched to ensure that all executions are feasible. To accommodate changing scenario procedures, each is ingested into a tabular format in temporal order, and a simple natural-language parser is used to read each step and to derive the impact of that step on memory, power, and communications. Then an ASPEN (Activity Scheduling and Planning Environment) model is produced based on this analysis. The model is tested and further changed by hand, if necessary, to reflect the actual procedure. This results in a great savings of time used for modeling procedures. Many processes that need to be modeled in ASPEN (a declarative system) are, in fact, procedural. ASPEN includes the ability to model activities in a hierarchical fashion, but this representation breaks down if there is a practically unbounded number of sub-activities and decomposition topologies. However, if recursive decomposition is allowed, HTN-like encodings are enabled to represent most procedural phenomena. For

  12. Crew procedures development techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, J. D.; Benbow, R. L.; Hawk, M. L.; Mangiaracina, A. A.; Mcgavern, J. L.; Spangler, M. C.

    1975-01-01

    The study developed requirements, designed, developed, checked out and demonstrated the Procedures Generation Program (PGP). The PGP is a digital computer program which provides a computerized means of developing flight crew procedures based on crew action in the shuttle procedures simulator. In addition, it provides a real time display of procedures, difference procedures, performance data and performance evaluation data. Reconstruction of displays is possible post-run. Data may be copied, stored on magnetic tape and transferred to the document processor for editing and documentation distribution.

  13. Search efficiency as a function of target saliency: The transition from inefficient to efficient search and beyond.

    PubMed

    Liesefeld, Heinrich René; Moran, Rani; Usher, Marius; Müller, Hermann J; Zehetleitner, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Searching for an object among distracting objects is a common daily task. These searches differ in efficiency. Some are so difficult that each object must be inspected in turn, whereas others are so easy that the target object directly catches the observer's eye. In 4 experiments, the difficulty of searching for an orientation-defined target was parametrically manipulated between blocks of trials via the target-distractor orientation contrast. We observed a smooth transition from inefficient to efficient search with increasing orientation contrast. When contrast was high, search slopes were flat (indicating pop-out); when contrast was low, slopes were steep (indicating serial search). At the transition from inefficient to efficient search, search slopes were flat for target-present trials and steep for target-absent trials within the same orientation-contrast block-suggesting that participants adapted their behavior on target-absent trials to the most difficult, rather than the average, target-present trials of each block. Furthermore, even when search slopes were flat, indicative of pop-out, search continued to become faster with increasing contrast. These observations provide several new constraints for models of visual search and indicate that differences between search tasks that were traditionally considered qualitative in nature might actually be due to purely quantitative differences in target discriminability. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26727018

  14. Publication search and retrieval system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winget, Elizabeth A.

    1981-01-01

    The publication search and retrieval system of the Branch of Atlantic-Gulf of Mexico Geology, U.S. Geological Survey, Woods Hole, Mass., is a procedure for listing and describing branch-sponsored publications. It is designed for maintenance and retrieval by those having limited knowledge of computer languages and programs. Because this branch currently utilizes the Hewlett-Packard HP-1000 computer with RTE-IVB operating system, database entry and maintenance is performed in accordance with the TE-IVB Terminal User’s Reference Manual (Hewlett-Packard Company, 1980) and within the constraints of GRASP (Bowen and Botbol, 1975) and WOLF (Evenden, 1978).

  15. CADIAL Search Engine at INEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijić, Jure; Moens, Marie-Francine; Dalbelo Bašić, Bojana

    Semi-structured document retrieval is becoming more popular with the increasing quantity of data available in XML format. In this paper, we describe a search engine model that exploits the structure of the document and uses language modelling and smoothing at the document and collection levels for calculating the relevance of each element from all the documents in the collection to a user query. Element priors, CAS query constraint filtering, and the +/- operators are also used in the ranking procedure. We also present the results of our participation in the INEX 2008 Ad Hoc Track.

  16. Adaptive structures - Test hardware and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, Ben K.; Fanson, James L.; Chen, Gun-Shing; Kuo, Chin-Po

    1990-01-01

    The facilities and procedures used at JPL to test adaptive structures such as the large deployable reflector (LDR) are described and preliminary results are reported. The applications of adaptive structures in future NASA missions are outlined, and the techniques which are employed to modify damping, stiffness, and isolation characteristics, as well as geometric changes, are listed. The development of adaptive structures is shown to be effective as a result of new actuators and sensors, and examples are listed for categories such as fiber optics, shape-memory materials, piezoelectrics, and electrorheological fluids. Some ground test results are described for laboratory truss structures and truss test beds, which are shown to be efficient and easy to assemble in space. Adaptive structures are shown to be important for precision space structures such as the LDR, and can alleviate ground test requirements.

  17. Adaptive hybrid learning for neural networks.

    PubMed

    Smithies, Rob; Salhi, Said; Queen, Nat

    2004-01-01

    A robust locally adaptive learning algorithm is developed via two enhancements of the Resilient Propagation (RPROP) method. Remaining drawbacks of the gradient-based approach are addressed by hybridization with gradient-independent Local Search. Finally, a global optimization method based on recursion of the hybrid is constructed, making use of tabu neighborhoods to accelerate the search for minima through diversification. Enhanced RPROP is shown to be faster and more accurate than the standard RPROP in solving classification tasks based on natural data sets taken from the UCI repository of machine learning databases. Furthermore, the use of Local Search is shown to improve Enhanced RPROP by solving the same classification tasks as part of the global optimization method. PMID:15006027

  18. An adaptive contextual quantum language model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingfei; Zhang, Peng; Song, Dawei; Hou, Yuexian

    2016-08-01

    User interactions in search system represent a rich source of implicit knowledge about the user's cognitive state and information need that continuously evolves over time. Despite massive efforts that have been made to exploiting and incorporating this implicit knowledge in information retrieval, it is still a challenge to effectively capture the term dependencies and the user's dynamic information need (reflected by query modifications) in the context of user interaction. To tackle these issues, motivated by the recent Quantum Language Model (QLM), we develop a QLM based retrieval model for session search, which naturally incorporates the complex term dependencies occurring in user's historical queries and clicked documents with density matrices. In order to capture the dynamic information within users' search session, we propose a density matrix transformation framework and further develop an adaptive QLM ranking model. Extensive comparative experiments show the effectiveness of our session quantum language models.

  19. AEST: Adaptive Eigenvalue Stability Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, L.-J.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Waelbroeck, F.; van Dam, J. W.; Berk, H.

    2002-11-01

    An adaptive eigenvalue linear stability code is developed. The aim is on one hand to include the non-ideal MHD effects into the global MHD stability calculation for both low and high n modes and on the other hand to resolve the numerical difficulty involving MHD singularity on the rational surfaces at the marginal stability. Our code follows some parts of philosophy of DCON by abandoning relaxation methods based on radial finite element expansion in favor of an efficient shooting procedure with adaptive gridding. The δ W criterion is replaced by the shooting procedure and subsequent matrix eigenvalue problem. Since the technique of expanding a general solution into a summation of the independent solutions employed, the rank of the matrices involved is just a few hundreds. This makes easier to solve the eigenvalue problem with non-ideal MHD effects, such as FLR or even full kinetic effects, as well as plasma rotation effect, taken into account. To include kinetic effects, the approach of solving for the distribution function as a local eigenvalue ω problem as in the GS2 code will be employed in the future. Comparison of the ideal MHD version of the code with DCON, PEST, and GATO will be discussed. The non-ideal MHD version of the code will be employed to study as an application the transport barrier physics in tokamak discharges.

  20. Cube search, revisited.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuetao; Huang, Jie; Yigit-Elliott, Serap; Rosenholtz, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Observers can quickly search among shaded cubes for one lit from a unique direction. However, replace the cubes with similar 2-D patterns that do not appear to have a 3-D shape, and search difficulty increases. These results have challenged models of visual search and attention. We demonstrate that cube search displays differ from those with "equivalent" 2-D search items in terms of the informativeness of fairly low-level image statistics. This informativeness predicts peripheral discriminability of target-present from target-absent patches, which in turn predicts visual search performance, across a wide range of conditions. Comparing model performance on a number of classic search tasks, cube search does not appear unexpectedly easy. Easy cube search, per se, does not provide evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. However, search asymmetries derived from rotating and/or flipping the cube search displays cannot be explained by the information in our current set of image statistics. This may merely suggest a need to modify the model's set of 2-D image statistics. Alternatively, it may be difficult cube search that provides evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. By attributing 2-D luminance variations to a shaded 3-D shape, 3-D scene understanding may slow search for 2-D features of the target. PMID:25780063

  1. Cube search, revisited

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuetao; Huang, Jie; Yigit-Elliott, Serap; Rosenholtz, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Observers can quickly search among shaded cubes for one lit from a unique direction. However, replace the cubes with similar 2-D patterns that do not appear to have a 3-D shape, and search difficulty increases. These results have challenged models of visual search and attention. We demonstrate that cube search displays differ from those with “equivalent” 2-D search items in terms of the informativeness of fairly low-level image statistics. This informativeness predicts peripheral discriminability of target-present from target-absent patches, which in turn predicts visual search performance, across a wide range of conditions. Comparing model performance on a number of classic search tasks, cube search does not appear unexpectedly easy. Easy cube search, per se, does not provide evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. However, search asymmetries derived from rotating and/or flipping the cube search displays cannot be explained by the information in our current set of image statistics. This may merely suggest a need to modify the model's set of 2-D image statistics. Alternatively, it may be difficult cube search that provides evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. By attributing 2-D luminance variations to a shaded 3-D shape, 3-D scene understanding may slow search for 2-D features of the target. PMID:25780063

  2. Balancing Flexible Constraints and Measurement Precision in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Eric L.; Galindo, Jennifer L.; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2012-01-01

    Managing test specifications--both multiple nonstatistical constraints and flexibly defined constraints--has become an important part of designing item selection procedures for computerized adaptive tests (CATs) in achievement testing. This study compared the effectiveness of three procedures: constrained CAT, flexible modified constrained CAT,…

  3. "Research protocol: a synthesis of qualitative studies on the process of adaptation to dependency in elderly persons and their families"

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dealing with dependency in the elderly and their families leads us to explore the life experience of those involved together with the processes of adaptation to this condition. A number of original studies have been published which, following a qualitative methodology, have dealt with both dimensions. Methods/Design Objectives: 1) To present a synthesis of the qualitative evidence available on the process of adaptation to dependency in elderly persons and their families; 2) to conduct an in-depth study into the experiences and strategies developed by both to optimise their living conditions; 3) to enable standards of action/intervention to be developed in the caregiving environment. A synthesis of qualitative studies is projected with an extensive and inclusive bibliography search strategy. The primary search will focus on the major databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, PSICODOC, Cochrane Library, JBI, EMBASE, LILACS, CUIDEN, CUIDEN qualitative, CUIDATGE, British Nursing Index, SSCI). The secondary search will be conducted in articles taken from the references to studies identified in the articles and reports and the manual search in congresses and foundation papers. Article quality will be assessed by the guide proposed by Sandelowski & Barroso and data extraction done using the QARI data extraction form proposed by the Joanna Briggs Institute for Evidence-Based Practice. The synthesis of the findings will be based on the principles and procedures of grounded theory: coding, identification and relationship between categories, and synthesis using constant comparison as a strategy. Discussion This synthesis of qualitative evidence will enable us to detect health needs as perceived by the receivers in their own interaction contexts. PMID:20738846

  4. Procedure improvement enterprises

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    At Allied-Signal's Kansas City Division (KCD), we recognize the importance of clear, concise and timely procedures for sharing information, promoting consistency and documenting the way we do business. For these reasons, the KCD has gathered a team of employees to analyze the process we currently use to publish procedures, identify the procedure needs of KCD employees, and design a system that meets or exceeds the requirements and expectations of DOE. The name of our group is the Procedure Improvement Enterprise Critical Process Team, or PIE CPT. The mission statement of Procedure Improvement Enterprise is to develop and implement within the Kansas City Division an effective nd flexible procedure system that will establish a model of excellence, will emphasize team work and open communication, and will ensure compliance with corporate/government requirements.

  5. Procedure improvement enterprises

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    At Allied-Signal`s Kansas City Division (KCD), we recognize the importance of clear, concise and timely procedures for sharing information, promoting consistency and documenting the way we do business. For these reasons, the KCD has gathered a team of employees to analyze the process we currently use to publish procedures, identify the procedure needs of KCD employees, and design a system that meets or exceeds the requirements and expectations of DOE. The name of our group is the Procedure Improvement Enterprise Critical Process Team, or PIE CPT. The mission statement of Procedure Improvement Enterprise is to develop and implement within the Kansas City Division an effective nd flexible procedure system that will establish a model of excellence, will emphasize team work and open communication, and will ensure compliance with corporate/government requirements.

  6. Pyroshock prediction procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piersol, Allan G.

    2002-05-01

    Given sufficient effort, pyroshock loads can be predicted by direct analytical procedures using Hydrocodes that analytically model the details of the pyrotechnic explosion and its interaction with adjacent structures, including nonlinear effects. However, it is more common to predict pyroshock environments using empirical procedures based upon extensive studies of past pyroshock data. Various empirical pyroshock prediction procedures are discussed, including those developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Lockheed-Martin, and Boeing.

  7. Candidate CDTI procedures study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ace, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    A concept with potential for increasing airspace capacity by involving the pilot in the separation control loop is discussed. Some candidate options are presented. Both enroute and terminal area procedures are considered and, in many cases, a technologically advanced Air Traffic Control structure is assumed. Minimum display characteristics recommended for each of the described procedures are presented. Recommended sequencing of the operational testing of each of the candidate procedures is presented.

  8. Mathematical physics: Search research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlesinger, Michael F.

    2006-09-01

    How does one best search for non-replenishable targets at unknown positions? An optimized search strategy could be applied to situations as diverse as animal foraging and time-sensitive rescue missions.

  9. Improved limited discrepancy search

    SciTech Connect

    Korf, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    We present an improvement to Harvey and Ginsberg`s limited discrepancy search algorithm, which eliminates much of the redundancy in the original, by generating each path from the root to the maximum search depth only once. For a complete binary tree of depth d this reduces the asymptotic complexity from O(d+2/2 2{sup d}) to O(2{sup d}). The savings is much less in a partial tree search, or in a heavily pruned tree. The overhead of the improved algorithm on a complete binary tree is only a factor of b/(b - 1) compared to depth-first search. While this constant factor is greater on a heavily pruned tree, this improvement makes limited discrepancy search a viable alternative to depth-first search, whenever the entire tree may not be searched. Finally, we present both positive and negative empirical results on the utility of limited discrepancy search, for the problem of number partitioning.

  10. Exerting control and adapting to loss in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Foley, Geraldine; Timonen, Virpi; Hardiman, Orla

    2014-01-01

    People with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) engage with a broad range of health care services from symptom onset to end-of-life care. We undertook a grounded theory study to identify processes that underpin how and why people with ALS engage with health care services. Using theoretical sampling procedures, we sampled 34 people from the Irish ALS population-based register during September 2011 to August 2012. We conducted in-depth interviews with participants about their experiences of health care services. Our study yielded new insights into how people with ALS engage with services and adapt to loss. People with ALS live with insurmountable loss and never regain what they have already lost. Loss for people with ALS is multidimensional and includes loss of control. The experience of loss of control prompts people with ALS to search for control over health care services but exerting control in health care services can also include rendering control to service providers. People with ALS negotiate loss by exerting control over and rendering control to health care services. Our findings are important for future research that is attuned to how people with terminal illness exert control in health care services and make decisions about care in the context of mounting loss. PMID:24560231

  11. Search for Asteroid Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merline, W. J.; Close, L. M.; Menard, F.; Dumas, C.; Chapman, C. R.; Slater, D. C.

    2001-11-01

    We report on the recent progress of our comprehensive search for satellites of asteroids. In 1998, we began our survey using newly newly developed technologies in adaptive optics to explore the close environs of several hundred main-belt asteroids. Adaptive optics (AO) removes the blurring caused by the Earth's atmosphere and allows diffraction-limited imaging in the near-IR (J-,H-,K'-bands) at the world's largest telescopes. Angular resolutions as high as 0.04 arcsec are possible. We have employed the excellent facilities at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, the W.M. Keck II telescope, and the new Gemini North 8m telescope. Each of these facilities provides unique capabilities and are each complementary to the other. So far we have discovered or recovered a half-dozen small moons or double asteroids by this AO-assisted direct-imaging technique. Our sample now exceeds 300 main-belt targets, and we have expanded the survey to include near-Earth and Trojan asteroids. Other groups are using AO, direct HST imaging, direct ground-based imaging, advanced lightcurve analysis, and radar techniques to further sample these populations, as well as the Kuiper Belt. Our results show that the frequency of binary asteroids (at least to our detection limits) is rather small in the main belt, possibly a few percent. Frequencies among other populations, such as the NEAs, are seen to be much higher. We also find that although there are similarities among the detected systems, there are also significant differences. Thus, it is likely that several different formation mechanisms will be required to explain the observed systems. All of the proposed mechanisms for formation involve collisions of one type or another (physical or gravitational). Study of these systems will provide significant insight to the collisional history and evolution of these asteroid populations. Further, the presence of a companion allows accurate determination of the density of the primary, and thus yields

  12. A Novel Approach for Adaptive Signal Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Ya-Chin; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1998-01-01

    Adaptive linear predictors have been used extensively in practice in a wide variety of forms. In the main, their theoretical development is based upon the assumption of stationarity of the signals involved, particularly with respect to the second order statistics. On this basis, the well-known normal equations can be formulated. If high- order statistical stationarity is assumed, then the equivalent normal equations involve high-order signal moments. In either case, the cross moments (second or higher) are needed. This renders the adaptive prediction procedure non-blind. A novel procedure for blind adaptive prediction has been proposed and considerable implementation has been made in our contributions in the past year. The approach is based upon a suitable interpretation of blind equalization methods that satisfy the constant modulus property and offers significant deviations from the standard prediction methods. These blind adaptive algorithms are derived by formulating Lagrange equivalents from mechanisms of constrained optimization. In this report, other new update algorithms are derived from the fundamental concepts of advanced system identification to carry out the proposed blind adaptive prediction. The results of the work can be extended to a number of control-related problems, such as disturbance identification. The basic principles are outlined in this report and differences from other existing methods are discussed. The applications implemented are speech processing, such as coding and synthesis. Simulations are included to verify the novel modelling method.

  13. Inside a Search. Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Rosie

    2011-01-01

    Lou Marinoff's article, "Inside a Search," discusses the issues college search committees face in the pursuit of qualified faculty members that will be a good fit for their institutions. More often than not, faculty searches are more complex and challenging than the featured article suggests. The economic downturn facing the nation has resulted in…

  14. The Shortcut Search. Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyland, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Faced with a late-season superintendent search, many districts defer the formal search-and-hire process and entice a senior administrator or former superintendent to serve a one- or two-year stint. One appealing alternative is an abbreviated search. Boards should advertise immediately and efficiently, develop their own criteria, recruit…

  15. Search and Seizure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Kenneth T.

    This paper examines the practice of search and seizure from a legal perspective. All issues concerning lawful or unlawful search and seizure, whether in a public school or otherwise, are predicated upon the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The terms "search,""seizure,""probable cause,""reasonable suspicion," and "exclusionary…

  16. Conducting a Web Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Whitehead, Marie

    Keyword and text string searches of online library catalogs often provide different results according to library and database used and depending upon how books and journals are indexed. For this reason, online databases such as ERIC often provide tutorials and recommendations for searching their site, such as how to use Boolean search strategies.…

  17. Organizational Adaptation and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Kim S.

    1984-01-01

    Organizational adaptation and types of adaptation needed in academe in the future are reviewed and major conceptual approaches to organizational adaptation are presented. The probable environment that institutions will face in the future that will require adaptation is discussed. (MLW)

  18. Countermeasure development to space adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larochelle, F. T.; Charles, J.; Harm, D. L.; Fortney, S. M.; Siconolfi, S.

    1992-01-01

    At the Johnson Space Center we are actively involved, with the collaboration of other NASA Centers and the scientific community at large, in the search for ways to counter the negative affects of spaceflight beginning with the improvement in our understanding of the adaptation. Heretofore this search will be broadly referred to as countermeasures development and includes not only the preservation of physiological well-being but also pyschological well-being. The psychological integrity of crews will, undoubtedly, become progressively more important as lengths, remoteness, and risks of missions increase. The character and priorities of our contermeasure development is very much dependent upon the character of the mission and requires a very close liaison between Medical Operations and the investigators. Because of the demands which countermeasure implementation imposes upon crew schedules and because of the potential weight, power, and budget impacts of the hardware and its development, a countermeasure can only become operational when it is either adequately validated or the human risk of not applying the existing technology exceeds the other negative impacts not directly related to crew health and safety.

  19. A screened automated structural search with semiempirical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Yukihiro; Ruiz-Barragan, Sergi; Machida, Masahiko; Shiga, Motoyuki

    2016-03-01

    We developed an interface program between a program suite for an automated search of chemical reaction pathways, GRRM, and a program package of semiempirical methods, MOPAC. A two-step structural search is proposed as an application of this interface program. A screening test is first performed by semiempirical calculations. Subsequently, a reoptimization procedure is done by ab initio or density functional calculations. We apply this approach to ion adsorption on cellulose. The computational efficiency is also shown for a GRRM search. The interface program is suitable for the structural search of large molecular systems for which semiempirical methods are applicable.

  20. Science Safety Procedure Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mervyn A.; Offet, Lorna

    This booklet outlines general safety procedures in the areas of: (1) student supervision; (2) storage safety regulations, including lists of incompatible chemicals, techniques of disposal and storage; (3) fire; and (4) first aid. Specific sections exist for elementary, junior high school, senior high school, in which special procedures are…

  1. Handbook of radiologic procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Hedgcock, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book is organized around radiologic procedures with each discussed from the points of view of: indications, contraindications, materials, method of procedures and complications. Covered in this book are: emergency radiology chest radiology, bone radiology, gastrointestinal radiology, GU radiology, pediatric radiology, computerized tomography, neuroradiology, visceral and peripheral angiography, cardiovascular radiology, nuclear medicine, lymphangiography, and mammography.

  2. Procedural Learning and Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolson, R. I.; Fawcett, A. J.; Brookes, R. L.; Needle, J.

    2010-01-01

    Three major "neural systems", specialized for different types of information processing, are the sensory, declarative, and procedural systems. It has been proposed ("Trends Neurosci.",30(4), 135-141) that dyslexia may be attributable to impaired function in the procedural system together with intact declarative function. We provide a brief…

  3. Coombs' Type Response Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Roger A.

    This paper provides substantial evidence in favor of the continued use of conventional objective testing procedures in lieu of either the Coombs' cross-out technique or the Dressel and Schmid free-choice response procedure. From the studies presented in this paper, the tendency is for the cross-out and the free choice methods to yield a decrement…

  4. Enucleation Procedure Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kevin; Poston, George

    This manual provides information on the enucleation procedure (removal of the eyes for organ banks). An introductory section focuses on the anatomy of the eye and defines each of the parts. Diagrams of the eye are provided. A list of enucleation materials follows. Other sections present outlines of (1) a sterile procedure; (2) preparation for eye…

  5. Basic Planning Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada State Dept. of Education, Carson City.

    The procedure described herein entails the use of an educational planning consultant, statements of educational and service problems to be solved by proposed construction, a site plan, and architect selection. Also included in the outline of procedures is a tentative statement of specifications, tentative cost estimates and matrices for conducting…

  6. Policies and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, William D.; McKenna, Bernard

    1997-01-01

    States that, although policies and procedure documents play an important role in developing and maintaining a consistent quality of interaction in organizations, research literature is weak in this area. Initiates further discussion by defining and describing policy/procedure documents. Identifies a third kind, work instructions. Uses a genre…

  7. Hybrid search in the temporal domain: Evidence for rapid, serial logarithmic search through memory.

    PubMed

    Drew, Trafton; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2014-02-01

    In hybrid search, observers memorize a number of possible targets and then search for any of these in visual arrays of items. Wolfe (2012) has previously shown that the response times in hybrid search increase with the log of the memory set size. What enables this logarithmic search of memory? One possibility is a series of steps in which subsets of the memory set are compared to all items in the visual set simultaneously. In the present experiments, we presented single visual items sequentially in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) display, eliminating the possibility of simultaneous testing of all items. We used a staircasing procedure to estimate the time necessary to effectively detect the target in the RSVP stream. Processing time increased in a log-linear fashion with the number of potential targets. This finding eliminates the class of models that require simultaneous comparison of some memory items to all (or many) items in the visual display. Experiment 3 showed that, similar to visual search, memory search efficiency in this paradigm is influenced by the similarity between the target set and the distractors. These results indicate that observers perform separate memory searches on each eligible item in the visual display. Moreover, it appears that memory search for one item can proceed while other items are being categorized as "eligible" or "not eligible." PMID:24343519

  8. University Students' Online Information Searching Strategies in Different Search Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Meng-Jung; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Hou, Huei-Tse; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the role of search context played in university students' online information searching strategies. A total of 304 university students in Taiwan were surveyed with questionnaires in which two search contexts were defined as searching for learning, and searching for daily life information. Students' online search strategies…

  9. VisSearch: A Collaborative Web Searching Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Young-Jin

    2005-01-01

    VisSearch is a collaborative Web searching environment intended for sharing Web search results among people with similar interests, such as college students taking the same course. It facilitates students' Web searches by visualizing various Web searching processes. It also collects the visualized Web search results and applies an association rule…

  10. Visual search and eye movements in novel and familiar contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermott, Kyle; Mulligan, Jeffrey B.; Bebis, George; Webster, Michael A.

    2006-02-01

    Adapting to the visual characteristics of a specific environment may facilitate detecting novel stimuli within that environment. We monitored eye movements while subjects searched for a color target on familiar or unfamiliar color backgrounds, in order to test for these performance changes and to explore whether they reflect changes in salience from adaptation vs. changes in search strategies or perceptual learning. The target was an ellipse of variable color presented at a random location on a dense background of ellipses. In one condition, the colors of the background varied along either the LvsM or SvsLM cardinal axes. Observers adapted by viewing a rapid succession of backgrounds drawn from one color axis, and then searched for a target on a background from the same or different color axis. Searches were monitored with a Cambridge Research Systems Video Eyetracker. Targets were located more quickly on the background axis that observers were pre-exposed to, confirming that this exposure can improve search efficiency for stimuli that differ from the background. However, eye movement patterns (e.g. fixation durations and saccade magnitudes) did not clearly differ across the two backgrounds, suggesting that how the novel and familiar backgrounds were sampled remained similar. In a second condition, we compared search on a nonselective color background drawn from a circle of hues at fixed contrast. Prior exposure to this background did not facilitate search compared to an achromatic adapting field, suggesting that subjects were not simply learning the specific colors defining the background distributions. Instead, results for both conditions are consistent with a selective adaptation effect that enhances the salience of novel stimuli by partially discounting the background.

  11. Grid quality improvement by a grid adaptation technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. D.; Henderson, T. L.; Choo, Y. K.

    1991-01-01

    A grid adaptation technique is presented which improves grid quality. The method begins with an assessment of grid quality by defining an appropriate grid quality measure. Then, undesirable grid properties are eliminated by a grid-quality-adaptive grid generation procedure. The same concept has been used for geometry-adaptive and solution-adaptive grid generation. The difference lies in the definition of the grid control sources; here, they are extracted from the distribution of a particular grid property. Several examples are presented to demonstrate the versatility and effectiveness of the method.

  12. A framework for constructing adaptive and reconfigurable systems

    SciTech Connect

    Poirot, Pierre-Etienne; Nogiec, Jerzy; Ren, Shangping; /IIT, Chicago

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents a software approach to augmenting existing real-time systems with self-adaptation capabilities. In this approach, based on the control loop paradigm commonly used in industrial control, self-adaptation is decomposed into observing system events, inferring necessary changes based on a system's functional model, and activating appropriate adaptation procedures. The solution adopts an architectural decomposition that emphasizes independence and separation of concerns. It encapsulates observation, modeling and correction into separate modules to allow for easier customization of the adaptive behavior and flexibility in selecting implementation technologies.

  13. Robots that can adapt like animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cully, Antoine; Clune, Jeff; Tarapore, Danesh; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-05-01

    Robots have transformed many industries, most notably manufacturing, and have the power to deliver tremendous benefits to society, such as in search and rescue, disaster response, health care and transportation. They are also invaluable tools for scientific exploration in environments inaccessible to humans, from distant planets to deep oceans. A major obstacle to their widespread adoption in more complex environments outside factories is their fragility. Whereas animals can quickly adapt to injuries, current robots cannot `think outside the box' to find a compensatory behaviour when they are damaged: they are limited to their pre-specified self-sensing abilities, can diagnose only anticipated failure modes, and require a pre-programmed contingency plan for every type of potential damage, an impracticality for complex robots. A promising approach to reducing robot fragility involves having robots learn appropriate behaviours in response to damage, but current techniques are slow even with small, constrained search spaces. Here we introduce an intelligent trial-and-error algorithm that allows robots to adapt to damage in less than two minutes in large search spaces without requiring self-diagnosis or pre-specified contingency plans. Before the robot is deployed, it uses a novel technique to create a detailed map of the space of high-performing behaviours. This map represents the robot's prior knowledge about what behaviours it can perform and their value. When the robot is damaged, it uses this prior knowledge to guide a trial-and-error learning algorithm that conducts intelligent experiments to rapidly discover a behaviour that compensates for the damage. Experiments reveal successful adaptations for a legged robot injured in five different ways, including damaged, broken, and missing legs, and for a robotic arm with joints broken in 14 different ways. This new algorithm will enable more robust, effective, autonomous robots, and may shed light on the principles

  14. Robots that can adapt like animals.

    PubMed

    Cully, Antoine; Clune, Jeff; Tarapore, Danesh; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-05-28

    Robots have transformed many industries, most notably manufacturing, and have the power to deliver tremendous benefits to society, such as in search and rescue, disaster response, health care and transportation. They are also invaluable tools for scientific exploration in environments inaccessible to humans, from distant planets to deep oceans. A major obstacle to their widespread adoption in more complex environments outside factories is their fragility. Whereas animals can quickly adapt to injuries, current robots cannot 'think outside the box' to find a compensatory behaviour when they are damaged: they are limited to their pre-specified self-sensing abilities, can diagnose only anticipated failure modes, and require a pre-programmed contingency plan for every type of potential damage, an impracticality for complex robots. A promising approach to reducing robot fragility involves having robots learn appropriate behaviours in response to damage, but current techniques are slow even with small, constrained search spaces. Here we introduce an intelligent trial-and-error algorithm that allows robots to adapt to damage in less than two minutes in large search spaces without requiring self-diagnosis or pre-specified contingency plans. Before the robot is deployed, it uses a novel technique to create a detailed map of the space of high-performing behaviours. This map represents the robot's prior knowledge about what behaviours it can perform and their value. When the robot is damaged, it uses this prior knowledge to guide a trial-and-error learning algorithm that conducts intelligent experiments to rapidly discover a behaviour that compensates for the damage. Experiments reveal successful adaptations for a legged robot injured in five different ways, including damaged, broken, and missing legs, and for a robotic arm with joints broken in 14 different ways. This new algorithm will enable more robust, effective, autonomous robots, and may shed light on the principles

  15. Toddler test or procedure preparation

    MedlinePlus

    ... procedure; Test/procedure preparation - toddler; Preparing for a medical test or procedure - toddler ... A, Franz BE. Practical communication guide for paediatric procedures. Emerg ... PMID: 19588390 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19588390 .

  16. A Study of Two Methods for Adapting Self-Instructional Materials to Individual Differences. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melaragno, Ralph J.

    The two-phase study compared two methods of adapting self-instructional materials to individual differences among learners. The methods were compared with each other and with a control condition involving only minimal adaptation. The first adaptation procedure was based on subjects' performances on a learning task in Phase I of the study; the…

  17. IntentSearch: Capturing User Intention for One-Click Internet Image Search.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoou; Liu, Ke; Cui, Jingyu; Wen, Fang; Wang, Xiaogang

    2012-07-01

    Web-scale image search engines (e.g., Google image search, Bing image search) mostly rely on surrounding text features. It is difficult for them to interpret users' search intention only by query keywords and this leads to ambiguous and noisy search results which are far from satisfactory. It is important to use visual information in order to solve the ambiguity in text-based image retrieval. In this paper, we propose a novel Internet image search approach. It only requires the user to click on one query image with minimum effort and images from a pool retrieved by text-based search are reranked based on both visual and textual content. Our key contribution is to capture the users' search intention from this one-click query image in four steps. 1) The query image is categorized into one of the predefined adaptive weight categories which reflect users' search intention at a coarse level. Inside each category, a specific weight schema is used to combine visual features adaptive to this kind of image to better rerank the text-based search result. 2) Based on the visual content of the query image selected by the user and through image clustering, query keywords are expanded to capture user intention. 3) Expanded keywords are used to enlarge the image pool to contain more relevant images. 4) Expanded keywords are also used to expand the query image to multiple positive visual examples from which new query specific visual and textual similarity metrics are learned to further improve content-based image reranking. All these steps are automatic, without extra effort from the user. This is critically important for any commercial web-based image search engine, where the user interface has to be extremely simple. Besides this key contribution, a set of visual features which are both effective and efficient in Internet image search are designed. Experimental evaluation shows that our approach significantly improves the precision of top-ranked images and also the user

  18. Origins of adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that adaptive immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning adaptive immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which adaptive immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of adaptive immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into adaptive immunity. PMID:21395512

  19. Parallel Anisotropic Tetrahedral Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Darmofal, David L.

    2008-01-01

    An adaptive method that robustly produces high aspect ratio tetrahedra to a general 3D metric specification without introducing hybrid semi-structured regions is presented. The elemental operators and higher-level logic is described with their respective domain-decomposed parallelizations. An anisotropic tetrahedral grid adaptation scheme is demonstrated for 1000-1 stretching for a simple cube geometry. This form of adaptation is applicable to more complex domain boundaries via a cut-cell approach as demonstrated by a parallel 3D supersonic simulation of a complex fighter aircraft. To avoid the assumptions and approximations required to form a metric to specify adaptation, an approach is introduced that directly evaluates interpolation error. The grid is adapted to reduce and equidistribute this interpolation error calculation without the use of an intervening anisotropic metric. Direct interpolation error adaptation is illustrated for 1D and 3D domains.

  20. Gravitational adaptation of animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. H.; Burton, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of gravitational adaptation is studied in a group of five Leghorn cocks which had become physiologically adapted to 2 G after 162 days of centrifugation. After this period of adaptation, they are periodically exposed to a 2 G field, accompanied by five previously unexposed hatch-mates, and the degree of retained acceleration adaptation is estimated from the decrease in lymphocyte frequency after 24 hr at 2 G. Results show that the previously adapted birds exhibit an 84% greater lymphopenia than the unexposed birds, and that the lymphocyte frequency does not decrease to a level below that found at the end of 162 days at 2 G. In addition, the capacity for adaptation to chronic acceleration is found to be highly heritable. An acceleration tolerant strain of birds shows lesser mortality during chronic acceleration, particularly in intermediate fields, although the result of acceleration selection is largely quantitative (a greater number of survivors) rather than qualitative (behavioral or physiological changes).

  1. Technology transfer for adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagini, Bonizella; Kuhl, Laura; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Ortiz, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    Technology alone will not be able to solve adaptation challenges, but it is likely to play an important role. As a result of the role of technology in adaptation and the importance of international collaboration for climate change, technology transfer for adaptation is a critical but understudied issue. Through an analysis of Global Environment Facility-managed adaptation projects, we find there is significantly more technology transfer occurring in adaptation projects than might be expected given the pessimistic rhetoric surrounding technology transfer for adaptation. Most projects focused on demonstration and early deployment/niche formation for existing technologies rather than earlier stages of innovation, which is understandable considering the pilot nature of the projects. Key challenges for the transfer process, including technology selection and appropriateness under climate change, markets and access to technology, and diffusion strategies are discussed in more detail.

  2. Searching for inefficiency in visual search.

    PubMed

    Christie, Gregory J; Livingstone, Ashley C; McDonald, John J

    2015-01-01

    The time required to find an object of interest in the visual field often increases as a function of the number of items present. This increase or inefficiency was originally interpreted as evidence for the serial allocation of attention to potential target items, but controversy has ensued for decades. We investigated this issue by recording ERPs from humans searching for a target in displays containing several differently colored items. Search inefficiency was ascribed not to serial search but to the time required to selectively process the target once found. Additionally, less time was required for the target to "pop out" from the rest of the display when the color of the target repeated across trials. These findings indicate that task relevance can cause otherwise inconspicuous items to pop out and highlight the need for direct neurophysiological measures when investigating the causes of search inefficiency. PMID:25203277

  3. Adaptation as organism design

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Andy

    2009-01-01

    The problem of adaptation is to explain the apparent design of organisms. Darwin solved this problem with the theory of natural selection. However, population geneticists, whose responsibility it is to formalize evolutionary theory, have long neglected the link between natural selection and organismal design. Here, I review the major historical developments in theory of organismal adaptation, clarifying what adaptation is and what it is not, and I point out future avenues for research. PMID:19793739

  4. Phase Adaptation and Correction by Adaptive Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiziani, Hans J.

    2010-04-01

    Adaptive optical elements and systems for imaging or laser beam propagation are used for some time in particular in astronomy, where the image quality is degraded by atmospheric turbulence. In astronomical telescopes a deformable mirror is frequently used to compensate wavefront-errors due to deformations of the large mirror, vibrations as well as turbulence and hence to increase the image quality. In the last few years interesting elements like Spatial Light Modulators, SLM's, such as photorefractive crystals, liquid crystals and micro mirrors and membrane mirrors were introduced. The development of liquid crystals and micro mirrors was driven by data projectors as consumer products. They contain typically a matrix of individually addressable pixels of liquid crystals and flip mirrors respectively or more recently piston mirrors for special applications. Pixel sizes are in the order of a few microns and therefore also appropriate as active diffractive elements in digital holography or miniature masks. Although liquid crystals are mainly optimized for intensity modulation; they can be used for phase modulation. Adaptive optics is a technology for beam shaping and wavefront adaptation. The application of spatial light modulators for wavefront adaptation and correction and defect analysis as well as sensing will be discussed. Dynamic digital holograms are generated with liquid crystal devices (LCD) and used for wavefront correction as well as for beam shaping and phase manipulation, for instance. Furthermore, adaptive optics is very useful to extend the measuring range of wavefront sensors and for the wavefront adaptation in order to measure and compare the shape of high precision aspherical surfaces.

  5. Human adaptation to smog

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, G.W. Jacobs, S.V.; Frager, N.B.

    1982-10-01

    This study examined the health effects of human adaptation to photochemical smog. A group of recent arrivals to the Los Angeles air basin were compared to long-term residents of the basin. Evidence for adaptation included greater irritation and respiratory problems among the recent arrivals and desensitization among the long-term residents in their judgments of the severity of the smog problem to their health. There was no evidence for biochemical adaptation as measured by hemoglobin response to oxidant challenge. The results were discussed in terms of psychological adaption to chronic environmental stressors.

  6. Adaptive parallel logic networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Tony R.; Vidal, Jacques J.

    1988-01-01

    Adaptive, self-organizing concurrent systems (ASOCS) that combine self-organization with massive parallelism for such applications as adaptive logic devices, robotics, process control, and system malfunction management, are presently discussed. In ASOCS, an adaptive network composed of many simple computing elements operating in combinational and asynchronous fashion is used and problems are specified by presenting if-then rules to the system in the form of Boolean conjunctions. During data processing, which is a different operational phase from adaptation, the network acts as a parallel hardware circuit.

  7. Quantifying the Adaptive Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Hjerne, Olle; Winder, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994–2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems. PMID:26716453

  8. Decentralized adaptive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, B. J.; Jamshidi, M.; Seraji, H.

    1988-01-01

    A decentralized adaptive control is proposed to stabilize and track the nonlinear, interconnected subsystems with unknown parameters. The adaptation of the controller gain is derived by using model reference adaptive control theory based on Lyapunov's direct method. The adaptive gains consist of sigma, proportional, and integral combination of the measured and reference values of the corresponding subsystem. The proposed control is applied to the joint control of a two-link robot manipulator, and the performance in computer simulation corresponds with what is expected in theoretical development.

  9. An Adaptive Motion Estimation Scheme for Video Coding

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuan; Jia, Kebin

    2014-01-01

    The unsymmetrical-cross multihexagon-grid search (UMHexagonS) is one of the best fast Motion Estimation (ME) algorithms in video encoding software. It achieves an excellent coding performance by using hybrid block matching search pattern and multiple initial search point predictors at the cost of the computational complexity of ME increased. Reducing time consuming of ME is one of the key factors to improve video coding efficiency. In this paper, we propose an adaptive motion estimation scheme to further reduce the calculation redundancy of UMHexagonS. Firstly, new motion estimation search patterns have been designed according to the statistical results of motion vector (MV) distribution information. Then, design a MV distribution prediction method, including prediction of the size of MV and the direction of MV. At last, according to the MV distribution prediction results, achieve self-adaptive subregional searching by the new estimation search patterns. Experimental results show that more than 50% of total search points are dramatically reduced compared to the UMHexagonS algorithm in JM 18.4 of H.264/AVC. As a result, the proposed algorithm scheme can save the ME time up to 20.86% while the rate-distortion performance is not compromised. PMID:24672313

  10. Dynamic searching in the brain.

    PubMed

    Mizraji, Eduardo; Pomi, Andrés; Valle-Lisboa, Juan C

    2009-12-01

    Cognitive functions rely on the extensive use of information stored in the brain, and the searching for the relevant information for solving some problem is a very complex task. Human cognition largely uses biological search engines, and we assume that to study cognitive function we need to understand the way these brain search engines work. The approach we favor is to study multi-modular network models, able to solve particular problems that involve searching for information. The building blocks of these multimodular networks are the context dependent memory models we have been using for almost 20 years. These models work by associating an output to the Kronecker product of an input and a context. Input, context and output are vectors that represent cognitive variables. Our models constitute a natural extension of the traditional linear associator. We show that coding the information in vectors that are processed through association matrices, allows for a direct contact between these memory models and some procedures that are now classical in the Information Retrieval field. One essential feature of context-dependent models is that they are based on the thematic packing of information, whereby each context points to a particular set of related concepts. The thematic packing can be extended to multimodular networks involving input-output contexts, in order to accomplish more complex tasks. Contexts act as passwords that elicit the appropriate memory to deal with a query. We also show toy versions of several 'neuromimetic' devices that solve cognitive tasks as diverse as decision making or word sense disambiguation. The functioning of these multimodular networks can be described as dynamical systems at the level of cognitive variables. PMID:19496023

  11. Visual Contrast Sensitivity Functions Obtained from Untrained Observers Using Tracking and Staircase Procedures. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geri, George A.; Hubbard, David C.

    Two adaptive psychophysical procedures (tracking and "yes-no" staircase) for obtaining human visual contrast sensitivity functions (CSF) were evaluated. The procedures were chosen based on their proven validity and the desire to evaluate the practical effects of stimulus transients, since tracking procedures traditionally employ gradual stimulus…

  12. A Comparison of Exposure Control Procedures in CATs Using the 3PL Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leroux, Audrey J.; Lopez, Myriam; Hembry, Ian; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the progressive-restricted standard error (PR-SE) exposure control procedure to three commonly used procedures in computerized adaptive testing, the randomesque, Sympson-Hetter (SH), and no exposure control methods. The performance of these four procedures is evaluated using the three-parameter logistic model under the…

  13. Minimally invasive procedures

    PubMed Central

    Baltayiannis, Nikolaos; Michail, Chandrinos; Lazaridis, George; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Lampaki, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive procedures, which include laparoscopic surgery, use state-of-the-art technology to reduce the damage to human tissue when performing surgery. Minimally invasive procedures require small “ports” from which the surgeon inserts thin tubes called trocars. Carbon dioxide gas may be used to inflate the area, creating a space between the internal organs and the skin. Then a miniature camera (usually a laparoscope or endoscope) is placed through one of the trocars so the surgical team can view the procedure as a magnified image on video monitors in the operating room. Specialized equipment is inserted through the trocars based on the type of surgery. There are some advanced minimally invasive surgical procedures that can be performed almost exclusively through a single point of entry—meaning only one small incision, like the “uniport” video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Not only do these procedures usually provide equivalent outcomes to traditional “open” surgery (which sometimes require a large incision), but minimally invasive procedures (using small incisions) may offer significant benefits as well: (I) faster recovery; (II) the patient remains for less days hospitalized; (III) less scarring and (IV) less pain. In our current mini review we will present the minimally invasive procedures for thoracic surgery. PMID:25861610

  14. Adaptive radiations: From field to genomic studies

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Scott A.; Derieg, Nathan J.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive radiations were central to Darwin's formation of his theory of natural selection, and today they are still the centerpiece for many studies of adaptation and speciation. Here, we review the advantages of adaptive radiations, especially recent ones, for detecting evolutionary trends and the genetic dissection of adaptive traits. We focus on Aquilegia as a primary example of these advantages and highlight progress in understanding the genetic basis of flower color. Phylogenetic analysis of Aquilegia indicates that flower color transitions proceed by changes in the types of anthocyanin pigments produced or their complete loss. Biochemical, crossing, and gene expression studies have provided a wealth of information about the genetic basis of these transitions in Aquilegia. To obtain both enzymatic and regulatory candidate genes for the entire flavonoid pathway, which produces anthocyanins, we used a combination of sequence searches of the Aquilegia Gene Index, phylogenetic analyses, and the isolation of novel sequences by using degenerate PCR and RACE. In total we identified 34 genes that are likely involved in the flavonoid pathway. A number of these genes appear to be single copy in Aquilegia and thus variation in their expression may have been key for floral color evolution. Future studies will be able to use these sequences along with next-generation sequencing technologies to follow expression and sequence variation at the population level. The genetic dissection of other adaptive traits in Aquilegia should also be possible soon as genomic resources such as whole-genome sequencing become available. PMID:19528644

  15. Adaptive radiations: from field to genomic studies.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Scott A; Derieg, Nathan J

    2009-06-16

    Adaptive radiations were central to Darwin's formation of his theory of natural selection, and today they are still the centerpiece for many studies of adaptation and speciation. Here, we review the advantages of adaptive radiations, especially recent ones, for detecting evolutionary trends and the genetic dissection of adaptive traits. We focus on Aquilegia as a primary example of these advantages and highlight progress in understanding the genetic basis of flower color. Phylogenetic analysis of Aquilegia indicates that flower color transitions proceed by changes in the types of anthocyanin pigments produced or their complete loss. Biochemical, crossing, and gene expression studies have provided a wealth of information about the genetic basis of these transitions in Aquilegia. To obtain both enzymatic and regulatory candidate genes for the entire flavonoid pathway, which produces anthocyanins, we used a combination of sequence searches of the Aquilegia Gene Index, phylogenetic analyses, and the isolation of novel sequences by using degenerate PCR and RACE. In total we identified 34 genes that are likely involved in the flavonoid pathway. A number of these genes appear to be single copy in Aquilegia and thus variation in their expression may have been key for floral color evolution. Future studies will be able to use these sequences along with next-generation sequencing technologies to follow expression and sequence variation at the population level. The genetic dissection of other adaptive traits in Aquilegia should also be possible soon as genomic resources such as whole-genome sequencing become available. PMID:19528644

  16. Fermi LAT search for internal bremsstrahlung signatures from dark matter annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Bringmann, Torsten; Huang, Xiaoyuan; Ibarra, Alejandro; Vogl, Stefan; Weniger, Christoph E-mail: x_huang@bao.ac.cn E-mail: stefan.vogl@tum.de

    2012-07-01

    A commonly encountered obstacle in indirect searches for galactic dark matter is how to disentangle possible signals from astrophysical backgrounds. Given that such signals are most likely subdominant, the search for pronounced spectral features plays a key role for indirect detection experiments; monochromatic gamma-ray lines or similar features related to internal bremsstrahlung, in particular, provide smoking gun signatures. We perform a dedicated search for the latter in the data taken by the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope during its first 43 months. To this end, we use a new adaptive procedure to select optimal target regions that takes into account both standard and contracted dark matter profiles. The behaviour of our statistical method is tested by a subsampling analysis of the full sky data and found to reproduce the theoretical expectations very well. The limits on the dark matter annihilation cross-section that we derive are stronger than what can be obtained from the observation of dwarf galaxies and, at least for the model considered here, collider searches. While these limits are still not quite strong enough to probe annihilation rates expected for thermally produced dark matter, future prospects to do so are very good. In fact, we already find a weak indication, with a significance of 3.1σ (4.3σ) when (not) taking into account the look-elsewhere effect, for an internal bremsstrahlung-like signal that would correspond to a dark matter mass of ∼150 GeV; the same signal is also well fitted by a gamma-ray line at around 130 GeV. Although this would be a fascinating possibility, we caution that a much more dedicated analysis and additional data will be necessary to rule out or confirm this option.

  17. Fermi LAT search for internal bremsstrahlung signatures from dark matter annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringmann, Torsten; Huang, Xiaoyuan; Ibarra, Alejandro; Vogl, Stefan; Weniger, Christoph

    2012-07-01

    A commonly encountered obstacle in indirect searches for galactic dark matter is how to disentangle possible signals from astrophysical backgrounds. Given that such signals are most likely subdominant, the search for pronounced spectral features plays a key role for indirect detection experiments; monochromatic gamma-ray lines or similar features related to internal bremsstrahlung, in particular, provide smoking gun signatures. We perform a dedicated search for the latter in the data taken by the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope during its first 43 months. To this end, we use a new adaptive procedure to select optimal target regions that takes into account both standard and contracted dark matter profiles. The behaviour of our statistical method is tested by a subsampling analysis of the full sky data and found to reproduce the theoretical expectations very well. The limits on the dark matter annihilation cross-section that we derive are stronger than what can be obtained from the observation of dwarf galaxies and, at least for the model considered here, collider searches. While these limits are still not quite strong enough to probe annihilation rates expected for thermally produced dark matter, future prospects to do so are very good. In fact, we already find a weak indication, with a significance of 3.1σ (4.3σ) when (not) taking into account the look-elsewhere effect, for an internal bremsstrahlung-like signal that would correspond to a dark matter mass of ~150 GeV; the same signal is also well fitted by a gamma-ray line at around 130 GeV. Although this would be a fascinating possibility, we caution that a much more dedicated analysis and additional data will be necessary to rule out or confirm this option.

  18. A comparison of heuristic search algorithms for molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Westhead, D R; Clark, D E; Murray, C W

    1997-05-01

    This paper describes the implementation and comparison of four heuristic search algorithms (genetic algorithm, evolutionary programming, simulated annealing and tabu search) and a random search procedure for flexible molecular docking. To our knowledge, this is the first application of the tabu search algorithm in this area. The algorithms are compared using a recently described fast molecular recognition potential function and a diverse set of five protein-ligand systems. Statistical analysis of the results indicates that overall the genetic algorithm performs best in terms of the median energy of the solutions located. However, tabu search shows a better performance in terms of locating solutions close to the crystallographic ligand conformation. These results suggest that a hybrid search algorithm may give superior results to any of the algorithms alone. PMID:9263849

  19. Applying Adaptive Variables in Computerised Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triantafillou, Evangelos; Georgiadou, Elissavet; Economides, Anastasios A.

    2007-01-01

    Current research in computerised adaptive testing (CAT) focuses on applications, in small and large scale, that address self assessment, training, employment, teacher professional development for schools, industry, military, assessment of non-cognitive skills, etc. Dynamic item generation tools and automated scoring of complex, constructed…

  20. Physiologic adaptation to space - Space adaptation syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderploeg, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The adaptive changes of the neurovestibular system to microgravity, which result in space motion sickness (SMS), are studied. A list of symptoms, which range from vomiting to drowsiness, is provided. The two patterns of symptom development, rapid and gradual, and the duration of the symptoms are described. The concept of sensory conflict and rearrangements to explain SMS is being investigated.

  1. Intravesical explosions during transurethral endoscopic procedures.

    PubMed

    Khan, A; Masood, J; Ghei, M; Kasmani, Z; Ball, A J; Miller, R

    2007-01-01

    Every Urologist, during the course of fulguration treatment of bladder tumours, has at some time or another experienced small intravesical explosions usually manifesting as a "pop". Major intravesical explosions are rare but potentially devastating complications of transurethral endoscopic resections. The damage to the bladder can range from small mucosal tears to bladder rupture, which can either be intraperitoneal (requiring laparotomy and open bladder repair) or extraperitoneal. We review the literature on intravesical explosions to determine the aetiology of these explosions and suggest strategies to prevent these. A comprehensive literature search was performed using Medline and Ovid to obtain information using search terms: intravesical explosions, transurethral procedures, endoscopic procedures, diathermyIntravesical explosions occur due to the production of explosive gases during use of diathermy on human tissues. The most dangerous combination is hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen alone is not explosive and it only becomes explosive when admixed with oxygen. Oxygen is not produced in sufficient quantity during diathermy to cause explosions but can enter into the bladder from the atmosphere during endoscopic procedures. Careful operative technique (correct use of the Ellick evacuator bulb and reducing the frequency of manual irrigations of the bladder) with minimisation of the operative time and using the coagulation current at moderate power as well as judicious coagulation of tissues can reduce the risk of this dangerous complication arising. PMID:17171415

  2. Dynamic alarm response procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.; Gordon, P.; Fitch, K.

    2006-07-01

    The Dynamic Alarm Response Procedure (DARP) system provides a robust, Web-based alternative to existing hard-copy alarm response procedures. This paperless system improves performance by eliminating time wasted looking up paper procedures by number, looking up plant process values and equipment and component status at graphical display or panels, and maintenance of the procedures. Because it is a Web-based system, it is platform independent. DARP's can be served from any Web server that supports CGI scripting, such as Apache{sup R}, IIS{sup R}, TclHTTPD, and others. DARP pages can be viewed in any Web browser that supports Javascript and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), such as Netscape{sup R}, Microsoft Internet Explorer{sup R}, Mozilla Firefox{sup R}, Opera{sup R}, and others. (authors)

  3. Definition of "experimental procedures".

    PubMed

    2009-11-01

    This Practice Committee Opinion provides a revised definition of "experimental procedures." This version replaces the document "Definition of Experimental" that was published most recently in November 2008. PMID:19836733

  4. Common Interventional Radiology Procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... of common interventional techniques is below. Common Interventional Radiology Procedures Angiography An X-ray exam of the ... into the vertebra. Copyright © 2016 Society of Interventional Radiology. All rights reserved. 3975 Fair Ridge Drive • Suite ...

  5. Cardiac ablation procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessory pathway, such as Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome Atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter Ventricular tachycardia ... consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation: ... for personnel, policy, procedures and follow-up. ...

  6. Combining Nearest Neighbor Search with Tabu Search for Large-Scale Vehicle Routing Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Lingling; He, Ruhan

    The vehicle routing problem is a classical problem in operations research, where the objective is to design least cost routes for a fleet of identical capacitated vehicles to service geographically scattered customers. In this paper, we present a new and effective hybrid metaheuristic algorithm for large-scale vehicle routing problem. The algorithm combines the strengths of the well-known Nearest Neighbor Search and Tabu Search into a two-stage procedure. More precisely, Nearest Neighbor Search is used to construct initial routes in the first stage and the Tabu Search is utilized to optimize the intra-route and the inter-route in the second stage. The presented algorithm is specifically designed for large-scale problems. The computational experiments were carried out on a standard benchmark and a real dataset with 6772 tobacco customers. The results demonstrate that the suggested method is highly competitive.

  7. Support patient search on pathology reports with interactive online learning based data extraction

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shuai; Lu, James J.; Appin, Christina; Brat, Daniel; Wang, Fusheng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Structural reporting enables semantic understanding and prompt retrieval of clinical findings about patients. While synoptic pathology reporting provides templates for data entries, information in pathology reports remains primarily in narrative free text form. Extracting data of interest from narrative pathology reports could significantly improve the representation of the information and enable complex structured queries. However, manual extraction is tedious and error-prone, and automated tools are often constructed with a fixed training dataset and not easily adaptable. Our goal is to extract data from pathology reports to support advanced patient search with a highly adaptable semi-automated data extraction system, which can adjust and self-improve by learning from a user's interaction with minimal human effort. Methods: We have developed an online machine learning based information extraction system called IDEAL-X. With its graphical user interface, the system's data extraction engine automatically annotates values for users to review upon loading each report text. The system analyzes users’ corrections regarding these annotations with online machine learning, and incrementally enhances and refines the learning model as reports are processed. The system also takes advantage of customized controlled vocabularies, which can be adaptively refined during the online learning process to further assist the data extraction. As the accuracy of automatic annotation improves overtime, the effort of human annotation is gradually reduced. After all reports are processed, a built-in query engine can be applied to conveniently define queries based on extracted structured data. Results: We have evaluated the system with a dataset of anatomic pathology reports from 50 patients. Extracted data elements include demographical data, diagnosis, genetic marker, and procedure. The system achieves F-1 scores of around 95% for the majority of tests. Conclusions

  8. Increasing nursing treatment for pediatric procedural pain.

    PubMed

    Bice, April A; Gunther, Mary; Wyatt, Tami

    2014-03-01

    Procedural pain management is an underused practice in children. Despite the availability of efficacious treatments, many nurses do not provide adequate analgesia for painful interventions. Complementary therapies and nonpharmacologic interventions are additionally essential to managing pain. Owing to the increasing awareness of inadequate nursing utilization of pharmacologic measures for procedural pain, this paper focuses only on analgesic treatments. The aim of this review was to examine how varying degrees of quality improvement affect nursing utilization of treatments for routine pediatric procedural pain. A comprehensive search of databases including Cinahl, Medline/Pubmed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Psycinfo, and Cochrane Library was performed. Sixty-two peer-reviewed research articles were examined. Ten articles focusing on quality improvement in pediatric pain management published in English from 2001 to 2011 were included. Three themes emerged: 1) increasing nursing knowledge; 2) nursing empowerment; and 3) protocol implementation. Research critique was completed with the use of guidelines and recommendations from Creswell (2009) and Garrard (2011). The literature reveals that nurses still think that pediatric pain management is essential. Quality improvement increases nursing utilization of procedural pain treatments. Although increasing nursing knowledge improves pediatric pain management, it appears that nursing empowerment and protocol implementation increase nursing compliance more than just education alone. Nurses providing pain management can enhance their individual practice with quality improvement measures that may increase nursing adherence to institutional and nationally recommended pediatric procedural pain management guidelines. PMID:24602440

  9. Costing imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Bretland, P M

    1988-01-01

    The existing National Health Service financial system makes comprehensive costing of any service very difficult. A method of costing using modern commercial methods has been devised, classifying costs into variable, semi-variable and fixed and using the principle of overhead absorption for expenditure not readily allocated to individual procedures. It proved possible to establish a cost spectrum over the financial year 1984-85. The cheapest examinations were plain radiographs outside normal working hours, followed by plain radiographs, ultrasound, special procedures, fluoroscopy, nuclear medicine, angiography and angiographic interventional procedures in normal working hours. This differs from some published figures, particularly those in the Körner report. There was some overlap between fluoroscopic interventional and the cheaper nuclear medicine procedures, and between some of the more expensive nuclear medicine procedures and the cheaper angiographic ones. Only angiographic and the few more expensive nuclear medicine procedures exceed the cost of the inpatient day. The total cost of the imaging service to the district was about 4% of total hospital expenditure. It is shown that where more procedures are undertaken, the semi-variable and fixed (including capital) elements of the cost decrease (and vice versa) so that careful study is required to assess the value of proposed economies. The method is initially time-consuming and requires a computer system with 512 Kb of memory, but once the basic costing system is established in a department, detailed financial monitoring should become practicable. The necessity for a standard comprehensive costing procedure of this nature, based on sound cost accounting principles, appears inescapable, particularly in view of its potential application to management budgeting. PMID:3349241

  10. Retinal Imaging: Adaptive Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, A. S.; Iroshnikov, N. G.; Larichev, Andrey V.

    This chapter describes several factors influencing the performance of ophthalmic diagnostic systems with adaptive optics compensation of human eye aberration. Particular attention is paid to speckle modulation, temporal behavior of aberrations, and anisoplanatic effects. The implementation of a fundus camera with adaptive optics is considered.

  11. Uncertainty in adaptive capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adger, W. Neil; Vincent, Katharine

    2005-03-01

    The capacity to adapt is a critical element of the process of adaptation: it is the vector of resources that represent the asset base from which adaptation actions can be made. Adaptive capacity can in theory be identified and measured at various scales, from the individual to the nation. The assessment of uncertainty within such measures comes from the contested knowledge domain and theories surrounding the nature of the determinants of adaptive capacity and the human action of adaptation. While generic adaptive capacity at the national level, for example, is often postulated as being dependent on health, governance and political rights, and literacy, and economic well-being, the determinants of these variables at national levels are not widely understood. We outline the nature of this uncertainty for the major elements of adaptive capacity and illustrate these issues with the example of a social vulnerability index for countries in Africa. To cite this article: W.N. Adger, K. Vincent, C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  12. Water Resource Adaptation Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Resource Adaptation Program (WRAP) contributes to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA) efforts to provide water resource managers and decision makers with the tools needed to adapt water resources to demographic and economic development, and future clim...

  13. Adaptive Sampling Proxy Application

    2012-10-22

    ASPA is an implementation of an adaptive sampling algorithm [1-3], which is used to reduce the computational expense of computer simulations that couple disparate physical scales. The purpose of ASPA is to encapsulate the algorithms required for adaptive sampling independently from any specific application, so that alternative algorithms and programming models for exascale computers can be investigated more easily.

  14. Adaptive Wavelet Transforms

    SciTech Connect

    Szu, H.; Hsu, C.

    1996-12-31

    Human sensors systems (HSS) may be approximately described as an adaptive or self-learning version of the Wavelet Transforms (WT) that are capable to learn from several input-output associative pairs of suitable transform mother wavelets. Such an Adaptive WT (AWT) is a redundant combination of mother wavelets to either represent or classify inputs.

  15. Dynamic Load Balancing for Adaptive Unstructured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Rupak; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Dynamic mesh adaptation on unstructured grids is a powerful tool for computing unsteady three-dimensional problems that require grid modifications to efficiently resolve solution features. By locally refining and coarsening the mesh to capture phenomena of interest, such procedures make standard computational methods more cost effective. Highly refined meshes are required to accurately capture shock waves, contact discontinuities, vortices, and shear layers in fluid flow problems. Adaptive meshes have also proved to be useful in several other areas of computational science and engineering like computer vision and graphics, semiconductor device modeling, and structural mechanics. Local mesh adaptation provides the opportunity to obtain solutions that are comparable to those obtained on globally-refined grids but at a much lower cost. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Neural Adaptation Effects in Conceptual Processing

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Barbara F. M.; Borghi, Anna M.; Gemmi, Luca; Cacciari, Cristina; Riggio, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the conceptual processing of nouns referring to objects characterized by a highly typical color and orientation. We used a go/no-go task in which we asked participants to categorize each noun as referring or not to natural entities (e.g., animals) after a selective adaptation of color-edge neurons in the posterior LV4 region of the visual cortex was induced by means of a McCollough effect procedure. This manipulation affected categorization: the green-vertical adaptation led to slower responses than the green-horizontal adaptation, regardless of the specific color and orientation of the to-be-categorized noun. This result suggests that the conceptual processing of natural entities may entail the activation of modality-specific neural channels with weights proportional to the reliability of the signals produced by these channels during actual perception. This finding is discussed with reference to the debate about the grounded cognition view. PMID:26264031

  17. Adaptive management for a turbulent future.

    PubMed

    Allen, Craig R; Fontaine, Joseph J; Pope, Kevin L; Garmestani, Ahjond S

    2011-05-01

    The challenges that face humanity today differ from the past because as the scale of human influence has increased, our biggest challenges have become global in nature, and formerly local problems that could be addressed by shifting populations or switching resources, now aggregate (i.e., "scale up") limiting potential management options. Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management based on the philosophy that knowledge is incomplete and much of what we think we know is actually wrong. Adaptive management has explicit structure, including careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. It is evident that adaptive management has matured, but it has also reached a crossroads. Practitioners and scientists have developed adaptive management and structured decision making techniques, and mathematicians have developed methods to reduce the uncertainties encountered in resource management, yet there continues to be misapplication of the method and misunderstanding of its purpose. Ironically, the confusion over the term "adaptive management" may stem from the flexibility inherent in the approach, which has resulted in multiple interpretations of "adaptive management" that fall along a continuum of complexity and a priori design. Adaptive management is not a panacea for the navigation of 'wicked problems' as it does not produce easy answers, and is only appropriate in a subset of natural resource management problems where both uncertainty and controllability are high. Nonetheless, the conceptual underpinnings of adaptive management are simple; there will always be inherent uncertainty and unpredictability in the dynamics and behavior of complex social-ecological systems, but management decisions must still be made, and whenever possible, we should incorporate

  18. Adaptive Management for a Turbulent Future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Fontaine, Joseph J.; Pope, Kevin L.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.

    2011-01-01

    The challenges that face humanity today differ from the past because as the scale of human influence has increased, our biggest challenges have become global in nature, and formerly local problems that could be addressed by shifting populations or switching resources, now aggregate (i.e., "scale up") limiting potential management options. Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management based on the philosophy that knowledge is incomplete and much of what we think we know is actually wrong. Adaptive management has explicit structure, including careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. It is evident that adaptive management has matured, but it has also reached a crossroads. Practitioners and scientists have developed adaptive management and structured decision making techniques, and mathematicians have developed methods to reduce the uncertainties encountered in resource management, yet there continues to be misapplication of the method and misunderstanding of its purpose. Ironically, the confusion over the term "adaptive management" may stem from the flexibility inherent in the approach, which has resulted in multiple interpretations of "adaptive management" that fall along a continuum of complexity and a priori design. Adaptive management is not a panacea for the navigation of 'wicked problems' as it does not produce easy answers, and is only appropriate in a subset of natural resource management problems where both uncertainty and controllability are high. Nonetheless, the conceptual underpinnings of adaptive management are simple; there will always be inherent uncertainty and unpredictability in the dynamics and behavior of complex social-ecological systems, but management decisions must still be made, and whenever possible, we should incorporate

  19. Adaptive management for a turbulent future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, C.R.; Fontaine, J.J.; Pope, K.L.; Garmestani, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    The challenges that face humanity today differ from the past because as the scale of human influence has increased, our biggest challenges have become global in nature, and formerly local problems that could be addressed by shifting populations or switching resources, now aggregate (i.e., "scale up") limiting potential management options. Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management based on the philosophy that knowledge is incomplete and much of what we think we know is actually wrong. Adaptive management has explicit structure, including careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. It is evident that adaptive management has matured, but it has also reached a crossroads. Practitioners and scientists have developed adaptive management and structured decision making techniques, and mathematicians have developed methods to reduce the uncertainties encountered in resource management, yet there continues to be misapplication of the method and misunderstanding of its purpose. Ironically, the confusion over the term "adaptive management" may stem from the flexibility inherent in the approach, which has resulted in multiple interpretations of "adaptive management" that fall along a continuum of complexity and a priori design. Adaptive management is not a panacea for the navigation of 'wicked problems' as it does not produce easy answers, and is only appropriate in a subset of natural resource management problems where both uncertainty and controllability are high. Nonetheless, the conceptual underpinnings of adaptive management are simple; there will always be inherent uncertainty and unpredictability in the dynamics and behavior of complex social-ecological systems, but management decisions must still be made, and whenever possible, we should incorporate

  20. Adaptation is automatic.

    PubMed

    Samuel, A G; Kat, D

    1998-04-01

    Two experiments were used to test whether selective adaptation for speech occurs automatically or instead requires attentional resources. A control condition demonstrated the usual large identification shifts caused by repeatedly presenting an adapting sound (/wa/, with listeners identifying members of a /ba/-/wa/ test series). Two types of distractor tasks were used: (1) Subjects did a rapid series of arithmetic problems during the adaptation periods (Experiments 1 and 2), or (2) they made a series of rhyming judgments, requiring phonetic coding (Experiment 2). A control experiment (Experiment 3) demonstrated that these tasks normally impose a heavy attentional cost on phonetic processing. Despite this, for both experimental conditions, the observed adaptation effect was just as large as in the control condition. This result indicates that adaptation is automatic, operating at an early, preattentive level. The implications of these results for current models of speech perception are discussed. PMID:9599999

  1. Automation of procedure writing for the RLWTF

    SciTech Connect

    Farnham, M. |; MacDonald, A. |

    1998-12-01

    In August of 1997, the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) recognized the need to re-engineer document management business process. All nuclear facilities at LANL are required to ensure that both the latest approved revision of controlled documents and any changes to those documents are available to operating personnel at all times. The Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division was also re-engineering its document management business processes and searching for a solution. Both groups contacted several internal and external organizations in search of potential software solutions in use that would meet requirements. This report describes the objectives and features required by the software package, the choice of Procedure Design as the software package, and its implementation.

  2. Demystifying the Search Button

    PubMed Central

    McKeever, Liam; Nguyen, Van; Peterson, Sarah J.; Gomez-Perez, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    A thorough review of the literature is the basis of all research and evidence-based practice. A gold-standard efficient and exhaustive search strategy is needed to ensure all relevant citations have been captured and that the search performed is reproducible. The PubMed database comprises both the MEDLINE and non-MEDLINE databases. MEDLINE-based search strategies are robust but capture only 89% of the total available citations in PubMed. The remaining 11% include the most recent and possibly relevant citations but are only searchable through less efficient techniques. An effective search strategy must employ both the MEDLINE and the non-MEDLINE portion of PubMed to ensure all studies have been identified. The robust MEDLINE search strategies are used for the MEDLINE portion of the search. Usage of the less robust strategies is then efficiently confined to search only the remaining 11% of PubMed citations that have not been indexed for MEDLINE. The current article offers step-by-step instructions for building such a search exploring methods for the discovery of medical subject heading (MeSH) terms to search MEDLINE, text-based methods for exploring the non-MEDLINE database, information on the limitations of convenience algorithms such as the “related citations feature,” the strengths and pitfalls associated with commonly used filters, the proper usage of Boolean operators to organize a master search strategy, and instructions for automating that search through “MyNCBI” to receive search query updates by email as new citations become available. PMID:26129895

  3. Artificial immune system based on adaptive clonal selection for feature selection and parameters optimisation of support vector machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadat Hashemipour, Maryam; Soleimani, Seyed Ali

    2016-01-01

    Artificial immune system (AIS) algorithm based on clonal selection method can be defined as a soft computing method inspired by theoretical immune system in order to solve science and engineering problems. Support vector machine (SVM) is a popular pattern classification method with many diverse applications. Kernel parameter setting in the SVM training procedure along with the feature selection significantly impacts on the classification accuracy rate. In this study, AIS based on Adaptive Clonal Selection (AISACS) algorithm has been used to optimise the SVM parameters and feature subset selection without degrading the SVM classification accuracy. Several public datasets of University of California Irvine machine learning (UCI) repository are employed to calculate the classification accuracy rate in order to evaluate the AISACS approach then it was compared with grid search algorithm and Genetic Algorithm (GA) approach. The experimental results show that the feature reduction rate and running time of the AISACS approach are better than the GA approach.

  4. Fundamental Ethical Issues in Unnecessary Surgical Procedures.

    PubMed

    Tayade, Motilal Chandu; Dalvi, Shashank D

    2016-04-01

    In clinical practice performing any surgical procedure is inconsistent because all surgical procedures carry definitely some degree of risk. Worldwide every year millions of patients go under knife, but many of them are enduring great pain and shelling out thousands and dollars for surgeries they don't really need. This review work was planned with an intention to focus attention towards it with reporting cited evidences of unnecessary surgical operations and discuss ethical issues concern with it. In present review the references search included standard citations Google scholar, MEDLINE and PUBMED. We also used Google search engine for screening various news concern with highlighting this topic in community and online media. For articles we go through more than 60 articles from worldwide and 12 news media views from Google search in last one year. We used following quotes for their search-unnecessary surgeries, second opinion, ethical issues in unnecessary surgeries. Geographical variations were also kept in view. Our intension was highlighting ethical issues concern with unnecessary surgical operations. Henceforth we excluded such work that does not concern with ethical issues. Unnecessary surgery is that which is medically unjustifiable when the risks and costs are more than the likely therapeutic benefits or relief to the patient based on the patient's lifestyle requirements. To avoid or minimize such interventions basic seeding of ethics in curriculum and strict laws will definitely helpful in clinical practice. In conclusion, our aim was to highlight this major issue and underline need of competency based medical bioethics education in Indian scenario. PMID:27190833

  5. Fundamental Ethical Issues in Unnecessary Surgical Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Dalvi, Shashank D.

    2016-01-01

    In clinical practice performing any surgical procedure is inconsistent because all surgical procedures carry definitely some degree of risk. Worldwide every year millions of patients go under knife, but many of them are enduring great pain and shelling out thousands and dollars for surgeries they don’t really need. This review work was planned with an intention to focus attention towards it with reporting cited evidences of unnecessary surgical operations and discuss ethical issues concern with it. In present review the references search included standard citations Google scholar, MEDLINE and PUBMED. We also used Google search engine for screening various news concern with highlighting this topic in community and online media. For articles we go through more than 60 articles from worldwide and 12 news media views from Google search in last one year. We used following quotes for their search-unnecessary surgeries, second opinion, ethical issues in unnecessary surgeries. Geographical variations were also kept in view. Our intension was highlighting ethical issues concern with unnecessary surgical operations. Henceforth we excluded such work that does not concern with ethical issues. Unnecessary surgery is that which is medically unjustifiable when the risks and costs are more than the likely therapeutic benefits or relief to the patient based on the patient’s lifestyle requirements. To avoid or minimize such interventions basic seeding of ethics in curriculum and strict laws will definitely helpful in clinical practice. In conclusion, our aim was to highlight this major issue and underline need of competency based medical bioethics education in Indian scenario. PMID:27190833

  6. Exotics Searches with Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tykhonov, Andrii

    2015-03-01

    An overview is presented for the non-SUSY searches for New Physics with the ATLAS detector. The results presented use data collected at centerof-mass energies of √ s = 7 TeV and √ s = 8 TeV, for data sets corresponding to a variety of integrated luminosities. Searches using leptons, photons, missing transverse energy, and jets are performed, as well as searches requiring custom jet and track reconstruction, and searches for the so-called lepton jets. No deviations from Standard Model expectations are observed, hence constraints are placed on the phase space of available theoretical models.

  7. On the adaptive daily forecasting of seismic aftershock hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimian, Hossein; Jalayer, Fatemeh; Asprone, Domenico; Lombardi, Anna Maria; Marzocchi, Warner; Prota, Andrea; Manfredi, Gaetano

    2013-04-01

    Post-earthquake ground motion hazard assessment is a fundamental initial step towards time-dependent seismic risk assessment for buildings in a post main-shock environment. Therefore, operative forecasting of seismic aftershock hazard forms a viable support basis for decision-making regarding search and rescue, inspection, repair, and re-occupation in a post main-shock environment. Arguably, an adaptive procedure for integrating the aftershock occurrence rate together with suitable ground motion prediction relations is key to Probabilistic Seismic Aftershock Hazard Assessment (PSAHA). In the short-term, the seismic hazard may vary significantly (Jordan et al., 2011), particularly after the occurrence of a high magnitude earthquake. Hence, PSAHA requires a reliable model that is able to track the time evolution of the earthquake occurrence rates together with suitable ground motion prediction relations. This work focuses on providing adaptive daily forecasts of the mean daily rate of exceeding various spectral acceleration values (the aftershock hazard). Two well-established earthquake occurrence models suitable for daily seismicity forecasts associated with the evolution of an aftershock sequence, namely, the modified Omori's aftershock model and the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) are adopted. The parameters of the modified Omori model are updated on a daily basis using Bayesian updating and based on the data provided by the ongoing aftershock sequence based on the methodology originally proposed by Jalayer et al. (2011). The Bayesian updating is used also to provide sequence-based parameter estimates for a given ground motion prediction model, i.e. the aftershock events in an ongoing sequence are exploited in order to update in an adaptive manner the parameters of an existing ground motion prediction model. As a numerical example, the mean daily rates of exceeding specific spectral acceleration values are estimated adaptively for the L'Aquila 2009

  8. Vectorizable algorithms for adaptive schemes for rapid analysis of SSME flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oden, J. Tinsley

    1987-01-01

    An initial study into vectorizable algorithms for use in adaptive schemes for various types of boundary value problems is described. The focus is on two key aspects of adaptive computational methods which are crucial in the use of such methods (for complex flow simulations such as those in the Space Shuttle Main Engine): the adaptive scheme itself and the applicability of element-by-element matrix computations in a vectorizable format for rapid calculations in adaptive mesh procedures.

  9. Gradient gravitational search: An efficient metaheuristic algorithm for global optimization.

    PubMed

    Dash, Tirtharaj; Sahu, Prabhat K

    2015-05-30

    The adaptation of novel techniques developed in the field of computational chemistry to solve the concerned problems for large and flexible molecules is taking the center stage with regard to efficient algorithm, computational cost and accuracy. In this article, the gradient-based gravitational search (GGS) algorithm, using analytical gradients for a fast minimization to the next local minimum has been reported. Its efficiency as metaheuristic approach has also been compared with Gradient Tabu Search and others like: Gravitational Search, Cuckoo Search, and Back Tracking Search algorithms for global optimization. Moreover, the GGS approach has also been applied to computational chemistry problems for finding the minimal value potential energy of two-dimensional and three-dimensional off-lattice protein models. The simulation results reveal the relative stability and physical accuracy of protein models with efficient computational cost. PMID:25779670

  10. LAHS: A novel harmony search algorithm based on learning automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enayatifar, Rasul; Yousefi, Moslem; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Darus, Amer Nordin

    2013-12-01

    This study presents a learning automata-based harmony search (LAHS) for unconstrained optimization of continuous problems. The harmony search (HS) algorithm performance strongly depends on the fine tuning of its parameters, including the harmony consideration rate (HMCR), pitch adjustment rate (PAR) and bandwidth (bw). Inspired by the spur-in-time responses in the musical improvisation process, learning capabilities are employed in the HS to select these parameters based on spontaneous reactions. An extensive numerical investigation is conducted on several well-known test functions, and the results are compared with the HS algorithm and its prominent variants, including the improved harmony search (IHS), global-best harmony search (GHS) and self-adaptive global-best harmony search (SGHS). The numerical results indicate that the LAHS is more efficient in finding optimum solutions and outperforms the existing HS algorithm variants.

  11. How Users Search the Library from a Single Search Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lown, Cory; Sierra, Tito; Boyer, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Academic libraries are turning increasingly to unified search solutions to simplify search and discovery of library resources. Unfortunately, very little research has been published on library user search behavior in single search box environments. This study examines how users search a large public university library using a prominent, single…

  12. Computerized Literature Searching: An Orientation for the Search Requestor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabiano, Emily

    Developed to orient the information seeker to the computerized literature search process, this guide provides background information that will help the user facilitate the search interview and the formation of a search topic, enabling him or her to focus on personal search needs and not on the fundamentals of online searching. Major purposes for…

  13. Job Search, Search Intensity, and Labor Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloemen, Hans G.

    2005-01-01

    Job searches by both the unemployed and employed jobseekers are studied through an empirical structural job search model using a choice variable of search intensity. The resulting influence of search intensity on the labor market transitions is analyzed to give the estimation results of the search and the impact of the benefit level on the search…

  14. 32 CFR 1905.4 - Procedure for production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... procedures set forth in this section. (b) The General Counsel of CIA and Deputy Directors or Heads of... available to CIA prior to the start of any search for information responsive to the demand. CIA may, in its... non-appealable disposition of any such defenses and objections raised by CIA has been made by...

  15. 32 CFR 1905.4 - Procedure for production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... procedures set forth in this section. (b) The General Counsel of CIA and Deputy Directors or Heads of... available to CIA prior to the start of any search for information responsive to the demand. CIA may, in its... non-appealable disposition of any such defenses and objections raised by CIA has been made by...

  16. 32 CFR 1905.4 - Procedure for production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... procedures set forth in this section. (b) The General Counsel of CIA and Deputy Directors or Heads of... available to CIA prior to the start of any search for information responsive to the demand. CIA may, in its... non-appealable disposition of any such defenses and objections raised by CIA has been made by...

  17. 32 CFR 1905.4 - Procedure for production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... procedures set forth in this section. (b) The General Counsel of CIA and Deputy Directors or Heads of... available to CIA prior to the start of any search for information responsive to the demand. CIA may, in its... non-appealable disposition of any such defenses and objections raised by CIA has been made by...

  18. 32 CFR 1905.4 - Procedure for production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... procedures set forth in this section. (b) The General Counsel of CIA and Deputy Directors or Heads of... available to CIA prior to the start of any search for information responsive to the demand. CIA may, in its... non-appealable disposition of any such defenses and objections raised by CIA has been made by...

  19. A Procedure for Quantification of Technological Changes on Human Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Norman R.; And Others

    To assist the human factor psychologist in predicting the human resources requirements based on the introduction of a new technology, a study was conducted to locate and apply an existing method, or to develop a new procedure for quantifying the effects of incoming technology. Five steps were taken: search and critical analysis of recent…

  20. Generalization Procedures in Training Interventionists for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gianoumis, Stamatios; Sturmey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The literature pertaining to training staff, parents, and peers to implement interventions for individuals with developmental disabilities was reviewed for training procedures that incorporated strategies to promote generalization. The search engines for the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" and Pubmed[C] were used to find relevant studies.…

  1. Monte Carlo procedure for protein design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irbäck, Anders; Peterson, Carsten; Potthast, Frank; Sandelin, Erik

    1998-11-01

    A method for sequence optimization in protein models is presented. The approach, which has inherited its basic philosophy from recent work by Deutsch and Kurosky [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 323 (1996)] by maximizing conditional probabilities rather than minimizing energy functions, is based upon a different and very efficient multisequence Monte Carlo scheme. By construction, the method ensures that the designed sequences represent good folders thermodynamically. A bootstrap procedure for the sequence space search is devised making very large chains feasible. The algorithm is successfully explored on the two-dimensional HP model [K. F. Lau and K. A. Dill, Macromolecules 32, 3986 (1989)] with chain lengths N=16, 18, and 32.

  2. Dynamical Adaptation in Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Damon A.; Benichou, Raphael; Meister, Markus; Azeredo da Silveira, Rava

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is at the heart of sensation and nowhere is it more salient than in early visual processing. Light adaptation in photoreceptors is doubly dynamical: it depends upon the temporal structure of the input and it affects the temporal structure of the response. We introduce a non-linear dynamical adaptation model of photoreceptors. It is simple enough that it can be solved exactly and simulated with ease; analytical and numerical approaches combined provide both intuition on the behavior of dynamical adaptation and quantitative results to be compared with data. Yet the model is rich enough to capture intricate phenomenology. First, we show that it reproduces the known phenomenology of light response and short-term adaptation. Second, we present new recordings and demonstrate that the model reproduces cone response with great precision. Third, we derive a number of predictions on the response of photoreceptors to sophisticated stimuli such as periodic inputs, various forms of flickering inputs, and natural inputs. In particular, we demonstrate that photoreceptors undergo rapid adaptation of response gain and time scale, over ∼ 300 ms—i. e., over the time scale of the response itself—and we confirm this prediction with data. For natural inputs, this fast adaptation can modulate the response gain more than tenfold and is hence physiologically relevant. PMID:24244119

  3. Advance crew procedures development techniques: Procedures generation program requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, J. D.; Benbow, R. L.; Hawk, M. L.

    1974-01-01

    The Procedures Generation Program (PGP) is described as an automated crew procedures generation and performance monitoring system. Computer software requirements to be implemented in PGP for the Advanced Crew Procedures Development Techniques are outlined.

  4. Mobile Energy Laboratory Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P.R.; Batishko, C.R.; Dittmer, A.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Stoops, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been tasked to plan and implement a framework for measuring and analyzing the efficiency of on-site energy conversion, distribution, and end-use application on federal facilities as part of its overall technical support to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) Procedures establish guidelines for specific activities performed by PNL staff. PNL provided sophisticated energy monitoring, auditing, and analysis equipment for on-site evaluation of energy use efficiency. Specially trained engineers and technicians were provided to conduct tests in a safe and efficient manner with the assistance of host facility staff and contractors. Reports were produced to describe test procedures, results, and suggested courses of action. These reports may be used to justify changes in operating procedures, maintenance efforts, system designs, or energy-using equipment. The MEL capabilities can subsequently be used to assess the results of energy conservation projects. These procedures recognize the need for centralized NM administration, test procedure development, operator training, and technical oversight. This need is evidenced by increasing requests fbr MEL use and the economies available by having trained, full-time MEL operators and near continuous MEL operation. DOE will assign new equipment and upgrade existing equipment as new capabilities are developed. The equipment and trained technicians will be made available to federal agencies that provide funding for the direct costs associated with MEL use.

  5. Procedural learning and dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Nicolson, R I; Fawcett, A J; Brookes, R L; Needle, J

    2010-08-01

    Three major 'neural systems', specialized for different types of information processing, are the sensory, declarative, and procedural systems. It has been proposed (Trends Neurosci., 30(4), 135-141) that dyslexia may be attributable to impaired function in the procedural system together with intact declarative function. We provide a brief overview of the increasing evidence relating to the hypothesis, noting that the framework involves two main claims: first that 'neural systems' provides a productive level of description avoiding the underspecificity of cognitive descriptions and the overspecificity of brain structural accounts; and second that a distinctive feature of procedural learning is its extended time course, covering from minutes to months. In this article, we focus on the second claim. Three studies-speeded single word reading, long-term response learning, and overnight skill consolidation-are reviewed which together provide clear evidence of difficulties in procedural learning for individuals with dyslexia, even when the tasks are outside the literacy domain. The educational implications of the results are then discussed, and in particular the potential difficulties that impaired overnight procedural consolidation would entail. It is proposed that response to intervention could be better predicted if diagnostic tests on the different forms of learning were first undertaken. PMID:20680991

  6. Guideline adaptation and implementation planning: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adaptation of high-quality practice guidelines for local use has been advanced as an efficient means to improve acceptability and applicability of evidence-informed care. In a pan-Canadian study, we examined how cancer care groups adapted pre-existing guidelines to their unique context and began implementation planning. Methods Using a mixed-methods, case-study design, five cases were purposefully sampled from self-identified groups and followed as they used a structured method and resources for guideline adaptation. Cases received the ADAPTE Collaboration toolkit, facilitation, methodological and logistical support, resources and assistance as required. Documentary and primary data collection methods captured individual case experience, including monthly summaries of meeting and field notes, email/telephone correspondence, and project records. Site visits, process audits, interviews, and a final evaluation forum with all cases contributed to a comprehensive account of participant experience. Results Study cases took 12 to >24 months to complete guideline adaptation. Although participants appreciated the structure, most found the ADAPTE method complex and lacking practical aspects. They needed assistance establishing individual guideline mandate and infrastructure, articulating health questions, executing search strategies, appraising evidence, and achieving consensus. Facilitation was described as a multi-faceted process, a team effort, and an essential ingredient for guideline adaptation. While front-line care providers implicitly identified implementation issues during adaptation, they identified a need to add an explicit implementation planning component. Conclusions Guideline adaptation is a positive initial step toward evidence-informed care, but adaptation (vs. ‘de novo’ development) did not meet expectations for reducing time or resource commitments. Undertaking adaptation is as much about the process (engagement and capacity building) as it

  7. Cognition and procedure representational requirements for predictive human performance models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, K.

    1992-01-01

    including procedural backtracking with concurrent search, temporal reasoning, and constraint checking for partial ordering of procedures. Finally, the representation is being linked to models of human decision making processes that include heuristic, propositional and prescriptive judgement models that are sensitive to the procedural content in which the valuative functions are being performed.

  8. Adaptive network countermeasures.

    SciTech Connect

    McClelland-Bane, Randy; Van Randwyk, Jamie A.; Carathimas, Anthony G.; Thomas, Eric D.

    2003-10-01

    This report describes the results of a two-year LDRD funded by the Differentiating Technologies investment area. The project investigated the use of countermeasures in protecting computer networks as well as how current countermeasures could be changed in order to adapt with both evolving networks and evolving attackers. The work involved collaboration between Sandia employees and students in the Sandia - California Center for Cyber Defenders (CCD) program. We include an explanation of the need for adaptive countermeasures, a description of the architecture we designed to provide adaptive countermeasures, and evaluations of the system.

  9. [Adaptive optics for ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Saleh, M

    2016-04-01

    Adaptive optics is a technology enhancing the visual performance of an optical system by correcting its optical aberrations. Adaptive optics have already enabled several breakthroughs in the field of visual sciences, such as improvement of visual acuity in normal and diseased eyes beyond physiologic limits, and the correction of presbyopia. Adaptive optics technology also provides high-resolution, in vivo imaging of the retina that may eventually help to detect the onset of retinal conditions at an early stage and provide better assessment of treatment efficacy. PMID:27019970

  10. Combining local search and backtracking techniques for constraint satisfaction

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Hantao

    1996-12-31

    Backtracking techniques are well-known traditional methods for solving many constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) including the satisfiability (SAT) problem in the propositional logic. In recent years, it has been reported that local search techniques are very effective in solving some large-scale instances of the SAT problem. In this research, we combine the backtracking and local search techniques into a single method for solving SAT and CSPs. When setting a parameter of the method to either of its two extreme values, we obtain the ordinary backtracking procedure or the local search procedure. For some problems, if the parameter takes values in the middle of the two extremes, the new method is much more effective than either backtracking or local search. We tested the method with classical problems like the n-Queens and random SAT instances, as well as some difficult problems from finite mathematics. In particular, using the new method, we solved four open problems in design theory.

  11. Environmental Test Screening Procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeidler, Janet

    2000-01-01

    This procedure describes the methods to be used for environmental stress screening (ESS) of the Lightning Mapper Sensor (LMS) lens assembly. Unless otherwise specified, the procedures shall be completed in the order listed, prior to performance of the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP). The first unit, S/N 001, will be subjected to the Qualification Vibration Levels, while the remainder will be tested at the Operational Level. Prior to ESS, all units will undergo Pre-ESS Functional Testing that includes measuring the on-axis and plus or minus 0.95 full field Modulation Transfer Function and Back Focal Length. Next, all units will undergo ESS testing, and then Acceptance testing per PR 460.

  12. Reasoning about procedural knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgeff, M. P.

    1985-01-01

    A crucial aspect of automated reasoning about space operations is that knowledge of the problem domain is often procedural in nature - that is, the knowledge is often in the form of sequences of actions or procedures for achieving given goals or reacting to certain situations. In this paper a system is described that explicitly represents and reasons about procedural knowledge. The knowledge representation used is sufficiently rich to describe the effects of arbitrary sequences of tests and actions, and the inference mechanism provides a means for directly using this knowledge to reach desired operational goals. Furthermore, the representation has a declarative semantics that provides for incremental changes to the system, rich explanatory capabilities, and verifiability. The approach also provides a mechanism for reasoning about the use of this knowledge, thus enabling the system to choose effectively between alternative courses of action.

  13. Self-adaptive parameters in genetic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellerin, Eric; Pigeon, Luc; Delisle, Sylvain

    2004-04-01

    Genetic algorithms are powerful search algorithms that can be applied to a wide range of problems. Generally, parameter setting is accomplished prior to running a Genetic Algorithm (GA) and this setting remains unchanged during execution. The problem of interest to us here is the self-adaptive parameters adjustment of a GA. In this research, we propose an approach in which the control of a genetic algorithm"s parameters can be encoded within the chromosome of each individual. The parameters" values are entirely dependent on the evolution mechanism and on the problem context. Our preliminary results show that a GA is able to learn and evaluate the quality of self-set parameters according to their degree of contribution to the resolution of the problem. These results are indicative of a promising approach to the development of GAs with self-adaptive parameter settings that do not require the user to pre-adjust parameters at the outset.

  14. Adaptive functional systems: Learning with chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarov, M. A.; Osipov, G. V.; Burtsev, M. S.

    2010-12-01

    We propose a new model of adaptive behavior that combines a winnerless competition principle and chaos to learn new functional systems. The model consists of a complex network of nonlinear dynamical elements producing sequences of goal-directed actions. Each element describes dynamics and activity of the functional system which is supposed to be a distributed set of interacting physiological elements such as nerve or muscle that cooperates to obtain certain goal at the level of the whole organism. During "normal" behavior, the dynamics of the system follows heteroclinic channels, but in the novel situation chaotic search is activated and a new channel leading to the target state is gradually created simulating the process of learning. The model was tested in single and multigoal environments and had demonstrated a good potential for generation of new adaptations.

  15. Bioavailability of Metal Ions and Evolutionary Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Hong Enriquez, Rolando P.; Do, Trang N.

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of life on earth has been a long process that began nearly 3.5 × 109 years ago. In their initial moments, evolution was mainly influenced by anaerobic environments; with the rise of O2 and the corresponding change in bioavailability of metal ions, new mechanisms of survival were created. Here we review the relationships between ancient atmospheric conditions, metal ion bioavailability and adaptation of metals homeostasis during early evolution. A general picture linking geochemistry, biochemistry and homeostasis is supported by the reviewed literature and is further illustrated in this report using simple database searches. PMID:25371266

  16. SearchLit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joachim, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Describes file management package offering relatively sophisticated features: conversion of previously downloaded records from commercial database into local file; keyword searching on inverted keyword file; full-text searching on author, title, bibliographic source, abstract; sorting by author, title, bibliographic source, publication year;…

  17. OpenSearch Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Doug; Silva, Sam; Mitchell, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We will present an overview of our OpenSearch efforts over the past 6 months. We will discuss our Best Practices and those of CEOS concentrating on the compatibility issues between the two. We will also discuss the state of earth data OpenSearch implementations and their adherence to the standards, extensions and best practices available.

  18. Using Quick Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxfield, Sandy, Ed.; Kabus, Karl, Ed.

    This document is a guide to the use of Quick Search, a library service that provides access to more than 100 databases which contain references to journal articles and other research materials through two commercial systems--BRS After/Dark and DIALOG's Knowledge Index. The guide is divided into five sections: (1) Using Quick Search; (2) The…

  19. Database Searching by Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Stephen E.

    Managers and executives need the easy and quick access to business and management information that online databases can provide, but many have difficulty articulating their search needs to an intermediary. One possible solution would be to encourage managers and their immediate support staff members to search textual databases directly as they now…

  20. job.search@internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Claudia.

    1995-01-01

    Presents job-hunting options and career opportunities available by searching the Internet, as well as tips for consulting others in a field of interest through a listserv or usenet news group. A collection of Internet addresses providing access to information on job search strategies or job availability is provided. (JPS)

  1. Origins of Coordinate Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgour, Frederick G.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the origins of post-coordinate searching and emphasizes that the focal point should be on the searcher, not on the item being indexed. Highlights include the history of the term information retrieval; edge notched punch cards; the "peek-a-boo" system; the Uniterm system; and using computers to search for information. (LRW)

  2. Intermittent search strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bénichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphael

    2015-10-01

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Animals looking for food * Model of intermittent search * Minimizing the search time * Should animals really perform Lévy strategies? * How does a protein find its target sequence on DNA? * Active intermittent transport in cells * Optimizing the kinetic rate constant * Robustness of the results * Conclusion * Bibliography

  3. With News Search Engines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Holly

    2005-01-01

    Although there are many news search engines on the Web, finding the news items one wants can be challenging. Choosing appropriate search terms is one of the biggest challenges. Unless one has seen the article that one is seeking, it is often difficult to select words that were used in the headline or text of the article. The limited archives of…

  4. Online Manuscript Search Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Robert N.; Lloyd, James B.

    1983-01-01

    Describes MARC record-based online information retrieval system that provides full search and maintenance capabilities for manuscript records and indexes in the Special Collections Department, Hunter Library, Western Carolina University. Item versus group description of manuscripts, system architecture, searching, and record structure and file…

  5. Searching with probabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Palay, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    This book examines how probability distributions can be used as a knowledge representation technique. It presents a mechanism that can be used to guide a selective search algorithm to solve a variety of tactical chess problems. Topics covered include probabilities and searching the B algorithm and chess probabilities - in practice, examples, results, and future work.

  6. Job Search Information Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Special Educational Services Branch.

    This guide was developed to help classroom teachers in Alberta, Canada, assist high school students in preparing for employment. (It was originally designed to accompany Alberta Job Search information presentations.) The guide contains 11 units covering the following topics: introduction, career planning, personal fact sheets, the job search,…

  7. Fixing Dataset Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Three current search engines are queried for ozone data at the GES DISC. The results range from sub-optimal to counter-intuitive. We propose a method to fix dataset search by implementing a robust relevancy ranking scheme. The relevancy ranking scheme is based on several heuristics culled from more than 20 years of helping users select datasets.

  8. Logarithmic Adaptive Quantization Projection for Audio Watermarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuemin; Guo, Yuhong; Liu, Jian; Yan, Yonghong; Fu, Qiang

    In this paper, a logarithmic adaptive quantization projection (LAQP) algorithm for digital watermarking is proposed. Conventional quantization index modulation uses a fixed quantization step in the watermarking embedding procedure, which leads to poor fidelity. Moreover, the conventional methods are sensitive to value-metric scaling attack. The LAQP method combines the quantization projection scheme with a perceptual model. In comparison to some conventional quantization methods with a perceptual model, the LAQP only needs to calculate the perceptual model in the embedding procedure, avoiding the decoding errors introduced by the difference of the perceptual model used in the embedding and decoding procedure. Experimental results show that the proposed watermarking scheme keeps a better fidelity and is robust against the common signal processing attack. More importantly, the proposed scheme is invariant to value-metric scaling attack.

  9. Custom Search Engines: Tools & Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notess, Greg R.

    2008-01-01

    Few have the resources to build a Google or Yahoo! from scratch. Yet anyone can build a search engine based on a subset of the large search engines' databases. Use Google Custom Search Engine or Yahoo! Search Builder or any of the other similar programs to create a vertical search engine targeting sites of interest to users. The basic steps to…

  10. Task-Based Information Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakkari, Pertti

    2003-01-01

    Reviews studies on the relationship between task performance and information searching by end-users, focusing on information searching in electronic environments and information retrieval systems. Topics include task analysis; task characteristics; search goals; modeling information searching; modeling search goals; information seeking behavior;…

  11. The separation procedure.

    PubMed

    Kiely, Edward M; Spitz, Lewis

    2015-10-01

    The various stages of the separation are carefully planned but despite this, variations which will change the schedule of the procedure may exist. In general the operation commences on the opposite side from the main procedure and then the twins are turned for the remainder of the operation. Each type of conjoined twin is different but basically thoracopagus involves the hearts, omphalopagus involves the liver and small intestine and ischiopagus involves the large intestine and genito-urinary system. Our results are presented together with interesting cases from which lessons have been learned. PMID:26382263

  12. Citation Searching: Search Smarter & Find More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Chelsea C.; Brown, Stephanie Willen

    2008-01-01

    The staff at University of Connecticut are participating in Elsevier's Student Ambassador Program (SAmP) in which graduate students train their peers on "citation searching" research using Scopus and Web of Science, two tremendous citation databases. They are in the fourth semester of these training programs, and they are wildly successful: They…

  13. Software Searches for Better Spacecraft-Navigation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Todd; Crossley, William

    2003-01-01

    ADAPT is a computer program that searches for better mathematical models for spacecraft navigation. The task of tuning trajectory-determination models for interplanetary navigation is complex, requiring an intensive search of multiple dynamical and nondynamical models that yield trajectory solutions with minimal errors. By automating the search, ADAPT eases the task of human analysts and enables them to consider wider ranges of potential solutions. ADAPT uses genetic algorithms to search a range of relevant parameters in a user-selected design space to arrive at values for those parameters that best fit the measured spacecraft-tracking data. The user s guide for ADAPT reviews the theoretical basis of the program and presents two example applications. One example is that of selecting a solar-radiation model for the Mars Pathfinder (MPF) mission using MPF tracking data and an extended Kalman filter from prior spacecraft-navigation software. The second example is of the use of tracking data from the Stardust spacecraft mission combined with a pseudo-epoch-state batch filter and an empirical small-forces model to find improved impulse models for use during Stardust attitude adjustments.

  14. Searching CA Condensates, On-Line and Batch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminecki, Ronald M.; And Others

    Batch mode processing is compared, using cost-effectiveness, with on-line processing for computer-aided searching of chemical abstracts. Consideration for time, need, coverage, and adaptability are found to be the criteria by which a searcher selects a method, and sometimes both methods are used. There is a tradeoff between batch mode's slower…

  15. Search by Fuzzy Inference in a Children's Dictionary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St-Jacques, Claude; Barriere, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    This research aims at promoting the usage of an online children's dictionary within a context of reading comprehension and vocabulary acquisition. Inspired by document retrieval approaches developed in the area of information retrieval (IR) research, we adapt a particular IR strategy, based on fuzzy logic, to a search in the electronic dictionary.…

  16. Teaching AI Search Algorithms in a Web-Based Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grivokostopoulou, Foteini; Hatzilygeroudis, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a way of teaching AI search algorithms in a web-based adaptive educational system. Teaching is based on interactive examples and exercises. Interactive examples, which use visualized animations to present AI search algorithms in a step-by-step way with explanations, are used to make learning more attractive. Practice…

  17. Needle Federated Search Engine

    2009-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has combined a number of technologies, tools, and resources to accomplish a new means of federating search results. The resulting product is a search engine called Needle, an open-source-based tool that the INL uses internally for researching across a wide variety of information repositories. Needle has a flexible search interface that allows end users to point at any available data source. A user can select multiple sources such as commercialmore » databases (Web of Science, Engineering Index), external resources (WorldCat, Google Scholar), and internal corporate resources (email, document management system, library collections) in a single interface with one search query. In the future, INL hopes to offer this open-source engine to the public. This session will outline the development processes for making Needle™s search interface and simplifying the federation of internal and external data sources.« less

  18. Needle Federated Search Engine

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has combined a number of technologies, tools, and resources to accomplish a new means of federating search results. The resulting product is a search engine called Needle, an open-source-based tool that the INL uses internally for researching across a wide variety of information repositories. Needle has a flexible search interface that allows end users to point at any available data source. A user can select multiple sources such as commercial databases (Web of Science, Engineering Index), external resources (WorldCat, Google Scholar), and internal corporate resources (email, document management system, library collections) in a single interface with one search query. In the future, INL hopes to offer this open-source engine to the public. This session will outline the development processes for making Needle™s search interface and simplifying the federation of internal and external data sources.

  19. Toddler test or procedure preparation

    MedlinePlus

    Preparing toddler for test/procedure; Test/procedure preparation - toddler; Preparing for a medical test or procedure - toddler ... Before the test, know that your child will probably cry. Even if you prepare, your child may feel some discomfort or ...

  20. Preschooler test or procedure preparation

    MedlinePlus

    Preparing preschoolers for test/procedure; Test/procedure preparation - preschooler ... Preparing children for medical tests can reduce their distress. It can also make them less likely to cry and resist the procedure. Research shows that ...

  1. The genomics of adaptation.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Jacek; Babik, Wiesław

    2012-12-22

    The amount and nature of genetic variation available to natural selection affect the rate, course and outcome of evolution. Consequently, the study of the genetic basis of adaptive evolutionary change has occupied biologists for decades, but progress has been hampered by the lack of resolution and the absence of a genome-level perspective. Technological advances in recent years should now allow us to answer many long-standing questions about the nature of adaptation. The data gathered so far are beginning to challenge some widespread views of the way in which natural selection operates at the genomic level. Papers in this Special Feature of Proceedings of the Royal Society B illustrate various aspects of the broad field of adaptation genomics. This introductory article sets up a context and, on the basis of a few selected examples, discusses how genomic data can advance our understanding of the process of adaptation. PMID:23097510

  2. Adaptations, exaptations, and spandrels.

    PubMed

    Buss, D M; Haselton, M G; Shackelford, T K; Bleske, A L; Wakefield, J C

    1998-05-01

    Adaptation and natural selection are central concepts in the emerging science of evolutionary psychology. Natural selection is the only known causal process capable of producing complex functional organic mechanisms. These adaptations, along with their incidental by-products and a residue of noise, comprise all forms of life. Recently, S. J. Gould (1991) proposed that exaptations and spandrels may be more important than adaptations for evolutionary psychology. These refer to features that did not originally arise for their current use but rather were co-opted for new purposes. He suggested that many important phenomena--such as art, language, commerce, and war--although evolutionary in origin, are incidental spandrels of the large human brain. The authors outline the conceptual and evidentiary standards that apply to adaptations, exaptations, and spandrels and discuss the relative utility of these concepts for psychological science. PMID:9612136

  3. Adaptive Space Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, B.

    1993-01-01

    The term adaptive structures refers to a structural control approach in which sensors, actuators, electronics, materials, structures, structural concepts, and system-performance-validation strategies are integrated to achieve specific objectives.

  4. Adaptive Management of Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management. As such, management may be treated as experiment, with replication, or management may be conducted in an iterative manner. Although the concept has resonated with many...

  5. Adaptive Heat Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdyan, A. E.; Babajanyan, S. G.; Martirosyan, N. H.; Melkikh, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    A major limitation of many heat engines is that their functioning demands on-line control and/or an external fitting between the environmental parameters (e.g., temperatures of thermal baths) and internal parameters of the engine. We study a model for an adaptive heat engine, where—due to feedback from the functional part—the engine's structure adapts to given thermal baths. Hence, no on-line control and no external fitting are needed. The engine can employ unknown resources; it can also adapt to results of its own functioning that make the bath temperatures closer. We determine resources of adaptation and relate them to the prior information available about the environment.

  6. Limits to adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dow, Kirstin; Berkhout, Frans; Preston, Benjamin L.; Klein, Richard J. T.; Midgley, Guy; Shaw, M. Rebecca

    2013-04-01

    An actor-centered, risk-based approach to defining limits to social adaptation provides a useful analytic framing for identifying and anticipating these limits and informing debates over society's responses to climate change.

  7. Rocketing into Adaptive Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Joyce, Beverly A.; Dowling, Thomas W.

    2002-01-01

    Defines adaptive inquiry and argues for employing this method which allows lessons to be shaped in response to student needs. Illustrates this idea by detailing an activity in which teams of students build rockets. (DDR)

  8. Telescope Adaptive Optics Code

    SciTech Connect

    Phillion, D.

    2005-07-28

    The Telescope AO Code has general adaptive optics capabilities plus specialized models for three telescopes with either adaptive optics or active optics systems. It has the capability to generate either single-layer or distributed Kolmogorov turbulence phase screens using the FFT. Missing low order spatial frequencies are added using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The phase structure curve is extremely dose to the theoreUcal. Secondly, it has the capability to simulate an adaptive optics control systems. The default parameters are those of the Keck II adaptive optics system. Thirdly, it has a general wave optics capability to model the science camera halo due to scintillation from atmospheric turbulence and the telescope optics. Although this capability was implemented for the Gemini telescopes, the only default parameter specific to the Gemini telescopes is the primary mirror diameter. Finally, it has a model for the LSST active optics alignment strategy. This last model is highly specific to the LSST

  9. Adaptive Heat Engine.

    PubMed

    Allahverdyan, A E; Babajanyan, S G; Martirosyan, N H; Melkikh, A V

    2016-07-15

    A major limitation of many heat engines is that their functioning demands on-line control and/or an external fitting between the environmental parameters (e.g., temperatures of thermal baths) and internal parameters of the engine. We study a model for an adaptive heat engine, where-due to feedback from the functional part-the engine's structure adapts to given thermal baths. Hence, no on-line control and no external fitting are needed. The engine can employ unknown resources; it can also adapt to results of its own functioning that make the bath temperatures closer. We determine resources of adaptation and relate them to the prior information available about the environment. PMID:27472104

  10. Coping and adaptation process during puerperium

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz de Rodríguez, Lucy; Ruiz de Cárdenas, Carmen Helena

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The puerperium is a stage that produces changes and adaptations in women, couples and family. Effective coping, during this stage, depends on the relationship between the demands of stressful or difficult situations and the recourses that the puerperal individual has. Roy (2004), in her Middle Range Theory about the Coping and Adaptation Processing, defines Coping as the ''behavioral and cognitive efforts that a person makes to meet the environment demands''. For the puerperal individual, the correct coping is necessary to maintain her physical and mental well being, especially against situations that can be stressful like breastfeeding and return to work. According to Lazarus and Folkman (1986), a resource for coping is to have someone who receives emotional support, informative and / or tangible. Objective: To review the issue of women coping and adaptation during the puerperium stage and the strategies that enhance this adaptation. Methods: search and selection of database articles: Cochrane, Medline, Ovid, ProQuest, Scielo, and Blackwell Synergy. Other sources: unpublished documents by Roy, published books on Roy´s Model, Websites from of international health organizations. Results: the need to recognize the puerperium as a stage that requires comprehensive care is evident, where nurses must be protagonist with the care offered to women and their families, considering the specific demands of this situation and recourses that promote effective coping and the family, education and health services. PMID:24893059

  11. Public Health Adaptation to Climate Change in OECD Countries.

    PubMed

    Austin, Stephanie E; Biesbroek, Robbert; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Ford, James D; Parker, Stephen; Fleury, Manon D

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a major challenge facing public health. National governments play a key role in public health adaptation to climate change, but there are competing views on what responsibilities and obligations this will-or should-include in different nations. This study aims to: (1) examine how national-level public health adaptation is occurring in Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries; (2) examine the roles national governments are taking in public health adaptation; and (3) critically appraise three key governance dimensions of national-level health adaptation-cross-sectoral collaboration, vertical coordination and national health adaptation planning-and identify practical examples suited to different contexts. We systematically reviewed publicly available public health adaptation to climate change documents and webpages by national governments in ten OECD countries using systematic web searches, assessment of self-reporting, and content analysis. Our findings suggest national governments are primarily addressing infectious disease and heat-related risks posed by climate change, typically emphasizing capacity building or information-based groundwork initiatives. We find national governments are taking a variety of approaches to public health adaptation to climate change that do not follow expected convergence and divergence by governance structure. We discuss practical options for incorporating cross-sectoral collaboration, vertical coordination and national health adaptation planning into a variety of contexts and identify leaders national governments can look to to inform their public health adaptation planning. Following the adoption of the Paris Agreement and subsequent increased momentum for adaptation, research tracking adaptation is needed to define what health adaptation looks like in practice, reveal insights that can be taken up across states and sectors, and ensure policy orientated learning. PMID:27618074

  12. Leak test adapter for containers

    DOEpatents

    Hallett, Brian H.; Hartley, Michael S.

    1996-01-01

    An adapter is provided for facilitating the charging of containers and leak testing penetration areas. The adapter comprises an adapter body and stem which are secured to the container's penetration areas. The container is then pressurized with a tracer gas. Manipulating the adapter stem installs a penetration plug allowing the adapter to be removed and the penetration to be leak tested with a mass spectrometer. Additionally, a method is provided for using the adapter.

  13. Adaptable DC offset correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golusky, John M. (Inventor); Muldoon, Kelly P. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and systems for adaptable DC offset correction are provided. An exemplary adaptable DC offset correction system evaluates an incoming baseband signal to determine an appropriate DC offset removal scheme; removes a DC offset from the incoming baseband signal based on the appropriate DC offset scheme in response to the evaluated incoming baseband signal; and outputs a reduced DC baseband signal in response to the DC offset removed from the incoming baseband signal.

  14. Robust Adaptive Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narendra, K. S.; Annaswamy, A. M.

    1985-01-01

    Several concepts and results in robust adaptive control are are discussed and is organized in three parts. The first part surveys existing algorithms. Different formulations of the problem and theoretical solutions that have been suggested are reviewed here. The second part contains new results related to the role of persistent excitation in robust adaptive systems and the use of hybrid control to improve robustness. In the third part promising new areas for future research are suggested which combine different approaches currently known.

  15. Adaptive transfer functions

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, J.R. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper details the approach and methodology used to build adaptive transfer functions in a feed-forward Back-Propagation neural network, and provides insight into the structure dependent properties of using non-scaled analog inputs. The results of using adaptive transfer functions are shown to outperform conventional architectures in the implementation of a mechanical power transmission gearbox design expert system knowledge base. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. [Advanced online search techniques and dedicated search engines for physicians].

    PubMed

    Nahum, Yoav

    2008-02-01

    In recent years search engines have become an essential tool in the work of physicians. This article will review advanced search techniques from the world of information specialists, as well as some advanced search engine operators that may help physicians improve their online search capabilities, and maximize the yield of their searches. This article also reviews popular dedicated scientific and biomedical literature search engines. PMID:18357673

  17. Shuffling Adaptive Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, Sanjay G; Gokhale, Sankalp

    2016-01-01

    Clinical trials are interventional studies on human beings, designed to test the hypothesis for diagnostic techniques, treatments, and disease preventions. Any novel medical technology should be evaluated for its efficacy and safety by clinical trials. The costs associated with developing drugs have increased dramatically over the past decade, and fewer drugs are obtaining regulatory approval. Because of this, the pharmaceutical industry is continually exploring new ways of improving drug developments, and one area of focus is adaptive clinical trial designs. Adaptive designs, which allow for some types of prospectively planned mid-study changes, can improve the efficiency of a trial and maximize the chance of success without undermining validity and integrity of the trial. However it is felt that in adaptive trials; perhaps by using accrued data the actual patient population after the adaptations could deviate from the originally target patient population and so to overcome this drawback; special methods like Bayesian Statistics, predicted probability are used to deduce data-analysis. Here, in this study, mathematical model of a new adaptive design (shuffling adaptive trial) is suggested which uses real-time data, and because there is no gap between expected and observed data, statistical modifications are not needed. Results are obviously clinically relevant. PMID:23751329

  18. Adaptation and perceptual norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Michael A.; Yasuda, Maiko; Haber, Sara; Leonard, Deanne; Ballardini, Nicole

    2007-02-01

    We used adaptation to examine the relationship between perceptual norms--the stimuli observers describe as psychologically neutral, and response norms--the stimulus levels that leave visual sensitivity in a neutral or balanced state. Adapting to stimuli on opposite sides of a neutral point (e.g. redder or greener than white) biases appearance in opposite ways. Thus the adapting stimulus can be titrated to find the unique adapting level that does not bias appearance. We compared these response norms to subjectively defined neutral points both within the same observer (at different retinal eccentricities) and between observers. These comparisons were made for visual judgments of color, image focus, and human faces, stimuli that are very different and may depend on very different levels of processing, yet which share the property that for each there is a well defined and perceptually salient norm. In each case the adaptation aftereffects were consistent with an underlying sensitivity basis for the perceptual norm. Specifically, response norms were similar to and thus covaried with the perceptual norm, and under common adaptation differences between subjectively defined norms were reduced. These results are consistent with models of norm-based codes and suggest that these codes underlie an important link between visual coding and visual experience.

  19. The Climate Adaptation Frontier

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Benjamin L

    2013-01-01

    Climate adaptation has emerged as a mainstream risk management strategy for assisting in maintaining socio-ecological systems within the boundaries of a safe operating space. Yet, there are limits to the ability of systems to adapt. Here, we introduce the concept of an adaptation frontier , which is defined as a socio-ecological system s transitional adaptive operating space between safe and unsafe domains. A number of driving forces are responsible for determining the sustainability of systems on the frontier. These include path dependence, adaptation/development deficits, values conflicts and discounting of future loss and damage. The cumulative implications of these driving forces are highly uncertain. Nevertheless, the fact that a broad range of systems already persist at the edge of their frontiers suggests a high likelihood that some limits will eventually be exceeded. The resulting system transformation is likely to manifest as anticipatory modification of management objectives or loss and damage. These outcomes vary significantly with respect to their ethical implications. Successful navigation of the adaptation frontier will necessitate new paradigms of risk governance to elicit knowledge that encourages reflexive reevaluation of societal values that enable or constrain sustainability.

  20. Adaptation through proportion.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Liyang; Shi, Wenjia; Tang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation is a ubiquitous feature in biological sensory and signaling networks. It has been suggested that adaptive systems may follow certain simple design principles across diverse organisms, cells and pathways. One class of networks that can achieve adaptation utilizes an incoherent feedforward control, in which two parallel signaling branches exert opposite but proportional effects on the output at steady state. In this paper, we generalize this adaptation mechanism by establishing a steady-state proportionality relationship among a subset of nodes in a network. Adaptation can be achieved by using any two nodes in the sub-network to respectively regulate the output node positively and negatively. We focus on enzyme networks and first identify basic regulation motifs consisting of two and three nodes that can be used to build small networks with proportional relationships. Larger proportional networks can then be constructed modularly similar to LEGOs. Our method provides a general framework to construct and analyze a class of proportional and/or adaptation networks with arbitrary size, flexibility and versatile functional features. PMID:27526863

  1. Adaptive parallel logic networks

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, T.R.; Vidal, J.J.

    1988-02-01

    This paper presents a novel class of special purpose processors referred to as ASOCS (adaptive self-organizing concurrent systems). Intended applications include adaptive logic devices, robotics, process control, system malfunction management, and in general, applications of logic reasoning. ASOCS combines massive parallelism with self-organization to attain a distributed mechanism for adaptation. The ASOCS approach is based on an adaptive network composed of many simple computing elements (nodes) which operate in a combinational and asynchronous fashion. Problem specification (programming) is obtained by presenting to the system if-then rules expressed as Boolean conjunctions. New rules are added incrementally. In the current model, when conflicts occur, precedence is given to the most recent inputs. With each rule, desired network response is simply presented to the system, following which the network adjusts itself to maintain consistency and parsimony of representation. Data processing and adaptation form two separate phases of operation. During processing, the network acts as a parallel hardware circuit. Control of the adaptive process is distributed among the network nodes and efficiently exploits parallelism.

  2. Study of adaptive correlation filter synthesis guided by the peak and shape of the correlation output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos Trujillo, Oliver G.; Díaz Blancas, Gerardo

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, many proposals that consider an adaptive perspective had been developed to solve some drawbacks, such as geometric distortions, background noise and target discrimination. The metrics are based only in the correlation peak output for the filter synthesis. In this paper, the correlation shape is studied to implement adaptive correlation filters guided by the peak and shape of the correlation output. Furthermore, the shape of correlation output is studied to improve the search in the filters bank. In addition, parallel algorithms are developed for accelerated the search in the filters bank. Some results are shown, such as time of synthesis, filter performance and comparisons with other adaptive correlation filter proposals.

  3. An Adaptive-Tabu GA for Registration of CT and Surface Laser Scan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiann-Der; Huang, Jau-Hua; Huang, Chung-Hsien; Liu, Li-Chang

    2005-01-01

    An adaptive-tabu GA (Genetic Algorithm) method is proposed to improve some traditional GA methods in the registration of computer tomography (CT) and surface laser scan. In this method, the adaptive memory structure and search strategy of Tabu Search (TS) with the modified chromosome crossover and adaptive mutation are proposed to increase the convergence speed and accuracy of the fitness function. This registration method can be used on non-fiducial stereo-tactic brain surgeries to assist surgeons to diagnose and treat brain diseases. PMID:17280970

  4. Common Dermatologic Procedures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shelley; Kampp, Jeremy

    2015-11-01

    Dermatologists perform a wide variety of procedures on a daily basis. The skin biopsy is a fundamental technique that can be performed by all physicians who manage cutaneous conditions. Specimens should always be sent for pathologic evaluation, regardless of whether the sampled lesion appears benign. Postoperative care and education are critical for minimizing complications. PMID:26476254

  5. Parliamentary Procedure Made Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Ellen T.

    Based on the newly revised "Robert's Rules of Order," these self-contained learning activities will help students successfully and actively participate in school, social, civic, political, or professional organizations. There are 13 lessons. Topics studied include the what, why, and history of parliamentary procedure; characteristics of the ideal…

  6. Simulating Laboratory Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, J. E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes the use of computer assisted instruction in a medical microbiology course. Presents examples of how computer assisted instruction can present case histories in which the laboratory procedures are simulated. Discusses an authoring system used to prepare computer simulations and provides one example of a case history dealing with fractured…

  7. Procedures of Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolers, Paul A.; Roediger, Henry L.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a "procedural view" of the learning mind, arguing against previous theories citing physical properties as its basis. A more process-oriented view of information processing is offered, which describes "mind" in terms of skill in manipulating symbols, and the notion of skills is shown to provide a useful framework for accounting for…

  8. Numerical Boundary Condition Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Topics include numerical procedures for treating inflow and outflow boundaries, steady and unsteady discontinuous surfaces, far field boundaries, and multiblock grids. In addition, the effects of numerical boundary approximations on stability, accuracy, and convergence rate of the numerical solution are discussed.

  9. Procedures and Policies Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jane M.

    2006-01-01

    This document was developed by the Middle Tennessee State University James E. Walker Library Collection Management Department to provide policies and procedural guidelines for the cataloging and processing of bibliographic materials. This document includes policies for cataloging monographs, serials, government documents, machine-readable data…

  10. PLATO Courseware Development Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahler, William A.; And Others

    This is an exploratory study of methods for the preparation of computer curriculum materials. It deals with courseware development procedures for the PLATO IV computer-based education system, and draws on interviews with over 100 persons engaged in courseware production. The report presents a five stage model of development: (1) planning, (2)…

  11. Office Procedures Curriculum Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia. Div. of Vocational-Technical and Adult Education Services.

    This guideline is intended as a resource for instructors who are teaching an office procedures course. This course offers closure for all students completing a scope and sequence in the business education program--accounting, secretarial, office services, and related areas. The stated purpose of the course is to prepare a secondary learner for…

  12. Educational Accounting Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Sam B.

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" reviews the functions, procedures, and reports with which school business officials must be familiar in order to interpret and make decisions regarding the school district's financial position. Among the accounting functions discussed are financial management, internal auditing, annual…

  13. Visual Screening: A Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert T.

    Vision is a complex process involving three phases: physical (acuity), physiological (integrative), and psychological (perceptual). Although these phases cannot be considered discrete, they provide the basis for the visual screening procedure used by the Reading Services of Colorado State University and described in this document. Ten tests are…

  14. Pediatric Procedural Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blount, Ronald L.; Piira, Tiina; Cohen, Lindsey L.; Cheng, Patricia S.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the various settings in which infants, children, and adolescents experience pain during acute medical procedures and issues related to referral of children to pain management teams. In addition, self-report, reports by others, physiological monitoring, and direct observation methods of assessment of pain and related constructs…

  15. Student Loan Collection Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    This manual on the collection of student loans is intended for the use of business officers and loan collection personnel of colleges and universities of all sizes. The introductory chapter is an overview of sound collection practices and procedures. It discusses the making of a loan, in-school servicing of the accounts, the exit interview, the…

  16. Grievance Procedure Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Gary J.

    This paper presents two actual problems involving grievance procedures. Both problems involve pending litigation and one of them involves pending arbitration. The first problem occurred in a wealthy Minnesota school district and involved a seniority list. Because of changes in the financial basis for supporting public schools, it became necessary…

  17. Special Education: Procedural Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC.

    The guide is intended to provide information to administrators and regional and local case study committees on special education procedures within Department of Defense Dependents Schools (DoDDS). The manual addresses a step-by step approach from referral to the implementation of individualized education programs (IEP). The following topics are…

  18. Fish Surgery: Presurgical Preparation and Common Surgical Procedures.

    PubMed

    Sladky, Kurt K; Clarke, Elsburgh O

    2016-01-01

    Fish surgical procedures are commonplace in aquaria, zoos, laboratory facilities, and pet clinical practice. To incorporate fish surgery into a clinical setting, an understanding of anatomic differences between mammals and fish, bath anesthetics, and recirculating anesthesia techniques must be developed; a system or different size systems to accommodate anesthesia and surgery of particular species of concern at an institution or practice constructed; and familiar mammalian surgical principles applied with some adaptations. Common surgical procedures in fish include coeliotomy for intracoelomic mass removal, reproductive procedures, gastrointestinal foreign body removal, radiotransmitter placement, and integumentary mass excision. PMID:26611924

  19. Direct aperture optimization for online adaptive radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mestrovic, Ante; Milette, Marie-Pierre; Nichol, Alan; Clark, Brenda G.; Otto, Karl

    2007-05-15

    This paper is the first investigation of using direct aperture optimization (DAO) for online adaptive radiation therapy (ART). A geometrical model representing the anatomy of a typical prostate case was created. To simulate interfractional deformations, four different anatomical deformations were created by systematically deforming the original anatomy by various amounts (0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 cm). We describe a series of techniques where the original treatment plan was adapted in order to correct for the deterioration of dose distribution quality caused by the anatomical deformations. We found that the average time needed to adapt the original plan to arrive at a clinically acceptable plan is roughly half of the time needed for a complete plan regeneration, for all four anatomical deformations. Furthermore, through modification of the DAO algorithm the optimization search space was reduced and the plan adaptation was significantly accelerated. For the first anatomical deformation (0.25 cm), the plan adaptation was six times more efficient than the complete plan regeneration. For the 0.50 and 0.75 cm deformations, the optimization efficiency was increased by a factor of roughly 3 compared to the complete plan regeneration. However, for the anatomical deformation of 1.00 cm, the reduction of the optimization search space during plan adaptation did not result in any efficiency improvement over the original (nonmodified) plan adaptation. The anatomical deformation of 1.00 cm demonstrates the limit of this approach. We propose an innovative approach to online ART in which the plan adaptation and radiation delivery are merged together and performed concurrently--adaptive radiation delivery (ARD). A fundamental advantage of ARD is the fact that radiation delivery can start almost immediately after image acquisition and evaluation. Most of the original plan adaptation is done during the radiation delivery, so the time spent adapting the original plan does not

  20. Quantum searching application in search based software engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Nan; Song, FangMin; Li, Xiangdong

    2013-05-01

    The Search Based Software Engineering (SBSE) is widely used in software engineering for identifying optimal solutions. However, there is no polynomial-time complexity solution used in the traditional algorithms for SBSE, and that causes the cost very high. In this paper, we analyze and compare several quantum search algorithms that could be applied for SBSE: quantum adiabatic evolution searching algorithm, fixed-point quantum search (FPQS), quantum walks, and a rapid modified Grover quantum searching method. The Grover's algorithm is thought as the best choice for a large-scaled unstructured data searching and theoretically it can be applicable to any search-space structure and any type of searching problems.