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Sample records for adaptive search range

  1. Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor with large dynamic range by adaptive spot search method.

    PubMed

    Shinto, Hironobu; Saita, Yusuke; Nomura, Takanori

    2016-07-10

    A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS) that consists of a microlens array and an image sensor has been used to measure the wavefront aberrations of human eyes. However, a conventional SHWFS has finite dynamic range depending on the diameter of the each microlens. The dynamic range cannot be easily expanded without a decrease of the spatial resolution. In this study, an adaptive spot search method to expand the dynamic range of an SHWFS is proposed. In the proposed method, spots are searched with the help of their approximate displacements measured with low spatial resolution and large dynamic range. By the proposed method, a wavefront can be correctly measured even if the spot is beyond the detection area. The adaptive spot search method is realized by using the special microlens array that generates both spots and discriminable patterns. The proposed method enables expanding the dynamic range of an SHWFS with a single shot and short processing time. The performance of the proposed method is compared with that of a conventional SHWFS by optical experiments. Furthermore, the dynamic range of the proposed method is quantitatively evaluated by numerical simulations. PMID:27409319

  2. Search for associations containing young stars (SACY). VI. Is multiplicity universal? Stellar multiplicity in the range 3-1000 au from adaptive-optics observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, P.; Huélamo, N.; Bouy, H.; Bayo, A.; Melo, C. H. F.; Torres, C. A. O.; Sterzik, M. F.; Quast, G. R.; Chauvin, G.; Barrado, D.

    2015-08-01

    Context. Young loose nearby associations are unique samples of close (<150 pc), young (≈5-100 Myr) pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars. A significant number of members of these associations have been identified in the SACY (search for associations containing young stars) collaboration. We can use the proximity and youth of these members to investigate key ingredients in star formation processes, such as multiplicity. Aims: With the final goal of better understanding multiplicity properties at different evolutionary stages of PMS stars, we present the statistics of identified multiple systems from 113 confirmed SACY members. We derive multiplicity frequencies, mass-ratio, and physical separation distributions in a consistent parameter space, and compare our results to other PMS populations and the field. Methods: We have obtained adaptive-optics assisted near-infrared observations with the Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System and Near-Infrared Imager and Spectrograph (NACO), ESO/VLT, and the Infrared Camera for Adaptive optics at Lick observatory (IRCAL), Lick Observatory, for at least one epoch of all 113 SACY members. We have identified multiple systems using co-moving proper-motion analysis for targets with multi-epoch data, and using contamination estimates in terms of mass-ratio and physical separation for targets with single-epoch data. We have explored ranges in projected separation and mass-ratio of a [3-1000 au], and q [0.1-1], respectively. Results: We have identified 31 multiple systems (28 binaries and 3 triples). We derive a multiplicity frequency (MF) of MF3-1000 au=28.4+4.7_{-3.9}% and a triple frequency (TF) of TF3-1000 au =2.8 +2.5-0.8% in the separation range of 3-1000 au. We do not find any evidence for an increase in the MF with primary mass. The estimated mass-ratio of our statistical sample (with power-law index γ = -0.04 ± 0.14) is consistent with a flat distribution (γ = 0). Conclusions: Analysis from previous work using tight binaries indicated

  3. Adaptive Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Unconstrained Optimization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Modification of the intensification and diversification approaches in the recently developed cuckoo search algorithm (CSA) is performed. The alteration involves the implementation of adaptive step size adjustment strategy, and thus enabling faster convergence to the global optimal solutions. The feasibility of the proposed algorithm is validated against benchmark optimization functions, where the obtained results demonstrate a marked improvement over the standard CSA, in all the cases. PMID:25298971

  4. Adaptive cuckoo search algorithm for unconstrained optimization.

    PubMed

    Ong, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Modification of the intensification and diversification approaches in the recently developed cuckoo search algorithm (CSA) is performed. The alteration involves the implementation of adaptive step size adjustment strategy, and thus enabling faster convergence to the global optimal solutions. The feasibility of the proposed algorithm is validated against benchmark optimization functions, where the obtained results demonstrate a marked improvement over the standard CSA, in all the cases. PMID:25298971

  5. Local adaptation at range edges: comparing elevation and latitudinal gradients.

    PubMed

    Halbritter, A H; Billeter, R; Edwards, P J; Alexander, J M

    2015-10-01

    Local adaptation at range edges influences species' distributions and how they respond to environmental change. However, the factors that affect adaptation, including gene flow and local selection pressures, are likely to vary across different types of range edge. We performed a reciprocal transplant experiment to investigate local adaptation in populations of Plantago lanceolata and P. major from central locations in their European range and from their latitudinal and elevation range edges (in northern Scandinavia and Swiss Alps, respectively). We also characterized patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation in populations using molecular markers. Range-centre plants of P. major were adapted to conditions at the range centre, but performed similarly to range-edge plants when grown at the range edges. There was no evidence for local adaptation when comparing central and edge populations of P. lanceolata. However, plants of both species from high elevation were locally adapted when compared with plants from high latitude, although the reverse was not true. This asymmetry was associated with greater genetic diversity and less genetic differentiation over the elevation gradient than over the latitudinal gradient. Our results suggest that adaptation in some range-edge populations could increase their performance following climate change. However, responses are likely to differ along elevation and latitudinal gradients, with adaptation more likely at high-elevation. Furthermore, based upon these results, we suggest that gene flow is unlikely to constrain adaptation in range-edge populations of these species. PMID:26201435

  6. Chromosome inversions, adaptive cassettes and the evolution of species' ranges.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Mark; Barrett, Brian

    2015-05-01

    A chromosome inversion can spread when it captures locally adapted alleles or when it is introduced into a species by hybridization with adapted alleles that were previously absent. We present a model that shows how both processes can cause a species range to expand. Introgression of an inversion that carries novel, locally adapted alleles is a particularly powerful mechanism for range expansion. The model supports the earlier proposal that introgression of an inversion triggered a large range expansion of a malaria mosquito. These results suggest a role for inversions as cassettes of genes that can accelerate adaptation by crossing species boundaries, rather than protecting genomes from introgression. PMID:25583098

  7. Building a Middle-Range Theory of Adaptive Spirituality.

    PubMed

    Dobratz, Marjorie C

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a Roy adaptation model based- research abstraction, the findings of which were synthesized into a middle-range theory (MRT) of adaptive spirituality. The published literature yielded 21 empirical studies that investigated religion/spirituality. Quantitative results supported the influence of spirituality on quality of life, psychosocial adjustment, well-being, adaptive coping, and the self-concept mode. Qualitative findings showed the importance of spiritual expressions, values, and beliefs in adapting to chronic illness, bereavement, death, and other life transitions. These findings were abstracted into six theoretical statements, a conceptual definition of adaptive spirituality, and three hypotheses for future testing. PMID:26980894

  8. Particle Swarm Based Collective Searching Model for Adaptive Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Xiaohui; Patton, Robert M; Potok, Thomas E; Treadwell, Jim N

    2007-01-01

    This report presents a pilot study of an integration of particle swarm algorithm, social knowledge adaptation and multi-agent approaches for modeling the collective search behavior of self-organized groups in an adaptive environment. The objective of this research is to apply the particle swarm metaphor as a model of social group adaptation for the dynamic environment and to provide insight and understanding of social group knowledge discovering and strategic searching. A new adaptive environment model, which dynamically reacts to the group collective searching behaviors, is proposed in this research. The simulations in the research indicate that effective communication between groups is not the necessary requirement for whole self-organized groups to achieve the efficient collective searching behavior in the adaptive environment.

  9. Particle Swarm Based Collective Searching Model for Adaptive Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Xiaohui; Patton, Robert M; Potok, Thomas E; Treadwell, Jim N

    2008-01-01

    This report presents a pilot study of an integration of particle swarm algorithm, social knowledge adaptation and multi-agent approaches for modeling the collective search behavior of self-organized groups in an adaptive environment. The objective of this research is to apply the particle swarm metaphor as a model of social group adaptation for the dynamic environment and to provide insight and understanding of social group knowledge discovering and strategic searching. A new adaptive environment model, which dynamically reacts to the group collective searching behaviors, is proposed in this research. The simulations in the research indicate that effective communication between groups is not the necessary requirement for whole self-organized groups to achieve the efficient collective searching behavior in the adaptive environment.

  10. Robust local search for spacecraft operations using adaptive noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukunaga, Alex S.; Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve

    2004-01-01

    Randomization is a standard technique for improving the performance of local search algorithms for constraint satisfaction. However, it is well-known that local search algorithms are constraints satisfaction. However, it is well-known that local search algorithms are to the noise values selected. We investigate the use of an adaptive noise mechanism in an iterative repair-based planner/scheduler for spacecraft operations. Preliminary results indicate that adaptive noise makes the use of randomized repair moves safe and robust; that is, using adaptive noise makes it possible to consistently achieve, performance comparable with the best tuned noise setting without the need for manually tuning the noise parameter.

  11. BOLD Subjective Value Signals Exhibit Robust Range Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Karin M.

    2014-01-01

    Many theories of decision making assume that choice options are assessed along a common subjective value (SV) scale. The neural correlates of SV are widespread and reliable, despite the wide variation in the range of values over which decisions are made (e.g., between goods worth a few dollars, in some cases, or hundreds of dollars, in others). According to adaptive coding theories (Barlow, 1961), an efficient value signal should exhibit range adaptation, such that neural activity maintains a fixed dynamic range, and the slope of the value response varies inversely with the range of values within the local context. Although monkey data have demonstrated range adaptation in single-unit correlates of value (Padoa-Schioppa, 2009; Kobayashi et al., 2010), whether BOLD value signals exhibit similar range adaptation is unknown. To test for this possibility, we presented human participants with choices between a fixed immediate and variable delayed payment options. Across two conditions, the delayed options' SVs spanned either a narrow or wide range. SV-tracking activity emerged in the posterior cingulate, ventral striatum, anterior cingulate, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Throughout this network, we observed evidence consistent with the predictions of range adaptation: the SV response slope increased in the narrow versus wide range, with statistically significant slope changes confirmed for the posterior cingulate and ventral striatum. No regions exhibited a reliably increased BOLD activity range in the wide versus narrow condition. Our observations of range adaptation present implications for the interpretation of BOLD SV responses that are measured across different contexts or individuals. PMID:25471589

  12. An Efficient Search Algorithm for Finding Genomic-Range Overlaps Based on the Maximum Range Length.

    PubMed

    Seok, Ho-Sik; Song, Taemin; Kong, Sek Won; Hwang, Kyu-Baek

    2015-01-01

    Efficient search algorithms for finding genomic-range overlaps are essential for various bioinformatics applications. A majority of fast algorithms for searching the overlaps between a query range (e.g., a genomic variant) and a set of N reference ranges (e.g., exons) has time complexity of O(k + logN), where kdenotes a term related to the length and location of the reference ranges. Here, we present a simple but efficient algorithm that reduces k, based on the maximum reference range length. Specifically, for a given query range and the maximum reference range length, the proposed method divides the reference range set into three subsets: always, potentially, and never overlapping. Therefore, search effort can be reduced by excluding never overlapping subset. We demonstrate that the running time of the proposed algorithm is proportional to potentially overlapping subset size, that is proportional to the maximum reference range length if all the other conditions are the same. Moreover, an implementation of our algorithm was 13.8 to 30.0 percent faster than one of the fastest range search methods available when tested on various genomic-range data sets. The proposed algorithm has been incorporated into a disease-linked variant prioritization pipeline for WGS (http://gnome.tchlab.org) and its implementation is available at http://ml.ssu.ac.kr/gSearch. PMID:26357316

  13. Adaptive search in mobile peer-to-peer databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfson, Ouri (Inventor); Xu, Bo (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Information is stored in a plurality of mobile peers. The peers communicate in a peer to peer fashion, using a short-range wireless network. Occasionally, a peer initiates a search for information in the peer to peer network by issuing a query. Queries and pieces of information, called reports, are transmitted among peers that are within a transmission range. For each search additional peers are utilized, wherein these additional peers search and relay information on behalf of the originator of the search.

  14. The Search for the Adaptable ICT Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Vyver, Glen

    2009-01-01

    The "new" ICT professional should be an articulate problem-solver who understands business and technology, in particular how technology can solve business problems. Furthermore, the ideal ICT student should be adaptable. The adaptable student embraces change, learns quickly, understands the job market, thrives on variety, is autonomous, predicts…

  15. Guided Text Search Using Adaptive Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A; Symons, Christopher T; Senter, James K; DeNap, Frank A

    2012-10-01

    This research demonstrates the promise of augmenting interactive visualizations with semi- supervised machine learning techniques to improve the discovery of significant associations and insights in the search and analysis of textual information. More specifically, we have developed a system called Gryffin that hosts a unique collection of techniques that facilitate individualized investigative search pertaining to an ever-changing set of analytical questions over an indexed collection of open-source documents related to critical national infrastructure. The Gryffin client hosts dynamic displays of the search results via focus+context record listings, temporal timelines, term-frequency views, and multiple coordinate views. Furthermore, as the analyst interacts with the display, the interactions are recorded and used to label the search records. These labeled records are then used to drive semi-supervised machine learning algorithms that re-rank the unlabeled search records such that potentially relevant records are moved to the top of the record listing. Gryffin is described in the context of the daily tasks encountered at the US Department of Homeland Security s Fusion Center, with whom we are collaborating in its development. The resulting system is capable of addressing the analysts information overload that can be directly attributed to the deluge of information that must be addressed in the search and investigative analysis of textual information.

  16. The Adaptive Range of 1/f Isometric Force Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosnoff, Jacob J.; Valantine, Andrew D.; Newell, Karl M.

    2009-01-01

    The adaptive range of 1/f dynamics in isometric force output was investigated. Participants produced isometric force to targets with predictable demands (constant and sinusoidal) and 1/f noise waveforms (white, pink, brown, and black) that also varied in the frequency bandwidth represented in the force signal (0-4 Hz, 0-8 Hz, and 0-12 Hz). The…

  17. Neutral and adaptive genomic signatures of rapid poleward range expansion.

    PubMed

    Swaegers, J; Mergeay, J; Van Geystelen, A; Therry, L; Larmuseau, M H D; Stoks, R

    2015-12-01

    Many species are expanding their range polewards, and this has been associated with rapid phenotypic change. Yet, it is unclear to what extent this reflects rapid genetic adaptation or neutral processes associated with range expansion, or selection linked to the new thermal conditions encountered. To disentangle these alternatives, we studied the genomic signature of range expansion in the damselfly Coenagrion scitulum using 4950 newly developed genomic SNPs and linked this to the rapidly evolved phenotypic differences between core and (newly established) edge populations. Most edge populations were genetically clearly differentiated from the core populations and all were differentiated from each other indicating independent range expansion events. In addition, evidence for genetic drift in the edge populations, and strong evidence for adaptive genetic variation in association with the range expansion was detected. We identified one SNP under consistent selection in four of the five edge populations and showed that the allele increasing in frequency is associated with increased flight performance. This indicates collateral, non-neutral evolutionary changes in independent edge populations driven by the range expansion process. We also detected a genomic signature of adaptation to the newly encountered thermal regimes, reflecting a pattern of countergradient variation. The latter signature was identified at a single SNP as well as in a set of covarying SNPs using a polygenic multilocus approach to detect selection. Overall, this study highlights how a strategic geographic sampling design and the integration of genomic, phenotypic and environmental data can identify and disentangle the neutral and adaptive processes that are simultaneously operating during range expansions. PMID:26561985

  18. Adaptive windowed range-constrained Otsu method using local information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jia; Zhang, Dinghua; Huang, Kuidong; Sun, Yuanxi; Tang, Shaojie

    2016-01-01

    An adaptive windowed range-constrained Otsu method using local information is proposed for improving the performance of image segmentation. First, the reason why traditional thresholding methods do not perform well in the segmentation of complicated images is analyzed. Therein, the influences of global and local thresholdings on the image segmentation are compared. Second, two methods that can adaptively change the size of the local window according to local information are proposed by us. The characteristics of the proposed methods are analyzed. Thereby, the information on the number of edge pixels in the local window of the binarized variance image is employed to adaptively change the local window size. Finally, the superiority of the proposed method over other methods such as the range-constrained Otsu, the active contour model, the double Otsu, the Bradley's, and the distance-regularized level set evolution is demonstrated. It is validated by the experiments that the proposed method can keep more details and acquire much more satisfying area overlap measure as compared with the other conventional methods.

  19. Searching for adaptive traits in genetic resources - phenology based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, Abdallah

    2015-04-01

    Searching for adaptive traits in genetic resources - phenology based approach Abdallah Bari, Kenneth Street, Eddy De Pauw, Jalal Eddin Omari, and Chandra M. Biradar International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, Rabat Institutes, Rabat, Morocco Phenology is an important plant trait not only for assessing and forecasting food production but also for searching in genebanks for adaptive traits. Among the phenological parameters we have been considering to search for such adaptive and rare traits are the onset (sowing period) and the seasonality (growing period). Currently an application is being developed as part of the focused identification of germplasm strategy (FIGS) approach to use climatic data in order to identify crop growing seasons and characterize them in terms of onset and duration. These approximations of growing period characteristics can then be used to estimate flowering and maturity dates for dryland crops, such as wheat, barley, faba bean, lentils and chickpea, and assess, among others, phenology-related traits such as days to heading [dhe] and grain filling period [gfp]. The approach followed here is based on first calculating long term average daily temperatures by fitting a curve to the monthly data over days from beginning of the year. Prior to the identification of these phenological stages the onset is extracted first from onset integer raster GIS layers developed based on a model of the growing period that considers both moisture and temperature limitations. The paper presents some examples of real applications of the approach to search for rare and adaptive traits.

  20. Locally-adaptive and memetic evolutionary pattern search algorithms.

    PubMed

    Hart, William E

    2003-01-01

    Recent convergence analyses of evolutionary pattern search algorithms (EPSAs) have shown that these methods have a weak stationary point convergence theory for a broad class of unconstrained and linearly constrained problems. This paper describes how the convergence theory for EPSAs can be adapted to allow each individual in a population to have its own mutation step length (similar to the design of evolutionary programing and evolution strategies algorithms). These are called locally-adaptive EPSAs (LA-EPSAs) since each individual's mutation step length is independently adapted in different local neighborhoods. The paper also describes a variety of standard formulations of evolutionary algorithms that can be used for LA-EPSAs. Further, it is shown how this convergence theory can be applied to memetic EPSAs, which use local search to refine points within each iteration. PMID:12804096

  1. Self-Adaptive Stepsize Search Applied to Optimal Structural Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolle, L.; Bland, J. A.

    Structural engineering often involves the design of space frames that are required to resist predefined external forces without exhibiting plastic deformation. The weight of the structure and hence the weight of its constituent members has to be as low as possible for economical reasons without violating any of the load constraints. Design spaces are usually vast and the computational costs for analyzing a single design are usually high. Therefore, not every possible design can be evaluated for real-world problems. In this work, a standard structural design problem, the 25-bar problem, has been solved using self-adaptive stepsize search (SASS), a relatively new search heuristic. This algorithm has only one control parameter and therefore overcomes the drawback of modern search heuristics, i.e. the need to first find a set of optimum control parameter settings for the problem at hand. In this work, SASS outperforms simulated-annealing, genetic algorithms, tabu search and ant colony optimization.

  2. Query-Adaptive Reciprocal Hash Tables for Nearest Neighbor Search.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianglong; Deng, Cheng; Lang, Bo; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2016-02-01

    Recent years have witnessed the success of binary hashing techniques in approximate nearest neighbor search. In practice, multiple hash tables are usually built using hashing to cover more desired results in the hit buckets of each table. However, rare work studies the unified approach to constructing multiple informative hash tables using any type of hashing algorithms. Meanwhile, for multiple table search, it also lacks of a generic query-adaptive and fine-grained ranking scheme that can alleviate the binary quantization loss suffered in the standard hashing techniques. To solve the above problems, in this paper, we first regard the table construction as a selection problem over a set of candidate hash functions. With the graph representation of the function set, we propose an efficient solution that sequentially applies normalized dominant set to finding the most informative and independent hash functions for each table. To further reduce the redundancy between tables, we explore the reciprocal hash tables in a boosting manner, where the hash function graph is updated with high weights emphasized on the misclassified neighbor pairs of previous hash tables. To refine the ranking of the retrieved buckets within a certain Hamming radius from the query, we propose a query-adaptive bitwise weighting scheme to enable fine-grained bucket ranking in each hash table, exploiting the discriminative power of its hash functions and their complement for nearest neighbor search. Moreover, we integrate such scheme into the multiple table search using a fast, yet reciprocal table lookup algorithm within the adaptive weighted Hamming radius. In this paper, both the construction method and the query-adaptive search method are general and compatible with different types of hashing algorithms using different feature spaces and/or parameter settings. Our extensive experiments on several large-scale benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed techniques can significantly outperform both

  3. Sirius: a long-range infrared search and track system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knepper, R.

    1997-08-01

    Sirius is a long range infra red search and track system (LR- IRST) and intended to be used in an anti air warfare (AAW) multisensor suite on board of modern frigates. This Dutch/Canadian development program started 1/1/95 and includes also the evaluation of the system in warm and cold water scenarios. The operational requirements were drafted by both the national navies. The primary task is automatic detection, tracking and reporting of seaskimming missiles at long range. The design is based on recent experiences with IRSTs and the latest technological achievements in the areas of processing capabilities and IR-detectors. In this presentation design drivers and main technical choices are discussed.

  4. Search for exotic short-range interactions using paramagnetic insulators

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chu, Pinghan; Weisman, E.; Liu, C. -Y.; Long, J. C.

    2015-05-26

    We describe a proposed experimental search for exotic spin-coupled interactions using a solid-state paramagnetic insulator. The experiment is sensitive to the net magnetization induced by the exotic interaction between the unpaired insulator electrons with a dense, nonmagnetic mass in close proximity. An existing experiment has been used to set limits on the electric dipole moment of the electron by probing the magnetization induced in a cryogenic gadolinium gallium garnet sample on application of a strong electric field. With suitable additions, including a movable source mass, this experiment can be used to explore “monopole-dipole” forces on polarized electrons with unique ormore » unprecedented sensitivity. As a result, the solid-state, nonmagnetic construction, combined with the low-noise conditions and extremely sensitive magnetometry available at cryogenic temperatures could lead to a sensitivity over 10 orders of magnitude greater than exiting limits in the range below 1 mm.« less

  5. Search for exotic short-range interactions using paramagnetic insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Pinghan; Weisman, E.; Liu, C. -Y.; Long, J. C.

    2015-05-26

    We describe a proposed experimental search for exotic spin-coupled interactions using a solid-state paramagnetic insulator. The experiment is sensitive to the net magnetization induced by the exotic interaction between the unpaired insulator electrons with a dense, nonmagnetic mass in close proximity. An existing experiment has been used to set limits on the electric dipole moment of the electron by probing the magnetization induced in a cryogenic gadolinium gallium garnet sample on application of a strong electric field. With suitable additions, including a movable source mass, this experiment can be used to explore “monopole-dipole” forces on polarized electrons with unique or unprecedented sensitivity. As a result, the solid-state, nonmagnetic construction, combined with the low-noise conditions and extremely sensitive magnetometry available at cryogenic temperatures could lead to a sensitivity over 10 orders of magnitude greater than exiting limits in the range below 1 mm.

  6. Adaptive Optics for Satellite Imaging and Space Debris Ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennet, F.; D'Orgeville, C.; Price, I.; Rigaut, F.; Ritchie, I.; Smith, C.

    Earth's space environment is becoming crowded and at risk of a Kessler syndrome, and will require careful management for the future. Modern low noise high speed detectors allow for wavefront sensing and adaptive optics (AO) in extreme circumstances such as imaging small orbiting bodies in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics (RSAA) at the Australian National University have been developing AO systems for telescopes between 1 and 2.5m diameter to image and range orbiting satellites and space debris. Strehl ratios in excess of 30% can be achieved for targets in LEO with an AO loop running at 2kHz, allowing the resolution of small features (<30cm) and the capability to determine object shape and spin characteristics. The AO system developed at RSAA consists of a high speed EMCCD Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, a deformable mirror (DM), and realtime computer (RTC), and an imaging camera. The system works best as a laser guide star system but will also function as a natural guide star AO system, with the target itself being the guide star. In both circumstances tip-tilt is provided by the target on the imaging camera. The fast tip-tilt modes are not corrected optically, and are instead removed by taking images at a moderate speed (>30Hz) and using a shift and add algorithm. This algorithm can also incorporate lucky imaging to further improve the final image quality. A similar AO system for space debris ranging is also in development in collaboration with Electro Optic Systems (EOS) and the Space Environment Management Cooperative Research Centre (SERC), at the Mount Stromlo Observatory in Canberra, Australia. The system is designed for an AO corrected upward propagated 1064nm pulsed laser beam, from which time of flight information is used to precisely range the target. A 1.8m telescope is used for both propagation and collection of laser light. A laser guide star, Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, and DM are used for high order

  7. Radar Range Sidelobe Reduction Using Adaptive Pulse Compression Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Lihua; Coon, Michael; McLinden, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Pulse compression has been widely used in radars so that low-power, long RF pulses can be transmitted, rather than a highpower short pulse. Pulse compression radars offer a number of advantages over high-power short pulsed radars, such as no need of high-power RF circuitry, no need of high-voltage electronics, compact size and light weight, better range resolution, and better reliability. However, range sidelobe associated with pulse compression has prevented the use of this technique on spaceborne radars since surface returns detected by range sidelobes may mask the returns from a nearby weak cloud or precipitation particles. Research on adaptive pulse compression was carried out utilizing a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) waveform generation board and a radar transceiver simulator. The results have shown significant improvements in pulse compression sidelobe performance. Microwave and millimeter-wave radars present many technological challenges for Earth and planetary science applications. The traditional tube-based radars use high-voltage power supply/modulators and high-power RF transmitters; therefore, these radars usually have large size, heavy weight, and reliability issues for space and airborne platforms. Pulse compression technology has provided a path toward meeting many of these radar challenges. Recent advances in digital waveform generation, digital receivers, and solid-state power amplifiers have opened a new era for applying pulse compression to the development of compact and high-performance airborne and spaceborne remote sensing radars. The primary objective of this innovative effort is to develop and test a new pulse compression technique to achieve ultrarange sidelobes so that this technique can be applied to spaceborne, airborne, and ground-based remote sensing radars to meet future science requirements. By using digital waveform generation, digital receiver, and solid-state power amplifier technologies, this improved pulse compression

  8. Generalized pattern search algorithms with adaptive precision function evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Polak, Elijah; Wetter, Michael

    2003-05-14

    In the literature on generalized pattern search algorithms, convergence to a stationary point of a once continuously differentiable cost function is established under the assumption that the cost function can be evaluated exactly. However, there is a large class of engineering problems where the numerical evaluation of the cost function involves the solution of systems of differential algebraic equations. Since the termination criteria of the numerical solvers often depend on the design parameters, computer code for solving these systems usually defines a numerical approximation to the cost function that is discontinuous with respect to the design parameters. Standard generalized pattern search algorithms have been applied heuristically to such problems, but no convergence properties have been stated. In this paper we extend a class of generalized pattern search algorithms to a form that uses adaptive precision approximations to the cost function. These numerical approximations need not define a continuous function. Our algorithms can be used for solving linearly constrained problems with cost functions that are at least locally Lipschitz continuous. Assuming that the cost function is smooth, we prove that our algorithms converge to a stationary point. Under the weaker assumption that the cost function is only locally Lipschitz continuous, we show that our algorithms converge to points at which the Clarke generalized directional derivatives are nonnegative in predefined directions. An important feature of our adaptive precision scheme is the use of coarse approximations in the early iterations, with the approximation precision controlled by a test. Such an approach leads to substantial time savings in minimizing computationally expensive functions.

  9. A Search for a General Phenomenon of Adaptive Mutability

    PubMed Central

    Galitski, T.; Roth, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    The most prominent systems for the study of adaptive mutability depend on the specialized activities of genetic elements like bacteriophage Mu and the F plasmid. Searching for general adaptive mutability, we have investigated the behavior of Salmonella typhimurium strains with chromosomal lacZ mutations. We have studied 30 revertible nonsense, missense, frameshift, and insertion alleles. One-third of the mutants produced >=10 late revertant colonies (appearing three to seven days after plating on selective medium). For the prolific mutants, the number of late revertants showed rank correlation with the residual β-galactosidase activity; for the same mutants, revertant number showed no correlation with the nonselective reversion rate (from fluctuation tests). Leaky mutants, which grew slowly on selective medium, produced late revertants whereas tight nongrowing mutants generally did not produce late revertants. However, the number of late revertants was not proportional to residual growth. Using total residual growth and the nonselective reversion rate, the expected number of late revertants was calculated. For several leaky mutants, the observed revertant number exceeded the expected number. We suggest that excess late revertants from these mutants arise from general adaptive mutability available to any chromosomal gene. PMID:8725216

  10. Anthropogenically induced adaptation to invade (AIAI): contemporary adaptation to human-altered habitats within the native range can promote invasions

    PubMed Central

    Hufbauer, Ruth A; Facon, Benoît; Ravigné, Virginie; Turgeon, Julie; Foucaud, Julien; Lee, Carol E; Rey, Olivier; Estoup, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive evolution is currently accepted as playing a significant role in biological invasions. Adaptations relevant to invasions are typically thought to occur either recently within the introduced range, as an evolutionary response to novel selection regimes, or within the native range, because of long-term adaptation to the local environment. We propose that recent adaptation within the native range, in particular adaptations to human-altered habitat, could also contribute to the evolution of invasive populations. Populations adapted to human-altered habitats in the native range are likely to increase in abundance within areas frequented by humans and associated with human transport mechanisms, thus enhancing the likelihood of transport to a novel range. Given that habitats are altered by humans in similar ways worldwide, as evidenced by global environmental homogenization, propagules from populations adapted to human-altered habitats in the native range should perform well within similarly human-altered habitats in the novel range. We label this scenario ‘Anthropogenically Induced Adaptation to Invade’. We illustrate how it differs from other evolutionary processes that may occur during invasions, and how it can help explain accelerating rates of invasions. PMID:25568032

  11. Anthropogenically induced adaptation to invade (AIAI): contemporary adaptation to human-altered habitats within the native range can promote invasions.

    PubMed

    Hufbauer, Ruth A; Facon, Benoît; Ravigné, Virginie; Turgeon, Julie; Foucaud, Julien; Lee, Carol E; Rey, Olivier; Estoup, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive evolution is currently accepted as playing a significant role in biological invasions. Adaptations relevant to invasions are typically thought to occur either recently within the introduced range, as an evolutionary response to novel selection regimes, or within the native range, because of long-term adaptation to the local environment. We propose that recent adaptation within the native range, in particular adaptations to human-altered habitat, could also contribute to the evolution of invasive populations. Populations adapted to human-altered habitats in the native range are likely to increase in abundance within areas frequented by humans and associated with human transport mechanisms, thus enhancing the likelihood of transport to a novel range. Given that habitats are altered by humans in similar ways worldwide, as evidenced by global environmental homogenization, propagules from populations adapted to human-altered habitats in the native range should perform well within similarly human-altered habitats in the novel range. We label this scenario 'Anthropogenically Induced Adaptation to Invade'. We illustrate how it differs from other evolutionary processes that may occur during invasions, and how it can help explain accelerating rates of invasions. PMID:25568032

  12. A Novel Adaptive Cuckoo Search for Optimal Query Plan Generation

    PubMed Central

    Gomathi, Ramalingam; Sharmila, Dhandapani

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of multiple web pages day by day leads to the development of the semantic web technology. A World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standard for storing semantic web data is the resource description framework (RDF). To enhance the efficiency in the execution time for querying large RDF graphs, the evolving metaheuristic algorithms become an alternate to the traditional query optimization methods. This paper focuses on the problem of query optimization of semantic web data. An efficient algorithm called adaptive Cuckoo search (ACS) for querying and generating optimal query plan for large RDF graphs is designed in this research. Experiments were conducted on different datasets with varying number of predicates. The experimental results have exposed that the proposed approach has provided significant results in terms of query execution time. The extent to which the algorithm is efficient is tested and the results are documented. PMID:25215330

  13. A novel adaptive Cuckoo search for optimal query plan generation.

    PubMed

    Gomathi, Ramalingam; Sharmila, Dhandapani

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of multiple web pages day by day leads to the development of the semantic web technology. A World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standard for storing semantic web data is the resource description framework (RDF). To enhance the efficiency in the execution time for querying large RDF graphs, the evolving metaheuristic algorithms become an alternate to the traditional query optimization methods. This paper focuses on the problem of query optimization of semantic web data. An efficient algorithm called adaptive Cuckoo search (ACS) for querying and generating optimal query plan for large RDF graphs is designed in this research. Experiments were conducted on different datasets with varying number of predicates. The experimental results have exposed that the proposed approach has provided significant results in terms of query execution time. The extent to which the algorithm is efficient is tested and the results are documented. PMID:25215330

  14. Accelerated search for materials with targeted properties by adaptive design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Dezhen; Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Hogden, John; Theiler, James; Xue, Deqing; Lookman, Turab

    2016-04-01

    Finding new materials with targeted properties has traditionally been guided by intuition, and trial and error. With increasing chemical complexity, the combinatorial possibilities are too large for an Edisonian approach to be practical. Here we show how an adaptive design strategy, tightly coupled with experiments, can accelerate the discovery process by sequentially identifying the next experiments or calculations, to effectively navigate the complex search space. Our strategy uses inference and global optimization to balance the trade-off between exploitation and exploration of the search space. We demonstrate this by finding very low thermal hysteresis (ΔT) NiTi-based shape memory alloys, with Ti50.0Ni46.7Cu0.8Fe2.3Pd0.2 possessing the smallest ΔT (1.84 K). We synthesize and characterize 36 predicted compositions (9 feedback loops) from a potential space of ~800,000 compositions. Of these, 14 had smaller ΔT than any of the 22 in the original data set.

  15. Accelerated search for materials with targeted properties by adaptive design.

    PubMed

    Xue, Dezhen; Balachandran, Prasanna V; Hogden, John; Theiler, James; Xue, Deqing; Lookman, Turab

    2016-01-01

    Finding new materials with targeted properties has traditionally been guided by intuition, and trial and error. With increasing chemical complexity, the combinatorial possibilities are too large for an Edisonian approach to be practical. Here we show how an adaptive design strategy, tightly coupled with experiments, can accelerate the discovery process by sequentially identifying the next experiments or calculations, to effectively navigate the complex search space. Our strategy uses inference and global optimization to balance the trade-off between exploitation and exploration of the search space. We demonstrate this by finding very low thermal hysteresis (ΔT) NiTi-based shape memory alloys, with Ti50.0Ni46.7Cu0.8Fe2.3Pd0.2 possessing the smallest ΔT (1.84 K). We synthesize and characterize 36 predicted compositions (9 feedback loops) from a potential space of ∼800,000 compositions. Of these, 14 had smaller ΔT than any of the 22 in the original data set. PMID:27079901

  16. Accelerated search for materials with targeted properties by adaptive design

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Dezhen; Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Hogden, John; Theiler, James; Xue, Deqing; Lookman, Turab

    2016-01-01

    Finding new materials with targeted properties has traditionally been guided by intuition, and trial and error. With increasing chemical complexity, the combinatorial possibilities are too large for an Edisonian approach to be practical. Here we show how an adaptive design strategy, tightly coupled with experiments, can accelerate the discovery process by sequentially identifying the next experiments or calculations, to effectively navigate the complex search space. Our strategy uses inference and global optimization to balance the trade-off between exploitation and exploration of the search space. We demonstrate this by finding very low thermal hysteresis (ΔT) NiTi-based shape memory alloys, with Ti50.0Ni46.7Cu0.8Fe2.3Pd0.2 possessing the smallest ΔT (1.84 K). We synthesize and characterize 36 predicted compositions (9 feedback loops) from a potential space of ∼800,000 compositions. Of these, 14 had smaller ΔT than any of the 22 in the original data set. PMID:27079901

  17. Adaptive optimal spectral range for dynamically changing scene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinsky, Ephi; Siman-tov, Avihay; Peles, David

    2012-06-01

    A novel multispectral video system that continuously optimizes both its spectral range channels and the exposure time of each channel autonomously, under dynamic scenes, varying from short range-clear scene to long range-poor visibility, is currently being developed. Transparency and contrast of high scattering medium of channels with spectral ranges in the near infrared is superior to the visible channels, particularly to the blue range. Longer wavelength spectral ranges that induce higher contrast are therefore favored. Images of 3 spectral channels are fused and displayed for (pseudo) color visualization, as an integrated high contrast video stream. In addition to the dynamic optimization of the spectral channels, optimal real-time exposure time is adjusted simultaneously and autonomously for each channel. A criterion of maximum average signal, derived dynamically from previous frames of the video stream is used (Patent Application - International Publication Number: WO2009/093110 A2, 30.07.2009). This configuration enables dynamic compatibility with the optimal exposure time of a dynamically changing scene. It also maximizes the signal to noise ratio and compensates each channel for the specified value of daylight reflections and sensors response for each spectral range. A possible implementation is a color video camera based on 4 synchronized, highly responsive, CCD imaging detectors, attached to a 4CCD dichroic prism and combined with a common, color corrected, lens. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) technique is then applied for real time "dimensional collapse" in color space, in order to select and fuse, for clear color visualization, the 3 most significant principal channels out of at least 4 characterized by high contrast and rich details in the image data.

  18. Adaptive camouflage in the VIS and IR spectral range: main principles and mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a survey of main applicable technical principles and mechanisms for adaptive camouflage in the visible (VIS) and infrared (IR) spectral ranges. All principles are described by their operation method and technical data such as the active spectral range, the degree and speed of adaptation, weight, power consumption, robustness, usability, lifetime, technology readiness level (TRL) etc.. The paper allows to compare the different principles and to assess them with regard to an application to an adaptive camouflage system.

  19. Adaptive nowcasting of influenza outbreaks using Google searches

    PubMed Central

    Preis, Tobias; Moat, Helen Susannah

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal influenza outbreaks and pandemics of new strains of the influenza virus affect humans around the globe. However, traditional systems for measuring the spread of flu infections deliver results with one or two weeks delay. Recent research suggests that data on queries made to the search engine Google can be used to address this problem, providing real-time estimates of levels of influenza-like illness in a population. Others have however argued that equally good estimates of current flu levels can be forecast using historic flu measurements. Here, we build dynamic ‘nowcasting’ models; in other words, forecasting models that estimate current levels of influenza, before the release of official data one week later. We find that when using Google Flu Trends data in combination with historic flu levels, the mean absolute error (MAE) of in-sample ‘nowcasts’ can be significantly reduced by 14.4%, compared with a baseline model that uses historic data on flu levels only. We further demonstrate that the MAE of out-of-sample nowcasts can also be significantly reduced by between 16.0% and 52.7%, depending on the length of the sliding training interval. We conclude that, using adaptive models, Google Flu Trends data can indeed be used to improve real-time influenza monitoring, even when official reports of flu infections are available with only one week's delay. PMID:26064532

  20. Adaptive nowcasting of influenza outbreaks using Google searches.

    PubMed

    Preis, Tobias; Moat, Helen Susannah

    2014-10-01

    Seasonal influenza outbreaks and pandemics of new strains of the influenza virus affect humans around the globe. However, traditional systems for measuring the spread of flu infections deliver results with one or two weeks delay. Recent research suggests that data on queries made to the search engine Google can be used to address this problem, providing real-time estimates of levels of influenza-like illness in a population. Others have however argued that equally good estimates of current flu levels can be forecast using historic flu measurements. Here, we build dynamic 'nowcasting' models; in other words, forecasting models that estimate current levels of influenza, before the release of official data one week later. We find that when using Google Flu Trends data in combination with historic flu levels, the mean absolute error (MAE) of in-sample 'nowcasts' can be significantly reduced by 14.4%, compared with a baseline model that uses historic data on flu levels only. We further demonstrate that the MAE of out-of-sample nowcasts can also be significantly reduced by between 16.0% and 52.7%, depending on the length of the sliding training interval. We conclude that, using adaptive models, Google Flu Trends data can indeed be used to improve real-time influenza monitoring, even when official reports of flu infections are available with only one week's delay. PMID:26064532

  1. Evaluation of dynamically dimensioned search algorithm for optimizing SWAT by altering sampling distributions and searching range

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary advantage of Dynamically Dimensioned Search algorithm (DDS) is that it outperforms many other optimization techniques in both convergence speed and the ability in searching for parameter sets that satisfy statistical guidelines while requiring only one algorithm parameter (perturbation f...

  2. Combined Search for Lorentz Violation in Short-Range Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Cheng-Gang; Tan, Yu-Jie; Tan, Wen-Hai; Yang, Shan-Qing; Luo, Jun; Tobar, Michael Edmund; Bailey, Quentin G.; Long, J. C.; Weisman, E.; Xu, Rui; Kostelecký, V. Alan

    2016-08-01

    Short-range experiments testing the gravitational inverse-square law at the submillimeter scale offer uniquely sensitive probes of Lorentz invariance. A combined analysis of results from the short-range gravity experiments HUST-2015, HUST-2011, IU-2012, and IU-2002 permits the first independent measurements of the 14 nonrelativistic coefficients for Lorentz violation in the pure-gravity sector at the level of 10-9 m2 , improving by an order of magnitude the sensitivity to numerous types of Lorentz violation involving quadratic curvature derivatives and curvature couplings.

  3. Combined Search for Lorentz Violation in Short-Range Gravity.

    PubMed

    Shao, Cheng-Gang; Tan, Yu-Jie; Tan, Wen-Hai; Yang, Shan-Qing; Luo, Jun; Tobar, Michael Edmund; Bailey, Quentin G; Long, J C; Weisman, E; Xu, Rui; Kostelecký, V Alan

    2016-08-12

    Short-range experiments testing the gravitational inverse-square law at the submillimeter scale offer uniquely sensitive probes of Lorentz invariance. A combined analysis of results from the short-range gravity experiments HUST-2015, HUST-2011, IU-2012, and IU-2002 permits the first independent measurements of the 14 nonrelativistic coefficients for Lorentz violation in the pure-gravity sector at the level of 10^{-9}  m^{2}, improving by an order of magnitude the sensitivity to numerous types of Lorentz violation involving quadratic curvature derivatives and curvature couplings. PMID:27563946

  4. Parameter estimation for chaotic systems using a hybrid adaptive cuckoo search with simulated annealing algorithm.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Shudao; Zhou, Bihua

    2014-03-01

    This paper introduces a novel hybrid optimization algorithm to establish the parameters of chaotic systems. In order to deal with the weaknesses of the traditional cuckoo search algorithm, the proposed adaptive cuckoo search with simulated annealing algorithm is presented, which incorporates the adaptive parameters adjusting operation and the simulated annealing operation in the cuckoo search algorithm. Normally, the parameters of the cuckoo search algorithm are kept constant that may result in decreasing the efficiency of the algorithm. For the purpose of balancing and enhancing the accuracy and convergence rate of the cuckoo search algorithm, the adaptive operation is presented to tune the parameters properly. Besides, the local search capability of cuckoo search algorithm is relatively weak that may decrease the quality of optimization. So the simulated annealing operation is merged into the cuckoo search algorithm to enhance the local search ability and improve the accuracy and reliability of the results. The functionality of the proposed hybrid algorithm is investigated through the Lorenz chaotic system under the noiseless and noise condition, respectively. The numerical results demonstrate that the method can estimate parameters efficiently and accurately in the noiseless and noise condition. Finally, the results are compared with the traditional cuckoo search algorithm, genetic algorithm, and particle swarm optimization algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and superior performance of the proposed algorithm. PMID:24697395

  5. Parameter estimation for chaotic systems using a hybrid adaptive cuckoo search with simulated annealing algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Bihua; Zhou, Shudao

    2014-03-15

    This paper introduces a novel hybrid optimization algorithm to establish the parameters of chaotic systems. In order to deal with the weaknesses of the traditional cuckoo search algorithm, the proposed adaptive cuckoo search with simulated annealing algorithm is presented, which incorporates the adaptive parameters adjusting operation and the simulated annealing operation in the cuckoo search algorithm. Normally, the parameters of the cuckoo search algorithm are kept constant that may result in decreasing the efficiency of the algorithm. For the purpose of balancing and enhancing the accuracy and convergence rate of the cuckoo search algorithm, the adaptive operation is presented to tune the parameters properly. Besides, the local search capability of cuckoo search algorithm is relatively weak that may decrease the quality of optimization. So the simulated annealing operation is merged into the cuckoo search algorithm to enhance the local search ability and improve the accuracy and reliability of the results. The functionality of the proposed hybrid algorithm is investigated through the Lorenz chaotic system under the noiseless and noise condition, respectively. The numerical results demonstrate that the method can estimate parameters efficiently and accurately in the noiseless and noise condition. Finally, the results are compared with the traditional cuckoo search algorithm, genetic algorithm, and particle swarm optimization algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and superior performance of the proposed algorithm.

  6. Parameter estimation for chaotic systems using a hybrid adaptive cuckoo search with simulated annealing algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Shudao; Zhou, Bihua

    2014-03-01

    This paper introduces a novel hybrid optimization algorithm to establish the parameters of chaotic systems. In order to deal with the weaknesses of the traditional cuckoo search algorithm, the proposed adaptive cuckoo search with simulated annealing algorithm is presented, which incorporates the adaptive parameters adjusting operation and the simulated annealing operation in the cuckoo search algorithm. Normally, the parameters of the cuckoo search algorithm are kept constant that may result in decreasing the efficiency of the algorithm. For the purpose of balancing and enhancing the accuracy and convergence rate of the cuckoo search algorithm, the adaptive operation is presented to tune the parameters properly. Besides, the local search capability of cuckoo search algorithm is relatively weak that may decrease the quality of optimization. So the simulated annealing operation is merged into the cuckoo search algorithm to enhance the local search ability and improve the accuracy and reliability of the results. The functionality of the proposed hybrid algorithm is investigated through the Lorenz chaotic system under the noiseless and noise condition, respectively. The numerical results demonstrate that the method can estimate parameters efficiently and accurately in the noiseless and noise condition. Finally, the results are compared with the traditional cuckoo search algorithm, genetic algorithm, and particle swarm optimization algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and superior performance of the proposed algorithm.

  7. Dynamic Range Adaptation to Sound Level Statistics in the Auditory Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Bo; Wang, Grace I.; Dean, Isabel; Delgutte, Bertrand

    2009-01-01

    The auditory system operates over a vast range of sound pressure levels (100–120 dB) with nearly constant discrimination ability across most of the range, well exceeding the dynamic range of most auditory neurons (20–40 dB). Dean et al. (Nat. Neurosci. 8:1684, 2005) have reported that the dynamic range of midbrain auditory neurons adapts to the distribution of sound levels in a continuous, dynamic stimulus by shifting towards the most frequently occurring level. Here we show that dynamic range adaptation, distinct from classic firing rate adaptation, also occurs in primary auditory neurons in anesthetized cats for tone and noise stimuli. Specifically, the range of sound levels over which firing rates of auditory-nerve (AN) fibers grows rapidly with level shifts nearly linearly with the most probable levels in a dynamic sound stimulus. This dynamic range adaptation was observed for fibers with all characteristic frequencies and spontaneous discharge rates. As in the midbrain, dynamic range adaptation improved the precision of level coding by the AN fiber population for the prevailing sound levels in the stimulus. However, dynamic range adaptation in the AN was weaker than in the midbrain, and not sufficient (0.25 dB/dB on average for broadband noise) to prevent a significant degradation of the precision of level coding by the AN population above 60 dB SPL. These findings suggest that adaptive processing of sound levels first occurs in the auditory periphery and is enhanced along the auditory pathway. PMID:19889991

  8. Features: Real-Time Adaptive Feature and Document Learning for Web Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zhixiang; Meng, Xiannong; Fowler, Richard H.; Zhu, Binhai

    2001-01-01

    Describes Features, an intelligent Web search engine that is able to perform real-time adaptive feature (i.e., keyword) and document learning. Explains how Features learns from users' document relevance feedback and automatically extracts and suggests indexing keywords relevant to a search query, and learns from users' keyword relevance feedback…

  9. Neural network based adaptive control of nonlinear plants using random search optimization algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boussalis, Dhemetrios; Wang, Shyh J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a method for utilizing artificial neural networks for direct adaptive control of dynamic systems with poorly known dynamics. The neural network weights (controller gains) are adapted in real time using state measurements and a random search optimization algorithm. The results are demonstrated via simulation using two highly nonlinear systems.

  10. Rapid adaptation to climate facilitates range expansion of an invasive plant.

    PubMed

    Colautti, Robert I; Barrett, Spencer C H

    2013-10-18

    Adaptation to climate, evolving over contemporary time scales, could facilitate rapid range expansion across environmental gradients. Here, we examine local adaptation along a climatic gradient in the North American invasive plant Lythrum salicaria. We show that the evolution of earlier flowering is adaptive at the northern invasion front where it increases fitness as much as, or more than, the effects of enemy release and the evolution of increased competitive ability. However, early flowering decreases investment in vegetative growth, which reduces fitness by a factor of 3 in southern environments where the North American invasion commenced. Our results demonstrate that local adaptation can evolve quickly during range expansion, overcoming environmental constraints on propagule production. PMID:24136968

  11. Experimental adaptation of Burkholderia cenocepacia to onion medium reduces host range.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Crystal N; Cooper, Vaughn S

    2010-04-01

    It is unclear whether adaptation to a new host typically broadens or compromises host range, yet the answer bears on the fate of emergent pathogens and symbionts. We investigated this dynamic using a soil isolate of Burkholderia cenocepacia, a species that normally inhabits the rhizosphere, is related to the onion pathogen B. cepacia, and can infect the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. We hypothesized that adaptation of B. cenocepacia to a novel host would compromise fitness and virulence in alternative hosts. We modeled adaptation to a specific host by experimentally evolving 12 populations of B. cenocepacia in liquid medium composed of macerated onion tissue for 1,000 generations. The mean fitness of all populations increased by 78% relative to the ancestor, but significant variation among lines was observed. Populations also varied in several phenotypes related to host association, including motility, biofilm formation, and quorum-sensing function. Together, these results suggest that each population adapted by fixing different sets of adaptive mutations. However, this adaptation was consistently accompanied by a loss of pathogenicity to the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans; by 500 generations most populations became unable to kill nematodes. In conclusion, we observed a narrowing of host range as a consequence of prolonged adaptation to an environment simulating a specific host, and we suggest that emergent pathogens may face similar consequences if they become host-restricted. PMID:20154121

  12. Long-range Acoustic Interactions in Insect Swarms: An Adaptive Gravity Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbonos, Dan; Ianconescu, Reuven; Puckett, James G.; Ni, Rui; Ouellette, Nicholas T.; Gov, Nir S.

    The collective motion of groups of animals emerges from the net effect of the interactions between individual members of the group. In many cases, such as birds, fish, or ungulates, these interactions are mediated by sensory stimuli that predominantly arise from nearby neighbors. But not all stimuli in animal groups are short range. Here, we consider mating swarms of midges, which interact primarily via long-range acoustic stimuli. We exploit the similarity in form between the decay of acoustic and gravitational sources to build a model for swarm behavior. By accounting for the adaptive nature of the midges' acoustic sensing, we show that our ``adaptive gravity'' model makes mean-field predictions that agree well with experimental observations of laboratory swarms. Our results highlight the role of sensory mechanisms and interaction range in collective animal behavior. The adaptive interactions that we present here open a new class of equations of motion, which may appear in other biological contexts.

  13. Introduction beyond a species range: a relationship between population origin, adaptive potential and plant performance

    PubMed Central

    Volis, S; Ormanbekova, D; Yermekbayev, K; Song, M; Shulgina, I

    2014-01-01

    The adaptive potential of a population defines its importance for species survival in changing environmental conditions such as global climate change. Very few empirical studies have examined adaptive potential across species' ranges, namely, of edge vs core populations, and we are unaware of a study that has tested adaptive potential (namely, variation in adaptive traits) and measured performance of such populations in conditions not currently experienced by the species but expected in the future. Here we report the results of a Triticum dicoccoides population study that employed transplant experiments and analysis of quantitative trait variation. Two populations at the opposite edges of the species range (1) were locally adapted; (2) had lower adaptive potential (inferred from the extent of genetic quantitative trait variation) than the two core populations; and (3) were outperformed by the plants from the core population in the novel environment. The fact that plants from the species arid edge performed worse than plants from the more mesic core in extreme drought conditions beyond the present climatic envelope of the species implies that usage of peripheral populations for conservation purposes must be based on intensive sampling of among-population variation. PMID:24690758

  14. Stochastic Leader Gravitational Search Algorithm for Enhanced Adaptive Beamforming Technique

    PubMed Central

    Darzi, Soodabeh; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Tiong, Sieh Kiong; Kibria, Salehin; Singh, Mandeep

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, stochastic leader gravitational search algorithm (SL-GSA) based on randomized k is proposed. Standard GSA (SGSA) utilizes the best agents without any randomization, thus it is more prone to converge at suboptimal results. Initially, the new approach randomly choses k agents from the set of all agents to improve the global search ability. Gradually, the set of agents is reduced by eliminating the agents with the poorest performances to allow rapid convergence. The performance of the SL-GSA was analyzed for six well-known benchmark functions, and the results are compared with SGSA and some of its variants. Furthermore, the SL-GSA is applied to minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) beamforming technique to ensure compatibility with real world optimization problems. The proposed algorithm demonstrates superior convergence rate and quality of solution for both real world problems and benchmark functions compared to original algorithm and other recent variants of SGSA. PMID:26552032

  15. Stochastic Leader Gravitational Search Algorithm for Enhanced Adaptive Beamforming Technique.

    PubMed

    Darzi, Soodabeh; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Tiong, Sieh Kiong; Kibria, Salehin; Singh, Mandeep

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, stochastic leader gravitational search algorithm (SL-GSA) based on randomized k is proposed. Standard GSA (SGSA) utilizes the best agents without any randomization, thus it is more prone to converge at suboptimal results. Initially, the new approach randomly choses k agents from the set of all agents to improve the global search ability. Gradually, the set of agents is reduced by eliminating the agents with the poorest performances to allow rapid convergence. The performance of the SL-GSA was analyzed for six well-known benchmark functions, and the results are compared with SGSA and some of its variants. Furthermore, the SL-GSA is applied to minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) beamforming technique to ensure compatibility with real world optimization problems. The proposed algorithm demonstrates superior convergence rate and quality of solution for both real world problems and benchmark functions compared to original algorithm and other recent variants of SGSA. PMID:26552032

  16. Through the interaction of neutral and adaptive mutations, evolutionary search finds a way.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tina; Miller, Julian Francis

    2006-01-01

    An evolutionary system that supports the interaction of neutral and adaptive mutations is investigated. Experimental results on a Boolean function and needle-in-haystack problems show that this system enables evolutionary search to find better solutions faster. Through a novel analysis based on the ratio of neutral to adaptive mutations, we identify this interaction as an engine that automatically adjusts the relative amounts of exploration and exploitation to achieve effective search (i.e., it is self-adaptive). Moreover, a hypothesis to describe the search process in this system is proposed and investigated. Our findings lead us to counter the arguments of those who dismiss the usefulness of neutrality. We argue that the benefits of neutrality are intimately related to its implementation, so that one must be cautious about making general claims about its merits or demerits. PMID:16953784

  17. Incorporating Deeply Uncertain Factors into the Many Objective Search Process: Improving Adaptation to Environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprzyk, J. R.; Watson, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Deep uncertainty refers to situations in which decision makers or stakeholders do not know, or cannot fully agree upon, the full suite of risk factors within a planning problem. This phenomenon is especially important when considering scenarios of future environmental change, since there exist multiple trajectories of environmental forcings (e.g., streamflow timing and magnitude) and socioeconomic factors (e.g., population growth). This presentation first briefly reviews robust optimization and scenario approaches that have been proposed to plan for systems under deep uncertainty. One recently introduced framework is Many Objective Robust Decision Making (MORDM). MORDM combines two techniques: evolutionary algorithm search is used to generate planning alternatives, and robust decision making methods are used to sample performance over a large range of plausible factors and, subsequently, choose a robust solution. Within MORDM, Pareto approximate tradeoff sets of solutions are used to balance objectives and examine alternatives. However, MORDM does not currently incorporate the deeply uncertain scenario information into the search process itself. In this presentation, we suggest several avenues for doing so, that are focused on modifying the suite of uncertain data that is selected within the search process. Visualizations that compare tradeoff sets across different sets of assumptions can be used to guide decision makers' learning and, ultimately, their selection of several candidate solutions for further planning. For example, the baseline assumptions about probability distributions can be compared to optimization results under severe events to determine adaptive management strategies. A case study of water planning in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) in Texas is used to demonstrate the approach. Our LRGV results compare baseline optimization with new solution sets that examine optimal management strategies under scenarios characterized by lower than average

  18. Motion adaptive signal integration-high dynamic range (MASI-HDR) video processing for dynamic platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piacentino, Michael R.; Berends, David C.; Zhang, David C.; Gudis, Eduardo

    2013-05-01

    Two of the biggest challenges in designing U×V vision systems are properly representing high dynamic range scene content using low dynamic range components and reducing camera motion blur. SRI's MASI-HDR (Motion Adaptive Signal Integration-High Dynamic Range) is a novel technique for generating blur-reduced video using multiple captures for each displayed frame while increasing the effective camera dynamic range by four bits or more. MASI-HDR processing thus provides high performance video from rapidly moving platforms in real-world conditions in low latency real time, enabling even the most demanding applications on air, ground and water.

  19. Dementia alters standing postural adaptation during a visual search task in older adult men

    PubMed Central

    Joŕdan, Azizah J.; McCarten, J. Riley; Rottunda, Susan; Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Manor, Brad; Wade, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dementia on standing postural adaptation during performance of a visual search task. We recruited 16 older adults with dementia and 15 without dementia. Postural sway was assessed by recording medial-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) center-of-pressure when standing with and without a visual search task; i.e., counting target letter frequency within a block of displayed randomized letters. ML sway variability was significantly higher in those with dementia during visual search as compared to those without dementia and compared to both groups during the control condition. AP sway variability was significantly greater in those with dementia as compared to those without dementia, irrespective of task condition. In the ML direction, the absolute and percent change in sway variability between the control condition and visual search (i.e., postural adaptation) was greater in those with dementia as compared to those without. In contrast, postural adaptation to visual search was similar between groups in the AP direction. As compared to those without dementia, those with dementia identified fewer letters on the visual task. In the non-dementia group only, greater increases in postural adaptation in both the ML and AP direction, correlated with lower performance on the visual task. The observed relationship between postural adaptation during the visual search task and visual search task performance—in the non-dementia group only—suggests a critical link between perception and action. Dementia reduces the capacity to perform a visual-based task while standing and thus appears to disrupt this perception-action synergy. PMID:25770830

  20. Length-adaptive graph search for automatic segmentation of pathological features in optical coherence tomography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Brenton; Cunefare, David; Grewal, Dilraj S.; Mahmoud, Tamer H.; Izatt, Joseph A.; Farsiu, Sina

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a metric in graph search and demonstrate its application for segmenting retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of macular pathology. Our proposed "adjusted mean arc length" (AMAL) metric is an adaptation of the lowest mean arc length search technique for automated OCT segmentation. We compare this method to Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm, which we utilized previously in our popular graph theory and dynamic programming segmentation technique. As an illustrative example, we show that AMAL-based length-adaptive segmentation outperforms the shortest path in delineating the retina/vitreous boundary of patients with full-thickness macular holes when compared with expert manual grading.

  1. A trellis-searched APC (adaptive predictive coding) speech coder

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, K.T. ); Fischer, T.R. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we formulate a speech coding system that incorporates trellis coded vector quantization (TCVQ) and adaptive predictive coding (APC). A method for optimizing'' the TCVQ codebooks is presented and experimental results concerning survivor path mergings are reported. Simulation results are given for encoding rates of 16 and 9.6 kbps for a variety of coder parameters. The quality of the encoded speech is deemed excellent at an encoding rate of 16 kbps and very good at 9.6 kbps. 13 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Lévy flight and Brownian search patterns of a free-ranging predator reflect different prey field characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sims, David W; Humphries, Nicolas E; Bradford, Russell W; Bruce, Barry D

    2012-03-01

    1. Search processes play an important role in physical, chemical and biological systems. In animal foraging, the search strategy predators should use to search optimally for prey is an enduring question. Some models demonstrate that when prey is sparsely distributed, an optimal search pattern is a specialised random walk known as a Lévy flight, whereas when prey is abundant, simple Brownian motion is sufficiently efficient. These predictions form part of what has been termed the Lévy flight foraging hypothesis (LFF) which states that as Lévy flights optimise random searches, movements approximated by optimal Lévy flights may have naturally evolved in organisms to enhance encounters with targets (e.g. prey) when knowledge of their locations is incomplete. 2. Whether free-ranging predators exhibit the movement patterns predicted in the LFF hypothesis in response to known prey types and distributions, however, has not been determined. We tested this using vertical and horizontal movement data from electronic tagging of an apex predator, the great white shark Carcharodon carcharias, across widely differing habitats reflecting different prey types. 3. Individual white sharks exhibited movement patterns that predicted well the prey types expected under the LFF hypothesis. Shark movements were best approximated by Brownian motion when hunting near abundant, predictable sources of prey (e.g. seal colonies, fish aggregations), whereas movements approximating truncated Lévy flights were present when searching for sparsely distributed or potentially difficult-to-detect prey in oceanic or shelf environments, respectively. 4. That movement patterns approximated by truncated Lévy flights and Brownian behaviour were present in the predicted prey fields indicates search strategies adopted by white sharks appear to be the most efficient ones for encountering prey in the habitats where such patterns are observed. This suggests that C. carcharias appears capable of exhibiting

  3. Query-Adaptive Hash Code Ranking for Large-Scale Multi-View Visual Search.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianglong; Huang, Lei; Deng, Cheng; Lang, Bo; Tao, Dacheng

    2016-10-01

    Hash-based nearest neighbor search has become attractive in many applications. However, the quantization in hashing usually degenerates the discriminative power when using Hamming distance ranking. Besides, for large-scale visual search, existing hashing methods cannot directly support the efficient search over the data with multiple sources, and while the literature has shown that adaptively incorporating complementary information from diverse sources or views can significantly boost the search performance. To address the problems, this paper proposes a novel and generic approach to building multiple hash tables with multiple views and generating fine-grained ranking results at bitwise and tablewise levels. For each hash table, a query-adaptive bitwise weighting is introduced to alleviate the quantization loss by simultaneously exploiting the quality of hash functions and their complement for nearest neighbor search. From the tablewise aspect, multiple hash tables are built for different data views as a joint index, over which a query-specific rank fusion is proposed to rerank all results from the bitwise ranking by diffusing in a graph. Comprehensive experiments on image search over three well-known benchmarks show that the proposed method achieves up to 17.11% and 20.28% performance gains on single and multiple table search over the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:27448359

  4. Lost in Search: (Mal-)Adaptation to Probabilistic Decision Environments in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betsch, Tilmann; Lehmann, Anne; Lindow, Stefanie; Lang, Anna; Schoemann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive decision making in probabilistic environments requires individuals to use probabilities as weights in predecisional information searches and/or when making subsequent choices. Within a child-friendly computerized environment (Mousekids), we tracked 205 children's (105 children 5-6 years of age and 100 children 9-10 years of age) and 103…

  5. A Need for an Adaptive Search Tool for Teachers: Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyedarabi, Faezeh; Seyedarabi, Arefeh

    2005-01-01

    Whether intentionally or not, teachers are excluded from having the full benefit of the new technologies developed and adapted by the search engine developers, while all the current and proposed research and developments are focused mainly on the end users (students/learners, businesses and/the government) and not specifically on teachers who act…

  6. Environmental adaptation in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) throughout their North American range.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Benjamin C; Matala, Andrew P; Hess, Jon E; Narum, Shawn R

    2015-11-01

    Landscape genomics is a rapidly growing field with recent advances in both genotyping efficiency and statistical analyses that provide insight towards local adaptation of populations under varying environmental and selective pressure. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) are a broadly distributed Pacific salmon species, occupying a diversity of habitats throughout the northeastern Pacific with pronounced variation in environmental and climate features but little is understood regarding local adaptation in this species. We used a multivariate method, redundancy analysis (RDA), to identify polygenic correlations between 19,703 SNP loci and a suite of environmental variables in 46 collections of Chinook salmon (1956 total individuals) distributed throughout much of its North American range. Models in RDA were conducted on both rangewide and regional scales by hierarchical partitioning of the populations into three distinct genetic lineages. Our results indicate that between 5.8 and 21.8% of genomic variation can be accounted for by environmental features, and 566 putatively adaptive loci were identified as targets of environmental adaptation. The most influential drivers of adaptive divergence included precipitation in the driest quarter of the year (Rangewide and North Coastal Lineage, anova P = 0.002 and 0.01, respectively), precipitation in the wettest quarter of the year (Interior Columbia River Stream-Type Lineage, anova P = 0.03), variation in mean diurnal range in temperature (South Coastal Lineage, ANOVA P = 0.005), and migration distance (Rangewide, anova P = 0.001). Our results indicate that environmental features are strong drivers of adaptive genomic divergence in this species, and provide a foundation to investigate how Chinook salmon might respond to global environmental change. PMID:26465117

  7. Adaptive digital fringe projection technique for high dynamic range three-dimensional shape measurement.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui; Gao, Jian; Mei, Qing; He, Yunbo; Liu, Junxiu; Wang, Xingjin

    2016-04-01

    It is a challenge for any optical method to measure objects with a large range of reflectivity variation across the surface. Image saturation results in incorrect intensities in captured fringe pattern images, leading to phase and measurement errors. This paper presents a new adaptive digital fringe projection technique which avoids image saturation and has a high signal to noise ratio (SNR) in the three-dimensional (3-D) shape measurement of objects that has a large range of reflectivity variation across the surface. Compared to previous high dynamic range 3-D scan methods using many exposures and fringe pattern projections, which consumes a lot of time, the proposed technique uses only two preliminary steps of fringe pattern projection and image capture to generate the adapted fringe patterns, by adaptively adjusting the pixel-wise intensity of the projected fringe patterns based on the saturated pixels in the captured images of the surface being measured. For the bright regions due to high surface reflectivity and high illumination by the ambient light and surfaces interreflections, the projected intensity is reduced just to be low enough to avoid image saturation. Simultaneously, the maximum intensity of 255 is used for those dark regions with low surface reflectivity to maintain high SNR. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed technique can achieve higher 3-D measurement accuracy across a surface with a large range of reflectivity variation. PMID:27137056

  8. Ultra-wide Range Gamma Detector System for Search and Locate Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Odell, D. Mackenzie Odell; Harpring, Larry J.; Moore, Frank S. Jr.; French, Phillip J.; Gordon, John R.

    2005-10-26

    Collecting debris samples following a nuclear event requires that operations be conducted from a considerable stand-off distance. An ultra-wide range gamma detector system has been constructed to accomplish both long range radiation search and close range hot sample collection functions. Constructed and tested on a REMOTEC Andros platform, the system has demonstrated reliable operation over six orders of magnitude of gamma dose from 100's of uR/hr to over 100 R/hr. Functional elements include a remotely controlled variable collimator assembly, a NaI(Tl)/photomultiplier tube detector, a proprietary digital radiation instrument, a coaxially mounted video camera, a digital compass, and both local and remote control computers with a user interface designed for long range operations. Long range sensitivity and target location, as well as close range sample selection performance are presented.

  9. Efficient generation of discontinuity-preserving adaptive triangulations from range images.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Miguel Angel; Sappa, Angel Domingo

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents an efficient technique for generating adaptive triangular meshes from range images. The algorithm consists of two stages. First, a user-defined number of points is adaptively sampled from the given range image. Those points are chosen by taking into account the surface shapes represented in the range image in such a way that points tend to group in areas of high curvature and to disperse in low-variation regions. This selection process is done through a noniterative, inherently parallel algorithm in order to gain efficiency. Once the image has been subsampled, the second stage applies a two and one half-dimensional Delaunay triangulation to obtain an initial triangular mesh. To favor the preservation of surface and orientation discontinuities (jump and crease edges) present in the original range image, the aforementioned triangular mesh is iteratively modified by applying an efficient edge flipping technique. Results with real range images show accurate triangular approximations of the given range images with low processing times. PMID:15503496

  10. Interrelations between psychosocial functioning and adaptive- and maladaptive-range personality traits.

    PubMed

    Ro, Eunyoe; Clark, Lee Anna

    2013-08-01

    Decrements in one or more domains of psychosocial functioning (e.g., poor job performance, poor interpersonal relations) are commonly observed in psychiatric patients. The purpose of this study is to increase understanding of psychosocial functioning as a broad, multifaceted construct as well as its associations with both adaptive- and maladaptive-range personality traits in both nonclinical and psychiatric outpatient samples. The study was conducted in two phases. In Study 1, a nonclinical sample (N = 429) was administered seven psychosocial functioning and adaptive-range personality trait measures. In Study 2, psychiatric outpatients (N = 181) were administered the same psychosocial functioning measures, and maladaptive- as well as adaptive-range personality trait measures. Exploratory (both studies) and confirmatory (Study 2) factor analyses indicated a common three-factor, hierarchical structure of psychosocial functioning-Well Being, Social/Interpersonal Functioning, and Basic Functioning. These psychosocial functioning domains were closely--and differentially--linked with personality traits, especially strongly so in patients. Across samples, Well Being was associated with both Neuroticism/Negative Affectivity and Extraversion/Positive Affectivity, Social/Interpersonal Functioning was associated with both Agreeableness and Conscientiousness/Disinhibition, and Basic Functioning was associated with Conscientiousness/Disinhibition, although only modestly in the nonclinical sample. These relations generally were maintained even after partialing out current general dysphoric symptoms. These findings have implications for considering psychosocial functioning as an important third domain in a tripartite model together with personality and psychopathology. PMID:24016019

  11. Long-range acoustic interactions in insect swarms: an adaptive gravity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbonos, Dan; Ianconescu, Reuven; Puckett, James G.; Ni, Rui; Ouellette, Nicholas T.; Gov, Nir S.

    2016-07-01

    The collective motion of groups of animals emerges from the net effect of the interactions between individual members of the group. In many cases, such as birds, fish, or ungulates, these interactions are mediated by sensory stimuli that predominantly arise from nearby neighbors. But not all stimuli in animal groups are short range. Here, we consider mating swarms of midges, which are thought to interact primarily via long-range acoustic stimuli. We exploit the similarity in form between the decay of acoustic and gravitational sources to build a model for swarm behavior. By accounting for the adaptive nature of the midges’ acoustic sensing, we show that our ‘adaptive gravity’ model makes mean-field predictions that agree well with experimental observations of laboratory swarms. Our results highlight the role of sensory mechanisms and interaction range in collective animal behavior. Additionally, the adaptive interactions that we present here open a new class of equations of motion, which may appear in other biological contexts.

  12. SNP discovery in candidate adaptive genes using exon capture in a free-ranging alpine ungulate.

    PubMed

    Roffler, Gretchen H; Amish, Stephen J; Smith, Seth; Cosart, Ted; Kardos, Marty; Schwartz, Michael K; Luikart, Gordon

    2016-09-01

    Identification of genes underlying genomic signatures of natural selection is key to understanding adaptation to local conditions. We used targeted resequencing to identify SNP markers in 5321 candidate adaptive genes associated with known immunological, metabolic and growth functions in ovids and other ungulates. We selectively targeted 8161 exons in protein-coding and nearby 5' and 3' untranslated regions of chosen candidate genes. Targeted sequences were taken from bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) exon capture data and directly from the domestic sheep genome (Ovis aries v. 3; oviAri3). The bighorn sheep sequences used in the Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) exon capture aligned to 2350 genes on the oviAri3 genome with an average of 2 exons each. We developed a microfluidic qPCR-based SNP chip to genotype 476 Dall's sheep from locations across their range and test for patterns of selection. Using multiple corroborating approaches (lositan and bayescan), we detected 28 SNP loci potentially under selection. We additionally identified candidate loci significantly associated with latitude, longitude, precipitation and temperature, suggesting local environmental adaptation. The three methods demonstrated consistent support for natural selection on nine genes with immune and disease-regulating functions (e.g. Ovar-DRA, APC, BATF2, MAGEB18), cell regulation signalling pathways (e.g. KRIT1, PI3K, ORRC3), and respiratory health (CYSLTR1). Characterizing adaptive allele distributions from novel genetic techniques will facilitate investigation of the influence of environmental variation on local adaptation of a northern alpine ungulate throughout its range. This research demonstrated the utility of exon capture for gene-targeted SNP discovery and subsequent SNP chip genotyping using low-quality samples in a nonmodel species. PMID:27327375

  13. Understanding the wide geographic range of a clonal perennial grass: plasticity versus local adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanjie; Zhang, Lirong; Xu, Xingliang; Niu, Haishan

    2016-01-01

    Both phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation may allow widely distributed plant species to either acclimate or adapt to environmental heterogeneity. Given the typically low genetic variation of clonal plants across their habitats, phenotypic plasticity may be the primary adaptive strategy allowing them to thrive across a wide range of habitats. In this study, the mechanism supporting the widespread distribution of the clonal plant Leymus chinensis was determined, i.e. phenotypic plasticity or local specialization in water use efficiency (WUE; reflected by foliar δ13C). To test whether plasticity is required for the species to thrive in different habitats, samples were collected across its distribution in the Mongolian steppe, and a controlled watering experiment was conducted with two populations at two different sites. Five populations were also transplanted from different sites into a control environment, and the foliar δ13C was compared between the control and original habitats, to test for local specialization in WUE. Results demonstrated decreased foliar δ13C with increasing precipitation during controlled watering experiments, with divergent responses between the two populations assessed. Change in foliar δ13C (−3.69 ‰) due to water addition was comparable to fluctuations of foliar δ13C observed in situ (−4.83 ‰). Foliar δ13C differed by −0.91 ‰ between two transplanted populations; however, this difference was not apparent between the two populations when growing in their original habitats. Findings provide evidence that local adaptation affects foliar δ13C much less than phenotypic plasticity. Thus, plasticity in WUE is more important than local adaptation in allowing the clonal plant L. chinensis to occupy a wide range of habitats in the Mongolian steppe. PMID:26644341

  14. Understanding the wide geographic range of a clonal perennial grass: plasticity versus local adaptation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjie; Zhang, Lirong; Xu, Xingliang; Niu, Haishan

    2015-01-01

    Both phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation may allow widely distributed plant species to either acclimate or adapt to environmental heterogeneity. Given the typically low genetic variation of clonal plants across their habitats, phenotypic plasticity may be the primary adaptive strategy allowing them to thrive across a wide range of habitats. In this study, the mechanism supporting the widespread distribution of the clonal plant Leymus chinensis was determined, i.e. phenotypic plasticity or local specialization in water use efficiency (WUE; reflected by foliar δ(13)C). To test whether plasticity is required for the species to thrive in different habitats, samples were collected across its distribution in the Mongolian steppe, and a controlled watering experiment was conducted with two populations at two different sites. Five populations were also transplanted from different sites into a control environment, and the foliar δ(13)C was compared between the control and original habitats, to test for local specialization in WUE. Results demonstrated decreased foliar δ(13)C with increasing precipitation during controlled watering experiments, with divergent responses between the two populations assessed. Change in foliar δ(13)C (-3.69 ‰) due to water addition was comparable to fluctuations of foliar δ(13)C observed in situ (-4.83 ‰). Foliar δ(13)C differed by -0.91 ‰ between two transplanted populations; however, this difference was not apparent between the two populations when growing in their original habitats. Findings provide evidence that local adaptation affects foliar δ(13)C much less than phenotypic plasticity. Thus, plasticity in WUE is more important than local adaptation in allowing the clonal plant L. chinensis to occupy a wide range of habitats in the Mongolian steppe. PMID:26644341

  15. How to adapt broad-band gravitational-wave searches for r-modes

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, Benjamin J.

    2010-11-15

    Up to now there has been no search for gravitational waves from the r-modes of neutron stars in spite of the theoretical interest in the subject. Several oddities of r-modes must be addressed to obtain an observational result: The gravitational radiation field is dominated by the mass current (gravitomagnetic) quadrupole rather than the usual mass quadrupole, and the consequent difference in polarization affects detection statistics and parameter estimation. To astrophysically interpret a detection or upper limit it is necessary to convert the gravitational-wave amplitude to an r-mode amplitude. Also, it is helpful to know indirect limits on gravitational-wave emission to gauge the interest of various searches. Here I address these issues, thereby providing the ingredients to adapt broad-band searches for continuous gravitational waves to obtain r-mode results. I also show that searches of existing data can already have interesting sensitivities to r-modes.

  16. Double Chooz and the search for short range anti-neutrino oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Francis X.

    2009-06-01

    The Double Chooz Experiment seeks to search for short range antineutrino oscillations from the nuclear reactors at the Chooz Nuclear Power Station operated by Electricite de France in Northeastern France. The measurements are of interest to constraining the value for θ13 in current neutrino oscillation models. New scintillator types based on beta-diketone and pH stabilized carboxylic acid chemistry are described. New results from the study of these scintillators in the context of the detector design are reported.

  17. Measurements of Binary Stars with the Starfire Optical Range Adaptive Optics Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnaby, David; Spillar, Earl; Christou, Julian C.; Drummond, Jack D.

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the relative photometry produced by adaptive optics within the isoplanatic patch, we observed four binaries, 10 UMa, φ UMa, 81 Cnc, and κ UMa, with adaptive optics using natural guide stars on the 3.5 m telescope, as well as one binary, β Del, with adaptive optics using a laser guide star on the 1.5 m telescope at the Starfire Optical Range. Iterative blind deconvolution (IBD) and parametric blind deconvolution (PBD) techniques were used to postprocess the data, which produced consistent results for position angles, separations, and magnitude differences. We also conducted simulations that verify the agreement between IBD and PBD and compared their measurements to truth data. From the results of both observations and simulations, we conclude that adaptive optics is well suited for providing not only position angles and separations for close binaries, but also good relative magnitudes without quadrant ambiguity. From the observations, we find that the secondary of 81 Cnc (separation=0.12") appears to be 0.12 mag brighter than the primary at 0.85 μm and is, therefore, cooler. We also derive a new orbit for κ UMa (separation=0.067"). Our results for β Del (ADS 14073) have significantly improved precision compared with the 1998 analyses of the same data by ten Brummelaar and colleagues and by Roberts, ten Brummelaar, and Mason.

  18. Communication Range Dynamics and Performance Analysis for a Self-Adaptive Transmission Power Controller.

    PubMed

    Lucas Martínez, Néstor; Martínez Ortega, José-Fernán; Hernández Díaz, Vicente; Del Toro Matamoros, Raúl M

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of the nodes in a Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network (WSAN) is typically restricted by the sensing and acting coverage. This implies that the locations of the nodes may be, and usually are, not optimal from the point of view of the radio communication. Additionally, when the transmission power is tuned for those locations, there are other unpredictable factors that can cause connectivity failures, like interferences, signal fading due to passing objects and, of course, radio irregularities. A control-based self-adaptive system is a typical solution to improve the energy consumption while keeping good connectivity. In this paper, we explore how the communication range for each node evolves along the iterations of an energy saving self-adaptive transmission power controller when using different parameter sets in an outdoor scenario, providing a WSAN that automatically adapts to surrounding changes keeping good connectivity. The results obtained in this paper show how the parameters with the best performance keep a k-connected network, where k is in the range of the desired node degree plus or minus a specified tolerance value. PMID:27187397

  19. Communication Range Dynamics and Performance Analysis for a Self-Adaptive Transmission Power Controller †

    PubMed Central

    Lucas Martínez, Néstor; Martínez Ortega, José-Fernán; Hernández Díaz, Vicente; del Toro Matamoros, Raúl M.

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of the nodes in a Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network (WSAN) is typically restricted by the sensing and acting coverage. This implies that the locations of the nodes may be, and usually are, not optimal from the point of view of the radio communication. Additionally, when the transmission power is tuned for those locations, there are other unpredictable factors that can cause connectivity failures, like interferences, signal fading due to passing objects and, of course, radio irregularities. A control-based self-adaptive system is a typical solution to improve the energy consumption while keeping good connectivity. In this paper, we explore how the communication range for each node evolves along the iterations of an energy saving self-adaptive transmission power controller when using different parameter sets in an outdoor scenario, providing a WSAN that automatically adapts to surrounding changes keeping good connectivity. The results obtained in this paper show how the parameters with the best performance keep a k-connected network, where k is in the range of the desired node degree plus or minus a specified tolerance value. PMID:27187397

  20. Design for a region-wide adaptive search for the ivorybilled woodpecker with the objective of estimating occupancy and related parameters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, R.J.; Mordecai, Rua S.; Mattsson, B.G.; Conroy, M.J.; Pacifici, K.; Peterson, J.T.; Moore, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a survey design and field protocol for the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) search effort that will: (1) allow estimation of occupancy, use, and detection probability for habitats at two spatial scales within the bird?s former range, (2) assess relationships between occupancy, use, and habitat characteristics at those scales, (3) eventually allow the development of a population viability model that depends on patch occupancy instead of difficult-to-measure demographic parameters, and (4) be adaptive, allowing newly collected information to update the above models and search locations. The approach features random selection of patches to be searched from a sampling frame stratified and weighted by patch quality, and requires multiple visits per patch. It is adaptive within a season in that increased search activity is allowed in and around locations of strong visual and/or aural evidence, and adaptive among seasons in that habitat associations allow modification of stratum weights. This statistically rigorous approach is an improvement over simply visiting the ?best? habitat in an ad hoc fashion because we can learn from prior effort and modify the search accordingly. Results from the 2006-07 search season indicate weak relationships between occupancy and habitat (although we suggest modifications of habitat measurement protocols), and a very low detection probability, suggesting more visits per patch are required. Sample size requirements will be discussed.

  1. Inversion for Refractivity Parameters Using a Dynamic Adaptive Cuckoo Search with Crossover Operator Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhihua; Sheng, Zheng; Shi, Hanqing; Fan, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Using the RFC technique to estimate refractivity parameters is a complex nonlinear optimization problem. In this paper, an improved cuckoo search (CS) algorithm is proposed to deal with this problem. To enhance the performance of the CS algorithm, a parameter dynamic adaptive operation and crossover operation were integrated into the standard CS (DACS-CO). Rechenberg's 1/5 criteria combined with learning factor were used to control the parameter dynamic adaptive adjusting process. The crossover operation of genetic algorithm was utilized to guarantee the population diversity. The new hybrid algorithm has better local search ability and contributes to superior performance. To verify the ability of the DACS-CO algorithm to estimate atmospheric refractivity parameters, the simulation data and real radar clutter data are both implemented. The numerical experiments demonstrate that the DACS-CO algorithm can provide an effective method for near-real-time estimation of the atmospheric refractivity profile from radar clutter. PMID:27212938

  2. Inversion for Refractivity Parameters Using a Dynamic Adaptive Cuckoo Search with Crossover Operator Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhihua; Sheng, Zheng; Shi, Hanqing; Fan, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Using the RFC technique to estimate refractivity parameters is a complex nonlinear optimization problem. In this paper, an improved cuckoo search (CS) algorithm is proposed to deal with this problem. To enhance the performance of the CS algorithm, a parameter dynamic adaptive operation and crossover operation were integrated into the standard CS (DACS-CO). Rechenberg's 1/5 criteria combined with learning factor were used to control the parameter dynamic adaptive adjusting process. The crossover operation of genetic algorithm was utilized to guarantee the population diversity. The new hybrid algorithm has better local search ability and contributes to superior performance. To verify the ability of the DACS-CO algorithm to estimate atmospheric refractivity parameters, the simulation data and real radar clutter data are both implemented. The numerical experiments demonstrate that the DACS-CO algorithm can provide an effective method for near-real-time estimation of the atmospheric refractivity profile from radar clutter. PMID:27212938

  3. Adaptive uniform grayscale coded aperture design for high dynamic range compressive spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Nelson; Rueda, Hoover; Arguello, Henry

    2016-05-01

    Imaging spectroscopy is an important area with many applications in surveillance, agriculture and medicine. The disadvantage of conventional spectroscopy techniques is that they collect the whole datacube. In contrast, compressive spectral imaging systems capture snapshot compressive projections, which are the input of reconstruction algorithms to yield the underlying datacube. Common compressive spectral imagers use coded apertures to perform the coded projections. The coded apertures are the key elements in these imagers since they define the sensing matrix of the system. The proper design of the coded aperture entries leads to a good quality in the reconstruction. In addition, the compressive measurements are prone to saturation due to the limited dynamic range of the sensor, hence the design of coded apertures must consider saturation. The saturation errors in compressive measurements are unbounded and compressive sensing recovery algorithms only provide solutions for bounded noise or bounded with high probability. In this paper it is proposed the design of uniform adaptive grayscale coded apertures (UAGCA) to improve the dynamic range of the estimated spectral images by reducing the saturation levels. The saturation is attenuated between snapshots using an adaptive filter which updates the entries of the grayscale coded aperture based on the previous snapshots. The coded apertures are optimized in terms of transmittance and number of grayscale levels. The advantage of the proposed method is the efficient use of the dynamic range of the image sensor. Extensive simulations show improvements in the image reconstruction of the proposed method compared with grayscale coded apertures (UGCA) and adaptive block-unblock coded apertures (ABCA) in up to 10 dB.

  4. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  5. Evaluation of adaptive dynamic range optimization in adverse listening conditions for cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Hussnain; Hazrati, Oldooz; Tobey, Emily A.; Hansen, John H. L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Adaptive Dynamic Range Optimization (ADRO) on speech identification for cochlear implant (CI) users in adverse listening conditions. In this study, anechoic quiet, noisy, reverberant, noisy reverberant, and reverberant noisy conditions are evaluated. Two scenarios are considered when modeling the combined effects of reverberation and noise: (a) noise is added to the reverberant speech, and (b) noisy speech is reverberated. CI users were tested in different listening environments using IEEE sentences presented at 65 dB sound pressure level. No significant effect of ADRO processing on speech intelligibility was observed. PMID:25190428

  6. Evaluation of adaptive dynamic range optimization in adverse listening conditions for cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hussnain; Hazrati, Oldooz; Tobey, Emily A; Hansen, John H L

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Adaptive Dynamic Range Optimization (ADRO) on speech identification for cochlear implant (CI) users in adverse listening conditions. In this study, anechoic quiet, noisy, reverberant, noisy reverberant, and reverberant noisy conditions are evaluated. Two scenarios are considered when modeling the combined effects of reverberation and noise: (a) noise is added to the reverberant speech, and (b) noisy speech is reverberated. CI users were tested in different listening environments using IEEE sentences presented at 65 dB sound pressure level. No significant effect of ADRO processing on speech intelligibility was observed. PMID:25190428

  7. An Adaptive Image Enhancement Technique by Combining Cuckoo Search and Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhiwei; Wang, Mingwei; Hu, Zhengbing; Liu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Image enhancement is an important procedure of image processing and analysis. This paper presents a new technique using a modified measure and blending of cuckoo search and particle swarm optimization (CS-PSO) for low contrast images to enhance image adaptively. In this way, contrast enhancement is obtained by global transformation of the input intensities; it employs incomplete Beta function as the transformation function and a novel criterion for measuring image quality considering three factors which are threshold, entropy value, and gray-level probability density of the image. The enhancement process is a nonlinear optimization problem with several constraints. CS-PSO is utilized to maximize the objective fitness criterion in order to enhance the contrast and detail in an image by adapting the parameters of a novel extension to a local enhancement technique. The performance of the proposed method has been compared with other existing techniques such as linear contrast stretching, histogram equalization, and evolutionary computing based image enhancement methods like backtracking search algorithm, differential search algorithm, genetic algorithm, and particle swarm optimization in terms of processing time and image quality. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is robust and adaptive and exhibits the better performance than other methods involved in the paper. PMID:25784928

  8. An adaptive image enhancement technique by combining cuckoo search and particle swarm optimization algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhiwei; Wang, Mingwei; Hu, Zhengbing; Liu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Image enhancement is an important procedure of image processing and analysis. This paper presents a new technique using a modified measure and blending of cuckoo search and particle swarm optimization (CS-PSO) for low contrast images to enhance image adaptively. In this way, contrast enhancement is obtained by global transformation of the input intensities; it employs incomplete Beta function as the transformation function and a novel criterion for measuring image quality considering three factors which are threshold, entropy value, and gray-level probability density of the image. The enhancement process is a nonlinear optimization problem with several constraints. CS-PSO is utilized to maximize the objective fitness criterion in order to enhance the contrast and detail in an image by adapting the parameters of a novel extension to a local enhancement technique. The performance of the proposed method has been compared with other existing techniques such as linear contrast stretching, histogram equalization, and evolutionary computing based image enhancement methods like backtracking search algorithm, differential search algorithm, genetic algorithm, and particle swarm optimization in terms of processing time and image quality. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is robust and adaptive and exhibits the better performance than other methods involved in the paper. PMID:25784928

  9. Improving GPU-accelerated adaptive IDW interpolation algorithm using fast kNN search.

    PubMed

    Mei, Gang; Xu, Nengxiong; Xu, Liangliang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient parallel Adaptive Inverse Distance Weighting (AIDW) interpolation algorithm on modern Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). The presented algorithm is an improvement of our previous GPU-accelerated AIDW algorithm by adopting fast k-nearest neighbors (kNN) search. In AIDW, it needs to find several nearest neighboring data points for each interpolated point to adaptively determine the power parameter; and then the desired prediction value of the interpolated point is obtained by weighted interpolating using the power parameter. In this work, we develop a fast kNN search approach based on the space-partitioning data structure, even grid, to improve the previous GPU-accelerated AIDW algorithm. The improved algorithm is composed of the stages of kNN search and weighted interpolating. To evaluate the performance of the improved algorithm, we perform five groups of experimental tests. The experimental results indicate: (1) the improved algorithm can achieve a speedup of up to 1017 over the corresponding serial algorithm; (2) the improved algorithm is at least two times faster than our previous GPU-accelerated AIDW algorithm; and (3) the utilization of fast kNN search can significantly improve the computational efficiency of the entire GPU-accelerated AIDW algorithm. PMID:27610308

  10. A self-adaptive memeplexes robust search scheme for solving stochastic demands vehicle routing problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xianshun; Feng, Liang; Ong, Yew Soon

    2012-07-01

    In this article, we proposed a self-adaptive memeplex robust search (SAMRS) for finding robust and reliable solutions that are less sensitive to stochastic behaviours of customer demands and have low probability of route failures, respectively, in vehicle routing problem with stochastic demands (VRPSD). In particular, the contribution of this article is three-fold. First, the proposed SAMRS employs the robust solution search scheme (RS 3) as an approximation of the computationally intensive Monte Carlo simulation, thus reducing the computation cost of fitness evaluation in VRPSD, while directing the search towards robust and reliable solutions. Furthermore, a self-adaptive individual learning based on the conceptual modelling of memeplex is introduced in the SAMRS. Finally, SAMRS incorporates a gene-meme co-evolution model with genetic and memetic representation to effectively manage the search for solutions in VRPSD. Extensive experimental results are then presented for benchmark problems to demonstrate that the proposed SAMRS serves as an efficable means of generating high-quality robust and reliable solutions in VRPSD.

  11. QTL mapping identifies candidate alleles involved in adaptive introgression and range expansion in a wild sunflower

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, Kenneth D.; Broman, Karl W.; Kane, Nolan C.; Hovick, Stephen M.; Randell, Rebecca A.; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2014-01-01

    The wild North American sunflowers Helianthus annuus and H. debilis are participants in one of the earliest identified examples of adaptive trait introgression, and the exchange is hypothesized to have triggered a range expansion in H. annuus. However, the genetic basis of the adaptive exchange has not been examined. Here, we combine quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping with field measurements of fitness to identify candidate H. debilis QTL alleles likely to have introgressed into H. annuus to form the natural hybrid lineage H. a. texanus. Two 500-individual BC1 mapping populations were grown in central Texas, genotyped for 384 SNP markers, and then phenotyped in the field for two fitness and 22 herbivore resistance, ecophysiological, phenological, and architectural traits. We identified a total of 110 QTL, including at least one QTL for 22 of the 24 traits. Over 75% of traits exhibited at least one H. debilis QTL allele that would shift the trait in the direction of the wild hybrid H. a. texanus. We identified three chromosomal regions where H. debilis alleles increased both female and male components of fitness; these regions are expected to be strongly favored in the wild. QTL for a number of other ecophysiological, phenological, and architectural traits co-localized with these three regions and are candidates for the actual traits driving adaptive shifts. G × E interactions played a modest role, with 17% of the QTL showing potentially divergent phenotypic effects between the two field sites. The candidate adaptive chromosomal regions identified here serve as explicit hypotheses for how the genetic architecture of the hybrid lineage came into existence. PMID:25522096

  12. Effectiveness of adaptive silverware on range of motion of the hand

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Susan S.; Richards, Jim; Aguilar, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hand function is essential to a person’s self-efficacy and greatly affects quality of life. Adapted utensils with handles of increased diameters have historically been used to assist individuals with arthritis or other hand disabilities for feeding, and other related activities of daily living. To date, minimal research has examined the biomechanical effects of modified handles, or quantified the differences in ranges of motion (ROM) when using a standard versus a modified handle. The aim of this study was to quantify the ranges of motion (ROM) required for a healthy hand to use different adaptive spoons with electrogoniometry for the purpose of understanding the physiologic advantages that adapted spoons may provide patients with limited ROM. Methods. Hand measurements included the distal interphalangeal joint (DIP), proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP), and metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP) for each finger and the interphalangeal (IP) and MCP joint for the thumb. Participants were 34 females age 18–30 (mean age 20.38 ± 1.67) with no previous hand injuries or abnormalities. Participants grasped spoons with standard handles, and spoons with handle diameters of 3.18 cm (1.25 inch), and 4.45 cm (1.75 inch). ROM measurements were obtained with an electrogoniometer to record the angle at each joint for each of the spoon handle sizes. Results. A 3 × 3 × 4 repeated measures ANOVA (Spoon handle size by Joint by Finger) found main effects on ROM of Joint (F(2, 33) = 318.68, Partial η2 = .95, p < .001), Spoon handle size (F(2, 33) = 598.73, Partial η2 = .97, p < .001), and Finger (F(3, 32) = 163.83, Partial η2 = .94, p < .001). As the spoon handle diameter size increased, the range of motion utilized to grasp the spoon handle decreased in all joints and all fingers (p < 0.01). Discussion. This study confirms the hypothesis that less range of motion is required to grip utensils with larger diameter handles, which in turn may reduce challenges for patients

  13. Measurements of achromatic and chromatic contrast sensitivity functions for an extended range of adaptation luminance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kil Joong; Mantiuk, Rafal; Lee, Kyoung Ho

    2013-03-01

    Inspired by the ModelFest and ColorFest data sets, a contrast sensitivity function was measured for a wide range of adapting luminance levels. The measurements were motivated by the need to collect visual performance data for natural viewing of static images at a broad range of luminance levels, such as can be found in the case of high dynamic range displays. The detection of sine-gratings with Gaussian envelope was measured for achromatic color axis (black to white), two chromatic axes (green to red and yellow-green to violet) and two mixed chromatic and achromatic axes (dark-green to light-pink, and dark yellow to light-blue). The background luminance varied from 0.02 to 200 cd/m2. The spatial frequency of the gratings varied from 0.125 to 16 cycles per degree. More than four observers participated in the experiments and they individually determined the detection threshold for each stimulus using at least 20 trials of the QUEST method. As compared to the popular CSF models, we observed higher sensitivity drop for higher frequencies and significant differences in sensitivities in the luminance range between 0.02 and 2 cd/m2. Our measurements for chromatic CSF show a significant drop in sensitivity with luminance, but little change in the shape of the CSF. The drop of sensitivity at high frequencies is significantly weaker than reported in other studies and assumed in most chromatic CSF models.

  14. Specification for a surface-search radar-detection-range model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattan, Claude P.

    1990-09-01

    A model that predicts surface-search radar detection range versus a variety of combatants has been developed at the Naval Ocean Systems Center. This model uses a simplified ship radar cross section (RCS) model and the U.S. Navy Oceanographic and Atmospheric Mission Library Standard Electromagnetic Propagation Model. It provides the user with a method of assessing the effects of the environment of the performance of a surface-search radar system. The software implementation of the model is written in ANSI FORTRAN 77, with MIL-STD-1753 extensions. The program provides the user with a table of expected detection ranges when the model is supplied with the proper environmental radar system inputs. The target model includes the variation in RCS as a function of aspect angle and the distribution of reflected radar energy as a function of height above the waterline. The modeled propagation effects include refraction caused by a multisegmented refractivity profile, sea-surface roughness caused by local winds, evaporation ducting, and surface-based ducts caused by atmospheric layering.

  15. Persistence and Adaptation in Immunity: T Cells Balance the Extent and Thoroughness of Search

    PubMed Central

    Fricke, G. Matthew; Letendre, Kenneth A.; Moses, Melanie E.; Cannon, Judy L.

    2016-01-01

    Effective search strategies have evolved in many biological systems, including the immune system. T cells are key effectors of the immune response, required for clearance of pathogenic infection. T cell activation requires that T cells encounter antigen-bearing dendritic cells within lymph nodes, thus, T cell search patterns within lymph nodes may be a crucial determinant of how quickly a T cell immune response can be initiated. Previous work suggests that T cell motion in the lymph node is similar to a Brownian random walk, however, no detailed analysis has definitively shown whether T cell movement is consistent with Brownian motion. Here, we provide a precise description of T cell motility in lymph nodes and a computational model that demonstrates how motility impacts T cell search efficiency. We find that both Brownian and Lévy walks fail to capture the complexity of T cell motion. Instead, T cell movement is better described as a correlated random walk with a heavy-tailed distribution of step lengths. Using computer simulations, we identify three distinct factors that contribute to increasing T cell search efficiency: 1) a lognormal distribution of step lengths, 2) motion that is directionally persistent over short time scales, and 3) heterogeneity in movement patterns. Furthermore, we show that T cells move differently in specific frequently visited locations that we call “hotspots” within lymph nodes, suggesting that T cells change their movement in response to the lymph node environment. Our results show that like foraging animals, T cells adapt to environmental cues, suggesting that adaption is a fundamental feature of biological search. PMID:26990103

  16. Persistence and Adaptation in Immunity: T Cells Balance the Extent and Thoroughness of Search.

    PubMed

    Fricke, G Matthew; Letendre, Kenneth A; Moses, Melanie E; Cannon, Judy L

    2016-03-01

    Effective search strategies have evolved in many biological systems, including the immune system. T cells are key effectors of the immune response, required for clearance of pathogenic infection. T cell activation requires that T cells encounter antigen-bearing dendritic cells within lymph nodes, thus, T cell search patterns within lymph nodes may be a crucial determinant of how quickly a T cell immune response can be initiated. Previous work suggests that T cell motion in the lymph node is similar to a Brownian random walk, however, no detailed analysis has definitively shown whether T cell movement is consistent with Brownian motion. Here, we provide a precise description of T cell motility in lymph nodes and a computational model that demonstrates how motility impacts T cell search efficiency. We find that both Brownian and Lévy walks fail to capture the complexity of T cell motion. Instead, T cell movement is better described as a correlated random walk with a heavy-tailed distribution of step lengths. Using computer simulations, we identify three distinct factors that contribute to increasing T cell search efficiency: 1) a lognormal distribution of step lengths, 2) motion that is directionally persistent over short time scales, and 3) heterogeneity in movement patterns. Furthermore, we show that T cells move differently in specific frequently visited locations that we call "hotspots" within lymph nodes, suggesting that T cells change their movement in response to the lymph node environment. Our results show that like foraging animals, T cells adapt to environmental cues, suggesting that adaption is a fundamental feature of biological search. PMID:26990103

  17. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  18. Adaptive detection of range-spread targets by the generalized detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuzlukov, Vyacheslav

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we address an adaptive detection of range-spread targets or targets embedded in Gaussian noise with unknown covariance matrix by the generalized detector (GD) based on the generalized approach to signal processing (GASP) in noise. We assume that cells or secondary data that are free of signal components are available. Those secondary data are supposed to process either the same covariance matrix or the same structure of the covariance matrix of the cells under test. In this context, under designing GD we use a two-step procedure. The criteria lead to receivers ensuring the constant false alarm rate (CFAR) property with respect to unknown quantities. A thorough performance assessment of the proposed detection strategies highlights that the two-step design procedure of decision-making rule in accordance with GASP is to be preferred with respect to the plain one. In fact, the proposed design procedure leads to GD that achieves significant improvement in detection performance under several situation of practical interest. For estimation purposes, we resort to a set of secondary data. In addition to the classical homogeneous scenario, we consider the case wherein the power value of primary and secondary data vectors is not the same. The design of adaptive detection algorithms based on GASP in the case of mismatch is a problem of primary concern for radar applications. We demonstrate that two-step design procedure based on GASP ensures minimal loss.

  19. A wide range sigma—delta fractional-N frequency synthesizer with adaptive frequency calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianjun, Wei; Hanjun, Jiang; Lingwei, Zhang; Jingjing, Dong; Fule, Li; Zhihua, Wang; Chun, Zhang

    2013-06-01

    A wide range fractional-N frequency synthesizer in 0.18 μm RF CMOS technology is implemented. A switched-capacitors bank LC-tank VCO and an adaptive frequency calibration technique are used to expand the frequency range. A 16-bit third-order sigma—delta modulator with dither is used to randomize the fractional spur. The active area is 0.6 mm2. The experimental results show the proposed frequency synthesizer consumes 4.3 mA from a single 1.8 V supply voltage except for buffers. The frequency range is 1.44-2.11 GHz and the frequency resolution is less than 0.4 kHz. The phase noise is -94 dBc/Hz @ 100 kHz and -121 dBc/Hz @ 1 MHz at the output of the prescaler with a loop bandwidth of approximately 120 kHz. The performance meets the requirements for the multi-band and multi-mode transceiver applications.

  20. Binary stars observed with adaptive optics at the starfire optical range

    SciTech Connect

    Drummond, Jack D.

    2014-03-01

    In reviewing observations taken of binary stars used as calibration objects for non-astronomical purposes with adaptive optics on the 3.5 m Starfire Optical Range telescope over the past 2 years, one-fifth of them were found to be off-orbit. In order to understand such a high number of discrepant position angles and separations, all previous observations in the Washington Double Star Catalog for these rogue binaries were obtained from the Naval Observatory. Adding our observations to these yields new orbits for all, resolving the discrepancies. We have detected both components of γ Gem for the first time, and we have shown that 7 Cam is an optical pair, not physically bound.

  1. Tuned range-separated hybrid functionals in the symmetry-adapted perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Hapka, Michał; Modrzejewski, Marcin; Rajchel, Łukasz; Chałasiński, Grzegorz; Szczęśniak, Małgorzata M.

    2014-10-07

    The aim of this study is to present a performance test of optimally tuned long-range corrected (LRC) functionals applied to the symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT). In the present variant, the second-order energy components are evaluated at the coupled level of theory. We demonstrate that the generalized Kohn-Sham (GKS) description of monomers with optimally tuned LRC functionals may be essential for the quality of SAPT interaction energy components. This is connected to the minimization of a many-electron self-interaction error and exemplified by two model systems: polyacetylenes of increasing length and stretching of He{sub 3}{sup +}. Next we provide a comparison of SAPT approaches based on Kohn-Sham and GKS description of the monomers. We show that LRC leads to results better or comparable with the hitherto prevailing asymptotically corrected functionals. Finally, we discuss the advantages and possible limitations of SAPT based on LRC functionals.

  2. Quantitative analysis of terahertz spectra for illicit drugs using adaptive-range micro-genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Ma, Yong; Lu, Zheng; Peng, Bei; Chen, Qin

    2011-08-01

    In the field of anti-illicit drug applications, many suspicious mixture samples might consist of various drug components—for example, a mixture of methamphetamine, heroin, and amoxicillin—which makes spectral identification very difficult. A terahertz spectroscopic quantitative analysis method using an adaptive range micro-genetic algorithm with a variable internal population (ARVIPɛμGA) has been proposed. Five mixture cases are discussed using ARVIPɛμGA driven quantitative terahertz spectroscopic analysis in this paper. The devised simulation results show agreement with the previous experimental results, which suggested that the proposed technique has potential applications for terahertz spectral identifications of drug mixture components. The results show agreement with the results obtained using other experimental and numerical techniques.

  3. Adaptive exposure estimation for high dynamic range imaging applied to natural scenes and daylight skies.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Miguel A; Valero, Eva M; Hernández-Andrés, Javier

    2015-02-01

    Digital imaging of natural scenes and optical phenomena present on them (such as shadows, twilights, and crepuscular rays) can be a very challenging task because of the range spanned by the radiances impinging on the capture system. We propose a novel method for estimating the set of exposure times (bracketing set) needed to capture the full dynamic range of a scene with high dynamic range (HDR) content. The proposed method is adaptive to scene content and to any camera response and configuration, and it works on-line since the exposure times are estimated as the capturing process is ongoing. Besides, it requires no a priori information about scene content or radiance values. The resulting bracketing sets are minimal in the default method settings, but the user can set a tolerance for the maximum percentage of pixel population that is underexposed or saturated, which allows for a higher number of shots if a better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the HDR scene is desired. This method is based on the use of the camera response function that is needed for building the HDR radiance map by stitching together several differently exposed low dynamic range images of the scene. The use of HDR imaging techniques converts our digital camera into a tool for measuring the relative radiance outgoing from each point of the scene, and for each color channel. This is important for accurate characterization of optical phenomena present in the atmosphere while not suffering any loss of information due to its HDR. We have compared our method with the most similar one developed so far [IEEE Trans. Image Process.17, 1864 (2008)]. Results of the experiments carried out for 30 natural scenes show that our proposed method equals or outperforms the previously developed best approach, with less shots and shorter exposure times, thereby asserting the advantage of being adaptive to scene content for exposure time estimation. As we can also tune the balance between capturing time and the SNR in

  4. Random walks with efficient search and contextually adapted image similarity for deformable registration.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lisa Y W; Hamarneh, Ghassan

    2013-01-01

    We develop a random walk-based image registration method that incorporates two novelties: 1) a progressive optimization scheme that conducts the solution search efficiently via a novel use of information derived from the obtained probabilistic solution, and 2) a data-likelihood re-weighting step that contextually performs feature selection in a spatially adaptive manner so that the data costs are based primarily on trusted information sources. Synthetic experiments on three public datasets of different anatomical regions and modalities showed that our method performed efficient search without sacrificing registration accuracy. Experiments performed on 60 real brain image pairs from a public dataset also demonstrated our method's better performance over existing non-probabilistic image registration methods. PMID:24579122

  5. Bayer patterned high dynamic range image reconstruction using adaptive weighting function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hee; Lee, Suk Ho; Song, Ki Sun; Kang, Moon Gi

    2014-12-01

    It is not easy to acquire a desired high dynamic range (HDR) image directly from a camera due to the limited dynamic range of most image sensors. Therefore, generally, a post-process called HDR image reconstruction is used, which reconstructs an HDR image from a set of differently exposed images to overcome the limited dynamic range. However, conventional HDR image reconstruction methods suffer from noise factors and ghost artifacts. This is due to the fact that the input images taken with a short exposure time contain much noise in the dark regions, which contributes to increased noise in the corresponding dark regions of the reconstructed HDR image. Furthermore, since input images are acquired at different times, the images contain different motion information, which results in ghost artifacts. In this paper, we propose an HDR image reconstruction method which reduces the impact of the noise factors and prevents ghost artifacts. To reduce the influence of the noise factors, the weighting function, which determines the contribution of a certain input image to the reconstructed HDR image, is designed to adapt to the exposure time and local motions. Furthermore, the weighting function is designed to exclude ghosting regions by considering the differences of the luminance and the chrominance values between several input images. Unlike conventional methods, which generally work on a color image processed by the image processing module (IPM), the proposed method works directly on the Bayer raw image. This allows for a linear camera response function and also improves the efficiency in hardware implementation. Experimental results show that the proposed method can reconstruct high-quality Bayer patterned HDR images while being robust against ghost artifacts and noise factors.

  6. Use of medium-range weather forecasts for drought mitigation and adaptation under a Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahlou, Ouiam; Imani, Yasmina; Bennasser Alaoui, Si; Dutra, Emanuel; DiGiuseppe, Francesca; Pappenberger, Florian; Wetterhall, Fredrik

    2014-05-01

    Use of medium-range weather forecasts for drought mitigation and adaptation under a Mediterranean area Authors: Ouiam Lahlou1, Yasmina Imani1, Si Bennasser Alaoui1, Emmanuel Dutra 2, Francesca Di Guiseppe2, Florian Pappenberger2, Fredrik Wetterhall2 1: Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II (IAV Hassan II) 2: European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) The main pillar of economic development in Morocco is the agricultural sector employing 40% of the active workforce. Agriculture is still mainly dominated by rainfed agriculture which is vulnerable to an increasing frequency and severity of drought events. In rainfed agriculture, there are few interventions possible once crops are planted. Medium to long range weather forecasts could therefore provide valid information for crop selection and sowing time at the onset of the yield season and later to plan mitigation measures during dry-spell episodes. More than 600 daily forecasts from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ensemble forecasting system were analyzed in terms of probabilistic skills scores. Results show that, while daily and weekly accumulated precipitation are poorly predicted there is good skill in the forecast of occurrence and extent of dry periods. The availability of this information to decision makers in the agricultural sector would mean moving from a reactive drought management plan to a proactive one. This is very important, especially for the remote areas where often the needed help comes late. A simulation case-study involving farmers who were made aware of the availability of forecasts for the next seasons, show that medium-range forecasts will allow i) governments and relief agencies to position themselves for more effective and cost-efficient drought interventions, ii) producers to be more aware of their production options and insure their payment rate, iii) Herders, to cope with higher food costs for their cattle iv) farmers to better plan

  7. An adaptive knowledge-driven medical image search engine for interactive diffuse parenchymal lung disease quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yimo; Zhou, Xiang Sean; Bi, Jinbo; Jerebkoa, Anna; Wolf, Matthias; Salganicoff, Marcos; Krishnana, Arun

    2009-02-01

    Characterization and quantification of the severity of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs) using Computed Tomography (CT) is an important issue in clinical research. Recently, several classification-based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems [1-3] for DPLD have been proposed. For some of those systems, a degradation of performance [2] was reported on unseen data because of considerable inter-patient variances of parenchymal tissue patterns. We believe that a CAD system of real clinical value should be robust to inter-patient variances and be able to classify unseen cases online more effectively. In this work, we have developed a novel adaptive knowledge-driven CT image search engine that combines offline learning aspects of classification-based CAD systems with online learning aspects of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) systems. Our system can seamlessly and adaptively fuse offline accumulated knowledge with online feedback, leading to an improved online performance in detecting DPLD in both accuracy and speed aspects. Our contribution lies in: (1) newly developed 3D texture-based and morphology-based features; (2) a multi-class offline feature selection method; and, (3) a novel image search engine framework for detecting DPLD. Very promising results have been obtained on a small test set.

  8. The Limitation of Species Range: A Consequence of Searching Along Resource Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Rowell, Jonathan T.

    2009-01-01

    Ecological modelers have long puzzled over the spatial distribution of species. The random walk or diffusive approach to dispersal has yielded important results for biology and mathematics, yet it has been inadequate in explaining all phenomenological features. Ranges can terminate non-smoothly absent a complementary shift in the characteristics of the environment. Also unexplained is the absence of a species from nearby areas of adequate, or even abundant, resources. In this paper, I show how local searching behavior - keyed to a density-dependent fitness - can limit the speed and extent of a species’ spread. In contrast to standard diffusive processes, pseudo-rational movement facilitates the clustering of populations. It also can be used to estimate the speed of an expanding population range, explain expansion stall, and provides a mechanism by which a population can colonize seemingly removed regions - biogeographic islands in a continental framework. Finally, I discuss the effect of resource degradation and different resource impact/utilization curves on the model. PMID:19303032

  9. Adaptive Lévy Processes and Area-Restricted Search in Human Foraging

    PubMed Central

    Hills, Thomas T.; Kalff, Christopher; Wiener, Jan M.

    2013-01-01

    A considerable amount of research has claimed that animals’ foraging behaviors display movement lengths with power-law distributed tails, characteristic of Lévy flights and Lévy walks. Though these claims have recently come into question, the proposal that many animals forage using Lévy processes nonetheless remains. A Lévy process does not consider when or where resources are encountered, and samples movement lengths independently of past experience. However, Lévy processes too have come into question based on the observation that in patchy resource environments resource-sensitive foraging strategies, like area-restricted search, perform better than Lévy flights yet can still generate heavy-tailed distributions of movement lengths. To investigate these questions further, we tracked humans as they searched for hidden resources in an open-field virtual environment, with either patchy or dispersed resource distributions. Supporting previous research, for both conditions logarithmic binning methods were consistent with Lévy flights and rank-frequency methods–comparing alternative distributions using maximum likelihood methods–showed the strongest support for bounded power-law distributions (truncated Lévy flights). However, goodness-of-fit tests found that even bounded power-law distributions only accurately characterized movement behavior for 4 (out of 32) participants. Moreover, paths in the patchy environment (but not the dispersed environment) showed a transition to intensive search following resource encounters, characteristic of area-restricted search. Transferring paths between environments revealed that paths generated in the patchy environment were adapted to that environment. Our results suggest that though power-law distributions do not accurately reflect human search, Lévy processes may still describe movement in dispersed environments, but not in patchy environments–where search was area-restricted. Furthermore, our results indicate that

  10. Range of motion, neuromechanical, and architectural adaptations to plantar flexor stretch training in humans.

    PubMed

    Blazevich, A J; Cannavan, D; Waugh, C M; Miller, S C; Thorlund, J B; Aagaard, P; Kay, A D

    2014-09-01

    The neuromuscular adaptations in response to muscle stretch training have not been clearly described. In the present study, changes in muscle (at fascicular and whole muscle levels) and tendon mechanics, muscle activity, and spinal motoneuron excitability were examined during standardized plantar flexor stretches after 3 wk of twice daily stretch training (4 × 30 s). No changes were observed in a nonexercising control group (n = 9), however stretch training elicited a 19.9% increase in dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) and a 28% increase in passive joint moment at end ROM (n = 12). Only a trend toward a decrease in passive plantar flexor moment during stretch (-9.9%; P = 0.15) was observed, and no changes in electromyographic amplitudes during ROM or at end ROM were detected. Decreases in H(max):M(max) (tibial nerve stimulation) were observed at plantar flexed (gastrocnemius medialis and soleus) and neutral (soleus only) joint angles, but not with the ankle dorsiflexed. Muscle and fascicle strain increased (12 vs. 23%) along with a decrease in muscle stiffness (-18%) during stretch to a constant target joint angle. Muscle length at end ROM increased (13%) without a change in fascicle length, fascicle rotation, tendon elongation, or tendon stiffness following training. A lack of change in maximum voluntary contraction moment and rate of force development at any joint angle was taken to indicate a lack of change in series compliance of the muscle-tendon unit. Thus, increases in end ROM were underpinned by increases in maximum tolerable passive joint moment (stretch tolerance) and both muscle and fascicle elongation rather than changes in volitional muscle activation or motoneuron pool excitability. PMID:24947023

  11. Controlling range expansion in habitat networks by adaptively targeting source populations.

    PubMed

    Hock, Karlo; Wolff, Nicholas H; Beeden, Roger; Hoey, Jessica; Condie, Scott A; Anthony, Kenneth R N; Possingham, Hugh P; Mumby, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Controlling the spread of invasive species, pests, and pathogens is often logistically limited to interventions that target specific locations at specific periods. However, in complex, highly connected systems, such as marine environments connected by ocean currents, populations spread dynamically in both space and time via transient connectivity links. This results in nondeterministic future distributions of species in which local populations emerge dynamically and concurrently over a large area. The challenge, therefore, is to choose intervention locations that will maximize the effectiveness of the control efforts. We propose a novel method to manage dynamic species invasions and outbreaks that identifies the intervention locations most likely to curtail population expansion by selectively targeting local populations most likely to expand their future range. Critically, at any point during the development of the invasion or outbreak, the method identifies the local intervention that maximizes the long-term benefit across the ecosystem by restricting species' potential to spread. In so doing, the method adaptively selects the intervention targets under dynamically changing circumstances. To illustrate the effectiveness of the method we applied it to controlling the spread of crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster sp.) outbreaks across Australia's Great Barrier Reef. Application of our method resulted in an 18-fold relative improvement in management outcomes compared with a random targeting of reefs in putative starfish control scenarios. Although we focused on applying the method to reducing the spread of an unwanted species, it can also be used to facilitate the spread of desirable species through connectivity networks. For example, the method could be used to select those fragments of habitat most likely to rebuild a population if they were sufficiently well protected. PMID:26633077

  12. Adaptive response in embryogenesis: V. Existence of two efficient dose-rate ranges for 0.3 Gy of priming irradiation to adapt mouse fetuses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Ohyama, Harumi; Shang, Yi; Tanaka, Kaoru; Aizawa, Shiro; Yukawa, Osami; Hayata, Isamu

    2004-03-01

    The adaptive response is an important phenomenon in radiobiology. A study of the conditions essential for the induction of an adaptive response is of critical importance to understanding the novel biological defense mechanisms against the hazardous effects of radiation. In our previous studies, the specific dose and timing of radiation for induction of an adaptive response were studied in ICR mouse fetuses. We found that exposure of the fetuses on embryonic day 11 to a priming dose of 0.3 Gy significantly suppressed prenatal death and malformation induced by a challenging dose of radiation on embryonic day 12. Since a significant dose-rate effect has been observed in a variety of radiobiological phenomena, the effect of dose rate on the effectiveness of induction of an adaptive response by a priming dose of 0.3 Gy administered to fetuses on embryonic day 11 was investigated over the range from 0.06 to 5.0 Gy/min. The occurrence of apoptosis in limb buds, incidences of prenatal death and digital defects, and postnatal mortality induced by a challenging dose of 3.5 Gy given at 1.8 Gy/min to the fetuses on embryonic day 12 were the biological end points examined. Unexpectedly, effective induction of an adaptive response was observed within two dose-rate ranges for the same dose of priming radiation, from 0.18 to 0.98 Gy/ min and from 3.5 to 4.6 Gy/min, for reduction of the detrimental effect induced by a challenging dose of 3.5 Gy. In contrast, when the priming irradiation was delivered at a dose rate outside these two ranges, no protective effect was observed, and at some dose rates elevation of detrimental effects was observed. In general, neither a normal nor a reverse dose- rate effect was found in the dose-rate range tested. These results clearly indicated that the dose rate at which the priming irradiation was delivered played a crucial role in the induction of an adaptive response. This paper provides the first evidence for the existence of two dose-rate ranges

  13. TH-C-BRD-09: Successes and Limitations of Online Range Adaptive Spot Scanning Proton Therapy for NSCLC

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, JP; Dong, L; Park, P; Zhu, XR; Kudchadker, RJ; Frank, SJ; Court, LE

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the ability to adapt discrete spot-scanning proton therapy (SSPT) plans based on geometric changes of anatomy to minimize normal tissue dose and maintain target coverage. Methods: We developed and tested a range-correction algorithm to compensate for anatomy changes in SSPT with correction factors for target lateral size changes and energy scaling. This algorithm adjusts the energy of each spot from the original optimized treatment plan to match the new daily anatomy based on water equivalent path-length. To correct for the lateral target size changes, the peripheral spots were scaled based on phantom studies with variable target size. For energy change corrections, alternative cumulative scaling factor lookup tables were generated based on calculated central-axis and integral depth dose calculations for different energies. These various adaptive algorithms were performed on 7 lung cancer patients that were previously treated with proton therapy and who required at least one adaptive intervention. Single-field optimized SSPT plans were generated for these patients with clinical beam angles. Dose-volume histogram metrics were obtained for these patients for both the non-adaptive and the different adaptive plans applied to the last available weekly CT scan. Results: The doses to normal tissue were largely reduced for the spinal cord (Dmax), total lung (V20Gy), and contralateral lung (V20Gy) for all different methods of adaptive planning. With both corrections applied, the average changes for these metrics were −6.2Gy, −2.7%, and −4.9%, respectively. The same method generated unacceptably high target hot spots with average target V110% increase of 12.3%. Conclusion: Adaptive methods based on direct adjustments to proton range can reduce normal tissue doses under large anatomical changes but are insufficient in achieving clinically acceptable target doses and generate unacceptably sizeable hot spots. Adaptive planning methods for proton

  14. Content Range and Precision of a Computer Adaptive Test of Upper Extremity Function for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montpetit, Kathleen; Haley, Stephen; Bilodeau, Nathalie; Ni, Pengsheng; Tian, Feng; Gorton, George, III; Mulcahey, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the content range and measurement precision of an upper extremity (UE) computer adaptive testing (CAT) platform of physical function in children with cerebral palsy. Upper extremity items representing skills of all abilities were administered to 305 parents. These responses were compared with two traditional standardized…

  15. Evidence for parallel adaptation to climate across the natural range of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Stearns, Frank W; Fenster, Charles B

    2013-01-01

    How organisms adapt to different climate habitats is a key question in evolutionary ecology and biological conservation. Species distributions are often determined by climate suitability. Consequently, the anthropogenic impact on earth's climate is of key concern to conservation efforts because of our relatively poor understanding of the ability of populations to track and evolve to climate change. Here, we investigate the ability of Arabidopsis thaliana to occupy climate space by quantifying the extent to which different climate regimes are accessible to different A. thaliana genotypes using publicly available data from a large-scale genotyping project and from a worldwide climate database. The genetic distance calculated from 149 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among 60 lineages of A. thaliana was compared to the corresponding climate distance among collection localities calculated from nine different climatic factors. A. thaliana was found to be highly labile when adapting to novel climate space, suggesting that populations may experience few constraints when adapting to changing climates. Our results also provide evidence of a parallel or convergent evolution on the molecular level supporting recent generalizations regarding the genetics of adaptation. PMID:23919166

  16. Dominant-Limb Range-of-Motion and Humeral-Retrotorsion Adaptation in Collegiate Baseball and Softball Position Players

    PubMed Central

    Hibberd, Elizabeth E.; Oyama, Sakiko; Tatman, Justin; Myers, Joseph B.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Biomechanically, the motions used by baseball and softball pitchers differ greatly; however, the throwing motions of position players in both sports are strikingly similar. Although the adaptations to the dominant limb from overhead throwing have been well documented in baseball athletes, these adaptations have not been clearly identified in softball players. This information is important in order to develop and implement injury-prevention programs specific to decreasing the risk of upper extremity injury in softball athletes. Objective: To compare range-of-motion and humeral-retrotorsion characteristics of collegiate baseball and softball position players and of baseball and softball players to sex-matched controls. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Research laboratories and athletic training rooms at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Patients or Other Participants: Fifty-three collegiate baseball players, 35 collegiate softball players, 25 male controls (nonoverhead athletes), and 19 female controls (nonoverhead athletes). Intervention(s): Range of motion and humeral retrotorsion were measured using a digital inclinometer and diagnostic ultrasound. Main Outcome Measure(s): Glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit, external-rotation gain, total glenohumeral range of motion, and humeral retrotorsion. Results: Baseball players had greater glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit, total–range-of-motion, and humeral-retrotorsion difference than softball players and male controls. There were no differences between glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit, total–range-of-motion, and humeral-retrotorsion difference in softball players and female controls. Conclusions: Few differences were evident between softball players and female control participants, although range-of-motion and humeral-retrotorsion adaptations were significantly different than baseball players. The throwing motions are similar between softball and baseball, but the

  17. Job-Search Strategies and Reemployment Quality: The Impact of Career Adaptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koen, Jessie; Klehe, Ute-Christine; Van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; Zikic, Jelena; Nauta, Aukje

    2010-01-01

    Past job-search research has focused on how hard unemployed people search for a job, but we still know little about the strategies that people use during their search and how we can predict the quality of the reemployment found. The first aim of this study was to predict the use of different job-search strategies via job-seekers' career…

  18. Using Ontology Search Engines to support Users and Intelligent Systems solving a range of tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleeman, D.; Thomas, E.; Aiken, A.

    The paper describes several classes of tasks namely solving word problems, and classifying datasets using machine learning techniques, where the tasks may not be solvable because the information provided is incomplete. We explore the situation where one has a central concept and the missing information can either be a further descriptor / field of that concept or a (distantly) related concept. We describe how an ontology search engine has assisted in solving such problems, by summarizing the frequency of occurrence of descriptors found in a group of relevant ontologies, and by reporting which concepts are related to the central concept. The search engine used in this work has been ONTOSEARCH2. We further speculate about how such a "concept web" might be used to support the analysis and generation of natural language texts as well as spoken language.

  19. Coselected genes determine adaptive variation in herbivore resistance throughout the native range of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Brachi, Benjamin; Meyer, Christopher G; Villoutreix, Romain; Platt, Alexander; Morton, Timothy C; Roux, Fabrice; Bergelson, Joy

    2015-03-31

    The "mustard oil bomb" is a major defense mechanism in the Brassicaceae, which includes crops such as canola and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. These plants produce and store blends of amino acid-derived secondary metabolites called glucosinolates. Upon tissue rupture by natural enemies, the myrosinase enzyme hydrolyses glucosinolates, releasing defense molecules. Brassicaceae display extensive variation in the mixture of glucosinolates that they produce. To investigate the genetics underlying natural variation in glucosinolate profiles, we conducted a large genome-wide association study of 22 methionine-derived glucosinolates using A. thaliana accessions from across Europe. We found that 36% of among accession variation in overall glucosinolate profile was explained by genetic differentiation at only three known loci from the glucosinolate pathway. Glucosinolate-related SNPs were up to 490-fold enriched in the extreme tail of the genome-wide [Formula: see text] scan, indicating strong selection on loci controlling this pathway. Glucosinolate profiles displayed a striking longitudinal gradient with alkenyl and hydroxyalkenyl glucosinolates enriched in the West. We detected a significant contribution of glucosinolate loci toward general herbivore resistance and lifetime fitness in common garden experiments conducted in France, where accessions are enriched in hydroxyalkenyls. In addition to demonstrating the adaptive value of glucosinolate profile variation, we also detected long-distance linkage disequilibrium at two underlying loci, GS-OH and GS-ELONG. Locally cooccurring alleles at these loci display epistatic effects on herbivore resistance and fitness in ecologically realistic conditions. Together, our results suggest that natural selection has favored a locally adaptive configuration of physically unlinked loci in Western Europe. PMID:25775585

  20. Coselected genes determine adaptive variation in herbivore resistance throughout the native range of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Christopher G.; Villoutreix, Romain; Platt, Alexander; Morton, Timothy C.; Roux, Fabrice; Bergelson, Joy

    2015-01-01

    The “mustard oil bomb” is a major defense mechanism in the Brassicaceae, which includes crops such as canola and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. These plants produce and store blends of amino acid-derived secondary metabolites called glucosinolates. Upon tissue rupture by natural enemies, the myrosinase enzyme hydrolyses glucosinolates, releasing defense molecules. Brassicaceae display extensive variation in the mixture of glucosinolates that they produce. To investigate the genetics underlying natural variation in glucosinolate profiles, we conducted a large genome-wide association study of 22 methionine-derived glucosinolates using A. thaliana accessions from across Europe. We found that 36% of among accession variation in overall glucosinolate profile was explained by genetic differentiation at only three known loci from the glucosinolate pathway. Glucosinolate-related SNPs were up to 490-fold enriched in the extreme tail of the genome-wide FST scan, indicating strong selection on loci controlling this pathway. Glucosinolate profiles displayed a striking longitudinal gradient with alkenyl and hydroxyalkenyl glucosinolates enriched in the West. We detected a significant contribution of glucosinolate loci toward general herbivore resistance and lifetime fitness in common garden experiments conducted in France, where accessions are enriched in hydroxyalkenyls. In addition to demonstrating the adaptive value of glucosinolate profile variation, we also detected long-distance linkage disequilibrium at two underlying loci, GS-OH and GS-ELONG. Locally cooccurring alleles at these loci display epistatic effects on herbivore resistance and fitness in ecologically realistic conditions. Together, our results suggest that natural selection has favored a locally adaptive configuration of physically unlinked loci in Western Europe. PMID:25775585

  1. A proposed search for dark-matter axions in the 0.6--16 {mu}eV range

    SciTech Connect

    Hagmann, C.; Moltz, D.M.; Turner, M.S. |; Sikivie, P.; Sullivan, N.S.; Tanner, D.B.; Bluele, A.I.; Geraskin, E.V.; Golubev, N.A.; Ishkin, V.V.; Kazachenko, O.V.; Kuzmin, V.; Polushkin, V.G.; Anthony, P.L.; van Bibber, K.; Patrick, R.E.; Shen, S.; Slack, D.S.; Steele, J.V.; Villa, F.

    1991-11-01

    A proposed experiment is described to search for dark-matter axions in the mass range 0.6--16 {mu}eV. The method is based on the Primakoff conversion of axions into monochromatic microwave photons inside a tunable microwave cavity in a large volume high field magnet. This proposal capitalized on the availability of two Axicell magnets from the MFTF-B fusion machine at LLNL. Assuming a local dark-matter density in axions of {rho}{sub a}= 0.3 GeV/cm{sup 3}, the axion would be found or ruled out at the 97% c.1. in the above mass range in 48 months.

  2. A proposed search for dark-matter axions in the 0. 6--16. mu. eV range

    SciTech Connect

    Hagmann, C. . Dept. of Physics); Moltz, D.M. ); Turner, M.S. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL ); Sikivie, P.; Sullivan, N.S.; Tanner, D.B. . Dept. of Physics); Bluele, A.I

    1991-11-01

    A proposed experiment is described to search for dark-matter axions in the mass range 0.6--16 {mu}eV. The method is based on the Primakoff conversion of axions into monochromatic microwave photons inside a tunable microwave cavity in a large volume high field magnet. This proposal capitalized on the availability of two Axicell magnets from the MFTF-B fusion machine at LLNL. Assuming a local dark-matter density in axions of {rho}{sub a}= 0.3 GeV/cm{sup 3}, the axion would be found or ruled out at the 97% c.1. in the above mass range in 48 months.

  3. Bionic Tactile Sensor for Near-Range Search, Localisation and Material Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürr, Volker; Krause, André F.; Neitzel, Matthias; Lange, Oliver; Reimann, Bert

    Insects use their antennae (feelers) as near range sensors for orientation, object localisation and communication. Here, we use the stick insect antenna as a paragon for an actively moved tactile sensor. Our bionic sensor uses vibration signals from contact events for obstacle localisation and classification of material properties. It is shown how distance is coded by salient peaks in the frequency spectrum, and how the damping time constants can be exploited to distinguish between eight objects made of a range of materials. Thus, we demonstrate application of bionic principles for non-visual, reliable, near-range object localisation and material classification that is suitable for autonomous exploratory robots.

  4. Discussion on operating range of shipborne infrared search-and-track system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Gang; Yang, Kun-tao

    2006-02-01

    The status and effect of the optronic system in shipborne weaponry have been widely accepted, for which each developed country takes it as essential equipement in equipment developing programme. Following radar, shipborne optronic system is another important means of detection from single set to multi-set network system step by step. For reasons that shipborne IRST system can overcome four threats of radar and is an extremely effective short-range defense and countermeasure equipment for threat targets flying in low altitude and superlow altitude, so every navy has attached great importance to it. After transforming the operating range equation of an IRST system, the integrated efficiency coefficient Q is derived, by which factors of influencing the operating range of an IRST system and the approaches to improving the operating range and its feasibility are analyzed in the paper. In the present stage, because of limitations of D* the area of pixels and of an infrared detector, the major method for improving the operating range is to increase the aperture with the transmittance of an optical system remaining unchanged basically. However, increasing the aperture, remaining F number constant, increasing the focal length, reducing the effective FOV will decrease the spacial detective efficiency. So the integrated efficiency of an IRST system can be improved by optimizing the range, detective efficiency and so forth reasonably under existing conditions.

  5. Design of high-performance adaptive objective lens with large optical depth scanning range for ultrabroad near infrared microscopic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Gongpu; Mauger, Thomas F.; Li, Guoqiang

    2015-01-01

    We report on the theory and design of adaptive objective lens for ultra broadband near infrared light imaging with large dynamic optical depth scanning range by using an embedded tunable lens, which can find wide applications in deep tissue biomedical imaging systems, such as confocal microscope, optical coherence tomography (OCT), two-photon microscopy, etc., both in vivo and ex vivo. This design is based on, but not limited to, a home-made prototype of liquid-filled membrane lens with a clear aperture of 8mm and the thickness of 2.55mm ~3.18mm. It is beneficial to have an adaptive objective lens which allows an extended depth scanning range larger than the focal length zoom range, since this will keep the magnification of the whole system, numerical aperture (NA), field of view (FOV), and resolution more consistent. To achieve this goal, a systematic theory is presented, for the first time to our acknowledgment, by inserting the varifocal lens in between a front and a back solid lens group. The designed objective has a compact size (10mm-diameter and 15mm-length), ultrabroad working bandwidth (760nm - 920nm), a large depth scanning range (7.36mm in air) — 1.533 times of focal length zoom range (4.8mm in air), and a FOV around 1mm × 1mm. Diffraction-limited performance can be achieved within this ultrabroad bandwidth through all the scanning depth (the resolution is 2.22 μm - 2.81 μm, calculated at the wavelength of 800nm with the NA of 0.214 - 0.171). The chromatic focal shift value is within the depth of focus (field). The chromatic difference in distortion is nearly zero and the maximum distortion is less than 0.05%. PMID:26417508

  6. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in a Legacy Collection of Spring Barley Landraces Adapted to a Wide Range of Climates

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Alexander; Özkan, Hakan; Graner, Andreas; Kilian, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Global environmental change and increasing human population emphasize the urgent need for higher yielding and better adapted crop plants. One strategy to achieve this aim is to exploit the wealth of so called landraces of crop species, representing diverse traditional domesticated populations of locally adapted genotypes. In this study, we investigated a comprehensive set of 1485 spring barley landraces (Lrc1485) adapted to a wide range of climates, which were selected from one of the largest genebanks worldwide. The landraces originated from 5° to 62.5° N and 16° to 71° E. The whole collection was genotyped using 42 SSR markers to assess the genetic diversity and population structure. With an average allelic richness of 5.74 and 372 alleles, Lrc1485 harbours considerably more genetic diversity than the most polymorphic current GWAS panel for barley. Ten major clusters defined most of the population structure based on geographical origin, row type of the ear and caryopsis type – and were assigned to specific climate zones. The legacy core reference set Lrc648 established in this study will provide a long-lasting resource and a very valuable tool for the scientific community. Lrc648 is best suited for multi-environmental field testing to identify candidate genes underlying quantitative traits but also for allele mining approaches. PMID:25541702

  7. Quantitative trait locus mapping identifies candidate alleles involved in adaptive introgression and range expansion in a wild sunflower.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Kenneth D; Broman, Karl W; Kane, Nolan C; Hovick, Stephen M; Randell, Rebecca A; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2015-05-01

    The wild North American sunflowers Helianthus annuus and H. debilis are participants in one of the earliest identified examples of adaptive trait introgression, and the exchange is hypothesized to have triggered a range expansion in H. annuus. However, the genetic basis of the adaptive exchange has not been examined. Here, we combine quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping with field measurements of fitness to identify candidate H. debilis QTL alleles likely to have introgressed into H. annuus to form the natural hybrid lineage H. a. texanus. Two 500-individual BC1 mapping populations were grown in central Texas, genotyped for 384 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and then phenotyped in the field for two fitness and 22 herbivore resistance, ecophysiological, phenological and architectural traits. We identified a total of 110 QTL, including at least one QTL for 22 of the 24 traits. Over 75% of traits exhibited at least one H. debilis QTL allele that would shift the trait in the direction of the wild hybrid H. a. texanus. We identified three chromosomal regions where H. debilis alleles increased both female and male components of fitness; these regions are expected to be strongly favoured in the wild. QTL for a number of other ecophysiological, phenological and architectural traits colocalized with these three regions and are candidates for the actual traits driving adaptive shifts. G × E interactions played a modest role, with 17% of the QTL showing potentially divergent phenotypic effects between the two field sites. The candidate adaptive chromosomal regions identified here serve as explicit hypotheses for how the genetic architecture of the hybrid lineage came into existence. PMID:25522096

  8. An Adaptive Scheme for Robot Localization and Mapping with Dynamically Configurable Inter-Beacon Range Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Torres-González, Arturo; Martinez-de Dios, Jose Ramiro; Ollero, Anibal

    2014-01-01

    This work is motivated by robot-sensor network cooperation techniques where sensor nodes (beacons) are used as landmarks for range-only (RO) simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). This paper presents a RO-SLAM scheme that actuates over the measurement gathering process using mechanisms that dynamically modify the rate and variety of measurements that are integrated in the SLAM filter. It includes a measurement gathering module that can be configured to collect direct robot-beacon and inter-beacon measurements with different inter-beacon depth levels and at different rates. It also includes a supervision module that monitors the SLAM performance and dynamically selects the measurement gathering configuration balancing SLAM accuracy and resource consumption. The proposed scheme has been applied to an extended Kalman filter SLAM with auxiliary particle filters for beacon initialization (PF-EKF SLAM) and validated with experiments performed in the CONET Integrated Testbed. It achieved lower map and robot errors (34% and 14%, respectively) than traditional methods with a lower computational burden (16%) and similar beacon energy consumption. PMID:24776938

  9. An adaptive scheme for robot localization and mapping with dynamically configurable inter-beacon range measurements.

    PubMed

    Torres-González, Arturo; Martinez-de Dios, Jose Ramiro; Ollero, Anibal

    2014-01-01

    This work is motivated by robot-sensor network cooperation techniques where sensor nodes (beacons) are used as landmarks for range-only (RO) simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). This paper presents a RO-SLAM scheme that actuates over the measurement gathering process using mechanisms that dynamically modify the rate and variety of measurements that are integrated in the SLAM filter. It includes a measurement gathering module that can be configured to collect direct robot-beacon and inter-beacon measurements with different inter-beacon depth levels and at different rates. It also includes a supervision module that monitors the SLAM performance and dynamically selects the measurement gathering configuration balancing SLAM accuracy and resource consumption. The proposed scheme has been applied to an extended Kalman filter SLAM with auxiliary particle filters for beacon initialization (PF-EKF SLAM) and validated with experiments performed in the CONET Integrated Testbed. It achieved lower map and robot errors (34% and 14%, respectively) than traditional methods with a lower computational burden (16%) and similar beacon energy consumption. PMID:24776938

  10. Experimental search for solar hidden photons in the eV energy range using kinetic mixing with photons

    SciTech Connect

    Mizumoto, T.; Ohta, R.; Horie, T.; Suzuki, J.; Minowa, M.; Inoue, Y. E-mail: comic@icepp.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp E-mail: jsuzuki@icepp.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp E-mail: minowa@phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2013-07-01

    We have searched for solar hidden photons in the eV energy range using a dedicated hidden photon detector. The detector consisted of a parabolic mirror with a diameter of 500 mm and a focal length of 1007 mm installed in a vacuum chamber, and a photomultiplier tube at its focal point. The detector was attached to the Tokyo axion helioscope, Sumico which has a mechanism to track the sun. From the result of the measurement, we found no evidence for the existence of hidden photons and set a limit on the photon-hidden photon mixing parameter χ depending on the hidden photon mass m{sub γ'}.

  11. Technical Developments in the Search for a Short-Range Spin-Dependent Fifth Force Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Michael; Snow, W. Michael; Smith, Erick; Khatiwada, Rakshya; Li, Ke

    2014-09-01

    Theoretical treatments of the possible interactions between two fermions from boson exchange in the nonrelativistic limit include a short-range monopole-dipole interaction proportional to S-> . r-> . This potential would generate an NMR frequency shift in an ensemble of polarized nuclei when an unpolarized mass is brought nearby. Techniques to move the mass as close to the polarized nuclei as possible are needed to access sub-millimeter interaction ranges. We describe the preparation of nonmagnetic test masses and a mechanical system to bring the test mass close to an ensemble of polarized 3He nuclei, which are polarized in a spin-exchange optical pumping cell at Duke University. We describe how the masses are prepared to conform to the slightly asymmetric contours of the 100-micron thick glass cell window by a combination of coordinate measuring machine data and a spring-loaded suspension system that allows the mass to slightly rotate. Theoretical treatments of the possible interactions between two fermions from boson exchange in the nonrelativistic limit include a short-range monopole-dipole interaction proportional to S-> . r-> . This potential would generate an NMR frequency shift in an ensemble of polarized nuclei when an unpolarized mass is brought nearby. Techniques to move the mass as close to the polarized nuclei as possible are needed to access sub-millimeter interaction ranges. We describe the preparation of nonmagnetic test masses and a mechanical system to bring the test mass close to an ensemble of polarized 3He nuclei, which are polarized in a spin-exchange optical pumping cell at Duke University. We describe how the masses are prepared to conform to the slightly asymmetric contours of the 100-micron thick glass cell window by a combination of coordinate measuring machine data and a spring-loaded suspension system that allows the mass to slightly rotate. NSF Grant PHY-1306942

  12. Adaptation of Decoy Fusion Strategy for Existing Multi-Stage Search Workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Mark V.; Levitsky, Lev I.; Gorshkov, Mikhail V.

    2016-09-01

    A number of proteomic database search engines implement multi-stage strategies aiming at increasing the sensitivity of proteome analysis. These approaches often employ a subset of the original database for the secondary stage of analysis. However, if target-decoy approach (TDA) is used for false discovery rate (FDR) estimation, the multi-stage strategies may violate the underlying assumption of TDA that false matches are distributed uniformly across the target and decoy databases. This violation occurs if the numbers of target and decoy proteins selected for the second search are not equal. Here, we propose a method of decoy database generation based on the previously reported decoy fusion strategy. This method allows unbiased TDA-based FDR estimation in multi-stage searches and can be easily integrated into existing workflows utilizing popular search engines and post-search algorithms.

  13. Adaptation of Decoy Fusion Strategy for Existing Multi-Stage Search Workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Mark V.; Levitsky, Lev I.; Gorshkov, Mikhail V.

    2016-06-01

    A number of proteomic database search engines implement multi-stage strategies aiming at increasing the sensitivity of proteome analysis. These approaches often employ a subset of the original database for the secondary stage of analysis. However, if target-decoy approach (TDA) is used for false discovery rate (FDR) estimation, the multi-stage strategies may violate the underlying assumption of TDA that false matches are distributed uniformly across the target and decoy databases. This violation occurs if the numbers of target and decoy proteins selected for the second search are not equal. Here, we propose a method of decoy database generation based on the previously reported decoy fusion strategy. This method allows unbiased TDA-based FDR estimation in multi-stage searches and can be easily integrated into existing workflows utilizing popular search engines and post-search algorithms.

  14. Adaptation of Decoy Fusion Strategy for Existing Multi-Stage Search Workflows.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Mark V; Levitsky, Lev I; Gorshkov, Mikhail V

    2016-09-01

    A number of proteomic database search engines implement multi-stage strategies aiming at increasing the sensitivity of proteome analysis. These approaches often employ a subset of the original database for the secondary stage of analysis. However, if target-decoy approach (TDA) is used for false discovery rate (FDR) estimation, the multi-stage strategies may violate the underlying assumption of TDA that false matches are distributed uniformly across the target and decoy databases. This violation occurs if the numbers of target and decoy proteins selected for the second search are not equal. Here, we propose a method of decoy database generation based on the previously reported decoy fusion strategy. This method allows unbiased TDA-based FDR estimation in multi-stage searches and can be easily integrated into existing workflows utilizing popular search engines and post-search algorithms. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27349255

  15. Searching for Short Range Correlations Using (e,e'NN) Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Bin Zhang

    2003-02-01

    Electron induced two nucleon knockout reactions (e,e'pp) and (e,e'np) were performed for {sup 3}He, {sup 4}He, and {sup 12}C nuclei with incident energies of 2.261 GeV and 4.461 GeV using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. Events with missing momenta lower than the Fermi level and missing energies smaller than the pion threshold were studied. The residual system was assumed to be a spectator and the process was considered as a quasi-free knockout of an NN pair. The data showed that the initial momentum extends up to 800 MeV/c with considerable strength. The cross sections for {sup 3}He(e,e'pp)n were compared to the calculations of J.M. Laget. It was found that the final state interactions (FSI) and the meson exchange currents (MEC) dominate the cross sections and the short range properties of the NN pair were substantially undermined. However, the node of the S state wave function of the pp pair at around 400 MeV/c initial momentum starts to be recognizable in the 4.461 GeV data. The data and the theory suggest that with higher momentum transfers, especially in the region x{sub Bj} > 1, the competing processes such as FSI and MEC will be less important and the detailed study of the short-range properties of nucleons inside nuclei will be more desirable.

  16. Methodological aspects of an adaptive multidirectional pattern search to optimize speech perception using three hearing-aid algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, Bas A. M.; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Lyzenga, Johannes

    2004-12-01

    In this study we investigated the reliability and convergence characteristics of an adaptive multidirectional pattern search procedure, relative to a nonadaptive multidirectional pattern search procedure. The procedure was designed to optimize three speech-processing strategies. These comprise noise reduction, spectral enhancement, and spectral lift. The search is based on a paired-comparison paradigm, in which subjects evaluated the listening comfort of speech-in-noise fragments. The procedural and nonprocedural factors that influence the reliability and convergence of the procedure are studied using various test conditions. The test conditions combine different tests, initial settings, background noise types, and step size configurations. Seven normal hearing subjects participated in this study. The results indicate that the reliability of the optimization strategy may benefit from the use of an adaptive step size. Decreasing the step size increases accuracy, while increasing the step size can be beneficial to create clear perceptual differences in the comparisons. The reliability also depends on starting point, stop criterion, step size constraints, background noise, algorithms used, as well as the presence of drifting cues and suboptimal settings. There appears to be a trade-off between reliability and convergence, i.e., when the step size is enlarged the reliability improves, but the convergence deteriorates. .

  17. EEG/ERP adaptive noise canceller design with controlled search space (CSS) approach in cuckoo and other optimization algorithms.

    PubMed

    Ahirwal, M K; Kumar, Anil; Singh, G K

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the migration of adaptive filtering with swarm intelligence/evolutionary techniques employed in the field of electroencephalogram/event-related potential noise cancellation or extraction. A new approach is proposed in the form of controlled search space to stabilize the randomness of swarm intelligence techniques especially for the EEG signal. Swarm-based algorithms such as Particles Swarm Optimization, Artificial Bee Colony, and Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm with their variants are implemented to design optimized adaptive noise canceler. The proposed controlled search space technique is tested on each of the swarm intelligence techniques and is found to be more accurate and powerful. Adaptive noise canceler with traditional algorithms such as least-mean-square, normalized least-mean-square, and recursive least-mean-square algorithms are also implemented to compare the results. ERP signals such as simulated visual evoked potential, real visual evoked potential, and real sensorimotor evoked potential are used, due to their physiological importance in various EEG studies. Average computational time and shape measures of evolutionary techniques are observed 8.21E-01 sec and 1.73E-01, respectively. Though, traditional algorithms take negligible time consumption, but are unable to offer good shape preservation of ERP, noticed as average computational time and shape measure difference, 1.41E-02 sec and 2.60E+00, respectively. PMID:24407307

  18. A proposed search for dark-matter axions in the 0. 6--16. mu. eV range

    SciTech Connect

    van Bibber, K. ); Sikivie, P.; Sullivan, N.S.; Tanner, D.B. . Dept. of Physics); Turner, M.S. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL ); Moltz, D.M. )

    1991-03-01

    A proposed experiment is described to search for dark-matter axions in the mass range 0.6--16 {mu}eV. The method is based on the Primakoff conversion of axions into monochromatic microwave photons inside a tunable microwave cavity in a large volume high field magnet, as described by Sikivie. This proposal capitalizes on the availability of two Axicell magnets from the decommissioned MFTF-B fusion machine at LLNL. Assuming a local dark-matter density in axions of {rho} = 0.3 GeV/cm{sup 3}, the axion would be found or ruled out at the 97% c.l. in the above mass range in 48 months. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. A proposed search for dark-matter axions in the 0.6-16 micro-eV range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanbibber, Karl; Sikivie, P.; Sullivan, N. S.; Tanner, D. B.; Turner, Michael S.; Moltz, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    A proposed experiment is described to search for dark matter axions in the mass range 0.6 to 16 micro-eV. The method is based on the Primakoff conversion of axions into monochromatic microwave photons inside a tunable microwave cavity in a large volume high field magnet, as described by Sikivie. This proposal capitalizes on the availability of two Axicell magnets from the decommissioned Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) fusion machine at LLNL. Assuming a local dark matter density in axions of rho = 0.3 GeV/cu cm, the axion would be found or ruled out at the 97 pct. c.l. in the above mass range in 48 months.

  20. Optimal foraging strategies: Lévy walks balance searching and patch exploitation under a very broad range of conditions.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Nicolas E; Sims, David W

    2014-10-01

    While evidence for optimal random search patterns, known as Lévy walks, in empirical movement data is mounting for a growing list of taxa spanning motile cells to humans, there is still much debate concerning the theoretical generality of Lévy walk optimisation. Here, using a new and robust simulation environment, we investigate in the most detailed study to date (24×10(6) simulations) the foraging and search efficiencies of 2-D Lévy walks with a range of exponents, target resource distributions and several competing models. We find strong and comprehensive support for the predictions of the Lévy flight foraging hypothesis and in particular for the optimality of inverse square distributions of move step-lengths across a much broader range of resource densities and distributions than previously realised. Further support for the evolutionary advantage of Lévy walk movement patterns is provided by an investigation into the 'feast and famine' effect, with Lévy foragers in heterogeneous environments experiencing fewer long 'famines' than other types of searchers. Therefore overall, optimal Lévy foraging results in more predictable resources in unpredictable environments. PMID:24882791

  1. High dynamic range adaptive real-time smart camera: an overview of the HDR-ARTiST project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapray, Pierre-Jean; Heyrman, Barthélémy; Ginhac, Dominique

    2015-04-01

    Standard cameras capture only a fraction of the information that is visible to the human visual system. This is specifically true for natural scenes including areas of low and high illumination due to transitions between sunlit and shaded areas. When capturing such a scene, many cameras are unable to store the full Dynamic Range (DR) resulting in low quality video where details are concealed in shadows or washed out by sunlight. The imaging technique that can overcome this problem is called HDR (High Dynamic Range) imaging. This paper describes a complete smart camera built around a standard off-the-shelf LDR (Low Dynamic Range) sensor and a Virtex-6 FPGA board. This smart camera called HDR-ARtiSt (High Dynamic Range Adaptive Real-time Smart camera) is able to produce a real-time HDR live video color stream by recording and combining multiple acquisitions of the same scene while varying the exposure time. This technique appears as one of the most appropriate and cheapest solution to enhance the dynamic range of real-life environments. HDR-ARtiSt embeds real-time multiple captures, HDR processing, data display and transfer of a HDR color video for a full sensor resolution (1280 1024 pixels) at 60 frames per second. The main contributions of this work are: (1) Multiple Exposure Control (MEC) dedicated to the smart image capture with alternating three exposure times that are dynamically evaluated from frame to frame, (2) Multi-streaming Memory Management Unit (MMMU) dedicated to the memory read/write operations of the three parallel video streams, corresponding to the different exposure times, (3) HRD creating by combining the video streams using a specific hardware version of the Devebecs technique, and (4) Global Tone Mapping (GTM) of the HDR scene for display on a standard LCD monitor.

  2. An adaptive large neighborhood search heuristic for Two-Echelon Vehicle Routing Problems arising in city logistics

    PubMed Central

    Hemmelmayr, Vera C.; Cordeau, Jean-François; Crainic, Teodor Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an adaptive large neighborhood search heuristic for the Two-Echelon Vehicle Routing Problem (2E-VRP) and the Location Routing Problem (LRP). The 2E-VRP arises in two-level transportation systems such as those encountered in the context of city logistics. In such systems, freight arrives at a major terminal and is shipped through intermediate satellite facilities to the final customers. The LRP can be seen as a special case of the 2E-VRP in which vehicle routing is performed only at the second level. We have developed new neighborhood search operators by exploiting the structure of the two problem classes considered and have also adapted existing operators from the literature. The operators are used in a hierarchical scheme reflecting the multi-level nature of the problem. Computational experiments conducted on several sets of instances from the literature show that our algorithm outperforms existing solution methods for the 2E-VRP and achieves excellent results on the LRP. PMID:23483764

  3. Image retargeting using non-uniform scaling with adaptive local search window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shanshan; Abdel-Dayem, Amr

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a new content-aware image-retargeting scheme, based on non-uniform scaling, to adaptively adjust the image's dimensions for various screen sizes. Based on an importance map, the energy contribution for each line in the reduced dimension to the overall energy within the image is computed. Then, the image is adaptively mapped and resampled based on the energy contribution function. Experimental results showed that the performance of the proposed scheme is comparable to seam carving in visual quality. However, it is computationally less expensive.

  4. A CLOSE COMPANION SEARCH AROUND L DWARFS USING APERTURE MASKING INTERFEROMETRY AND PALOMAR LASER GUIDE STAR ADAPTIVE OPTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Bernat, David; Bouchez, Antonin H.; Cromer, John L.; Dekany, Richard G.; Moore, Anna M.; Ireland, Michael; Tuthill, Peter; Martinache, Frantz; Angione, John; Burruss, Rick S.; Guiwits, Stephen R.; Henning, John R.; Hickey, Jeff; Kibblewhite, Edward; McKenna, Daniel L.; Petrie, Harold L.; Roberts, Jennifer; Shelton, J. Chris; Thicksten, Robert P.; Trinh, Thang

    2010-06-01

    We present a close companion search around 16 known early L dwarfs using aperture masking interferometry with Palomar laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS AO). The use of aperture masking allows the detection of close binaries, corresponding to projected physical separations of 0.6-10.0 AU for the targets of our survey. This survey achieved median contrast limits of {Delta}K {approx} 2.3 for separations between 1.2 {lambda}/D-4{lambda}/D and {Delta}K {approx} 1.4 at 2/3 {lambda}/D. We present four candidate binaries detected with moderate-to-high confidence (90%-98%). Two have projected physical separations less than 1.5 AU. This may indicate that tight-separation binaries contribute more significantly to the binary fraction than currently assumed, consistent with spectroscopic and photometric overluminosity studies. Ten targets of this survey have previously been observed with the Hubble Space Telescope as part of companion searches. We use the increased resolution of aperture masking to search for close or dim companions that would be obscured by full aperture imaging, finding two candidate binaries. This survey is the first application of aperture masking with LGS AO at Palomar. Several new techniques for the analysis of aperture masking data in the low signal-to-noise regime are explored.

  5. Evaluation of Neural Response Telemetry (NRT™) with focus on long-term rate adaptation over a wide range of stimulation rates.

    PubMed

    Huarte, Alicia; Ramos, Angel; Morera, Constantino; Garcia-Ibáñez, Luis; Battmer, Rolf; Dillier, Norbert; Wesarg, Thomas; Müller-Deile, Joachim; Hey, Mattias; Offeciers, Erwin; von Wallenberg, Ernst; Coudert, Chrystelle; Killian, Matthijs

    2014-05-01

    Custom Sound EP™ (CSEP) is an advanced flexible software tool dedicated to recording of electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) in Nucleus® recipients using Neural Response Telemetry™ (NRT™). European multi-centre studies of the Freedom™ cochlear implant system confirmed that CSEP offers tools to effectively record ECAP thresholds, amplitude growth functions, recovery functions, spread of excitation functions, and rate adaptation functions and an automated algorithm (AutoNRT™) to measure threshold profiles. This paper reports on rate adaptation measurements. Rate adaptation of ECAP amplitudes can successfully be measured up to rates of 495 pulses per second (pps) by repeating conventional ECAP measurements and over a wide range of rates up to 8000 pps using the masked response extraction technique. Rate adaptation did not show a predictable relationship with speech perception and coding strategy channel rate preference. The masked response extraction method offers opportunities to study long-term rate adaptation with well-defined and controlled stimulation paradigms. PMID:24559068

  6. Practical High-Order Adaptive Optics Systems For Extrasolar Planet Searches

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B A; Olivier, S; Bauman, B; Brase, J; Carr, E; Carrano, C J; Gavel, D; Max, C E; Patience, J

    2001-08-29

    Direct detection of photons emitted or reflected by an extrasolar planet is an extremely difficult but extremely exciting application of adaptive optics. Typical contrast levels for an extrasolar planet would be 10{sup 9}-Jupiter is a billion times fainter than the sun. Current adaptive optics systems can only achieve contrast levels of 10{sup 6}, but so-called ''extreme'' adaptive optics systems with 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} degrees of freedom could potentially detect extrasolar planets. We explore the scaling laws defining the performance of these systems, first set out by Angel (1994), and derive a different definition of an optimal system. Our sensitivity predictions are somewhat more pessimistic than the original paper, due largely to slow decorrelation timescales for some noise sources, though choosing to site an ExAO system at a location with exceptional r{sub 0} (e.g. Mauna Kea) can offset this. We also explore the effects of segment aberrations in a Keck-like telescope on ExAO; although the effects are significant, they can be mitigated through Lyot coronagraphy.

  7. Enhancing artificial bee colony algorithm with self-adaptive searching strategy and artificial immune network operators for global optimization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tinggui; Xiao, Renbin

    2014-01-01

    Artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm, inspired by the intelligent foraging behavior of honey bees, was proposed by Karaboga. It has been shown to be superior to some conventional intelligent algorithms such as genetic algorithm (GA), artificial colony optimization (ACO), and particle swarm optimization (PSO). However, the ABC still has some limitations. For example, ABC can easily get trapped in the local optimum when handing in functions that have a narrow curving valley, a high eccentric ellipse, or complex multimodal functions. As a result, we proposed an enhanced ABC algorithm called EABC by introducing self-adaptive searching strategy and artificial immune network operators to improve the exploitation and exploration. The simulation results tested on a suite of unimodal or multimodal benchmark functions illustrate that the EABC algorithm outperforms ACO, PSO, and the basic ABC in most of the experiments. PMID:24772023

  8. Enhancing Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm with Self-Adaptive Searching Strategy and Artificial Immune Network Operators for Global Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tinggui; Xiao, Renbin

    2014-01-01

    Artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm, inspired by the intelligent foraging behavior of honey bees, was proposed by Karaboga. It has been shown to be superior to some conventional intelligent algorithms such as genetic algorithm (GA), artificial colony optimization (ACO), and particle swarm optimization (PSO). However, the ABC still has some limitations. For example, ABC can easily get trapped in the local optimum when handing in functions that have a narrow curving valley, a high eccentric ellipse, or complex multimodal functions. As a result, we proposed an enhanced ABC algorithm called EABC by introducing self-adaptive searching strategy and artificial immune network operators to improve the exploitation and exploration. The simulation results tested on a suite of unimodal or multimodal benchmark functions illustrate that the EABC algorithm outperforms ACO, PSO, and the basic ABC in most of the experiments. PMID:24772023

  9. Identification of Unknown Interface Locations in a Source/Shield System Using the Mesh Adaptive Direct Search Method

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Jerawan C.; Favorite, Jeffrey A.

    2012-06-20

    The Levenberg-Marquardt (or simply Marquardt) and differential evolution (DE) optimization methods were recently applied to solve inverse transport problems. The Marquardt method is fast but convergence of the method is dependent on the initial guess. While it has been shown to work extremely well at finding an optimum independent of the initial guess, the DE method does not provide a global optimal solution in some problems. In this paper, we apply the Mesh Adaptive Direct Search (MADS) algorithm to solve the inverse problem of material interface location identification in one-dimensional spherical radiation source/shield systems, and we compare the results obtained by MADS to those obtained by Levenberg-Marquardt and DE.

  10. Searching for the dust/molecular torus in a typical AGN using adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, O.; Alloin, D.

    Adaptive optics systems are now routinely operated on several 4 meter class telescopes, allowing to achieve angular resolutions down to 70 msec in the near-infrared. Although these systems have excellent performances, their use for exploring the physics and structure of AGN is still limited for the following reasons: the limiting magnitude of the wavefront sensor is too high, the sensitivity of infrared detectors does not give access to medium/high spectral solution spectroscopy and the angular resolution achieved does not always fit the apparent size of the physical components responsible for emission features close to the central engine. The new generation of 8-10m class telescopes bring improvements in this matter. However, some interesting results have been obtained so far with Adonis, the ESO La Silla adaptive optics system on the 3.60 meter telescope, in the investigation of AGN structure. In particular, a prominent structure has been detected in the central arcsec core of NGC 1068, which might feature the dusty/molecular torus expected on theoretical grounds.

  11. Searching for the Dust/Molecular Torus in a Typical AGN using Adaptive Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, O.; Alloin, D.

    Adaptive Optics systems are now routinely operated on several 4 meter class telescopes, allowing to achieve angular resolutions down to 70 msec in the near-infrared. Although these systems have excellent performances, their use for exploring the physics and structure of AGN is still limited for the following reasons: the limiting magnitude of the wavefront sensor is too high, the sensitivity of infrared detectors does not give access to medium/high spectral resolution spectroscopy and the angular resolution achieved does not always fit the apparent size of the physical components responsible for emission features close to the central engine. The new generation of 8-10 m class telescopes bring improvements in this matter. However, some interesting results have been obtained so far with Adonis, the ESO La Silla adaptive optics system on the 3.60 meter telescope, in the investigation of AGN structure. In particular, a prominent structure has been detected in the central arcs! ec core of NGC1068, which might feature the dusty/molecular torus expected on theoretical grounds.

  12. Small Infrared Target Detection by Region-Adaptive Clutter Rejection for Sea-Based Infrared Search and Track

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungho; Lee, Joohyoung

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a region-adaptive clutter rejection method for small target detection in sea-based infrared search and track. In the real world, clutter normally generates many false detections that impede the deployment of such detection systems. Incoming targets (missiles, boats, etc.) can be located in the sky, horizon and sea regions, which have different types of clutters, such as clouds, a horizontal line and sea-glint. The characteristics of regional clutter were analyzed after the geometrical analysis-based region segmentation. The false detections caused by cloud clutter were removed by the spatial attribute-based classification. Those by the horizontal line were removed using the heterogeneous background removal filter. False alarms by sun-glint were rejected using the temporal consistency filter, which is the most difficult part. The experimental results of the various cluttered background sequences show that the proposed region adaptive clutter rejection method produces fewer false alarms than that of the mean subtraction filter (MSF) with an acceptable degradation detection rate. PMID:25054633

  13. Small infrared target detection by region-adaptive clutter rejection for sea-based infrared search and track.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungho; Lee, Joohyoung

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a region-adaptive clutter rejection method for small target detection in sea-based infrared search and track. In the real world, clutter normally generates many false detections that impede the deployment of such detection systems. Incoming targets (missiles, boats, etc.) can be located in the sky, horizon and sea regions, which have different types of clutters, such as clouds, a horizontal line and sea-glint. The characteristics of regional clutter were analyzed after the geometrical analysis-based region segmentation. The false detections caused by cloud clutter were removed by the spatial attribute-based classification. Those by the horizontal line were removed using the heterogeneous background removal filter. False alarms by sun-glint were rejected using the temporal consistency filter, which is the most difficult part. The experimental results of the various cluttered background sequences show that the proposed region adaptive clutter rejection method produces fewer false alarms than that of the mean subtraction filter (MSF) with an acceptable degradation detection rate. PMID:25054633

  14. Potential for adaptive evolution at species range margins: contrasting interactions between red coral populations and their environment in a changing ocean

    PubMed Central

    Ledoux, Jean-Baptiste; Aurelle, Didier; Bensoussan, Nathaniel; Marschal, Christian; Féral, Jean-Pierre; Garrabou, Joaquim

    2015-01-01

    Studying population-by-environment interactions (PEIs) at species range margins offers the opportunity to characterize the responses of populations facing an extreme regime of selection, as expected due to global change. Nevertheless, the importance of these marginal populations as putative reservoirs of adaptive genetic variation has scarcely been considered in conservation biology. This is particularly true in marine ecosystems for which the deep refugia hypothesis proposes that disturbed shallow and marginal populations of a given species can be replenished by mesophotic ones. This hypothesis therefore assumes that identical PEIs exist between populations, neglecting the potential for adaptation at species range margins. Here, we combine reciprocal transplant and common garden experiments with population genetics analyses to decipher the PEIs in the red coral, Corallium rubrum. Our analyses reveal partially contrasting PEIs between shallow and mesophotic populations separated by approximately one hundred meters, suggesting that red coral populations may potentially be locally adapted to their environment. Based on the effective population size and connectivity analyses, we posit that genetic drift may be more important than gene flow in the adaptation of the red coral. We further investigate how adaptive divergence could impact population viability in the context of warming and demonstrate differential phenotypic buffering capacities against thermal stress. Our study questions the relevance of the deep refugia hypothesis and highlights the conservation value of marginal populations as a putative reservoir of adaptive genetic polymorphism. PMID:25859324

  15. Eco-genomic analysis of the poleward range expansion of the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi shows rapid adaptation and genomic admixture.

    PubMed

    Krehenwinkel, Henrik; Rödder, Dennis; Tautz, Diethard

    2015-12-01

    Poleward range expansions are commonly attributed to global change, but could alternatively be driven by rapid evolutionary adaptation. A well-documented example of a range expansion during the past decades is provided by the European wasp spider Argiope bruennichi. Using ecological niche modeling, thermal tolerance experiments and a genome-wide analysis of gene expression divergence, we show that invasive populations have adapted to novel climatic conditions in the course of their expansion. Their climatic niche shift is mirrored in an increased cold tolerance and a population-specific and functionally differentiated gene expression response. We generated an Argiope reference genome sequence and used population genome resequencing to assess genomic changes associated with the new climatic adaptations. We find clear genetic differentiation and a significant admixture with alleles from East Asian populations in the invasive Northern European populations. Population genetic modeling suggests that at least some of these introgressing alleles have contributed to the new adaptations during the expansion. Our results thus confirm the notion that range expansions are not a simple consequence of climate change, but are accompanied by fast genetic changes and adaptations that may be fuelled through admixture between long separated lineages. PMID:26183328

  16. Spectroscopic search for new SW Sextantis stars in the 3-4 h orbital period range - I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Schmidtobreick, L.; Gänsicke, B. T.

    2007-02-01

    We report on time-resolved optical spectroscopy of 10 non-eclipsing nova-like cataclysmic variables in the orbital period range between 3 and 4 h. The main objective of this long-term programme is to search for the characteristic SWSextantis behaviour and to eventually quantify the impact of the SWSex phenomenon on nova-likes at the upper boundary of the orbital period gap. Of the 10 systems observed so far, HL Aqr, BO Cet, AH Men, V380 Oph, AH Pic and LN UMa are identified as new members of the SW Sex class. We present improved orbital period measurements for HL Aqr (Porb = 3.254 +/- 0.001 h) and V380 Oph (Porb = 3.69857 +/- 0.00002 h). BO Cet and V380 Oph exhibit emission-line flaring with periodicities of 20 and 47 min, respectively. The Hα line of HLAqr shows significant blueshifted absorption modulated at the orbital period. Similarly to the emission S-wave of the high-inclination SW Sex stars, this absorption S-wave has its maximum blue velocity at orbital phase ~0.5. We estimate an orbital inclination for HLAqr in the range 19° < i < 27°, which is much lower than that of the emission-dominated, non-eclipsing SW Sex stars (i ~ 60°-70°). This gives rise to the interesting possibility of many low-inclination nova-likes actually being SWSex stars, but with a very different spectroscopic appearance as they show significant absorption. The increasing blueshifted absorption with decreasing inclination points to the existence of a mass outflow with significant vertical motion. These six new additions to the SW Sex class increase the presence of non-eclipsing systems to about one-third of the whole SW Sex population, which therefore makes the requirement of eclipses as a defining criterion for SW Sex membership no longer valid. The statistics of the cataclysmic variable population in the vicinity of the upper period gap are also discussed.

  17. The local enhancement conundrum: in search of the adaptive value of a social learning mechanism.

    PubMed

    Arbilly, Michal; Laland, Kevin N

    2014-02-01

    Social learning mechanisms are widely thought to vary in their degree of complexity as well as in their prevalence in the natural world. While learning the properties of a stimulus that generalize to similar stimuli at other locations (stimulus enhancement) prima facie appears more useful to an animal than learning about a specific stimulus at a specific location (local enhancement), empirical evidence suggests that the latter is much more widespread in nature. Simulating populations engaged in a producer-scrounger game, we sought to deploy mathematical models to identify the adaptive benefits of reliance on local enhancement and/or stimulus enhancement, and the alternative conditions favoring their evolution. Surprisingly, we found that while stimulus enhancement readily evolves, local enhancement is advantageous only under highly restricted conditions: when generalization of information was made unreliable or when error in social learning was high. Our results generate a conundrum over how seemingly conflicting empirical and theoretical findings can be reconciled. Perhaps the prevalence of local enhancement in nature is due to stimulus enhancement costs independent of the learning task itself (e.g. predation risk), perhaps natural habitats are often characterized by unreliable yet highly rewarding payoffs, or perhaps local enhancement occurs less frequently, and stimulus enhancement more frequently, than widely believed. PMID:24044984

  18. A methodology for estimating lateral range curves for electro-optical visible and infrared imaging systems for maritime search and detection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWeert, Michael J.; Leonard, Carrie L.; Stalder, Carrie L.; Iokepa, Judy; Gradie, Jonathan

    2005-05-01

    Electro-optical (EO) systems with digital image processing and computer-aided detection are increasingly coming into use for maritime surveillance, reconnaissance and search and rescue. EO systems have the potential to improve the consistency of detection, reduce operator workload and fatigue, and improve search efficiency. However, quantifying their performance versus more traditional approaches is problematic, because of the differences in how performance is specified for traditional systems versus modern computer-aided designs. In maritime search applications, system performance is commonly specified in terms of the lateral range curve (LRC). The LRC is a plot of the probability of detection versus horizontal range from the search platform. This metric has a long history, rooted in visual searches by trained human observers. However, it is specified without reference to any false-alarm rate or probability of false alarm. Computer-aided EO performance, on the other hand, is usually specified in terms of Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, or some equivalent metric. In this paper, we demonstrate a methodology for estimating LRCs from SNRs or ROC curves. This methodology provides a consistent, quantifiable means for comparing the performance of new and legacy systems.

  19. Biogenic hydrogen peroxide as a possible adaptation of life on Mars: the search for biosignatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houtkooper, J. M.; Schulze-Makuch, D.

    2007-08-01

    The hypothesis that putative Martian organisms incorporate H2O2 into their intracellular liquids (Houtkooper and Schulze-Makuch, 2007) has significant implications, as it explains the Viking observations quite well; it provides a functional adaptation to Martian environmental conditions; and, it is feasible as an adaptation based on the biochemistry of terrestrial organisms. It would explain many of the puzzling Viking observations such as (1) the lack of organics detected by GC-MS, (2) the lack of detected oxidant(s) to support a chemical explanation, (3) evolution of O2 upon wetting (GEx experiment), (4) limited organic synthesis reactions (PR experiment), and (5) the gas release observations made (LR experiment). An intracellular liquid containing a high concentration of H2O2 has advantages such as providing a low freezing point, a source of oxygen, and hygroscopicity, allowing an organism to obtain water vapor from the Martian atmosphere or from the adsorbed layers of water molecules on mineral grains. Perhaps surprisingly, H2O2 is used by many terrestrial organisms for diverse purposes, e.g., metabolism (Acetobacter peroxidans), as defense mechanism (Bombardier beetle), and also to mediate diverse physiological responses such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. The detection of H2O2-containing organisms may well suffer from the same problems as the Viking experiments: Because of the excess oxidative contents, as derived from the GEx experiment, the organisms may decompose completely into H2O, CO2, O2 and N2. This can happen when exposed to an excess of water vapor (through hyperhydration), too high a temperature or a combination of both. Therefore, the addition of too much water vapor may be fatal. Moreover, employing pyrolysis in order to detect organic molecules may result in the organisms autooxidizing completely. Although the instrument suite aboard the Phoenix Lander offers some interesting possibilities (Schulze-Makuch and Houtkooper

  20. Adapting ecological sites descriptions to enhance wildlife management: Lessons learned from the 2007 society for range management workshop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Society for Range Management in cooperation with federal, state, and private partners sponsored a workshop in Park City, Utah in October 2007 to better introduce range and wildlife management professionals Ecological Site Descriptions (ESDs). The workshop was attended by over 300 land and wildli...

  1. [Adaptive features of the ecology and annual cycle of the willow warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus L.) at the northern boundary of the Siberian part of the range].

    PubMed

    Ryzhanovskiĭ, V N

    2014-01-01

    The ecology of the willow warbler in the north of Western Siberia is considered, and the adaptations that enable the spread of this species to the Subarctic are analyzed. It is established that one of the key factors that caused the change in the range of this species is the northward distribution of shrubs and, hence, the biomass of insects (available food items of these birds). PMID:25739309

  2. Experimental search for hidden photon CDM in the eV mass range with a dish antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, J.; Horie, T.; Inoue, Y.; Minowa, M.

    2015-09-15

    A search for hidden photon cold dark matter (HP CDM) using a new technique with a dish antenna is reported. From the result of the measurement, we found no evidence for the existence of HP CDM and set an upper limit on the photon-HP mixing parameter χ of ∼6×10{sup −12} for the hidden photon mass m{sub γ}=3.1±1.2 eV.

  3. Northern range expansion of European populations of the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi is associated with global warming-correlated genetic admixture and population-specific temperature adaptations.

    PubMed

    Krehenwinkel, Henrik; Tautz, Diethard

    2013-04-01

    Poleward range expansions are observed for an increasing number of species, which may be an effect of global warming during the past decades. However, it is still not clear in how far these expansions reflect simple geographical shifts of species ranges, or whether new genetic adaptations play a role as well. Here, we analyse the expansion of the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi into Northern Europe during the last century. We have used a range-wide sampling of contemporary populations and historical specimens from museums to trace the phylogeography and genetic changes associated with the range shift. Based on the analysis of mitochondrial, microsatellite and SNP markers, we observe a higher level of genetic diversity in the expanding populations, apparently due to admixture of formerly isolated lineages. Using reciprocal transplant experiments for testing overwintering tolerance, as well as temperature preference and tolerance tests in the laboratory, we find that the invading spiders have possibly shifted their temperature niche. This may be a key adaptation for survival in Northern latitudes. The museum samples allow a reconstruction of the invasion's genetic history. A first, small-scale range shift started around 1930, in parallel with the onset of global warming. A more massive invasion of Northern Europe associated with genetic admixture and morphological changes occurred in later decades. We suggest that the latter range expansion into far Northern latitudes may be a consequence of the admixture that provided the genetic material for adaptations to new environmental regimes. Hence, global warming could have facilitated the initial admixture of populations and this resulted in genetic lineages with new habitat preferences. PMID:23496675

  4. High-contrast Adaptive Optics and a Search for Late-type Companions to Hyades FGK Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morzinski, Katie M.

    2011-01-01

    The Hyades is an intermediate-age open cluster with hundreds of main-sequence stars and is thus well-suited to stellar formation and evolution studies. Being nearby with high proper motion, it is a choice cluster for direct-imaging surveys. We conduct a high-contrast adaptive optics (AO) search for late-type companions as faint as MH 15 (late-L/early-T) within 5-230 AU around 88 FGK main-sequence Hyades dwarfs. Departures from the ideal point-spread function (PSF) in the image plane are caused by phase and amplitude errors that redistribute stellar light and limit the achievable contrast. An AO system on a ground-based telescope mitigates the phase errors in the pupil, but constructive interference of spatially coherent light causes amplitude spikes in the PSF called speckles. The locally-optimized combination of images (LOCI) algorithm is used to identify and subtract the quasistatic speckles and static PSF structure, allowing imaging of faint point-source companions. We use LOCI on deep near-infrared AO Hyad imaging at Keck and Lick Observatories. Background objects are subsequently ruled out by comparing relative astrometry in two epochs separated by five years. We present our confirmed Hyades companions. Furthermore, we look ahead to AO for exoplanet-imaging wherein a ''dark hole'' in the PSF facilitates high-contrast imaging. The size of the dark hole is set by the highest spatial frequency controllable by the deformable mirror (DM). Decreasing rejection at increasing spatial frequencies reduces the correction efficiency within the high-contrast region, owing to the nature of the MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) DM transfer function. This effect can be mitigated by a dual-DM ''woofer/tweeter'' AO system whereby each DM controls a different spatial frequency regime. We present empirical results on selecting a woofer DM in order to maintain the dark hole for the upcoming Gemini Planet Imager. (Supported by NASA Michelson Fellowship, NSF Center for

  5. Climate change surpasses land-use change in the contracting range boundary of a winter-adapted mammal.

    PubMed

    Sultaire, Sean M; Pauli, Jonathan N; Martin, Karl J; Meyer, Michael W; Notaro, Michael; Zuckerberg, Benjamin

    2016-03-30

    The effects of climate change on biodiversity have emerged as a dominant theme in conservation biology, possibly eclipsing concern over habitat loss in recent years. The extent to which this shifting focus has tracked the most eminent threats to biodiversity is not well documented. We investigated the mechanisms driving shifts in the southern range boundary of a forest and snow cover specialist, the snowshoe hare, to explore how its range boundary has responded to shifting rates of climate and land cover change over time. We found that although both forest and snow cover contributed to the historical range boundary, the current duration of snow cover best explains the most recent northward shift, while forest cover has declined in relative importance. In this respect, the southern range boundary of snowshoe hares has mirrored the focus of conservation research; first habitat loss and fragmentation was the stronger environmental constraint, but climate change has now become the main threat. Projections of future range shifts show that climate change, and associated snow cover loss, will continue to be the major driver of this species' range loss into the future. PMID:27030410

  6. Characterization of the non-uniqueness of used nuclear fuel burnup signatures through a Mesh-Adaptive Direct Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skutnik, Steven E.; Davis, David R.

    2016-05-01

    The use of passive gamma and neutron signatures from fission indicators is a common means of estimating used fuel burnup, enrichment, and cooling time. However, while characteristic fission product signatures such as 134Cs, 137Cs, 154Eu, and others are generally reliable estimators for used fuel burnup within the context where the assembly initial enrichment and the discharge time are known, in the absence of initial enrichment and/or cooling time information (such as when applying NDA measurements in a safeguards/verification context), these fission product indicators no longer yield a unique solution for assembly enrichment, burnup, and cooling time after discharge. Through the use of a new Mesh-Adaptive Direct Search (MADS) algorithm, it is possible to directly probe the shape of this "degeneracy space" characteristic of individual nuclides (and combinations thereof), both as a function of constrained parameters (such as the assembly irradiation history) and unconstrained parameters (e.g., the cooling time before measurement and the measurement precision for particular indicator nuclides). In doing so, this affords the identification of potential means of narrowing the uncertainty space of potential assembly enrichment, burnup, and cooling time combinations, thereby bounding estimates of assembly plutonium content. In particular, combinations of gamma-emitting nuclides with distinct half-lives (e.g., 134Cs with 137Cs and 154Eu) in conjunction with gross neutron counting (via 244Cm) are able to reasonably constrain the degeneracy space of possible solutions to a space small enough to perform useful discrimination and verification of fuel assemblies based on their irradiation history.

  7. Differentiation of reproductive and competitive ability in the invaded range of Senecio inaequidens: the role of genetic Allee effects, adaptive and nonadaptive evolution.

    PubMed

    Lachmuth, Susanne; Durka, Walter; Schurr, Frank M

    2011-10-01

    Genetic differentiation in the competitive and reproductive ability of invading populations can result from genetic Allee effects or r/K selection at the local or range-wide scale. However, the neutral relatedness of populations may either mask or falsely suggest adaptation and genetic Allee effects. In a common-garden experiment, we investigated the competitive and reproductive ability of invasive Senecio inaequidens populations that vary in neutral genetic diversity, population age and field vegetation cover. To account for population relatedness, we analysed the experimental results with 'animal models' adopted from quantitative genetics. Consistent with adaptive r/K differentiation at local scales, we found that genotypes from low-competition environments invest more in reproduction and are more sensitive to competition. By contrast, apparent effects of large-scale r/K differentiation and apparent genetic Allee effects can largely be explained by neutral population relatedness. Invading populations should not be treated as homogeneous groups, as they may adapt quickly to small-scale environmental variation in the invaded range. Furthermore, neutral population differentiation may strongly influence invasion dynamics and should be accounted for in analyses of common-garden experiments. PMID:21736567

  8. A novel method of wide searching scope and fast searching speed for image block matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fei; Li, Chao; Mei, Qiang; Lin, Zhe

    2015-10-01

    When the image matching method is used for motion estimation, the performance parameters like searching scope, searching speed, accuracy and robustness of the method normally are significant and need enhancement. In this paper, a novel method of block matching containing the wide range image block matching strategy and the strategy of multi-start points and parallel searching are presented. In the wide range matching strategy, the size of template block and searching block are same. And the average value of cumulative results by pixels in calculation is taken to ensure matching parameters can accurately represent the matching degree. In the strategy of multi-start points and parallel searching, the way of choosing starting points evenly is presented based on the characteristic of the block matching search, and the adaptive conditions and adaptive schedule is established based on the searching region. In the processing of iteration, the new strategy can not only adapt to the solution that lead the objective to the correct direction, but also adapt to the solution that have a little offset comparing with the objective. Therefore the multi-start points and parallel searching algorithm can be easy to keep from the trap of local minima effectively. The image processing system based on the DSP chip of TMS320C6415 is used to make the experiment for the video image stabilization. The results of experiment show that, the application of two methods can improve the range of motion estimation and reduce the searching computation.

  9. Partitioning of multivariate phenotypes using regression trees reveals complex patterns of adaptation to climate across the range of black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa)

    PubMed Central

    Oubida, Regis W.; Gantulga, Dashzeveg; Zhang, Man; Zhou, Lecong; Bawa, Rajesh; Holliday, Jason A.

    2015-01-01

    Local adaptation to climate in temperate forest trees involves the integration of multiple physiological, morphological, and phenological traits. Latitudinal clines are frequently observed for these traits, but environmental constraints also track longitude and altitude. We combined extensive phenotyping of 12 candidate adaptive traits, multivariate regression trees, quantitative genetics, and a genome-wide panel of SNP markers to better understand the interplay among geography, climate, and adaptation to abiotic factors in Populus trichocarpa. Heritabilities were low to moderate (0.13–0.32) and population differentiation for many traits exceeded the 99th percentile of the genome-wide distribution of FST, suggesting local adaptation. When climate variables were taken as predictors and the 12 traits as response variables in a multivariate regression tree analysis, evapotranspiration (Eref) explained the most variation, with subsequent splits related to mean temperature of the warmest month, frost-free period (FFP), and mean annual precipitation (MAP). These grouping matched relatively well the splits using geographic variables as predictors: the northernmost groups (short FFP and low Eref) had the lowest growth, and lowest cold injury index; the southern British Columbia group (low Eref and intermediate temperatures) had average growth and cold injury index; the group from the coast of California and Oregon (high Eref and FFP) had the highest growth performance and the highest cold injury index; and the southernmost, high-altitude group (with high Eref and low FFP) performed poorly, had high cold injury index, and lower water use efficiency. Taken together, these results suggest variation in both temperature and water availability across the range shape multivariate adaptive traits in poplar. PMID:25870603

  10. Adapting a ground-based laser ranging system at NASA-GSFC for identification and tracking of orbital debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyle, D. B.; Stysley, Paul R.; McGarry, Jan F.; Hull, Scott M.; Getzandanner, Kenneth M.; Young, Romae P.

    2013-05-01

    The mitigation of orbital debris was addressed in the most recent release of the National Space Policy directing space faring agencies to pursue technologies that will "mitigate and remove on-orbit debris." No matter what abatement technology is developed and deployed, still lacking is the remote sensing infrastructure to locate and track these objects with adequate precision. We propose using GSFC's ground-based laser ranging facility to provide meter-level or better ranging precision on optically passive 10-30 cm orbital debris targets with the goal of improving current predictions up to 85%. The improved location accuracy also has the immediate benefit of reducing costly false alarms in collision predictions for existing assets.

  11. A hybrid, auto-adaptive and rule-based multi-agent approach using evolutionary algorithms for improved searching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izquierdo, Joaquín; Montalvo, Idel; Campbell, Enrique; Pérez-García, Rafael

    2016-08-01

    Selecting the most appropriate heuristic for solving a specific problem is not easy, for many reasons. This article focuses on one of these reasons: traditionally, the solution search process has operated in a given manner regardless of the specific problem being solved, and the process has been the same regardless of the size, complexity and domain of the problem. To cope with this situation, search processes should mould the search into areas of the search space that are meaningful for the problem. This article builds on previous work in the development of a multi-agent paradigm using techniques derived from knowledge discovery (data-mining techniques) on databases of so-far visited solutions. The aim is to improve the search mechanisms, increase computational efficiency and use rules to enrich the formulation of optimization problems, while reducing the search space and catering to realistic problems.

  12. Search for a Higgs boson in the mass range from 145 to 1000 GeV decaying to a pair of W or Z bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Ochesanu, S.; Rougny, R.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Delannoy, H.; Dobur, D.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Léonard, A.; Mohammadi, A.; Perniè, L.; Randleconde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva Diblen, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Dos Reis Martins, T.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santaolalla, J.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Marinov, A.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Ali, A.; Aly, R.; Aly, S.; Assran, Y.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Lotfy, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Masod, R.; Radi, A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Pekkanen, J.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Brochet, S.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Xiao, H.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Schulte, J. F.; Verlage, T.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Haj Ahmad, W.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. J.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Choudhury, S.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Trippkewitz, K. D.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Gonzalez, D.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Nowatschin, D.; Ott, J.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Seidel, M.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Akbiyik, M.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Feindt, M.; Frensch, F.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Hartmann, F.; Husemann, U.; Kassel, F.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weiler, T.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Markou, A.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Tziaferi, E.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hazi, A.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Makovec, A.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mehta, A.; Mittal, M.; Nishu, N.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. B.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, V.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dey, S.; Dutta, S.; Jain, Sa.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Majumdar, N.; Modak, A.; Mondal, K.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Roy, A.; Roy, D.; Roy Chowdhury, S.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Chudasama, R.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Dugad, S.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Mahakud, B.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mitra, S.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sarkar, T.; Sudhakar, K.; Sur, N.; Sutar, B.; Wickramage, N.; Sharma, S.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Etesami, S. 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M.; Lanza, G.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Thyssen, F.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Carlin, R.; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, A.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gonella, F.; Gozzelino, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Michelotto, M.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Zanetti, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Braghieri, A.; Gabusi, M.; Magnani, A.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; D'imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Gelli, S.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Preiato, F.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Soffi, L.; Traczyk, P.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Casasso, S.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Kiani, B.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Tamponi, U.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; La Licata, C.; Marone, M.; Schizzi, A.; Umer, T.; Zanetti, A.; Chang, S.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Nam, S. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, M. S.; Kong, D. J.; Lee, S.; Oh, Y. D.; Sakharov, A.; Son, D. C.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Ryu, M. S.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Go, Y.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Lee, B.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Yoo, H. D.; Choi, M.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, J. S. H.; Park, I. C.; Ryu, G.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Goh, J.; Kim, D.; Kwon, E.; Lee, J.; Yu, I.; Juodagalvis, A.; Vaitkus, J.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Md Ali, M. A. B.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. 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V.; Vinogradov, A.; Baskakov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Myagkov, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Ekmedzic, M.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Domínguez Vázquez, D.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Navarro De Martino, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Soares, M. S.; Albajar, C.; de Trocóniz, J. 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V.; Neugebauer, H.; Orfanelli, S.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Piparo, D.; Racz, A.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Ruan, M.; Sakulin, H.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Sharma, A.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Steggemann, J.; Stieger, B.; Stoye, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Treille, D.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Wardle, N.; Wöhri, H. K.; Zagozdzinska, A.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Rohe, T.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bianchini, L.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Dünser, M.; Eller, P.; Grab, C.; Heidegger, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marini, A. 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D.; Baber, M.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Bundock, A.; Burton, D.; Citron, M.; Colling, D.; Corpe, L.; Cripps, N.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; De Wit, A.; Della Negra, M.; Dunne, P.; Elwood, A.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Karapostoli, G.; Kenzie, M.; Lane, R.; Lucas, R.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Raymond, D. M.; Richards, A.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Tapper, A.; Uchida, K.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Borzou, A.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Kasmi, A.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Scarborough, T.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Gastler, D.; Lawson, P.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; St. John, J.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Alimena, J.; Berry, E.; Bhattacharya, S.; Cutts, D.; Demiragli, Z.; Dhingra, N.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Sagir, S.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Rakness, G.; Saltzberg, D.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Ivova Rikova, M.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Malberti, M.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Shrinivas, A.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Klein, D.; Kovalskyi, D.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Welke, C.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Barge, D.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Flowers, K.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Mccoll, N.; Mullin, S. D.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Pierini, M.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carlson, B.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Mulholland, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Eggert, N.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Sun, W.; Tan, S. M.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Wittich, P.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Apollinari, G.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Hu, Z.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Jung, A. W.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Kwan, S.; Lammel, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lopes De Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V. I.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Whitbeck, A.; Yang, F.; Yin, H.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Furic, I. K.; Hugon, J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Rank, D.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Sperka, D.; Wang, S. J.; Yelton, J.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, J. R.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Mareskas-palcek, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Sen, S.; Snyder, C.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Nash, K.; Osherson, M.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Gray, J.; Kenny, R. P.; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Wood, J. S.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Svintradze, I.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Klute, M.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Mcginn, C.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Ratnikov, F.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Kress, M.; Leonardo, N.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Primavera, F.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Zablocki, J.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Petrillo, G.; Verzetti, M.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Demortier, L.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Montalvo, R.; Mueller, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Christian, A.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Friis, E.; Gomber, B.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ross, I.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.

    2015-10-01

    A search for a heavy Higgs boson in the H → WW and H → ZZ decay channels is reported. The search is based upon proton-proton collision data samples corresponding to an integrated luminosity of up to 5.1 fb-1 at √{s}=7 TeV and up to 19.7fb-1 at √{s}=8 TeV, recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC. Several final states of the H → WW and H → ZZ decays are analyzed. The combined upper limit at the 95% confidence level on the product of the cross section and branching fraction exclude a Higgs boson with standard model-like couplings and decays in the range 145 < m H < 1000 GeV. We also interpret the results in the context of an electroweak singlet extension of the standard model. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Search for a Higgs boson in the mass range from 145 to 1000 GeV decaying to a pair of W or Z bosons

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-10-22

    A search for a heavy Higgs boson in the H → WW and H → ZZ decay channels is reported. The search is based upon proton-proton collision data samples corresponding to an integrated luminosity of up to 5.1 fb–1 at √s = 7 TeV and up to 19.7fb–1 at √s = 8 TeV, recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC. Several final states of the H → WW and H → ZZ decays are analyzed. The combined upper limit at the 95% confidence level on the product of the cross section and branching fraction exclude a Higgs bosonmore » with standard model-like couplings and decays in the range 145 < mH < 1000 GeV. In addition, we interpret the results in the context of an electroweak singlet extension of the standard model.« less

  14. Search for a Higgs boson in the mass range from 145 to 1000 GeV decaying to a pair of W or Z bosons

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-10-22

    A search for a heavy Higgs boson in the H → WW and H → ZZ decay channels is reported. The search is based upon proton-proton collision data samples corresponding to an integrated luminosity of up to 5.1 fb–1 at √s = 7 TeV and up to 19.7fb–1 at √s = 8 TeV, recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC. Several final states of the H → WW and H → ZZ decays are analyzed. The combined upper limit at the 95% confidence level on the product of the cross section and branching fraction exclude a Higgs boson with standard model-like couplings and decays in the range 145 < mH < 1000 GeV. In addition, we interpret the results in the context of an electroweak singlet extension of the standard model.

  15. MT's algorithm: A new algorithm to search for the optimum set of modulation indices for simultaneous range, command, and telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tien Manh

    1989-01-01

    MT's algorithm was developed as an aid in the design of space telecommunications systems when utilized with simultaneous range/command/telemetry operations. This algorithm provides selection of modulation indices for: (1) suppression of undesired signals to achieve desired link performance margins and/or to allow for a specified performance degradation in the data channel (command/telemetry) due to the presence of undesired signals (interferers); and (2) optimum power division between the carrier, the range, and the data channel. A software program using this algorithm was developed for use with MathCAD software. This software program, called the MT program, provides the computation of optimum modulation indices for all possible cases that are recommended by the Consultative Committee on Space Data System (CCSDS) (with emphasis on the squarewave, NASA/JPL ranging system).

  16. Search for Spin-Dependent Short-Range Interaction with an 3He/129Xe Clock Comparison Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tullney, Kathlynne; Heil, Werner; Karpuk, Sergei; Sobolev, Yuri; Allmendinger, Fabian; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2016-02-01

    We performed an experiment to search for a new spin-dependent P- and T-violating nucleon-nucleon interaction σ→ ṡr̂ which is mediated by light pseudoscalar bosons such as axions or axionlike particles. This interaction causes a shift Δν in the precession frequency of nuclear spin polarized gases in the presence of an unpolarized mass. In order to measure this frequency shift a 3He/129Xe comagnetometer was used which is based on the detection of free precession of 3He and 129Xe nuclear spins using SQUIDs as detectors. For the upper limit of Δνsp we obtained 7.1nHz. With this value, an upper limit of the scalar-pseudoscalar coupling of the axion to the spin of a bound neutron could be deduced within the axion mass window. For axion masses between 2 and 500μeV, the laboratory upper bounds were improved by up to 4 orders of magnitude.

  17. Life in the Atacama - Year 2: Geologic Reconnaissance Through Long-Range Roving and Implications on the Search for Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; Moersch, J.; Diaz, G. Chong; Cockell, C.; Coppin, P.; Fisher, G.; Hock, A. N.; Ori, G. G.

    2005-01-01

    The "Life in the Atacama" (LITA) project included two field trials during the 2004 field season, each of which lasted about a week. The remote science team had no prior knowledge of the local geology, and relied entirely on orbital images and rover-acquired data to make interpretations. The sites for these trials were in different locations, and are designated "Site B" and "Site C" respectively. The primary objective of the experiment is to develop and test the means to locate, characterize, and identify habitats and life remotely through long-range roving, which included field testing the rover, named Zoe. Zoe has onboard autonomous navigation for long-range roving, a plow to overturn rocks and expose near-surface rock materials, and high-resolution imaging, spectral, and fluorescence sampling capabilities. Highlights from the experiment included characterizing the geology in and near the landing ellipse, assessing pre-mission, satellite-based hypotheses, and improving the approach and procedures used by the remote and field teams for upcoming experiments through combined satellite, field-based, and microscopic perspectives and long-range roving.

  18. A wide load range, multi-mode synchronous buck DC—DC converter with a dynamic mode controller and adaptive slope compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunhong, Zhang; Haigang, Yang; Shi, Richard

    2013-06-01

    A synchronous buck DC—DC converter with an adaptive multi-mode controller is proposed. In order to achieve high efficiency over its entire load range, pulse-width modulation (PWM), pulse-skip modulation (PSM) and pulse-frequency modulation (PFM) modes were integrated in the proposed DC—DC converter. With a highly accurate current sensor and a dynamic mode controller on chip, the converter can dynamically change among PWM, PSM and PFM control according to the load requirements. In addition, to avoid power device damage caused by inrush current at the start up state, a soft-start circuit is presented to suppress the inrush current. Furthermore, an adaptive slope compensation (SC) technique is proposed to stabilize the current programmed PWM controller for duty cycle passes over 50%, and improve the degraded load capability due to traditional slope compensation. The buck converter chip was simulated and manufactured under a 0.35 μm standard CMOS process. Experimental results show that the chip can achieve 79% to 91% efficiency over the load range of 0.1 to 1000 mA

  19. Search for critical point indications in long-range correlations by energy and system size scanning in string fusion approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalenko, V. N.; Vechernin, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    The ultrarelativistic collisions of heavy and light ions in the center-of-mass energy range from a few up to a hundred GeV per nucleon have been considered in string fusion approach. A Monte Carlo model of proton-proton, proton-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions has been developed, which takes into account both the string fusion and the finite rapidity length of strings, implementing the hadronic scattering through the interaction of color dipoles. It well describes the proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at the partonic level without using Glauber model of nuclear collisions. All parameters are fixed using experimental data on inelastic cross section and multiplicity. In the framework of the model, we performed a beam energy and system size scan and studied the behaviour of n-n, pt-n and pt-pt long-range correlation coefficients. The detailed modeling of the event by event charged particles production allowed to provide predictions in the conditions close to the experimental ones allowing a direct comparison to the data.

  20. Thermotolerance adaptation to human-modified habitats occurs in the native range of the invasive ant Wasmannia auropunctata before long-distance dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Foucaud, Julien; Rey, Olivier; Robert, Stéphanie; Crespin, Laurent; Orivel, Jérôme; Facon, Benoit; Loiseau, Anne; Jourdan, Hervé; Kenne, Martin; Masse, Paul Serge Mbenoun; Tindo, Maurice; Vonshak, Merav; Estoup, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Key evolutionary events associated with invasion success are traditionally thought to occur in the introduced, rather than the native range of species. In the invasive ant Wasmannia auropunctata, however, a shift in reproductive system has been demonstrated within the native range, from the sexual non-dominant populations of natural habitats to the clonal dominant populations of human-modified habitats. Because abiotic conditions of human- modified habitats are hotter and dryer, we performed lab experiments on workers from a set of native and introduced populations, to investigate whether these ecological and genetic transitions were accompanied by a change in thermotolerance and whether such changes occurred before establishment in the introduced range. Thermotolerance levels were higher in native populations from human-modified habitats than in native populations from natural habitats, but were similar in native and introduced populations from human-modified habitats. Differences in thermotolerance could not be accounted for by differences in body size. A scenario based on local adaptation in the native range before introduction in remote areas represents the most parsimonious hypothesis to account for the observed phenotypic pattern. These findings highlight the importance of human land use in explaining major contemporary evolutionary changes. PMID:23789036

  1. Division of Labor Brings Greater Benefits to Clones of Carpobrotus edulis in the Non-native Range: Evidence for Rapid Adaptive Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Roiloa, Sergio R.; Retuerto, Rubén; Campoy, Josefina G.; Novoa, Ana; Barreiro, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    Why some species become invasive while others do not is a central research request in biological invasions. Clonality has been suggested as an attribute that could contribute to plant invasiveness. Division of labor is an important advantage of clonal growth, and it seems reasonable to anticipate that clonal plants may intensify this clonal attribute in an invaded range because of positive selection on beneficial traits. To test this hypothesis, we collected clones of Carpobrotus edulis from native and invasive populations, grew pairs of connected and severed ramets in a common garden and under negative spatial covariance of nutrients and light to induce division of labor, and measured biomass allocation ratios, final biomass, and photochemical efficiency. Our results showed that both clones from the native and invaded range develop a division of labor at morphological and physiological level. However, the benefit from the division of labor was significantly higher in apical ramets from the invaded range than in ramets from the native area. This is a novel and outstanding result because it provides the first evidence that the benefit of a key clonal trait such as division of labor may have been subjected to evolutionary adaptation in the invaded range. The division of labor can therefore be considered an important trait in the invasiveness of C. edulis. An appropriate assessment of the influence of clonal traits in plant invasions seems key for understanding the underlying mechanisms behind biological invasions of new environments. PMID:27066022

  2. Division of Labor Brings Greater Benefits to Clones of Carpobrotus edulis in the Non-native Range: Evidence for Rapid Adaptive Evolution.

    PubMed

    Roiloa, Sergio R; Retuerto, Rubén; Campoy, Josefina G; Novoa, Ana; Barreiro, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    Why some species become invasive while others do not is a central research request in biological invasions. Clonality has been suggested as an attribute that could contribute to plant invasiveness. Division of labor is an important advantage of clonal growth, and it seems reasonable to anticipate that clonal plants may intensify this clonal attribute in an invaded range because of positive selection on beneficial traits. To test this hypothesis, we collected clones of Carpobrotus edulis from native and invasive populations, grew pairs of connected and severed ramets in a common garden and under negative spatial covariance of nutrients and light to induce division of labor, and measured biomass allocation ratios, final biomass, and photochemical efficiency. Our results showed that both clones from the native and invaded range develop a division of labor at morphological and physiological level. However, the benefit from the division of labor was significantly higher in apical ramets from the invaded range than in ramets from the native area. This is a novel and outstanding result because it provides the first evidence that the benefit of a key clonal trait such as division of labor may have been subjected to evolutionary adaptation in the invaded range. The division of labor can therefore be considered an important trait in the invasiveness of C. edulis. An appropriate assessment of the influence of clonal traits in plant invasions seems key for understanding the underlying mechanisms behind biological invasions of new environments. PMID:27066022

  3. A search for water masers associated with class II methanol masers - II. Longitude range 341° to 6°

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titmarsh, A. M.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Breen, S. L.; Caswell, J. L.; Voronkov, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    This is the second paper in a series of catalogues of 22-GHz water maser observations towards the 6.7-GHz methanol masers from the Methanol Multibeam (MMB) survey. In this paper, we present our water maser observations made with the Australia Telescope Compact Array towards the masers from the MMB survey between l = 341° through the Galactic Centre to l = 6°. Of the 204 6.7-GHz methanol masers in this longitude range, we found 101 to have associated water maser emission (˜50 per cent). We found no difference in the 6.7-GHz methanol maser luminosities of those with and without water masers. In sources where both maser species are observed, the luminosities of the methanol and water masers are weakly correlated. Studying the mid-infrared colours from GLIMPSE (Galactic Legacy Infrared Midplane Survey Extraordinaire), we found no differences between the colours of those sources associated with both methanol and water masers and those associated with just methanol. Comparing the column density and dust mass calculated from the 870-μm thermal dust emission observed by ATLASGAL (APEX Telescope Large Area Survey of the GALaxy), we found no differences between those sources associated with both water and methanol masers and those with methanol only. Since water masers are collisionally pumped and often show emission further away from their accompanying young stellar object (YSO) than the radiatively pumped 6.7-GHz methanol masers, it is likely that water masers are not as tightly correlated to the evolution of the parent YSO and so do not trace such a well-defined evolutionary state as 6.7-GHz methanol masers.

  4. Studies of iron-uptake mechanisms in two bacterial species of the shewanella genus adapted to middle-range (Shewanella putrefaciens) or antarctic (Shewanella gelidimarina) temperatures.

    PubMed

    Pakchung, Amalie A H; Soe, Cho Z; Codd, Rachel

    2008-10-01

    Iron(III)-uptake mechanisms in bacteria indigenous to the Antarctic, which is the most Fe-deficient continent on Earth, have not been extensively studied. The cold-adapted, Antarctic bacterium, Shewanella gelidimarina, does not produce detectable levels of the siderophore, putrebactin, in the supernatant of Fe(III)-deprived cultures. This is distinct from the putrebactin-producing bacterium from the same genus, Shewanella putrefaciens, which is adapted to middle-range temperatures. The production of putrebactin by S. putrefaciens is optimal, when the pH value of the medium is 7.0. According to the strong positive response from whole cells in the Chrome Azurol S (CAS) agar diffusion assay, Shewanella gelidimarina appears to produce cell-associated siderophores. In the RP-HPLC trace of an Fe(III)-loaded extract from the cell-associated components of S. gelidimarina cultured in media with [Fe(III)] ca. 0 microM, a peak appears at [MeCN] ca. 77%, which decreases in intensity in a parallel experiment in which [Fe(III)] ca. 5 microM, and is barely detectable in Fe(III)-replete media ([Fe(III)] ca. 20 microM). The Fe(III)-dependence of this peak suggests that the attendant species, which is significantly more hydrophobic than putrebactin (RP-HPLC elution: [MeCN] ca. 14%), is associated with Fe(III)-management in S. gelidimarina. This study highlights the diversity in Fe(III)-uptake mechanisms in Shewanella species adapted to different environmental and thermal niches. PMID:18972501

  5. Performance Improvement of Induction Motor Speed Sensor-Less Vector Control System Using an Adaptive Observer with an Estimated Flux Feedback in Low Speed Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumoto, Tetsuya; Kato, Yousuke; Kurita, Kazuya; Hayashi, Yoichi

    Because of various errors caused by dead time, temperature variation of resistance and so on, the speed estimation error is inevitable in the speed sensor-less vector control methods of the induction motor. Especially, the speed control loop becomes unstable at near zero frequency. In order to solve these problems, this paper proposes a novel design of an adaptive observer for the speed estimation. Adding a feedback loop of the error between the estimated and reference fluxes, the sensitivity of the current error signals for the speed estimation and the primary resistance identification are improved. The proposed system is analyzed and the appropriate feedback gains are derived. The experimental results showed good performance in low speed range.

  6. Searching for signatures of cold adaptations in modern and archaic humans: hints from the brown adipose tissue genes.

    PubMed

    Sazzini, M; Schiavo, G; De Fanti, S; Martelli, P L; Casadio, R; Luiselli, D

    2014-09-01

    Adaptation to low temperatures has been reasonably developed in the human species during the colonization of the Eurasian landmass subsequent to Out of Africa migrations of anatomically modern humans. In addition to morphological and cultural changes, also metabolic ones are supposed to have favored human isolation from cold and body heat production and this can be hypothesized also for most Neandertal and at least for some Denisovan populations, which lived in geographical areas that strongly experienced the last glacial period. Modulation of non-shivering thermogenesis, for which adipocytes belonging to the brown adipose tissue are the most specialized cells, might have driven these metabolic adaptations. To perform an exploratory analysis aimed at looking into this hypothesis, variation at 28 genes involved in such functional pathway was investigated in modern populations from different climate zones, as well as in Neandertal and Denisovan genomes. Patterns of variation at the LEPR gene, strongly related to increased heat dissipation by mitochondria, appeared to have been shaped by positive selection in modern East Asians, but not in Europeans. Moreover, a single potentially cold-adapted LEPR allele, different from the supposed adaptive one identified in Homo sapiens, was found also in Neandertal and Denisovan genomes. These findings suggest that independent mechanisms for cold adaptations might have been developed in different non-African human groups, as well as that the evolution of possible enhanced thermal efficiency in Neandertals and in some Denisovan populations has plausibly entailed significant changes also in other functional pathways than in the examined one. PMID:24667833

  7. Searching for signatures of cold adaptations in modern and archaic humans: hints from the brown adipose tissue genes

    PubMed Central

    Sazzini, M; Schiavo, G; De Fanti, S; Martelli, P L; Casadio, R; Luiselli, D

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation to low temperatures has been reasonably developed in the human species during the colonization of the Eurasian landmass subsequent to Out of Africa migrations of anatomically modern humans. In addition to morphological and cultural changes, also metabolic ones are supposed to have favored human isolation from cold and body heat production and this can be hypothesized also for most Neandertal and at least for some Denisovan populations, which lived in geographical areas that strongly experienced the last glacial period. Modulation of non-shivering thermogenesis, for which adipocytes belonging to the brown adipose tissue are the most specialized cells, might have driven these metabolic adaptations. To perform an exploratory analysis aimed at looking into this hypothesis, variation at 28 genes involved in such functional pathway was investigated in modern populations from different climate zones, as well as in Neandertal and Denisovan genomes. Patterns of variation at the LEPR gene, strongly related to increased heat dissipation by mitochondria, appeared to have been shaped by positive selection in modern East Asians, but not in Europeans. Moreover, a single potentially cold-adapted LEPR allele, different from the supposed adaptive one identified in Homo sapiens, was found also in Neandertal and Denisovan genomes. These findings suggest that independent mechanisms for cold adaptations might have been developed in different non-African human groups, as well as that the evolution of possible enhanced thermal efficiency in Neandertals and in some Denisovan populations has plausibly entailed significant changes also in other functional pathways than in the examined one. PMID:24667833

  8. Ultrasensitive search for long-lived superheavy nuclides in the mass range A=288 to A=300 in natural Pt, Pb, and Bi

    SciTech Connect

    Dellinger, F.; Forstner, O.; Golser, R.; Priller, A.; Steier, P.; Wallner, A.; Winkler, G.; Kutschera, W.

    2011-06-15

    Theoretical models of superheavy elements (SHEs) predict a region of increased stability around the proton and neutron shell closures of Z = 114 and N = 184. Therefore a sensitive search for nuclides in the mass range from A = 288 to A = 300 was performed in natural platinum, lead, and bismuth, covering long-lived isotopes of Eka-Pt (Ds, Z = 110), Eka-Pb (Z = 114), and Eka-Bi (Z = 115). Measurements with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA) established upper limits for these SHE isotopes in Pt, Pb, and Bi with abundances of <2x10{sup -15}, <5x10{sup -14}, and <5x10{sup -13}, respectively. These results complement earlier searches for SHEs with AMS at VERA in natural thorium and gold, which now amounts to a total number of 37 SHE nuclides having been explored with AMS. In none of our measurements was evidence found for the existence of SHEs in nature at the reported sensitivity level. Even though a few events were observed in the window for {sup 293}Eka-Bi, a particularly strong pileup background did not allow a definite SHE isotope identification. The present result sets limits on nuclides around the center of the island of stability, essentially ruling out the existence of SHE nuclides with half-lives longer than {approx}150 million years.

  9. Tuning into Scorpius X-1: adapting a continuous gravitational-wave search for a known binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadors, Grant David; Goetz, Evan; Riles, Keith

    2016-05-01

    We describe how the TwoSpect data analysis method for continuous gravitational waves (GWs) has been tuned for directed sources such as the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB), Scorpius X-1 (Sco X-1). A comparison of five search algorithms generated simulations of the orbital and GW parameters of Sco X-1. Whereas that comparison focused on relative performance, here the simulations help quantify the sensitivity enhancement and parameter estimation abilities of this directed method, derived from an all-sky search for unknown sources, using doubly Fourier-transformed data. Sensitivity is shown to be enhanced when the source sky location and period are known, because we can run a fully templated search, bypassing the all-sky hierarchical stage using an incoherent harmonic sum. The GW strain and frequency, as well as the projected semi-major axis of the binary system, are recovered and uncertainty estimated, for simulated signals that are detected. Upper limits for GW strain are set for undetected signals. Applications to future GW observatory data are discussed. Robust against spin-wandering and computationally tractable despite an unknown frequency, this directed search is an important new tool for finding gravitational signals from LMXBs.

  10. Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory with Kohn-Sham orbitals using non-empirically tuned, long-range-corrected density functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Lao, Ka Un; Herbert, John M.

    2014-01-28

    The performance of second-order symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) calculations using Kohn-Sham (KS) orbitals is evaluated against benchmark results for intermolecular interactions. Unlike previous studies of this “SAPT(KS)” methodology, the present study uses non-empirically tuned long-range corrected (LRC) functionals for the monomers. The proper v{sub xc} (r)→0 asymptotic limit is achieved by tuning the range separation parameter in order to satisfy the condition that the highest occupied KS energy level equals minus the molecule's ionization energy, for each monomer unit. Tests for He{sub 2}, Ne{sub 2}, and the S22 and S66 data sets reveal that this condition is important for accurate prediction of the non-dispersion components of the energy, although errors in SAPT(KS) dispersion energies remain unacceptably large. In conjunction with an empirical dispersion potential, however, the SAPT(KS) method affords good results for S22 and S66, and also accurately predicts the whole potential energy curve for the sandwich isomer of the benzene dimer. Tuned LRC functionals represent an attractive alternative to other asymptotic corrections that have been employed in density-functional-based SAPT calculations, and we recommend the use of tuned LRC functionals in both coupled-perturbed SAPT(DFT) calculations and dispersion-corrected SAPT(KS) calculations.

  11. Adaptive Blending of Model and Observations for Automated Short-Range Forecasting: Examples from the Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Monika E.; Isaac, George A.; Gultepe, Ismail; Heckman, Ivan; Reid, Janti

    2014-01-01

    An automated short-range forecasting system, adaptive blending of observations and model (ABOM), was tested in real time during the 2010 Vancouver Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games in British Columbia. Data at 1-min time resolution were available from a newly established, dense network of surface observation stations. Climatological data were not available at these new stations. This, combined with output from new high-resolution numerical models, provided a unique and exciting setting to test nowcasting systems in mountainous terrain during winter weather conditions. The ABOM method blends extrapolations in time of recent local observations with numerical weather predictions (NWP) model predictions to generate short-range point forecasts of surface variables out to 6 h. The relative weights of the model forecast and the observation extrapolation are based on performance over recent history. The average performance of ABOM nowcasts during February and March 2010 was evaluated using standard scores and thresholds important for Olympic events. Significant improvements over the model forecasts alone were obtained for continuous variables such as temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. The small improvements to forecasts of variables such as visibility and ceiling, subject to discontinuous changes, are attributed to the persistence component of ABOM.

  12. Searching for Binary Y dwarfs with the Gemini GeMS Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opitz, Daniela; Tinney, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has delivered an exceptional harvest of new ultra-cool Y-type brown dwarfs. We present results from a diffraction-limited study of the binary status of a sample of Y dwarfs observed with the Gemini GeMS Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System. We report no evidence of equal mass/luminosity binaries at separations larger than ˜ 0.5-2.0 AU for five Y dwarfs.

  13. The Role of Female Search Behaviour in Determining Host Plant Range in Plant Feeding Insects: A Test of the Information Processing Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janz, Niklas; Nylin, Soren

    1997-05-01

    Recent theoretical studies have suggested that host range in herbivorous insects may be more restricted by constraints on information processing on the ovipositing females than by trade-offs in larval feeding efficiency. We have investigated if females from polyphagous species have to pay for their ability to localize and evaluate plants from different species with a lower ability to discriminate between conspecific host plants with differences in quality. Females of the monophagous butterflies Polygonia satyrus, Vanessa indica and Inachis io and the polyphagous P. c-album and Cynthia cardui (all in Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) were given a simultaneous choice of stinging nettles (Urtica dioica) of different quality. In addition, the same choice trial was given to females from two populations of P. c-album with different degrees of specificity. As predicted from the information processing hypothesis, all specialists discriminated significantly against the bad quality nettle, whereas the generalists laid an equal amount of eggs on both types of nettle. There were no corresponding differences between specialist and generalist larvae in their ability to utilize poor quality leaves. Our study therefore suggests that female host-searching behaviour plays an important role in determining host plant range.

  14. Bud phenology and growth are subject to divergent selection across a latitudinal gradient in Populus angustifolia and impact adaptation across the distributional range and associated arthropods.

    PubMed

    Evans, Luke M; Kaluthota, Sobadini; Pearce, David W; Allan, Gerard J; Floate, Kevin; Rood, Stewart B; Whitham, Thomas G

    2016-07-01

    Temperate forest tree species that span large geographical areas and climatic gradients often have high levels of genetic variation. Such species are ideal for testing how neutral demographic factors and climate-driven selection structure genetic variation within species, and how this genetic variation can affect ecological communities. Here, we quantified genetic variation in vegetative phenology and growth traits in narrowleaf cottonwood, Populus angustifolia, using three common gardens planted with genotypes originating from source populations spanning the species' range along the Rocky Mountains of North America (ca. 1700 km). We present three main findings. First, we found strong evidence of divergent selection (Q ST > F ST) on fall phenology (bud set) with adaptive consequences for frost avoidance. We also found evidence for selection on bud flush duration, tree height, and basal diameter, resulting in population differentiation. Second, we found strong associations with climate variables that were strongly correlated with latitude of origin. More strongly differentiated traits also showed stronger climate correlations, which emphasizes the role that climate has played in divergent selection throughout the range. We found population × garden interaction effects; for some traits, this accounted for more of the variance than either factor alone. Tree height was influenced by the difference in climate of the source and garden locations and declined with increasing transfer distance. Third, growth traits were correlated with dependent arthropod community diversity metrics. Synthesis. Overall, we conclude that climate has influenced genetic variation and structure in phenology and growth traits and leads to local adaptation in P. angustifolia, which can then impact dependent arthropod species. Importantly, relocation of genotypes far northward or southward often resulted in poor growth, likely due to a phenological mismatch with photoperiod, the proximate

  15. Photosynthesis of co-existing Phragmites haplotypes in their non-native range: are characteristics determined by adaptations derived from their native origin?

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Loc Xuan; Lambertini, Carla; Sorrell, Brian K.; Eller, Franziska; Achenbach, Luciana; Brix, Hans

    2013-01-01

    The Gulf Coast of North America (GC) is a ‘hot spot’ of Phragmites diversity as several lineages (defined according to the haplotypes of their chloroplast DNA) differing in origin, genetic traits and phenotype co-exist and interbreed in this area. We analysed differences in photosynthetic characteristics among and within four haplotypes to understand if differences in gas exchange can be attributed to adaptations acquired in their native ranges. We collected rhizomes of four GC haplotypes (I2, M1, M and AI; including the phenotypes ‘Land-type’, ‘Delta-type’, ‘EU-type’ and ‘Greeny-type’) and propagated them in a common controlled environment to compare photosynthesis–irradiance responses, CO2 responses, chlorophyll fluorescence, the activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), specific leaf area (SLA), pigment contents, stomatal density and guard cell length. The maximum light-saturated photosynthetic rate, Amax, in the haplotype I2 (Land-type) and haplotype M1 (Delta-type) (34.3–36.1 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1) was higher than that in the invasive Eurasian haplotype M (22.4 ± 2.3 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1). The Amax of haplotype AI (Greeny3-type) was 29.1 ± 4.0 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1 and did not differ from the Amax of the other haplotypes. The carboxylation rate (Vcmax) and electron transport rate (Jmax) followed the same pattern as Amax. The haplotypes also differed in SLA (17.0–24.3 m2 kg−1 dry mass) and pigment content, whereas stomatal density and guard cell length, Rubisco activity and chlorophyll fluorescence did not differ significantly among haplotypes. The high photosynthetic activity and gas-exchange capacity of the two haplotypes originating in tropical Africa and the Mediterranean area (haplotypes I2 and M1) are apparently adaptations derived from their native ranges. Hence, the haplotypes can be regarded as ecotypes. However, it remains unclear how these differences relate to plant competitiveness and

  16. Range-adaptive standoff recognition of explosive fingerprints on solid surfaces using a supervised learning method and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gaona, Inmaculada; Serrano, Jorge; Moros, Javier; Laserna, J Javier

    2014-05-20

    The distance between the sensor and the target is a particularly critical factor for an issue as crucial as explosive residues recognition when a laser-assisted spectroscopic technique operates in a standoff configuration. Particularly for laser ablation, variations in operational range influence the induced plasmas as well as the sensitivity of their ensuing optical emissions, thereby confining the attributes used in sorting methods. Though efficient classification models based on optical emissions gathered under specific conditions have been developed, their successful performance on any variable information is limited. Hence, to test new information by a designed model, data must be acquired under operational conditions totally matching those used during modeling. Otherwise, the new expected scenario needs to be previously modeled. To facing both this restriction and this time-consuming mission, a novel strategy is proposed in this work. On the basis of machine learning methods, the strategy stems from a decision boundary function designed for a defined set of experimental conditions. Next, particular semisupervised models to the envisaged conditions are obtained adaptively on the basis of changes in laser fluence and light emission with variation of the sensor-to-target distance. Hence, the strategy requires only a little prior information, therefore ruling out the tedious and time-consuming process of modeling all the expected distant scenes. Residues of ordinary materials (olive oil, fuel oil, motor oils, gasoline, car wax and hand cream) hardly cause confusion in alerting the presence of an explosive (DNT, TNT, RDX, or PETN) when tested within a range from 30 to 50 m with varying laser irradiance between 8.2 and 1.3 GW cm(-2). With error rates of around 5%, the experimental assessments confirm that this semisupervised model suitably addresses the recognition of organic residues on aluminum surfaces under different operational conditions. PMID:24773280

  17. The Search for Relevant Climate Change Information to Support Adaptation Decision Makers: Lessons from Reductionism, Emergence and the Past (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stainforth, D.; Harrison, S.; Smith, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    The reality of anthropogenic climate change is founded on well understood scientific principles and is now widely accepted. The need for international efforts to limit the extent of future changes in climate - climate change mitigation - is therefore clear. Since anthropogenic climate change is well underway, however, and the planet is committed to further changes based on past emissions alone, there will certainly be a need for global society to adapt to the consequences. The physical sciences are increasingly being looked to as sources of information and guidance on adaptation policy and decision making. Unlike mitigation efforts such decisions generally require information on local or regional scales. What is the source of such information? How can we tell when it is robust and fit for the purpose of supporting a specific decision? The availability of rapidly increasing computational resources has led to a steady increase in the resolution of global climate models and of embedded regional climate models. They are approaching a point where they can provide data at a resolution which may be usable in adaptation decision support. Yet models are not equivalent to reality and model errors are significant even at the global scale. By contrast scientific understanding of climatic processes now and in the past can provide information about plausible responses which are more qualitative but may be equally useful. This talk will focus on the relative roles of fundamentally reductionist, model approaches with alternatives based on observations and process understanding. The latter, although more qualitative, are able to inform us about emergent properties; properties which may be difficult or impossible to reproduce within a reductionist paradigm. The contrast between emergent and reductionist approaches has a long history in the physical sciences; a history which provides valuable lessons for the relationship between climate science and societal / policy decisions. Here

  18. Laboratory Search for a Long-Range, scalar-pseudoscalar Interaction Using Dual-Species NMR with Polarized Xe129 and Xe131 Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Erick; Bulatowicz, M.; Griffith, R.; Larsen, M.; Mirijanian, J.; Pavell, J.; Fu, C. B.; Snow, W. M.; Yan, H.; Walker, T. G.

    2014-05-01

    Various theories for physics beyond the Standard Model predict the presence of new weak forces of ``mesoscopic'' range (mm- μm). One possibility is a new spin-dependent scalar-pseudoscalar interaction mediated by a spin-0 boson with a small mass. The strength of this interaction would be the product of the scalar (gs) coupling at the unpolarized vertex and the pseudoscalar (gp) coupling at the polarized vertex and is proportional to s . r where s is the spin of the source particle and r is the interaction distance. Using a test station for an NMR gyroscope at Northrop Grumman Corp., we conducted a search for this interaction by measuring NMR frequency shifts in a vapor cell containing polarized 129Xe and 131Xe as a non-magnetic zirconia rod is moved near and far from the cell. The vapor cell features a long T2 spin relaxation time for both polarized species, allowing for very precise frequency measurements and a new laboratory limit to be set on this monopole-dipole interaction between the polarized neutrons in the nuclei and unpolarized matter at distances near 1 mm. Supported by NGC IRAD funding, the Department of Energy, and NSF Grants PHY-0116146, PHY-1068712, and PHY-1306942.

  19. VLT adaptive optics search for luminous substructures in the lens galaxy towards SDSS J0924+0219

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faure, C.; Sluse, D.; Cantale, N.; Tewes, M.; Courbin, F.; Durrer, P.; Meylan, G.

    2011-12-01

    The anomalous flux ratios between quasar images are suspected of being caused by substructures in lens galaxies. We present new deep and high-resolution H and Ks imaging of the strongly lensed quasar SDSS J0924+0219 obtained using the ESO VLT with adaptive optics and the laser guide star system. SDSS J0924+0219 is particularly interesting because the observed flux ratio between the quasar images vastly disagree with the predictions from smooth mass models. With our adaptive optics observations we find a luminous object, Object L, located ~0.3'' to the north of the lens galaxy, but we show that it cannot be responsible for the anomalous flux ratios. Object L as well as a luminous extension of the lens galaxy to the south are seen in the archival HST/ACS image in the F814W filter. This suggests that Object L is part of a bar in the lens galaxy, as also supported by the presence of a significant disk component in the light profile of the lens galaxy. Finally, we find no evidence of any other luminous substructure that may explain the quasar images flux ratios. However, owing to the persistence of the flux ratio anomaly over time (~7 years), a combination of microlensing and millilensing is the favorite explanation for the observations. Based on observations obtained with the ESO VLT at Paranal observatory (Prog ID 084.A-0762(A); PI: Meylan). Also based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with the CASTLES (Cfa-Arizona Space Telescope LEns Survey) survey (ID: 9744, PI: C. S. Kochanek).

  20. Design and application of a drip-type rainfall simulator adapted to steep topography and low intensity-rainfall characteristics in the Coastal Range of Southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Christian; Anton, Huber

    2010-05-01

    Besides being adaptable for measuring infiltration, overland flow and sediment transport simultaneously, rainfall simulator systems allow the observation of the processes of runoff generation and soil erosion, too. This enables the assimilation of additional qualitative data and makes a rainfall simulator system a very valid method in the investigation of soil-hydrological response to precipitation events. In the present study a cheap, handy, transportable and easy to set up rainfall simulator applicable for the steep terrain conditions of the Southern Chilean Coastal range was designed based on Bowyer-Bower & Burt (1989). The used drip-type rainfall simulator had to fulfill two main requirements: adaptive to steep topography and little in water consumption. The used simulator is set up by a dismountable rectangular metal rack of 0.5x1.0m basal surface and 2.5m height. The metallic structure enables the attachment of plastic boards for wind protection. Fixable telescopic extensions allow a firm adjustment to slopes up to 45°. Horizontal metallic frames at different heights increase the stability of the structure and carry the devices of the rainfall simulator. On the uppermost frame, two containers provided with calibrated scales spend the water to a fast reacting receptacle assuring constant water supply and pressure by the Mariotte's principle. The rainfall intensity is adjusted by a control-panel according to the Bernoulli principle. This guarantees a constant water flow which was verified by the water-volume leaving the calibrated containers on top. Interchangeable glass-tubes of different diameters in the control-panel permit the generation of various precipitation intensities (4-60 mm/h; SD =0.16mm). The frame beneath carries an acrylic glass box with approx. 600 drop-formers (fishing line inside a 0.76mm Tygon-tube) at its bottom. 20 cm below, a framed 5mm-spacing-mesh serves as a raindrop randomizer. At the base of the simulator sheet metals avoid lateral

  1. Searching for Binary Y dwarfs with the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opitz, Daniela; Tinney, Chris

    2015-08-01

    The NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has discovered almost all the known members of the new class of Y-type brown dwarfs. Most of these Y dwarfs have been identified as isolated objects in the field. It is known that binaries with L- and T-type brown dwarf primaries are less prevalent than either M-dwarf or solar-type primaries, they tend to be closely separated and are more frequently detected in near-equal mass configurations. The binary status of Y- type brown dwarfs is still unclear and therefore, determining if Y-type primaries hold the same trend, is of considerable interest. In addition, the detection of binary companions to very cool Y dwarfs may well be the best means available for discovering even colder objects. We present results from a diffraction-limited study of a sample of five WISE Y dwarfs observed with the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS). We find no evidence for binary companions in these data, which suggests these systems are not equal luminosity (or equivalently equal mass) binaries at separations larger than ~ 0.3-1.9 AU.

  2. Study of ion transport across biopsies of ileostomy in vitro: search for evidence of intestinal 'adaptation' after colectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Hawker, P C; Morris, A I; McKay, J; Turnberg, L A

    1980-01-01

    To explore the possibility that small intestinal 'adaptation' may occur after colectomy we examined the ability of ileal mucosal biopsies, taken from patients with ileostomies, to transport electrolytes in vitro. Ileostomy mucosal electrical potential difference was higher (5.4+/-0.5 mV) than in normal mucosa (3.3+/-0.3, P less than 0.001), resistance was higher (98+/-12, against 40.3+/-2.8 omega cm-2), while short circuit current was lower (54.8+/-6.0; against 89.9+/-6.1 muA.cm-2). Net sodium absorption, 1.25+/-0.41 mumol.cm-2.h-1 (n=6), rose on addition of glucose (15 mM.1-1) to 11.57+/-0.8 mumol.cm-2.h-1 (n=4), and these were similar to results from normal ileum. Net chloride transport was also similar to noraml. In one subject, with intermittent ileostomy diarrhoea, net sodium absorption was normal, 2.14 mumol.cm-2.h-1, but there was marked active chloride secretion, 14.03 mumol.cm-2.h-1. These studies do not provide any evidence of enhanced electrolyte absorption across ileal mucosa as a response to colectomy. Some cases of ileostomy diarrhoea may be due to active chloride secretion. PMID:7380338

  3. Searching for Binary Y Dwarfs with the Gemini Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opitz, Daniela; Tinney, C. G.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Sweet, Sarah; Gelino, Christopher R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy

    2016-03-01

    The NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has discovered almost all the known members of the new class of Y-type brown dwarfs. Most of these Y dwarfs have been identified as isolated objects in the field. It is known that binaries with L- and T-type brown dwarf primaries are less prevalent than either M-dwarf or solar-type primaries, they tend to have smaller separations and are more frequently detected in near-equal mass configurations. The binary statistics for Y-type brown dwarfs, however, are sparse, and so it is unclear if the same trends that hold for L- and T-type brown dwarfs also hold for Y-type ones. In addition, the detection of binary companions to very cool Y dwarfs may well be the best means available for discovering even colder objects. We present results for binary properties of a sample of five WISE Y dwarfs with the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System. We find no evidence for binary companions in these data, which suggests these systems are not equal-luminosity (or equal-mass) binaries with separations larger than ˜0.5-1.9 AU. For equal-mass binaries at an age of 5 Gyr, we find that the binary binding energies ruled out by our observations (i.e., 1042 erg) are consistent with those observed in previous studies of hotter ultra-cool dwarfs.

  4. Null steering of adaptive beamforming using linear constraint minimum variance assisted by particle swarm optimization, dynamic mutated artificial immune system, and gravitational search algorithm.

    PubMed

    Darzi, Soodabeh; Kiong, Tiong Sieh; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Ismail, Mahamod; Kibria, Salehin; Salem, Balasem

    2014-01-01

    Linear constraint minimum variance (LCMV) is one of the adaptive beamforming techniques that is commonly applied to cancel interfering signals and steer or produce a strong beam to the desired signal through its computed weight vectors. However, weights computed by LCMV usually are not able to form the radiation beam towards the target user precisely and not good enough to reduce the interference by placing null at the interference sources. It is difficult to improve and optimize the LCMV beamforming technique through conventional empirical approach. To provide a solution to this problem, artificial intelligence (AI) technique is explored in order to enhance the LCMV beamforming ability. In this paper, particle swarm optimization (PSO), dynamic mutated artificial immune system (DM-AIS), and gravitational search algorithm (GSA) are incorporated into the existing LCMV technique in order to improve the weights of LCMV. The simulation result demonstrates that received signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR) of target user can be significantly improved by the integration of PSO, DM-AIS, and GSA in LCMV through the suppression of interference in undesired direction. Furthermore, the proposed GSA can be applied as a more effective technique in LCMV beamforming optimization as compared to the PSO technique. The algorithms were implemented using Matlab program. PMID:25147859

  5. Null Steering of Adaptive Beamforming Using Linear Constraint Minimum Variance Assisted by Particle Swarm Optimization, Dynamic Mutated Artificial Immune System, and Gravitational Search Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Sieh Kiong, Tiong; Tariqul Islam, Mohammad; Ismail, Mahamod; Salem, Balasem

    2014-01-01

    Linear constraint minimum variance (LCMV) is one of the adaptive beamforming techniques that is commonly applied to cancel interfering signals and steer or produce a strong beam to the desired signal through its computed weight vectors. However, weights computed by LCMV usually are not able to form the radiation beam towards the target user precisely and not good enough to reduce the interference by placing null at the interference sources. It is difficult to improve and optimize the LCMV beamforming technique through conventional empirical approach. To provide a solution to this problem, artificial intelligence (AI) technique is explored in order to enhance the LCMV beamforming ability. In this paper, particle swarm optimization (PSO), dynamic mutated artificial immune system (DM-AIS), and gravitational search algorithm (GSA) are incorporated into the existing LCMV technique in order to improve the weights of LCMV. The simulation result demonstrates that received signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR) of target user can be significantly improved by the integration of PSO, DM-AIS, and GSA in LCMV through the suppression of interference in undesired direction. Furthermore, the proposed GSA can be applied as a more effective technique in LCMV beamforming optimization as compared to the PSO technique. The algorithms were implemented using Matlab program. PMID:25147859

  6. Search for diphoton resonances in the mass range from 150 to 850 GeV in pp collisions at √{ s} = 8TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Ochesanu, S.; Rougny, R.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Delannoy, H.; Dobur, D.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Mohammadi, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva Diblen, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Dos Reis Martins, T.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; De Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Marinov, A.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Ali, A.; Aly, R.; Aly, S.; Assran, Y.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Lotfy, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Masod, R.; Radi, A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Pekkanen, J.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.

    2015-11-01

    Results are presented of a search for heavy particles decaying into two photons. The analysis is based on a 19.7fb-1 sample of proton-proton collisions at √{ s} = 8TeV collected with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC. The diphoton mass spectrum from 150 to 850GeV is used to search for an excess of events over the background. The search is extended to new resonances with natural widths of up to 10% of the mass value. No evidence for new particle production is observed and limits at 95% confidence level on the production cross section times branching fraction to diphotons are determined. These limits are interpreted in terms of two-Higgs-doublet model parameters.

  7. Search for Scalar Diphoton Resonances in the Mass Range 65–600 GeV with the ATLAS Detector in pp Collision Data at s=8 TeV

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; et al

    2014-10-20

    A search for scalar particles decaying via narrow resonances into two photons in the mass range 65–600 GeV is performed using 20.3 fb₋1 of √s=8 TeV pp collision data collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The recently discovered Higgs boson is treated as a background. No significant evidence for an additional signal is observed. The results are presented as limits at the 95% confidence level on the production cross section of a scalar boson times branching ratio into two photons, in a fiducial volume where the reconstruction efficiency is approximately independent of the event topology. Lastly,more » the upper limits set extend over a considerably wider mass range than previous searches.« less

  8. Standardization of Keyword Search Mode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Di

    2010-01-01

    In spite of its popularity, keyword search mode has not been standardized. Though information professionals are quick to adapt to various presentations of keyword search mode, novice end-users may find keyword search confusing. This article compares keyword search mode in some major reference databases and calls for standardization. (Contains 3…

  9. Genome Sequence of the Versatile Fish Pathogen Edwardsiella tarda Provides Insights into its Adaptation to Broad Host Ranges and Intracellular Niches

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jingfan; Wu, Haizhen; Wang, Xin; Lv, Yuanzhi; Xu, Lili; Zheng, Huajun; Wang, Shengyue; Zhao, Guoping; Liu, Qin; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2009-01-01

    Background Edwardsiella tarda is the etiologic agent of edwardsiellosis, a devastating fish disease prevailing in worldwide aquaculture industries. Here we describe the complete genome of E. tarda, EIB202, a highly virulent and multi-drug resistant isolate in China. Methodology/Principal Findings E. tarda EIB202 possesses a single chromosome of 3,760,463 base pairs containing 3,486 predicted protein coding sequences, 8 ribosomal rRNA operons, and 95 tRNA genes, and a 43,703 bp conjugative plasmid harboring multi-drug resistant determinants and encoding type IV A secretion system components. We identified a full spectrum of genetic properties related to its genome plasticity such as repeated sequences, insertion sequences, phage-like proteins, integrases, recombinases and genomic islands. In addition, analysis also indicated that a substantial proportion of the E. tarda genome might be devoted to the growth and survival under diverse conditions including intracellular niches, with a large number of aerobic or anaerobic respiration-associated proteins, signal transduction proteins as well as proteins involved in various stress adaptations. A pool of genes for secretion systems, pili formation, nonfimbrial adhesions, invasions and hemagglutinins, chondroitinases, hemolysins, iron scavenging systems as well as the incomplete flagellar biogenesis might feature its surface structures and pathogenesis in a fish body. Conclusion/Significance Genomic analysis of the bacterium offered insights into the phylogeny, metabolism, drug-resistance, stress adaptation, and virulence characteristics of this versatile pathogen, which constitutes an important first step in understanding the pathogenesis of E. tarda to facilitate construction of a practical effective vaccine used for combating fish edwardsiellosis. PMID:19865481

  10. Simple adaptations to extend the range of flow cytometry five orders of magnitude for the DNA analysis of uni- and multicellular systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hecht, R.M.; Schomer, D.F.; Oro, J.A.; Bartel, A.H.; Hungerford, E.V. III

    1981-01-01

    Procedures and instrumentation are described to extend the capability of a cytometry system to record samples that exhibit a wide range of fluorescence such as multicellular systems. The method employs a log amplifier in combination with a set of neutral density filters that reduces the incident light reaching the photomultiplier tube. With any given filter, signals within an intensity range of 200-fold can be measured; different filters can be used to obtain an extended overall range. Polystyrene fluorescent microspheres and a variety of mithramycin stained biological samples ranging from yeast cells to Paramecium were processed by the system. The relative DNA content of individual multicellular embryos was determined for a heterogeneous population of embryonic stages isolated from the nematoda, Caenorhahditis elegans. As part of the evaluation of the procedure, the practical upper limit of range extension was determined. The most intense fluorescent signal was produced when untreated pecan pollen stained with ethidium bromide fluoresced with a factor (8.4 +- 1.3) x 10/sup 4/ more than ethidium bromide stained E. coli cells.

  11. Reference Ranges & What They Mean

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Reference Ranges and What They Mean Share this page: Was this page helpful? Overview | Reference range defined | Where are the reference ranges? | Limits ...

  12. A search for νμ oscillations in the Δm2 range 0.3-90 eV2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dydak, F.; Feldman, G. J.; Guyot, C.; Merlo, J. P.; Meyer, H.-J.; Rothberg, J.; Steinberger, J.; Taureg, H.; von Rüden, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wahl, H.; Wotschack, J.; Blümer, H.; Buchholz, P.; Duda, J.; Eisele, F.; Kleinknecht, K.; Knobloch, J.; Pszola, B.; Renk, B.; Belusevic, R.; Falkenburg, B.; Flottmann, T.; de Groot, J. G. H.; Geweniger, C.; Keilwerth, H.; Tittel, K.; Debu, P.; Para, A.; Perez, P.; Peyaud, B.; Rander, J.; Schuller, J. P.; Turlay, R.; Abramowicz, H.; Królikowski, J.

    1984-01-01

    We have searched for νμ oscillations by comparing the rates of νgm charged-current interactions in two detectors located 130 and 885 m from the target, which was struck by a 9.2 GeV/c proton beam from the CERN Proton Synchroton. No evidence for νμ oscillations was found. At the 90% confidence level, Δm2 values between 0.26 and 90 eV2 are excluded for maximal mixing. The most restrictive limit on the neutrino mixing-angle parameter sin22θ is 0.053 at Δm2=2.5 eV2.

  13. Targeted Capture Sequencing in Whitebark Pine Reveals Range-Wide Demographic and Adaptive Patterns Despite Challenges of a Large, Repetitive Genome.

    PubMed

    Syring, John V; Tennessen, Jacob A; Jennings, Tara N; Wegrzyn, Jill; Scelfo-Dalbey, Camille; Cronn, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) inhabits an expansive range in western North America, and it is a keystone species of subalpine environments. Whitebark is susceptible to multiple threats - climate change, white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetle, and fire exclusion - and it is suffering significant mortality range-wide, prompting the tree to be listed as 'globally endangered' by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and 'endangered' by the Canadian government. Conservation collections (in situ and ex situ) are being initiated to preserve the genetic legacy of the species. Reliable, transferrable, and highly variable genetic markers are essential for quantifying the genetic profiles of seed collections relative to natural stands, and ensuring the completeness of conservation collections. We evaluated the use of hybridization-based target capture to enrich specific genomic regions from the 27 GB genome of whitebark pine, and to evaluate genetic variation across loci, trees, and geography. Probes were designed to capture 7,849 distinct genes, and screening was performed on 48 trees. Despite the inclusion of repetitive elements in the probe pool, the resulting dataset provided information on 4,452 genes and 32% of targeted positions (528,873 bp), and we were able to identify 12,390 segregating sites from 47 trees. Variations reveal strong geographic trends in heterozygosity and allelic richness, with trees from the southern Cascade and Sierra Range showing the greatest distinctiveness and differentiation. Our results show that even under non-optimal conditions (low enrichment efficiency; inclusion of repetitive elements in baits), targeted enrichment produces high quality, codominant genotypes from large genomes. The resulting data can be readily integrated into management and gene conservation activities for whitebark pine, and have the potential to be applied to other members of 5-needle pine group (Pinus subsect. Quinquefolia) due to their

  14. Targeted Capture Sequencing in Whitebark Pine Reveals Range-Wide Demographic and Adaptive Patterns Despite Challenges of a Large, Repetitive Genome

    PubMed Central

    Syring, John V.; Tennessen, Jacob A.; Jennings, Tara N.; Wegrzyn, Jill; Scelfo-Dalbey, Camille; Cronn, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) inhabits an expansive range in western North America, and it is a keystone species of subalpine environments. Whitebark is susceptible to multiple threats – climate change, white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetle, and fire exclusion – and it is suffering significant mortality range-wide, prompting the tree to be listed as ‘globally endangered’ by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and ‘endangered’ by the Canadian government. Conservation collections (in situ and ex situ) are being initiated to preserve the genetic legacy of the species. Reliable, transferrable, and highly variable genetic markers are essential for quantifying the genetic profiles of seed collections relative to natural stands, and ensuring the completeness of conservation collections. We evaluated the use of hybridization-based target capture to enrich specific genomic regions from the 27 GB genome of whitebark pine, and to evaluate genetic variation across loci, trees, and geography. Probes were designed to capture 7,849 distinct genes, and screening was performed on 48 trees. Despite the inclusion of repetitive elements in the probe pool, the resulting dataset provided information on 4,452 genes and 32% of targeted positions (528,873 bp), and we were able to identify 12,390 segregating sites from 47 trees. Variations reveal strong geographic trends in heterozygosity and allelic richness, with trees from the southern Cascade and Sierra Range showing the greatest distinctiveness and differentiation. Our results show that even under non-optimal conditions (low enrichment efficiency; inclusion of repetitive elements in baits), targeted enrichment produces high quality, codominant genotypes from large genomes. The resulting data can be readily integrated into management and gene conservation activities for whitebark pine, and have the potential to be applied to other members of 5-needle pine group (Pinus subsect. Quinquefolia) due to

  15. Estimating patient specific uncertainty parameters for adaptive treatment re-planning in proton therapy using in vivo range measurements and Bayesian inference: application to setup and stopping power errors.

    PubMed

    Labarbe, Rudi; Janssens, Guillaume; Sterpin, Edmond

    2016-09-01

    In proton therapy, quantification of the proton range uncertainty is important to achieve dose distribution compliance. The promising accuracy of prompt gamma imaging (PGI) suggests the development of a mathematical framework using the range measurements to convert population based estimates of uncertainties into patient specific estimates with the purpose of plan adaptation. We present here such framework using Bayesian inference. The sources of uncertainty were modeled by three parameters: setup bias m, random setup precision r and water equivalent path length bias u. The evolution of the expectation values E(m), E(r) and E(u) during the treatment was simulated. The expectation values converged towards the true simulation parameters after 5 and 10 fractions, for E(m) and E(u), respectively. E(r) settle on a constant value slightly lower than the true value after 10 fractions. In conclusion, the simulation showed that there is enough information in the frequency distribution of the range errors measured by PGI to estimate the expectation values and the confidence interval of the model parameters by Bayesian inference. The updated model parameters were used to compute patient specific lateral and local distal margins for adaptive re-planning. PMID:27494118

  16. Estimating patient specific uncertainty parameters for adaptive treatment re-planning in proton therapy using in vivo range measurements and Bayesian inference: application to setup and stopping power errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labarbe, Rudi; Janssens, Guillaume; Sterpin, Edmond

    2016-09-01

    In proton therapy, quantification of the proton range uncertainty is important to achieve dose distribution compliance. The promising accuracy of prompt gamma imaging (PGI) suggests the development of a mathematical framework using the range measurements to convert population based estimates of uncertainties into patient specific estimates with the purpose of plan adaptation. We present here such framework using Bayesian inference. The sources of uncertainty were modeled by three parameters: setup bias m, random setup precision r and water equivalent path length bias u. The evolution of the expectation values E(m), E(r) and E(u) during the treatment was simulated. The expectation values converged towards the true simulation parameters after 5 and 10 fractions, for E(m) and E(u), respectively. E(r) settle on a constant value slightly lower than the true value after 10 fractions. In conclusion, the simulation showed that there is enough information in the frequency distribution of the range errors measured by PGI to estimate the expectation values and the confidence interval of the model parameters by Bayesian inference. The updated model parameters were used to compute patient specific lateral and local distal margins for adaptive re-planning.

  17. Molecular comparison of cattle fever ticks from native and introduced ranges with insights into optimal search areas for classical biological control agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical biological control using specialist parasitoids, predators and/or nematodes from the native ranges of cattle fever ticks could complement existing control strategies for this livestock pest in the transboundary region between Mexico and Texas. DNA fingerprinting tools were used to compare ...

  18. Search for a Standard Model Higgs boson in the mass range 200- 600 GeV in the H → ZZ →ℓ+ℓ- qqbar decay channel with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abouzeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Aubert, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beale, S.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, A. K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertella, C.; Bertin, A.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Branchini, P.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brendlinger, K.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bundock, A. C.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Buttinger, W.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capriotti, D.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo Montoya, G. D.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernandez, A. M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Cataldi, G.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. 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M.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Leeuw, R.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Vulpen, I.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Vari, R.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J. J.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virchaux, M.; Virzi, J.; Vitells, O.; Viti, M.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T. T.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Weber, M.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wendland, D.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Weydert, C.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S. J.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S. R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wong, W. C.; Wooden, G.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, M.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xiao, M.; Xie, S.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, L.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ybeles Smit, G. V.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Young, C. J.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Byszewski, M.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zanello, L.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zinonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zieminska, D.; Zimin, N. I.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.; Atlas Collaboration

    2012-10-01

    A search for a heavy Standard Model Higgs boson decaying via H → ZZ →ℓ+ℓ- qqbar, where ℓ = e or μ, is presented. The search uses a data set of pp collisions at √{ s} = 7 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.7 fb-1 collected in 2011 by the ATLAS detector at the CERN LHC. No significant excess of events above the estimated background is found. Upper limits at 95% confidence level on the production cross section of a Higgs boson with a mass in the range between 200 and 600 GeV are derived. A Standard Model Higgs boson with a mass in the range 300 GeV ⩽mH ⩽ 322 GeV or 353 GeV ⩽mH ⩽ 410 GeV is excluded at 95% CL. The corresponding expected exclusion range is 351 GeV ⩽mH ⩽ 404 GeV at 95% CL.

  19. Quantitative Trait Loci for Grain Yield and Adaptation of Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) Across a Wide Range of Water Availability

    PubMed Central

    Maccaferri, Marco; Sanguineti, Maria Corinna; Corneti, Simona; Ortega, José Luis Araus; Salem, Moncef Ben; Bort, Jordi; DeAmbrogio, Enzo; del Moral, Luis Fernando Garcia; Demontis, Andrea; El-Ahmed, Ahmed; Maalouf, Fouad; Machlab, Hassan; Martos, Vanessa; Moragues, Marc; Motawaj, Jihan; Nachit, Miloudi; Nserallah, Nasserlehaq; Ouabbou, Hassan; Royo, Conxita; Slama, Amor; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Grain yield is a major goal for the improvement of durum wheat, particularly in drought-prone areas. In this study, the genetic basis of grain yield (GY), heading date (HD), and plant height (PH) was investigated in a durum wheat population of 249 recombinant inbred lines evaluated in 16 environments (10 rainfed and 6 irrigated) characterized by a broad range of water availability and GY (from 5.6 to 58.8 q ha−1). Among the 16 quantitative trait loci (QTL) that affected GY, two major QTL on chromosomes 2BL and 3BS showed significant effects in 8 and 7 environments, with R2 values of 21.5 and 13.8% (mean data of all 16 environments), respectively. In both cases, extensive overlap was observed between the LOD profiles of GY and PH, but not with those for HD. QTL specific for PH were identified on chromosomes 1BS, 3AL, and 7AS. Additionally, three major QTL for HD on chromosomes 2AS, 2BL, and 7BS showed limited or no effects on GY. For both PH and GY, notable epistasis between the chromosome 2BL and 3BS QTL was detected across several environments. PMID:18202390

  20. Adaptive Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop and demonstrate innovative adaptive seal technologies that can lead to dramatic improvements in engine performance, life, range, and emissions, and enhance operability for next generation gas turbine engines. This work is concentrated on the development of self-adaptive clearance control systems for gas turbine engines. Researchers have targeted the high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade tip seal location for following reasons: Current active clearance control (ACC) systems (e.g., thermal case-cooling schemes) cannot respond to blade tip clearance changes due to mechanical, thermal, and aerodynamic loads. As such they are prone to wear due to the required tight running clearances during operation. Blade tip seal wear (increased clearances) reduces engine efficiency, performance, and service life. Adaptive sealing technology research has inherent impact on all envisioned 21st century propulsion systems (e.g. distributed vectored, hybrid and electric drive propulsion concepts).

  1. Culturable and culture-independent bacterial diversity and the prevalence of cold-adapted enzymes from the Himalayan mountain ranges of India and Nepal.

    PubMed

    Venkatachalam, Siddarthan; Gowdaman, Vasudevan; Prabagaran, Solai Ramatchandirane

    2015-04-01

    Bacterial diversity of soil samples collected from different geographical regions of Himalayan mountains was studied through culturable (13 samples) and culture-independent approaches (5 samples based on abundance of diversity indices in each ecological niche). Shannon-Wiener diversity index and total bacterial count ranged from 1.50 ± 0.1 to 2.57 ± 0.15 and 7.8 ± 1.6 × 10(5) to 30.9 ± 1.7 × 10(5) cfu ml(-1) of soil, respectively. Based on morphology and pigmentation, 406 isolates were selected by culturing in different cultivable media at various strengths and concentrations. All the strains were subjected to amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and the representative isolates from each cluster were chosen for 16S rRNA gene sequence-based identification. Soil habitat in Himalayan foot hills was dominated by the genera Arthrobacter, Exiguobacterium, Bacillus, Cedecea, Erwinia, and Pseudomonas. Five 16S rRNA gene libraries from the selected five samples yielded 268 clones and were grouped into 53 phylotypes covering 25 genera including the genus of Ferribacterium, Rothia, and Wautersiella, which were reported for the first time in Himalayan tracks. Principal coordinates analysis indicates that all the clone libraries were clearly separated and found to be significantly different from each other. Further, extracellular investigation of cold-active enzymes showed activity of cellulase (23.71%), pectinase (20.24%), amylase (17.32%), phytase (13.87%), protease (12.72%), and lipase (23.71%) among the isolates. Four isolates namely Exiguobacterium mexicanum (BSa14), Exiguobacterium sibiricum (BZa11), Micrococcus antarcticus (BSb10), and Bacillus simplex (BZb3) showed multiple enzyme activity for five different types of enzymes. In addition, various genera like Exiguobacterium, Erwinia, Mycetecola, Cedecea, Pantoea, and Trichococcus have also shown novel hydrolytic enzyme activity in the Himalayan foothills. PMID:25204748

  2. Adaptive homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kelvin J A

    2016-06-01

    Homeostasis is a central pillar of modern Physiology. The term homeostasis was invented by Walter Bradford Cannon in an attempt to extend and codify the principle of 'milieu intérieur,' or a constant interior bodily environment, that had previously been postulated by Claude Bernard. Clearly, 'milieu intérieur' and homeostasis have served us well for over a century. Nevertheless, research on signal transduction systems that regulate gene expression, or that cause biochemical alterations to existing enzymes, in response to external and internal stimuli, makes it clear that biological systems are continuously making short-term adaptations both to set-points, and to the range of 'normal' capacity. These transient adaptations typically occur in response to relatively mild changes in conditions, to programs of exercise training, or to sub-toxic, non-damaging levels of chemical agents; thus, the terms hormesis, heterostasis, and allostasis are not accurate descriptors. Therefore, an operational adjustment to our understanding of homeostasis suggests that the modified term, Adaptive Homeostasis, may be useful especially in studies of stress, toxicology, disease, and aging. Adaptive Homeostasis may be defined as follows: 'The transient expansion or contraction of the homeostatic range in response to exposure to sub-toxic, non-damaging, signaling molecules or events, or the removal or cessation of such molecules or events.' PMID:27112802

  3. Adaptive Crystal Structures: CuAu and NiPt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanati, M.; Wang, L. G.; Zunger, Alex

    2003-01-01

    We discover that Au-rich Cu1-xAux and Pt-rich Ni1-xPtx contain a composition range in which there is a quasicontinuum of stable, ordered “adaptive structures” made of (001) repeat units of simple structural motifs. This is found by searching ˜3×106 different fcc configurations whose energies are parametrized via a “cluster expansion” of first-principles-calculated total energies of just a few structures. This structural adaptivity is explained in terms of an anisotropic, long-range strain energy.

  4. Searching for Pedagogical Adaptations by Exploring Teacher's Tacit Knowledge and Interactional Co-Regulation in the Education of Pupils with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rama, Irene; Kontu, Elina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce a research design, which aims to find useful pedagogical adaptations for teaching pupils with autism. Autism is a behavioural syndrome characterised by disabilities and dysfunctions in interaction and communication, which is why it is interesting to explore educational processes particularly from an…

  5. Software Searches for Better Spacecraft-Navigation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Todd; Crossley, William

    2003-01-01

    ADAPT is a computer program that searches for better mathematical models for spacecraft navigation. The task of tuning trajectory-determination models for interplanetary navigation is complex, requiring an intensive search of multiple dynamical and nondynamical models that yield trajectory solutions with minimal errors. By automating the search, ADAPT eases the task of human analysts and enables them to consider wider ranges of potential solutions. ADAPT uses genetic algorithms to search a range of relevant parameters in a user-selected design space to arrive at values for those parameters that best fit the measured spacecraft-tracking data. The user s guide for ADAPT reviews the theoretical basis of the program and presents two example applications. One example is that of selecting a solar-radiation model for the Mars Pathfinder (MPF) mission using MPF tracking data and an extended Kalman filter from prior spacecraft-navigation software. The second example is of the use of tracking data from the Stardust spacecraft mission combined with a pseudo-epoch-state batch filter and an empirical small-forces model to find improved impulse models for use during Stardust attitude adjustments.

  6. New Range Plants, Their Adaptations and Uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been estimated that cheatgrass has displaced around 10 million ha of perennial vegetation within the Great Basin. The control of cheatgrass without replacement by desirable perennial species results in the reestablishment of cheatgrass or other noxious weeds on disturbed rangeland. Rapid se...

  7. Cube search, revisited.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuetao; Huang, Jie; Yigit-Elliott, Serap; Rosenholtz, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Observers can quickly search among shaded cubes for one lit from a unique direction. However, replace the cubes with similar 2-D patterns that do not appear to have a 3-D shape, and search difficulty increases. These results have challenged models of visual search and attention. We demonstrate that cube search displays differ from those with "equivalent" 2-D search items in terms of the informativeness of fairly low-level image statistics. This informativeness predicts peripheral discriminability of target-present from target-absent patches, which in turn predicts visual search performance, across a wide range of conditions. Comparing model performance on a number of classic search tasks, cube search does not appear unexpectedly easy. Easy cube search, per se, does not provide evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. However, search asymmetries derived from rotating and/or flipping the cube search displays cannot be explained by the information in our current set of image statistics. This may merely suggest a need to modify the model's set of 2-D image statistics. Alternatively, it may be difficult cube search that provides evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. By attributing 2-D luminance variations to a shaded 3-D shape, 3-D scene understanding may slow search for 2-D features of the target. PMID:25780063

  8. Cube search, revisited

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuetao; Huang, Jie; Yigit-Elliott, Serap; Rosenholtz, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Observers can quickly search among shaded cubes for one lit from a unique direction. However, replace the cubes with similar 2-D patterns that do not appear to have a 3-D shape, and search difficulty increases. These results have challenged models of visual search and attention. We demonstrate that cube search displays differ from those with “equivalent” 2-D search items in terms of the informativeness of fairly low-level image statistics. This informativeness predicts peripheral discriminability of target-present from target-absent patches, which in turn predicts visual search performance, across a wide range of conditions. Comparing model performance on a number of classic search tasks, cube search does not appear unexpectedly easy. Easy cube search, per se, does not provide evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. However, search asymmetries derived from rotating and/or flipping the cube search displays cannot be explained by the information in our current set of image statistics. This may merely suggest a need to modify the model's set of 2-D image statistics. Alternatively, it may be difficult cube search that provides evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. By attributing 2-D luminance variations to a shaded 3-D shape, 3-D scene understanding may slow search for 2-D features of the target. PMID:25780063

  9. The genome of alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 reveals adaptations that support the ability to grow in an external pH range from 7.5 to 11.4

    PubMed Central

    Janto, Benjamin; Ahmed, Azad; Ito, Masahiro; Liu, Jun; Hicks, David B.; Pagni, Sarah; Fackelmayer, Oliver J.; Smith, Terry-Ann; Earl, Joshua; Elbourne, Liam D.H.; Hassan, Karl; Paulsen, Ian T.; Kolstø, Anne-Brit; Tourasse, Nicolas J.; Ehrlich, Garth D.; Boissy, Robert; Ivey, D. Mack; Li, Gang; Xue, Yanfen; Ma, Yanhe; Hu, Fen Z.; Krulwich, Terry A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 is an extreme but facultative alkaliphile that grows non-fermentatively in a pH range from 7.5 to above 11.4 and can withstand large sudden increases in external pH. It is a model organism for studies of bioenergetics at high pH, at which energy demands are higher than at neutral pH because both cytoplasmic pH homeostasis and ATP synthesis require more energy. The alkaliphile also tolerates a cytoplasmic pH > 9.0 at external pH values at which the pH homeostasis capacity is exceeded, and manages other stresses that are exacerbated at alkaline pH, e.g. sodium, oxidative and cell wall stresses. The genome of B. pseudofirmus OF4 includes two plasmids that are lost from some mutants without viability loss. The plasmids may provide a reservoir of mobile elements that promote adaptive chromosomal rearrangements under particular environmental conditions. The genome also reveals a more acidic pI profile for proteins exposed on the outer surface than found in neutralophiles. A large array of transporters and regulatory genes are predicted to protect the alkaliphile from its overlapping stresses. In addition, unanticipated metabolic versatility was observed, which could ensure requisite energy for alkaliphily under diverse conditions. PMID:21951522

  10. Race, Self-Selection, and the Job Search Process1

    PubMed Central

    Pager, Devah; Pedulla, David S.

    2015-01-01

    While existing research has documented persistent barriers facing African American job seekers, far less research has questioned how job seekers respond to this reality. Do minorities self-select into particular segments of the labor market to avoid discrimination? Such questions have remained unanswered due to the lack of data available on the positions to which job seekers apply. Drawing on two original datasets with application-specific information, we find little evidence that blacks target or avoid particular job types. Rather, blacks cast a wider net in their search than similarly situated whites, including a greater range of occupational categories and characteristics in their pool of job applications. Finally, we show that perceptions of discrimination are associated with increased search breadth, suggesting that broad search among African Americans represents an adaptation to labor market discrimination. Together these findings provide novel evidence on the role of race and self-selection in the job search process. PMID:26046224

  11. Race, self-selection, and the job search process.

    PubMed

    Pager, Devah; Pedulla, David S

    2015-01-01

    While existing research has documented persistent barriers facing African-American job seekers, far less research has questioned how job seekers respond to this reality. Do minorities self-select into particular segments of the labor market to avoid discrimination? Such questions have remained unanswered due to the lack of data available on the positions to which job seekers apply. Drawing on two original data sets with application-specific information, we find little evidence that blacks target or avoid particular job types. Rather, blacks cast a wider net in their search than similarly situated whites, including a greater range of occupational categories and characteristics in their pool of job applications. Additionally, we show that perceptions of discrimination are associated with increased search breadth, suggesting that broad search among African-Americans represents an adaptation to labor market discrimination. Together these findings provide novel evidence on the role of race and self-selection in the job search process. PMID:26046224

  12. Behavior of adaptive digital erosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuciurean-Zapan, Clara; Dougherty, Edward R.; Chen, Yidong

    1996-10-01

    Design of statistically optimal erosion-based filters is problematic due to the complexity of the search process. Specialized search techniques and constraints on optimality are used to mitigate the full search. Adaptation of structuring elements has also ben employed. The present paper looks at the behavior of an adaptive filter relative to the actual optimal filter for a single erosion in two models, signal-union-noise and dilation. It does so in the context of state transitions, where filter states are stacks that determine the structuring element upon thresholding.

  13. Laboratory Search for a Long-Range T-Odd, P-Odd Interaction from Axionlike Particles Using Dual-Species Nuclear Magnetic Resonance with Polarized Xe129 and Xe131 Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, M.; Griffith, R.; Larsen, M.; Mirijanian, J.; Fu, C. B.; Smith, E.; Snow, W. M.; Yan, H.; Walker, T. G.

    2013-09-01

    Various theories beyond the standard model predict new particles with masses in the sub-eV range with very weak couplings to ordinary matter. A new P-odd and T-odd interaction between polarized and unpolarized nucleons proportional to K→·r→ is one such possibility, where r→ is the distance between the nucleons and K→ is the spin of the polarized nucleon. Such an interaction involving a scalar coupling gs at one vertex and a pseudoscalar coupling gp at the polarized nucleon vertex can be induced by the exchange of spin-0 bosons. We used the NMR cell test station at Northrop Grumman Corporation to search for NMR frequency shifts in polarized Xe129 and Xe131 when a nonmagnetic zirconia rod is moved near the NMR cell. Long (T2˜20s) spin-relaxation times allow precision measurements of the NMR frequency ratios, which are insensitive to magnetic field fluctuations. Combined with existing theoretical calculations of the neutron spin contribution to the nuclear angular momentum in xenon nuclei, the measurements improve the laboratory upper bound on the product gsgpn by 2 orders of magnitude for distances near 1 mm. The sensitivity of this technique can be increased by at least two more orders of magnitude.

  14. STEPS: A Grid Search Methodology for Optimized Peptide Identification Filtering of MS/MS Database Search Results

    SciTech Connect

    Piehowski, Paul D.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Sandoval, John D.; Burnum, Kristin E.; Kiebel, Gary R.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2013-03-01

    For bottom-up proteomics there are a wide variety of database searching algorithms in use for matching peptide sequences to tandem MS spectra. Likewise, there are numerous strategies being employed to produce a confident list of peptide identifications from the different search algorithm outputs. Here we introduce a grid search approach for determining optimal database filtering criteria in shotgun proteomics data analyses that is easily adaptable to any search. Systematic Trial and Error Parameter Selection - referred to as STEPS - utilizes user-defined parameter ranges to test a wide array of parameter combinations to arrive at an optimal "parameter set" for data filtering, thus maximizing confident identifications. The benefits of this approach in terms of numbers of true positive identifications are demonstrated using datasets derived from immunoaffinity-depleted blood serum and a bacterial cell lysate, two common proteomics sample types.

  15. Subaru adaptive-optics high-spatial-resolution infrared K- and L'-band imaging search for deeply buried dual AGNs in merging galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Saito, Yuriko

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of infrared K- (2.2 μm) and L'-band (3.8 μm) high-spatial-resolution (<0.''2) imaging observations of nearby gas- and dust-rich infrared luminous merging galaxies, assisted by the adaptive optics system on the Subaru 8.2 m telescope. We investigate the presence and frequency of red K – L' compact sources, which are sensitive indicators of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), including AGNs that are deeply buried in gas and dust. We observed 29 merging systems and confirmed at least one AGN in all but one system. However, luminous dual AGNs were detected in only four of the 29 systems (∼14%), despite our method's being sensitive to buried AGNs. For multiple nuclei sources, we compared the estimated AGN luminosities with supermassive black hole (SMBH) masses inferred from large-aperture K-band stellar emission photometry in individual nuclei. We found that mass accretion rates onto SMBHs are significantly different among multiple SMBHs, such that larger-mass SMBHs generally show higher mass accretion rates when normalized to SMBH mass. Our results suggest that non-synchronous mass accretion onto SMBHs in gas- and dust-rich infrared luminous merging galaxies hampers the observational detection of kiloparsec-scale multiple active SMBHs. This could explain the significantly smaller detection fraction of kiloparsec-scale dual AGNs when compared with the number expected from simple theoretical predictions. Our results also indicate that mass accretion onto SMBHs is dominated by local conditions, rather than by global galaxy properties, reinforcing the importance of observations to our understanding of how multiple SMBHs are activated and acquire mass in gas- and dust-rich merging galaxies.

  16. Fixing Dataset Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Three current search engines are queried for ozone data at the GES DISC. The results range from sub-optimal to counter-intuitive. We propose a method to fix dataset search by implementing a robust relevancy ranking scheme. The relevancy ranking scheme is based on several heuristics culled from more than 20 years of helping users select datasets.

  17. Long-range forecast of all India summer monsoon rainfall using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system: skill comparison with CFSv2 model simulation and real-time forecast for the year 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, S.; Das, D.; Goswami, S.; Das, S. K.

    2016-02-01

    All India summer monsoon rainfall (AISMR) characteristics play a vital role for the policy planning and national economy of the country. In view of the significant impact of monsoon system on regional as well as global climate systems, accurate prediction of summer monsoon rainfall has become a challenge. The objective of this study is to develop an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for long range forecast of AISMR. The NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data of temperature, zonal and meridional wind at different pressure levels have been taken to construct the input matrix of ANFIS. The membership of the input parameters for AISMR as high, medium or low is estimated with trapezoidal membership function. The fuzzified standardized input parameters and the de-fuzzified target output are trained with artificial neural network models. The forecast of AISMR with ANFIS is compared with non-hybrid multi-layer perceptron model (MLP), radial basis functions network (RBFN) and multiple linear regression (MLR) models. The forecast error analyses of the models reveal that ANFIS provides the best forecast of AISMR with minimum prediction error of 0.076, whereas the errors with MLP, RBFN and MLR models are 0.22, 0.18 and 0.73 respectively. During validation with observations, ANFIS shows its potency over the said comparative models. Performance of the ANFIS model is verified through different statistical skill scores, which also confirms the aptitude of ANFIS in forecasting AISMR. The forecast skill of ANFIS is also observed to be better than Climate Forecast System version 2. The real-time forecast with ANFIS shows possibility of deficit (65-75 cm) AISMR in the year 2015.

  18. Search Cloud

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/cloud.html Search Cloud To use the sharing features on this page, ... Top 110 zoster vaccine Share the MedlinePlus search cloud with your users by embedding our search cloud ...

  19. Search Cloud

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/cloud.html Search Cloud To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Share the MedlinePlus search cloud with your users by embedding our search cloud ...

  20. Self-adaptive parameters in genetic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellerin, Eric; Pigeon, Luc; Delisle, Sylvain

    2004-04-01

    Genetic algorithms are powerful search algorithms that can be applied to a wide range of problems. Generally, parameter setting is accomplished prior to running a Genetic Algorithm (GA) and this setting remains unchanged during execution. The problem of interest to us here is the self-adaptive parameters adjustment of a GA. In this research, we propose an approach in which the control of a genetic algorithm"s parameters can be encoded within the chromosome of each individual. The parameters" values are entirely dependent on the evolution mechanism and on the problem context. Our preliminary results show that a GA is able to learn and evaluate the quality of self-set parameters according to their degree of contribution to the resolution of the problem. These results are indicative of a promising approach to the development of GAs with self-adaptive parameter settings that do not require the user to pre-adjust parameters at the outset.

  1. Range Ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After more than two hundred years, grazing remains California’s most extensive land use. The ‘Range Ecosystems’ chapter in the ‘Ecosystems of California’ sourcebook provides an integrated picture of the biophysical, social, and economic aspects of lands grazed by livestock in the state. Grazing mana...

  2. Adaptive Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive managem...

  3. Coping and adaptation process during puerperium

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz de Rodríguez, Lucy; Ruiz de Cárdenas, Carmen Helena

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The puerperium is a stage that produces changes and adaptations in women, couples and family. Effective coping, during this stage, depends on the relationship between the demands of stressful or difficult situations and the recourses that the puerperal individual has. Roy (2004), in her Middle Range Theory about the Coping and Adaptation Processing, defines Coping as the ''behavioral and cognitive efforts that a person makes to meet the environment demands''. For the puerperal individual, the correct coping is necessary to maintain her physical and mental well being, especially against situations that can be stressful like breastfeeding and return to work. According to Lazarus and Folkman (1986), a resource for coping is to have someone who receives emotional support, informative and / or tangible. Objective: To review the issue of women coping and adaptation during the puerperium stage and the strategies that enhance this adaptation. Methods: search and selection of database articles: Cochrane, Medline, Ovid, ProQuest, Scielo, and Blackwell Synergy. Other sources: unpublished documents by Roy, published books on Roy´s Model, Websites from of international health organizations. Results: the need to recognize the puerperium as a stage that requires comprehensive care is evident, where nurses must be protagonist with the care offered to women and their families, considering the specific demands of this situation and recourses that promote effective coping and the family, education and health services. PMID:24893059

  4. Institutional Long-Range Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolin, John G.

    This booklet presents a general outline for conducting a long-range planning study that can be adapted for use by any institution of higher education. The basic components of an effective long-range plan should include: (1) purposes of the plan, which define the scope of the study and provide the setting in which it will be initiated; (2) a set of…

  5. Physiologic adaptation to space - Space adaptation syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderploeg, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The adaptive changes of the neurovestibular system to microgravity, which result in space motion sickness (SMS), are studied. A list of symptoms, which range from vomiting to drowsiness, is provided. The two patterns of symptom development, rapid and gradual, and the duration of the symptoms are described. The concept of sensory conflict and rearrangements to explain SMS is being investigated.

  6. A parallel algorithm for random searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wosniack, M. E.; Raposo, E. P.; Viswanathan, G. M.; da Luz, M. G. E.

    2015-11-01

    We discuss a parallelization procedure for a two-dimensional random search of a single individual, a typical sequential process. To assure the same features of the sequential random search in the parallel version, we analyze the former spatial patterns of the encountered targets for different search strategies and densities of homogeneously distributed targets. We identify a lognormal tendency for the distribution of distances between consecutively detected targets. Then, by assigning the distinct mean and standard deviation of this distribution for each corresponding configuration in the parallel simulations (constituted by parallel random walkers), we are able to recover important statistical properties, e.g., the target detection efficiency, of the original problem. The proposed parallel approach presents a speedup of nearly one order of magnitude compared with the sequential implementation. This algorithm can be easily adapted to different instances, as searches in three dimensions. Its possible range of applicability covers problems in areas as diverse as automated computer searchers in high-capacity databases and animal foraging.

  7. Robotic Astrobiology: Searching for Life with Rovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Wettergreen, D. S.; Team, L.

    2006-05-01

    The Life In The Atacama (LITA) project has developed and field tested a long-range, solar-powered, automated rover platform (Zoe) and a science payload assembled to search for microbial life in the Atacama desert. Life is hardly detectable over most of the extent of the driest desert on Earth. Its geological, climatic, and biological evolution provides a unique training ground for designing and testing exploration strategies and life detection methods for the robotic search for life on Mars. LITA opens the path to a new generation of rover missions that will transition from the current study of habitability (MER) to the upcoming search for, and study of, habitats and life on Mars. Zoe's science payload reflects this transition by combining complementary elements, some directed towards the remote sensing of the environment (geology, morphology, mineralogy, weather/climate) for the detection of conditions favorable to microbial habitats and oases along survey traverses, others directed toward the in situ detection of life' signatures (biological and physical, such as biological constructs and patterns). New exploration strategies specifically adapted to the search for microbial life were designed and successfully tested in the Atacama between 2003-2005. They required the development and implementation in the field of new technological capabilities, including navigation beyond the horizon, obstacle avoidance, and "science-on-the-fly" (automated detection of targets of science value), and that of new rover planning tools in the remote science operation center.

  8. A new method of real-time signal extraction for diffuse reflection laser ranging based on Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Yan; Qian, Weiping

    2015-10-01

    Diffuse reflection laser ranging is one of the feasible ways to realize high precision measurement of the space debris. However, the weak echo of diffuse reflection results in a poor signal-to-noise ratio. Thus, it is difficult to realize the real-time signal extraction for diffuse reflection laser ranging when echo signal photons are blocked by a large amount of noise photons. The Genetic Algorithm, originally evolved from the idea of natural selection process, is a heuristic search algorithm which is famous for the adaptive optimization and the global search ability. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first one to propose a method of real-time signal extraction for diffuse reflection laser ranging based on Genetic Algorithm. The extraction results are regarded as individuals in the population. Besides, short-term linear fitting degree and data correlation level are used as selection criteria to search for an optimal solution. Fine search in the real-time data part gives the suitable new data quickly in real-time signal extraction. A coarse search in both historical data and real-time data after the fine search is designed. The co-evolution of both parts can increase the search accuracy of real-time data as well as the precision of the history data. Simulation experiments show that our method has good signal extraction capability in poor signal-to-noise ratio circumstance, especially for data with high correlation.

  9. Range and range rate system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Olin L. (Inventor); Russell, Jim K. (Inventor); Epperly, Walter L. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A video controlled solid state range finding system which requires no radar, high power laser, or sophisticated laser target is disclosed. The effective range of the system is from 1 to about 200 ft. The system includes an opto-electric camera such as a lens CCD array device. A helium neon laser produces a source beam of coherent light which is applied to a beam splitter. The beam splitter applies a reference beam to the camera and produces an outgoing beam applied to a first angularly variable reflector which directs the outgoing beam to the distant object. An incoming beam is reflected from the object to a second angularly variable reflector which reflects the incoming beam to the opto-electric camera via the beam splitter. The first reflector and the second reflector are configured so that the distance travelled by the outgoing beam from the beam splitter and the first reflector is the same as the distance travelled by the incoming beam from the second reflector to the beam splitter. The reference beam produces a reference signal in the geometric center of the camera. The incoming beam produces an object signal at the camera.

  10. Confidential Searches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Linda Chion

    2003-01-01

    Will the stealth superintendent hunt in Cincinnati become tomorrow's standard approach? Search consultants and superintendents offer their views on how far confidentiality should go. Also includes a search firm's process for shielding identities and a confidentiality pledge. (MLF)

  11. Savvy Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacso, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Explains desktop metasearch engines, which search the databases of several search engines simultaneously. Reviews two particular versions, the Copernic 2001 Pro and the BullsEye Pro 3, comparing costs, subject categories, display capabilities, and layout for presenting results. (LRW)

  12. Suspicionless Searches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2000-01-01

    In a federal case involving a vice-principal's pat-down search of middle-school students in a cafeteria (for a missing pizza knife), the court upheld the search, saying it was relatively unintrusive and met "TLO's" reasonable-suspicion standards. Principals need reasonable justification for searching a group. (Contains 18 references.) (MLH)

  13. Dewey Searches!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity for young children that helps them conduct subject searches using an automated system that allows customization of access to a library's collection. Explains a timed game that makes use of subject searching and word searching on the topic of dinosaurs. (LRW)

  14. Analytical Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses analytical searching, a process that enables searchers of electronic resources to develop a planned strategy by combining words or phrases with Boolean operators. Defines simple and complex searching, and describes search strategies developed with Boolean logic and truncation. Provides guidelines for teaching students analytical…

  15. Partition search

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsberg, M.L.

    1996-12-31

    We introduce a new form of game search called partition search that incorporates dependency analysis, allowing substantial reductions in the portion of the tree that needs to be expanded. Both theoretical results and experimental data are presented. For the game of bridge, partition search provides approximately as much of an improvement over existing methods as {alpha}-{beta} pruning provides over minimax.

  16. Adaptive SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Freed, Melanie; Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Clarkson, Eric; Whitaker, Meredith K.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive imaging systems alter their data-acquisition configuration or protocol in response to the image information received. An adaptive pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system might acquire an initial scout image to obtain preliminary information about the radiotracer distribution and then adjust the configuration or sizes of the pinholes, the magnifications, or the projection angles in order to improve performance. This paper briefly describes two small-animal SPECT systems that allow this flexibility and then presents a framework for evaluating adaptive systems in general, and adaptive SPECT systems in particular. The evaluation is in terms of the performance of linear observers on detection or estimation tasks. Expressions are derived for the ideal linear (Hotelling) observer and the ideal linear (Wiener) estimator with adaptive imaging. Detailed expressions for the performance figures of merit are given, and possible adaptation rules are discussed. PMID:18541485

  17. Study of a global search algorithm for optimal control.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brocker, D. H.; Kavanaugh, W. P.; Stewart, E. C.

    1967-01-01

    Adaptive random search algorithm utilizing boundary cost-function hypersurfaces measurement to implement Pontryagin maximum principle, discussing hybrid computer use, iterative solution and convergence properties

  18. Supersymmetry Searches at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, C.

    2008-11-23

    Supersymmetry predicts a range of new phenomena with a variety of experimental signatures. Searches for supersymmetry at the Fermilab Tevatron accelerator fall into three broad categories: generic sparticle searches; specialized searches for sparticles with unusual properties; and model-independent searches probing for discrepancies between the data and the standard model. Searches performed by the CDF and DOe experiments with up to 2 fb{sup -1} of {radical}(s) = 1.96 TeV pp-bar data have yet to turn up any evidence for supersymmetry.

  19. Search for Scalar Diphoton Resonances in the Mass Range 65–600 GeV with the ATLAS Detector in pp Collision Data at s=8TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Backus Mayes, J.; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Balek, P.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bartsch, V.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernat, P.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J. -B.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, T. T.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutouil, S.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brelier, B.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.

    2014-10-20

    A search for scalar particles decaying via narrow resonances into two photons in the mass range 65–600 GeV is performed using 20.3 fb₋1 of √s=8 TeV pp collision data collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The recently discovered Higgs boson is treated as a background. No significant evidence for an additional signal is observed. The results are presented as limits at the 95% confidence level on the production cross section of a scalar boson times branching ratio into two photons, in a fiducial volume where the reconstruction efficiency is approximately independent of the event topology. Lastly, the upper limits set extend over a considerably wider mass range than previous searches.

  20. Emergent weak home-range behaviour without spatial memory

    PubMed Central

    Sakiyama, Tomoko; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio

    2016-01-01

    Space-use problems have been well investigated. Spatial memory capacity is assumed in many home-range algorithms; however, actual living things do not always exploit spatial memory, and living entities can exhibit adaptive and flexible behaviour using simple cognitive capacity. We have developed an agent-based model wherein the agent uses only detected local regions and compares global efficiencies for a habitat search within its local conditions based on memorized information. Here, memorized information was acquired by scanning locally perceived environments rather than remembering resource locations. When memorized information matched to its current environments, the agent changed resource selection rules. As a result, the agent revisited previous resource sites while exploring new sites, which was demonstrating a weak home-range property. PMID:27429778

  1. Emergent weak home-range behaviour without spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Sakiyama, Tomoko; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio

    2016-06-01

    Space-use problems have been well investigated. Spatial memory capacity is assumed in many home-range algorithms; however, actual living things do not always exploit spatial memory, and living entities can exhibit adaptive and flexible behaviour using simple cognitive capacity. We have developed an agent-based model wherein the agent uses only detected local regions and compares global efficiencies for a habitat search within its local conditions based on memorized information. Here, memorized information was acquired by scanning locally perceived environments rather than remembering resource locations. When memorized information matched to its current environments, the agent changed resource selection rules. As a result, the agent revisited previous resource sites while exploring new sites, which was demonstrating a weak home-range property. PMID:27429778

  2. Adaptive building skin structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Grosso, A. E.; Basso, P.

    2010-12-01

    The concept of adaptive and morphing structures has gained considerable attention in the recent years in many fields of engineering. In civil engineering very few practical applications are reported to date however. Non-conventional structural concepts like deployable, inflatable and morphing structures may indeed provide innovative solutions to some of the problems that the construction industry is being called to face. To give some examples, searches for low-energy consumption or even energy-harvesting green buildings are amongst such problems. This paper first presents a review of the above problems and technologies, which shows how the solution to these problems requires a multidisciplinary approach, involving the integration of architectural and engineering disciplines. The discussion continues with the presentation of a possible application of two adaptive and dynamically morphing structures which are proposed for the realization of an acoustic envelope. The core of the two applications is the use of a novel optimization process which leads the search for optimal solutions by means of an evolutionary technique while the compatibility of the resulting configurations of the adaptive envelope is ensured by the virtual force density method.

  3. An Adaptive Evolutionary Algorithm for Traveling Salesman Problem with Precedence Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jinmo; Jeong, Bongju

    2014-01-01

    Traveling sales man problem with precedence constraints is one of the most notorious problems in terms of the efficiency of its solution approach, even though it has very wide range of industrial applications. We propose a new evolutionary algorithm to efficiently obtain good solutions by improving the search process. Our genetic operators guarantee the feasibility of solutions over the generations of population, which significantly improves the computational efficiency even when it is combined with our flexible adaptive searching strategy. The efficiency of the algorithm is investigated by computational experiments. PMID:24701158

  4. Frequency domain synthesis of optimal inputs for adaptive identification and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Li-Chen; Sastry, Shankar

    1987-01-01

    The input design problem of selecting appropriate inputs for use in SISO adaptive identification and model reference adaptive control algorithms is considered. Averaging theory is used to characterize the optimal inputs in the frequency domain. The design problem is formulated as an optimization problem which maximizes the smallest eigenvalue of the average information matrix over power constrained signals, and the global optimal solution is obtained using a convergent numerical algorithm. A bound on the frequency search range required in the design algorithm has been determined in terms of the desired performance.

  5. An Adaptive Optics Survey for Companions to Stars with Extra-Solar Planets

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, J.P.; Liu, M.C.; Graham, J.R.; Enoch, M.; Kalas, P.; Marcy, G.W.; Fischer, D.; Patience, J.; Macintosh, B.; Gavel, D.T.; Olivier, S.S.; Max, C.E.; White, R.; Ghez, A.M.; McLean, I.S.

    2000-11-27

    We have undertaken an adaptive optics imaging survey of extrasolar planetary systems and stars showing interesting radial velocity trends from high precision radial velocity searches. Adaptive Optics increases the resolution and dynamic range of an image, substantially improving the detectability of faint close companions. This survey is sensitive to objects less luminous than the bottom of the main sequence at separations as close as 1 inch. We have detected stellar companions to the planet bearing stars HD 114762 and Tau Boo. We have also detected a companion to the non-planet bearing star 16 Cyg A.

  6. Adaptive Optics Survey for Companions to stars with Extra-Solar Planets

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, J P; Liu, M C; Graham, J R; Enoch, M; Kalas, P; Marcy, G W; Fischer, D; Patience, J; Macintosh, B; Gavel, D T; Olivier, S S; Max, C E; White, R; Ghez, A M; McLean, I S

    2000-11-27

    We have undertaken an adaptive optics imaging survey of extrasolar planetary systems and stars showing interesting radial velocity trends from high precision radial velocity searches. Adaptive Optics increases the resolution and dynamic range of an image, substantially improving the detectability of faint close companions. This survey is sensitive to objects less luminous than the bottom of the main sequence at separations as close as 1 inch. We have detected stellar companions to the planet bearing stars HD 114762 and Tau Boo. We have also detected a companion to the non-planet bearing star 16 Cyg A.

  7. Are search committees really searching?

    PubMed

    Hoffmeir, Patricia A

    2003-02-01

    Academic chair searches are admittedly a labor-intensive process, but they are made more difficult and often lead to less-than-optimal outcomes because search committees spend their time "advertising," "looking," but not truly searching for academic chairs. At the onset, certain "realities" must be acknowledged, including (1) understanding that unless your organization is renowned in the specialty for which you are conducting the search, candidates won't be pounding at your door for a job, (2) searches that fail to include an overall assessment of the department in question are likely to miss the mark, (3) chairs must have demonstrated not only clinical expertise but also business savvy, (4) the best candidate is not necessarily someone who is already a department chair, (5) when it comes to chair searches, it's a buyer's market, and (6) the search process is inextricably linked to the success of the search. Key to the process of conducting an academic chair search are the judicious formation of the search committee; committee members' willingness to do their homework, attend all committee meeting, and keep the committee's activities confidential; crafting, not revising, the current job description for the open chair position; interviewing viable candidates rather than all candidates and adhering to a coordinated interviewing process; and evaluating internal and external candidates according to the same parameters. PMID:12584089

  8. Foraging search: Prototypical intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobus, George

    2000-05-01

    We think because we eat. Or as Descartes might have said, on a little more reflection, "I need to eat, therefore I think." Animals that forage for a living repeatedly face the problem of searching for a sparsely distributed resource in a vast space. Furthermore, the resource may occur sporadically and episodically under conditions of true uncertainty (nonstationary, complex and non-linear dynamics). I assert that this problem is the canonical problem solved by intelligence. It's solution is the basis for the evolution of more advanced intelligence in which the space of search includes that of concepts (objects and relations) encoded in cortical structures. In humans the conscious experience of searching through concept space we call thinking. The foraging search model is based upon a higher-order autopoeitic system (the forager) employing anticipatory processing to enhance its success at finding food while avoiding becoming food or having accidents in a hostile world. I present a semi-formal description of the general foraging search problem and an approach to its solution. The latter is a brain-like structure employing dynamically adaptive neurons. A physical robot, MAVRIC, embodies some principles of foraging. It learns cues that lead to improvements in finding targets in a dynamic and nonstationary environment. This capability is based on a unique learning mechanism that encodes causal relations in the neural-like processing element. An argument is advanced that searching for resources in the physical world, as per the foraging model, is a prototype for generalized search for conceptual resources as when we think. A problem represents a conceptual disturbance in a homeostatic sense. The finding of a solution restores the homeostatic balance. The establishment of links between conceptual cues and solutions (resources) and the later use of those cues to think through to solutions of quasi-isomorphic problems is, essentially, foraging for ideas. It is a quite

  9. Narrative, Adaptation, and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateson, Mary Catherine

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores how individuals and communities orient themselves to the future by the way they story the past. There is a persistent tendency to think of such narratives as factual and therefore stable. The mutability of such narratives is actually a key adaptive characteristic, ranging from complete repression of individual traumas to public…

  10. Phase Adaptation and Correction by Adaptive Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiziani, Hans J.

    2010-04-01

    Adaptive optical elements and systems for imaging or laser beam propagation are used for some time in particular in astronomy, where the image quality is degraded by atmospheric turbulence. In astronomical telescopes a deformable mirror is frequently used to compensate wavefront-errors due to deformations of the large mirror, vibrations as well as turbulence and hence to increase the image quality. In the last few years interesting elements like Spatial Light Modulators, SLM's, such as photorefractive crystals, liquid crystals and micro mirrors and membrane mirrors were introduced. The development of liquid crystals and micro mirrors was driven by data projectors as consumer products. They contain typically a matrix of individually addressable pixels of liquid crystals and flip mirrors respectively or more recently piston mirrors for special applications. Pixel sizes are in the order of a few microns and therefore also appropriate as active diffractive elements in digital holography or miniature masks. Although liquid crystals are mainly optimized for intensity modulation; they can be used for phase modulation. Adaptive optics is a technology for beam shaping and wavefront adaptation. The application of spatial light modulators for wavefront adaptation and correction and defect analysis as well as sensing will be discussed. Dynamic digital holograms are generated with liquid crystal devices (LCD) and used for wavefront correction as well as for beam shaping and phase manipulation, for instance. Furthermore, adaptive optics is very useful to extend the measuring range of wavefront sensors and for the wavefront adaptation in order to measure and compare the shape of high precision aspherical surfaces.

  11. Social Work Literature Searching: Current Issues with Databases and Online Search Engines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinn, Tony; Taylor, Brian; McColgan, Mary; McQuilkan, Janice

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the performance of a range of search facilities; and to illustrate the execution of a comprehensive literature search for qualitative evidence in social work. Context: Developments in literature search methods and comparisons of search facilities help facilitate access to the best available evidence for social workers.…

  12. On-line range images registration with GPGPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Będkowski, J.; Naruniec, J.

    2013-03-01

    This paper concerns implementation of algorithms in the two important aspects of modern 3D data processing: data registration and segmentation. Solution proposed for the first topic is based on the 3D space decomposition, while the latter on image processing and local neighbourhood search. Data processing is implemented by using NVIDIA compute unified device architecture (NIVIDIA CUDA) parallel computation. The result of the segmentation is a coloured map where different colours correspond to different objects, such as walls, floor and stairs. The research is related to the problem of collecting 3D data with a RGB-D camera mounted on a rotated head, to be used in mobile robot applications. Performance of the data registration algorithm is aimed for on-line processing. The iterative closest point (ICP) approach is chosen as a registration method. Computations are based on the parallel fast nearest neighbour search. This procedure decomposes 3D space into cubic buckets and, therefore, the time of the matching is deterministic. First technique of the data segmentation uses accele-rometers integrated with a RGB-D sensor to obtain rotation compensation and image processing method for defining pre-requisites of the known categories. The second technique uses the adapted nearest neighbour search procedure for obtaining normal vectors for each range point.

  13. The Climate Adaptation Frontier

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Benjamin L

    2013-01-01

    Climate adaptation has emerged as a mainstream risk management strategy for assisting in maintaining socio-ecological systems within the boundaries of a safe operating space. Yet, there are limits to the ability of systems to adapt. Here, we introduce the concept of an adaptation frontier , which is defined as a socio-ecological system s transitional adaptive operating space between safe and unsafe domains. A number of driving forces are responsible for determining the sustainability of systems on the frontier. These include path dependence, adaptation/development deficits, values conflicts and discounting of future loss and damage. The cumulative implications of these driving forces are highly uncertain. Nevertheless, the fact that a broad range of systems already persist at the edge of their frontiers suggests a high likelihood that some limits will eventually be exceeded. The resulting system transformation is likely to manifest as anticipatory modification of management objectives or loss and damage. These outcomes vary significantly with respect to their ethical implications. Successful navigation of the adaptation frontier will necessitate new paradigms of risk governance to elicit knowledge that encourages reflexive reevaluation of societal values that enable or constrain sustainability.

  14. Policy implications for familial searching

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforcement agencies a powerful tool for developing investigative leads, apprehending criminals, revitalizing cold cases and exonerating wrongfully convicted individuals. As familial searching involves a range of logistical, social, ethical and legal considerations, states are now grappling with policy options for implementing familial searching to balance crime fighting with its potential impact on society. When developing policies for familial searching, legislators should take into account the impact of familial searching on select populations and the need to minimize personal intrusion on relatives of individuals in the DNA database. This review describes the approaches used to narrow a suspect pool from a partial match search of CODIS and summarizes the economic, ethical, logistical and political challenges of implementing familial searching. We examine particular US state policies and the policy options adopted to address these issues. The aim of this review is to provide objective background information on the controversial approach of familial searching to inform policy decisions in this area. Herein we highlight key policy options and recommendations regarding effective utilization of familial searching that minimize harm to and afford maximum protection of US citizens. PMID:22040348

  15. A Prototype Search Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knepper, Margaret M.; Fox, Kevin L.; Frieder, Ophir

    Information overload is now a reality. We no longer worry about obtaining a sufficient volume of data; we now are concerned with sifting and understanding the massive volumes of data available to us. To do so, we developed an integrated information processing toolkit that provides the user with a variety of ways to view their information. The views include keyword search results, a domain specific ranking system that allows for adaptively capturing topic vocabularies to customize and focus the search results, navigation pages for browsing, and a geospatial and temporal component to visualize results in time and space, and provide “what if” scenario playing. Integrating the information from different tools and sources gives the user additional information and another way to analyze the data. An example of the integration is illustrated on reports of the avian influenza (bird flu).

  16. Adaptive Optics Communications Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, M.; Vilnrotter, V.; Troy, M.; Wilson, K.

    2004-01-01

    The performance improvement obtained through the use of adaptive optics for deep-space communications in the presence of atmospheric turbulence is analyzed. Using simulated focal-plane signal-intensity distributions, uncoded pulse-position modulation (PPM) bit-error probabilities are calculated assuming the use of an adaptive focal-plane detector array as well as an adaptively sized single detector. It is demonstrated that current practical adaptive optics systems can yield performance gains over an uncompensated system ranging from approximately 1 dB to 6 dB depending upon the PPM order and background radiation level.

  17. Adaptive differential pulse-code modulation with adaptive bit allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frangoulis, E. D.; Yoshida, K.; Turner, L. F.

    1984-08-01

    Studies have been conducted regarding the possibility to obtain good quality speech at data rates in the range from 16 kbit/s to 32 kbit/s. The techniques considered are related to adaptive predictive coding (APC) and adaptive differential pulse-code modulation (ADPCM). At 16 kbit/s adaptive transform coding (ATC) has also been used. The present investigation is concerned with a new method of speech coding. The described method employs adaptive bit allocation, similar to that used in adaptive transform coding, together with adaptive differential pulse-code modulation, employing first-order prediction. The new method has the objective to improve the quality of the speech over that which can be obtained with conventional ADPCM employing a fourth-order predictor. Attention is given to the ADPCM-AB system, the design of a subjective test, and the application of switched preemphasis to ADPCM.

  18. ARTS in Search of Talent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askin, Walter

    1983-01-01

    The Arts Recognition and Talent Search (ARTS) program, which provides young artists with a full range of scholarship opportunities and with cash awards, is described. Student work submitted to ARTS in the past is shown. (RM)

  19. MiniAERCam Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talley, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Johnson Space Center (JSC) is designing a small, remotely controlled vehicle that will carry two color and one black and white video cameras in space. The device will launch and retrieve from the Space Vehicle and be used for remote viewing. Off the shelf cellular technology is being used as the basis for communication system design. Existing plans include using multiple antennas to make simultaneous estimates of the azimuth of the MiniAERCam from several sites on the Space Station and use triangulation to find the location of the device. Adding range detection capability to each of the nodes on the Space Vehicle would allow an estimate of the location of the MiniAERCam to be made at each Communication And Telemetry Box (CATBox) independent of all the other communication nodes. This project will investigate the techniques used by the Global Positioning System (GPS) to achieve accurate positioning information and adapt those strategies that are appropriate to the design of the CATBox range determination system.

  20. Genomic basis of broad host range and environmental adaptability of Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 which are used in inoculants for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 are α-Proteobacteria that establish nitrogen-fixing symbioses with a range of legume hosts. These strains are broadly used in commercial inoculants for application to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in South America and Africa. Both strains display intrinsic resistance to several abiotic stressful conditions such as low soil pH and high temperatures, which are common in tropical environments, and to several antimicrobials, including pesticides. The genetic determinants of these interesting characteristics remain largely unknown. Results Genome sequencing revealed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 share a highly-conserved symbiotic plasmid (pSym) that is present also in Rhizobium leucaenae CFN 299, a rhizobium displaying a similar host range. This pSym seems to have arisen by a co-integration event between two replicons. Remarkably, three distinct nodA genes were found in the pSym, a characteristic that may contribute to the broad host range of these rhizobia. Genes for biosynthesis and modulation of plant-hormone levels were also identified in the pSym. Analysis of genes involved in stress response showed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 are well equipped to cope with low pH, high temperatures and also with oxidative and osmotic stresses. Interestingly, the genomes of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 had large numbers of genes encoding drug-efflux systems, which may explain their high resistance to antimicrobials. Genome analysis also revealed a wide array of traits that may allow these strains to be successful rhizosphere colonizers, including surface polysaccharides, uptake transporters and catabolic enzymes for nutrients, diverse iron-acquisition systems, cell wall-degrading enzymes, type I and IV pili, and novel T1SS and T5SS secreted adhesins. Conclusions Availability of the complete genome sequences of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 may be exploited in further efforts to understand the interaction of tropical rhizobia with common bean

  1. Adapting Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedman, John; Wedman, Judy

    1985-01-01

    The "Animals" program found on the Apple II and IIe system master disk can be adapted for use in the mathematics classroom. Instructions for making the necessary changes and suggestions for using it in lessons related to geometric shapes are provided. (JN)

  2. Adaptive Thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Bremer, P. -T.

    2014-08-26

    ADAPT is a topological analysis code that allow to compute local threshold, in particular relevance based thresholds for features defined in scalar fields. The initial target application is vortex detection but the software is more generally applicable to all threshold based feature definitions.

  3. Enhancement of finger motion range with compliant anthropomorphic joint design.

    PubMed

    Çulha, Utku; Iida, Fumiya

    2016-04-01

    Robotic researchers have been greatly inspired by the human hand in the search to design and build adaptive robotic hands. Especially, joints have received a lot of attention upon their role in maintaining the passive compliance that gives the fingers flexibility and extendible motion ranges. Passive compliance, which is the tendency to be employed in motion under the influence of an external force, is the result of the stiffness and the geometrical constraints of the joints that define the direction of the motion. Based on its building elements, human finger joints have multi-directional passive compliance which means that they can move in multiple axis of motion under external force. However, due to their complex anatomy, only simplified biomechanical designs based on physiological analysis are preferred in present day robotics. To imitate the human joints, these designs either use fixed degree of freedom mechanisms which substantially limit the motion axes of compliance, or soft materials that can deform in many directions but hinder the fingers' force exertion capacities. In order to find a solution that lies between these two design approaches, we are using anatomically correct finger bones, elastic ligaments and antagonistic tendons to build anthropomorphic joints with multi-directional passive compliance and strong force exertion capabilities. We use interactions between an index finger and a thumb to show that our joints allow the extension of the range of motion of the fingers up to 245% and gripping size to 63% which can be beneficial for mechanical adaptation in gripping larger objects. PMID:26891473

  4. Search and dissemination in data processing. [searches performed for Aviation Technology Newsletter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, C. H.; Moore, A. M.; Dodd, B.; Dittmar, V.

    1974-01-01

    Manual retrieval methods were used to complete 54 searches of interest for the General Aviation Newsletter. Subjects of search ranged from television transmission to machine tooling, Apollo moon landings, electronic equipment, and aerodynamics studies.

  5. Adaptation and risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Benjamin L

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation assessment methods are compatible with the international risk management standard ISO:31000. Risk management approaches are increasingly being recommended for adaptation assessments at both national and local levels. Two orientations to assessments can commonly be identified: top-down and bottom-up, and prescriptive and diagnostic. Combinations of these orientations favor different types of assessments. The choice of orientation can be related to uncertainties in prediction and taking action, in the type of adaptation and in the degree of system stress. Adopting multiple viewpoints is to be encouraged, especially in complex situations. The bulk of current guidance material is consistent with top-down and predictive approaches, thus is most suitable for risk scoping and identification. Abroad range ofmaterial fromwithin and beyond the climate change literature can be used to select methods to be used in assessing and implementing adaptation. The framing of risk, correct formulation of the questions being investigated and assessment methodology are critical aspects of the scoping phase. Only when these issues have been addressed should be issue of specific methods and tools be addressed. The reorientation of adaptation from an assessment focused solely on anthropogenic climate change to broader issues of vulnerability/resilience, sustainable development and disaster risk, especially through a risk management framework, can draw from existing policy and management understanding in communities, professions and agencies, incorporating existing agendas, knowledge, risks, and issues they already face.

  6. The SMART CLUSTER METHOD - adaptive earthquake cluster analysis and declustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Andreas; Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2016-04-01

    Earthquake declustering is an essential part of almost any statistical analysis of spatial and temporal properties of seismic activity with usual applications comprising of probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (PSHAs) and earthquake prediction methods. The nature of earthquake clusters and subsequent declustering of earthquake catalogues plays a crucial role in determining the magnitude-dependent earthquake return period and its respective spatial variation. Various methods have been developed to address this issue from other researchers. These have differing ranges of complexity ranging from rather simple statistical window methods to complex epidemic models. This study introduces the smart cluster method (SCM), a new methodology to identify earthquake clusters, which uses an adaptive point process for spatio-temporal identification. Hereby, an adaptive search algorithm for data point clusters is adopted. It uses the earthquake density in the spatio-temporal neighbourhood of each event to adjust the search properties. The identified clusters are subsequently analysed to determine directional anisotropy, focussing on a strong correlation along the rupture plane and adjusts its search space with respect to directional properties. In the case of rapid subsequent ruptures like the 1992 Landers sequence or the 2010/2011 Darfield-Christchurch events, an adaptive classification procedure is applied to disassemble subsequent ruptures which may have been grouped into an individual cluster using near-field searches, support vector machines and temporal splitting. The steering parameters of the search behaviour are linked to local earthquake properties like magnitude of completeness, earthquake density and Gutenberg-Richter parameters. The method is capable of identifying and classifying earthquake clusters in space and time. It is tested and validated using earthquake data from California and New Zealand. As a result of the cluster identification process, each event in

  7. LARP - An adaptive LDV signal processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Glenn D.; Murphy, R. Jay; Meyers, James F.

    1988-01-01

    Recent attempts at realization of a frequency domain signal processor exhibit practical drawbacks such as manual gain, filter and sampling adjustments, and simplistic adaptations of frequency domain techniques. This paper introduces an adaptive LDV signal processor, one which requires no operator intervention under any circumstances by adapting dynamically to burst characteristics, while surpassing all previous techniques in range and accuracy.

  8. Adaptive and accelerated tracking-learning-detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Pengyu; Li, Xin; Ding, Shaowen; Tian, Zunhua; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2013-08-01

    An improved online long-term visual tracking algorithm, named adaptive and accelerated TLD (AA-TLD) based on Tracking-Learning-Detection (TLD) which is a novel tracking framework has been introduced in this paper. The improvement focuses on two aspects, one is adaption, which makes the algorithm not dependent on the pre-defined scanning grids by online generating scale space, and the other is efficiency, which uses not only algorithm-level acceleration like scale prediction that employs auto-regression and moving average (ARMA) model to learn the object motion to lessen the detector's searching range and the fixed number of positive and negative samples that ensures a constant retrieving time, but also CPU and GPU parallel technology to achieve hardware acceleration. In addition, in order to obtain a better effect, some TLD's details are redesigned, which uses a weight including both normalized correlation coefficient and scale size to integrate results, and adjusts distance metric thresholds online. A contrastive experiment on success rate, center location error and execution time, is carried out to show a performance and efficiency upgrade over state-of-the-art TLD with partial TLD datasets and Shenzhou IX return capsule image sequences. The algorithm can be used in the field of video surveillance to meet the need of real-time video tracking.

  9. Planet formation and searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Ryan Michael

    2009-08-01

    This thesis explores the possibilities for discovery of terrestrial-mass planets in the habitable zones of their host stars. Towards this aim, we present the results of three projects and discuss another two preliminary studies of further explorations. In so doing, we explore a fairly comprehensive range of possibilities regarding the formation and detection of terrestrial- mass planets in the habitable zone. We first study the potential for terrestrial planets to form in situ in and around the habitable zones of M-dwarf stars. We proceed to explore the feasibility of searches for these planets using the transit method via Monte- Carlo simulations. We find that M-dwarfs pose an interesting challenge for study: being inherently dim, widely spread on the sky, and photometrically variable. We present results of simulated ground-based transit search campaigns as well as simulated searches from a modest satellite mission. Our second project is a straightforward extension of the previous study: a collaborative effort to search for transit signals around the nearest M-dwarf: Proxima Centauri. We describe our observations as well as the Monte-Carlo analysis used to place constraints on the possible planetary radii and periods. Our third project is a search for transiting extra-solar Jovian planets using the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. We search through the private Keck radial- velocity datasets for undiscovered Rossiter-McLaughlin signals. We present our results in the form of both strong null-result datasets as well as potential transiting systems. We then briefly analyze these larger Jovian planets for potential to harbor potentially habitable terrestrial satellites. Our final preliminary analysis looks into the potential for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope to detect transiting Neptune-mass planets orbiting M-dwarfs which could then lead to terrestrial-mass planet detections. The sum of these efforts is a comprehensive investigation into the likelihood and

  10. Connector adapter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacker, Scott C. (Inventor); Dean, Richard J. (Inventor); Burge, Scott W. (Inventor); Dartez, Toby W. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An adapter for installing a connector to a terminal post, wherein the connector is attached to a cable, is presented. In an embodiment, the adapter is comprised of an elongated collet member having a longitudinal axis comprised of a first collet member end, a second collet member end, an outer collet member surface, and an inner collet member surface. The inner collet member surface at the first collet member end is used to engage the connector. The outer collet member surface at the first collet member end is tapered for a predetermined first length at a predetermined taper angle. The collet includes a longitudinal slot that extends along the longitudinal axis initiating at the first collet member end for a predetermined second length. The first collet member end is formed of a predetermined number of sections segregated by a predetermined number of channels and the longitudinal slot.

  11. Adaptive sampler

    DOEpatents

    Watson, Bobby L.; Aeby, Ian

    1982-01-01

    An adaptive data compression device for compressing data having variable frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.

  12. Adaptive sampler

    DOEpatents

    Watson, B.L.; Aeby, I.

    1980-08-26

    An adaptive data compression device for compressing data is described. The device has a frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.

  13. Codon Adaptation of Plastid Genes.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Haruo; Morton, Brian R

    2016-01-01

    Codon adaptation is codon usage bias that results from selective pressure to increase the translation efficiency of a gene. Codon adaptation has been studied across a wide range of genomes and some early analyses of plastids have shown evidence for codon adaptation in a limited set of highly expressed plastid genes. Here we study codon usage bias across all fully sequenced plastid genomes which includes representatives of the Rhodophyta, Alveolata, Cryptophyta, Euglenozoa, Glaucocystophyceae, Rhizaria, Stramenopiles and numerous lineages within the Viridiplantae, including Chlorophyta and Embryophyta. We show evidence that codon adaptation occurs in all genomes except for two, Theileria parva and Heicosporidium sp., both of which have highly reduced gene contents and no photosynthesis genes. We also show evidence that selection for codon adaptation increases the representation of the same set of codons, which we refer to as the adaptive codons, across this wide range of taxa, which is probably due to common features descended from the initial endosymbiont. We use various measures to estimate the relative strength of selection in the different lineages and show that it appears to be fairly strong in certain Stramenopiles and Chlorophyta lineages but relatively weak in many members of the Rhodophyta, Euglenozoa and Embryophyta. Given these results we propose that codon adaptation in plastids is widespread and displays the same general features as adaptation in eubacterial genomes. PMID:27196606

  14. Codon Adaptation of Plastid Genes

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Haruo; Morton, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    Codon adaptation is codon usage bias that results from selective pressure to increase the translation efficiency of a gene. Codon adaptation has been studied across a wide range of genomes and some early analyses of plastids have shown evidence for codon adaptation in a limited set of highly expressed plastid genes. Here we study codon usage bias across all fully sequenced plastid genomes which includes representatives of the Rhodophyta, Alveolata, Cryptophyta, Euglenozoa, Glaucocystophyceae, Rhizaria, Stramenopiles and numerous lineages within the Viridiplantae, including Chlorophyta and Embryophyta. We show evidence that codon adaptation occurs in all genomes except for two, Theileria parva and Heicosporidium sp., both of which have highly reduced gene contents and no photosynthesis genes. We also show evidence that selection for codon adaptation increases the representation of the same set of codons, which we refer to as the adaptive codons, across this wide range of taxa, which is probably due to common features descended from the initial endosymbiont. We use various measures to estimate the relative strength of selection in the different lineages and show that it appears to be fairly strong in certain Stramenopiles and Chlorophyta lineages but relatively weak in many members of the Rhodophyta, Euglenozoa and Embryophyta. Given these results we propose that codon adaptation in plastids is widespread and displays the same general features as adaptation in eubacterial genomes. PMID:27196606

  15. Adaptive antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, P.

    1987-04-01

    The basic principles of adaptive antennas are outlined in terms of the Wiener-Hopf expression for maximizing signal to noise ratio in an arbitrary noise environment; the analogy with generalized matched filter theory provides a useful aid to understanding. For many applications, there is insufficient information to achieve the above solution and thus non-optimum constrained null steering algorithms are also described, together with a summary of methods for preventing wanted signals being nulled by the adaptive system. The three generic approaches to adaptive weight control are discussed; correlation steepest descent, weight perturbation and direct solutions based on sample matrix conversion. The tradeoffs between hardware complexity and performance in terms of null depth and convergence rate are outlined. The sidelobe cancellor technique is described. Performance variation with jammer power and angular distribution is summarized and the key performance limitations identified. The configuration and performance characteristics of both multiple beam and phase scan array antennas are covered, with a brief discussion of performance factors.

  16. Adaptive bidirectional associative memories.

    PubMed

    Kosko, B

    1987-12-01

    Bidirectionality, forward and backward information flow, is introduced in neural networks to produce two-way associative search for stored stimulus-response associations (A(i),B(i)). Two fields of neurons, F(A) and F(B), are connected by an n x p synaptic marix M. Passing information through M gives one direction, passing information through its transpose M(T) gives the other. Every matrix is bidirectionally stable for bivalent and for continuous neurons. Paired data (A(i),B(i)) are encoded in M by summing bipolar correlation matrices. The bidirectional associative memory (BAM) behaves as a two-layer hierarchy of symmetrically connected neurons. When the neurons in F(A) and F(B) are activated, the network quickly evolves to a stable state of twopattern reverberation, or pseudoadaptive resonance, for every connection topology M. The stable reverberation corresponds to a system energy local minimum. An adaptive BAM allows M to rapidly learn associations without supervision. Stable short-term memory reverberations across F(A) and F(B) gradually seep pattern information into the long-term memory connections M, allowing input associations (A(i),B(i)) to dig their own energy wells in the network state space. The BAM correlation encoding scheme is extended to a general Hebbian learning law. Then every BAM adaptively resonates in the sense that all nodes and edges quickly equilibrate in a system energy local minimum. A sampling adaptive BAM results when many more training samples are presented than there are neurons in F(B) and F(B), but presented for brief pulses of learning, not allowing learning to fully or nearly converge. Learning tends to improve with sample size. Sampling adaptive BAMs can learn some simple continuous mappings and can rapidly abstract bivalent associations from several noisy gray-scale samples. PMID:20523473

  17. The search for extra-terrestrial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Drake, Frank

    2011-02-13

    Modern history of the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence is reviewed. The history of radio searches is discussed, as well as the major advances that have occurred in radio searches and prospects for new instruments and search strategies. Recent recognition that searches for optical and infrared signals make sense, and the reasons for this are described, as well as the equipment and special detection methods used in optical searches. The long-range future of the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence (SETI) is discussed in the context of the history of rapid change, on the cosmic and even the human time scale, of the paradigms guiding SETI searches. This suggests that SETI searches be conducted with a very open mind. PMID:21220287

  18. Automatic guidance of attention during real-world visual search

    PubMed Central

    Seidl-Rathkopf, Katharina N.; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.; Kastner, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Looking for objects in cluttered natural environments is a frequent task in everyday life. This process can be difficult, as the features, locations, and times of appearance of relevant objects are often not known in advance. A mechanism by which attention is automatically biased toward information that is potentially relevant may thus be helpful. Here we tested for such a mechanism across five experiments by engaging participants in real-world visual search and then assessing attentional capture for information that was related to the search set but was otherwise irrelevant. Isolated objects captured attention while preparing to search for objects from the same category embedded in a scene, as revealed by lower detection performance (Experiment 1A). This capture effect was driven by a central processing bottleneck rather than the withdrawal of spatial attention (Experiment 1B), occurred automatically even in a secondary task (Experiment 2A), and reflected enhancement of matching information rather than suppression of non-matching information (Experiment 2B). Finally, attentional capture extended to objects that were semantically associated with the target category (Experiment 3). We conclude that attention is efficiently drawn towards a wide range of information that may be relevant for an upcoming real-world visual search. This mechanism may be adaptive, allowing us to find information useful for our behavioral goals in the face of uncertainty. PMID:25898897

  19. Adaptive Sampling in Hierarchical Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Knap, J; Barton, N R; Hornung, R D; Arsenlis, A; Becker, R; Jefferson, D R

    2007-07-09

    We propose an adaptive sampling methodology for hierarchical multi-scale simulation. The method utilizes a moving kriging interpolation to significantly reduce the number of evaluations of finer-scale response functions to provide essential constitutive information to a coarser-scale simulation model. The underlying interpolation scheme is unstructured and adaptive to handle the transient nature of a simulation. To handle the dynamic construction and searching of a potentially large set of finer-scale response data, we employ a dynamic metric tree database. We study the performance of our adaptive sampling methodology for a two-level multi-scale model involving a coarse-scale finite element simulation and a finer-scale crystal plasticity based constitutive law.

  20. Adaptive optics imaging of the retina

    PubMed Central

    Battu, Rajani; Dabir, Supriya; Khanna, Anjani; Kumar, Anupama Kiran; Roy, Abhijit Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive optics is a relatively new tool that is available to ophthalmologists for study of cellular level details. In addition to the axial resolution provided by the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, adaptive optics provides an excellent lateral resolution, enabling visualization of the photoreceptors, blood vessels and details of the optic nerve head. We attempt a mini review of the current role of adaptive optics in retinal imaging. PubMed search was performed with key words Adaptive optics OR Retina OR Retinal imaging. Conference abstracts were searched from the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) and American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) meetings. In total, 261 relevant publications and 389 conference abstracts were identified. PMID:24492503

  1. Coupled adaptive complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shai, S.; Dobson, S.

    2013-04-01

    Adaptive networks, which combine topological evolution of the network with dynamics on the network, are ubiquitous across disciplines. Examples include technical distribution networks such as road networks and the internet, natural and biological networks, and social science networks. These networks often interact with or depend upon other networks, resulting in coupled adaptive networks. In this paper we study susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic dynamics on coupled adaptive networks, where susceptible nodes are able to avoid contact with infected nodes by rewiring their intranetwork connections. However, infected nodes can pass the disease through internetwork connections, which do not change with time: The dependencies between the coupled networks remain constant. We develop an analytical formalism for these systems and validate it using extensive numerical simulation. We find that stability is increased by increasing the number of internetwork links, in the sense that the range of parameters over which both endemic and healthy states coexist (both states are reachable depending on the initial conditions) becomes smaller. Finally, we find a new stable state that does not appear in the case of a single adaptive network but only in the case of weakly coupled networks, in which the infection is endemic in one network but neither becomes endemic nor dies out in the other. Instead, it persists only at the nodes that are coupled to nodes in the other network through internetwork links. We speculate on the implications of these findings.

  2. Aging and dark adaptation.

    PubMed

    Jackson, G R; Owsley, C; McGwin, G

    1999-11-01

    Older adults have serious difficulty seeing under low illumination and at night, even in the absence of ocular disease. Optical changes in the aged eye, such as pupillary miosis and increased lens density, cannot account for the severity of this problem, and little is known about its neural basis. Dark adaptation functions were measured on 94 adults ranging in age from the 20s to the 80s to assess the rate of rod-mediated sensitivity recovery after exposure to a 98% bleach. Fundus photography and a grading scale were used to characterize macular health in subjects over age 49 in order to control for macular disease. Thresholds for each subject were corrected for lens density based on individual estimates, and pupil diameter was controlled. Results indicated that during human aging there is a dramatic slowing in rod-mediated dark adaptation that can be attributed to delayed rhodopsin regeneration. During the second component of the rod-mediated phase of dark adaptation, the rate of sensitivity recovery decreased 0.02 log unit/min per decade, and the time constant of rhodopsin regeneration increased 8.4 s/decade. The amount of time to reach within 0.3 log units of baseline scotopic sensitivity increased 2.76 min/decade. These aging-related changes in rod-mediated dark adaptation may contribute to night vision problems commonly experienced by the elderly. PMID:10748929

  3. Adaptive and Adaptable Automation Design: A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Future Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kaber, David B.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a review of literature on approaches to adaptive and adaptable task/function allocation and adaptive interface technologies for effective human management of complex systems that are likely to be issues for the Next Generation Air Transportation System, and a focus of research under the Aviation Safety Program, Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck Project. Contemporary literature retrieved from an online database search is summarized and integrated. The major topics include the effects of delegation-type, adaptable automation on human performance, workload and situation awareness, the effectiveness of various automation invocation philosophies and strategies to function allocation in adaptive systems, and the role of user modeling in adaptive interface design and the performance implications of adaptive interface technology.

  4. Adaptive optics instrument for long-range imaging. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, T.M.

    1998-06-01

    The science and history of imaging through a turbulent atmosphere is reviewed in detail. Traditional methods for reducing the effects of turbulence are presented. A simplified method for turbulence reduction called the Sheared Coherent Interferometric Photography (SCIP) method is presented. Implementation of SCIP is discussed along with experimental results. Limitations in the use of this method are discussed along with recommendations for future improvements.

  5. Adaptive Filtering and Edge Detection Using Range Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, C.

    1999-01-01

    It is typical in edge and corner detection applications to examine a single scale or to consider some space of scales in the image without knowing which scale is appropriate for each location in the image.

  6. Automated Patent Searching in the EPO: From Online Searching to Document Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuyts, Annemie; Jonckheere, Charles

    The European Patent Office (EPO) has recently implemented the last part of its ambitious automation project aimed at creating an automated search environment for approximately 1200 EPO patent search examiners. The examiners now have at their disposal an integrated set of tools offering a full range of functionalities from online searching, via…

  7. The North Carolina State University Libraries Search Experience: Usability Testing Tabbed Search Interfaces for Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teague-Rector, Susan; Ballard, Angela; Pauley, Susan K.

    2011-01-01

    Creating a learnable, effective, and user-friendly library Web site hinges on providing easy access to search. Designing a search interface for academic libraries can be particularly challenging given the complexity and range of searchable library collections, such as bibliographic databases, electronic journals, and article search silos. Library…

  8. Stochastic search with Poisson and deterministic resetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Uttam; De Bacco, Caterina; Redner, S.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate a stochastic search process in one, two, and three dimensions in which N diffusing searchers that all start at x 0 seek a target at the origin. Each of the searchers is also reset to its starting point, either with rate r, or deterministically, with a reset time T. In one dimension and for a small number of searchers, the search time and the search cost are minimized at a non-zero optimal reset rate (or time), while for sufficiently large N, resetting always hinders the search. In general, a single searcher leads to the minimum search cost in one, two, and three dimensions. When the resetting is deterministic, several unexpected feature arise for N searchers, including the search time being independent of T for 1/T\\to 0 and the search cost being independent of N over a suitable range of N. Moreover, deterministic resetting typically leads to a lower search cost than in Poisson resetting.

  9. SAR based adaptive GMTI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Duc; Guo, Bin; Xu, Luzhou; Li, Jian

    2010-04-01

    We consider ground moving target indication (GMTI) and target velocity estimation based on multi-channel synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. Via forming velocity versus cross-range images, we show that small moving targets can be detected even in the presence of strong stationary ground clutter. Moreover, the velocities of the moving targets can be estimated, and the misplaced moving targets can be placed back to their original locations based on the estimated velocities. Adaptive beamforming techniques, including Capon and generalizedlikelihood ratio test (GLRT), are used to form velocity versus cross-range images for each range bin of interest. The velocity estimation ambiguities caused by the multi-channel array geometry are analyzed. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of our approaches using the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) publicly-released Gotcha SAR based GMTI data set.

  10. Cognitive adaptation to nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Czajkowska, Zofia; Radiotis, George; Roberts, Nicole; Körner, Annett

    2013-01-01

    Taylor's (1983) cognitive adaptation theory posits that when people go through life transitions, such as being diagnosed with a chronic disease, they adjust to their new reality. The adjustment process revolves around three themes: search for positive meaning in the experience or optimism, attempt to regain a sense of mastery in life, as well as an effort to enhance self-esteem. In the sample of 57 patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer the Cognitive Adaptation Index successfully predicted participants' distress (p < .001) accounting for 60% of the variance and lending support for the Taylor's theory of cognitive adaptation in this population. PMID:23844920

  11. Extending Lévy search theory from one to higher dimensions: Lévy walking favours the blind

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    A diverse range of organisms, including T cells, E. coli, honeybees, sharks, turtles, bony fish, jellyfish, wandering albatrosses and even human hunter–gatherers have movement patterns that can be approximated by Lévy walks (LW; sometimes called Lévy flights in the biological and ecological literature). These observations lend support to the ‘Lévy flight foraging hypothesis’ which asserts that natural selection should have led to adaptations for Lévy flight foraging, because Lévy flights can optimize search efficiencies. The hypothesis stems from a rigorous theory of one-dimensional searching and from simulation data for two-dimensional searching. The potential effectiveness of three-dimensional Lévy searches has not been examined but is central to a proper understanding of marine predators and T cells which have provided the most compelling empirical evidence for LW. Here I extend Lévy search theory from one to three dimensions. The new theory predicts that three-dimensional Lévy searching can be advantageous but only when targets are large compared with the perceptual range of the searchers, i.e. only when foragers are effectively blind and need to come into contact with a target to establish its presence. This may explain why effective blindness is a common factor among three-dimensional Lévy walkers. PMID:26346221

  12. How to understand and outwit adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Orion D.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation is the ability of a system to respond and reset itself even in the continuing presence of a stimulus. On one hand, adaptation is a physiological necessity that enables proper neuronal signaling and cell movement. On the other hand, adaptation can be a source of annoyance, as it can make biological systems resistant to experimental perturbations. Here we speculate where adaptation may live in eukaryotic chemotaxis and how it can be encoded in the signaling network. We then discuss tools and strategies that can be used to both understand and outwit adaptation in a wide range of cellular contexts. PMID:24697896

  13. Web Search Engines: Search Syntax and Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojala, Marydee

    2002-01-01

    Presents a chart that explains the search syntax, features, and commands used by the 12 most widely used general Web search engines. Discusses Web standardization, expanded types of content searched, size of databases, and search engines that include both simple and advanced versions. (LRW)

  14. Climate adaptation planning in practice: an evaluation of adaptation plans from three developed nations

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Benjamin L; Westaway, Richard M.; Yuen, Emma J.

    2011-04-01

    Formal planning for climate change adaptation is emerging rapidly at a range of geo-political scales. This first generation of adaptation plans provides useful information regarding how institutions are framing the issue of adaptation and the range of processes that are recognized as being part of an adaptation response. To better understand adaptation planning among developed nations, a set of 57 adaptation plans from Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States was evaluated against a suite of 19 planning processes identified from existing guidance instruments for adaptation planning. Total scores among evaluated plans ranged from 16% of the maximum possible score to 61%, with an average of 37%. These results suggest adaptation plans are largely under-developed. Critical weaknesses in adaptation planning are related to limited consideration for non-climatic factors as well as neglect for issues of adaptive capacity including entitlements to various forms of capital needed for effective adaptation. Such gaps in planning suggest there are opportunities for institutions to make better use of existing guidance for adaptation planning and the need to consider the broader governance context in which adaptation will occur. In addition, the adaptation options prescribed by adaptation plans reflect a preferential bias toward low-risk capacity-building (72% of identified options) over the delivery of specific actions to reduce vulnerability. To the extent these findings are representative of the state of developed nation adaptation planning, there appear to be significant deficiencies in climate change preparedness, even among those nations often assumed to have the greatest adaptive capacity.

  15. Adaptations to Climate-Mediated Selective Pressures in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Feng-Hua; Agha, Saif; Kantanen, Juha; Colli, Licia; Stucki, Sylvie; Kijas, James W.; Joost, Stéphane; Li, Meng-Hua; Ajmone Marsan, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Following domestication, sheep (Ovis aries) have become essential farmed animals across the world through adaptation to a diverse range of environments and varied production systems. Climate-mediated selective pressure has shaped phenotypic variation and has left genetic “footprints” in the genome of breeds raised in different agroecological zones. Unlike numerous studies that have searched for evidence of selection using only population genetics data, here, we conducted an integrated coanalysis of environmental data with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variation. By examining 49,034 SNPs from 32 old, autochthonous sheep breeds that are adapted to a spectrum of different regional climates, we identified 230 SNPs with evidence for selection that is likely due to climate-mediated pressure. Among them, 189 (82%) showed significant correlation (P ≤ 0.05) between allele frequency and climatic variables in a larger set of native populations from a worldwide range of geographic areas and climates. Gene ontology analysis of genes colocated with significant SNPs identified 17 candidates related to GTPase regulator and peptide receptor activities in the biological processes of energy metabolism and endocrine and autoimmune regulation. We also observed high linkage disequilibrium and significant extended haplotype homozygosity for the core haplotype TBC1D12-CH1 of TBC1D12. The global frequency distribution of the core haplotype and allele OAR22_18929579-A showed an apparent geographic pattern and significant (P ≤ 0.05) correlations with climatic variation. Our results imply that adaptations to local climates have shaped the spatial distribution of some variants that are candidates to underpin adaptive variation in sheep. PMID:25249477

  16. Searching Circuit For A Servoloop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigman, E. H.

    1988-01-01

    Feedback error voltage forced into range of stability. Circuit connected in series with error-voltage line of feedback loop. When loop operates normally in stable region, searching circuit does not disturb operation, and error-voltage output of loop filter is control voltage. When servo unlocks and error-voltage output of loop filter wanders into unstable range, searching circuit forces control voltage to sweep through stable region repeatedly until lock recovered. Consists of two halves identical except polarities of some parts in each half opposite of corresponding parts in other half.

  17. Modeling threshold detection and search for point and extended sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Melvin

    2016-05-01

    This paper deals with three separate topics. 1)The Berek extended object threshold detection model is described, calibrated against a portion of Blackwell's 1946 naked eye threshold detection data for extended objects against an unstructured background, and then the remainder of Blackwell's data is used to verify and validate the model. A range equation is derived from Berek's model which allows threshold detection range to be predicted for extended to point objects against an un-cluttered background as a function of target size and adapting luminance levels. The range equation is then used to model threshold detection of stationary reflective and self-luminous targets against an uncluttered background. 2) There is uncertainty whether Travnikova's search data for point source detection against an un-cluttered background is described by Rayleigh or exponential distributions. A model which explains the Rayleigh distribution for barely perceptible objects and the exponential distribution for brighter objects is given. 3) A technique is presented which allows a specific observer's target acquisition capability to be characterized. Then a model is presented which describes how individual target acquisition probability grows when a specific observer or combination of specific observers search for targets. Applications for the three topics are discussed.

  18. Adaptation Forestry in Minnesota's Northwoods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornett, M.; White, M.; Etterson, J.; Kavajecz, L.; Mead, J.; Handler, S.; Swanston, C.; Hall, K.

    2014-12-01

    Forest restoration and management goals are shifting in northern Minnesota in light of new information on climate trends. Adaptation forestry encompasses a combination of practices designed to favor native populations and species likely to persist under warmer, drier conditions. The overarching project goal is to increase the adaptive capacity of northern forests such that they continue to sustain a variety of services, including carbon sequestration, fiber production, watershed protection, and wildlife habitat. We are currently testing the feasibility and efficacy of adaptation forestry in the northern Great Lakes region in three common forest types: Boreal-Mixed, Pine, and Hardwoods. 12 sites (2,000 acres total) recently subjected to a range of structural treatments (gap creation, shelterwood, and clear-cut with reserves) were coupled with "adaptation plantings" of species that are likely to thrive under changed climate conditions (e.g., red oak, bur oak, white pine). Seedlings, ~110,000 total, originated from two source locations, one that reflects current adaptation to the climate of northern Minnesota and another from a more southern source in central Minnesota. To date, we have assessed results from two growing seasons by tracking survival, growth and phenological characteristics of planted seedlings. This project is a first step in determining whether adaptation management can be used as a tool to help northern forests transition to an uncertain future. Cooperation with state, federal, and academic partners may ultimately influence the adaptive capacity across millions of acres in the Great Lakes region.

  19. Adaptive colouration in amphibians.

    PubMed

    Rudh, Andreas; Qvarnström, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians, i.e. salamanders, frogs and caecilians show a wide range of bright colours in combination with contrasting patterns. There is variation among species, populations and also within species and populations. Furthermore, individuals often change colours during developmental stages or in response to environmental factors. This extraordinary variation means that there are excellent opportunities to test hypotheses of the adaptive significance of colours using amphibian species as models. We review the present view of functions of colouration in amphibians with the main focus on relatively unexplored topics. Variation in colouration has been found to play a role in thermoregulation, UV protection, predator avoidance and sexual signalling. However, many proposed cases of adaptive functions of colouration in amphibians remain virtually scientifically unexplored and surprisingly few genes influencing pigmentation or patterning have been detected. We would like to especially encourage more studies that take advantage of recent developments in measurement of visual properties of several possible signalling receivers (e.g. predators, competitors or mates). Future investigations on interactions between behaviour, ecology and vision have the potential to challenge our current view of the adaptive function of colouration in amphibians. PMID:23664831

  20. A coronagraphic search for brown dwarfs around nearby stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakajima, T.; Durrance, S. T.; Golimowski, D. A.; Kulkarni, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    Brown dwarf companions have been searched for around stars within 10 pc of the Sun using the Johns-Hopkins University Adaptive Optics Coronagraph (AOC), a stellar coronagraph with an image stabilizer. The AOC covers the field around the target star with a minimum search radius of 1 sec .5 and a field of view of 1 arcmin sq. We have reached an unprecedented dynamic range of Delta m = 13 in our search for faint companions at I band. Comparison of our survey with other brown dwarf searches shows that the AOC technique is unique in its dynamic range while at the same time just as sensitive to brown dwarfs as the recent brown dwarf surveys. The present survey covered 24 target stars selected from the Gliese catalog. A total of 94 stars were detected in 16 fields. The low-latitude fields are completely dominated by background star contamination. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were carried out for a sample restricted to high latitudes and a sample with small angular separations. The high-latitude sample (b greater than or equal to 44 deg) appears to show spatial concentration toward target stars. The small separation sample (Delta Theta less than 20 sec) shows weaker dependence on Galactic coordinates than field stars. These statistical tests suggest that both the high-latitude sample and the small separation sample can include a substantial fraction of true companions. However, the nature of these putative companions is mysterious. They are too faint to be white dwarfs and too blue for brown dwarfs. Ignoring the signif icance of the statistical tests, we can reconcile most of the detections with distant main-sequence stars or white dwarfs except for a candidate next to GL 475. Given the small size of our sample, we conclude that considerably more targets need to be surveyed before a firm conclusion on the possibility of a new class of companions can be made.

  1. Genetic algorithms in adaptive fuzzy control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, C. Lucas; Harper, Tony R.

    1992-01-01

    Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines have developed adaptive process control systems in which genetic algorithms (GA's) are used to augment fuzzy logic controllers (FLC's). GA's are search algorithms that rapidly locate near-optimum solutions to a wide spectrum of problems by modeling the search procedures of natural genetics. FLC's are rule based systems that efficiently manipulate a problem environment by modeling the 'rule-of-thumb' strategy used in human decision making. Together, GA's and FLC's possess the capabilities necessary to produce powerful, efficient, and robust adaptive control systems. To perform efficiently, such control systems require a control element to manipulate the problem environment, an analysis element to recognize changes in the problem environment, and a learning element to adjust fuzzy membership functions in response to the changes in the problem environment. Details of an overall adaptive control system are discussed. A specific computer-simulated chemical system is used to demonstrate the ideas presented.

  2. Adaptive Behavior for Mobile Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance

    2009-01-01

    The term "System for Mobility and Access to Rough Terrain" (SMART) denotes a theoretical framework, a control architecture, and an algorithm that implements the framework and architecture, for enabling a land-mobile robot to adapt to changing conditions. SMART is intended to enable the robot to recognize adverse terrain conditions beyond its optimal operational envelope, and, in response, to intelligently reconfigure itself (e.g., adjust suspension heights or baseline distances between suspension points) or adapt its driving techniques (e.g., engage in a crabbing motion as a switchback technique for ascending steep terrain). Conceived for original application aboard Mars rovers and similar autonomous or semi-autonomous mobile robots used in exploration of remote planets, SMART could also be applied to autonomous terrestrial vehicles to be used for search, rescue, and/or exploration on rough terrain.

  3. Long range fast tool servo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorefield, G. M., II; Dow, Thomas A.; Falter, Karl J.; Ro, Paul I.

    1993-05-01

    The PEC's MAC 100 Fast Tool Servo (FTS) System has demonstrated the efficacy of fabricating off-axis parabolic segments on axis by utilizing a fast tool motion to machine non-rotationally symmetric surfaces. The key to this technique was a servo for the tool motion that had a high-bandwidth coupled with a small range of motion. The Keck telescope, with its thirty-six (36) 1-meter diameter segments, would have been an excellent application for this technology. Since this technology was not available at the time of construction, each mirror segment was fabricated to its desired shape by loading it to a specified deformed shape and polishing it to a spherical contour, then removing the bending loads to allow the segment to relax to the desired asymmetric shape. If the segments of this optic had been constructed on axis with an FTS, the fabrication of the most extreme segment would have required only about 200 micrometers of non-rotational symmetry. However, the demand for larger displacement actuators is being driven by new applications with nonrotationally symmetric components in the millimeter range. This report describes the search for a suitable actuator for a long range fast tool servo system that would allow the fabrication of non-rotationally symmetric optical surfaces with a 1 mm range of servo motion. To allow cost-effective machining of these surfaces, the actuator must also possess a 50 Hz bandwidth (minimum) and 25 nanometer resolution.

  4. ADAPTATION AND ADAPTABILITY, THE BELLEFAIRE FOLLOWUP STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALLERHAND, MELVIN E.; AND OTHERS

    A RESEARCH TEAM STUDIED INFLUENCES, ADAPTATION, AND ADAPTABILITY IN 50 POORLY ADAPTING BOYS AT BELLEFAIRE, A REGIONAL CHILD CARE CENTER FOR EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILDREN. THE TEAM ATTEMPTED TO GAUGE THE SUCCESS OF THE RESIDENTIAL TREATMENT CENTER IN TERMS OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL PATTERNS AND ROLE PERFORMANCES OF THE BOYS DURING INDIVIDUAL CASEWORK…

  5. Searching for satellites of Ceres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, B.; Li, J.; McFadden, L.; Mutchler, M.; McLean, B.; Russell, C.

    2014-07-01

    The existence of satellites, or lack thereof, around Ceres is of great interest to the Dawn mission, which is currently en route to Ceres and will arrive in February 2015. The Dawn spacecraft will orbit Ceres at altitudes of 1180 to 6400 km, well within the satellite stability region. The final opportunity for observations of Ceres with HST prior to Dawn's arrival occurred in April 2014, when Ceres will make a close pass at opposition to Earth. In addition to providing additional targets for exciting physical studies by the Dawn instruments, satellites, if there were any, would substantially affect Dawn's orbit planning in order to accommodate observations and ensure spacecraft safety. For example, detection of satellites would allow this program to derive a more accurate measurement of the mass of Ceres, which is important for the mission planners to determine the orbit of the spacecraft. With the observation planning process already underway, early detection of satellites will provide sufficient time to adapt mission plans to be able to observe any satellites on ingress or during the mapping orbits. The timing is particularly important, since the spacecraft now has use of only two reaction wheels, which is already impacting mission design, and which prevents Dawn from conducting its own deep satellite search as was accomplished prior to arrival at Vesta. Because of this, an HST survey is critical for Dawn operations at Ceres. Since satellite detection could require a change to the mission's nominal orbital strategy and present risk from dust associated with any satellites, it is crucial to put Dawn in the best position to succeed. HST observed Ceres using the High Resolution Channel (HRC) of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) to study the physical properties of Ceres and carried out surface mapping (Parker et al. 2004, Thomas et al. 2005, Li et al. 2006). Several ''long-V'' (F555W filter) exposures were taken using the full field of view of the ACS-HRC to

  6. Probing the Search Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Energy Search, Geography Search, Geology Search, Archeology Search, and Community Search are microcomputer software games, usable in grades five to nine, which provide educational simulations, numbers and situational choices, and calculation of implications of decisions. The series is a pathfinder usable by entire class and requiring only one…

  7. Towards Expert Systems for the Selection of Search Keys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidel, Raya

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of the searching behavior of human intermediaries revealed a routine for selection of search keys--free-text or controlled vocabulary--along a decision tree. Examples of decision rules demonstrate that these rules can be automated to significantly enhance the adaptability of intermediary expert systems. Eight sources are given. (EJS)

  8. Compact range test applications, phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Francis L.

    1992-01-01

    Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) has designed and fabricated a large outdoor Compact Antenna Range for the U.S. Army Electronic Proving Ground (USAEPG). This range enables USAEPG to test antenna systems of large ground vehicles or aircraft that weigh up to 70 tons and are up to 50 feet in size over a frequency range of 6 to 40 GHz. Ongoing investigation and study are being conducted to determine the compatibility and adaptability of this antenna pattern measurement range to measure other system parameters such as target return signals and system responses to specialized electromagnetic environments.

  9. Adaptive Responses Limited by Intrinsic Noise

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Prabhat; Nishikawa, Masatoshi; Shibata, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Sensory systems have mechanisms to respond to the external environment and adapt to them. Such adaptive responses are effective for a wide dynamic range of sensing and perception of temporal change in stimulus. However, noise generated by the adaptation system itself as well as extrinsic noise in sensory inputs may impose a limit on the ability of adaptation systems. The relation between response and noise is well understood for equilibrium systems in the form of fluctuation response relation. However, the relation for nonequilibrium systems, including adaptive systems, are poorly understood. Here, we systematically explore such a relation between response and fluctuation in adaptation systems. We study the two network motifs, incoherent feedforward loops (iFFL) and negative feedback loops (nFBL), that can achieve perfect adaptation. We find that the response magnitude in adaption systems is limited by its intrinsic noise, implying that higher response would have higher noise component as well. Comparing the relation of response and noise in iFFL and nFBL, we show that whereas iFFL exhibits adaptation over a wider parameter range, nFBL offers higher response to noise ratio than iFFL. We also identify the condition that yields the upper limit of response for both network motifs. These results may explain the reason of why nFBL seems to be more abundant in nature for the implementation of adaption systems. PMID:26305221

  10. Genetic-Algorithm Tool For Search And Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Lui; Bayer, Steven

    1995-01-01

    SPLICER computer program used to solve search and optimization problems. Genetic algorithms adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem-solving methods) based loosely on processes of natural selection and Darwinian "survival of fittest." Algorithms apply genetically inspired operators to populations of potential solutions in iterative fashion, creating new populations while searching for optimal or nearly optimal solution to problem at hand. Written in Think C.

  11. A Performance Analysis of Evolutionary Pattern Search with Generalized Mutation Steps

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, W.; Hunter, K.

    1999-02-10

    Evolutionary pattern search algorithms (EPSAs) are a class of evolutionary algorithms (EAs) that have convergence guarantees on a broad class of nonconvex continuous problems. In previous work we have analyzed the empirical performance of EPSAs. This paper revisits that analysis and extends it to a more general model of mutation. We experimentally evaluate how the choice of the set of mutation offsets affects optimization performance for EPSAs. Additionally, we compare EPSAs to self-adaptive EAs with respect to robustness and rate of optimization. All experiments employ a suite of test functions representing a range of modality and number of multiple minima.

  12. Adaptive Image Denoising by Mixture Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Enming; Chan, Stanley H; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2016-10-01

    We propose an adaptive learning procedure to learn patch-based image priors for image denoising. The new algorithm, called the expectation-maximization (EM) adaptation, takes a generic prior learned from a generic external database and adapts it to the noisy image to generate a specific prior. Different from existing methods that combine internal and external statistics in ad hoc ways, the proposed algorithm is rigorously derived from a Bayesian hyper-prior perspective. There are two contributions of this paper. First, we provide full derivation of the EM adaptation algorithm and demonstrate methods to improve the computational complexity. Second, in the absence of the latent clean image, we show how EM adaptation can be modified based on pre-filtering. The experimental results show that the proposed adaptation algorithm yields consistently better denoising results than the one without adaptation and is superior to several state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:27416593

  13. RADIO RANGING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Crane, H.R.; Bourne, M.E.; Nieset, R.T.; Gratian, J.W.; Gratian, A.C.

    1961-04-18

    A super-generative radar system is described having alternate phases of transmission and reception and being adapted to transmit for unequal durations in the absence of receiving energy and to transmit for equal and longer durations when energy of proper phase is received.

  14. Radio Ranging Device

    DOEpatents

    Gratian, J. W.; Gratian, A. C.; Crane, H. R.; Bourns, M. E.; Nieset, R. T.

    1961-04-18

    A super-generative radar system is described as having alternate phases of transmission and reception and is adapted to transmit for unequal durations in the absence of receiving energy and for equal and longer durations when energy of proper phase is received. (AEC)

  15. MiniBooNE oscillation searches

    SciTech Connect

    Brice, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    The range of oscillation analyses being pursued by the MiniBooNE collaboration is described. Focus is given to the various searches for electron neutrino appearance, but the disappearance of muon neutrinos and the appearance search for electron anti-neutrinos are covered as well.

  16. Adapting agriculture to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Howden, S. Mark; Soussana, Jean-François; Tubiello, Francesco N.; Chhetri, Netra; Dunlop, Michael; Meinke, Holger

    2007-01-01

    The strong trends in climate change already evident, the likelihood of further changes occurring, and the increasing scale of potential climate impacts give urgency to addressing agricultural adaptation more coherently. There are many potential adaptation options available for marginal change of existing agricultural systems, often variations of existing climate risk management. We show that implementation of these options is likely to have substantial benefits under moderate climate change for some cropping systems. However, there are limits to their effectiveness under more severe climate changes. Hence, more systemic changes in resource allocation need to be considered, such as targeted diversification of production systems and livelihoods. We argue that achieving increased adaptation action will necessitate integration of climate change-related issues with other risk factors, such as climate variability and market risk, and with other policy domains, such as sustainable development. Dealing with the many barriers to effective adaptation will require a comprehensive and dynamic policy approach covering a range of scales and issues, for example, from the understanding by farmers of change in risk profiles to the establishment of efficient markets that facilitate response strategies. Science, too, has to adapt. Multidisciplinary problems require multidisciplinary solutions, i.e., a focus on integrated rather than disciplinary science and a strengthening of the interface with decision makers. A crucial component of this approach is the implementation of adaptation assessment frameworks that are relevant, robust, and easily operated by all stakeholders, practitioners, policymakers, and scientists. PMID:18077402

  17. Intestinal adaptation after massive intestinal resection

    PubMed Central

    Weale, A; Edwards, A; Bailey, M; Lear, P

    2005-01-01

    Patients with short bowel syndrome require long term parenteral nutrition support. However, after massive intestinal resection the intestine undergoes adaptation and nutritional autonomy may be obtained. Given that the complications of parenteral nutrition may be life threatening or result in treatment failure and the need for intestinal transplantation, a more attractive option is to wean patients off nutrition support by optimising the adaptive process. The article examines the evidence that after extensive small bowel resection adaptation occurs in humans and focuses on the factors that influence adaptation and the strategies that have been used to optimise this process. The review is based on an English language Medline search with secondary references obtained from key articles. There is evidence that adaptation occurs in humans. Adaptation is a complex process that results in response to nutrient and non-nutrient stimuli. Successful and reproducible strategies to improve adaptation remain elusive despite an abundance of experimental data. Nevertheless given the low patient survival and quality of life associated with other treatments for irreversible intestinal failure it is imperative that clinical research continues into the optimisation of the adaptation. PMID:15749794

  18. 'Net Search Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Suzanne S.

    1997-01-01

    Provides strategies for effective Internet searches. Categorizes queries into four types and describes tools: subject lists; indexes/directories; keyword search engines; Usenet newsgroups; and special purpose search tools. Discusses the importance of deciphering information and adjusting to changes. (AEF)

  19. Limits to adaptation along environmental gradients.

    PubMed

    Polechová, Jitka; Barton, Nicholas H

    2015-05-19

    Why do species not adapt to ever-wider ranges of conditions, gradually expanding their ecological niche and geographic range? Gene flow across environments has two conflicting effects: although it increases genetic variation, which is a prerequisite for adaptation, gene flow may swamp adaptation to local conditions. In 1956, Haldane proposed that, when the environment varies across space, "swamping" by gene flow creates a positive feedback between low population size and maladaptation, leading to a sharp range margin. However, current deterministic theory shows that, when variance can evolve, there is no such limit. Using simple analytical tools and simulations, we show that genetic drift can generate a sharp margin to a species' range, by reducing genetic variance below the level needed for adaptation to spatially variable conditions. Aided by separation of ecological and evolutionary timescales, the identified effective dimensionless parameters reveal a simple threshold that predicts when adaptation at the range margin fails. Two observable parameters determine the threshold: (i) the effective environmental gradient, which can be measured by the loss of fitness due to dispersal to a different environment; and (ii) the efficacy of selection relative to genetic drift. The theory predicts sharp range margins even in the absence of abrupt changes in the environment. Furthermore, it implies that gradual worsening of conditions across a species' habitat may lead to a sudden range fragmentation, when adaptation to a wide span of conditions within a single species becomes impossible. PMID:25941385

  20. Telemetry Ranging: Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamkins, J.; Kinman, P.; Xie, H.; Vilnrotter, V.; Dolinar, S.

    2015-11-01

    Telemetry ranging is a proposed alternative to conventional two-way ranging for determining the two-way time delay between a Deep Space Station (DSS) and a spacecraft. The advantage of telemetry ranging is that the ranging signal on the uplink is not echoed to the downlink, so that telemetry alone modulates the downlink carrier. The timing information needed on the downlink, in order to determine the two-way time delay, is obtained from telemetry frames. This article describes the phase and timing estimates required for telemetry ranging, and how two-way range is calculated from these estimates. It explains why the telemetry ranging architecture does not require the spacecraft transponder to have a high-frequency or high-quality oscillator, and it describes how a telemetry ranging system can be infused in the Deep Space Network.

  1. Limited range of motion

    MedlinePlus

    Limited range of motion is a term meaning that a joint or body part cannot move through its normal range of motion. ... Motion may be limited because of a problem within the joint, swelling of tissue around the joint, ...

  2. Adaptive oxide electronics: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Sieu D.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2011-10-01

    Novel information processing techniques are being actively explored to overcome fundamental limitations associated with CMOS scaling. A new paradigm of adaptive electronic devices is emerging that may reshape the frontiers of electronics and enable new modalities. Creating systems that can learn and adapt to various inputs has generally been a complex algorithm problem in information science, albeit with wide-ranging and powerful applications from medical diagnosis to control systems. Recent work in oxide electronics suggests that it may be plausible to implement such systems at the device level, thereby drastically increasing computational density and power efficiency and expanding the potential for electronics beyond Boolean computation. Intriguing possibilities of adaptive electronics include fabrication of devices that mimic human brain functionality: the strengthening and weakening of synapses emulated by electrically, magnetically, thermally, or optically tunable properties of materials.In this review, we detail materials and device physics studies on functional metal oxides that may be utilized for adaptive electronics. It has been shown that properties, such as resistivity, polarization, and magnetization, of many oxides can be modified electrically in a non-volatile manner, suggesting that these materials respond to electrical stimulus similarly as a neural synapse. We discuss what device characteristics will likely be relevant for integration into adaptive platforms and then survey a variety of oxides with respect to these properties, such as, but not limited to, TaOx, SrTiO3, and Bi4-xLaxTi3O12. The physical mechanisms in each case are detailed and analyzed within the framework of adaptive electronics. We then review theoretically formulated and current experimentally realized adaptive devices with functional oxides, such as self-programmable logic and neuromorphic circuits. Finally, we speculate on what advances in materials physics and engineering may

  3. Biochemical adaptation to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Stillman, Jonathon H; Paganini, Adam W

    2015-06-01

    The change in oceanic carbonate chemistry due to increased atmospheric PCO2  has caused pH to decline in marine surface waters, a phenomenon known as ocean acidification (OA). The effects of OA on organisms have been shown to be widespread among diverse taxa from a wide range of habitats. The majority of studies of organismal response to OA are in short-term exposures to future levels of PCO2 . From such studies, much information has been gathered on plastic responses organisms may make in the future that are beneficial or harmful to fitness. Relatively few studies have examined whether organisms can adapt to negative-fitness consequences of plastic responses to OA. We outline major approaches that have been used to study the adaptive potential for organisms to OA, which include comparative studies and experimental evolution. Organisms that inhabit a range of pH environments (e.g. pH gradients at volcanic CO2 seeps or in upwelling zones) have great potential for studies that identify adaptive shifts that have occurred through evolution. Comparative studies have advanced our understanding of adaptation to OA by linking whole-organism responses with cellular mechanisms. Such optimization of function provides a link between genetic variation and adaptive evolution in tuning optimal function of rate-limiting cellular processes in different pH conditions. For example, in experimental evolution studies of organisms with short generation times (e.g. phytoplankton), hundreds of generations of growth under future conditions has resulted in fixed differences in gene expression related to acid-base regulation. However, biochemical mechanisms for adaptive responses to OA have yet to be fully characterized, and are likely to be more complex than simply changes in gene expression or protein modification. Finally, we present a hypothesis regarding an unexplored area for biochemical adaptation to ocean acidification. In this hypothesis, proteins and membranes exposed to the

  4. Conceptual Models for Search Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, D. G.; Efthimiadis, E. N.

    Search engines have entered popular culture. They touch people in diverse private and public settings and thus heighten the importance of such important social matters as information privacy and control, censorship, and equitable access. To fully benefit from search engines and to participate in debate about their merits, people necessarily appeal to their understandings for how they function. In this chapter we examine the conceptual understandings that people have of search engines by performing a content analysis on the sketches that 200 undergraduate and graduate students drew when asked to draw a sketch of how a search engine works. Analysis of the sketches reveals a diverse range of conceptual approaches, metaphors, representations, and misconceptions. On the whole, the conceptual models articulated by these students are simplistic. However, students with higher levels of academic achievement sketched more complete models. This research calls attention to the importance of improving students' technical knowledge of how search engines work so they can be better equipped to develop and advocate policies for how search engines should be embedded in, and restricted from, various private and public information settings.

  5. Cover times of random searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupeau, Marie; Bénichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphaël

    2015-10-01

    How long must one undertake a random search to visit all sites of a given domain? This time, known as the cover time, is a key observable to quantify the efficiency of exhaustive searches, which require a complete exploration of an area and not only the discovery of a single target. Examples range from immune-system cells chasing pathogens to animals harvesting resources, from robotic exploration for cleaning or demining to the task of improving search algorithms. Despite its broad relevance, the cover time has remained elusive and so far explicit results have been scarce and mostly limited to regular random walks. Here we determine the full distribution of the cover time for a broad range of random search processes, including Lévy strategies, intermittent strategies, persistent random walks and random walks on complex networks, and reveal its universal features. We show that for all these examples the mean cover time can be minimized, and that the corresponding optimal strategies also minimize the mean search time for a single target, unambiguously pointing towards their robustness.

  6. SAR ambiguous range suppression.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2006-09-01

    Pulsed Radar systems suffer range ambiguities, that is, echoes from pulses transmitted at different times arrive at the receiver simultaneously. Conventional mitigation techniques are not always adequate. However, pulse modulation schemes exist that allow separation of ambiguous ranges in Doppler space, allowing easy filtering of problematic ambiguous ranges.

  7. RADIO RANGING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Nieset, R.T.

    1961-05-16

    A radio ranging device is described. It utilizes a super regenerative detector-oscillator in which echoes of transmitted pulses are received in proper phase to reduce noise energy at a selected range and also at multiples of the selected range.

  8. Long Range Technology Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambron, Sueann, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This summary of a meeting of the Apple Education Advisory Council, on long range technology plans at the state, county, district, and school levels, includes highlights from group discussions on future planning, staff development, and curriculum. Three long range technology plans at the state level are provided: Long Range Educational Technology…

  9. Adaptive millimeter-wave synthetic aperture imaging for compressive sampling of sparse scenes.

    PubMed

    Mrozack, Alex; Heimbeck, Martin; Marks, Daniel L; Richard, Jonathan; Everitt, Henry O; Brady, David J

    2014-06-01

    We apply adaptive sensing techniques to the problem of locating sparse metallic scatterers using high-resolution, frequency modulated continuous wave W-band RADAR. Using a single detector, a frequency stepped source, and a lateral translation stage, inverse synthetic aperture RADAR reconstruction techniques are used to search for one or two wire scatterers within a specified range, while an adaptive algorithm determined successive sampling locations. The two-dimensional location of each scatterer is thereby identified with sub-wavelength accuracy in as few as 1/4 the number of lateral steps required for a simple raster scan. The implications of applying this approach to more complex scattering geometries are explored in light of the various assumptions made. PMID:24921545

  10. Tabu search based strategies for conformational search.

    PubMed

    Stepanenko, Svetlana; Engels, Bernd

    2009-10-29

    This paper presents an application of the new nonlinear global optimization routine gradient only tabu search (GOTS) to conformational search problems. It is based on the tabu search strategy which tries to determine the global minimum of a function by the steepest descent-modest ascent strategy. The refinement of ranking procedure of the original GOTS method and the exploitation of simulated annealing elements are described, and the modifications of the GOTS algorithm necessary to adopt it to conformation searches are explained. The utility of the GOTS for conformational search problems is tested using various examples. PMID:19769347

  11. Tabu Search Based Strategies for Conformational Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanenko, Svetlana; Engels, Bernd

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents an application of the new nonlinear global optimization routine gradient only tabu search (GOTS) to conformational search problems. It is based on the tabu search strategy which tries to determine the global minimum of a function by the steepest descent-modest ascent strategy. The refinement of ranking procedure of the original GOTS method and the exploitation of simulated annealing elements are described, and the modifications of the GOTS algorithm necessary to adopt it to conformation searches are explained. The utility of the GOTS for conformational search problems is tested using various examples.

  12. Telemetry Ranging: Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamkins, J.; Kinman, P.; Xie, H.; Vilnrotter, V.; Dolinar, S.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the details of the signal processing used in a telemetry ranging system in which timing information is extracted from the downlink telemetry signal in order to compute spacecraft range. A previous article describes telemetry ranging concepts and architecture, which are a slight variation of a scheme published earlier. As in that earlier work, the telemetry ranging concept eliminates the need for a dedicated downlink ranging signal to communicate the necessary timing information. The present article describes the operation and performance of the major receiver functions on the spacecraft and the ground --- many of which are standard tracking loops already in use in JPL's flight and ground radios --- and how they can be used to provide the relevant information for making a range measurement. It also describes the implementation of these functions in software, and performance of an end-to-end software simulation of the telemetry ranging system.

  13. Telemetry-Based Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, Jon; Vilnrotter, Victor A.; Andrews, Kenneth S.; Shambayati, Shervin

    2011-01-01

    A telemetry-based ranging scheme was developed in which the downlink ranging signal is eliminated, and the range is computed directly from the downlink telemetry signal. This is the first Deep Space Network (DSN) ranging technology that does not require the spacecraft to transmit a separate ranging signal. By contrast, the evolutionary ranging techniques used over the years by NASA missions, including sequential ranging (transmission of a sequence of sinusoids) and PN-ranging (transmission of a pseudo-noise sequence) whether regenerative (spacecraft acquires, then regenerates and retransmits a noise-free ranging signal) or transparent (spacecraft feeds the noisy demodulated uplink ranging signal into the downlink phase modulator) relied on spacecraft power and bandwidth to transmit an explicit ranging signal. The state of the art in ranging is described in an emerging CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) standard, in which a pseudo-noise (PN) sequence is transmitted from the ground to the spacecraft, acquired onboard, and the PN sequence is coherently retransmitted back to the ground, where a delay measurement is made between the uplink and downlink signals. In this work, the telemetry signal is aligned with the uplink PN code epoch. The ground station computes the delay between the uplink signal transmission and the received downlink telemetry. Such a computation is feasible because symbol synchronizability is already an integral part of the telemetry design. Under existing technology, the telemetry signal cannot be used for ranging because its arrival-time information is not coherent with any Earth reference signal. By introducing this coherence, and performing joint telemetry detection and arrival-time estimation on the ground, a high-rate telemetry signal can provide all the precision necessary for spacecraft ranging.

  14. Second Graders Learn Animal Adaptations through Form and Function Analogy Object Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.; Baldwin, Samantha; Schell, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the use of form and function analogy object boxes to teach second graders (n = 21) animal adaptations. The study used a pretest-posttest design to examine animal adaptation content learned through focused analogy activities as compared with reading and Internet searches for information about adaptations of animals followed by…

  15. Insect--plant adaptations.

    PubMed

    Southwood, T R

    1984-01-01

    The adaptation of insects to plants probably commenced in the early Permian period, though most current associations will be more recent. A major burst of adaptation must have followed the rise of the Angiosperms in the Cretaceous period, though some particular associations are as recent as this century. Living plants form a large proportion of the potential food in most habitats, though insects have had to overcome certain general hurdles to live and feed on them. Insects affect the reproduction and survival of plants, and thus the diversity of plant secondary chemicals may have evolved as a response. Where an insect species has a significant effect on a plant species that is its only host, coevolution may be envisaged. A spectacular example is provided by Heliconius butterflies and passion flower vines, studied by L.E. Gilbert and others. But such cases may be likened to 'vortices in the evolutionary stream': most plant species are influenced by a range of phytophagous insects so that selection will be for general defences--a situation termed diffuse coevolution. Evidence is presented on recent host-plant shifts to illustrate both the restrictions and the flexibility in current insect-plant associations. PMID:6559112

  16. Habituation of visual adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xue; Gao, Yi; Lv, Lili; Bao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Our sensory system adjusts its function driven by both shorter-term (e.g. adaptation) and longer-term (e.g. learning) experiences. Most past adaptation literature focuses on short-term adaptation. Only recently researchers have begun to investigate how adaptation changes over a span of days. This question is important, since in real life many environmental changes stretch over multiple days or longer. However, the answer to the question remains largely unclear. Here we addressed this issue by tracking perceptual bias (also known as aftereffect) induced by motion or contrast adaptation across multiple daily adaptation sessions. Aftereffects were measured every day after adaptation, which corresponded to the degree of adaptation on each day. For passively viewed adapters, repeated adaptation attenuated aftereffects. Once adapters were presented with an attentional task, aftereffects could either reduce for easy tasks, or initially show an increase followed by a later decrease for demanding tasks. Quantitative analysis of the decay rates in contrast adaptation showed that repeated exposure of the adapter appeared to be equivalent to adaptation to a weaker stimulus. These results suggest that both attention and a non-attentional habituation-like mechanism jointly determine how adaptation develops across multiple daily sessions. PMID:26739917

  17. Habituation of visual adaptation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xue; Gao, Yi; Lv, Lili; Bao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Our sensory system adjusts its function driven by both shorter-term (e.g. adaptation) and longer-term (e.g. learning) experiences. Most past adaptation literature focuses on short-term adaptation. Only recently researchers have begun to investigate how adaptation changes over a span of days. This question is important, since in real life many environmental changes stretch over multiple days or longer. However, the answer to the question remains largely unclear. Here we addressed this issue by tracking perceptual bias (also known as aftereffect) induced by motion or contrast adaptation across multiple daily adaptation sessions. Aftereffects were measured every day after adaptation, which corresponded to the degree of adaptation on each day. For passively viewed adapters, repeated adaptation attenuated aftereffects. Once adapters were presented with an attentional task, aftereffects could either reduce for easy tasks, or initially show an increase followed by a later decrease for demanding tasks. Quantitative analysis of the decay rates in contrast adaptation showed that repeated exposure of the adapter appeared to be equivalent to adaptation to a weaker stimulus. These results suggest that both attention and a non-attentional habituation-like mechanism jointly determine how adaptation develops across multiple daily sessions. PMID:26739917

  18. Curating the Web: Building a Google Custom Search Engine for the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennesy, Cody; Bowman, John

    2008-01-01

    Google's first foray onto the web made search simple and results relevant. With its Co-op platform, Google has taken another step toward dramatically increasing the relevancy of search results, further adapting the World Wide Web to local needs. Google Custom Search Engine, a tool on the Co-op platform, puts one in control of his or her own search…

  19. Adaptation Challenges and Emerging Efforts in Adaptation Planning in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    Following Governor Schwarzenegger's Executive Order (S-03-05) of 2005, numerous researchers have been engaged in an ongoing assessment effort to support the state's mitigation and adaptation efforts. Under the sponsorship and coordination of the California Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program, a wide range of climate change impacts and adaptation studies are being conducted and summarized on a biannual basis to assess the latest climate change science, potential impacts on critical sectors, and the state's efforts to manage its climate change risks. In the past, adaptation needs assessments in the state have primarily used a hazards-based (i.e., climate scenario-driven, top-down) approach, while vulnerability-based, bottom-up studies are only now emerging. They are increasingly viewed as complementary and necessary to adequately inform adaptation strategies. This paper briefly highlights this assessment history and then focuses on the planning efforts currently underway to prepare California's first state-wide adaptation plan. As the science and policy/management evolve in tandem, this paper will suggest future policy- or use-inspired research areas, and offer recommendations on how to improve interaction between researchers and practitioners at the science-policy interface, in order to build the state's decision support capacity in the face of a rapidly changing climate.

  20. Architecture for Adaptive Intelligent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes-Roth, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    We identify a class of niches to be occupied by 'adaptive intelligent systems (AISs)'. In contrast with niches occupied by typical AI agents, AIS niches present situations that vary dynamically along several key dimensions: different combinations of required tasks, different configurations of available resources, contextual conditions ranging from benign to stressful, and different performance criteria. We present a small class hierarchy of AIS niches that exhibit these dimensions of variability and describe a particular AIS niche, ICU (intensive care unit) patient monitoring, which we use for illustration throughout the paper. We have designed and implemented an agent architecture that supports all of different kinds of adaptation by exploiting a single underlying theoretical concept: An agent dynamically constructs explicit control plans to guide its choices among situation-triggered behaviors. We illustrate the architecture and its support for adaptation with examples from Guardian, an experimental agent for ICU monitoring.

  1. Competing intelligent search agents in global optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Streltsov, S.; Vakili, P.; Muchnik, I.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we present a new search methodology that we view as a development of intelligent agent approach to the analysis of complex system. The main idea is to consider search process as a competition mechanism between concurrent adaptive intelligent agents. Agents cooperate in achieving a common search goal and at the same time compete with each other for computational resources. We propose a statistical selection approach to resource allocation between agents that leads to simple and efficient on average index allocation policies. We use global optimization as the most general setting that encompasses many types of search problems, and show how proposed selection policies can be used to improve and combine various global optimization methods.

  2. The adaptable lyonsite structure.

    PubMed

    Smit, Jared P; Stair, Peter C; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R

    2006-08-01

    Crystal frameworks that can accommodate a wide range of elements, oxidation states, and stoichiometries are an important component of solid-state chemistry. These frameworks allow for unique comparisons of different metal-cation compositions with identical atomic arrangements. The mineral Lyonsite, alpha-Cu(3)Fe(4)(VO(4))(6), is emerging as the archetypal framework structure for a large class of materials, similar to known frameworks such as perovskite, garnet, apatite, and spinel. The new lyonsite-type oxides Li(2.82)Hf(0.795)Mo(3)O(12) and Li(3.35)Ta(0.53)Mo(3)O(12), in which hafnium and tantalum retain their highest oxidation states, are presented to advance the concept of the lyonsite structure as an adaptable framework. PMID:16755622

  3. Self-adaptive genetic algorithms with simulated binary crossover.

    PubMed

    Deb, K; Beyer, H G

    2001-01-01

    Self-adaptation is an essential feature of natural evolution. However, in the context of function optimization, self-adaptation features of evolutionary search algorithms have been explored mainly with evolution strategy (ES) and evolutionary programming (EP). In this paper, we demonstrate the self-adaptive feature of real-parameter genetic algorithms (GAs) using a simulated binary crossover (SBX) operator and without any mutation operator. The connection between the working of self-adaptive ESs and real-parameter GAs with the SBX operator is also discussed. Thereafter, the self-adaptive behavior of real-parameter GAs is demonstrated on a number of test problems commonly used in the ES literature. The remarkable similarity in the working principle of real-parameter GAs and self-adaptive ESs shown in this study suggests the need for emphasizing further studies on self-adaptive GAs. PMID:11382356

  4. Improved ranging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry E.

    1989-01-01

    Spacecraft range measurements have provided the most accurate tests, to date, of some relativistic gravitational parameters, even though the measurements were made with ranging systems having error budgets of about 10 meters. Technology is now available to allow an improvement of two orders of magnitude in the accuracy of spacecraft ranging. The largest gains in accuracy result from the replacement of unstable analog components with high speed digital circuits having precisely known delays and phase shifts.

  5. Online Database Searching Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlejohn, Alice C.; Parker, Joan M.

    Designed primarily for use by first-time searchers, this workbook provides an overview of online searching. Following a brief introduction which defines online searching, databases, and database producers, five steps in carrying out a successful search are described: (1) identifying the main concepts of the search statement; (2) selecting a…

  6. Search Alternatives and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    Internet search has become a routine computing activity, with regular visits to a search engine--usually Google--the norm for most people. The vast majority of searchers, as recent studies of Internet search behavior reveal, search only in the most basic of ways and fail to avail themselves of options that could easily and effortlessly improve…

  7. Online Search Optimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homan, Michael; Worley, Penny

    This course syllabus describes methods for optimizing online searching, using as an example searching on the National Library of Medicine (NLM) online system. Four major activities considered are the online interview, query analysis and search planning, online interaction, and post-search analysis. Within the context of these activities, concepts…

  8. Automatic range selector

    DOEpatents

    McNeilly, Clyde E.

    1977-01-04

    A device is provided for automatically selecting from a plurality of ranges of a scale of values to which a meter may be made responsive, that range which encompasses the value of an unknown parameter. A meter relay indicates whether the unknown is of greater or lesser value than the range to which the meter is then responsive. The rotatable part of a stepping relay is rotated in one direction or the other in response to the indication from the meter relay. Various positions of the rotatable part are associated with particular scales. Switching means are sensitive to the position of the rotatable part to couple the associated range to the meter.

  9. How Choice Ecology Influences Search in Decisions from Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejarraga, Tomas; Hertwig, Ralph; Gonzalez, Cleotilde

    2012-01-01

    Research into human decision-making has often sidestepped the question of search despite its importance across a wide range of domains such as search for food, mates, allies, visual targets or information. Recently, research on decisions from experience has made progress in finding out how individual characteristics shape search for information.…

  10. Three timescales in prism adaptation.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Masato; Uchimura, Motoaki; Karibe, Ayaka; O'Shea, Jacinta; Rossetti, Yves; Kitazawa, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that motor adaptation depends on at least two learning systems, one that learns fast but with poor retention and another that learns slowly but with better retention (Smith MA, Ghazizadeh A, Shadmehr R. PLoS Biol 4: e179, 2006). This two-state model has been shown to account for a range of behavior in the force field adaptation task. In the present study, we examined whether such a two-state model could also account for behavior arising from adaptation to a prismatic displacement of the visual field. We first confirmed that an "adaptation rebound," a critical prediction of the two-state model, occurred when visual feedback was deprived after an adaptation-extinction episode. We then examined the speed of decay of the prism aftereffect (without any visual feedback) after repetitions of 30, 150, and 500 trials of prism exposure. The speed of decay decreased with the number of exposure trials, a phenomenon that was best explained by assuming an "ultraslow" system, in addition to the fast and slow systems. Finally, we compared retention of aftereffects 24 h after 150 or 500 trials of exposure: retention was significantly greater after 500 than 150 trials. This difference in retention could not be explained by the two-state model but was well explained by the three-state model as arising from the difference in the amount of adaptation of the "ultraslow process." These results suggest that there are not only fast and slow systems but also an ultraslow learning system in prism adaptation that is activated by prolonged prism exposure of 150-500 trials. PMID:25298383

  11. Solar System object image search: A precovery search engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwyn, Stephen; Hill, Norman; Kavelaars, JJ

    2015-08-01

    While regular archive searches can find images at a fixed location, they cannot find images of moving targets such as asteroids or comets. The Solar System Object Image Search (SSOIS) at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre allows users to search for images of moving objects, allowing precoveries. SSOIS accepts as input either a list of observations, an object designation, a set of orbital elements, or a user-generated ephemeris for an object. It then searches for observations of that object over a range of dates. The user is then presented with a list of images containing that object from a variety of archives. Initially created to search the CFHT MegaCam archive, SSOIS has been extended to other telescopes including Gemini, Subaru/SuprimeCam, WISE, HST, the SDSS, AAT, the ING telescopes, the ESO telescopes, and the NOAO telescopes (KPNO/CTIO/WIYN), for a total of 18 million images. The SSOIS tool is located on the web at http://www.cadc-ccda.hia-iha.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/en/ssois/.

  12. Solar System Object Image Search: A precovery search engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Hill, Norman; Kavelaars, Jj

    2016-01-01

    While regular astronomical image archive searches can find images at a fixed location, they cannot find images of moving targets such as asteroids or comets. The Solar System Object Image Search (SSOIS) at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre allows users to search for images of moving objects, allowing precoveries. SSOIS accepts as input either an object designation, a list of observations, a set of orbital elements, or a user-generated ephemeris for an object. It then searches for observations of that object over a range of dates. The user is then presented with a list of images containing that object from a variety of archives. Initially created to search the CFHT MegaCam archive, SSOIS has been extended to other telescopes including Gemini, Subaru/SuprimeCam, WISE, HST, the SDSS, AAT, the ING telescopes, the ESO telescopes, and the NOAO telescopes (KPNO/CTIO/WIYN), for a total of 24.5 million images. As the Pan-STARRS and Hyper Suprime-Cam archives become available, they will be incorporated as well. The SSOIS tool is located on the web at http://www.cadc-ccda.hia-iha.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/en/ssois/.

  13. Solar System object image search: A precovery search engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwyn, S.; Hill, N.; Kavelaars, J.

    2014-07-01

    While regular archive searches can find images at a fixed location, they cannot find images of moving targets such as asteroids or comets. The Solar System Object Image Search (SSOIS) at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre allows users to search for images of moving objects, allowing precoveries. SSOIS accepts as input either a list of observations, an object designation, a set of orbital elements, or a user-generated ephemeris for an object. It then searches for observations of that object over a range of dates. The user is then presented with a list of images containing that object from a variety of archives. Initially created to search the CFHT MegaCam archive, SSOIS has been extended to other telescopes including Gemini, Subaru/SuprimeCam, HST, the SDSS, AAT, the ESO telescopes, and the NOAO telescopes (KPNO/CTIO/WIYN), for a total of 7.6 million images. The SSOIS tool is located on the web at http://www.cadc-ccda.hia-iha.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/en/ssois/.

  14. Expressing Adaptation Strategies Using Adaptation Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemirline, N.; Bourda, Y.; Reynaud, C.

    2012-01-01

    Today, there is a real challenge to enable personalized access to information. Several systems have been proposed to address this challenge including Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHSs). However, the specification of adaptation strategies remains a difficult task for creators of such systems. In this paper, we consider the problem of the definition…

  15. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  16. Laser ranging data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Near real-time Lageos laser ranging data are analyzed in terms of range bias, time bias, and internal precision, and estimates for earth orientation parameters X(sub p), Y(sub p), and UT1 are obtained. The results of these analyses are reported in a variety of formats. Copies of monthly summaries from November, 1986 through November, 1987 are included.

  17. Bioinformatics: searching the Net.

    PubMed

    Kastin, S; Wexler, J

    1998-04-01

    During the past 30 years, there has been an explosion in the volume of published medical information. As this volume has increased, so has the need for efficient methods for searching the data. MEDLINE, the primary medical database, is currently limited to abstracts of the medical literature. MEDLINE searches use AND/OR/NOT logical searching for keywords that have been assigned to each article and for textwords included in article abstracts. Recently, the complete text of some scientific journals, including figures and tables, has become accessible electronically. Keyword and textword searches can provide an overwhelming number of results. Search engines that use phrase searching, or searches that limit the number of words between two finds, improve the precision of search engines. The development of the Internet as a vehicle for worldwide communication, and the emergence of the World Wide Web (WWW) as a common vehicle for communication have made instantaneous access to much of the entire body of medical information an exciting possibility. There is more than one way to search the WWW for information. At the present time, two broad strategies have emerged for cataloging the WWW: directories and search engines. These allow more efficient searching of the WWW. Directories catalog WWW information by creating categories and subcategories of information and then publishing pointers to information within the category listings. Directories are analogous to yellow pages of the phone book. Search engines make no attempt to categorize information. They automatically scour the WWW looking for words and then automatically create an index of those words. When a specific search engine is used, its index is searched for a particular word. Usually, search engines are nonspecific and produce voluminous results. Use of AND/OR/NOT and "near" and "adjacent" search refinements greatly improve the results of a search. Search engines that limit their scope to specific sites, and

  18. Home range and travels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  19. An efficient cuckoo search algorithm for numerical function optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Pauline; Zainuddin, Zarita

    2013-04-01

    Cuckoo search algorithm which reproduces the breeding strategy of the best known brood parasitic bird, the cuckoos has demonstrated its superiority in obtaining the global solution for numerical optimization problems. However, the involvement of fixed step approach in its exploration and exploitation behavior might slow down the search process considerably. In this regards, an improved cuckoo search algorithm with adaptive step size adjustment is introduced and its feasibility on a variety of benchmarks is validated. The obtained results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the standard cuckoo search algorithm in terms of convergence characteristic while preserving the fascinating features of the original method.

  20. Adaptive multiconfigurational wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Evangelista, Francesco A.

    2014-03-28

    A method is suggested to build simple multiconfigurational wave functions specified uniquely by an energy cutoff Λ. These are constructed from a model space containing determinants with energy relative to that of the most stable determinant no greater than Λ. The resulting Λ-CI wave function is adaptive, being able to represent both single-reference and multireference electronic states. We also consider a more compact wave function parameterization (Λ+SD-CI), which is based on a small Λ-CI reference and adds a selection of all the singly and doubly excited determinants generated from it. We report two heuristic algorithms to build Λ-CI wave functions. The first is based on an approximate prescreening of the full configuration interaction space, while the second performs a breadth-first search coupled with pruning. The Λ-CI and Λ+SD-CI approaches are used to compute the dissociation curve of N{sub 2} and the potential energy curves for the first three singlet states of C{sub 2}. Special attention is paid to the issue of energy discontinuities caused by changes in the size of the Λ-CI wave function along the potential energy curve. This problem is shown to be solvable by smoothing the matrix elements of the Hamiltonian. Our last example, involving the Cu{sub 2}O{sub 2}{sup 2+} core, illustrates an alternative use of the Λ-CI method: as a tool to both estimate the multireference character of a wave function and to create a compact model space to be used in subsequent high-level multireference coupled cluster computations.

  1. A lunar base for SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Bernard M.

    1988-01-01

    The possibilities of using lanar based radio antennas in search of intelligent extraterrestrial communications is explored. The proposed NASA search will have two search modes: (1) An all sky survey covering the frequency range from 1 to 10 GHz; and (2) A high sensitivity targeted search listening for signals from the approx. 800 solar type stars within 80 light years of the Sun, and covering 1 to 3 GHz.

  2. An adaptive level set method

    SciTech Connect

    Milne, R.B.

    1995-12-01

    This thesis describes a new method for the numerical solution of partial differential equations of the parabolic type on an adaptively refined mesh in two or more spatial dimensions. The method is motivated and developed in the context of the level set formulation for the curvature dependent propagation of surfaces in three dimensions. In that setting, it realizes the multiple advantages of decreased computational effort, localized accuracy enhancement, and compatibility with problems containing a range of length scales.

  3. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--South African Form: Psychometric Properties and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maree, Jacobus Gideon

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--South African Form (CAAS) consists of four scales, each with six items that measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from good to…

  4. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Korea Form: Psychometric Properties and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tak, Jinkook

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS)--Korea Form consists of four subscales, each with six items. The subscales measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from…

  5. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Brazilian Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Marco Antonio Pereira; Bardagi, Marucia Patta; Lassance, Maria Celia Pacheco; Magalhaes, Mauro de Oliveira; Duarte, Maria Eduarda

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Brazilian Form (CAASBrazil) consists of four scales which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from good to excellent. The…

  6. Antenna concepts for interstellar search systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basler, R. P.; Johnson, G. L.; Vondrak, R. R.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation is made of microwave receiving systems designed to search for signals from extraterrestrial intelligence. Specific design concepts are analyzed parametrically to determine whether the optimum antenna system location is on earth, in space, or on the moon. Parameters considered include the hypothesized number of transmitting civilizations, the number of stars that must be searched to give any desired probability of receiving a signal, the antenna collecting area, the search time, the search range, and the cost. This analysis suggests that (1) search systems based on the moon are not cost-competitive, (2) if the search is extended only a few hundred light years from the earth, a Cyclops-type array on earth may be the most cost-effective system, (3) for a search extending to 500 light years or more, a substantial cost and search-time advantage can be achieved with a large spherical reflector in space with multiple feeds, (4) radio frequency interference shields can be provided for space systems, and (5) cost can range from a few hundred million to tens of billions of dollars, depending on the parameter values assumed.

  7. Search efficiency as a function of target saliency: The transition from inefficient to efficient search and beyond.

    PubMed

    Liesefeld, Heinrich René; Moran, Rani; Usher, Marius; Müller, Hermann J; Zehetleitner, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Searching for an object among distracting objects is a common daily task. These searches differ in efficiency. Some are so difficult that each object must be inspected in turn, whereas others are so easy that the target object directly catches the observer's eye. In 4 experiments, the difficulty of searching for an orientation-defined target was parametrically manipulated between blocks of trials via the target-distractor orientation contrast. We observed a smooth transition from inefficient to efficient search with increasing orientation contrast. When contrast was high, search slopes were flat (indicating pop-out); when contrast was low, slopes were steep (indicating serial search). At the transition from inefficient to efficient search, search slopes were flat for target-present trials and steep for target-absent trials within the same orientation-contrast block-suggesting that participants adapted their behavior on target-absent trials to the most difficult, rather than the average, target-present trials of each block. Furthermore, even when search slopes were flat, indicative of pop-out, search continued to become faster with increasing contrast. These observations provide several new constraints for models of visual search and indicate that differences between search tasks that were traditionally considered qualitative in nature might actually be due to purely quantitative differences in target discriminability. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26727018

  8. Rigid substructure search

    PubMed Central

    Shirvanyants, David; Alexandrova, Anastassia N.; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: Identifying the location of binding sites on proteins is of fundamental importance for a wide range of applications, including molecular docking, de novo drug design, structure identification and comparison of functional sites. Here we present Erebus, a web server that searches the entire Protein Data Bank for a given substructure defined by a set of atoms of interest, such as the binding scaffolds for small molecules. The identified substructure contains atoms having the same names, belonging to same amino acids and separated by the same distances (within a given tolerance) as the atoms of the query structure. The accuracy of a match is measured by the root-mean-square deviation or by the normal weight with a given variance. Tests show that our approach can reliably locate rigid binding scaffolds of drugs and metal ions. Availability and Implementation: We provide this service through a web server at http://erebus.dokhlab.org. Contact: dokh@unc.edu PMID:21460026

  9. Psychosocial Adaptation to Disability Within the Context of Positive Psychology: Findings from the Literature.

    PubMed

    Martz, Erin; Livneh, Hanoch

    2016-03-01

    Purpose This purpose of this article is to review of the trends of research that examined positive psychology constructs in the context of adapting to chronic illness and disability (CID). This article examines the empirical findings on the relationships between six selected positive psychology-associated constructs (optimism, hope, resilience, benefit-finding, meaning-making, and post-traumatic growth) and adaptation to disability. Methods Six positive psychology constructs were selected to represent the trends found in recent literature published on CID. The process of choosing these six variables included reviewing chapters on positive psychology and CID, reviewing the top rehabilitation journals that typically publish articles on psychosocial adaptation to CID, using search engines to find relevant journal articles published since the year 2000, and selecting the most important constructs based on the authors' professional judgment. Conclusion The available evidence supports the unique benefits of these six positive psychology constructs in predicting successful adaptation to a range of disabling conditions. Based on the available findings, the authors offer four suggestions for occupational rehabilitation researchers. PMID:26283187

  10. Is Interpersonal Psychotherapy Infinitely Adaptable? A Compendium of the Multiple Modifications of IPT

    PubMed Central

    FRANK, ELLEN; RITCHEY, FIONA C.; LEVENSON, JESSICA C.

    2015-01-01

    We employed standard literature search techniques and surveyed participants on the International Society for Interpersonal Psychotherapy listserve (isipt-list@googlegroups.com) to catalogue the multiple and highly creative ways in which Klerman’s and Weissman’s original concept of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) has been modified to meet the needs of a vast range of patient populations. Focusing first on adaptations of the individual treatment model for subgroups of adult patients, we next describe further adaptations of four major off-shoots of IPT: interpersonal counseling (IPC), IPT for adolescents (IPT-A), group IPT (IPT-G) and most recently, brief IPT (IPT-B). We then discuss IPT “in-laws,” those treatments that have married IPT with of other forms of psychotherapy for patients with bipolar disorder, panic symptomatology, and substance abuse. We conclude with that although there have been myriad successful adaptations of IPT, there remain some conditions for which IPT adaptations have not been found to be efficacious. PMID:26453344

  11. Preliminary error budget for an optical ranging system: Range, range rate, and differenced range observables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folkner, W. M.; Finger, M. H.

    1990-01-01

    Future missions to the outer solar system or human exploration of Mars may use telemetry systems based on optical rather than radio transmitters. Pulsed laser transmission can be used to deliver telemetry rates of about 100 kbits/sec with an efficiency of several bits for each detected photon. Navigational observables that can be derived from timing pulsed laser signals are discussed. Error budgets are presented based on nominal ground stations and spacecraft-transceiver designs. Assuming a pulsed optical uplink signal, two-way range accuracy may approach the few centimeter level imposed by the troposphere uncertainty. Angular information can be achieved from differenced one-way range using two ground stations with the accuracy limited by the length of the available baseline and by clock synchronization and troposphere errors. A method of synchronizing the ground station clocks using optical ranging measurements is presented. This could allow differenced range accuracy to reach the few centimeter troposphere limit.

  12. Snowy Range Wilderness, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, R.S.; Bigsby, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Snowy Range Wilderness was undertaken by the USGS and USBM in 1976-1978 and was followed up with more detailed geologic and geochemical surveys, culminating in diamond drilling of one hole in the Snowy Range Wilderness. No mineral deposits were identified in the Snowy Range Wilderness, but inasmuch as low-grade uranium and associated gold resources were identified in rocks similar to those of the northern Snowy Range Wilderness in an area about 5 mi northeast of the wilderness boundary, we conclude that the northern half of the wilderness has a probable-resource potential for uranium and gold. Closely spaced drilling would be required to completely evaluate this mineral potential. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels.

  13. Full range resistive thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivieri, E.; Rotter, M.; De Combarieu, M.; Forget, P.; Marrache-Kikuchi, C.; Pari, P.

    2015-12-01

    Resistive thermometers are widely used in low temperature physics, thanks to portability, simplicity of operation and reduced size. The possibility to precisely follow the temperature from room temperature down to the mK region is of major interest for numerous applications, although no single thermometer can nowadays cover this entire temperature range. In this article we report on a method to realize a full range thermometer, capable to measure, by itself, temperatures in the whole above-cited temperature range, with constant sensitivity and sufficient precision for the typical cryogenic applications. We present here the first results for three different full range thermometer prototypes. A detailed description of the set-up used for measurements and characterization is also reported.

  14. Mu-2 ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, W. L.; Zygielbaum, A. I.

    1977-01-01

    The Mu-II Dual-Channel Sequential Ranging System designed as a model for future Deep Space Network ranging equipment is described. A list of design objectives is followed by a theoretical explanation of the digital demodulation techniques first employed in this machine. Hardware and software implementation are discussed, together with the details relating to the construction of the device. Two appendixes are included relating to the programming and operation of this equipment to yield the maximum scientific data.

  15. Adaptive hybrid learning for neural networks.

    PubMed

    Smithies, Rob; Salhi, Said; Queen, Nat

    2004-01-01

    A robust locally adaptive learning algorithm is developed via two enhancements of the Resilient Propagation (RPROP) method. Remaining drawbacks of the gradient-based approach are addressed by hybridization with gradient-independent Local Search. Finally, a global optimization method based on recursion of the hybrid is constructed, making use of tabu neighborhoods to accelerate the search for minima through diversification. Enhanced RPROP is shown to be faster and more accurate than the standard RPROP in solving classification tasks based on natural data sets taken from the UCI repository of machine learning databases. Furthermore, the use of Local Search is shown to improve Enhanced RPROP by solving the same classification tasks as part of the global optimization method. PMID:15006027

  16. An adaptive contextual quantum language model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingfei; Zhang, Peng; Song, Dawei; Hou, Yuexian

    2016-08-01

    User interactions in search system represent a rich source of implicit knowledge about the user's cognitive state and information need that continuously evolves over time. Despite massive efforts that have been made to exploiting and incorporating this implicit knowledge in information retrieval, it is still a challenge to effectively capture the term dependencies and the user's dynamic information need (reflected by query modifications) in the context of user interaction. To tackle these issues, motivated by the recent Quantum Language Model (QLM), we develop a QLM based retrieval model for session search, which naturally incorporates the complex term dependencies occurring in user's historical queries and clicked documents with density matrices. In order to capture the dynamic information within users' search session, we propose a density matrix transformation framework and further develop an adaptive QLM ranking model. Extensive comparative experiments show the effectiveness of our session quantum language models.

  17. Cold adaptation in marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Johnston, I A

    1990-01-30

    Animals from polar seas exhibit numerous so called resistance adaptations that serve to maintain homeostasis at low temperature and prevent lethal freezing injury. Specialization to temperatures at or below 0 degrees C is associated with an inability to survive at temperatures above 3-8 degrees C. Polar fish synthesize various types of glycoproteins or peptides to lower the freezing point of most extracellular fluid compartments in a non-colligative manner. Antifreeze production is seasonal in boreal species and is often initiated by environmental cues other than low temperature, particularly short day lengths. Most of the adaptations that enable intertidal invertebrates to survive freezing are associated with their ability to withstand ariel exposure. Unique adaptations for freezing avoidance include the synthesis of low molecular mass ice-nucleating proteins that control and induce extracellular ice-formation. Marine poikilotherms also exhibit a range of capacity adaptations that increase the rate of some physiological processes so as to partially compensate for the effects of low temperature. However, the rate of embryonic development in a diverse range of marine organisms shows no evidence of temperature compensation. This results in a significant lengthening of the time from fertilization to hatching in polar, relative to temperate, species. Some aspects of the physiology of polar marine species, such as low metabolic and slow growth rates, probably result from a combination of low temperature and other factors such as the highly seasonal nature of food supplies. Although neuromuscular function shows a partial capacity adaptation in Antarctic fish, maximum swimming speeds are lower than for temperate and tropical species, particularly for early stages in the life history. PMID:1969650

  18. Laser Ranging Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piazolla, Sabino; Hemmati, Hamid; Tratt, David

    2003-01-01

    Laser Ranging Simulation Program (LRSP) is a computer program that predicts selected aspects of the performances of a laser altimeter or other laser ranging or remote-sensing systems and is especially applicable to a laser-based system used to map terrain from a distance of several kilometers. Designed to run in a more recent version (5 or higher) of the MATLAB programming language, LRSP exploits the numerical and graphical capabilities of MATLAB. LRSP generates a graphical user interface that includes a pop-up menu that prompts the user for the input of data that determine the performance of a laser ranging system. Examples of input data include duration and energy of the laser pulse, the laser wavelength, the width of the laser beam, and several parameters that characterize the transmitting and receiving optics, the receiving electronic circuitry, and the optical properties of the atmosphere and the terrain. When the input data have been entered, LRSP computes the signal-to-noise ratio as a function of range, signal and noise currents, and ranging and pointing errors.

  19. Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into Public Health Practice: Using Adaptive Management to Increase Adaptive Capacity and Build Resilience

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Julia Z.; Luber, George

    2011-01-01

    Background: Climate change is expected to have a range of health impacts, some of which are already apparent. Public health adaptation is imperative, but there has been little discussion of how to increase adaptive capacity and resilience in public health systems. Objectives: We explored possible explanations for the lack of work on adaptive capacity, outline climate–health challenges that may lie outside public health’s coping range, and consider changes in practice that could increase public health’s adaptive capacity. Methods: We conducted a substantive, interdisciplinary literature review focused on climate change adaptation in public health, social learning, and management of socioeconomic systems exhibiting dynamic complexity. Discussion: There are two competing views of how public health should engage climate change adaptation. Perspectives differ on whether climate change will primarily amplify existing hazards, requiring enhancement of existing public health functions, or present categorically distinct threats requiring innovative management strategies. In some contexts, distinctly climate-sensitive health threats may overwhelm public health’s adaptive capacity. Addressing these threats will require increased emphasis on institutional learning, innovative management strategies, and new and improved tools. Adaptive management, an iterative framework that embraces uncertainty, uses modeling, and integrates learning, may be a useful approach. We illustrate its application to extreme heat in an urban setting. Conclusions: Increasing public health capacity will be necessary for certain climate–health threats. Focusing efforts to increase adaptive capacity in specific areas, promoting institutional learning, embracing adaptive management, and developing tools to facilitate these processes are important priorities and can improve the resilience of local public health systems to climate change. PMID:21997387

  20. The range scheduling aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbfinger, Eliezer M.; Smith, Barry D.

    1991-01-01

    The Air Force Space Command schedules telemetry, tracking and control activities across the Air Force Satellite Control network. The Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is a rapid prototype combining a user-friendly, portable, graphical interface with a sophisticated object-oriented database. The RSA has been a rapid prototyping effort whose purpose is to elucidate and define suitable technology for enhancing the performance of the range schedulers. Designing a system to assist schedulers in their task and using their current techniques as well as enhancements enabled by an electronic environment, has created a continuously developing model that will serve as a standard for future range scheduling systems. The RSA system is easy to use, easily ported between platforms, fast, and provides a set of tools for the scheduler that substantially increases his productivity.

  1. Satellite Laser Ranging operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Michael R.

    1994-01-01

    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) is currently providing precision orbit determination for measurements of: 1) Ocean surface topography from satellite borne radar altimetry, 2) Spatial and temporal variations of the gravity field, 3) Earth and ocean tides, 4) Plate tectonic and regional deformation, 5) Post-glacial uplift and subsidence, 6) Variations in the Earth's center-of-mass, and 7) Variations in Earth rotation. SLR also supports specialized programs in time transfer and classical geodetic positioning, and will soon provide precision ranging to support experiments in relativity.

  2. Western Aeronautical Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakahara, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work of the Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR). NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range is a network of facilities used to support aeronautical research, science missions, exploration system concepts, and space operations. The WATR resides at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The WATR is a part of NASA's Corporate Management of Aeronautical Facilities and funded by the Strategic Capability Asset Program (SCAP). Maps show the general location of the WATR area that is used for aeronautical testing and evaluation. The products, services and facilities of WATR are discussed,

  3. Local climatic adaptation in a widespread microorganism

    PubMed Central

    Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Charron, Guillaume; Samani, Pedram; Dubé, Alexandre K.; Sylvester, Kayla; James, Brielle; Almeida, Pedro; Sampaio, José Paulo; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Bell, Graham; Landry, Christian R.

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the ability of organisms to locally adapt is critical for determining the outcome of rapid climate changes, yet few studies have addressed this question in microorganisms. We investigated the role of a heterogeneous climate on adaptation of North American populations of the wild yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus. We found abundant among-strain variation for fitness components across a range of temperatures, but this variation was only partially explained by climatic variation in the distribution area. Most of fitness variation was explained by the divergence of genetically distinct groups, distributed along a north–south cline, suggesting that these groups have adapted to distinct climatic conditions. Within-group fitness components were correlated with climatic conditions, illustrating that even ubiquitous microorganisms locally adapt and harbour standing genetic variation for climate-related traits. Our results suggest that global climatic changes could lead to adaptation to new conditions within groups, or changes in their geographical distributions. PMID:24403328

  4. Mathematical physics: Search research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlesinger, Michael F.

    2006-09-01

    How does one best search for non-replenishable targets at unknown positions? An optimized search strategy could be applied to situations as diverse as animal foraging and time-sensitive rescue missions.

  5. Improved limited discrepancy search

    SciTech Connect

    Korf, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    We present an improvement to Harvey and Ginsberg`s limited discrepancy search algorithm, which eliminates much of the redundancy in the original, by generating each path from the root to the maximum search depth only once. For a complete binary tree of depth d this reduces the asymptotic complexity from O(d+2/2 2{sup d}) to O(2{sup d}). The savings is much less in a partial tree search, or in a heavily pruned tree. The overhead of the improved algorithm on a complete binary tree is only a factor of b/(b - 1) compared to depth-first search. While this constant factor is greater on a heavily pruned tree, this improvement makes limited discrepancy search a viable alternative to depth-first search, whenever the entire tree may not be searched. Finally, we present both positive and negative empirical results on the utility of limited discrepancy search, for the problem of number partitioning.

  6. Search for Asteroid Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merline, W. J.; Close, L. M.; Menard, F.; Dumas, C.; Chapman, C. R.; Slater, D. C.

    2001-11-01

    We report on the recent progress of our comprehensive search for satellites of asteroids. In 1998, we began our survey using newly newly developed technologies in adaptive optics to explore the close environs of several hundred main-belt asteroids. Adaptive optics (AO) removes the blurring caused by the Earth's atmosphere and allows diffraction-limited imaging in the near-IR (J-,H-,K'-bands) at the world's largest telescopes. Angular resolutions as high as 0.04 arcsec are possible. We have employed the excellent facilities at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, the W.M. Keck II telescope, and the new Gemini North 8m telescope. Each of these facilities provides unique capabilities and are each complementary to the other. So far we have discovered or recovered a half-dozen small moons or double asteroids by this AO-assisted direct-imaging technique. Our sample now exceeds 300 main-belt targets, and we have expanded the survey to include near-Earth and Trojan asteroids. Other groups are using AO, direct HST imaging, direct ground-based imaging, advanced lightcurve analysis, and radar techniques to further sample these populations, as well as the Kuiper Belt. Our results show that the frequency of binary asteroids (at least to our detection limits) is rather small in the main belt, possibly a few percent. Frequencies among other populations, such as the NEAs, are seen to be much higher. We also find that although there are similarities among the detected systems, there are also significant differences. Thus, it is likely that several different formation mechanisms will be required to explain the observed systems. All of the proposed mechanisms for formation involve collisions of one type or another (physical or gravitational). Study of these systems will provide significant insight to the collisional history and evolution of these asteroid populations. Further, the presence of a companion allows accurate determination of the density of the primary, and thus yields

  7. Mobile satellite ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverberg, E. C.

    1978-01-01

    A brief review of the constraints which have limited satellite ranging hardware and an outline of the steps which are underway to improve the status of the equipment in this area are given. In addition, some suggestions are presented for the utilization of newer instruments and for possible future research and development work in this area.

  8. STDN ranging equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Final results of the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) Ranging Equipment program are summarized. Basic design concepts and final design approaches are described. Theoretical analyses which define requirements and support the design approaches are presented. Design verification criteria are delineated and verification test results are specified.

  9. Agriculture, forest, and range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of the panel for developing a satellite remote-sensing global information system in the next decade are reported. User requirements were identified in five categories: (1) cultivated crops, (2) land resources, (3)water resources, (4)forest management, and (5) range management. The benefits from the applications of satellite data are discussed.

  10. Agriculture, forestry, range resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crea, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    In the area of crop specie identification, it has been found that temporal data analysis, preliminary stratification, and unequal probability analysis were several of the factors that contributed to high identification accuracies. Single data set accuracies on fields of greater than 80,000 sq m (20 acres) are in the 70- to 90-percent range; however, with the use of temporal data, accuracies of 95 percent have been reported. Identification accuracy drops off significantly on areas of less than 80,000 sq m (20 acres) as does measurement accuracy. Forest stratification into coniferous and deciduous areas has been accomplished to a 90- to 95-percent accuracy level. Using multistage sampling techniques, the timber volume of a national forest district has been estimated to a confidence level and standard deviation acceptable to the Forest Service at a very favorable cost-benefit time ratio. Range specie/plant community vegetation mapping has been accomplished at various levels of success (69- to 90-percent accuracy). However, several investigators have obtained encouraging initial results in range biomass (forage production) estimation and range readiness predictions. Soil association map correction and soil association mapping in new area appear to have been proven feasible on large areas; however, testing in a complex soil area should be undertaken.

  11. Agriculture, forestry, range resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The necessary elements to perform global inventories of agriculture, forestry, and range resources are being brought together through the use of satellites, sensors, computers, mathematics, and phenomenology. Results of ERTS-1 applications in these areas, as well as soil mapping, are described.

  12. Fact Sheet: Range Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornelson, C.; Fretter, E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Ames has a long tradition in leadership with the use of ballistic ranges and shock tubes for the purpose of studying the physics and phenomena associated with hypervelocity flight. Cutting-edge areas of research run the gamut from aerodynamics, to impact physics, to flow-field structure and chemistry. This legacy of testing began in the NACA era of the 1940's with the Supersonic Free Flight Tunnel, and evolved dramatically up through the late 1950s with the pioneering work in the Ames Hypersonic Ballistic Range. The tradition continued in the mid-60s with the commissioning of the three newest facilities: the Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) in 1964, the Hypervelocity Free Flight Facility (HFFF) in 1965 and the Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) in 1966. Today the Range Complex continues to provide unique and critical testing in support of the Nation's programs for planetary geology and geophysics; exobiology; solar system origins; earth atmospheric entry, planetary entry, and aerobraking vehicles; and various configurations for supersonic and hypersonic aircraft.

  13. RADIO RANGING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Bogle, R.W.

    1960-11-22

    A description is given of a super-regenerative oscillator ranging device provided with radiating and receiving means and being capable of indicating the occurrence of that distance between itself and a reflecting object which so phases the received echo of energy of a preceding emitted oscillation that the intervals between oscillations become uniform.

  14. Front Range Branch Officers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Front Range Branch of AGU has installed officers for 1990: Ray Noble, National Center for Atmospheric Research, chair; Sherry Oaks, U.S. Geological Survey, chair-elect; Howard Garcia, NOAA, treasurer; Catharine Skokan, Colorado School of Mines, secretary. JoAnn Joselyn of NOAA is past chair. Members at large are Wallace Campbell, NOAA; William Neff, USGS; and Stephen Schneider, NCAR.

  15. Space-Based Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Space-Based Range (SBR), previously known as Space-Based Telemetry and Range Safety (STARS), is a multicenter NASA proof-of-concept project to determine if space-based communications using NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) can support the Range Safety functions of acquiring tracking data and generating flight termination signals, while also providing broadband Range User data such as voice, video, and vehicle/payload data. There was a successful test of the Range Safety system at Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) on December 20, 2005, on a two-stage Terrier-Orion spin-stabilized sounding rocket. SBR transmitted GPS tracking data and maintained links with two TDRSS satellites simultaneously during the 10-min flight. The payload section deployed a parachute, landed in the Atlantic Ocean about 90 miles downrange from the launch site, and was successfully recovered. During the Terrier-Orion tests flights, more than 99 percent of all forward commands and more than 95 percent of all return frames were successfully received and processed. The time latency necessary for a command to travel from WFF over landlines to White Sands Complex and then to the vehicle via TDRSS, be processed onboard, and then be sent back to WFF was between 1.0 s and 1.1 s. The forward-link margins for TDRS-10 (TDRS East [TDE]) were 11 dB to 12 dB plus or minus 2 dB, and for TDRS-4 (TDRS Spare [TDS]) were 9 dB to 10 dB plus or minus 1.5 dB. The return-link margins for both TDE and TDS were 6 dB to 8 dB plus or minus 3 dB. There were 11 flights on an F-15B at Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) between November 2006 and February 2007. The Range User system tested a 184-element TDRSS Ku-band (15 GHz) phased-array antenna with data rates of 5 Mbps and 10 Mbps. This data was a combination of black-and-white cockpit video, Range Safety tracking and transceiver data, and aircraft and antenna controller data streams. IP data formatting was used.

  16. Inside a Search. Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Rosie

    2011-01-01

    Lou Marinoff's article, "Inside a Search," discusses the issues college search committees face in the pursuit of qualified faculty members that will be a good fit for their institutions. More often than not, faculty searches are more complex and challenging than the featured article suggests. The economic downturn facing the nation has resulted in…

  17. The Shortcut Search. Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyland, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Faced with a late-season superintendent search, many districts defer the formal search-and-hire process and entice a senior administrator or former superintendent to serve a one- or two-year stint. One appealing alternative is an abbreviated search. Boards should advertise immediately and efficiently, develop their own criteria, recruit…

  18. Search and Seizure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Kenneth T.

    This paper examines the practice of search and seizure from a legal perspective. All issues concerning lawful or unlawful search and seizure, whether in a public school or otherwise, are predicated upon the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The terms "search,""seizure,""probable cause,""reasonable suspicion," and "exclusionary…

  19. Conducting a Web Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Whitehead, Marie

    Keyword and text string searches of online library catalogs often provide different results according to library and database used and depending upon how books and journals are indexed. For this reason, online databases such as ERIC often provide tutorials and recommendations for searching their site, such as how to use Boolean search strategies.…

  20. Successful adaption of a forensic toxicological screening workflow employing nontargeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to water analysis.

    PubMed

    Steger, Julia; Arnhard, Kathrin; Haslacher, Sandra; Geiger, Klemens; Singer, Klaus; Schlapp, Michael; Pitterl, Florian; Oberacher, Herbert

    2016-04-01

    Forensic toxicology and environmental water analysis share the common interest and responsibility in ensuring comprehensive and reliable confirmation of drugs and pharmaceutical compounds in samples analyzed. Dealing with similar analytes, detection and identification techniques should be exchangeable between scientific disciplines. Herein, we demonstrate the successful adaption of a forensic toxicological screening workflow employing nontargeted LC/MS/MS under data-dependent acquisition control and subsequent database search to water analysis. The main modification involved processing of an increased sample volume with SPE (500 mL vs. 1-10 mL) to reach LODs in the low ng/L range. Tandem mass spectra acquired with a qTOF instrument were submitted to database search. The targeted data mining strategy was found to be sensitive and specific; automated search produced hardly any false results. To demonstrate the applicability of the adapted workflow to complex samples, 14 wastewater effluent samples collected on seven consecutive days at the local wastewater-treatment plant were analyzed. Of the 88,970 fragment ion mass spectra produced, 8.8% of spectra were successfully assigned to one of the 1040 reference compounds included in the database, and this enabled the identification of 51 compounds representing important illegal drugs, members of various pharmaceutical compound classes, and metabolites thereof. PMID:26791338

  1. Organizational Adaptation and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Kim S.

    1984-01-01

    Organizational adaptation and types of adaptation needed in academe in the future are reviewed and major conceptual approaches to organizational adaptation are presented. The probable environment that institutions will face in the future that will require adaptation is discussed. (MLW)

  2. Countermeasure development to space adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larochelle, F. T.; Charles, J.; Harm, D. L.; Fortney, S. M.; Siconolfi, S.

    1992-01-01

    At the Johnson Space Center we are actively involved, with the collaboration of other NASA Centers and the scientific community at large, in the search for ways to counter the negative affects of spaceflight beginning with the improvement in our understanding of the adaptation. Heretofore this search will be broadly referred to as countermeasures development and includes not only the preservation of physiological well-being but also pyschological well-being. The psychological integrity of crews will, undoubtedly, become progressively more important as lengths, remoteness, and risks of missions increase. The character and priorities of our contermeasure development is very much dependent upon the character of the mission and requires a very close liaison between Medical Operations and the investigators. Because of the demands which countermeasure implementation imposes upon crew schedules and because of the potential weight, power, and budget impacts of the hardware and its development, a countermeasure can only become operational when it is either adequately validated or the human risk of not applying the existing technology exceeds the other negative impacts not directly related to crew health and safety.

  3. RESEARCH NOTE FROM COLLABORATION: Adaptive vertex fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Frühwirth, Rudolf; Vanlaer, Pascal

    2007-12-01

    Vertex fitting frequently has to deal with both mis-associated tracks and mis-measured track errors. A robust, adaptive method is presented that is able to cope with contaminated data. The method is formulated as an iterative re-weighted Kalman filter. Annealing is introduced to avoid local minima in the optimization. For the initialization of the adaptive filter a robust algorithm is presented that turns out to perform well in a wide range of applications. The tuning of the annealing schedule and of the cut-off parameter is described using simulated data from the CMS experiment. Finally, the adaptive property of the method is illustrated in two examples.

  4. Optical Profilometers Using Adaptive Signal Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Gregory A.; Youngquist, Robert; Mikhael, Wasfy

    2006-01-01

    A method of adaptive signal processing has been proposed as the basis of a new generation of interferometric optical profilometers for measuring surfaces. The proposed profilometers would be portable, hand-held units. Sizes could be thus reduced because the adaptive-signal-processing method would make it possible to substitute lower-power coherent light sources (e.g., laser diodes) for white light sources and would eliminate the need for most of the optical components of current white-light profilometers. The adaptive-signal-processing method would make it possible to attain scanning ranges of the order of decimeters in the proposed profilometers.

  5. Perspectives on Highly Adaptive or Morphing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Busan, Ronald C.; Hahn, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to adapt to different flight conditions has been fundamental to aircraft design since the Wright Brothers first flight. Over a hundred years later, unconventional aircraft adaptability, often called aircraft morphing has become a topic of considerable renewed interest. In the past two decades, this interest has been largely fuelled by advancements in multi-functional or smart materials and structures. However, highly adaptive or morphing aircraft is certainly a cross-discipline challenge that stimulates a wide range of design possibilities. This paper will review some of the history of morphing aircraft including recent research programs and discuss some perspectives on this work.

  6. Adaptive muffler based on controlled flow valves.

    PubMed

    Šteblaj, Peter; Čudina, Mirko; Lipar, Primož; Prezelj, Jurij

    2015-06-01

    An adaptive muffler with a flexible internal structure is considered. Flexibility is achieved using controlled flow valves. The proposed adaptive muffler is able to adapt to changes in engine operating conditions. It consists of a Helmholtz resonator, expansion chamber, and quarter wavelength resonator. Different combinations of the control valves' states at different operating conditions define the main working principle. To control the valve's position, an active noise control approach was used. With the proposed muffler, the transmission loss can be increased by more than 10 dB in the selected frequency range. PMID:26093462

  7. Adaptation Driven by Spatial Heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermsen, Rutger

    2011-03-01

    Biological evolution and ecology are intimately linked, because the reproductive success or ``fitness'' of an organism depends crucially on its ecosystem. Yet, most models of evolution (or population genetics) consider homogeneous, fixed-size populations subjected to a constant selection pressure. To move one step beyond such ``mean field'' descriptions, we discuss stochastic models of evolution driven by spatial heterogeneity. We imagine a population whose range is limited by a spatially varying environmental parameter, such as a temperature or the concentration of an antibiotic drug. Individuals in the population replicate, die and migrate stochastically. Also, by mutation, they can adapt to the environmental stress and expand their range. This way, adaptation and niche expansion go hand in hand. This mode of evolution is qualitatively different from the usual notion of a population climbing a fitness gradient. We analytically calculate the rate of adaptation by solving a first passage time problem. Interestingly, the joint effects of reproduction, death, mutation and migration result in two distinct parameter regimes depending on the relative time scales of mutation and migration. We argue that the proposed scenario may be relevant for the rapid evolution of antibiotic resistance. This work was supported by the Center for Theoretical Biological Physics sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF) (Grant PHY-0822283).

  8. Individual differences in BEV drivers' range stress during first encounter of a critical range situation.

    PubMed

    Franke, Thomas; Rauh, Nadine; Krems, Josef F

    2016-11-01

    It is commonly held that range anxiety, in the form of experienced range stress, constitutes a usage barrier, particularly during the early period of battery electric vehicle (BEV) usage. To better understand factors that play a role in range stress during this critical period of adaptation to limited-range mobility, we examined individual differences in experienced range stress in the context of a critical range situation. In a field experiment, 74 participants drove a BEV on a 94-km round trip, which was tailored to lead to a critical range situation (i.e., small available range safety buffer). Higher route familiarity, trust in the range estimation system, system knowledge, subjective range competence, and internal control beliefs in dealing with technology were clearly related to lower experienced range stress; emotional stability (i.e., low neuroticism) was partly related to lower range stress. These results can inform strategies aimed at reducing range stress during early BEV usage, as well as contribute to a better understanding of factors that drive user experience in low-resource systems, which is a key topic in the field of green ergonomics. PMID:26456746

  9. Light beam range finder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    A "laser tape measure" for measuring distance which includes a transmitter such as a laser diode which transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal. A receiver samples reflections from objects within the field of the sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing, in response to a receive timing signal. The receiver generates a sample signal in response to the samples which indicates distance to the object causing the reflections. The timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the reflection such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence in sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The transmit timing signal causes the transmitter to transmit the sequence of electromagnetic pulses at a pulse repetition rate, and the received timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that reflections are sampled at the pulse repetition rate and with different delays in the range of delays, such that the sample signal represents received reflections in equivalent time. The receiver according to one aspect of the invention includes an avalanche photodiode and a sampling gate coupled to the photodiode which is responsive to the received timing signal. The transmitter includes a laser diode which supplies a sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses. A bright spot projected on to the target clearly indicates the point that is being measured, and the user can read the range to that point with precision of better than 0.1%.

  10. Light beam range finder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-06-16

    A ``laser tape measure`` for measuring distance is disclosed which includes a transmitter such as a laser diode which transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal. A receiver samples reflections from objects within the field of the sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing, in response to a receive timing signal. The receiver generates a sample signal in response to the samples which indicates distance to the object causing the reflections. The timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the reflection such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence in sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The transmit timing signal causes the transmitter to transmit the sequence of electromagnetic pulses at a pulse repetition rate, and the received timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that reflections are sampled at the pulse repetition rate and with different delays in the range of delays, such that the sample signal represents received reflections in equivalent time. The receiver according to one aspect of the invention includes an avalanche photodiode and a sampling gate coupled to the photodiode which is responsive to the received timing signal. The transmitter includes a laser diode which supplies a sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses. A bright spot projected on to the target clearly indicates the point that is being measured, and the user can read the range to that point with precision of better than 0.1%. 7 figs.

  11. University Students' Online Information Searching Strategies in Different Search Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Meng-Jung; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Hou, Huei-Tse; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the role of search context played in university students' online information searching strategies. A total of 304 university students in Taiwan were surveyed with questionnaires in which two search contexts were defined as searching for learning, and searching for daily life information. Students' online search strategies…

  12. VisSearch: A Collaborative Web Searching Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Young-Jin

    2005-01-01

    VisSearch is a collaborative Web searching environment intended for sharing Web search results among people with similar interests, such as college students taking the same course. It facilitates students' Web searches by visualizing various Web searching processes. It also collects the visualized Web search results and applies an association rule…

  13. Front Range Report, Abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, William

    The second regional conference of the Front Range Branch, AGU, was attended by more than 80 professionals and some 20 outstanding high school students. The conference included 2 days of interdisciplinary talks, and lots of discussion, that primarily were keyed to geophysical studies of Colorado, Wyoming, and New Mexico. Other talks reported on nonregional, and sometimes global, studies being done by geophypsicists of the Front Range region.Topics included tectonics of the Front Range and the Colorado Plateau, pollution of the Arkansas and Mississippi rivers, and a supreme polluting event that caused the late-Cretaceous extinctions. Other notable talks were on toxic cleanup, microburst (wind shear) detection at U.S. airports, and other meteorological studies. Several talks treated the audience to the excitement of new work and surprise discoveries. The meeting was multimedia, including the playing of two videos through a projection TV and the playing of a fascinating tape between an airport control tower and incoming pilots during a severe microburst event.

  14. Organic sonobuoy ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felgate, Nick

    2002-11-01

    It is important that military vessels periodically check their passive signatures for vunerabilities. Traditionally, this is undertaken on a fixed range (e.g., AUTEC, BUTEC) with low noise conditions. However, for operational and cost reasons it is desirable to be able to undertake such measurements while the asset is operating in other areas using expendable buoys deployed by the vessel itself. As well as the wet-end hardware for such organic sonobuoy ranging systems (e.g., calibrated sonobuoys, calibrated data uplink channels), careful consideration is needed of the signal-processing required in the harsher environmental conditions of the open ocean. In particular, it is noted that the open ocean is usually much noisier, and the propagation conditions more variable. To overcome signal-to-noise problems, techniques such as Doppler-correction, zero-padding/peak-picking, and noise estimation/correction techniques have been developed to provide accurate and unbiased estimates of received levels. To estimate propagation loss for source level estimation, a model of multipath effects has been included with the ability for analysts to compare predicted and observed received levels against time/range and adjust modeling parameters (e.g., surface loss, bottom loss, source depth) to improve the fit.

  15. Visual search and eye movements in novel and familiar contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermott, Kyle; Mulligan, Jeffrey B.; Bebis, George; Webster, Michael A.

    2006-02-01

    Adapting to the visual characteristics of a specific environment may facilitate detecting novel stimuli within that environment. We monitored eye movements while subjects searched for a color target on familiar or unfamiliar color backgrounds, in order to test for these performance changes and to explore whether they reflect changes in salience from adaptation vs. changes in search strategies or perceptual learning. The target was an ellipse of variable color presented at a random location on a dense background of ellipses. In one condition, the colors of the background varied along either the LvsM or SvsLM cardinal axes. Observers adapted by viewing a rapid succession of backgrounds drawn from one color axis, and then searched for a target on a background from the same or different color axis. Searches were monitored with a Cambridge Research Systems Video Eyetracker. Targets were located more quickly on the background axis that observers were pre-exposed to, confirming that this exposure can improve search efficiency for stimuli that differ from the background. However, eye movement patterns (e.g. fixation durations and saccade magnitudes) did not clearly differ across the two backgrounds, suggesting that how the novel and familiar backgrounds were sampled remained similar. In a second condition, we compared search on a nonselective color background drawn from a circle of hues at fixed contrast. Prior exposure to this background did not facilitate search compared to an achromatic adapting field, suggesting that subjects were not simply learning the specific colors defining the background distributions. Instead, results for both conditions are consistent with a selective adaptation effect that enhances the salience of novel stimuli by partially discounting the background.

  16. HMMER web server: interactive sequence similarity searching

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Robert D.; Clements, Jody; Eddy, Sean R.

    2011-01-01

    HMMER is a software suite for protein sequence similarity searches using probabilistic methods. Previously, HMMER has mainly been available only as a computationally intensive UNIX command-line tool, restricting its use. Recent advances in the software, HMMER3, have resulted in a 100-fold speed gain relative to previous versions. It is now feasible to make efficient profile hidden Markov model (profile HMM) searches via the web. A HMMER web server (http://hmmer.janelia.org) has been designed and implemented such that most protein database searches return within a few seconds. Methods are available for searching either a single protein sequence, multiple protein sequence alignment or profile HMM against a target sequence database, and for searching a protein sequence against Pfam. The web server is designed to cater to a range of different user expertise and accepts batch uploading of multiple queries at once. All search methods are also available as RESTful web services, thereby allowing them to be readily integrated as remotely executed tasks in locally scripted workflows. We have focused on minimizing search times and the ability to rapidly display tabular results, regardless of the number of matches found, developing graphical summaries of the search results to provide quick, intuitive appraisement of them. PMID:21593126

  17. Short range gravity and T-Violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Saki

    2014-09-01

    A torsion balance experiment Newton-IVh at Rikkyo University, aiming to test gravitational inverse square law at millimeter scale, and the MTV-G experiment searching a strong gravity at around nuclei utilizing detector setup for a T-Violation (the MTV) experiment at TRIUMF will be introduced. In addition, comparison with the LHC results on search for the large extra dimension and the sensitivity of the short range gravity experiments will be discussed on the contexts of conventional Yukawa and power law parameterizations. The experimental constraints obtained from atomic spectroscopy including anti-protonic helium atom, together with our results at Rikkyo University on the test of universality of free fall in centimeter scale, will also be discussed as a test of inverse square law and composition depending gravity, which can be investigated at antimatter gravity experiments.

  18. Social and Natural Sciences Differ in Their Research Strategies, Adapted to Work for Different Knowledge Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Jaffe, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Do different fields of knowledge require different research strategies? A numerical model exploring different virtual knowledge landscapes, revealed two diverging optimal search strategies. Trend following is maximized when the popularity of new discoveries determine the number of individuals researching it. This strategy works best when many researchers explore few large areas of knowledge. In contrast, individuals or small groups of researchers are better in discovering small bits of information in dispersed knowledge landscapes. Bibliometric data of scientific publications showed a continuous bipolar distribution of these strategies, ranging from natural sciences, with highly cited publications in journals containing a large number of articles, to the social sciences, with rarely cited publications in many journals containing a small number of articles. The natural sciences seem to adapt their research strategies to landscapes with large concentrated knowledge clusters, whereas social sciences seem to have adapted to search in landscapes with many small isolated knowledge clusters. Similar bipolar distributions were obtained when comparing levels of insularity estimated by indicators of international collaboration and levels of country-self citations: researchers in academic areas with many journals such as social sciences, arts and humanities, were the most isolated, and that was true in different regions of the world. The work shows that quantitative measures estimating differences between academic disciplines improve our understanding of different research strategies, eventually helping interdisciplinary research and may be also help improve science policies worldwide. PMID:25426723

  19. Robots that can adapt like animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cully, Antoine; Clune, Jeff; Tarapore, Danesh; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-05-01

    Robots have transformed many industries, most notably manufacturing, and have the power to deliver tremendous benefits to society, such as in search and rescue, disaster response, health care and transportation. They are also invaluable tools for scientific exploration in environments inaccessible to humans, from distant planets to deep oceans. A major obstacle to their widespread adoption in more complex environments outside factories is their fragility. Whereas animals can quickly adapt to injuries, current robots cannot `think outside the box' to find a compensatory behaviour when they are damaged: they are limited to their pre-specified self-sensing abilities, can diagnose only anticipated failure modes, and require a pre-programmed contingency plan for every type of potential damage, an impracticality for complex robots. A promising approach to reducing robot fragility involves having robots learn appropriate behaviours in response to damage, but current techniques are slow even with small, constrained search spaces. Here we introduce an intelligent trial-and-error algorithm that allows robots to adapt to damage in less than two minutes in large search spaces without requiring self-diagnosis or pre-specified contingency plans. Before the robot is deployed, it uses a novel technique to create a detailed map of the space of high-performing behaviours. This map represents the robot's prior knowledge about what behaviours it can perform and their value. When the robot is damaged, it uses this prior knowledge to guide a trial-and-error learning algorithm that conducts intelligent experiments to rapidly discover a behaviour that compensates for the damage. Experiments reveal successful adaptations for a legged robot injured in five different ways, including damaged, broken, and missing legs, and for a robotic arm with joints broken in 14 different ways. This new algorithm will enable more robust, effective, autonomous robots, and may shed light on the principles

  20. Robots that can adapt like animals.

    PubMed

    Cully, Antoine; Clune, Jeff; Tarapore, Danesh; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-05-28

    Robots have transformed many industries, most notably manufacturing, and have the power to deliver tremendous benefits to society, such as in search and rescue, disaster response, health care and transportation. They are also invaluable tools for scientific exploration in environments inaccessible to humans, from distant planets to deep oceans. A major obstacle to their widespread adoption in more complex environments outside factories is their fragility. Whereas animals can quickly adapt to injuries, current robots cannot 'think outside the box' to find a compensatory behaviour when they are damaged: they are limited to their pre-specified self-sensing abilities, can diagnose only anticipated failure modes, and require a pre-programmed contingency plan for every type of potential damage, an impracticality for complex robots. A promising approach to reducing robot fragility involves having robots learn appropriate behaviours in response to damage, but current techniques are slow even with small, constrained search spaces. Here we introduce an intelligent trial-and-error algorithm that allows robots to adapt to damage in less than two minutes in large search spaces without requiring self-diagnosis or pre-specified contingency plans. Before the robot is deployed, it uses a novel technique to create a detailed map of the space of high-performing behaviours. This map represents the robot's prior knowledge about what behaviours it can perform and their value. When the robot is damaged, it uses this prior knowledge to guide a trial-and-error learning algorithm that conducts intelligent experiments to rapidly discover a behaviour that compensates for the damage. Experiments reveal successful adaptations for a legged robot injured in five different ways, including damaged, broken, and missing legs, and for a robotic arm with joints broken in 14 different ways. This new algorithm will enable more robust, effective, autonomous robots, and may shed light on the principles

  1. IntentSearch: Capturing User Intention for One-Click Internet Image Search.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoou; Liu, Ke; Cui, Jingyu; Wen, Fang; Wang, Xiaogang

    2012-07-01

    Web-scale image search engines (e.g., Google image search, Bing image search) mostly rely on surrounding text features. It is difficult for them to interpret users' search intention only by query keywords and this leads to ambiguous and noisy search results which are far from satisfactory. It is important to use visual information in order to solve the ambiguity in text-based image retrieval. In this paper, we propose a novel Internet image search approach. It only requires the user to click on one query image with minimum effort and images from a pool retrieved by text-based search are reranked based on both visual and textual content. Our key contribution is to capture the users' search intention from this one-click query image in four steps. 1) The query image is categorized into one of the predefined adaptive weight categories which reflect users' search intention at a coarse level. Inside each category, a specific weight schema is used to combine visual features adaptive to this kind of image to better rerank the text-based search result. 2) Based on the visual content of the query image selected by the user and through image clustering, query keywords are expanded to capture user intention. 3) Expanded keywords are used to enlarge the image pool to contain more relevant images. 4) Expanded keywords are also used to expand the query image to multiple positive visual examples from which new query specific visual and textual similarity metrics are learned to further improve content-based image reranking. All these steps are automatic, without extra effort from the user. This is critically important for any commercial web-based image search engine, where the user interface has to be extremely simple. Besides this key contribution, a set of visual features which are both effective and efficient in Internet image search are designed. Experimental evaluation shows that our approach significantly improves the precision of top-ranked images and also the user

  2. Adaptive vibration energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, Sam; Ward, John; Davidson, Josh

    2007-04-01

    By scavenging energy from their local environment, portable electronic devices such as mobile phones, radios and wireless sensors can achieve greater run-times with potentially lower weight. Vibration energy harvesting is one such approach where energy from parasitic vibrations can be converted into electrical energy, through the use of piezoelectric and electromagnetic transducers. Parasitic vibrations come from a range of sources such as wind, seismic forces and traffic. Existing approaches to vibration energy harvesting typically utilise a rectifier circuit, which is tuned to the resonant frequency of the harvesting structure and the dominant frequency of vibration. We have developed a novel approach to vibration energy harvesting, including adaption to non-periodic vibrations so as to extract the maximum amount of vibration energy available. Experimental results of an experimental apparatus using off-the-shelf transducer (i.e. speaker coil) show mechanical vibration to electrical energy conversion efficiencies of 27 - 34%. However, simulations of a more electro-mechanical efficient and lightly damped transducer show conversion efficiencies in excess of 80%.

  3. Origins of adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that adaptive immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning adaptive immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which adaptive immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of adaptive immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into adaptive immunity. PMID:21395512

  4. Parallel Anisotropic Tetrahedral Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Darmofal, David L.

    2008-01-01

    An adaptive method that robustly produces high aspect ratio tetrahedra to a general 3D metric specification without introducing hybrid semi-structured regions is presented. The elemental operators and higher-level logic is described with their respective domain-decomposed parallelizations. An anisotropic tetrahedral grid adaptation scheme is demonstrated for 1000-1 stretching for a simple cube geometry. This form of adaptation is applicable to more complex domain boundaries via a cut-cell approach as demonstrated by a parallel 3D supersonic simulation of a complex fighter aircraft. To avoid the assumptions and approximations required to form a metric to specify adaptation, an approach is introduced that directly evaluates interpolation error. The grid is adapted to reduce and equidistribute this interpolation error calculation without the use of an intervening anisotropic metric. Direct interpolation error adaptation is illustrated for 1D and 3D domains.

  5. Gravitational adaptation of animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. H.; Burton, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of gravitational adaptation is studied in a group of five Leghorn cocks which had become physiologically adapted to 2 G after 162 days of centrifugation. After this period of adaptation, they are periodically exposed to a 2 G field, accompanied by five previously unexposed hatch-mates, and the degree of retained acceleration adaptation is estimated from the decrease in lymphocyte frequency after 24 hr at 2 G. Results show that the previously adapted birds exhibit an 84% greater lymphopenia than the unexposed birds, and that the lymphocyte frequency does not decrease to a level below that found at the end of 162 days at 2 G. In addition, the capacity for adaptation to chronic acceleration is found to be highly heritable. An acceleration tolerant strain of birds shows lesser mortality during chronic acceleration, particularly in intermediate fields, although the result of acceleration selection is largely quantitative (a greater number of survivors) rather than qualitative (behavioral or physiological changes).

  6. Technology transfer for adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagini, Bonizella; Kuhl, Laura; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Ortiz, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    Technology alone will not be able to solve adaptation challenges, but it is likely to play an important role. As a result of the role of technology in adaptation and the importance of international collaboration for climate change, technology transfer for adaptation is a critical but understudied issue. Through an analysis of Global Environment Facility-managed adaptation projects, we find there is significantly more technology transfer occurring in adaptation projects than might be expected given the pessimistic rhetoric surrounding technology transfer for adaptation. Most projects focused on demonstration and early deployment/niche formation for existing technologies rather than earlier stages of innovation, which is understandable considering the pilot nature of the projects. Key challenges for the transfer process, including technology selection and appropriateness under climate change, markets and access to technology, and diffusion strategies are discussed in more detail.

  7. Plant adaptation to drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Supratim; Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Kumar, Anuj; Pereira, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Plants in their natural habitats adapt to drought stress in the environment through a variety of mechanisms, ranging from transient responses to low soil moisture to major survival mechanisms of escape by early flowering in absence of seasonal rainfall. However, crop plants selected by humans to yield products such as grain, vegetable, or fruit in favorable environments with high inputs of water and fertilizer are expected to yield an economic product in response to inputs. Crop plants selected for their economic yield need to survive drought stress through mechanisms that maintain crop yield. Studies on model plants for their survival under stress do not, therefore, always translate to yield of crop plants under stress, and different aspects of drought stress response need to be emphasized. The crop plant model rice ( Oryza sativa) is used here as an example to highlight mechanisms and genes for adaptation of crop plants to drought stress. PMID:27441087

  8. Searching for inefficiency in visual search.

    PubMed

    Christie, Gregory J; Livingstone, Ashley C; McDonald, John J

    2015-01-01

    The time required to find an object of interest in the visual field often increases as a function of the number of items present. This increase or inefficiency was originally interpreted as evidence for the serial allocation of attention to potential target items, but controversy has ensued for decades. We investigated this issue by recording ERPs from humans searching for a target in displays containing several differently colored items. Search inefficiency was ascribed not to serial search but to the time required to selectively process the target once found. Additionally, less time was required for the target to "pop out" from the rest of the display when the color of the target repeated across trials. These findings indicate that task relevance can cause otherwise inconspicuous items to pop out and highlight the need for direct neurophysiological measures when investigating the causes of search inefficiency. PMID:25203277

  9. Adaptation as organism design

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Andy

    2009-01-01

    The problem of adaptation is to explain the apparent design of organisms. Darwin solved this problem with the theory of natural selection. However, population geneticists, whose responsibility it is to formalize evolutionary theory, have long neglected the link between natural selection and organismal design. Here, I review the major historical developments in theory of organismal adaptation, clarifying what adaptation is and what it is not, and I point out future avenues for research. PMID:19793739

  10. Cooperative Search and Rescue with Artificial Fishes Based on Fish-Swarm Algorithm for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Tang, Zhenmin; Yang, Yuwang; Wang, Lei; Lan, Shaohua

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a searching control approach for cooperating mobile sensor networks. We use a density function to represent the frequency of distress signals issued by victims. The mobile nodes' moving in mission space is similar to the behaviors of fish-swarm in water. So, we take the mobile node as artificial fish node and define its operations by a probabilistic model over a limited range. A fish-swarm based algorithm is designed requiring local information at each fish node and maximizing the joint detection probabilities of distress signals. Optimization of formation is also considered for the searching control approach and is optimized by fish-swarm algorithm. Simulation results include two schemes: preset route and random walks, and it is showed that the control scheme has adaptive and effective properties. PMID:24741341

  11. Cooperative search and rescue with artificial fishes based on fish-swarm algorithm for underwater wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Tang, Zhenmin; Yang, Yuwang; Wang, Lei; Lan, Shaohua

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a searching control approach for cooperating mobile sensor networks. We use a density function to represent the frequency of distress signals issued by victims. The mobile nodes' moving in mission space is similar to the behaviors of fish-swarm in water. So, we take the mobile node as artificial fish node and define its operations by a probabilistic model over a limited range. A fish-swarm based algorithm is designed requiring local information at each fish node and maximizing the joint detection probabilities of distress signals. Optimization of formation is also considered for the searching control approach and is optimized by fish-swarm algorithm. Simulation results include two schemes: preset route and random walks, and it is showed that the control scheme has adaptive and effective properties. PMID:24741341

  12. Anatomy of Student Models in Adaptive Learning Systems: A Systematic Literature Review of Individual Differences from 2001 to 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakic, Jelena; Granic, Andrina; Glavinic, Vlado

    2015-01-01

    This study brings an evidence-based review of user individual characteristics employed as sources of adaptation in recent adaptive learning systems. Twenty-two user individual characteristics were explored in a systematically designed search procedure, while 17 of them were identified as sources of adaptation in final selection. The content…

  13. Human adaptation to smog

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, G.W. Jacobs, S.V.; Frager, N.B.

    1982-10-01

    This study examined the health effects of human adaptation to photochemical smog. A group of recent arrivals to the Los Angeles air basin were compared to long-term residents of the basin. Evidence for adaptation included greater irritation and respiratory problems among the recent arrivals and desensitization among the long-term residents in their judgments of the severity of the smog problem to their health. There was no evidence for biochemical adaptation as measured by hemoglobin response to oxidant challenge. The results were discussed in terms of psychological adaption to chronic environmental stressors.

  14. Adaptive parallel logic networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Tony R.; Vidal, Jacques J.

    1988-01-01

    Adaptive, self-organizing concurrent systems (ASOCS) that combine self-organization with massive parallelism for such applications as adaptive logic devices, robotics, process control, and system malfunction management, are presently discussed. In ASOCS, an adaptive network composed of many simple computing elements operating in combinational and asynchronous fashion is used and problems are specified by presenting if-then rules to the system in the form of Boolean conjunctions. During data processing, which is a different operational phase from adaptation, the network acts as a parallel hardware circuit.

  15. Quantifying the Adaptive Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Hjerne, Olle; Winder, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994–2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems. PMID:26716453

  16. Decentralized adaptive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, B. J.; Jamshidi, M.; Seraji, H.

    1988-01-01

    A decentralized adaptive control is proposed to stabilize and track the nonlinear, interconnected subsystems with unknown parameters. The adaptation of the controller gain is derived by using model reference adaptive control theory based on Lyapunov's direct method. The adaptive gains consist of sigma, proportional, and integral combination of the measured and reference values of the corresponding subsystem. The proposed control is applied to the joint control of a two-link robot manipulator, and the performance in computer simulation corresponds with what is expected in theoretical development.

  17. An Adaptive Motion Estimation Scheme for Video Coding

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuan; Jia, Kebin

    2014-01-01

    The unsymmetrical-cross multihexagon-grid search (UMHexagonS) is one of the best fast Motion Estimation (ME) algorithms in video encoding software. It achieves an excellent coding performance by using hybrid block matching search pattern and multiple initial search point predictors at the cost of the computational complexity of ME increased. Reducing time consuming of ME is one of the key factors to improve video coding efficiency. In this paper, we propose an adaptive motion estimation scheme to further reduce the calculation redundancy of UMHexagonS. Firstly, new motion estimation search patterns have been designed according to the statistical results of motion vector (MV) distribution information. Then, design a MV distribution prediction method, including prediction of the size of MV and the direction of MV. At last, according to the MV distribution prediction results, achieve self-adaptive subregional searching by the new estimation search patterns. Experimental results show that more than 50% of total search points are dramatically reduced compared to the UMHexagonS algorithm in JM 18.4 of H.264/AVC. As a result, the proposed algorithm scheme can save the ME time up to 20.86% while the rate-distortion performance is not compromised. PMID:24672313

  18. Neutron range spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Manglos, S.H.

    1988-03-10

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are colliminated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. 1 fig.

  19. Gas cooking range

    SciTech Connect

    Narang, R.K.; Narang, K.

    1984-02-14

    An energy-efficient gas cooking range features an oven section with improved heat circulation and air preheat, a compact oven/broiler burner, a smoke-free drip pan, an efficient piloted ignition, flame-containing rangetop burner rings, and a small, portable oven that can be supported on the burner rings. Panels spaced away from the oven walls and circulation fans provide very effective air flow within the oven. A gas shutoff valve automatically controls the discharge of heated gases from the oven so that they are discharged only when combustion is occurring.

  20. Distributed recurrent neural forward models with synaptic adaptation and CPG-based control for complex behaviors of walking robots

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2015-01-01

    Walking animals, like stick insects, cockroaches or ants, demonstrate a fascinating range of locomotive abilities and complex behaviors. The locomotive behaviors can consist of a variety of walking patterns along with adaptation that allow the animals to deal with changes in environmental conditions, like uneven terrains, gaps, obstacles etc. Biological study has revealed that such complex behaviors are a result of a combination of biomechanics and neural mechanism thus representing the true nature of embodied interactions. While the biomechanics helps maintain flexibility and sustain a variety of movements, the neural mechanisms generate movements while making appropriate predictions crucial for achieving adaptation. Such predictions or planning ahead can be achieved by way of internal models that are grounded in the overall behavior of the animal. Inspired by these findings, we present here, an artificial bio-inspired walking system which effectively combines biomechanics (in terms of the body and leg structures) with the underlying neural mechanisms. The neural mechanisms consist of (1) central pattern generator based control for generating basic rhythmic patterns and coordinated movements, (2) distributed (at each leg) recurrent neural network based adaptive forward models with efference copies as internal models for sensory predictions and instantaneous state estimations, and (3) searching and elevation control for adapting the movement of an individual leg to deal with different environmental conditions. Using simulations we show that this bio-inspired approach with adaptive internal models allows the walking robot to perform complex locomotive behaviors as observed in insects, including walking on undulated terrains, crossing large gaps, leg damage adaptations, as well as climbing over high obstacles. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the newly developed recurrent network based approach to online forward models outperforms the adaptive neuron forward models

  1. Adaptive radiations: From field to genomic studies

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Scott A.; Derieg, Nathan J.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive radiations were central to Darwin's formation of his theory of natural selection, and today they are still the centerpiece for many studies of adaptation and speciation. Here, we review the advantages of adaptive radiations, especially recent ones, for detecting evolutionary trends and the genetic dissection of adaptive traits. We focus on Aquilegia as a primary example of these advantages and highlight progress in understanding the genetic basis of flower color. Phylogenetic analysis of Aquilegia indicates that flower color transitions proceed by changes in the types of anthocyanin pigments produced or their complete loss. Biochemical, crossing, and gene expression studies have provided a wealth of information about the genetic basis of these transitions in Aquilegia. To obtain both enzymatic and regulatory candidate genes for the entire flavonoid pathway, which produces anthocyanins, we used a combination of sequence searches of the Aquilegia Gene Index, phylogenetic analyses, and the isolation of novel sequences by using degenerate PCR and RACE. In total we identified 34 genes that are likely involved in the flavonoid pathway. A number of these genes appear to be single copy in Aquilegia and thus variation in their expression may have been key for floral color evolution. Future studies will be able to use these sequences along with next-generation sequencing technologies to follow expression and sequence variation at the population level. The genetic dissection of other adaptive traits in Aquilegia should also be possible soon as genomic resources such as whole-genome sequencing become available. PMID:19528644

  2. Adaptive radiations: from field to genomic studies.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Scott A; Derieg, Nathan J

    2009-06-16

    Adaptive radiations were central to Darwin's formation of his theory of natural selection, and today they are still the centerpiece for many studies of adaptation and speciation. Here, we review the advantages of adaptive radiations, especially recent ones, for detecting evolutionary trends and the genetic dissection of adaptive traits. We focus on Aquilegia as a primary example of these advantages and highlight progress in understanding the genetic basis of flower color. Phylogenetic analysis of Aquilegia indicates that flower color transitions proceed by changes in the types of anthocyanin pigments produced or their complete loss. Biochemical, crossing, and gene expression studies have provided a wealth of information about the genetic basis of these transitions in Aquilegia. To obtain both enzymatic and regulatory candidate genes for the entire flavonoid pathway, which produces anthocyanins, we used a combination of sequence searches of the Aquilegia Gene Index, phylogenetic analyses, and the isolation of novel sequences by using degenerate PCR and RACE. In total we identified 34 genes that are likely involved in the flavonoid pathway. A number of these genes appear to be single copy in Aquilegia and thus variation in their expression may have been key for floral color evolution. Future studies will be able to use these sequences along with next-generation sequencing technologies to follow expression and sequence variation at the population level. The genetic dissection of other adaptive traits in Aquilegia should also be possible soon as genomic resources such as whole-genome sequencing become available. PMID:19528644

  3. Monocular visual ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witus, Gary; Hunt, Shawn

    2008-04-01

    The vision system of a mobile robot for checkpoint and perimeter security inspection performs multiple functions: providing surveillance video, providing high resolution still images, and providing video for semi-autonomous visual navigation. Mid-priced commercial digital cameras support the primary inspection functions. Semi-autonomous visual navigation is a tertiary function whose purpose is to reduce the burden of teleoperation and free the security personnel for their primary functions. Approaches to robot visual navigation require some form of depth perception for speed control to prevent the robot from colliding with objects. In this paper present the initial results of an exploration of the capabilities and limitations of using a single monocular commercial digital camera for depth perception. Our approach combines complementary methods in alternating stationary and moving behaviors. When the platform is stationary, it computes a range image from differential blur in the image stack collected at multiple focus settings. When the robot is moving, it extracts an estimate of range from the camera auto-focus function, and combines this with an estimate derived from angular expansion of a constellation of visual tracking points.

  4. Western Aeronautical Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakahara, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) is a network of facilities used to support aeronautical research, science missions, exploration system concepts, and space operations. The WATR resides at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The WATR is a part of NASA's Corporate Management of Aeronautical Facilities and funded by the Strategic Capability Asset Program (SCAP). It is managed by the Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) to provide the right facility at the right time. NASA is a tenant on Edwards Air Force Base and has an agreement with the Air Force Flight Test Center to use the land and airspace controlled by the Department of Defense (DoD). The topics include: 1) The WATR supports a variety of vehicles; 2) Dryden shares airspace with the AFFTC; 3) Restricted airspace, corridors, and special use areas are available for experimental aircraft; 4) WATR Products and Services; 5) WATR Support Configuration; 6) Telemetry Tracking; 7) Time Space Positioning; 8) Video; 9) Voice Communication; 10) Mobile Operations Facilities; 11) Data Processing; 12) Mission Control Center; 13) Real-Time Data Analysis; and 14) Range Safety.

  5. Range Process Simulation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Dave; Haas, William; Barth, Tim; Benjamin, Perakath; Graul, Michael; Bagatourova, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Range Process Simulation Tool (RPST) is a computer program that assists managers in rapidly predicting and quantitatively assessing the operational effects of proposed technological additions to, and/or upgrades of, complex facilities and engineering systems such as the Eastern Test Range. Originally designed for application to space transportation systems, RPST is also suitable for assessing effects of proposed changes in industrial facilities and large organizations. RPST follows a model-based approach that includes finite-capacity schedule analysis and discrete-event process simulation. A component-based, scalable, open architecture makes RPST easily and rapidly tailorable for diverse applications. Specific RPST functions include: (1) definition of analysis objectives and performance metrics; (2) selection of process templates from a processtemplate library; (3) configuration of process models for detailed simulation and schedule analysis; (4) design of operations- analysis experiments; (5) schedule and simulation-based process analysis; and (6) optimization of performance by use of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing. The main benefits afforded by RPST are provision of information that can be used to reduce costs of operation and maintenance, and the capability for affordable, accurate, and reliable prediction and exploration of the consequences of many alternative proposed decisions.

  6. Applying Adaptive Variables in Computerised Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triantafillou, Evangelos; Georgiadou, Elissavet; Economides, Anastasios A.

    2007-01-01

    Current research in computerised adaptive testing (CAT) focuses on applications, in small and large scale, that address self assessment, training, employment, teacher professional development for schools, industry, military, assessment of non-cognitive skills, etc. Dynamic item generation tools and automated scoring of complex, constructed…

  7. Range imaging laser radar

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Marion W.

    1990-01-01

    A laser source is operated continuously and modulated periodically (typicy sinusoidally). A receiver imposes another periodic modulation on the received optical signal, the modulated signal being detected by an array of detectors of the integrating type. Range to the target determined by measuring the phase shift of the intensity modulation on the received optical beam relative to a reference. The receiver comprises a photoemitter for converting the reflected, periodically modulated, return beam to an accordingly modulated electron stream. The electron stream is modulated by a local demodulation signal source and subsequently converted back to a photon stream by a detector. A charge coupled device (CCD) array then averages and samples the photon stream to provide an electrical signal in accordance with the photon stream.

  8. Range imaging laser radar

    DOEpatents

    Scott, M.W.

    1990-06-19

    A laser source is operated continuously and modulated periodically (typically sinusoidally). A receiver imposes another periodic modulation on the received optical signal, the modulated signal being detected by an array of detectors of the integrating type. Range to the target determined by measuring the phase shift of the intensity modulation on the received optical beam relative to a reference. The receiver comprises a photoemitter for converting the reflected, periodically modulated, return beam to an accordingly modulated electron stream. The electron stream is modulated by a local demodulation signal source and subsequently converted back to a photon stream by a detector. A charge coupled device (CCD) array then averages and samples the photon stream to provide an electrical signal in accordance with the photon stream. 2 figs.

  9. Retinal Imaging: Adaptive Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, A. S.; Iroshnikov, N. G.; Larichev, Andrey V.

    This chapter describes several factors influencing the performance of ophthalmic diagnostic systems with adaptive optics compensation of human eye aberration. Particular attention is paid to speckle modulation, temporal behavior of aberrations, and anisoplanatic effects. The implementation of a fundus camera with adaptive optics is considered.

  10. Uncertainty in adaptive capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adger, W. Neil; Vincent, Katharine

    2005-03-01

    The capacity to adapt is a critical element of the process of adaptation: it is the vector of resources that represent the asset base from which adaptation actions can be made. Adaptive capacity can in theory be identified and measured at various scales, from the individual to the nation. The assessment of uncertainty within such measures comes from the contested knowledge domain and theories surrounding the nature of the determinants of adaptive capacity and the human action of adaptation. While generic adaptive capacity at the national level, for example, is often postulated as being dependent on health, governance and political rights, and literacy, and economic well-being, the determinants of these variables at national levels are not widely understood. We outline the nature of this uncertainty for the major elements of adaptive capacity and illustrate these issues with the example of a social vulnerability index for countries in Africa. To cite this article: W.N. Adger, K. Vincent, C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  11. Water Resource Adaptation Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Resource Adaptation Program (WRAP) contributes to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA) efforts to provide water resource managers and decision makers with the tools needed to adapt water resources to demographic and economic development, and future clim...

  12. Adaptive Sampling Proxy Application

    2012-10-22

    ASPA is an implementation of an adaptive sampling algorithm [1-3], which is used to reduce the computational expense of computer simulations that couple disparate physical scales. The purpose of ASPA is to encapsulate the algorithms required for adaptive sampling independently from any specific application, so that alternative algorithms and programming models for exascale computers can be investigated more easily.

  13. Adaptive Wavelet Transforms

    SciTech Connect

    Szu, H.; Hsu, C.

    1996-12-31

    Human sensors systems (HSS) may be approximately described as an adaptive or self-learning version of the Wavelet Transforms (WT) that are capable to learn from several input-output associative pairs of suitable transform mother wavelets. Such an Adaptive WT (AWT) is a redundant combination of mother wavelets to either represent or classify inputs.

  14. Lidar measurements of slant visual range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balin, Y. S.; Kavkyanov, S. I.; Krekov, G. M.; Razenkov, I. A.

    1986-01-01

    When converting the lidar equation relative to the extinction coefficient and, correspondingly, the visual range, the instability of the solution at the increase of the optical density of the sounding path is encountered. The search for a stable solution has resulted in the appearance of a set of inversion algorithms differing mainly in the manner of assigning the a priori information on the profile sought. A stable algorithm of inversion is suggested and a comparative analysis and experimental verification of some methods of processing the signals at sounding the optically dense atmospheric formations are given.

  15. Adaptation is automatic.

    PubMed

    Samuel, A G; Kat, D

    1998-04-01

    Two experiments were used to test whether selective adaptation for speech occurs automatically or instead requires attentional resources. A control condition demonstrated the usual large identification shifts caused by repeatedly presenting an adapting sound (/wa/, with listeners identifying members of a /ba/-/wa/ test series). Two types of distractor tasks were used: (1) Subjects did a rapid series of arithmetic problems during the adaptation periods (Experiments 1 and 2), or (2) they made a series of rhyming judgments, requiring phonetic coding (Experiment 2). A control experiment (Experiment 3) demonstrated that these tasks normally impose a heavy attentional cost on phonetic processing. Despite this, for both experimental conditions, the observed adaptation effect was just as large as in the control condition. This result indicates that adaptation is automatic, operating at an early, preattentive level. The implications of these results for current models of speech perception are discussed. PMID:9599999

  16. Demystifying the Search Button

    PubMed Central

    McKeever, Liam; Nguyen, Van; Peterson, Sarah J.; Gomez-Perez, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    A thorough review of the literature is the basis of all research and evidence-based practice. A gold-standard efficient and exhaustive search strategy is needed to ensure all relevant citations have been captured and that the search performed is reproducible. The PubMed database comprises both the MEDLINE and non-MEDLINE databases. MEDLINE-based search strategies are robust but capture only 89% of the total available citations in PubMed. The remaining 11% include the most recent and possibly relevant citations but are only searchable through less efficient techniques. An effective search strategy must employ both the MEDLINE and the non-MEDLINE portion of PubMed to ensure all studies have been identified. The robust MEDLINE search strategies are used for the MEDLINE portion of the search. Usage of the less robust strategies is then efficiently confined to search only the remaining 11% of PubMed citations that have not been indexed for MEDLINE. The current article offers step-by-step instructions for building such a search exploring methods for the discovery of medical subject heading (MeSH) terms to search MEDLINE, text-based methods for exploring the non-MEDLINE database, information on the limitations of convenience algorithms such as the “related citations feature,” the strengths and pitfalls associated with commonly used filters, the proper usage of Boolean operators to organize a master search strategy, and instructions for automating that search through “MyNCBI” to receive search query updates by email as new citations become available. PMID:26129895

  17. Sensorimotor adaptation of speech in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Mollaei, Fatemeh; Shiller, Douglas M; Gracco, Vincent L

    2013-10-01

    The basal ganglia are involved in establishing motor plans for a wide range of behaviors. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a manifestation of basal ganglia dysfunction associated with a deficit in sensorimotor integration and difficulty in acquiring new motor sequences, thereby affecting motor learning. Previous studies of sensorimotor integration and sensorimotor adaptation in PD have focused on limb movements using visual and force-field alterations. Here, we report the results from a sensorimotor adaptation experiment investigating the ability of PD patients to make speech motor adjustments to a constant and predictable auditory feedback manipulation. Participants produced speech while their auditory feedback was altered and maintained in a manner consistent with a change in tongue position. The degree of adaptation was associated with the severity of motor symptoms. The patients with PD exhibited adaptation to the induced sensory error; however, the degree of adaptation was reduced compared with healthy, age-matched control participants. The reduced capacity to adapt to a change in auditory feedback is consistent with reduced gain in the sensorimotor system for speech and with previous studies demonstrating limitations in the adaptation of limb movements after changes in visual feedback among patients with PD. PMID:23861349

  18. Exotics Searches with Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tykhonov, Andrii

    2015-03-01

    An overview is presented for the non-SUSY searches for New Physics with the ATLAS detector. The results presented use data collected at centerof-mass energies of √ s = 7 TeV and √ s = 8 TeV, for data sets corresponding to a variety of integrated luminosities. Searches using leptons, photons, missing transverse energy, and jets are performed, as well as searches requiring custom jet and track reconstruction, and searches for the so-called lepton jets. No deviations from Standard Model expectations are observed, hence constraints are placed on the phase space of available theoretical models.

  19. Neutron range spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Manglos, Stephen H.

    1989-06-06

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are collimnated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. The computer solves the following equation in the analysis: ##EQU1## where: N(x).DELTA.x=the number of neutron interactions measured between a position x and x+.DELTA.x, A.sub.i (E.sub.i).DELTA.E.sub.i =the number of incident neutrons with energy between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i, and C=C(E.sub.i)=N .sigma.(E.sub.i) where N=the number density of absorbing atoms in the position sensitive counter means and .sigma. (E.sub.i)=the average cross section of the absorbing interaction between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i.

  20. Adaptive Confidence Bands for Nonparametric Regression Functions

    PubMed Central

    Cai, T. Tony; Low, Mark; Ma, Zongming

    2014-01-01

    A new formulation for the construction of adaptive confidence bands in non-parametric function estimation problems is proposed. Confidence bands are constructed which have size that adapts to the smoothness of the function while guaranteeing that both the relative excess mass of the function lying outside the band and the measure of the set of points where the function lies outside the band are small. It is shown that the bands adapt over a maximum range of Lipschitz classes. The adaptive confidence band can be easily implemented in standard statistical software with wavelet support. Numerical performance of the procedure is investigated using both simulated and real datasets. The numerical results agree well with the theoretical analysis. The procedure can be easily modified and used for other nonparametric function estimation models. PMID:26269661

  1. Gradient gravitational search: An efficient metaheuristic algorithm for global optimization.

    PubMed

    Dash, Tirtharaj; Sahu, Prabhat K

    2015-05-30

    The adaptation of novel techniques developed in the field of computational chemistry to solve the concerned problems for large and flexible molecules is taking the center stage with regard to efficient algorithm, computational cost and accuracy. In this article, the gradient-based gravitational search (GGS) algorithm, using analytical gradients for a fast minimization to the next local minimum has been reported. Its efficiency as metaheuristic approach has also been compared with Gradient Tabu Search and others like: Gravitational Search, Cuckoo Search, and Back Tracking Search algorithms for global optimization. Moreover, the GGS approach has also been applied to computational chemistry problems for finding the minimal value potential energy of two-dimensional and three-dimensional off-lattice protein models. The simulation results reveal the relative stability and physical accuracy of protein models with efficient computational cost. PMID:25779670

  2. LAHS: A novel harmony search algorithm based on learning automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enayatifar, Rasul; Yousefi, Moslem; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Darus, Amer Nordin

    2013-12-01

    This study presents a learning automata-based harmony search (LAHS) for unconstrained optimization of continuous problems. The harmony search (HS) algorithm performance strongly depends on the fine tuning of its parameters, including the harmony consideration rate (HMCR), pitch adjustment rate (PAR) and bandwidth (bw). Inspired by the spur-in-time responses in the musical improvisation process, learning capabilities are employed in the HS to select these parameters based on spontaneous reactions. An extensive numerical investigation is conducted on several well-known test functions, and the results are compared with the HS algorithm and its prominent variants, including the improved harmony search (IHS), global-best harmony search (GHS) and self-adaptive global-best harmony search (SGHS). The numerical results indicate that the LAHS is more efficient in finding optimum solutions and outperforms the existing HS algorithm variants.

  3. Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Diachin, L; Hornung, R; Plassmann, P; WIssink, A

    2005-03-04

    As large-scale, parallel computers have become more widely available and numerical models and algorithms have advanced, the range of physical phenomena that can be simulated has expanded dramatically. Many important science and engineering problems exhibit solutions with localized behavior where highly-detailed salient features or large gradients appear in certain regions which are separated by much larger regions where the solution is smooth. Examples include chemically-reacting flows with radiative heat transfer, high Reynolds number flows interacting with solid objects, and combustion problems where the flame front is essentially a two-dimensional sheet occupying a small part of a three-dimensional domain. Modeling such problems numerically requires approximating the governing partial differential equations on a discrete domain, or grid. Grid spacing is an important factor in determining the accuracy and cost of a computation. A fine grid may be needed to resolve key local features while a much coarser grid may suffice elsewhere. Employing a fine grid everywhere may be inefficient at best and, at worst, may make an adequately resolved simulation impractical. Moreover, the location and resolution of fine grid required for an accurate solution is a dynamic property of a problem's transient features and may not be known a priori. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is a technique that can be used with both structured and unstructured meshes to adjust local grid spacing dynamically to capture solution features with an appropriate degree of resolution. Thus, computational resources can be focused where and when they are needed most to efficiently achieve an accurate solution without incurring the cost of a globally-fine grid. Figure 1.1 shows two example computations using AMR; on the left is a structured mesh calculation of a impulsively-sheared contact surface and on the right is the fuselage and volume discretization of an RAH-66 Comanche helicopter [35]. Note the

  4. How Users Search the Library from a Single Search Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lown, Cory; Sierra, Tito; Boyer, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Academic libraries are turning increasingly to unified search solutions to simplify search and discovery of library resources. Unfortunately, very little research has been published on library user search behavior in single search box environments. This study examines how users search a large public university library using a prominent, single…

  5. Computerized Literature Searching: An Orientation for the Search Requestor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabiano, Emily

    Developed to orient the information seeker to the computerized literature search process, this guide provides background information that will help the user facilitate the search interview and the formation of a search topic, enabling him or her to focus on personal search needs and not on the fundamentals of online searching. Major purposes for…

  6. Job Search, Search Intensity, and Labor Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloemen, Hans G.

    2005-01-01

    Job searches by both the unemployed and employed jobseekers are studied through an empirical structural job search model using a choice variable of search intensity. The resulting influence of search intensity on the labor market transitions is analyzed to give the estimation results of the search and the impact of the benefit level on the search…

  7. Wireless Jamming Localization by Exploiting Nodes' Hearing Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhenhua; Liu, Hongbo; Xu, Wenyuan; Chen, Yingying

    Jamming attacks are especially harmful when ensuring the dependability of wireless communication. Finding the position of a jammer will enable the network to actively exploit a wide range of defense strategies. Thus, in this paper, we focus on developing mechanisms to localize a jammer. We first conduct jamming effect analysis to examine how a hearing range, e.g., the area from which a node can successfully receive and decode the packet, alters with the jammer's location and transmission power. Then, we show that the affected hearing range can be estimated purely by examining the network topology changes caused by jamming attacks. As such, we solve the jammer location estimation by constructing a least-squares problem, which exploits the changes of the hearing ranges. Compared with our previous iterative-search-based virtual force algorithm, our proposed hearing-range-based algorithm exhibits lower computational cost (i.e., one-step instead of iterative searches) and higher localization accuracy.

  8. Dynamical Adaptation in Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Damon A.; Benichou, Raphael; Meister, Markus; Azeredo da Silveira, Rava

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is at the heart of sensation and nowhere is it more salient than in early visual processing. Light adaptation in photoreceptors is doubly dynamical: it depends upon the temporal structure of the input and it affects the temporal structure of the response. We introduce a non-linear dynamical adaptation model of photoreceptors. It is simple enough that it can be solved exactly and simulated with ease; analytical and numerical approaches combined provide both intuition on the behavior of dynamical adaptation and quantitative results to be compared with data. Yet the model is rich enough to capture intricate phenomenology. First, we show that it reproduces the known phenomenology of light response and short-term adaptation. Second, we present new recordings and demonstrate that the model reproduces cone response with great precision. Third, we derive a number of predictions on the response of photoreceptors to sophisticated stimuli such as periodic inputs, various forms of flickering inputs, and natural inputs. In particular, we demonstrate that photoreceptors undergo rapid adaptation of response gain and time scale, over ∼ 300 ms—i. e., over the time scale of the response itself—and we confirm this prediction with data. For natural inputs, this fast adaptation can modulate the response gain more than tenfold and is hence physiologically relevant. PMID:24244119

  9. Adaptive process control using fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines have developed adaptive process control systems in which genetic algorithms (GA's) are used to augment fuzzy logic controllers (FLC's). GA's are search algorithms that rapidly locate near-optimum solutions to a wide spectrum of problems by modeling the search procedures of natural genetics. FLC's are rule based systems that efficiently manipulate a problem environment by modeling the 'rule-of-thumb' strategy used in human decision making. Together, GA's and FLC's possess the capabilities necessary to produce powerful, efficient, and robust adaptive control systems. To perform efficiently, such control systems require a control element to manipulate the problem environment, and a learning element to adjust to the changes in the problem environment. Details of an overall adaptive control system are discussed. A specific laboratory acid-base pH system is used to demonstrate the ideas presented.

  10. Adaptive Process Control with Fuzzy Logic and Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines have developed adaptive process control systems in which genetic algorithms (GA's) are used to augment fuzzy logic controllers (FLC's). GA's are search algorithms that rapidly locate near-optimum solutions to a wide spectrum of problems by modeling the search procedures of natural genetics. FLC's are rule based systems that efficiently manipulate a problem environment by modeling the 'rule-of-thumb' strategy used in human decision-making. Together, GA's and FLC's possess the capabilities necessary to produce powerful, efficient, and robust adaptive control systems. To perform efficiently, such control systems require a control element to manipulate the problem environment, an analysis element to recognize changes in the problem environment, and a learning element to adjust to the changes in the problem environment. Details of an overall adaptive control system are discussed. A specific laboratory acid-base pH system is used to demonstrate the ideas presented.

  11. Novel Polymerase Gene Mutations for Human Adaptation in Clinical Isolates of Avian H5N1 Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Yasuha; Kawashita, Norihito; Daidoji, Tomo; Ibrahim, Madiha S.; El-Gendy, Emad M.; Takagi, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Kazuo; Suzuki, Yasuo; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Nakaya, Takaaki; Shioda, Tatsuo; Watanabe, Yohei

    2016-01-01

    A major determinant in the change of the avian influenza virus host range to humans is the E627K substitution in the PB2 polymerase protein. However, the polymerase activity of avian influenza viruses with a single PB2-E627K mutation is still lower than that of seasonal human influenza viruses, implying that avian viruses require polymerase mutations in addition to PB2-627K for human adaptation. Here, we used a database search of H5N1 clade 2.2.1 virus sequences with the PB2-627K mutation to identify other polymerase adaptation mutations that have been selected in infected patients. Several of the mutations identified acted cooperatively with PB2-627K to increase viral growth in human airway epithelial cells and mouse lungs. These mutations were in multiple domains of the polymerase complex other than the PB2-627 domain, highlighting a complicated avian-to-human adaptation pathway of avian influenza viruses. Thus, H5N1 viruses could rapidly acquire multiple polymerase mutations that function cooperatively with PB2-627K in infected patients for optimal human adaptation. PMID:27097026

  12. Guideline adaptation and implementation planning: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adaptation of high-quality practice guidelines for local use has been advanced as an efficient means to improve acceptability and applicability of evidence-informed care. In a pan-Canadian study, we examined how cancer care groups adapted pre-existing guidelines to their unique context and began implementation planning. Methods Using a mixed-methods, case-study design, five cases were purposefully sampled from self-identified groups and followed as they used a structured method and resources for guideline adaptation. Cases received the ADAPTE Collaboration toolkit, facilitation, methodological and logistical support, resources and assistance as required. Documentary and primary data collection methods captured individual case experience, including monthly summaries of meeting and field notes, email/telephone correspondence, and project records. Site visits, process audits, interviews, and a final evaluation forum with all cases contributed to a comprehensive account of participant experience. Results Study cases took 12 to >24 months to complete guideline adaptation. Although participants appreciated the structure, most found the ADAPTE method complex and lacking practical aspects. They needed assistance establishing individual guideline mandate and infrastructure, articulating health questions, executing search strategies, appraising evidence, and achieving consensus. Facilitation was described as a multi-faceted process, a team effort, and an essential ingredient for guideline adaptation. While front-line care providers implicitly identified implementation issues during adaptation, they identified a need to add an explicit implementation planning component. Conclusions Guideline adaptation is a positive initial step toward evidence-informed care, but adaptation (vs. ‘de novo’ development) did not meet expectations for reducing time or resource commitments. Undertaking adaptation is as much about the process (engagement and capacity building) as it

  13. Adaptive network countermeasures.

    SciTech Connect

    McClelland-Bane, Randy; Van Randwyk, Jamie A.; Carathimas, Anthony G.; Thomas, Eric D.

    2003-10-01

    This report describes the results of a two-year LDRD funded by the Differentiating Technologies investment area. The project investigated the use of countermeasures in protecting computer networks as well as how current countermeasures could be changed in order to adapt with both evolving networks and evolving attackers. The work involved collaboration between Sandia employees and students in the Sandia - California Center for Cyber Defenders (CCD) program. We include an explanation of the need for adaptive countermeasures, a description of the architecture we designed to provide adaptive countermeasures, and evaluations of the system.

  14. [Adaptive optics for ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Saleh, M

    2016-04-01

    Adaptive optics is a technology enhancing the visual performance of an optical system by correcting its optical aberrations. Adaptive optics have already enabled several breakthroughs in the field of visual sciences, such as improvement of visual acuity in normal and diseased eyes beyond physiologic limits, and the correction of presbyopia. Adaptive optics technology also provides high-resolution, in vivo imaging of the retina that may eventually help to detect the onset of retinal conditions at an early stage and provide better assessment of treatment efficacy. PMID:27019970

  15. A search for interstellar pyrimidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuan, Yi-Jehng; Yan, Chi-Hung; Charnley, Steven B.; Kisiel, Zbigniew; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Huang, Hui-Chun

    2003-10-01

    We have searched three hot molecular cores for submillimetre emission from the nucleic acid building block pyrimidine. We obtain upper limits to the total pyrimidine (beam-averaged) column densities towards Sgr B2(N), Orion KL and W51 e1/e2 of 1.7 × 1014, 2.4 × 1014 and 3.4 × 1014 cm-2, respectively. The associated upper limits to the pyrimidine fractional abundances lie in the range (0.3-3) × 10-10. Implications of this result for interstellar organic chemistry, and for the prospects of detecting nitrogen heterocycles in general, are discussed briefly.

  16. Supersymmetry searches at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Portell, Xavier; /Barcelona, IFAE

    2006-09-01

    CDF and D0 detectors have already collected 1.3 fb{sup -1} of data delivered by the Tevatron collider at 1.96 TeV center-of-mass energy. We present here the various analyses that are currently testing the possibility of a supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model. No evidence for such processes have been found in luminosities that range from 300 to 800 pb{sup -1} and different limits on the different supersymmetric models are set. Constraints coming from indirect searches are also presented.

  17. Higgs bosons searches at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Cuenca Almenar, Cristobal; /UC, Irvine

    2010-01-01

    Advanced analysis techniques together with increasing data samples are bringing the sensitivity of CDF to the Higgs boson very close to the SM predictions. These improvements translate into more stringent exclusions of parameter space in BSM Higgs sectors and of the SM mass range. The CDF Collaboration has a very active program on Higgs searches that comprises most accessible production mechanisms and decay channels in {bar p}p collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. This contribution will also review the combination of the different channels, data samples and analysis techinques that currently produces one of the most exciting experimental results in our field.

  18. Global Climate Change Adaptation Priorities for Biodiversity and Food Security

    PubMed Central

    Hannah, Lee; Ikegami, Makihiko; Hole, David G.; Seo, Changwan; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Roehrdanz, Patrick R.

    2013-01-01

    International policy is placing increasing emphasis on adaptation to climate change, including the allocation of new funds to assist adaptation efforts. Climate change adaptation funding may be most effective where it meets integrated goals, but global geographic priorities based on multiple development and ecological criteria are not well characterized. Here we show that human and natural adaptation needs related to maintaining agricultural productivity and ecosystem integrity intersect in ten major areas globally, providing a coherent set of international priorities for adaptation funding. An additional seven regional areas are identified as worthy of additional study. The priority areas are locations where changes in crop suitability affecting impoverished farmers intersect with changes in ranges of restricted-range species. Agreement among multiple climate models and emissions scenarios suggests that these priorities are robust. Adaptation funding directed to these areas could simultaneously address multiple international policy goals, including poverty reduction, protecting agricultural production and safeguarding ecosystem services. PMID:23991125

  19. Adaptive functional systems: Learning with chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarov, M. A.; Osipov, G. V.; Burtsev, M. S.

    2010-12-01

    We propose a new model of adaptive behavior that combines a winnerless competition principle and chaos to learn new functional systems. The model consists of a complex network of nonlinear dynamical elements producing sequences of goal-directed actions. Each element describes dynamics and activity of the functional system which is supposed to be a distributed set of interacting physiological elements such as nerve or muscle that cooperates to obtain certain goal at the level of the whole organism. During "normal" behavior, the dynamics of the system follows heteroclinic channels, but in the novel situation chaotic search is activated and a new channel leading to the target state is gradually created simulating the process of learning. The model was tested in single and multigoal environments and had demonstrated a good potential for generation of new adaptations.

  20. Bioavailability of Metal Ions and Evolutionary Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Hong Enriquez, Rolando P.; Do, Trang N.

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of life on earth has been a long process that began nearly 3.5 × 109 years ago. In their initial moments, evolution was mainly influenced by anaerobic environments; with the rise of O2 and the corresponding change in bioavailability of metal ions, new mechanisms of survival were created. Here we review the relationships between ancient atmospheric conditions, metal ion bioavailability and adaptation of metals homeostasis during early evolution. A general picture linking geochemistry, biochemistry and homeostasis is supported by the reviewed literature and is further illustrated in this report using simple database searches. PMID:25371266