Science.gov

Sample records for adaptive seating systems

  1. Adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension for shock mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harinder J.; Wereley, Norman M.

    2013-04-01

    An adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension (AMSS) was analyzed for optimal protection of occupants from shock loads caused by the impact of a helicopter with the ground. The AMSS system consists of an adaptive linear stroke magnetorheological shock absorber (MRSA) integrated into the seat structure of a helicopter. The MRSA provides a large controllability yield force to accommodate a wide spectrum for shock mitigation. A multiple degrees-of-freedom nonlinear biodynamic model for a 50th percentile male occupant was integrated with the dynamics of MRSA and the governing equations of motion were investigated theoretically. The load-stroke profile of MRSA was optimized with the goal of minimizing the potential for injuries. The MRSA yield force and the shock absorber stroke limitations were the most crucial parameters for improved biodynamic response mitigation. An assessment of injuries based on established injury criteria for different body parts was carried out.

  2. Adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension for shock mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harinder Jit

    This research focuses on theoretical and experimental analysis of an adaptive seat suspension employing magnetorheological energy absorber with the objective of minimizing injury potential to seated occupant of different weights subjected to broader crash intensities. The research was segmented into three tasks: (1) development of magnetorheological energy absorber, (2) biodynamic modeling of a seated occupant, and (3) control schemes for shock mitigation. A linear stroking semi-active magnetorheological energy absorber (MREA) was designed, fabricated and tested for intense impact conditions with piston velocities up to 8 m/s. MREA design was optimized on the basis of Bingham-plastic model (BPM model) in order to maximize the energy absorption capabilities at high impact velocities. Computational fluid dynamics and magnetic FE analysis were conducted to validate MREA performance. Subsequently, low-speed cyclic testing (0-2 Hz subjected to 0-5.5 A) and high-speed drop testing (0-4.5 m/s at 0 A) were conducted for quantitative comparison with the numerical simulations. Later, a nonlinear four degrees-of-freedom biodynamic model representing a seated 50th percentile male occupant was developed on the basis of experiments conducted on Hybrid II 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device. The response of proposed biodynamic model was compared quantitatively against two different biodynamic models from the literature that are heavily implemented for obtaining biodynamic response under impact conditions. The proposed biodynamic model accurately predicts peak magnitude, overall shape and the duration of the biodynamic transient response, with minimal phase shift. The biodynamic model was further validated against 16 impact tests conducted on horizontal accelerator facility at NAVAIR for two different shock intensities. Compliance effects of human body were also investigated on the performance of adaptive seat suspension by comparing the proposed biodynamic model

  3. Video monitoring system for car seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, Susan Vinz (Inventor); Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A video monitoring system for use with a child car seat has video camera(s) mounted in the car seat. The video images are wirelessly transmitted to a remote receiver/display encased in a portable housing that can be removably mounted in the vehicle in which the car seat is installed.

  4. Health Monitoring System for Car Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, Susan Vinz (Inventor); Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A health monitoring system for use with a child car seat has sensors mounted in the seat to monitor one or more health conditions of the seat's occupant. A processor monitors the sensor's signals and generates status signals related to the monitored conditions. A transmitter wireless transmits the status signals to a remotely located receiver. A signaling device coupled to the receiver produces at least one sensory (e.g., visual, audible, tactile) output based on the status signals.

  5. Entertainment and Pacification System For Car Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, Susan Vinz (Inventor); Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An entertainment and pacification system for use with a child car seat has speakers mounted in the child car seat with a plurality of audio sources and an anti-noise audio system coupled to the child car seat. A controllable switching system provides for, at any given time, the selective activation of i) one of the audio sources such that the audio signal generated thereby is coupled to one or more of the speakers, and ii) the anti-noise audio system such that an ambient-noise-canceling audio signal generated thereby is coupled to one or more of the speakers. The controllable switching system can receive commands generated at one of first controls located at the child car seat and second controls located remotely with respect to the child car seat with commands generated by the second controls overriding commands generated by the first controls.

  6. System for controlling child safety seat environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor); Elrod, Susan V. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A system is provided to control the environment experienced by a child in a child safety seat. Each of a plurality of thermoelectric elements is individually controllable to be one of heated and cooled relative to an ambient temperature. A first portion of the thermoelectric elements are positioned on the child safety seat such that a child sitting therein is positioned thereover. A ventilator coupled to the child safety seat moves air past a second portion of the thermoelectric elements and filters the air moved therepast. One or more jets coupled to the ventilator receive the filtered air. Each jet is coupled to the child safety seat and can be positioned to direct the heated/cooled filtered air to the vicinity of the head of the child sitting in the child safety seat.

  7. The Minicomputer System for Seat Reservations (MSRM),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-13

    MSRM minicomputer seat reservation system, which will be presented in this article . This conception is based on a completely dif- * ferent principle...results of an analysis of work carried out by the POLRES reservation office are presented in this article ; the analysis was carried out on the basis...at the end of the article . The Concept of the MSRM System As has already been mentioned, one of the characteristic features of the traditional seat

  8. Research on an Active Seat Belt System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Takeshi

    In a car crash, permanent injury can be avoided if deformation of an occupant's rib cage is maintained within the allowable value. In order to realize this condition, the occupant's seat belt tension must be instantaneously adjusted by a feedback control system. In this study, a seat belt tension control system based on the active shock control system is proposed. The semi-active control law used is derived from the sliding mode control method. One advantage of this proposed system is that it does not require a large power actuator because the seat belt tension is controlled by a brake mechanism. The effectiveness is confirmed by numerical simulation using general parameters of a human thorax and a passenger car in a collision scenario with a wall at a velocity of 100 km/h. The feasibility is then confirmed with a control experiment using a scale model of about 1/10 scale. The relative displacement of the thorax model approaches the allowable value smoothly along the control reference and settles near this value. Thus, the proposed seat belt tension control system design is established.

  9. 75 FR 58340 - Airworthiness Directives; Koito Industries, Ltd., Seats and Seating Systems Approved Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... and seating systems may not meet certain flammability and strength criteria. Failure to meet strength... of static, dynamic, and flammability testing on delivered seats. Failure to meet strength criteria... strength requirements in certain load cases. Section 25.562, which was created by Amendment 25-64,...

  10. Design of a recumbent seating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croyle, Scott; Delarosa, Jose; George, Daren; Hinkle, Cathy; Karas, Stephen

    1993-01-01

    Future space shuttle missions presented by NASA might require the shuttle to rendezvous with the Russian space station Mir for the purpose of transporting astronauts back to earth. Due to the atrophied state of these astronauts, a special seating system must be designed for their transportation. The main functions of this seating system are to support and restrain the astronauts during normal reentry flight and to dampen some of the loading that might occur in a crash situation. Through research, the design team developed many concept variants for these functional requirements. By evaluating each variant, the concepts were eliminated until the four most attractive designs remained. The team used a decision matrix to determine the best concept to carry through embodiment. This concept involved using struts for support during reentry flight and a spring damper/shock absorber system to dampen crash landing loads. The embodiment design process consisted of defining the layout of each of the main functional components, specifically, the seat structure and the strut structure. Through the use of MCS/pal two, the design was refined until it could handle all required loads and dampen to the forces specified. The auxiliary function carriers were then considered. Following the design of these components, the complete final layout could be determined. It is concluded that the final design meets all specifications outlined in the conceptual design. The main advantages of this design are its low weight, simplicity, and large amount of function sharing between different components. The disassembly of this design could potentially present a problem because of time and size constraints involved. Overall, this design meets or exceeds all functional requirements.

  11. Variable temperature seat climate control system

    DOEpatents

    Karunasiri, Tissa R.; Gallup, David F.; Noles, David R.; Gregory, Christian T.

    1997-05-06

    A temperature climate control system comprises a variable temperature seat, at least one heat pump, at least one heat pump temperature sensor, and a controller. Each heat pump comprises a number of Peltier thermoelectric modules for temperature conditioning the air in a main heat exchanger and a main exchanger fan for passing the conditioned air from the main exchanger to the variable temperature seat. The Peltier modules and each main fan may be manually adjusted via a control switch or a control signal. Additionally, the temperature climate control system may comprise a number of additional temperature sensors to monitor the temperature of the ambient air surrounding the occupant as well as the temperature of the conditioned air directed to the occupant. The controller is configured to automatically regulate the operation of the Peltier modules and/or each main fan according to a temperature climate control logic designed both to maximize occupant comfort during normal operation, and minimize possible equipment damage, occupant discomfort, or occupant injury in the event of a heat pump malfunction.

  12. Cushion system for multi-use child safety seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor); Elrod, Susan V. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A cushion system for use with a child safety seat has a plurality of bladders assembled to form a seat cushion that cooperates with the seat's safety harness. One or more sensors coupled to the safety harness sense tension therein and generate a signal indicative of the tension. Each of the bladders is individually pressurized by a pressurization system to define a support configuration of the seat cushion. The pressurization system is disabled when tension in the safety harness has attained a threshold level.

  13. Cushion System for Multi-Use Child Safety Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor); Elrod, Susan V. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A cushion system for use with a child safety seat has a plurality of bladders assembled to form a seat cushion that cooperates with the seat's safety harness. One or more sensors coupled to the safety harness sense tension therein and generate a signal indicative of the tension. Each of the bladders is individually pressurized by a pressurization system to define a support configuration of the seat cushion. The pressurization system is disabled when tension in the safety harness has attained a threshold level.

  14. Energy Absorbing Seat System for an Agricultural Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Jones, Lisa E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A task was initiated to improve the energy absorption capability of an existing aircraft seat through cost-effective retrofitting, while keeping seat-weight increase to a minimum. This task was undertaken as an extension of NASA ongoing safety research and commitment to general aviation customer needs. Only vertical crash scenarios have been considered in this task which required the energy absorbing system to protect the seat occupant in a range of crash speeds up to 31 ft/sec. It was anticipated that, the forward and/or side crash accelerations could be attenuated with the aid of airbags, the technology of which is currently available in automobiles and military helicopters. Steps which were followed include, preliminary crush load determination, conceptual design of cost effective energy absorbers, fabrication and testing (static and dynamic) of energy absorbers, system analysis, design and fabrication of dummy seat/rail assembly, dynamic testing of dummy seat/rail assembly, and finally, testing of actual modified seat system with a dummy occupant. A total of ten full scale tests have been performed including three of the actual aircraft seat. Results from full-scale tests indicated that occupant loads were attenuated successfully to survivable levels.

  15. Fire blocking systems for aircraft seat cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A configuration and method for reducing the flammability of bodies of organic materials that thermally decompose to give flammable gases comprises covering the body with a flexible matrix that catalytically cracks the flammable gases to less flammable species. Optionally, the matrix is covered with a gas impermeable outer layer. In a preferred embodiment, the invention takes the form of an aircraft seat in which the body is a poly(urethane) seat cushion, the matrix is an aramid fabric or felt and the outer layer is an aluminum film.

  16. Adaptive Seat Energy Absorbers for Enhanced Crash Safety: Technology Demonstration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and...measured to be more than 32% lower than published data for the baseline MH-60R seat with conventional EAs. Moreover, the ASEA used substantially less...Recommendations 78 6. References 80 Appendix A. Test Plan 83 Appendix B. Floor Mounting Detail 95 Appendix C. Sensor, Data Type, and Corresponding Injury

  17. 76 FR 31803 - Airworthiness Directives; Koito Industries, Ltd., Seats and Seating Systems Approved Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... concluded that even non-compliant seats still offer a high level of protection. JTA also asked that we... of seat failures resulting from high-level turbulence events. AAPA, AEA, China Airlines, and JTA... level of safety. Only those seats that fail the testing will be required to be removed from...

  18. Measurement and modelling of x-direction apparent mass of the seated human body-cushioned seat system.

    PubMed

    Stein, George Juraj; Múcka, Peter; Chmúrny, Rudolf; Hinz, Barbara; Blüthner, Ralph

    2007-01-01

    For modelling purposes and for evaluation of driver's seat performance in the vertical direction various mechano-mathematical models of the seated human body have been developed and standardized by the ISO. No such models exist hitherto for human body sitting in an upright position in a cushioned seat upper part, used in industrial environment, where the fore-and-aft vibrations play an important role. The interaction with the steering wheel has to be taken into consideration, as well as, the position of the human body upper torso with respect to the cushioned seat back as observed in real driving conditions. This complex problem has to be simplified first to arrive at manageable simpler models, which still reflect the main problem features. In a laboratory study accelerations and forces in x-direction were measured at the seat base during whole-body vibration in the fore-and-aft direction (random signal in the frequency range between 0.3 and 30 Hz, vibration magnitudes 0.28, 0.96, and 2.03 ms(-2) unweighted rms). Thirteen male subjects with body masses between 62.2 and 103.6 kg were chosen for the tests. They sat on a cushioned driver seat with hands on a support and backrest contact in the lumbar region only. Based on these laboratory measurements a linear model of the system-seated human body and cushioned seat in the fore-and-aft direction has been developed. The model accounts for the reaction from the steering wheel. Model parameters have been identified for each subject-measured apparent mass values (modulus and phase). The developed model structure and the averaged parameters can be used for further bio-dynamical research in this field.

  19. Biomechanics of 4-point seat belt systems in farside impacts.

    PubMed

    Rouhana, Stephen W; Kankanala, Sundeep V; Prasad, Priya; Rupp, Jonathan D; Jeffreys, Thomas A; Schneider, Lawrence W

    2006-11-01

    The biomechanical behavior of a harness style 4-point seat belt system in farside impacts was investigated through dummy and post mortem human subject tests. Specifically, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the inboard shoulder belt portion of a 4-point seat belt on the risk of vertebral and soft-tissue neck injuries during simulated farside impacts. Two series of sled tests simulating farside impacts were completed with crash dummies of different sizes, masses and designs to determine the forces and moments on the neck associated with loading of the shoulder belt. The tests were also performed to help determine the appropriate dummy to use in further testing. The BioSID and SID-IIs reasonably simulated the expected kinematics response and appeared to be reasonable dummies to use for further testing. Analysis also showed that dummy injury measures were lower than injury assessment reference values used in development of side impact airbags. Six post-mortem human subjects, three small females and three medium sized males, were tested under conditions similar to those used for the dummy tests. The carotid arteries were pressurized in an attempt to simulate the corresponding neck vascular response of living humans. Post-test autopsies conducted on all test subjects indicated an absence of test-induced arterial or vertebral injuries. Further, comparative analysis of kinematics confirmed the adequacy of the BioSID and SID-IIs in simulating cadaveric response in farside impacts with harness style 4-point belts. A number of issues remain to be solved before the implementation of 4-point seat belts in vehicles, including, among others, the risk of injury to a pregnant woman and her fetus in frontal crashes. The risk of fetal injury in pregnant occupants may be related to the location of the 4-point seat belt's buckle and latch junction at the centerline of the mother's abdomen.

  20. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... minimize the possibility of their failure by forces acting on them as a result of vehicle impact. S2... withstand the following forces, in newtons, except for: a side-facing seat; a passenger seat on a bus other... longitudinal direction; (c) For a seat belt assembly attached to the seat—the force specified in paragraph...

  1. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... minimize the possibility of their failure by forces acting on them as a result of vehicle impact. S2... withstand the following forces, in newtons, except for: a side-facing seat; a passenger seat on a bus other... longitudinal direction; (c) For a seat belt assembly attached to the seat—the force specified in paragraph...

  2. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... minimize the possibility of their failure by forces acting on them as a result of vehicle impact. S2... withstand the following forces, in newtons, except for: a side-facing seat; a passenger seat on a bus other... longitudinal direction; (c) For a seat belt assembly attached to the seat—the force specified in paragraph...

  3. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... minimize the possibility of their failure by forces acting on them as a result of vehicle impact. S2... withstand the following forces, in newtons, except for: a side-facing seat; a passenger seat on a bus other... longitudinal direction; (c) For a seat belt assembly attached to the seat—the force specified in paragraph...

  4. Retractor-Based Stroking Seat System and Energy-Absorbing Floor to Mitigate High Shock and Vertical Acceleration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-15

    dummy occupant dummy is seated in a generic seat system of a ground vehicle interior and restrained with a 5-point seatbelt system. A retractor...point seatbelt system. A retractor system is attached between the back of the stroking seat and the hull to provide the desired seat stroking...an enforced blast pulse, this hull structural thickness does not have any effect on the results. 2.2 Seatbelt model Automotive seat belts with

  5. Active pneumatic vibration isolation system using negative stiffness structures for a vehicle seat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danh, Le Thanh; Ahn, Kyoung Kwan

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, an active pneumatic vibration isolation system using negative stiffness structures (NSS) for a vehicle seat in low excitation frequencies is proposed, which is named as an active system with NSS. Here, the negative stiffness structures (NSS) are used to minimize the vibratory attraction of a vehicle seat. Owing to the time-varying and nonlinear behavior of the proposed system, it is not easy to build an accurate dynamic for model-based controller design. Thus, an adaptive intelligent backstepping controller (AIBC) is designed to manage the system operation for high-isolation effectiveness. In addition, an auxiliary control effort is also introduced to eliminate the effect of the unpredictable perturbations. Moreover, a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) model is utilized to estimate the optimal gain of the auxiliary control effort. Final control input and the adaptive law for updating coefficients of the approximate series can be obtained step by step using a suitable Lyapunov function. Afterward, the isolation performance of the proposed system is assessed experimentally. In addition, the effectiveness of the designed controller for the proposed system is also compared with that of the traditional backstepping controller (BC). The experimental results show that the isolation effectiveness of the proposed system is better than that of the active system without NSS. Furthermore, the undesirable chattering phenomenon in control effort is quite reduced by the estimation mechanism. Finally, some concluding remarks are given at the end of the paper.

  6. 75 FR 34172 - Lordstown Seating Systems, a Subsidiary of Magna Seating, Including Workers Whose Unemployment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported Through Intier Automotive Seatings of America... for automobiles. New information shows that some workers separated from employment at the subject firm had their wages reported under a separated unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under the...

  7. Reserve a seat! Intelligent transportation reservation system for tourists

    SciTech Connect

    Truett, L.F.; Tonn, B.; Conley, T.

    1998-07-01

    Providing safe, predictable, and efficient transportation for tourists to and from various venues presents a major challenge. Special-event transportation is notoriously unreliable and usually congested at peak times. The rural nature of certain tourist locations (e.g., the Grand Canyon) further complicates the problem. The proposed Intelligent Transportation Reservation System will have three components, each of which performs different functions. On-vehicle component: this component has three purposes: (1) to keep a running count of the passengers on the bus in order to determine how many additional passengers can be accommodated based on the total capacity of the vehicle; (2) through use of Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) technology, to be able to determine the location of the bus at all times; (3) to transmit information to a central data facility. Together these three features provide location, available-space, and condition information to controllers at a central data facility and to prospective riders of the bus. Kiosk component: located at every loading/unloading point, the purpose is to allow passengers-to-be to determine when the next bus (or buses) will arrive and the availability of seating. Individuals can make a reservation for the next bus with sufficient seating and will know when that bus will arrive at the kiosk. Information component: located within hotels and at venue sites, this component will provide information on the buses in the system (e.g. route and current capacity), and loading/unloading locations throughout the network at any point in time.

  8. Active control of an innovative seat suspension system with acceleration measurement based friction estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Donghong; Sun, Shuaishuai; Li, Hongyi; Du, Haiping; Li, Weihua

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, an innovative active seat suspension system for vehicles is presented. This seat suspension prototype is built with two low cost actuators each of which has one rotary motor and one gear reducer. A H∞ controller with friction compensation is designed for the seat suspension control system where the friction is estimated and compensated based on the measurement of seat acceleration. This principal aim of this research was to control the low frequency vibration transferred or amplified by the vehicle (chassis) suspension, and to maintain the passivity of the seat suspension at high frequency (isolation vibration) while taking into consideration the trade-off between the active seat suspension cost and its high frequency performance. Sinusoidal excitations of 1-4.5 Hz were applied to test the active seat suspension both when controlled and when uncontrolled and this is compared with a well-tuned passive heavy duty vehicle seat suspension. The results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm within the tested frequencies. Further tests were conducted using the excitations generated from a quarter-car model under bump and random road profiles. The bump road tests indicate the controlled active seat suspension has good transient response performance. The Power Spectral Density (PSD) method and ISO 2631-1 standards were applied to analyse the seat suspension's acceleration under random road conditions. Although some low magnitude and high frequency noise will inevitably be introduced by the active system, the weighted-frequency Root Mean Square (RMS) acceleration shows that this may not have a large effect on ride comfort. In fact, the ride comfort is improved from being an 'a little uncomfortable' to a 'not uncomfortable' level when compared with the well-tuned passive seat suspension. This low cost active seat suspension design and the proposed controller with the easily measured feedback signals are very practical for real

  9. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... withstand the following forces, in newtons, except for: a side-facing seat; a passenger seat on a bus other... accordance with S4.2 of § 571.210; and (d) In its rearmost position—a force that produces a 373 newton meters... shall not release or fail when a forward longitudinal force, in newtons, equal to 20 times the mass...

  10. Research and implementation of a shaking seat system for flight simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaolin; Yu, Youzhi; Shen, Weiqun; Song, Zishan

    2006-11-01

    To a helicopter the shaking seat system can simulate the vibration caused by the main rotor, tail rotor, engine, weapon firing, landing, etc. This paper focuses on the research and analysis of the shaking system of a helicopter flight simulator. The vibration model of the seat is built and the system is also developed. According to different flight states of the helicopter the vibration states of the seat are classified based on real measurement data, and the spectra of the vibration are interpolated to model the vibration of the seat. An electro-hydraulic servo system is used to drive the seat to shake along the direction that is parallel to the vertical body axis. The seat is shaken under the instructions at reference height with position close-loop control method, and the control law is PID algorithm. Running parameters of the system are configured by the software. The motional states of the shaking seat are displayed to the user through the visualization software. The main parts of the system and some key technologies of the implementation are also presented in the paper. The system can generate the special vibration environment in the helicopter flight process, and is successfully applied to the flight simulator. So the pilots' immersion feelings are increased.

  11. Simulation of Adaptive Seat Energy Absorber for Military Rotorcraft Crash Safety Enhancement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    including lower leg in a seated posture for rotorcraft crash injury simulation. The injury criteria and tolerance levels for the biomechanical effects...crashworthiness requirements are used to assess crash injuries for a seated occupant. The injury criteria and tolerance levels for the biomechanical effects are...crash injuries in different segments of the body of the seated occupant. The injury criteria and tolerance levels for the biomechanical effects are

  12. Controlled impact demonstration seat/cabin restraint systems: FAA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    The FAA restraint system experiments consisted of 24 standard and modified seats, 2 standard galleys and 2 standard overhead compartments. Under the controlled impact demonstration (CID) program, the experimental objective was to demonstrate the effectiveness of individual restraint system designs when exposed to a survivable air-to-ground impact condition. What researchers were looking for was the performance exhibited by standard and modified designs, performance differences resulting from their installed cabin location, and interrelating performance demonstrated by test article and attaching floor and/or fuselage structure. The other restraint system experiment consisted of 2 standard overhead stowage compartments and 2 galley modules. Again, researchers were concerned with the retention of stowed equipment and carry-on articles. The overhead compartments were loaded with test weights up to their maximum capacity, and each of the galleys was filled with test articles: aft with normal galley equipment, forward with hazardous material test packages. A breakdown of instrumentation and distribution is given beginning with 11 instrumented type anthropomorphic dummies and 185 sensors which provided for acceleration and load measurements at the various experiment and associated structure locations. The onboard cameras provided additional coverage of these experiments, including the areas of cabin which were not instrumented. Test results showing the window-side leg forces versus pulse duration are given.

  13. Greek Electoral System: Optimal Distribution of the Seats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsitouras, Ch.

    2007-09-01

    The Greek parliamentary elections of 2008 and 2012 will take place according to the electoral low which had been voted by the previous house back in 2004. The parties receive a nation-wide number of seats that have to be distributed in the prefectures. It is a transportation problem where the legislator neglected its complete solution after finding a first random feasible solution.

  14. Adaptation of adaptive optics systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yu; Zhao, Dazun; Li, Chen

    1997-10-01

    In the paper, a concept of an adaptation of adaptive optical system (AAOS) is proposed. The AAOS has certain real time optimization ability against the variation of the brightness of detected objects m, atmospheric coherence length rO and atmospheric time constant τ by means of changing subaperture number and diameter, dynamic range, and system's temporal response. The necessity of AAOS using a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor and some technical approaches are discussed. Scheme and simulation of an AAOS with variable subaperture ability by use of both hardware and software are presented as an example of the system.

  15. Pilot study of strap-based custom wheelchair seating system in persons with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, John E; Wittig, Becky L; Payette, Mark; Goldish, Gary D; Hansen, Andrew H

    2014-01-01

    Custom wheelchair seats can be used to help prevent pressure ulcers in individuals with spinal cord injury. In this study, a strap-based system was evaluated in three Veterans with spinal cord injury. Interface pressure distributions were measured after transfers, wheeling, and pressure relief maneuvers and after fittings by three different therapists. We found that pressure distribution measures were not generally affected after transfers and wheeling using the strap-based wheelchair and that pressure relief maneuvers were able to be performed. Additionally, all therapists were able to customize the wheelchair seat to clinically acceptable levels in 4 to 40 min for the three subjects. Future studies can test the long-term effects of using the strap-based wheelchair seat and identifying individuals that would most benefit from a rapidly customizable wheelchair seat.

  16. Virtual Seating in the Globe Theatre: Appreciating Film Adaptations of Shakespeare's Plays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Lynette

    2009-01-01

    While it may be true that different interpretations of Shakespeare's words elicit varied responses, Shakespeare's popularity in Renaissance England was due in large part to his ability to appeal to a socially and educationally diverse audience. Shakespeare knew what it took to fill the seats. To encourage appreciation of Shakespeare's universal…

  17. Concepts and embodiment design of a reentry recumbent seating system for the NASA Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillan, Scott; Looby, Brent; Devany, Chris; Chudej, Chris; Brooks, Barry

    1993-01-01

    This report deals with the generation of a recumbent seating system which will be used by NASA to shuttle astronauts from the Russian space station Mir. We begin by examining the necessity for designing a special couch for the returning astronauts. Next, we discuss the operating conditions and constraints of the recumbent seating system and provide a detailed function structure. After working through the conceptual design process, we came up with ten alternative designs which are presented in the appendices. These designs were evaluated and weighted to systematically determine the best choice for embodiment design. A detailed discussion of all components of the selected system follows with design calculations for the seat presented in the appendices. The report concludes with an evaluation of the resulting design and recommendations for further development.

  18. Design of a new adaptive fuzzy controller and its application to vibration control of a vehicle seat installed with an MR damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phu, Do Xuan; Shin, Do Kyun; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a new adaptive fuzzy controller featuring a combination of two different control methodologies: H infinity control technique and sliding mode control. It is known that both controllers are powerful in terms of high performance and robust stability. However, both control methods require an accurate dynamic model to design a state variable based controller in order to maintain their advantages. Thus, in this work a fuzzy control method which does not require an accurate dynamic model is adopted and two control methodologies are integrated to maintain the advantages even in an uncertain environment of the dynamic system. After a brief explanation of the interval type 2 fuzzy logic, a new adaptive fuzzy controller associated with the H infinity control and sliding mode control is formulated on the basis of Lyapunov stability theory. Subsequently, the formulated controller is applied to vibration control of a vehicle seat equipped with magnetorheological fluid damper (MR damper in short). An experimental setup for realization of the proposed controller is established and vibration control performances such as acceleration at the driver’s seat are evaluated. In addition, in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller, a comparative work with two existing controllers is undertaken. It is shown through simulation and experiment that the proposed controller can provide much better vibration control performance than the two existing controllers.

  19. Crashworthy Seats Would Afford Superior Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gohmert, Dustin

    2009-01-01

    Seats to prevent or limit crash injuries to astronauts aboard the crew vehicle of the Orion spacecraft are undergoing development. The design of these seats incorporates and goes beyond crash-protection concepts embodied in prior spacecraft and racing-car seats to afford superior protection against impacts. Although the seats are designed to support astronauts in a recumbent, quasi-fetal posture that would likely not be suitable for non-spacecraft applications, parts of the design could be adapted to military and some civilian aircraft seats and to racing car seats to increase levels of protection. The main problem in designing any crashworthy seat is to provide full support of the occupant against anticipated crash and emergency-landing loads so as to safely limit motion, along any axis, of any part of the occupant s body relative to (1) any other part of the occupant s body, (2) the spacecraft or other vehicle, and (3) the seat itself. In the original Orion spacecraft application and in other applications that could easily be envisioned, the problem is complicated by severe limits on space available for the seat, a requirement to enable rapid egress by the occupant after a crash, and a requirement to provide for fitting of the seat to a wide range of sizes and shapes of a human body covered by a crash suit, space suit, or other protective garment. The problem is further complicated by other Orion-application-specific requirements that must be omitted here for the sake of brevity. To accommodate the wide range of crewmember body lengths within the limits on available space in the original Orion application, the design provides for taller crewmembers to pull their legs back closer toward their chests, while shorter crewmembers can allow their legs to stretch out further. The range of hip-support seat adjustments needed to effect this accommodation, as derived from NASA s Human Systems Integration Standard, was found to define a parabolic path along which the knees

  20. A three body dynamic simulation of a seated tractor rocket escape system for the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ondler, R. M.

    1989-01-01

    In the tractor-rocket seated-extraction candidate system for Space Shuttle Orbiter crew escape, the crewmember is pulled from his seat and away from the Orbiter via an elastic pendant, using a system of rails to guide the extraction trajectory through an opening on the window frame for flight deck crew and through the side hatch for the middeck crew. A three-body simulation has been developed to model the flight-mechanics aspects of the concept, where the three bodies are the astronaut (six DOF), the tractor rocket (six DOF), and the Shuttle Orbiter (three DOF); attention is given to crewmembers' clearance of the Orbiter structure and engine plumes.

  1. Blast resistant vehicle seat

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B

    2013-02-12

    Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

  2. Lumbar load attenuation for rotorcraft occupants using a design methodology for the seat impact energy-absorbing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Rasoul; Beheshti, Hamid; Lankarani, Hamid

    2012-12-01

    Aircraft occupant crash-safety considerations require a minimum cushion thickness to limit the relative vertical motion of the seat-pelvis during high vertical impact loadings in crash landings or accidents. In military aircraft and helicopter seat design, due to the potential for high vertical accelerations in crash scenarios, the seat system must be provided with an energy absorber to attenuate the acceleration level sustained by the occupants. Because of the limited stroke available for the seat structure, the design of the energy absorber becomes a trade-off problem between minimizing the stroke and maximizing the energy absorption. The available stroke must be used to prevent bottoming out of the seat as well as to absorb maximum impact energy to protect the occupant. In this study, the energy-absorbing system in a rotorcraft seat design is investigated using a mathematical model of the occupant/seat system. Impact theories between interconnected bodies in multibody mechanical systems are utilized to study the impact between the seat pan and the occupant. Experimental responses of the seat system and the occupant are utilized to validate the results from this study for civil and military helicopters according to FAR 23 and 25 and MIL-S-58095 requirements. A model for the load limiter is proposed to minimize the lumbar load for the occupant by minimizing the relative velocity between the seat pan and the occupant's pelvis. The modified energy absorber/load limiter is then implemented for the seat structure so that it absorbs the energy of impact in an effective manner and below the tolerable limit for the occupant in a minimum stroke. Results show that for a designed stroke, the level of occupant lumbar spine injury would be significantly attenuated using this modified energy-absorber system.

  3. Development of a multi-body nonlinear model for a seat-occupant system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, Yousof

    A car seat is an important component of today's cars, which directly affects ride comfort experienced by occupants. Currently, the process of ride comfort evaluation is subjective. Alternatively, the ride comfort can be evaluated by a series of objective metrics in the dynamic response of the occupant. From previous studies it is well known that the dynamic behavior of a seat-occupant system is greatly affected by soft nonlinear viscoelastic materials used in the seat cushion. Therefore, in this research, especial attention was given to efficiently modeling the behavior of seat cushion. In the first part of this research, a phenomenological nonlinear viscoelastic foam model was proposed and its ability to capture uniaxial behavior of foam was investigated. The model is based on the assumption that the total stress can be decomposed into the sum of a nonlinear elastic component, modeled by a higher order polynomial of strain, and a nonlinear hereditary type viscoelastic component. System identification procedures were developed to estimate the model parameters using uniaxial cyclic compression data from experiments conducted at different rates on two types of low density polyurethane foams and three types of high density CONFOR foams. The performance of the proposed model was compared to that of other traditional continuum models. For each foam type, it was observed that lower order models are sufficient to describe the uniaxial behavior of the foam compressed at different rates. Although, the estimated model parameters were functions of the input strain rate. Alternatively, higher order comprehensive models, with strain independent parameters, were estimated as well. The estimated comprehensive model predicts foam responses under different compression rates. Also, a methodology was proposed to predict the stress-response of a layered foam system using the estimated models of each foam in the layers. Next, the estimated foam model was incorporated into a single

  4. Driver Adaptive Warning Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    this threshold, an alarm is triggered. Since TLC based systems can have user defined thresholds, a warning can be given as early as desired. However, the...Driver Adaptive Warning Systems Thesis Proposal Parag H. Batavia CMU-RI-TR-98-07 The Robotics Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh...control number. 1. REPORT DATE MAR 1998 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1998 to 00-00-1998 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Driver Adaptive Warning

  5. NEEDS - Information Adaptive System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, W. L.; Benz, H. F.; Meredith, B. D.

    1980-01-01

    The Information Adaptive System (IAS) is an element of the NASA End-to-End Data System (NEEDS) Phase II and is focused toward onboard image processing. The IAS is a data preprocessing system which is closely coupled to the sensor system. Some of the functions planned for the IAS include sensor response nonuniformity correction, geometric correction, data set selection, data formatting, packetization, and adaptive system control. The inclusion of these sensor data preprocessing functions onboard the spacecraft will significantly improve the extraction of information from the sensor data in a timely and cost effective manner, and provide the opportunity to design sensor systems which can be reconfigured in near real-time for optimum performance. The purpose of this paper is to present the preliminary design of the IAS and the plans for its development.

  6. Semi-active magnetorheological seat suspensions for enhanced crashworthiness and vibration isolation of rotorcraft seats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiemenz, Gregory J.

    This research focuses on the use of magnetorheological (MR) dampers for enhanced occupant protection during harsh vertical landings as well as isolation of the occupant from cockpit vibrations. The capabilities of the current state-of-the-art in helicopter crew seat energy absorption systems are highly limited because they cannot be optimally adapted to each individual crash scenario (i.e. variations in both occupant weight and crash load level). They also present an unnecessarily high risk of injury by not minimizing the load transmitted to the occupant during a crash. Additionally, current rotorcraft seats provide no means of isolating the occupant from harmful cockpit vibrations. The objective of this research was to investigate and demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of an MR-based suspension for rotorcraft seats. As such, this research began with an in-depth investigation into design feasibility. Three MR seat suspension design cases are investigated: (1) for only vibration isolation, (2) for adaptive occupant protection, and (3) for combined adaptive occupant protection and vibration isolation. It is shown that MR-based suspensions are feasible for each of these cases and the performance benefits and tradeoffs are discussed for each case. Next, to further illustrate the occupant protection benefits gained with an MR-based suspension, three control strategies were developed and performance metrics were compared. It was shown that MR dampers can be controlled such that they will automatically adapt to the crash load level as well as occupant weight. By using feedback of sensor signals, MR dampers were adjusted to utilize the full stroke capability of the seat suspension regardless crash level and occupant weight. The peak load transmitted to the occupant and the risk of spinal injury, therefore, was always minimized. Because this control significantly reduced or eliminated injury risk during less severe landings, it is a significant advance over the

  7. Optimal Design of a Thermoelectric Cooling/Heating System for Car Seat Climate Control (CSCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elarusi, Abdulmunaem; Attar, Alaa; Lee, Hosung

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, the optimum design of thermoelectric car seat climate control (CSCC) is studied analytically in an attempt to achieve high system efficiency. Optimal design of a thermoelectric device (element length, cross-section area and number of thermocouples) is carried out using our newly developed optimization method based on the ideal thermoelectric equations and dimensional analysis to improve the performance of the thermoelectric device in terms of the heating/cooling power and the coefficient of performance (COP). Then, a new innovative system design is introduced which also includes the optimum input current for the initial (transient) startup warming and cooling before the car heating ventilation and air conditioner (HVAC) is active in the cabin. The air-to-air heat exchanger's configuration was taken into account to investigate the optimal design of the CSCC.

  8. Optimal Design of a Thermoelectric Cooling/Heating System for Car Seat Climate Control (CSCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elarusi, Abdulmunaem; Attar, Alaa; Lee, Hosung

    2017-04-01

    In the present work, the optimum design of thermoelectric car seat climate control (CSCC) is studied analytically in an attempt to achieve high system efficiency. Optimal design of a thermoelectric device (element length, cross-section area and number of thermocouples) is carried out using our newly developed optimization method based on the ideal thermoelectric equations and dimensional analysis to improve the performance of the thermoelectric device in terms of the heating/cooling power and the coefficient of performance (COP). Then, a new innovative system design is introduced which also includes the optimum input current for the initial (transient) startup warming and cooling before the car heating ventilation and air conditioner (HVAC) is active in the cabin. The air-to-air heat exchanger's configuration was taken into account to investigate the optimal design of the CSCC.

  9. Effect of seat and table top slope on the biomechanical stress sustained by the musculo-skeletal system.

    PubMed

    Hamaoui, Alain; Hassaïne, Myriam; Watier, Bruno; Zanone, Pier-Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of table and seat slope on the biomechanical stress sustained by the musculo-skeletal system. Angular position of the head and trunk, and surface electromyography of eleven postural muscles were recorded while seated under different conditions of seat slope (0°, 15° forward) and table slope (0°, 20° backward). The specific stress sustained by C7-T1 joint was estimated with isometric torque calculation. The results showed that the backward sloping table was associated with a reduction of neck flexion and neck extensors EMG, contrasting with a concurrent overactivity of the deltoideus. The forward sloping chair induced an anterior pelvic tilt, but also a higher activity of the knee (vasti) and ankle (soleus) extensors. It was concluded that sloping chairs and tables favor a more erect posture of the spine, but entails an undesirable overactivity of upper and lower limbs muscles to prevent the body from sliding.

  10. Adaptive CT scanning system

    SciTech Connect

    Sampayan, Stephen E.

    2016-11-22

    Apparatus, systems, and methods that provide an X-ray interrogation system having a plurality of stationary X-ray point sources arranged to substantially encircle an area or space to be interrogated. A plurality of stationary detectors are arranged to substantially encircle the area or space to be interrogated, A controller is adapted to control the stationary X-ray point sources to emit X-rays one at a time, and to control the stationary detectors to detect the X-rays emitted by the stationary X-ray point sources.

  11. Usage patterns and misuse rates of automatic seat belts by system type.

    PubMed

    Reinfurt, D W; St Cyr, C L; Hunter, W W

    1991-12-01

    This study examined seat belt usage in North Carolina by drivers of 4,151 late model cars equipped with a variety of restraint system types. We measured usage by restraint type (automatic belt, air bag, manual belt), by make/model and by driver characteristics (age, sex, and race). Usage ranged from a high of 94.2% for motorized shoulder belts (but with only 28.6% lap belt usage in these cars) to 73.9% usage of manual lap/shoulder belts in cars equipped with air bags. Various types of misuse of the shoulder belt (e.g. excessive slack, detachment from the door, placement under the arm) were observed in nearly 6% of the sample.

  12. Computer simulation to aid the risk assessment of wheelchair and special seating systems used in transport.

    PubMed

    Rogers, P D; Gibson, C; Wilcox, S J; Chong, A

    2009-01-01

    The crashworthiness of occupied proprietary wheelchairs, which are transported in motor vehicles, is currently assessed by physical crash testing in accordance with ISO 7176-19. If such wheelchairs are modified to meet the needs of the occupant, e.g. the addition of special seating, environmental control systems or life support equipment, then those making the modifications take on the manufacturer's responsibilities, one of these being the assessment of the modified wheelchair's ability to withstand vehicle crash forces. Destructively testing bespoke wheelchair designs is not practical so, currently, the transport-related risk is assessed using best engineering judgement. To improve this process virtual crash testing of the wheelchair and occupant was used. A modified crash criteria from ISO 7176-19 is proposed to enable assessment of the wheelchair's crashworthiness and provide the clinical engineer with an informed judgement of how both wheelchair alone and occupant and wheelchair together will behave in a crash.

  13. A hybrid clustering based fuzzy structure for vibration control - Part 2: An application to semi-active vehicle seat-suspension system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Sy Dzung; Nguyen, Quoc Hung; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-05-01

    This work presents a novel neuro-fuzzy controller (NFC) for car-driver's seat-suspension system featuring magnetorheological (MR) dampers. The NFC is built based on the algorithm for building adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFISs) named B-ANFIS, which has been developed in Part 1, and fuzzy logic inference systems (FISs). In order to create the NFC, the following steps are performed. Firstly, a control strategy based on a ride-comfort-oriented tendency (RCOT) is established. Subsequently, optimal FISs are built based on a genetic algorithm (GA) to estimate the desired damping force that satisfies the RCOT corresponding to the road status at each time. The B-ANFIS is then used to build ANFISs for inverse dynamic models of the suspension system (I-ANFIS). Based on the FISs, the desired force values are calculated according to the status of road at each time. The corresponding exciting current value to be applied to the MR damper is then determined by the I-ANFIS. In order to validate the effectiveness of the developed neuro-fuzzy controller, control performances of the seat-suspension systems featuring MR dampers are evaluated under different road conditions. In addition, a comparative work between conventional skyhook controller and the proposed NFC is undertaken in order to demonstrate superior control performances of the proposed methodology.

  14. Car Seat Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Car Seat Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Car Seat Safety ... certified child passenger safety technician.) Guidelines for Choosing Car Seats Choose a seat with a label that ...

  15. A vibration isolation system in low frequency excitation region using negative stiffness structure for vehicle seat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Thanh Danh; Ahn, Kyoung Kwan

    2011-12-01

    This paper designs and fabricates a vibration isolation model for improving vibration isolation effectiveness of the vehicle seat under low excitation frequencies. The feature of the proposed system is to use two symmetric negative stiffness structures (NSS) in parallel to a positive stiffness structure. Here, theoretical analysis of the proposed system is clearly presented. Then, the design procedure is derived so that the resonance peak of frequency-response curve drifts to the left, the load support capacity of the system is maintained, the total size of the system is reduced for easy practical application and especially, the bending of the frequency-response curve is minimized. Next the dynamic equation of the proposed system is set up. Then, the harmonic balance (HB) method is employed to seek the characteristic of the motion transmissibility of the proposed system at the steady state for each of the excitation frequency. From this characteristic, the curves of the motion transmission are predicted according to the various values of the configurative parameters of the system. Then, the time responses to the sinusoidal, multi frequency and random excitations are also investigated by simulation and experiment. In addition, the isolation performance comparison between the system with NSS and system without NSS is realized. The simulation results reveal that the proposed system has larger frequency region of isolation than that of the system without NSS. The experimental results confirm also that with a random excitation mainly spreading from 0.1 to 10 Hz, the isolation performance of the system with NSS is greatly improved, where the RMS values of the mass displacement may be reduced to 67.2%, whereas the isolation performance of the system without NSS is bad. Besides, the stability of the steady-state response is also studied. Finally, some conclusions are given.

  16. Head impact mechanisms of a child occupant seated in a child restraint system as determined by impact testing.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ryoichi; Okada, Hiroshi; Nomura, Mitsunori; Mizuno, Koji; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Hosokawa, Naruyuki

    2011-11-01

    In side collision accidents, the head is the most frequently injured body region for child occupants seated in a child restraint system (CRS). Accident analyses show that a child's head can move out of the CRS shell, make hard contact with the vehicle interior, and thus sustain serious injuries. In order to improve child head protection in side collisions, it is necessary to understand the injury mechanism of a child in the CRS whose head makes contact with the vehicle interior. In this research, an SUV-to-car oblique side crash test was conducted to reconstruct such head contacts. A Q3s child dummy was seated in a CRS in the rear seat of the target car. The Q3s child dummy's head moved out beyond the CRS side wing, moved laterally, and made contact with the side window glass and the doorsill. It was demonstrated that the hard head contact, which produced a high HIC value, could occur in side collisions. A series of sled tests was carried out to reproduce the dummy kinematic behavior observed in the SUV-to-car crash test, and the sled test conditions such as sled angle, ECE seat slant angle and velocity-time history that duplicated the kinematic behavior were determined. A parametric study also was conducted with the sled tests; and it was found that the impact angle, harness slack, chest clip, and the CRS side wing shape affected the torso motion and head contact with the vehicle interior.

  17. Interference of different types of seats on postural control system during a forward-reaching task in individuals with paraplegia.

    PubMed

    de Abreu, Daniela Cristina Carvalho; Takara, Kelly; Metring, Nathália Lopes; Reis, Júlia Guimarães; Cliquet, Alberto

    2012-09-01

    We aimed to evaluate the influence of different types of wheelchair seats on paraplegic individuals' postural control using a maximum anterior reaching test. Balance evaluations during 50, 75, and 90% of each individual's maximum reach in the forward direction using two different cushions on seat (one foam and one gel) and a no-cushion condition were carried out on 11 individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) and six individuals without SCI. Trunk anterior displacement and the time spent to perform the test were assessed. No differences were found for the three types of seats in terms of trunk anterior displacement and the time spent to perform the test when intragroup comparisons were made in both groups (P>0.05). The intergroup comparison showed that body displacement was less prominent and the time spent to perform the test was more prolonged for individuals with SCI (P<0.05), which suggests a postural control deficit. The seat type did not affect the ability of the postural control system to maintain balance during the forward-reaching task.

  18. Modeling of a deep-seated geothermal system near Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Xun, Z; Mingyou, C; Weiming, Z; Minglang, L

    2001-01-01

    A geothermal field is located in deep-seated basement aquifers in the northeastern part of the North China Plain near Tianjin, China. Carbonate rocks of Ordovician and Middle and Upper Proterozoic age on the Cangxian Uplift are capable of yielding 960 to 4200 m3/d of 57 degrees C to 96 degrees C water to wells from a depth of more than 1000 m. A three-dimensional nonisothermal numerical model was used to simulate and predict the spatial and temporal evolution of pressure and temperature in the geothermal system. The density of the geothermal water, which appears in the governing equations, can be expressed as a linear function of pressure, temperature, and total dissolved solids. A term describing the exchange of heat between water and rock is incorporated in the governing heat transport equation. Conductive heat flow from surrounding formations can be considered among the boundary conditions. Recent data of geothermal water production from the system were used for a first calibration of the numerical model. The calibrated model was used to predict the future changes in pressure and temperature of the geothermal water caused by two pumping schemes. The modeling results indicate that both pressure and temperature have a tendency to decrease with time and pumping. The current withdrawal rates and a pumping period of five months followed by a shut-off period of seven months are helpful in minimizing the degradation of the geothermal resource potential in the area.

  19. NASA Standards Inform Comfortable Car Seats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    NASA developed standards, which included the neutral body posture (NBP), to specify ways to design flight systems that support human health and safety. Nissan Motor Company, with US offices in Franklin, Tennessee, turned to NASA's NBP research for the development of a new driver's seat. The 2013 Altima now features the new seat, and the company plans to incorporate the seats in upcoming vehicles.

  20. Method and system for measuring gate valve clearances and seating force

    DOEpatents

    Casada, Donald A.; Haynes, Howard D.; Moyers, John C.; Stewart, Brian K.

    1996-01-01

    Valve clearances and seating force, as well as other valve operational parameters, are determined by measuring valve stem rotation during opening and closing operations of a translatable gate valve. The magnitude of the stem rotation, and the relative difference between the stem rotation on opening and closing provides valuable data on the valve internals in a non-intrusive manner.

  1. Method and system for measuring gate valve clearances and seating force

    DOEpatents

    Casada, D.A.; Haynes, H.D.; Moyers, J.C.; Stewart, B.K.

    1996-01-30

    Valve clearances and seating force, as well as other valve operational parameters, are determined by measuring valve stem rotation during opening and closing operations of a translatable gate valve. The magnitude of the stem rotation, and the relative difference between the stem rotation on opening and closing provides valuable data on the valve internals in a non-intrusive manner. 8 figs.

  2. Adaptive control of linearizable systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastry, S. Shankar; Isidori, Alberto

    1989-01-01

    Initial results are reported regarding the adaptive control of minimum-phase nonlinear systems which are exactly input-output linearizable by state feedback. Parameter adaptation is used as a technique to make robust the exact cancellation of nonlinear terms, which is called for in the linearization technique. The application of the adaptive technique to control of robot manipulators is discussed. Only the continuous-time case is considered; extensions to the discrete-time and sampled-data cases are not obvious.

  3. Adaptive protection algorithm and system

    DOEpatents

    Hedrick, Paul [Pittsburgh, PA; Toms, Helen L [Irwin, PA; Miller, Roger M [Mars, PA

    2009-04-28

    An adaptive protection algorithm and system for protecting electrical distribution systems traces the flow of power through a distribution system, assigns a value (or rank) to each circuit breaker in the system and then determines the appropriate trip set points based on the assigned rank.

  4. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... the driver's seat and seat belt assembly anchorages that conform to the location and...

  5. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... the driver's seat and seat belt assembly anchorages that conform to the location and...

  6. Car Seats for Growing Children: Guidelines for Counselling Parents on Which Type of Car Seat To Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Transportation, Springfield. Div. of Traffic Safety.

    Children's car seats provide protection from the types of injury with the worst consequences. This document presents guidelines for selecting and installing child car seats, booster seats, and seat belts. The document includes suggestions for identifying when a child's safety restraint system should be changed, for determining if the restraint…

  7. Adaptive security systems -- Combining expert systems with adaptive technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Argo, P.; Loveland, R.; Anderson, K.

    1997-09-01

    The Adaptive Multisensor Integrated Security System (AMISS) uses a variety of computational intelligence techniques to reason from raw sensor data through an array of processing layers to arrive at an assessment for alarm/alert conditions based on human behavior within a secure facility. In this paper, the authors give an overview of the system and briefly describe some of the major components of the system. This system is currently under development and testing in a realistic facility setting.

  8. Anthropometric data from launch and entry suited test subjects for the design of a recumbent seating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoycos, Lara E.; Klute, Glen K.

    1993-01-01

    Returning space crews to Earth in a recumbent position requires the design of a new seating system. Current anthropometric data are based on measurements taken while the subjects were unsuited and sitting. To be most accurate, it is necessary to design by measurements of subjects in the launch and entry suit in a recumbent position. Since the design of the recumbent seating system must meet the requirements of both 5th percentile Japanese female and 95th percentile American male crew members, a delta is reported rather than absolute measurements of the test subjects. This delta is the difference in the measurements taken with the subjects unsuited and sitting and those taken with the subjects suited and recumbent. This delta, representative of the change due to the suit, can be added to the existing Man-Systems Integration Standards (NASA-STD-3000) anthropometric data to project the measurements for 5th percentile Japanese female and 95th percentile American male crew members. A delta accounting for the spinal elongation caused by prolonged exposures to microgravity is added as well. Both unpressurized and pressurized suit conditions are considered. Background information, the test protocol and procedure, analysis of the data, and recommendations are reported.

  9. Comfort model for automobile seat.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Lizandra da; Bortolotti, Silvana Ligia Vincenzi; Campos, Izabel Carolina Martins; Merino, Eugenio Andrés Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Comfort on automobile seats is lived daily by thousands of drivers. Epistemologically, comfort can be understood under the theory of complexity, since it emerges from a chain of interrelationships between man and several elements of the system. This interaction process can engender extreme comfort associated to the feeling of pleasure and wellbeing or, on the other hand, lead to discomfort, normally followed by pain. This article has for purpose the development of a theoretical model that favours the comfort feature on automobile seats through the identification of its facets and indicators. For such, a theoretical study is resorted to, allowing the mapping of elements that constitute the model. The results present a comfort model on automobile seats that contemplates the (physical, psychological, object, context and environment) facets. This model is expected to contribute with the automobile industry for the development of improvements of the ergonomic project of seats to increase the comfort noticed by the users.

  10. Adaptive ophthalmologic system

    DOEpatents

    Olivier, Scot S.; Thompson, Charles A.; Bauman, Brian J.; Jones, Steve M.; Gavel, Don T.; Awwal, Abdul A.; Eisenbies, Stephen K.; Haney, Steven J.

    2007-03-27

    A system for improving vision that can diagnose monochromatic aberrations within a subject's eyes, apply the wavefront correction, and then enable the patient to view the results of the correction. The system utilizes a laser for producing a beam of light; a corrector; a wavefront sensor; a testing unit; an optic device for directing the beam of light to the corrector, to the retina, from the retina to the wavefront sensor, and to the testing unit; and a computer operatively connected to the wavefront sensor and the corrector.

  11. Adaptive Production Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    Melton, A. W., and Marton. E. (Eds.). Coding Processes in Human Memory, Washington, DC , Winston and Sons, 1972. Newell. A. Production systems...STM (1 A ’) (ACTION (USED) (DEP (NEXT B))) (B ?) (LOC A) (A ?) (B ?) ( SEPIc ’ fiAB) 16 TRUE IN PS STM (NEXT A) (1 A?) (ACTION (USED) (DEP (NEXT B

  12. Adaptive Instructional Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    planning stage, which used the infbrmation obtained from the Phase I research to develop a plan for utilizing the tecnolog in the proposed system. 1.4...categories of physical stimuli are perceptual, intake, time, and mobility . 01ly one of these factors, perceptual, cam be taken into account in the simulator

  13. [Health: an adaptive complex system].

    PubMed

    Toro-Palacio, Luis Fernando; Ochoa-Jaramillo, Francisco Luis

    2012-02-01

    This article points out the enormous gap that exists between complex thinking of an intellectual nature currently present in our environment, and complex experimental thinking that has facilitated the scientific and technological advances that have radically changed the world. The article suggests that life, human beings, global society, and all that constitutes health be considered as adaptive complex systems. This idea, in turn, prioritizes the adoption of a different approach that seeks to expand understanding. When this rationale is recognized, the principal characteristics and emerging properties of health as an adaptive complex system are sustained, following a care and services delivery model. Finally, some pertinent questions from this perspective are put forward in terms of research, and a series of appraisals are expressed that will hopefully serve to help us understand all that we have become as individuals and as a species. The article proposes that the delivery of health care services be regarded as an adaptive complex system.

  14. Remote Adaptive Communication System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    manage several different devices using the software tool A. Client/Server Architecture The architecture we are proposing is based on the Client...communication". International Telemedicine. Julio 1999. Pp 4. [17] F. Fernández, L. Roa, "Communication System Based on a New Open Architecture...Toledo, " Fundamentos de Neurología para educadores". IDEO. Sevilla 1994. [21] P. Coad, E. Yourdon, "Object Oriented Analysis". Yourdon Press

  15. Active vibration attenuating seat suspension for an armored helicopter crew seat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sztein, Pablo Javier

    An Active Vibration Attenuating Seat Suspension (AVASS) for an MH-60S helicopter crew seat is designed to protect the occupants from harmful whole-body vibration (WBV). Magnetorheological (MR) suspension units are designed, fabricated and installed in a helicopter crew seat. These MR isolators are built to work in series with existing Variable Load Energy Absorbers (VLEAs), have minimal increase in weight, and maintain crashworthiness for the seat system. Refinements are discussed, based on testing, to minimize friction observed in the system. These refinements include the addition of roller bearings to replace friction bearings in the existing seat. Additionally, semi-active control of the MR dampers is achieved using special purpose built custom electronics integrated into the seat system. Experimental testing shows that an MH-60S retrofitted with AVASS provides up to 70.65% more vibration attenuation than the existing seat configuration as well as up to 81.1% reduction in vibration from the floor.

  16. Seat Design for Crash Worthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, I Irving; Rosenberg, Edmund G

    1957-01-01

    A study of many crash deceleration records suggested a simplified model of a crash deceleration pulse, which incorporates the essential properties of the pulse. The model pulse is considered to be composed of a base pulse on which are superimposed one or more secondary pulses of shorter duration. The results of a mathematical analysis of the seat-passenger deceleration in response to the airplane deceleration pulse are provided. On the basis of this information, presented as working charts, the maximum deceleration loads experienced by the seat and passenger in response to the airplane deceleration pulse can be computed. This maximum seat-passenger deceleration is found to depend on the natural frequency of the seat containing the passenger, considered as a mass-spring system. A method is presented that shows how to arrive at a combination of seat strength, natural frequency, and ability to absorb energy in deformation beyond the elastic limit that will allow the seat to serve without failure during an airplane deceleration pulse taken as the design requirement.

  17. Nanosatellite Launch Adapter System (NLAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, Bruce D.; Hines, John W.; Agasid, Elwood F.; Buckley, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The utility of small spacecraft based on the University cubesat standard is becoming evident as more and more agencies and organizations are launching or planning to include nanosatellites in their mission portfolios. Cubesats are typically launched as secondary spacecraft in enclosed, containerized deployers such as the CalPoly Poly Picosat Orbital Deployer (P-POD) system. The P-POD allows for ease of integration and significantly reduces the risk exposure to the primary spacecraft and mission. NASA/ARC and the Operationally Responsive Space office are collaborating to develop a Nanosatellite Launch Adapter System (NLAS), which can accommodate multiple cubesat or cubesat-derived spacecraft on a single launch vehicle. NLAS is composed of the adapter structure, P-POD or similar spacecraft dispensers, and a sequencer/deployer system. This paper describes the NLAS system and it s future capabilities, and also provides status on the system s development and potential first use in space.

  18. Architecture for Adaptive Intelligent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes-Roth, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    We identify a class of niches to be occupied by 'adaptive intelligent systems (AISs)'. In contrast with niches occupied by typical AI agents, AIS niches present situations that vary dynamically along several key dimensions: different combinations of required tasks, different configurations of available resources, contextual conditions ranging from benign to stressful, and different performance criteria. We present a small class hierarchy of AIS niches that exhibit these dimensions of variability and describe a particular AIS niche, ICU (intensive care unit) patient monitoring, which we use for illustration throughout the paper. We have designed and implemented an agent architecture that supports all of different kinds of adaptation by exploiting a single underlying theoretical concept: An agent dynamically constructs explicit control plans to guide its choices among situation-triggered behaviors. We illustrate the architecture and its support for adaptation with examples from Guardian, an experimental agent for ICU monitoring.

  19. The Limits to Adaptation; A Systems Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Limits to Adaptation: A Systems Approach. The ability to adapt to climate change is delineated by capacity thresholds, after which climate damages begin to overwhelm the adaptation response. Such thresholds depend upon physical properties (natural processes and engineering...

  20. Portable seat lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A portable seat lift that can help individuals either (1) lower themselves to a sitting position or (2) raise themselves to a standing position is presented. The portable seat lift consists of a seat mounted on a base with two levers, which are powered by a drive unit.

  1. Interference of Different Types of Seats on Postural Control System during a Forward-Reaching Task in Individuals with Paraplegia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Abreu, Daniela Cristina Carvalho; Takara, Kelly; Metring, Nathalia Lopes; Reis, Julia Guimaraes; Cliquet, Alberto, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the influence of different types of wheelchair seats on paraplegic individuals' postural control using a maximum anterior reaching test. Balance evaluations during 50, 75, and 90% of each individual's maximum reach in the forward direction using two different cushions on seat (one foam and one gel) and a no-cushion condition…

  2. A Flying Ejection Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollrock, R. H.; Barzda, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    To increase aircrewmen's chances for safe rescue in combat zones, the armed forces are investigating advanced escape and rescue concepts that will provide independent flight after ejection and thus reduce the risk of capture. One of the candidate concepts is discussed; namely, a stowable autogyro that serves as the crewman's seat during normal operations and automatically converts to a flight vehicle after ejection. Discussed are (1) the mechanism subsystems that the concept embodies to meet the weight and cockpit-packaging constraints and (2) tests that demonstrated the technical feasibility of the stowage, deployment, and flight operation of the rotor lift system.

  3. Making Intelligent Systems Adaptive. (Revision)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    eventually produce solutions. BY contrast, human beinge and other intelligent animls continuously adapt to the demands and opportunities presented by a...such as monitoring critically ill medical patients or controlling a manufacturing process. Following the model set by human intelligence, we define...signs probabilistically, using a belief network, as well as from first principles, using explicit models of system structure and function. Concurrent

  4. Conical Seat Shut-Off Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farner, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    A moveable valve for controlling flow of a pressurized working fluid was designed. This valve consists of a hollow, moveable floating piston pressed against a stationary solid seat, and can use the working fluid to seal the valve. This open/closed, novel valve is able to use metal-to-metal seats, without requiring seat sliding action; therefore there are no associated damaging effects. During use, existing standard high-pressure ball valve seats tend to become damaged during rotation of the ball. Additionally, forces acting on the ball and stem create large amounts of friction. The combination of these effects can lead to system failure. In an attempt to reduce damaging effects and seat failures, soft seats in the ball valve have been eliminated; however, the sliding action of the ball across the highly loaded seat still tends to scratch the seat, causing failure. Also, in order to operate, ball valves require the use of large actuators. Positioning the metal-to-metal seats requires more loading, which tends to increase the size of the required actuator, and can also lead to other failures in other areas such as the stem and bearing mechanisms, thus increasing cost and maintenance. This novel non-sliding seat surface valve allows metal-to-metal seats without the damaging effects that can lead to failure, and enables large seating forces without damaging the valve. Additionally, this valve design, even when used with large, high-pressure applications, does not require large conventional valve actuators and the valve stem itself is eliminated. Actuation is achieved with the use of a small, simple solenoid valve. This design also eliminates the need for many seals used with existing ball valve and globe valve designs, which commonly cause failure, too. This, coupled with the elimination of the valve stem and conventional valve actuator, improves valve reliability and seat life. Other mechanical liftoff seats have been designed; however, they have only resulted in

  5. Certification Considerations for Adaptive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, Siddhartha; Cofer, Darren; Musliner, David J.; Mueller, Joseph; Engstrom, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Advanced capabilities planned for the next generation of aircraft, including those that will operate within the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), will necessarily include complex new algorithms and non-traditional software elements. These aircraft will likely incorporate adaptive control algorithms that will provide enhanced safety, autonomy, and robustness during adverse conditions. Unmanned aircraft will operate alongside manned aircraft in the National Airspace (NAS), with intelligent software performing the high-level decision-making functions normally performed by human pilots. Even human-piloted aircraft will necessarily include more autonomy. However, there are serious barriers to the deployment of new capabilities, especially for those based upon software including adaptive control (AC) and artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms. Current civil aviation certification processes are based on the idea that the correct behavior of a system must be completely specified and verified prior to operation. This report by Rockwell Collins and SIFT documents our comprehensive study of the state of the art in intelligent and adaptive algorithms for the civil aviation domain, categorizing the approaches used and identifying gaps and challenges associated with certification of each approach.

  6. Self-alining valve poppet and seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olivas, U. P.

    1978-01-01

    Poppet-and-seat combination is useful in fluid-control system that has to operate at high temperatures with low leak rates. Contaminants in flow stream are removed before they reach sealing surfaces by altering direction of flow several times before it enters poppet-and-seat flow passage. Particles are separated and deposited on surfaces not affecting sealing performance.

  7. Adaptive Behaviour Assessment System: Indigenous Australian Adaptation Model (ABAS: IAAM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Plessis, Santie

    2015-01-01

    The study objectives were to develop, trial and evaluate a cross-cultural adaptation of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition Teacher Form (ABAS-II TF) ages 5-21 for use with Indigenous Australian students ages 5-14. This study introduced a multiphase mixed-method design with semi-structured and informal interviews, school…

  8. The ERIS adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, Enrico; Fedrigo, Enrico; Le Louarn, Miska; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Soenke, Christian; Brast, Roland; Conzelmann, Ralf; Delabre, Bernard; Duchateau, Michel; Frank, Christoph; Klein, Barbara; Amico, Paola; Hubin, Norbert; Esposito, Simone; Antichi, Jacopo; Carbonaro, Luca; Puglisi, Alfio; Quirós-Pacheco, Fernando; Riccardi, Armando; Xompero, Marco

    2014-07-01

    The Enhanced Resolution Imager and Spectrograph (ERIS) is the new Adaptive Optics based instrument for ESO's VLT aiming at replacing NACO and SINFONI to form a single compact facility with AO fed imaging and integral field unit spectroscopic scientific channels. ERIS completes the instrument suite at the VLT adaptive telescope. In particular it is equipped with a versatile AO system that delivers up to 95% Strehl correction in K band for science observations up to 5 micron It comprises high order NGS and LGS correction enabling the observation from exoplanets to distant galaxies with a large sky coverage thanks to the coupling of the LGS WFS with the high sensitivity of its visible WFS and the capability to observe in dust embedded environment thanks to its IR low order WFS. ERIS will be installed at the Cassegrain focus of the VLT unit hosting the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF). The wavefront correction is provided by the AOF deformable secondary mirror while the Laser Guide Star is provided by one of the four launch units of the 4 Laser Guide Star Facility for the AOF. The overall layout of the ERIS AO system is extremely compact and highly optimized: the SPIFFI spectrograph is fed directly by the Cassegrain focus and both the NIX's (IR imager) and SPIFFI's entrance windows work as visible/infrared dichroics. In this paper we describe the concept of the ERIS AO system in detail, starting from the requirements and going through the estimated performance, the opto-mechanical design and the Real-Time Computer design.

  9. ERIS adaptive optics system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, Enrico; Le Louarn, Miska; Soenke, Christian; Fedrigo, Enrico; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Hubin, Norbert

    2012-07-01

    The Enhanced Resolution Imager and Spectrograph (ERIS) is the next-generation instrument planned for the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the Adaptive Optics facility (AOF). It is an AO assisted instrument that will make use of the Deformable Secondary Mirror and the new Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF), and it is planned for the Cassegrain focus of the telescope UT4. The project is currently in its Phase A awaiting for approval to continue to the next phases. The Adaptive Optics system of ERIS will include two wavefront sensors (WFS) to maximize the coverage of the proposed sciences cases. The first is a high order 40x40 Pyramid WFS (PWFS) for on axis Natural Guide Star (NGS) observations. The second is a high order 40x40 Shack-Hartmann WFS for single Laser Guide Stars (LGS) observations. The PWFS, with appropriate sub-aperture binning, will serve also as low order NGS WFS in support to the LGS mode with a field of view patrolling capability of 2 arcmin diameter. Both WFSs will be equipped with the very low read-out noise CCD220 based camera developed for the AOF. The real-time reconstruction and control is provided by a SPARTA real-time platform adapted to support both WFS modes. In this paper we will present the ERIS AO system in all its main aspects: opto-mechanical design, real-time computer design, control and calibrations strategy. Particular emphasis will be given to the system performance obtained via dedicated numerical simulations.

  10. Adaptable state based control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Robert D. (Inventor); Dvorak, Daniel L. (Inventor); Gostelow, Kim P. (Inventor); Starbird, Thomas W. (Inventor); Gat, Erann (Inventor); Chien, Steve Ankuo (Inventor); Keller, Robert M. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An autonomous controller, comprised of a state knowledge manager, a control executor, hardware proxies and a statistical estimator collaborates with a goal elaborator, with which it shares common models of the behavior of the system and the controller. The elaborator uses the common models to generate from temporally indeterminate sets of goals, executable goals to be executed by the controller. The controller may be updated to operate in a different system or environment than that for which it was originally designed by the replacement of shared statistical models and by the instantiation of a new set of state variable objects derived from a state variable class. The adaptation of the controller does not require substantial modification of the goal elaborator for its application to the new system or environment.

  11. 49 CFR 38.105 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.105 Priority seating signs. (a) Each car shall contain sign(s) which indicate that certain seats are priority seats for persons with... of upper case letters), and shall contrast with the background either light-on-dark or dark-on-light....

  12. 49 CFR 38.105 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.105 Priority seating signs. (a) Each car shall contain sign(s) which indicate that certain seats are priority seats for persons with... of upper case letters), and shall contrast with the background either light-on-dark or dark-on-light....

  13. 49 CFR 38.105 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.105 Priority seating signs. (a) Each car shall contain sign(s) which indicate that certain seats are priority seats for persons with... of upper case letters), and shall contrast with the background either light-on-dark or dark-on-light....

  14. 49 CFR 38.105 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.105 Priority seating signs. (a) Each car shall contain sign(s) which indicate that certain seats are priority seats for persons with... of upper case letters), and shall contrast with the background either light-on-dark or dark-on-light....

  15. 49 CFR 38.105 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.105 Priority seating signs. (a) Each car shall contain sign(s) which indicate that certain seats are priority seats for persons with... of upper case letters), and shall contrast with the background either light-on-dark or dark-on-light....

  16. The vestibular system does not modulate fusimotor drive to muscle spindles in contracting leg muscles of seated subjects.

    PubMed

    Bent, L R; Sander, M; Bolton, P S; Macefield, V G

    2013-06-01

    We previously showed that sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) does not modulate the firing of spontaneously active muscle spindles in relaxed human leg muscles. However, given that there is little, if any, fusimotor drive to relaxed human muscles, we tested the hypothesis that vestibular modulation of muscle spindles becomes apparent during volitional contractions at levels that engage the fusimotor system. Unitary recordings were made from 28 muscle spindle afferents via tungsten microelectrodes inserted percutaneously into the common peroneal nerve of seated awake human subjects. Twenty-one of the spindle afferents were spontaneously active at rest and each increased its firing rate during a weak static contraction; seven were silent at rest and were recruited during the contraction. Sinusoidal bipolar binaural galvanic vestibular stimulation (±2 mA, 100 cycles) was applied to the mastoid processes at 0.8 Hz. This continuous stimulation produced a sustained illusion of "rocking in a boat" or "swinging in a hammock" but no entrainment of EMG. Despite these robust vestibular illusions, none of the fusimotor-driven muscle spindles exhibited phase-locked modulation of firing during sinusoidal GVS. We conclude that this dynamic vestibular input was not sufficient to modulate the firing of fusimotor neurones recruited during a voluntary steady-state contraction, arguing against a significant role of the vestibular system in adjusting the sensitivity of muscle spindles via fusimotor neurones.

  17. Adaptive diagnosis of the bilinear mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, L.; Gorpinich, S.; Thompson, C.

    2009-07-01

    A generic adaptive approach is proposed for diagnosis of the bilinear mechanical systems. The approach adapts the free oscillation method for bilinearity diagnosis of mechanical systems. The expediency of the adaptation is proved for a recognition feature, the decrement of the free oscillations. The developed adaptation consists of variation of the adaptive likelihood ratio of the decrement with variation of the resonance frequency of the bilinear system. It is shown that in the cases of the frequency-independent and the frequency-dependent internal damping, the adaptation is expedient. To investigate effectiveness of the adaptation in these cases, a numerical simulation was carried out. The simulation results show that use of the adaptation increases the total probability of the correct diagnosis of system bilinearity.

  18. 14 CFR 23.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: (a) Each seat/restraint system and the supporting structure must be designed to support occupants... and the attachment of— (1) Each seat to the structure; and (2) Each safety belt and shoulder harness to the seat or structure. (b) Each forward-facing or aft-facing seat/restraint system in...

  19. 14 CFR 23.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...: (a) Each seat/restraint system and the supporting structure must be designed to support occupants... and the attachment of— (1) Each seat to the structure; and (2) Each safety belt and shoulder harness to the seat or structure. (b) Each forward-facing or aft-facing seat/restraint system in...

  20. 14 CFR 23.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...: (a) Each seat/restraint system and the supporting structure must be designed to support occupants... and the attachment of— (1) Each seat to the structure; and (2) Each safety belt and shoulder harness to the seat or structure. (b) Each forward-facing or aft-facing seat/restraint system in...

  1. 14 CFR 23.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...: (a) Each seat/restraint system and the supporting structure must be designed to support occupants... and the attachment of— (1) Each seat to the structure; and (2) Each safety belt and shoulder harness to the seat or structure. (b) Each forward-facing or aft-facing seat/restraint system in...

  2. 14 CFR 23.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...: (a) Each seat/restraint system and the supporting structure must be designed to support occupants... and the attachment of— (1) Each seat to the structure; and (2) Each safety belt and shoulder harness to the seat or structure. (b) Each forward-facing or aft-facing seat/restraint system in...

  3. An overview of Space Shuttle anthropometry and biomechanics research with emphasis on STS/Mir recumbent seat system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klute, Glenn K.; Stoycos, Lara E.

    1994-01-01

    The Anthropometry and Biomechanics Laboratory (ABL) at JSC conducts multi-disciplinary research focusing on maximizing astronaut intravehicular (IVA) and extravehicular (EVA) capabilities to provide the most effective work conditions for manned space flight and exploration missions. Biomechanics involves the measurement and modeling of the strength characteristics of the human body. Current research for the Space Shuttle Program includes the measurement of torque wrench capability during weightlessness, optimization of foot restraint, and hand hold placement, measurements of the strength and dexterity of the pressure gloved hand to improve glove design, quantification of the ability to move and manipulate heavy masses (6672 N or 1500 lb) in weightlessness, and verification of the capability of EVA crewmembers to perform Hubble Space Telescope repair tasks. Anthropometry is the measurement and modeling of the dimensions of the human body. Current research for the Space Shuttle Program includes the measurement of 14 anthropometric parameters of every astronaut candidate, identification of EVA finger entrapment hazards by measuring the dimensions of the gloved hand, definition of flight deck reach envelopes during launch and landing accelerations, and measurement of anthropometric design parameters for the recumbent seat system required for the Shuttle/Mir mission (STS-71, Spacelab M) scheduled for Jun. 1995.

  4. Rear seat occupant safety: an investigation of a progressive force-limiting, pretensioning 3-point belt system using adult PMHS in frontal sled tests.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jason; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco; Lessley, David; Kindig, Matthew; Kent, Richard; Ridella, Stephen; Bostrom, Ola

    2009-11-01

    Rear seat adult occupant protection is receiving increased attention from the automotive safety community. Recent anthropomorphic test device (ATD) studies have suggested that it may be possible to improve kinematics and reduce injuries to rear seat occupants in frontal collisions by incorporating shoulder-belt force-limiting and pretensioning (FL+PT) technologies into rear seat 3-point belt restraints. This study seeks to further investigate the feasibility and potential kinematic benefits of a FL+PT rear seat, 3-point belt restraint system in a series of 48 kmh frontal impact sled tests (20 g, 80 ms sled acceleration pulse) performed with post mortem human surrogates (PMHS). Three PMHS were tested with a 3-point belt restraint with a progressive (two-stage) force limiting and pretensioing retractor in a sled buck representing the rear seat occupant environment of a 2004 mid-sized sedan. Instrumentation included belt tension load cells, accelerometers on the head and at multiple locations on the spine, and chestbands to measure the chest deformation contours in the transverse plane. The kinematics of the subjects were quantified using off-board, high-speed video. The results of these tests were then compared to matched PMHS tests, published in 2008, performed in the same environment with a standard (not-force limited, not pretensioning) 3-point belt restraint. The FL+PT restraint system resulted in significant (p<0.05) decreases in peak shoulder belt tension (average +/- standard deviation: 4.4 +/- 0.13 kN with the FL+PT belt, 7.8 +/- 0. 6 kN with the standard belt) and 3 ms-resultant, mid-spine acceleration (FL+PT: 34 +/- 3.8 g; standard belt: 44 +/- 1.4 g). The FL+PT tests also produced more forward torso rotation caused by decreased forward excursion of the pelvis and increased payout out of the shoulder belt by the force-limiter. These results support the previous ATD studies that suggest that it may be possible to improve the kinematics of rear seat occupants

  5. Portable Lifting Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Portable lifting machine assists user in rising from seated position to standing position, or in sitting down. Small and light enough to be carried like briefcase. Used on variety of chairs and benches. Upholstered aluminum box houses mechanism of lifting seat. Springs on outer shaft-and-arm subassembly counterbalance part of user's weight to assist motor.

  6. Measurement and modelling of the y-direction apparent mass of sitting human body-cushioned seat system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, George Juraj; Múčka, Peter; Hinz, Barbara; Blüthner, Ralph

    2009-04-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted using 13 male subjects seated on a cushioned commercial vehicle driver's seat. The hands gripped a mock-up steering wheel and the subjects were in contact with the lumbar region of the backrest. The accelerations and forces in the y-direction were measured during random lateral whole-body vibration with a frequency range between 0.25 and 30 Hz, vibration magnitudes 0.30, 0.98, and 1.92 m s -2 (unweighted root mean square (rms)). Based on these laboratory measurements, a linear multi-degree-of-freedom (mdof) model of the seated human body and cushioned seat in the lateral direction ( y-axis) was developed. Model parameters were identified from averaged measured apparent mass values (modulus and phase) for the three excitation magnitudes mentioned. A preferred model structure was selected from four 3-dof models analysed. The mean subject parameters were identified. In addition, identification of each subject's apparent mass model parameters was performed. The results are compared with previous studies. The developed model structure and the identified parameters can be used for further biodynamical research in seating dynamics.

  7. Seat Belt Use Among Adult Workers - 21 States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Boal, Winifred L; Li, Jia; Rodriguez-Acosta, Rosa L

    2016-06-17

    Roadway incidents involving motorized vehicles accounted for 24% of fatal occupational injuries in the United States during 2013 and were the leading cause of fatal injuries among workers.* In 2013, workers' compensation costs for serious, nonfatal injuries among work-related roadway incidents involving motorized land vehicles were estimated at $2.96 billion.(†) Seat belt use is a proven method to reduce injuries to motor vehicle occupants (1). Use of lap/shoulder seat belts reduces the risk for fatal injuries to front seat occupants of cars by 45% and the risk to light truck occupants by 60%.(§) To characterize seat belt use among adult workers by occupational group, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and found that not always using a seat belt was significantly associated with occupational group after controlling for factors known to influence seat belt use. Occupational groups with the highest prevalences of not always using a seat belt included construction and extraction; farming, fishing, and forestry; and installation, maintenance, and repair. To increase seat belt use among persons currently employed, states can enact and enforce primary seat belt laws, employers can set and enforce safety policies requiring seat belt use by all vehicle occupants, and seat belt safety advocates can target interventions to workers in occupational groups with lower reported seat belt use.

  8. Under-Body Blast Mitigation: Stand-Alone Seat Safety Activation System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Restraints, Airbags or other protection systems) to mitigate injury to the occupant during the onset of the event. Injuries may occur as soon as 2.5 ms...cost-effective sensor to accurately and consistently deploy airbags and other pyrotechnic restraint systems based on accelerometers and other...Circuitry are critically important in order to activate the initiators of air bags and pyrotechnic restraint system such as airbags at the very first

  9. Is Echo a complex adaptive system?

    PubMed

    Smith, R M; Bedau, M A

    2000-01-01

    We evaluate whether John Holland's Echo model exemplifies his theory of complex adaptive systems. After reviewing Holland's theory of complex adaptive systems and describing his Escho model, we describe and explain the characteristic evolutionary behavior observed in a series of Echo model runs. We conclude that Echo lacks the diversity of hierarchically organized aggregates that typify complex adaptive systems, and we explore possible explanations for this failure.

  10. Seat Interfaces for Aircrew Performance and Safety

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    manikin lumbar and cervical spine loads/forces and moments, head, chest and pelvis accelerations, shoulder straps and lap belt loads, seat pan and...consisted of manikin lumbar and cervical spine loads/forces and moments, head, chest and pelvis accelerations, shoulder straps and lap belt loads, seat...in Figure 5. The manikin coordinate system used was an inverted SAE J211 system. The torques were reversed from SAE J211. Flexion was measured

  11. Development of a Modularized Seating System to Actively Manage Interface Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chung-Huang; Chou, Tung-Yu; Chen, Cheng-Huan; Chen, Poyin; Wang, Fu-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Pressure ulcers can be a fatal complication. Many immobile wheelchair users face this threat. Current passive and active cushions do reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers and they have different merits. We proposed an active approach to combine their advantages which is based on the concept that the interface pressure can be changed with different supporting shapes. The purpose of this paper is to verify the proposed approach. With practical applications in mind, we have developed a modular system whose support surface is composed by height-adjustable support elements. Each four-element module was self-contained and composed of force sensors, position sensors, linear actuators, signal conditioners, driving circuits, and signal processors. The modules could be chained and assembled together easily to form different-sized support surfaces. Each support element took up a 3 cm × 3 cm supporting area. The displacement resolution was less than 0.1 mm and the force sensor error was less than 1% in the 2000 g range. Each support element of the system could provide 49 N pushing force (408 mmHg over the 3 cm × 3 cm area) at a speed of 2.36 mm/s. Several verification tests were performed to assess the whole system's feasibility. Further improvements and clinical applications were discussed. In conclusion, this modularized system is capable of actively managing interface pressure in real time. PMID:25098206

  12. Development of an Inflatable Head/Neck Restraint System for Ejection Seats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-28

    Report) 10 SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19 KEY WORDS fConrinuo an fevers& Bide If neceesary antd Identify by block number) Inflatable neck collar Inflatable...TABLE, Anthropometric Measurements Pertaining to Neck Collar Design .............. ... ............................ 11 1. - 1- IV NADC...3 Layout of Inflation System Components ......... ............ 9 4 An Early Neck Collar Design - Three Layer Neck •ingt’.* . 12 Sa

  13. Development of a modularized seating system to actively manage interface pressure.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chung-Huang; Chou, Tung-Yu; Chen, Cheng-Huan; Chen, Poyin; Wang, Fu-Cheng

    2014-08-05

    Pressure ulcers can be a fatal complication. Many immobile wheelchair users face this threat. Current passive and active cushions do reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers and they have different merits. We proposed an active approach to combine their advantages which is based on the concept that the interface pressure can be changed with different supporting shapes. The purpose of this paper is to verify the proposed approach. With practical applications in mind, we have developed a modular system whose support surface is composed by height-adjustable support elements. Each four-element module was self-contained and composed of force sensors, position sensors, linear actuators, signal conditioners, driving circuits, and signal processors. The modules could be chained and assembled together easily to form different-sized support surfaces. Each support element took up a 3 cm × 3 cm supporting area. The displacement resolution was less than 0.1 mm and the force sensor error was less than 1% in the 2000 g range. Each support element of the system could provide 49 N pushing force (408 mmHg over the 3 cm × 3 cm area) at a speed of 2.36 mm/s. Several verification tests were performed to assess the whole system's feasibility. Further improvements and clinical applications were discussed. In conclusion, this modularized system is capable of actively managing interface pressure in real time.

  14. Modeling Power Systems as Complex Adaptive Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Malard, Joel M.; Posse, Christian; Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Lu, Ning; Katipamula, Srinivas; Mallow, J V.

    2004-12-30

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today's most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This report explores the state-of-the-art physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and deriving stable and robust control strategies for using them. We review and discuss applications of some analytic methods based on a thermodynamic metaphor, according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood. We apply these methods to the question of how power markets can be expected to behave under a variety of conditions.

  15. SAFEGUARD seat/compartment evaluation methodology for vehicles with suspended seats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostens, I.; Amditis, A.; Stefani, O.; Dangelmaier, M.; Bekiaris, E.; Schaerli, H.; Bullinger, A.; Ramon, H.

    2004-09-01

    Back pain is observed in a high percentage of professional drivers of heavy-duty vehicles and trucks. It was found that whole-body vibrations, prolonged sitting and posture, because of task handling and seating system, are the main factors in the development of back pain. The attenuation of vibrations and the provision of a good ergonomic posture at all times are therefore becoming more important. To achieve this a better knowledge of human behaviour towards vibrations and when seated on suspended seats is required using more appropriate evaluation techniques. The EC project SAFEGUARD aims at developing a new seat evaluation methodology where with controlled vibration tests and virtual reality simulations as many features as possible of human behaviour when seated on suspended seats are combined. The results of this combined methodology will lead to better understanding of the driver-seat-cabin system and the relation to comfort and health. They will also provide a more accurate way to interpret the efficiency of new seat features in improving comfort and health.

  16. Heating characteristics of the TRIPAS hyperthermia system for deep seated malignancy.

    PubMed

    Surowiec, A; Bicher, H I

    1995-01-01

    A deep heating hyperthermia device TRIPAS (a triapplicator system) consisting of three independent, dielectrically loaded horn applicators operating in phase at 300 MHz was investigated. The heating characteristics produced by this hyperthermia system were analyzed by means of thermochromic liquid-crystal cards and a modified CDRH (Center for Devices and Regulatory Health) elliptical phantom. Both homogenous and inhomogeneous phantoms were used, simulating high and low permittivity tissues (muscle and lung). These equivalent tissues were made of polyacrylamide gel. The semiquantitative heating pattern analysis showed a central heating of 1/3 of maximum heating at a depth of 10 cm in both homogenous (muscle) and heterogenous (muscle/fat) phantoms. Also more uniform temperature/SAR distributions were generated in muscle equivalent material than those in lung.

  17. Autonomous Organization-Based Adaptive Information Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    intentional Multi - agent System (MAS) approach [10]. While these approaches are functional AIS systems, they lack the ability to reorganize and adapt...extended a multi - agent system with a self- reorganizing architecture to create an autonomous, adaptive information system. Design Our organization-based...goals. An advantage of a multi - agent system using the organization theoretic model is its extensibility. The practical, numerical limits to the

  18. Computerized Adaptive Mastery Tests as Expert Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Theodore W.

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of expert systems and computerized adaptive tests describes two versions of EXSPRT, a new approach that combines uncertain inference in expert systems with sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) stopping rules. Results of two studies comparing EXSPRT to adaptive mastery testing based on item response theory and SPRT approaches are…

  19. Child Safety Seats

    MedlinePlus

    ... contacting the manufacturer, or by looking up safety complaints records on your child's safety seat at www. ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  20. Composite shell spacecraft seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barackman, Victor J. (Inventor); Pulley, John K. (Inventor); Simon, Xavier D. (Inventor); McKee, Sandra D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A two-part seat (10) providing full body support that is specific for each crew member (30) on an individual basis. The two-part construction for the seat (10) can accommodate many sizes and shapes for crewmembers (30) because it is reconfigurable and therefore reusable for subsequent flights. The first component of the two-part seat construction is a composite shell (12) that surrounds the crewmember's entire body and is generically fitted to their general size in height and weight. The second component of the two-part seat (10) is a cushion (20) that conforms exactly to the specific crewmember's entire body and gives total body support in more complex environment.

  1. Biomechanics of side impact injuries: evaluation of seat belt restraint system, occupant kinematics and injury potential.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, Srirangam; Sances, Anthony; Carlin, Fred; Frieder, Russell; Friedman, Keith; Renfroe, David

    2006-01-01

    Side impact crashes are the second most severe motor vehicle accidents resulting in serious and fatal injuries. One of the occupant restraint systems in the vehicle is the three point lap/shoulder harness. However, the lap/shoulder restraint is not effective in a far-side crash (impact is opposite to the occupant location) since the occupant may slip out of the shoulder harness. The present comprehensive study was designed to delineate the biomechanics of far-side planar crashes. The first part of the study involves a car-to-car crash to study the crash dynamics and occupant kinematics; the second part involves an epidemiological analysis of NASS/CDS 1988-2003 database to study the distribution of serious injury; the third part includes the mathematical MADYMO analysis to study the occupant kinematics in detail; and the fourth part includes an in-depth analysis of a real world far-side accident to delineate the injury mechanism and occupant kinematics. Results indicate that the shoulder harness is ineffective in far-side crashes. The upper torso of the belted driver dummy slips out of the shoulder harness and interacted with the opposite vehicle interior such as the door panel. The unbelted occupants had a similar head injury severity pattern compared to belted occupants. The present study is another step to advance towards better understanding of the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of side impact injuries.

  2. Operator adaptation to changes in system reliability under adaptable automation.

    PubMed

    Chavaillaz, Alain; Sauer, Juergen

    2016-11-25

    This experiment examined how operators coped with a change in system reliability between training and testing. Forty participants were trained for 3 h on a complex process control simulation modelling six levels of automation (LOA). In training, participants either experienced a high- (100%) or low-reliability system (50%). The impact of training experience on operator behaviour was examined during a 2.5 h testing session, in which participants either experienced a high- (100%) or low-reliability system (60%). The results showed that most operators did not often switch between LOA. Most chose an LOA that relieved them of most tasks but maintained their decision authority. Training experience did not have a strong impact on the outcome measures (e.g. performance, complacency). Low system reliability led to decreased performance and self-confidence. Furthermore, complacency was observed under high system reliability. Overall, the findings suggest benefits of adaptable automation because it accommodates different operator preferences for LOA. Practitioner Summary: The present research shows that operators can adapt to changes in system reliability between training and testing sessions. Furthermore, it provides evidence that each operator has his/her preferred automation level. Since this preference varies strongly between operators, adaptable automation seems to be suitable to accommodate these large differences.

  3. Child booster seats and lethal seat belt injury.

    PubMed

    Byard, R W; Noblett, H

    2004-11-01

    A 7-year-old boy travelling in the rear seat of a sedan car was wearing a lap-shoulder seat belt and sitting on a booster seat. Following a collision the boy 'submarined' under the seat belt sustaining trauma to the anterior aspect of his neck, cardiac arrest and subsequent death from hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. This case demonstrates a potential problem with unsecured older-style booster seats. Movement of a seat in a collision may cause a child to slip under a seat belt and sustain significant neck injuries. Seatbelts for children must be correctly fitted, booster seats or capsules must be securely fastened and manufacturer's recommendations for size and weight limits should be followed. Unfortunately older booster seats may not have attached instructions for installation and use, may not fit later model vehicles, may not conform to current safety recommendations and may have worn webbing. For these reasons their use should be discouraged.

  4. The Limits to Adaptation: A Systems Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felgenhauer, T. N.

    2013-12-01

    The ability to adapt to climate change is delineated by capacity thresholds, after which climate damages begin to overwhelm the adaptation response. Such thresholds depend upon physical properties (natural processes and engineering parameters), resource constraints (expressed through market prices), and societal preferences (from prices as well as cultural norms). Exceedance of adaptation capacity will require substitution either with other pre-existing policy responses or with new adaptation responses that have yet to be developed and tested. Previous modeling research shows that capacity limited adaptation will play a policy-significant role in future climate change decision-making. The aim of this study is to describe different types of adaptation response and climate damage systems and postulate how these systems might behave when the limits to adaptation are reached. The hypothesis is that this behavior will be governed by the characteristics and level of the adaptation limit, the shape of the damage curve in that specific damage area, and the availability of alternative adaptation responses once the threshold is passed, whether it is more of the old technology, a new response type, or a transformation of the climate damage and response system itself.

  5. Strapping rowers to their sliding seat improves performance during the start of single-scull rowing.

    PubMed

    van Soest, A J Knoek; de Koning, H; Hofmijster, M J

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the effect of strapping rowers to their sliding seat on performance during 75 m on-water starting trials was investigated. Well-trained rowers performed 75 m maximum-effort starts using an instrumented single scull equipped with a redesigned sliding seat system, both under normal conditions and while strapped to the sliding seat. Strapping rowers to their sliding seat resulted in a 0.45 s lead after 75 m, corresponding to an increase in average boat velocity of about 2.5%. Corresponding effect sizes were large. No significant changes were observed in general stroke cycle characteristics. No indications of additional boat heaving and pitching under strapped conditions were found. The increase in boat velocity is estimated to correspond to an increase in average mechanical power output during the start of on-water rowing between 5% and 10%, which is substantial but smaller than the 12% increase found in a previous study on ergometer starting. We conclude that, after a very short period of adaptation to the strapped condition, single-scull starting performance is substantially improved when the rower is strapped to the sliding seat.

  6. Adaptation in CRISPR-Cas Systems.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Samuel H; Richter, Hagen; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Qimron, Udi

    2016-03-17

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins constitute an adaptive immune system in prokaryotes. The system preserves memories of prior infections by integrating short segments of foreign DNA, termed spacers, into the CRISPR array in a process termed adaptation. During the past 3 years, significant progress has been made on the genetic requirements and molecular mechanisms of adaptation. Here we review these recent advances, with a focus on the experimental approaches that have been developed, the insights they generated, and a proposed mechanism for self- versus non-self-discrimination during the process of spacer selection. We further describe the regulation of adaptation and the protein players involved in this fascinating process that allows bacteria and archaea to harbor adaptive immunity.

  7. NASA space shuttle lightweight seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Chris; Jermstad, Wayne; Lewis, James; Colangelo, Todd

    1996-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Lightweight Seat-Mission Specialist (LWS-MS) is a crew seat for the mission specialists who fly aboard the Space Shuttle. The LWS-MS is a lightweight replacement for the mission specialist seats currently flown on the Shuttle. Using state-of-the-art analysis techniques, a team of NASA and Lockheed engineers from the Johnson Space Center (JSC) designed a seat that met the most stringent requirements demanded of the new seats by the Shuttle program, and reduced the weight of the seats by 52%.

  8. Patterns of correlation between vehicle occupant seat pressure and anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Paul, Gunther; Daniell, Nathan; Fraysse, François

    2012-01-01

    Seat pressure is known as a major factor of seat comfort in vehicles. In passenger vehicles, there is lacking research into the seat comfort of rear seat occupants. As accurate seat pressure measurement requires significant effort, simulation of seat pressure is evolving as a preferred method. However, analytic methods are based on complex finite element modeling and therefore are time consuming and involve high investment. Based on accurate anthropometric measurements of 64 male subjects and outboard rear seat pressure measurements in three different passenger vehicles, this study investigates if a set of parameters derived from seat pressure mapping are sensitive enough to differentiate between different seats and whether they correlate with anthropometry in linear models. In addition to the pressure map analysis, H-Points were measured with a coordinate measurement system based on palpated body landmarks and the range of H-Point locations in the three seats is provided. It was found that for the cushion, cushion contact area and cushion front area/force could be modeled by subject anthropometry, while only seatback contact area could be modeled based on anthropometry for all three vehicles. Major differences were found between the vehicles for other parameters.

  9. Evaluation of the Seat Index Point Tool for Military Seats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    and shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes. 16. Abstract This study evaluated the ISO 5353 Seat Index Point Tool (SIPT...as an alternative to the SAE J826 H-point manikin for measuring military seats. A tool was fabricated based on the ISO specification and a custom back...evaluated the ISO 5353 Seat Index Point Tool (SIPT) as an alternative to the SAE J826 H-point manikin for measuring military seats. A tool was

  10. An inflatable belt system in the rear seat occupant environment: investigating feasibility and benefit in frontal impact sled tests with a 50th percentile male ATD

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Jason L.; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J.; Dennis, Nate; Kent, Richard W.; Tanji, Hiromasa; Higuchi, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Frontal-impact airbag systems have the potential to provide a benefit to rear seat occupants by distributing restraining forces over the body in a manner not possible using belts alone. This study sought to investigate the effects of incorporating a belt-integrated airbag (“airbelt”) into a rear seat occupant restraint system. Frontal impact sled tests were performed with a Hybrid III 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device (ATD) seated in the right-rear passenger position of a 2004 mid-sized sedan buck. Tests were performed at 48 km/h (20 g, 100 ms acceleration pulse) and 29 km/h (11 g, 100 ms). The restraints consisted of a 3-point belt system with a cylindrical airbag integrated into the upper portion of the shoulder belt. The airbag was tapered in shape, with a maximum diameter of 16 cm (at the shoulder) that decreased to 4 cm at the mid-chest. A 2.5 kN force-limiter was integrated into the shoulder-belt retractor, and a 2.3 kN pretensioner was present in the out-board anchor of the lap belt. Six ATD tests (three 48 km/h and three 29 km/h) were performed with the airbelt system. These were compared to previous frontal-impact, rear seat ATD tests with a standard (not-force-limited, not-pretensioned) 3-point belt system and a progressive force-limiting (peak 4.4 kN), pretensioning (FL+PT) 3-point belt system. In the 48 km/h tests, the airbelt resulted in significantly less (p<0.05, two-tailed Student’s t-test) posterior displacement of the sternum towards the spine (chest deflection) than both the standard and FL+PT belt systems (airbelt: average 13±1.1 mm standard deviation; standard belt: 33±2.3 mm; FL+PT belt: 23±2.6 mm). This was consistent with a significant reduction in the peak upper shoulder belt force (airbelt: 2.7±0.1 kN; standard belt: 8.7±0.3 kN; FL+PT belt: 4.4±0.1 kN), and was accompanied by a small increase in forward motion of the head (airbelt: 54±0.4 cm; standard belt: 45±1.3 cm; FL+PT belt: 47±1.1 cm) The airbelt system

  11. Adaptive, full-spectrum solar energy system

    DOEpatents

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.

    2003-08-05

    An adaptive full spectrum solar energy system having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one hybrid luminaire, at least one hybrid photobioreactor, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator, each hybrid luminaire, and each hybrid photobioreactor. A lighting control system operates each component.

  12. Small scale adaptive optics experiment systems engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boykin, William H.

    1993-01-01

    Assessment of the current technology relating to the laser power beaming system which in full scale is called the Beam Transmission Optical System (BTOS). Evaluation of system integration efforts are being conducted by the various government agencies and industry. Concepts are being developed for prototypes of adaptive optics for a BTOS.

  13. Adaptive Dialogue Systems for Assistive Living Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papangelis, Alexandros

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive Dialogue Systems (ADS) are intelligent systems, able to interact with users via multiple modalities, such as speech, gestures, facial expressions and others. Such systems are able to make conversation with their users, usually on a specific, narrow topic. Assistive Living Environments are environments where the users are by definition not…

  14. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  15. Residence Hall Seating That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Describes the seating chosen for residence halls at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of New England. The seating required depends on ergonomics, aesthetics, durability, cost, and code requirements. In addition, residence halls must have a range of seating types to accommodate various uses. (SLD)

  16. Adaptive Control for Microgravity Vibration Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Bong-Jun; Calise, Anthony J.; Craig, James I.; Whorton, Mark S.

    2005-01-01

    Most active vibration isolation systems that try to a provide quiescent acceleration environment for space science experiments have utilized linear design methods. In this paper, we address adaptive control augmentation of an existing classical controller that employs a high-gain acceleration feedback together with a low-gain position feedback to center the isolated platform. The control design feature includes parametric and dynamic uncertainties because the hardware of the isolation system is built as a payload-level isolator, and the acceleration Sensor exhibits a significant bias. A neural network is incorporated to adaptively compensate for the system uncertainties, and a high-pass filter is introduced to mitigate the effect of the measurement bias. Simulations show that the adaptive control improves the performance of the existing acceleration controller and keep the level of the isolated platform deviation to that of the existing control system.

  17. Operational Results of an Adaptive SDI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sage, C. R.; Fitzwater, D. R.

    The Ames Laboratory SDI system requires a minimum of human intervention. The adaptability of the system provides two major contributions to information dissemination. (1) The user benefits proportionately from the amount of effort he expends in setting up his profile and the diligence in sending back responses. (2) The document input has only to…

  18. The adaptive control system of acetylene generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaliuk, D. O.; Kovaliuk, Oleg; Burlibay, Aron; Gromaszek, Konrad

    2015-12-01

    The method of acetylene production in acetylene generator was analyzed. It was found that impossible to provide the desired process characteristics by the PID-controller. The adaptive control system of acetylene generator was developed. The proposed system combines the classic controller and fuzzy subsystem for controller parameters tuning.

  19. Multiprocessor Adaptive Control Of A Dynamic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Hyland, David C.

    1995-01-01

    Architecture for fully autonomous digital electronic control system developed for use in identification and adaptive control of dynamic system. Architecture modular and hierarchical. Combines relatively simple, standardized processing units into complex parallel-processing subsystems. Although architecture based on neural-network concept, processing units themselves not neural networks; processing units implemented by programming of currently available microprocessors.

  20. RNA viruses as complex adaptive systems.

    PubMed

    Elena, Santiago F; Sanjuán, Rafael

    2005-07-01

    RNA viruses have high mutation rates and so their populations exist as dynamic and complex mutant distributions. It has been consistently observed that when challenged with a new environment, viral populations adapt following hyperbolic-like kinetics: adaptation is initially very rapid, but then slows down as fitness reaches an asymptotic value. These adaptive dynamics have been explained in terms of populations moving towards the top of peaks on rugged fitness landscapes. Fitness fluctuations of varying magnitude are observed during adaptation. Often the presence of fluctuations in the evolution of physical systems indicates some form of self-organization, or where many components of the system are simultaneously involved. Here we analyze data from several in vitro evolution experiments carried out with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) looking for the signature of criticality and scaling. Long-range fitness correlations have been detected during the adaptive process. We also found that the magnitude of fitness fluctuations, far from being trivial, conform to a Weibull probability distribution function, suggesting that viral adaptation belongs to a broad category of phenomena previously documented in other fields and related with emergence.

  1. Adaptation in the auditory system: an overview.

    PubMed

    Pérez-González, David; Malmierca, Manuel S

    2014-01-01

    The early stages of the auditory system need to preserve the timing information of sounds in order to extract the basic features of acoustic stimuli. At the same time, different processes of neuronal adaptation occur at several levels to further process the auditory information. For instance, auditory nerve fiber responses already experience adaptation of their firing rates, a type of response that can be found in many other auditory nuclei and may be useful for emphasizing the onset of the stimuli. However, it is at higher levels in the auditory hierarchy where more sophisticated types of neuronal processing take place. For example, stimulus-specific adaptation, where neurons show adaptation to frequent, repetitive stimuli, but maintain their responsiveness to stimuli with different physical characteristics, thus representing a distinct kind of processing that may play a role in change and deviance detection. In the auditory cortex, adaptation takes more elaborate forms, and contributes to the processing of complex sequences, auditory scene analysis and attention. Here we review the multiple types of adaptation that occur in the auditory system, which are part of the pool of resources that the neurons employ to process the auditory scene, and are critical to a proper understanding of the neuronal mechanisms that govern auditory perception.

  2. Managing adaptively for multifunctionality in agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Hodbod, Jennifer; Barreteau, Olivier; Allen, Craig; Magda, Danièle

    2016-12-01

    The critical importance of agricultural systems for food security and as a dominant global landcover requires management that considers the full dimensions of system functions at appropriate scales, i.e. multifunctionality. We propose that adaptive management is the most suitable management approach for such goals, given its ability to reduce uncertainty over time and support multiple objectives within a system, for multiple actors. As such, adaptive management may be the most appropriate method for sustainably intensifying production whilst increasing the quantity and quality of ecosystem services. However, the current assessment of performance of agricultural systems doesn't reward ecosystem service provision. Therefore, we present an overview of the ecosystem functions agricultural systems should and could provide, coupled with a revised definition for assessing the performance of agricultural systems from a multifunctional perspective that, when all satisfied, would create adaptive agricultural systems that can increase production whilst ensuring food security and the quantity and quality of ecosystem services. The outcome of this high level of performance is the capacity to respond to multiple shocks without collapse, equity and triple bottom line sustainability. Through the assessment of case studies, we find that alternatives to industrialized agricultural systems incorporate more functional goals, but that there are mixed findings as to whether these goals translate into positive measurable outcomes. We suggest that an adaptive management perspective would support the implementation of a systematic analysis of the social, ecological and economic trade-offs occurring within such systems, particularly between ecosystem services and functions, in order to provide suitable and comparable assessments. We also identify indicators to monitor performance at multiple scales in agricultural systems which can be used within an adaptive management framework to increase

  3. The ERIS adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccardi, A.; Esposito, S.; Agapito, G.; Antichi, J.; Biliotti, V.; Blain, C.; Briguglio, R.; Busoni, L.; Carbonaro, L.; Di Rico, G.; Giordano, C.; Pinna, E.; Puglisi, A.; Spanò, P.; Xompero, M.; Baruffolo, A.; Kasper, M.; Egner, S.; Suàrez Valles, M.; Soenke, C.; Downing, M.; Reyes, J.

    2016-07-01

    ERIS is the new AO instrument for VLT-UT4 led by a Consortium of Max-Planck Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, UK-ATC, ETH-Zurich, ESO and INAF. The ERIS AO system provides NGS mode to deliver high contrast correction and LGS mode to extend high Strehl performance to large sky coverage. The AO module includes NGS and LGS wavefront sensors and, with VLT-AOF Deformable Secondary Mirror and Laser Facility, will provide AO correction to the high resolution imager NIX (1-5um) and the IFU spectrograph SPIFFIER (1-2.5um). In this paper we present the preliminary design of the ERIS AO system and the estimated correction performance.

  4. Adaptive System Modeling for Spacecraft Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Justin

    2011-01-01

    This invention introduces a methodology and associated software tools for automatically learning spacecraft system models without any assumptions regarding system behavior. Data stream mining techniques were used to learn models for critical portions of the International Space Station (ISS) Electrical Power System (EPS). Evaluation on historical ISS telemetry data shows that adaptive system modeling reduces simulation error anywhere from 50 to 90 percent over existing approaches. The purpose of the methodology is to outline how someone can create accurate system models from sensor (telemetry) data. The purpose of the software is to support the methodology. The software provides analysis tools to design the adaptive models. The software also provides the algorithms to initially build system models and continuously update them from the latest streaming sensor data. The main strengths are as follows: Creates accurate spacecraft system models without in-depth system knowledge or any assumptions about system behavior. Automatically updates/calibrates system models using the latest streaming sensor data. Creates device specific models that capture the exact behavior of devices of the same type. Adapts to evolving systems. Can reduce computational complexity (faster simulations).

  5. Evolving Systems and Adaptive Key Component Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Balas, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new framework called Evolving Systems to describe the self-assembly, or autonomous assembly, of actively controlled dynamical subsystems into an Evolved System with a higher purpose. An introduction to Evolving Systems and exploration of the essential topics of the control and stability properties of Evolving Systems is provided. This chapter defines a framework for Evolving Systems, develops theory and control solutions for fundamental characteristics of Evolving Systems, and provides illustrative examples of Evolving Systems and their control with adaptive key component controllers.

  6. Multivariate head injury threshold measures for various sized children seated behind vehicle seats in rear impacts.

    PubMed

    Saczalski, Kenneth; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Pozzi, Mark; Saczalski, Todd; Burton, J L; Lewis, P

    2004-01-01

    Government recommendations to place children into the rear areas of motor vehicles to avoid airbag induced injuries have been complicated by the fact that most adult occupied front seats will collapse into the rear area during rear-impacts, and thus pose another potentially serious injury hazard to rear-seated children. Many variables affect whether or not a front seat occupant will collapse into the rear child, and whether that interaction could be injurious to the child. For instance, the severity of rear impact, coupled with front and rear occupant sizes (mass and stature), and the level of front seat strength, all interrelate to influence whether or not a rear seated child is likely to be impacted and possibly injured. The most common types of child injuries in these instances are head and chest injuries. In this study, a "high-low" experimental method was employed with a multi-level "factorial analysis" technique to study "multivariate" biomechanics of child head injury potential determined from rear-seated 3 and 6 year-old child surrogates in different types of vehicle bodies mounted to a sled system. The sled-buck systems were towed rearward into crushable barriers that matched the crash pulses of the vehicle types being tested. Various sizes of adult surrogates (i.e. 50 kg up to 110 kg), seated in both the "typical" low strength "single recliner" collapsing type front seat (i.e. 3.2 kN) and a much stronger "belt-integrated" seat design (i.e. up to 14.5 kN), were tested in the two different "sled body-buck" set-ups at various impact levels (i.e. 22.5 to 50 kph). One set-up used a popular minivan vehicle body with "built-in booster" seats for the 3 year-old. The other used a 4-door family sedan vehicle body with the 6 year-old in a standard rear bench seat. The parameters of the tests enabled the experimental data to be combined into polynomial "head injury" functions of the independent variables so the "likelihood" of rear child head-injury potential could

  7. Adaptive fuzzy system for 3-D vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitra, Sunanda

    1993-01-01

    An adaptive fuzzy system using the concept of the Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) type neural network architecture and incorporating fuzzy c-means (FCM) system equations for reclassification of cluster centers was developed. The Adaptive Fuzzy Leader Clustering (AFLC) architecture is a hybrid neural-fuzzy system which learns on-line in a stable and efficient manner. The system uses a control structure similar to that found in the Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART-1) network to identify the cluster centers initially. The initial classification of an input takes place in a two stage process; a simple competitive stage and a distance metric comparison stage. The cluster prototypes are then incrementally updated by relocating the centroid positions from Fuzzy c-Means (FCM) system equations for the centroids and the membership values. The operational characteristics of AFLC and the critical parameters involved in its operation are discussed. The performance of the AFLC algorithm is presented through application of the algorithm to the Anderson Iris data, and laser-luminescent fingerprint image data. The AFLC algorithm successfully classifies features extracted from real data, discrete or continuous, indicating the potential strength of this new clustering algorithm in analyzing complex data sets. The hybrid neuro-fuzzy AFLC algorithm will enhance analysis of a number of difficult recognition and control problems involved with Tethered Satellite Systems and on-orbit space shuttle attitude controller.

  8. Adaptive synchronization and anticipatory dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ying-Jen; Chen, Chun-Chung; Lai, Pik-Yin; Chan, C. K.

    2015-09-01

    Many biological systems can sense periodical variations in a stimulus input and produce well-timed, anticipatory responses after the input is removed. Such systems show memory effects for retaining timing information in the stimulus and cannot be understood from traditional synchronization consideration of passive oscillatory systems. To understand this anticipatory phenomena, we consider oscillators built from excitable systems with the addition of an adaptive dynamics. With such systems, well-timed post-stimulus responses similar to those from experiments can be obtained. Furthermore, a well-known model of working memory is shown to possess similar anticipatory dynamics when the adaptive mechanism is identified with synaptic facilitation. The last finding suggests that this type of oscillator can be common in neuronal systems with plasticity.

  9. Robust adaptive control of HVDC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reeve, J.; Sultan, M. )

    1994-07-01

    The transient performance of an HVDC power system is highly dependent on the parameters of the current/voltage regulators of the converter controls. In order to better accommodate changes in system structure or dc operating conditions, this paper introduces a new adaptive control strategy. The advantages of automatic tuning for continuous fine tuning are combined with predetermined gain scheduling in order to achieve robustness for large disturbances. Examples are provided for a digitally simulated back-to-back dc system.

  10. 49 CFR 38.27 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.27 Section 38.27 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.27 Priority seating signs. (a)...

  11. 49 CFR 38.27 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.27 Section 38.27 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.27 Priority seating signs. (a)...

  12. Validation of the Seating and Mobility Script Concordance Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Laura J.; Fitzgerald, Shirley G.; Lane, Suzanne; Boninger, Michael L.; Minkel, Jean; McCue, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the scoring system for the Seating and Mobility Script Concordance Test (SMSCT), obtain and appraise internal and external structure evidence, and assess the validity of the SMSCT. The SMSCT purpose is to provide a method for testing knowledge of seating and mobility prescription. A sample of 106 therapists…

  13. An adaptive learning control system for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mekel, R.; Nachmias, S.

    1976-01-01

    A learning control system is developed which blends the gain scheduling and adaptive control into a single learning system that has the advantages of both. An important feature of the developed learning control system is its capability to adjust the gain schedule in a prescribed manner to account for changing aircraft operating characteristics. Furthermore, if tests performed by the criteria of the learning system preclude any possible change in the gain schedule, then the overall system becomes an ordinary gain scheduling system. Examples are discussed.

  14. Final Report - Regulatory Considerations for Adaptive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, Chris; Lynch, Jonathan; Bharadwaj, Raj

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the findings of a preliminary research study into new approaches to the software design assurance of adaptive systems. We suggest a methodology to overcome the software validation and verification difficulties posed by the underlying assumption of non-adaptive software in the requirementsbased- testing verification methods in RTCA/DO-178B and C. An analysis of the relevant RTCA/DO-178B and C objectives is presented showing the reasons for the difficulties that arise in showing satisfaction of the objectives and suggested additional means by which they could be satisfied. We suggest that the software design assurance problem for adaptive systems is principally one of developing correct and complete high level requirements and system level constraints that define the necessary system functional and safety properties to assure the safe use of adaptive systems. We show how analytical techniques such as model based design, mathematical modeling and formal or formal-like methods can be used to both validate the high level functional and safety requirements, establish necessary constraints and provide the verification evidence for the satisfaction of requirements and constraints that supplements conventional testing. Finally the report identifies the follow-on research topics needed to implement this methodology.

  15. Petascale IO Using The Adaptable IO System

    SciTech Connect

    Lofstead, J.; Klasky, Scott A; Abbasi, H.

    2009-01-01

    ADIOS, the adaptable IO system, has demonstrated excellent scalability to 29,000 cores. With the introduction of the XT5 upgrades to Jaguar, new optimizations are required to successfully reach 140,000+ cores. This paper explains the techniques employed and shows the performance levels attained.

  16. User Modeling in Adaptive Hypermedia Educational Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Antonio Constantino; Faria, Luiz; Vaz de Carvalho, Carlos; Carrapatoso, Eurico

    2008-01-01

    This document is a survey in the research area of User Modeling (UM) for the specific field of Adaptive Learning. The aims of this document are: To define what it is a User Model; To present existing and well known User Models; To analyze the existent standards related with UM; To compare existing systems. In the scientific area of User Modeling…

  17. Adaptive Control of Nonlinear and Stochastic Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-14

    Hernmndez-Lerma and S.I. Marcus, Nonparametric adaptive control of dis- crete time partially observable stochastic systems, Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 137... Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 137 (1989), 485-514. [19] A. Arapostathis and S.I. Marcus, Analysis of an identification algorithm

  18. Adaptive control system for gas producing wells

    SciTech Connect

    Fedor, Pashchenko; Sergey, Gulyaev; Alexander, Pashchenko

    2015-03-10

    Optimal adaptive automatic control system for gas producing wells cluster is proposed intended for solving the problem of stabilization of the output gas pressure in the cluster at conditions of changing gas flow rate and changing parameters of the wells themselves, providing the maximum high resource of hardware elements of automation.

  19. An adaptive strategy for controlling chaotic system.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yi-Jia; Hang, Hong-Xian

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive strategy for controlling chaotic systems. By employing the phase space reconstruction technique in nonlinear dynamical systems theory, the proposed strategy transforms the nonlinear system into canonical form, and employs a nonlinear observer to estimate the uncertainties and disturbances of the nonlinear system, and then establishes a state-error-like feedback law. The developed control scheme allows chaos control in spite of modeling errors and parametric variations. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been demonstrated through its applications to two well-known chaotic systems: Duffing oscillator and Rössler chaos.

  20. Adaptable Transponder for Multiple Telemetry Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor); Varnavas, Kosta A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is a stackable telemetry circuit board for use in telemetry systems for satellites and other purposes. The present invention incorporates previously-qualified interchangeable circuit boards, or "decks," that perform functions such as power, signal receiving and transmission, and processing. Each deck is adapted to serve a range of telemetry applications. This provides flexibility in the construction of the stackable telemetry circuit board and significantly reduces the cost and time necessary to develop a telemetry system.

  1. Adaptive P300 based control system

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jing; Allison, Brendan Z.; Sellers, Eric W.; Brunner, Clemens; Horki, Petar; Wang, Xingyu; Neuper, Christa

    2015-01-01

    An adaptive P300 brain-computer interface (BCI) using a 12 × 7 matrix explored new paradigms to improve bit rate and accuracy. During online use, the system adaptively selects the number of flashes to average. Five different flash patterns were tested. The 19-flash paradigm represents the typical row/column presentation (i.e., 12 columns and 7 rows). The 9- and 14-flash A & B paradigms present all items of the 12 × 7 matrix three times using either nine or 14 flashes (instead of 19), decreasing the amount of time to present stimuli. Compared to 9-flash A, 9-flash B decreased the likelihood that neighboring items would flash when the target was not flashing, thereby reducing interference from items adjacent to targets. 14-flash A also reduced adjacent item interference and 14-flash B additionally eliminated successive (double) flashes of the same item. Results showed that accuracy and bit rate of the adaptive system were higher than the non-adaptive system. In addition, 9- and 14-flash B produced significantly higher performance than their respective A conditions. The results also show the trend that the 14-flash B paradigm was better than the 19-flash pattern for naïve users. PMID:21474877

  2. 48 CFR 1252.223-73 - Seat belt use policies and programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and enforce on-the-job seat belt use policies and programs for its employees when operating company... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Seat belt use policies and....223-73 Seat belt use policies and programs. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1223.7000(c), insert...

  3. 76 FR 291 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Single-Occupant Side-Facing Seats

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... forward- and aft-facing seats in mind, the orientation of the seat does not change the relevant test... absorption; body- to-body impacts are unacceptable. 2. The restraint system and the retention of occupants in... for head contact with the seat and/or adjacent structures. 2. Body-to-Wall/Furnishing Contact:...

  4. 48 CFR 1252.223-73 - Seat belt use policies and programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seat belt use policies and....223-73 Seat belt use policies and programs. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1223.7000(c), insert the following clause: Seat Belt Use Policies and Programs (APR 2005) In accordance with Executive Order...

  5. Adaptive functional systems: learning with chaos.

    PubMed

    Komarov, M A; Osipov, G V; Burtsev, M S

    2010-12-01

    We propose a new model of adaptive behavior that combines a winnerless competition principle and chaos to learn new functional systems. The model consists of a complex network of nonlinear dynamical elements producing sequences of goal-directed actions. Each element describes dynamics and activity of the functional system which is supposed to be a distributed set of interacting physiological elements such as nerve or muscle that cooperates to obtain certain goal at the level of the whole organism. During "normal" behavior, the dynamics of the system follows heteroclinic channels, but in the novel situation chaotic search is activated and a new channel leading to the target state is gradually created simulating the process of learning. The model was tested in single and multigoal environments and had demonstrated a good potential for generation of new adaptations.

  6. Characterization on the fatigue performance of a piezoelectric microvalve with a microfabricated silicon valve seat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Jianlu; Jiang, Yonggang; Zhang, Deyuan; Zhao, Yiju; Sun, Xiujuan

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a piezoelectric microvalve with a silicon seat for the propulsion system of a micro-satellite. The silicon seat is fabricated with narrow sealing rings to reduce internal leaks. The fatigue performance of the silicon seat is characterized. The lifetime of the silicon seat without coating is approximately 25 000 times, which cannot meet the requirement for astronautic applications. To improve its fatigue performance, the silicon seat is deposited with Cu and parylene, respectively. The two seats both meet the sealing requirement after 105 cycle operation. Several rings of the seats deposited with Cu fractured after the fatigue tests, whereas none of the rings of the seats deposited with parylene fractured due to the obvious reduction of the impact stress.

  7. Adaptive Embedded Digital System for Plasma Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Angel; Rodríguez, Othoniel; Mangual, Osvaldo; Ponce, Eduardo; Vélez, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    An Adaptive Embedded Digital System to perform plasma diagnostics using electrostatic probes was developed at the Plasma Engineering Laboratory at Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico. The system will replace the existing instrumentation at the Laboratory, using reconfigurable hardware to minimize the equipment and software needed to perform diagnostics. The adaptability of the design resides on the possibility of replacing the computational algorithm on the fly, allowing to use the same hardware for different probes. The system was prototyped using Very High Speed Integrated Circuits Hardware Description Language (VHDL) into an Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) board. The design of the Embedded Digital System includes a Zero Phase Digital Filter, a Derivative Unit, and a Computational Unit designed using the VHDL-2008 Support Library. The prototype is able to compute the Plasma Electron Temperature and Density from a Single Langmuir probe. The system was tested using real data previously acquired from a single Langmuir probe. The plasma parameters obtained from the embedded system were compared with results computed using matlab yielding excellent matching. The new embedded system operates on 4096 samples versus 500 on the previous system, and completes its computations in 26 milliseconds compared with about 15 seconds on the previous system.

  8. Multiple-Use Mechanisms for Attachment to Seat Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraske, Martin; May, Rich

    2003-01-01

    A Seat Track Attach Mechanism (SAM) is a multiple-use clamping device intended for use in mounting various objects on the standard seat tracks used on the International Space Station (ISS). The basic SAM design could also be adapted to other settings in which seat tracks are available: for example, SAM-like devices could be used as universal aircraft-seat-track mounting clamps. A SAM (see figure) is easily installed by inserting it in a seat track, then actuating a locking lever to clamp the SAM to the track. The SAM includes an over-center locking feature that prevents premature disengagement that could be caused by some inadvertent movements of persons or objects in the vicinity. A SAM can be installed in, or removed from, any position along a seat track, without regard for the locations of the circular access holes. Hence, one or more SAM(s) can be used to mount an object or objects on a track or a pair of tracks in an infinite number of preferred configurations. A SAM can be incorporated into a dual swivel device, so that two of the SAMs can be made to lock onto two side-by-side seat tracks simultaneously, as would be the case in a standard ISS rack bay where two side-by-side racks reside. The main benefit to using two SAMs in a side-by-side arrangement is to provide a coupled load. By picking up load points on two seat tracks, a coupled loading is created, improving the stability and strength since the load is spread to two seat tracks at a short distance.

  9. Adaptive Optics Imaging of Solar System Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roddier, Francois; Owen, Toby

    1997-01-01

    Most solar system objects have never been observed at wavelengths longer than the R band with an angular resolution better than 1 sec. The Hubble Space Telescope itself has only recently been equipped to observe in the infrared. However, because of its small diameter, the angular resolution is lower than that one can now achieved from the ground with adaptive optics, and time allocated to planetary science is limited. We have been using adaptive optics (AO) on a 4-m class telescope to obtain 0.1 sec resolution images solar system objects at far red and near infrared wavelengths (0.7-2.5 micron) which best discriminate their spectral signatures. Our efforts has been put into areas of research for which high angular resolution is essential, such as the mapping of Titan and of large asteroids, the dynamics and composition of Neptune stratospheric clouds, the infrared photometry of Pluto, Charon, and close satellites previously undetected from the ground.

  10. Demonstration of portable solar adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Deqing; Dong, Bing

    2012-10-01

    Solar-adaptive optics (AO) are more challenging than night-time AO, in some aspects. A portable solar adaptive optics (PSAO) system featuring compact physical size, low cost, and good performance has been proposed and developed. PSAO can serve as a visiting instrument for any existing ground-based solar telescope to improve solar image quality by replacing just a few optical components. High-level programming language, LabVIEW, is used to develop the wavefront sensing and control software, and general purpose computers are used to drive the whole system. During October 2011, the feasibility and good performance of PSAO was demonstrated with the 61-cm solar telescope at San Fernando Observatory. The image contrast and resolution are noticeably improved after AO correction.

  11. Adaptive control design for hysteretic smart systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiang; Smith, Ralph C.

    2009-03-01

    Ferroelectric and ferromagnetic actuators are being considered for a range of industrial, aerospace, aeronautic and biomedical applications due to their unique transduction capabilities. However, they also exhibit hysteretic and nonlinear behavior that must be accommodated in models and control designs. If uncompensated, these effects can yield reduced system performance and, in the worst case, can produce unpredictable behavior of the control system. One technique for control design is to approximately linearize the actuator dynamics using an adaptive inverse compensator that is also able to accommodate model uncertainties and error introduced by the inverse algorithm. This paper describes the design of an adaptive inverse control technique based on the homogenized energy model for hysteresis. The resulting inverse filter is incorporated in an L1 control theory to provide a robust control algorithm capable of providing high speed, high accuracy tracking in the presence of actuator hysteresis and nonlinearities. Properties of the control design are illustrated through numerical examples.

  12. Cyberspace: The Ultimate Complex Adaptive System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-05

    capable of a transaction with a given agent; tags also facilitate the formation of aggregates , or meta-agents. Meta-agents help distrib- ute and... Mbps or Gbps through communications links Path Roads, Rails, Flight Path, Sea- lanes Links, Connections Terrain Hills, Valleys, Urban Canyons... aggregate of many factors, both local and global. Unfit agents are more likely to instigate schema change. What is a Complex Adaptive System? This

  13. Adaptable radiation monitoring system and method

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Daniel E.; Beauchamp, Brock R.; Mauger, G. Joseph; Nelson, Karl E.; Mercer, Michael B.; Pletcher, David C.; Riot, Vincent J.; Schek, James L.; Knapp, David A.

    2006-06-20

    A portable radioactive-material detection system capable of detecting radioactive sources moving at high speeds. The system has at least one radiation detector capable of detecting gamma-radiation and coupled to an MCA capable of collecting spectral data in very small time bins of less than about 150 msec. A computer processor is connected to the MCA for determining from the spectral data if a triggering event has occurred. Spectral data is stored on a data storage device, and a power source supplies power to the detection system. Various configurations of the detection system may be adaptably arranged for various radiation detection scenarios. In a preferred embodiment, the computer processor operates as a server which receives spectral data from other networked detection systems, and communicates the collected data to a central data reporting system.

  14. AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats Page Content Article Body Children should ride ... of approved car safety seats. Healthy Children Radio: Car Seat Safety Dennis Durbin, MD, FAAP, lead author ...

  15. Gaia as a complex adaptive system.

    PubMed Central

    Lenton, Timothy M; van Oijen, Marcel

    2002-01-01

    We define the Gaia system of life and its environment on Earth, review the status of the Gaia theory, introduce potentially relevant concepts from complexity theory, then try to apply them to Gaia. We consider whether Gaia is a complex adaptive system (CAS) in terms of its behaviour and suggest that the system is self-organizing but does not reside in a critical state. Gaia has supported abundant life for most of the last 3.8 Gyr. Large perturbations have occasionally suppressed life but the system has always recovered without losing the capacity for large-scale free energy capture and recycling of essential elements. To illustrate how complexity theory can help us understand the emergence of planetary-scale order, we present a simple cellular automata (CA) model of the imaginary planet Daisyworld. This exhibits emergent self-regulation as a consequence of feedback coupling between life and its environment. Local spatial interaction, which was absent from the original model, can destabilize the system by generating bifurcation regimes. Variation and natural selection tend to remove this instability. With mutation in the model system, it exhibits self-organizing adaptive behaviour in its response to forcing. We close by suggesting how artificial life ('Alife') techniques may enable more comprehensive feasibility tests of Gaia. PMID:12079529

  16. Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems (CASOS) engineering environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Detry, Richard Joseph; Linebarger, John Michael; Finley, Patrick D.; Maffitt, S. Louise; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Ames, Arlo Leroy

    2012-02-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems, or CASoS, are vastly complex physical-socio-technical systems which we must understand to design a secure future for the nation. The Phoenix initiative implements CASoS Engineering principles combining the bottom up Complex Systems and Complex Adaptive Systems view with the top down Systems Engineering and System-of-Systems view. CASoS Engineering theory and practice must be conducted together to develop a discipline that is grounded in reality, extends our understanding of how CASoS behave and allows us to better control the outcomes. The pull of applications (real world problems) is critical to this effort, as is the articulation of a CASoS Engineering Framework that grounds an engineering approach in the theory of complex adaptive systems of systems. Successful application of the CASoS Engineering Framework requires modeling, simulation and analysis (MS and A) capabilities and the cultivation of a CASoS Engineering Community of Practice through knowledge sharing and facilitation. The CASoS Engineering Environment, itself a complex adaptive system of systems, constitutes the two platforms that provide these capabilities.

  17. Valve designed with elastic seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mac Glashan, W. F., Jr.

    1965-01-01

    Absolute valve closure is accomplished by a machined valve with an axially annular channel which changes the outlet passage into a thin tubular elastic seat member with a retainer backup ring. The elasticity of the seat provides tight conformity to ball irregularity.

  18. Polyurethane toilet seat contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Turan, Hakan; Saricaoğlu, Hayriye; Turan, Ayşegül; Tunali, Sükran

    2011-01-01

    Polyurethane chemicals are produced by the reaction of isocyanates and they may cause allergic contact dermatitis or precipitate asthma attacks. Contact dermatitis to polyurethane toilet seat has not been reported before. Herein we present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to polyurethane toilet seat.

  19. Classroom Seating and Hypnotic Susceptibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackeim, Harold A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether people who differ in behavioral and self-report measures of lateralized seating preferences also differ in hypnotic susceptibility. Only right-handed subjects were used, and the associations between hypnotic susceptibility and seating preference were examined separately for males and females.…

  20. Teaching Science: Seat Belt Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Describes activities that will help students understand how car seat belts work, the limited reaction time available to passengers in an automobile accident, and the force of impact in a car collision. These activities will provide students with hands-on experiences that demonstrate the importance of always wearing seat belts while in an…

  1. Social networks as embedded complex adaptive systems.

    PubMed

    Benham-Hutchins, Marge; Clancy, Thomas R

    2010-09-01

    As systems evolve over time, their natural tendency is to become increasingly more complex. Studies in the field of complex systems have generated new perspectives on management in social organizations such as hospitals. Much of this research appears as a natural extension of the cross-disciplinary field of systems theory. This is the 15th in a series of articles applying complex systems science to the traditional management concepts of planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling. In this article, the authors discuss healthcare social networks as a hierarchy of embedded complex adaptive systems. The authors further examine the use of social network analysis tools as a means to understand complex communication patterns and reduce medical errors.

  2. Total Synthesis and Evaluation of Vinblastine Analogues Containing Systematic Deep-Seated Modifications in the Vindoline Subunit Ring System: Core Redesign

    PubMed Central

    Schleicher, Kristin D.; Sasaki, Yoshikazu; Tam, Annie; Kato, Daisuke; Duncan, Katharine K.; Boger, Dale L.

    2013-01-01

    The total synthesis of a systematic series of vinblastine analogues that contain deep-seated structural modifications to the core ring system of the lower vindoline subunit is described. Complementary to the vindoline 6,5 DE ring system, compounds with 5,5, 6,6 and the reversed 5,6 membered DE ring systems were prepared. Both the natural cis and unnatural trans 6,6-membered ring systems proved accessible, with the latter representing a surprisingly effective class for analogue design. Following Fe(III)-promoted coupling with catharanthine and in situ oxidation to provide the corresponding vinblastine analogues, their evaluation provided unanticipated insights into how the structure of the vindoline subunit contributes to activity. Two potent analogues (81 and 44) possessing two different unprecedented modifications to the vindoline subunit core architecture were discovered that matched the potency of the comparison natural products and both lack the 6,7-double bond whose removal in vinblastine leads to a 100-fold drop in activity. PMID:23252481

  3. The influence of seat configuration on maximal average crank power during pedaling: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Jeffery W; Neptune, Richard R

    2010-11-01

    Manipulating seat configuration (i.e., seat tube angle, seat height and pelvic orientation) alters the bicycle-rider geometry, which influences lower extremity muscle kinematics and ultimately muscle force and power generation during pedaling. Previous studies have sought to identify the optimal configuration, but isolating the effects of specific variables on rider performance from the confounding effect of rider adaptation makes such studies challenging. Of particular interest is the influence of seat tube angle on rider performance, as seat tube angle varies across riding disciplines (e.g., road racers vs. triathletes). The goals of the current study were to use muscle-actuated forward dynamics simulations of pedaling to 1) identify the overall optimal seat configuration that produces maximum crank power and 2) systematically vary seat tube angle to assess how it influences maximum crank power. The simulations showed that a seat height of 0.76 m (or 102% greater than trochanter height), seat tube angle of 85.1 deg, and pelvic orientation of 20.5 deg placed the major power-producing muscles on more favorable regions of the intrinsic force-length-velocity relationships to generate a maximum average crank power of 981 W. However, seat tube angle had little influence on crank power, with maximal values varying at most by 1% across a wide range of seat tube angles (65 to 110 deg). The similar power values across the wide range of seat tube angles were the result of nearly identical joint kinematics, which occurred using a similar optimal seat height and pelvic orientation while systematically shifting the pedal angle with increasing seat tube angles.

  4. Optimization of Car Seats in the Interaction of Sitting Man on the Size of the Contact Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martonka, R.; Fliegel, V.

    The crew vehicle, the driver and passengers are in a car in direct interaction with the car seat while driving, which affects a sitting person in many areas such as safety, comfort, a feeling of comfort and customization to individual requirements, ergonomics and variability. All these effects are caused by one or a group of elements used in the construction of the seat. Objective assessment of the requirements for the construction of car seats, regardless of the characteristics of the occupant is not possible to provide a subjective feeling of comfort for any seated person. Therefore, we include in the design of automotive seat occupant's subjective feelings. It is clear that car seats must "adapt" individual characteristics of a seated man (weight, corpulence, age, gender,…). One of the subjective feelings of a man sitting in the seat is comfortable for any seated person defined differently. Correlation was found between comfort seats and contact pressure distribution depending on the weight of a seated man. It is understandable that every sitting person has a different distribution of contact pressure. This has resulted in the same seat each person differently seems comfortable-hard. The research objective is always to ensure maximum contact area for any seated person. Parameter that must be optimized is the hardness of butt pads sitting person (usually polyurethane pad coated fabric cover).In the conventional design seat cushion hardness is fixed, without the possibility of adaptability by the individuality sitting man. This article deals with the assessment, definition and optimization of hardness of pad in the automobile seat, the contact pressure distribution and determining the regulatory range of hardness depending on the weight of a seated man.

  5. Controlling the magnetorheological suspension of a vehicle seat including the biomechanics of the driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gągorowski, Andrzej

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents an original approach to the problem of controlling a magnetorheological suspension of a driver's seat for optimal reduction of whole-body vibration. The concept consists in taking into consideration the individual personal features (biomechanical parameters) of the driver in the control process of a MR damper by using human generated signals. The proposed algorithm enables the adaptation of the suspension for an individual driver and specific road conditions. The actual research has focused on numerical simulations with a complex model of the human-seat-vehicle system. The human model representing a specific driver has been described by several biomechanical parameters such as masses of body structures, moments of inertia, and stiffness and damping of the spine, intervertebral discs, spinal muscles and ligaments.

  6. Progress with the lick adaptive optics system

    SciTech Connect

    Gavel, D T; Olivier, S S; Bauman, B; Max, C E; Macintosh, B

    2000-03-01

    Progress and results of observations with the Lick Observatory Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics System are presented. This system is optimized for diffraction-limited imaging in the near infrared, 1-2 micron wavelength bands. We describe our development efforts in a number of component areas including, a redesign of the optical bench layout, the commissioning of a new infrared science camera, and improvements to the software and user interface. There is also an ongoing effort to characterize the system performance with both natural and laser guide stars and to fold this data into a refined system model. Such a model can be used to help plan future observations, for example, predicting the point-spread function as a function of seeing and guide star magnitude.

  7. Progress with the Lick adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavel, Donald T.; Olivier, Scot S.; Bauman, Brian J.; Max, Claire E.; Macintosh, Bruce A.

    2000-07-01

    Progress and results of observations with the Lick Observatory Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics System are presented. This system is optimized for diffraction-limited imaging in the near infrared, 1 - 2 micron wavelength bands. We describe our development efforts in a number of component areas including, a redesign of the optical bench layout, the commissioning of a new infrared science camera, and improvements to the software and user interface. There is also an ongoing effort to characterize the system performance with both natural and laser guide stars and to fold this data into a refined system model. Such a model can be used to help plan future observations, for example, predicting the point-spread function as a function of seeing and guide star magnitude.

  8. The adaptive safety analysis and monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Haiying; Allanach, Jeffrey; Singh, Satnam; Pattipati, Krishna R.; Willett, Peter

    2004-09-01

    The Adaptive Safety Analysis and Monitoring (ASAM) system is a hybrid model-based software tool for assisting intelligence analysts to identify terrorist threats, to predict possible evolution of the terrorist activities, and to suggest strategies for countering terrorism. The ASAM system provides a distributed processing structure for gathering, sharing, understanding, and using information to assess and predict terrorist network states. In combination with counter-terrorist network models, it can also suggest feasible actions to inhibit potential terrorist threats. In this paper, we will introduce the architecture of the ASAM system, and discuss the hybrid modeling approach embedded in it, viz., Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) to detect and provide soft evidence on the states of terrorist network nodes based on partial and imperfect observations, and Bayesian networks (BNs) to integrate soft evidence from multiple HMMs. The functionality of the ASAM system is illustrated by way of application to the Indian Airlines Hijacking, as modeled from open sources.

  9. Effects of aging in postural strategies during a seated auto-stabilization task.

    PubMed

    Duclos, Noémie C; Maynard, Luc; Abbas, Djawad; Mesure, Serge

    2013-08-01

    Impaired sensory, motor and central processing systems combining with biomechanical changes are risk of fall factors in the elderly population. The aim of this study was to assess the auto-adaptation and the regulation of the dynamic control of equilibrium in age-related adaptive strategies, by using a seated position on a seesaw. 15 young adults and 12 healthy middle-aged adults were asked to actively maintain a sitting posture as stable as possible during 12.8s, on a 1-degree of freedom seesaw (auto-stabilization paradigm), with and without vision. The seesaw was placed in order to allow roll or pitch oscillations. We determine length and surfaces CoP shifts, mean positions and variability, a Postural Performance Index (PI) and a Strategy Organization Ratio (SOR). Our results shows that adopted strategies are plane-dependant during auto-stabilization (parallel and perpendicular axes control is impacted) and age-dependant. PIx during roll seated auto-stabilization tasks appears as the most relevant parameter of aged-related instability. The visual effect, during pitch auto-stabilization, characterizes the postural sensory-motor human behavior. The quantitative and qualitative postural assessment, thanks to seated auto-stabilization task, need to be promoted for long-term health care and probably for the rehabilitation of various disorders.

  10. Adaptable data management for systems biology investigations

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, John; Rovira, Hector; Cavnor, Chris; Burdick, David; Killcoyne, Sarah; Shmulevich, Ilya

    2009-01-01

    Background Within research each experiment is different, the focus changes and the data is generated from a continually evolving barrage of technologies. There is a continual introduction of new techniques whose usage ranges from in-house protocols through to high-throughput instrumentation. To support these requirements data management systems are needed that can be rapidly built and readily adapted for new usage. Results The adaptable data management system discussed is designed to support the seamless mining and analysis of biological experiment data that is commonly used in systems biology (e.g. ChIP-chip, gene expression, proteomics, imaging, flow cytometry). We use different content graphs to represent different views upon the data. These views are designed for different roles: equipment specific views are used to gather instrumentation information; data processing oriented views are provided to enable the rapid development of analysis applications; and research project specific views are used to organize information for individual research experiments. This management system allows for both the rapid introduction of new types of information and the evolution of the knowledge it represents. Conclusion Data management is an important aspect of any research enterprise. It is the foundation on which most applications are built, and must be easily extended to serve new functionality for new scientific areas. We have found that adopting a three-tier architecture for data management, built around distributed standardized content repositories, allows us to rapidly develop new applications to support a diverse user community. PMID:19265554

  11. An Intelligent Tutoring System Approach to Adaptive Instructional Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    gr prototypes (scripts) (Schank, 1977). Many software systems have been developed that employ these representations. Many instructional theories and...specific performance or skill-acquisition. However, there are many theories about the number and type of these general abilities. Researchers...Computer Generated Forces and Behavioral Representations. 7.1.2 Role of MAMID in an Adaptive Instructional System Motivation Currently, the student

  12. Adaptive system for eye-fundus imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Larichev, A V; Ivanov, P V; Iroshnikov, N G; Shmalgauzen, V I; Otten, L J

    2002-10-31

    A compact adaptive system capable of imaging a human-eye retina with a spatial resolution as high as 6 {mu}m and a field of view of 15{sup 0} is developed. It is shown that a modal bimorph corrector with nonlocalised response functions provides the efficient suppression of dynamic aberrations of a human eye. The residual root-mean-square error in correction of aberrations of a real eye with nonparalysed accommodation lies in the range of 0.1 - 0.15 {mu}m.

  13. 16 CFR 1512.15 - Requirements for seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... part of the seat, seat supports, or accessories attached to the seat shall be more than 125 mm (5.0 in... axis. This requirement does not apply to recumbent bicycles. (b) Seat post. The seat post shall...

  14. 16 CFR 1512.15 - Requirements for seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... part of the seat, seat supports, or accessories attached to the seat shall be more than 125 mm (5.0 in... axis. (b) Seat post. The seat post shall contain a permanent mark or ring that clearly indicates...

  15. NASA Facts: Nanosatellite Launch Adapter System (NLAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chartres, James; Cappuccio, Gelsomina

    2013-01-01

    The Nanosatellite Launch Adapter System (NLAS) was developed to increase access to space while simplifying the integration process of miniature satellites, called nanosats or cubesats, onto launch vehicles. A standard cubesat measures about 4inches (10 cm) long, 4 inches wide,and 4 inches high, and is called a one-unit (1U) cubesat. A single NLAS provides the capability to deploy 24U of cubesats. The system is designed to accommodate satellites measuring 1U, 1.5U, 2U, 3U and 6U sizes for deployment into orbit. The NLAS may be configured for use on different launch vehicles. The system also enables flight demonstrations of new technologies in the space environment.

  16. Adaptive Decision Aiding in Computer-Assisted Instruction: Adaptive Computerized Training System (ACTS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopf-Weichel, Rosemarie; And Others

    This report describes results of the first year of a three-year program to develop and evaluate a new Adaptive Computerized Training System (ACTS) for electronics maintenance training. (ACTS incorporates an adaptive computer program that learns the student's diagnostic and decision value structure, compares it to that of an expert, and adapts the…

  17. Take your seats: leftward asymmetry in classroom seating choice.

    PubMed

    Harms, Victoria L; Poon, Lisa J O; Smith, Austen K; Elias, Lorin J

    2015-01-01

    Despite an overall body symmetry, human behavior is full of examples of asymmetry, from writing or gesturing to kissing and cradling. Prior research has revealed that theatre patrons show a bias towards sitting on the right side of a movie theatre. Two competing theories have attempted to explain this seating asymmetry: one posits that expectation of processing demand drives the bias; the other posits that basic motor asymmetries drive the bias. To test these theories we assessed the real-world classroom seating choices of university students using photographs. A bias for students to choose seats on the left side of the classroom was observed, in contrast to the right side bias observed in theatre seating studies. These results provide evidence in support of a processing-expectation bias.

  18. The Adaptive Immune System of Haloferax volcanii.

    PubMed

    Maier, Lisa-Katharina; Dyall-Smith, Mike; Marchfelder, Anita

    2015-02-16

    To fight off invading genetic elements, prokaryotes have developed an elaborate defence system that is both adaptable and heritable-the CRISPR-Cas system (CRISPR is short for: clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and Cas: CRISPR associated). Comprised of proteins and multiple small RNAs, this prokaryotic defence system is present in 90% of archaeal and 40% of bacterial species, and enables foreign intruders to be eliminated in a sequence-specific manner. There are three major types (I-III) and at least 14 subtypes of this system, with only some of the subtypes having been analysed in detail, and many aspects of the defence reaction remaining to be elucidated. Few archaeal examples have so far been analysed. Here we summarize the characteristics of the CRISPR-Cas system of Haloferax volcanii, an extremely halophilic archaeon originally isolated from the Dead Sea. It carries a single CRISPR-Cas system of type I-B, with a Cascade like complex composed of Cas proteins Cas5, Cas6b and Cas7. Cas6b is essential for CRISPR RNA (crRNA) maturation but is otherwise not required for the defence reaction. A systematic search revealed that six protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequences are recognised by the Haloferax defence system. For successful invader recognition, a non-contiguous seed sequence of 10 base-pairs between the crRNA and the invader is required.

  19. Adaptable formations utilizing heterogeneous unmanned systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Laura E.; Garcia, Richard; Fields, MaryAnne; Valavanis, Kimon

    2009-05-01

    This paper addresses the problem of controlling and coordinating heterogeneous unmanned systems required to move as a group while maintaining formation. We propose a strategy to coordinate groups of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) with one or more unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAVs can be utilized in one of two ways: (1) as alpha robots to guide the UGVs; and (2) as beta robots to surround the UGVs and adapt accordingly. In the first approach, the UAV guides a swarm of UGVs controlling their overall formation. In the second approach, the UGVs guide the UAVs controlling their formation. The unmanned systems are brought into a formation utilizing artificial potential fields generated from normal and sigmoid functions. These functions control the overall swarm geometry. Nonlinear limiting functions are defined to provide tighter swarm control by modifying and adjusting a set of control variables forcing the swarm to behave according to set constraints. Formations derived are subsets of elliptical curves but can be generalized to any curvilinear shape. Both approaches are demonstrated in simulation and experimentally. To demonstrate the second approach in simulation, a swarm of forty UAVs is utilized in a convoy protection mission. As a convoy of UGVs travels, UAVs dynamically and intelligently adapt their formation in order to protect the convoy of vehicles as it moves. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the approach using a fully autonomous group of three UGVs and a single UAV helicopter for coordination.

  20. Adaptive cyber-attack modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsalves, Paul G.; Dougherty, Edward T.

    2006-05-01

    The pervasiveness of software and networked information systems is evident across a broad spectrum of business and government sectors. Such reliance provides an ample opportunity not only for the nefarious exploits of lone wolf computer hackers, but for more systematic software attacks from organized entities. Much effort and focus has been placed on preventing and ameliorating network and OS attacks, a concomitant emphasis is required to address protection of mission critical software. Typical software protection technique and methodology evaluation and verification and validation (V&V) involves the use of a team of subject matter experts (SMEs) to mimic potential attackers or hackers. This manpower intensive, time-consuming, and potentially cost-prohibitive approach is not amenable to performing the necessary multiple non-subjective analyses required to support quantifying software protection levels. To facilitate the evaluation and V&V of software protection solutions, we have designed and developed a prototype adaptive cyber attack modeling system. Our approach integrates an off-line mechanism for rapid construction of Bayesian belief network (BN) attack models with an on-line model instantiation, adaptation and knowledge acquisition scheme. Off-line model construction is supported via a knowledge elicitation approach for identifying key domain requirements and a process for translating these requirements into a library of BN-based cyber-attack models. On-line attack modeling and knowledge acquisition is supported via BN evidence propagation and model parameter learning.

  1. Adaptive automatic balancing of magnetic bearing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Sun

    Rotating machinery including magnetic bearings are usually persistently excited by the rotation related disturbances such as mass unbalance; hence there exists a residual vibration in the steady state response even if the closed loop system is asymptotically stable. In order to control the periodic disturbances, a disturbance accommodating controller (DAC) is designed based on the disturbance estimator and applied to the forced balancing of magnetic bearing system. The control objective is to minimize the synchronous component of shaft displacement or control current. In order to account for the variation of the disturbance model due to the shaft of operating speed, an adaptive disturbance accommodating control scheme is developed based on a certain optimality criterion. The continuous time design discretized to implement the controller in the digital computer and the merits and demerits are studied numerically. It is shown that the proposed method is efficient in reducing rotor unbalance and automatic balancing.

  2. Contrarian behavior in a complex adaptive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Y.; An, K. N.; Yang, G.; Huang, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Contrarian behavior is a kind of self-organization in complex adaptive systems (CASs). Here we report the existence of a transition point in a model resource-allocation CAS with contrarian behavior by using human experiments, computer simulations, and theoretical analysis. The resource ratio and system predictability serve as the tuning parameter and order parameter, respectively. The transition point helps to reveal the positive or negative role of contrarian behavior. This finding is in contrast to the common belief that contrarian behavior always has a positive role in resource allocation, say, stabilizing resource allocation by shrinking the redundancy or the lack of resources. It is further shown that resource allocation can be optimized at the transition point by adding an appropriate size of contrarians. This work is also expected to be of value to some other fields ranging from management and social science to ecology and evolution.

  3. Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masek, Jeffrey G.

    2006-01-01

    The Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) project is creating a record of forest disturbance and regrowth for North America from the Landsat satellite record, in support of the carbon modeling activities. LEDAPS relies on the decadal Landsat GeoCover data set supplemented by dense image time series for selected locations. Imagery is first atmospherically corrected to surface reflectance, and then change detection algorithms are used to extract disturbance area, type, and frequency. Reuse of the MODIS Land processing system (MODAPS) architecture allows rapid throughput of over 2200 MSS, TM, and ETM+ scenes. Initial ("Beta") surface reflectance products are currently available for testing, and initial continental disturbance products will be available by the middle of 2006.

  4. Contrarian behavior in a complex adaptive system.

    PubMed

    Liang, Y; An, K N; Yang, G; Huang, J P

    2013-01-01

    Contrarian behavior is a kind of self-organization in complex adaptive systems (CASs). Here we report the existence of a transition point in a model resource-allocation CAS with contrarian behavior by using human experiments, computer simulations, and theoretical analysis. The resource ratio and system predictability serve as the tuning parameter and order parameter, respectively. The transition point helps to reveal the positive or negative role of contrarian behavior. This finding is in contrast to the common belief that contrarian behavior always has a positive role in resource allocation, say, stabilizing resource allocation by shrinking the redundancy or the lack of resources. It is further shown that resource allocation can be optimized at the transition point by adding an appropriate size of contrarians. This work is also expected to be of value to some other fields ranging from management and social science to ecology and evolution.

  5. Seat Belt Use and Stress in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schichor, Aric; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Explored adolescent seat belt use and psychosocial risk factors in urban minority population (n=541). Found seat belt use reported by 49 percent of respondents. Those reporting no or intermittent seat belt use were significantly more likely than seat belt users to feel down, have decreased home support, have problems with school and the law, and…

  6. Flipping Adapters for Space Launch System

    NASA Video Gallery

    The structural test article adapter is flipped at Marshall testing facility Building 4705. The turnover is an important step in finishing the machining work on the adapter, which will undergo tests...

  7. The Limits to Adaptation: A Systems Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability to adapt to climate change is delineated by capacity thresholds, after which climate damages begin to overwhelm the adaptation response. Such thresholds depend upon physical properties (natural processes and engineering parameters), resource constraints (expressed th...

  8. Intercellular Communication in the Adaptive Immune System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Arup

    2004-03-01

    Higher organisms, like humans, have an adaptive immune system that can respond to pathogens that have not been encountered before. T lymphocytes (T cells) are the orchestrators of the adaptive immune response. They interact with cells, called antigen presenting cells (APC), that display molecular signatures of pathogens. Recently, video microscopy experiments have revealed that when T cells detect antigen on APC surfaces, a spatially patterned supramolecular assembly of different types of molecules forms in the junction between cell membranes. This recognition motif is implicated in information transfer between APC and T cells, and so, is labeled the immunological synapse. The observation of synapse formation sparked two broad questions: How does the synapse form? Why does the synapse form? I will describe progress made in answering these fundamental questions in biology by synergistic use of statistical mechanical theory/computation, chemical engineering principles, and genetic and biochemical experiments. The talk will also touch upon mechanisms that may underlie the extreme sensitivity with which T cells discriminate between self and non-self.

  9. Lightweight Seat Lever Operation Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar

    1999-01-01

    In 1999, a Shuttle crew member was unable to operate the backrest lever for the lightweight seat in microgravity. It is essential that crew members can adjust this backrest lever, which is titled forward during launch and then moved backward upon reaching orbit. This adjustment is needed to cushion the crew members during an inadvertent crash landing situation. JSCs Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) performed an evaluation of the seat controls and provided recommendations on whether the seat lever positions and operations should be modified. The original Shuttle seats were replaced with new lightweight seats whose controls were moved, with one control at the front and the other at the back. The ABF designed a 12-person experiment to investigate the amount of pull force exerted by suited subjects, when controls were placed in the front and back of the lightweight seat. Each subject was asked to perform the pull test at least three times for each combination of lever position and suit pressure conditions. The results showed that, in general, the subjects were able to pull on the lever at the back position with only about half the amount of force that they were able to exert on the lever at the front position. In addition, the results also showed that subjects wearing the pressurized suit were unable to reach the seat lever when it was located at the back. The pull forces on the front lever diminished about 50% when subjects wore pressurized suits. Based on these results from this study, it was recommended that the levers should not be located in the back position. Further investigation is needed to determine whether the levers at the front of the seat could be modified or adjusted to increase the leverage for crew members wearing pressurized launch/escape suits.

  10. Mathematical Modeling and Simulation of Seated Stability

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Martin L.; Ross, Shane D.; Nussbaum, Maury A.

    2009-01-01

    Various methods have been used to quantify the kinematic variability or stability of the human spine. However, each of these methods evaluates dynamic behavior within the stable region of state space. In contrast, our goal was to determine the extent of the stable region. A 2D mathematical model was developed for a human sitting on an unstable seat apparatus (i.e., the “wobble chair”). Forward dynamic simulations were used to compute trajectories based on the initial state. From these trajectories, a scalar field of trajectory divergence was calculated, specifically a finite time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field. Theoretically, ridges of local maxima within this field are expected to partition the state space into regions of qualitatively different behavior. We found that ridges formed at the boundary between regions of stability and failure (i.e., falling). The location of the basin of stability found using the FTLE field matched well with the basin of stability determined by an alternative method. In addition, an equilibrium manifold was found, which describes a set of equilibrium configurations that act as a low dimensional attractor in the controlled system. These simulations are a first step in developing a method to locate state space boundaries for torso stability. Identifying these boundaries may provide a framework for assessing factors that contribute to health risks associated with spinal injury and poor balance recovery (e.g., age, fatigue, load/weight and distribution). Furthermore, an approach is presented that can be adapted to find state space boundaries in other biomechanical applications. PMID:20018288

  11. Simulation of DKIST solar adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, Jose; Carlisle, Elizabeth; Schmidt, Dirk

    2016-07-01

    Solar adaptive optics (AO) simulations are a valuable tool to guide the design and optimization process of current and future solar AO and multi-conjugate AO (MCAO) systems. Solar AO and MCAO systems rely on extended object cross-correlating Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors to measure the wavefront. Accurate solar AO simulations require computationally intensive operations, which have until recently presented a prohibitive computational cost. We present an update on the status of a solar AO and MCAO simulation tool being developed at the National Solar Observatory. The simulation tool is a multi-threaded application written in the C++ language that takes advantage of current large multi-core CPU computer systems and fast ethernet connections to provide accurate full simulation of solar AO and MCAO systems. It interfaces with KAOS, a state of the art solar AO control software developed by the Kiepenheuer-Institut fuer Sonnenphysik, that provides reliable AO control. We report on the latest results produced by the solar AO simulation tool.

  12. Multiclient Identification System Using Adaptive Probabilistic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chin-Teng; Siana, Linda; Shou, Yu-Wen; Yang, Chien-Ting

    2010-12-01

    This paper aims at integrating detection and identification of human faces in a more practical and real-time face recognition system. The proposed face detection system is based on the cascade Adaboost method to improve the precision and robustness toward unstable surrounding lightings. Our Adaboost method innovates to adjust the environmental lighting conditions by histogram lighting normalization and to accurately locate the face regions by a region-based-clustering process as well. We also address on the problem of multi-scale faces in this paper by using 12 different scales of searching windows and 5 different orientations for each client in pursuit of the multi-view independent face identification. There are majorly two methodological parts in our face identification system, including PCA (principal component analysis) facial feature extraction and adaptive probabilistic model (APM). The structure of our implemented APM with a weighted combination of simple probabilistic functions constructs the likelihood functions by the probabilistic constraint in the similarity measures. In addition, our proposed method can online add a new client and update the information of registered clients due to the constructed APM. The experimental results eventually show the superior performance of our proposed system for both offline and real-time online testing.

  13. Herd behavior in a complex adaptive system

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li; Yang, Guang; Wang, Wei; Chen, Yu; Huang, J. P.; Ohashi, Hirotada; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-01-01

    In order to survive, self-serving agents in various kinds of complex adaptive systems (CASs) must compete against others for sharing limited resources with biased or unbiased distribution by conducting strategic behaviors. This competition can globally result in the balance of resource allocation. As a result, most of the agents and species can survive well. However, it is a common belief that the formation of a herd in a CAS will cause excess volatility, which can ruin the balance of resource allocation in the CAS. Here this belief is challenged with the results obtained from a modeled resource-allocation system. Based on this system, we designed and conducted a series of computer-aided human experiments including herd behavior. We also performed agent-based simulations and theoretical analyses, in order to confirm the experimental observations and reveal the underlying mechanism. We report that, as long as the ratio of the two resources for allocation is biased enough, the formation of a typically sized herd can help the system to reach the balanced state. This resource ratio also serves as the critical point for a class of phase transition identified herein, which can be used to discover the role change of herd behavior, from a ruinous one to a helpful one. This work is also of value to some fields, ranging from management and social science, to ecology and evolution, and to physics. PMID:21876133

  14. Herd behavior in a complex adaptive system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li; Yang, Guang; Wang, Wei; Chen, Yu; Huang, J P; Ohashi, Hirotada; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-09-13

    In order to survive, self-serving agents in various kinds of complex adaptive systems (CASs) must compete against others for sharing limited resources with biased or unbiased distribution by conducting strategic behaviors. This competition can globally result in the balance of resource allocation. As a result, most of the agents and species can survive well. However, it is a common belief that the formation of a herd in a CAS will cause excess volatility, which can ruin the balance of resource allocation in the CAS. Here this belief is challenged with the results obtained from a modeled resource-allocation system. Based on this system, we designed and conducted a series of computer-aided human experiments including herd behavior. We also performed agent-based simulations and theoretical analyses, in order to confirm the experimental observations and reveal the underlying mechanism. We report that, as long as the ratio of the two resources for allocation is biased enough, the formation of a typically sized herd can help the system to reach the balanced state. This resource ratio also serves as the critical point for a class of phase transition identified herein, which can be used to discover the role change of herd behavior, from a ruinous one to a helpful one. This work is also of value to some fields, ranging from management and social science, to ecology and evolution, and to physics.

  15. Adaptive model training system and method

    DOEpatents

    Bickford, Randall L; Palnitkar, Rahul M; Lee, Vo

    2014-04-15

    An adaptive model training system and method for filtering asset operating data values acquired from a monitored asset for selectively choosing asset operating data values that meet at least one predefined criterion of good data quality while rejecting asset operating data values that fail to meet at least the one predefined criterion of good data quality; and recalibrating a previously trained or calibrated model having a learned scope of normal operation of the asset by utilizing the asset operating data values that meet at least the one predefined criterion of good data quality for adjusting the learned scope of normal operation of the asset for defining a recalibrated model having the adjusted learned scope of normal operation of the asset.

  16. Adaptive model training system and method

    DOEpatents

    Bickford, Randall L; Palnitkar, Rahul M

    2014-11-18

    An adaptive model training system and method for filtering asset operating data values acquired from a monitored asset for selectively choosing asset operating data values that meet at least one predefined criterion of good data quality while rejecting asset operating data values that fail to meet at least the one predefined criterion of good data quality; and recalibrating a previously trained or calibrated model having a learned scope of normal operation of the asset by utilizing the asset operating data values that meet at least the one predefined criterion of good data quality for adjusting the learned scope of normal operation of the asset for defining a recalibrated model having the adjusted learned scope of normal operation of the asset.

  17. Intelligent Optical Systems Using Adaptive Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, the phrase adaptive optics generally conjured images of large deformable mirrors being integrated into telescopes to compensate for atmospheric turbulence. However, the development of smaller, cheaper devices has sparked interest for other aerospace and commercial applications. Variable focal length lenses, liquid crystal spatial light modulators, tunable filters, phase compensators, polarization compensation, and deformable mirrors are becoming increasingly useful for other imaging applications including guidance navigation and control (GNC), coronagraphs, foveated imaging, situational awareness, autonomous rendezvous and docking, non-mechanical zoom, phase diversity, and enhanced multi-spectral imaging. The active components presented here allow flexibility in the optical design, increasing performance. In addition, the intelligent optical systems presented offer advantages in size and weight and radiation tolerance.

  18. Simulating Astronomical Adaptive Optics Systems Using Yao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigaut, François; Van Dam, Marcos

    2013-12-01

    Adaptive Optics systems are at the heart of the coming Extremely Large Telescopes generation. Given the importance, complexity and required advances of these systems, being able to simulate them faithfully is key to their success, and thus to the success of the ELTs. The type of systems envisioned to be built for the ELTs cover most of the AO breeds, from NGS AO to multiple guide star Ground Layer, Laser Tomography and Multi-Conjugate AO systems, with typically a few thousand actuators. This represents a large step up from the current generation of AO systems, and accordingly a challenge for existing AO simulation packages. This is especially true as, in the past years, computer power has not been following Moore's law in its most common understanding; CPU clocks are hovering at about 3GHz. Although the use of super computers is a possible solution to run these simulations, being able to use smaller machines has obvious advantages: cost, access, environmental issues. By using optimised code in an already proven AO simulation platform, we were able to run complex ELT AO simulations on very modest machines, including laptops. The platform is YAO. In this paper, we describe YAO, its architecture, its capabilities, the ELT-specific challenges and optimisations, and finally its performance. As an example, execution speed ranges from 5 iterations per second for a 6 LGS 60x60 subapertures Shack-Hartmann Wavefront sensor Laser Tomography AO system (including full physical image formation and detector characteristics) up to over 30 iterations/s for a single NGS AO system.

  19. An Ergonomic Evaluation of Aircraft Pilot Seats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Yolanda Nicole

    Seat comfort has become increasingly important in today's society as we spend more time at consoles, instrument panels, or just online. However, seat comfort is hard to define and difficult to measure. Several measures both objective and subjective were used to evaluate seat comfort in commercially available average pilot seats. Three pilot seats, which had the same material and similar adjustments but different physical attributes, and a universal classroom seat, with different material and no adjustments, were compared by 20 volunteers using subjective and objective measures in a Latin square controlled repeated measures design. A Friedman's test was used to determine that both the comfort questionnaire and the body-map rating results were able to discriminate objective comfort levels between the seats. One-way repeated measures ANOVA tests were used to analyze both the objective tests, actigraph and pressure pad data. All results indicated that one seat was clearly the most comfortable and another, the classroom seat was clearly the most uncomfortable seat. Furthermore, the overall comments per seat were compiled and compared to Fazlollahtabar's 2010) predictive automobile seat comfort theory to determine which factors influence comfort perception. The use of both subjective and objective data can better distinguish comfort from one seat over the other. These results have implications for future tests of seats that will be used for long durations. Limitations and future recommendations are discussed later in the paper. An interesting finding may explain why pressure pad data are typically seemingly at odds with subjective measures of seat comfort.

  20. Adaptive Systems in Education: A Review and Conceptual Unification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Chunyu; Scott, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the use of adaptive systems in education. It is intended to be a useful introduction for the non-specialist reader. Design/methodology/approach: A distinction is made between intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) and adaptive hypermedia systems (AHSs). The two kinds of system are defined, compared and…

  1. Thermal Performance of Aircraft Polyurethane Seat Cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Aircraft seat materials were evaluated in terms of their thermal performance. The materials were evaluated using (a) thermogravimetric analysis, (b) differential scanning calorimetry, (c) a modified NBS smoke chamber to determine the rate of mass loss and (d) the NASA T-3 apparatus to determine the thermal efficiency. In this paper, the modified NBS smoke chamber will be described in detail since it provided the most conclusive results. The NBS smoke chamber was modified to measure the weight loss of material when exposed to a radiant heat source over the range of 2.5 to 7.5 W/sq cm. This chamber has been utilized to evaluate the thermal performance of various heat blocking layers utilized to protect the polyurethane cushioning foam used in aircraft seats. Various kinds of heat blocking layers were evaluated by monitoring the weight loss of miniature seat cushions when exposed to the radiant heat. The effectiveness of aluminized heat blocking systems was demonstrated when compared to conventional heat blocking layers such as neoprene. All heat blocking systems showed good fire protection capabilities when compared to the state-of-the-art, i.e., wool-nylon over polyurethane foam.

  2. The application of SEAT values for predicting how compliant seats with backrests influence vibration discomfort.

    PubMed

    Basri, Bazil; Griffin, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    The extent to which a seat can provide useful attenuation of vehicle vibration depends on three factors: the characteristics of the vehicle motion, the vibration transmissibility of the seat, and the sensitivity of the body to vibration. The 'seat effective amplitude transmissibility' (i.e., SEAT value) reflects how these three factors vary with the frequency and the direction of vibration so as to predict the vibration isolation efficiency of a seat. The SEAT value is mostly used to select seat cushions or seat suspensions based on the transmission of vertical vibration to the principal supporting surface of a seat. This study investigated the accuracy of SEAT values in predicting how seats with backrests influence the discomfort caused by multiple-input vibration. Twelve male subjects participated in a four-part experiment to determine equivalent comfort contours, the relative discomfort, the location of discomfort, and seat transmissibility with three foam seats and a rigid reference seat at 14 frequencies of vibration in the range 1-20 Hz at magnitudes of vibration from 0.2 to 1.6 ms(-2) r.m.s. The 'measured seat dynamic discomfort' (MSDD) was calculated for each foam seat from the ratio of the vibration acceleration required to cause similar discomfort with the foam seat and with the rigid reference seat. Using the frequency weightings in current standards, the SEAT values of each seat were calculated from the ratio of overall ride values with the foam seat to the overall ride values with the rigid reference seat, and compared to the corresponding MSDD at each frequency. The SEAT values provided good predictions of how the foam seats increased vibration discomfort at frequencies around the 4-Hz resonance but reduced vibration discomfort at frequencies greater than about 6.3 Hz, with discrepancies explained by a known limitation of the frequency weightings.

  3. Coupled head neck torso and seat model for car seat optimization under rear-end impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdet, Nicolas; Willinger, Rémy

    2008-06-01

    The development of new protective systems must be performed on tools reliable and representative of alive human. In an earlier study, a simplified but realistic modelling of the head-neck system under moderate rear impact was performed. In order to address this issue, an original lumped model of the human torso was developed and coupled to a car seat-head rest complex. The experimental modal analysis of the human torso in a seating position performed by Kitazaki in 1992 [Paper presented at the United Kingdom Meeting on Human Response to Vibration held at I.S.V.R. University of Southampton, Southampton, UK, 28-30 September 1992.] was used in the present study for the identification of the mechanical parameters of a lumped human torso model. Despite its low complexity, this model was able to reproduce the five first experimental vibration modes and it was possible to validate it in terms of natural frequencies, damping ratio and mode shapes. In addition to the lumped approach, an external geometry of the human torso was implemented in order to provide a realistic coupling of the human body model to a finite element model of the car seat also developed in the present study. A parametric study was finally carried out in order to evaluate the influence of the torso behaviour and of the different parts of a car seat on the mechanical neck response under rear-end impact. The results of this study allow concluding that the torso behaviour has an important influence on the neck loading and therefore that the quality of a car seat depends on the human body substitute used. For instance, with the proposed torso model, a low-neck injury criterion (NIC) rearward value was obtained with low rigidity of the backrest foam and a stiff backrest net.

  4. System for unconstrained ECG measurement on a toilet seat using capacitive coupled electrodes : the efficacy and practicality.

    PubMed

    Baek, Hyun Jae; Kim, Jung Soo; Kim, Ko Keun; Park, Kwang Suk

    2008-01-01

    Home healthcare is a common matter of concern to modern people. For the successful home healthcare, unconstrained bio-signal monitoring is important. Previously, unconstrained lavatory typed ECG measurement system was developed. It is enough to measure subject's ECG signal non-intrusively, but not practical because of moist environment of toilet. In this study, capacitive coupled electrode was employed for overcome above disadvantages. ECG was obtained by capacitive coupled electrode and compared with ECGs obtained from conventional Ag/AgCl electrode. Possible motion artifacts were investigated. Experimental results showed that toilet based capacitive coupled ECG signal was measured successfully.

  5. Integration of the immune system: a complex adaptive supersystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisman, Mark V.

    2001-10-01

    Immunity to pathogenic organisms is a complex process involving interacting factors within the immune system including circulating cells, tissues and soluble chemical mediators. Both the efficiency and adaptive responses of the immune system in a dynamic, often hostile, environment are essential for maintaining our health and homeostasis. This paper will present a brief review of one of nature's most elegant, complex adaptive systems.

  6. Implementation of an Adaptive Learning System Using a Bayesian Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasuda, Keiji; Kawashima, Hiroyuki; Hata, Yoko; Kimura, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    An adaptive learning system is proposed that incorporates a Bayesian network to efficiently gauge learners' understanding at the course-unit level. Also, learners receive content that is adapted to their measured level of understanding. The system works on an iPad via the Edmodo platform. A field experiment using the system in an elementary school…

  7. Autist mobile seat's frame strength simulation used in a car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryo, S. H.; Jamari, J.; Naufal, G. K.; Ismail, R.; Bayuseno, A. P.; Desiningrum, D. R.

    2016-04-01

    Going on a car with autistic children needs a special handling. Autistic children that tend to be hyperactive in the car may disturb driving. A tool is needed to keep them in a calm state when they are in the car. Autist Mobile Seat is an aid for the autistic children when going on a car. The aid is an additional seat paired with the main seat of the car. This aid consists of three main things: Main frame, body skin, and pneumatic system. Frame as the main component supporting the Autist Mobile Seat functions as a holder as well as a body skin retainer in order to be able to retain the body of the autistic children. The strength of the frame from this Autist Mobile Seat should be counted as an anticipation from the failure of the frame function when receiving load when used by the autistic children in the car. Consequently, a test on the frame of the Autist Mobile Seat towards the load received should be conducted by using a method of FEM (Finite Element Method) with the help of commercial software. The simulation produces the maximum strength, the frame towards the load received as well as the critical point on the frame when loading occurs.

  8. Isoplanatism in a multiconjugate adaptive optics system.

    PubMed

    Tokovinin, A; Le Louarn, M; Sarazin, M

    2000-10-01

    Turbulence correction in a large field of view by use of an adaptive optics imaging system with several deformable mirrors (DM's) conjugated to various heights is considered. The residual phase variance is computed for an optimized linear algorithm in which a correction of each turbulent layer is achieved by applying a combination of suitably smoothed and scaled input phase screens to all DM's. Finite turbulence outer scale and finite spatial resolution of the DM's are taken into account. A general expression for the isoplanatic angle thetaM of a system with M mirrors is derived in the limiting case of infinitely large apertures and Kolmogorov turbulence. Like Fried's isoplanatic angle theta0,thetaM is a function only of the turbulence vertical profile, is scalable with wavelength, and is independent of the telescope diameter. Use of angle thetaM permits the gain in the field of view due to the increased number of DM's to be quantified and their optimal conjugate heights to be found. Calculations with real turbulence profiles show that with three DM's a gain of 7-10x is possible, giving the typical and best isoplanatic field-of-view radii of 16 and 30 arcseconds, respectively, at lambda = 0.5 microm. It is shown that in the actual systems the isoplanatic field will be somewhat larger than thetaM owing to the combined effects of finite aperture diameter, finite outer scale, and optimized wave-front spatial filtering. However, this additional gain is not dramatic; it is less than 1.5x for large-aperture telescopes.

  9. Network and adaptive system of systems modeling and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Craig R.; Campbell, James E. Dr.; Anderson, Dennis James; Eddy, John P.

    2007-05-01

    This report documents the results of an LDRD program entitled ''Network and Adaptive System of Systems Modeling and Analysis'' that was conducted during FY 2005 and FY 2006. The purpose of this study was to determine and implement ways to incorporate network communications modeling into existing System of Systems (SoS) modeling capabilities. Current SoS modeling, particularly for the Future Combat Systems (FCS) program, is conducted under the assumption that communication between the various systems is always possible and occurs instantaneously. A more realistic representation of these communications allows for better, more accurate simulation results. The current approach to meeting this objective has been to use existing capabilities to model network hardware reliability and adding capabilities to use that information to model the impact on the sustainment supply chain and operational availability.

  10. Valuation of design adaptability in aerospace systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez Martin, Ismael

    As more information is brought into early stages of the design, more pressure is put on engineers to produce a reliable, high quality, and financially sustainable product. Unfortunately, requirements established at the beginning of a new project by customers, and the environment that surrounds them, continue to change in some unpredictable ways. The risk of designing a system that may become obsolete during early stages of production is currently tackled by the use of robust design simulation, a method that allows to simultaneously explore a plethora of design alternatives and requirements with the intention of accounting for uncertain factors in the future. Whereas this design technique has proven to be quite an improvement in design methods, under certain conditions, it fails to account for the change of uncertainty over time and the intrinsic value embedded in the system when certain design features are activated. This thesis introduces the concepts of adaptability and real options to manage risk foreseen in the face of uncertainty at early design stages. The method described herein allows decision-makers to foresee the financial impact of their decisions at the design level, as well as the final exposure to risk. In this thesis, cash flow models, traditionally used to obtain the forecast of a project's value over the years, were replaced with surrogate models that are capable of showing fluctuations on value every few days. This allowed a better implementation of real options valuation, optimization, and strategy selection. Through the option analysis model, an optimization exercise allows the user to obtain the best implementation strategy in the face of uncertainty as well as the overall value of the design feature. Here implementation strategy refers to the decision to include a new design feature in the system, after the design has been finalized, but before the end of its production life. The ability to do this in a cost efficient manner after the system

  11. Three experiments to support the design of lightweight comfortable vehicle seats.

    PubMed

    Vink, P; Franz, M; Kamp, I; Zenk, R

    2012-01-01

    Seats need to be more lightweight for airplanes, cars, busses and even trains to contribute to a better environment and to reduce energy consumption. However, a reduction in comfort due to weight reduction is not preferable, which opens a new area of research: improving comfort with a minimum of material or with lightweight materials and systems. In this paper three experiments are performed to test the effects of light weight seats and parts of a seat on comfort. The first experiment shows that a new developed light weight massage system improves comfort and reduces muscle activity. The second experiment shows that the automatic seat adjustment without motors improves the comfort as well. The third experiment showed that a light weight seat following closely the human body contour is experienced on many aspects in the same way as current more heavy seats. More research and models will be needed in this ergonomic field which needs more attention.

  12. Cascaded Effects of Spatial Adaptation in the Early Visual System

    PubMed Central

    Dhruv, Neel T.; Carandini, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Virtually all stages of the visual system exhibit adaptation: neurons adjust their responses based on the recent stimulus history. While some of these adjustments occur at specific stages, others may be inherited from earlier stages. How do adaptation effects cascade along the visual system? We measured spatially selective adaptation at two successive stages in the mouse visual system: visual thalamus (LGN) and primary visual cortex (V1). This form of adaptation affected both stages but in drastically different ways: in LGN it only changed response gain, while in V1 it also shifted spatial tuning away from the adaptor. These effects, however, are reconciled by a simple model whereby V1 neurons summate LGN inputs with a fixed, unadaptable weighting profile. These results indicate that adaptation effects cascade through the visual system, that this cascading can shape selectivity, and that the rules of integration from one stage to the next are not themselves adaptable. PMID:24507190

  13. Cascaded effects of spatial adaptation in the early visual system.

    PubMed

    Dhruv, Neel T; Carandini, Matteo

    2014-02-05

    Virtually all stages of the visual system exhibit adaptation: neurons adjust their responses based on the recent stimulus history. While some of these adjustments occur at specific stages, others may be inherited from earlier stages. How do adaptation effects cascade along the visual system? We measured spatially selective adaptation at two successive stages in the mouse visual system: visual thalamus (LGN) and primary visual cortex (V1). This form of adaptation affected both stages but in drastically different ways: in LGN it only changed response gain, while in V1 it also shifted spatial tuning away from the adaptor. These effects, however, are reconciled by a simple model whereby V1 neurons summate LGN inputs with a fixed, unadaptable weighting profile. These results indicate that adaptation effects cascade through the visual system, that this cascading can shape selectivity, and that the rules of integration from one stage to the next are not themselves adaptable.

  14. Automatic toilet seat lowering apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Guerty, Harold G.

    1994-09-06

    A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat. A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat.

  15. Central nervous system adaptation to exercise training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Lois Anne

    Exercise training causes physiological changes in skeletal muscle that results in enhanced performance in humans and animals. Despite numerous studies on exercise effects on skeletal muscle, relatively little is known about adaptive changes in the central nervous system. This study investigated whether spinal pathways that mediate locomotor activity undergo functional adaptation after 28 days of exercise training. Ventral horn spinal cord expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a trophic factor at the neuromuscular junction, choline acetyltransferase (Chat), the synthetic enzyme for acetylcholine, vesicular acetylcholine transporter (Vacht), a transporter of ACh into synaptic vesicles and calcineurin (CaN), a protein phosphatase that phosphorylates ion channels and exocytosis machinery were measured to determine if changes in expression occurred in response to physical activity. Expression of these proteins was determined by western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Comparisons between sedentary controls and animals that underwent either endurance training or resistance training were made. Control rats received no exercise other than normal cage activity. Endurance-trained rats were exercised 6 days/wk at 31m/min on a treadmill (8% incline) for 100 minutes. Resistance-trained rats supported their weight plus an additional load (70--80% body weight) on a 60° incline (3 x 3 min, 5 days/wk). CGRP expression was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). CGRP expression in the spinal dorsal and ventral horn of exercise-trained animals was not significantly different than controls. Chat expression measured by Western blot and IHC was not significantly different between runners and controls but expression in resistance-trained animals assayed by IHC was significantly less than controls and runners. Vacht and CaN immunoreactivity in motor neurons of endurance-trained rats was significantly elevated relative to control and resistance-trained animals. Ventral

  16. Aircraft as adaptive nonlinear system which must be in the adaptational maximum zone for safety

    SciTech Connect

    Ignative, M.; Simatos, N.; Sivasundaram, S.

    1994-12-31

    Safety is a main problem in aircraft. We are considering this problem from the point of view related to existence of the adaptational maximum in complex developing systems. Safety space of aircraft parameters are determined. This space is transformed to different regimes of flight, when one engine malfunctions etc., are considered. Also it is shown that maximum safety is in adaptational maximum zone.

  17. CRISPR adaptation in Escherichia coli subtypeI-E system.

    PubMed

    Kiro, Ruth; Goren, Moran G; Yosef, Ido; Qimron, Udi

    2013-12-01

    The CRISPRs (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) and their associated Cas (CRISPR-associated) proteins are a prokaryotic adaptive defence system against foreign nucleic acids. The CRISPR array comprises short repeats flanking short segments, called 'spacers', which are derived from foreign nucleic acids. The process of spacer insertion into the CRISPR array is termed 'adaptation'. Adaptation allows the system to rapidly evolve against emerging threats. In the present article, we review the most recent studies on the adaptation process, and focus primarily on the subtype I-E CRISPR-Cas system of Escherichia coli.

  18. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  19. Large-scale deformational systems in the South Polar Layered Deposits (Promethei Lingula, Mars): "Soft-sediment" and Deep-Seated Gravitational Slope Deformations Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guallini, Luca; Brozzetti, Francesco; Marinangeli, Lucia

    2012-08-01

    The present study is the first attempt at a detailed structural and kinematic analysis of large-scale deformational systems observed in the South Polar Layered Deposits (SPLDs) in the Promethei Lingula (PL) margins (Mars). By systematically collecting attitude data referable to previously unknown deformational structures and defining the cross-cut relationships of the structures, we reconstructed a deformational history consisting of two superimposed, well-defined stages. The first stage is dominated by large-scale strike-slip and transtensional faults arranged into conjugate systems and delimiting shear zones that show a wide range of subsidiary structures, including normal and reverse faults, drag folds, boudins, S-C tectonites and sub-horizontal interstratal shear planes marked by sygmoidal boudins. Other typical structures referable to this event are ductile folds (locally true convolute folds) and lobes (ball-and-pillow structures) affecting certain marker beds of the succession. We suggest that the structural assemblage might be the expression of a shallow soft-sediment tectonics that possibly occurred during warm periods of the South Pole climate. The second stage seems to affect the weaker and in certain cases pre-deformed stratigraphic levels of the SPLD succession. This stage is mainly characterized by extensional deformations caused by gravity. The consequence of the deformations is the nucleation of Deep-Seated Gravitational Slope Deformations (DSGSDs) marked by typical morphostructures, such as scarps, trenches and bulging basal contractant zones. These phenomena were never observed within an ice cap. According to terrestrial modeling, these slow collapses were caused by (1) the presence of detachment levels (i.e., subhorizontal bedding planes) along which the ice-sheet margins can slide and (2) the development of listric faults within the glacial mass, which merge with sub-horizontal shear planes in the subsurface. The presence of complex

  20. ACES II Seat Roller Study: Findings of Detrimental Friction under High Windblast or Adverse Flight Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-12

    seat rollers with modern industrial “cam rollers” (or similar load-rated roll-and-thrust bearing wheel system), and (2) insure that no future ejection...of 1500 lbf. 15. SUBJECT TERMS ACES-II, Ejection, Seat, Cam, Roller, Bearing , Friction, CKU-5, Rocket, Catapult, ROCAT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...ACES-II Seat Roller Design, Installation, and Use ................................ 16 Figure 7 – Images of some Typical Cam Rollers and Bearings

  1. Nonequilibrium Enhances Adaptation Efficiency of Stochastic Biochemical Systems

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Chen; Qian, Minping

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation is a crucial biological function possessed by many sensory systems. Early work has shown that some influential equilibrium models can achieve accurate adaptation. However, recent studies indicate that there are close relationships between adaptation and nonequilibrium. In this paper, we provide an explanation of these two seemingly contradictory results based on Markov models with relatively simple networks. We show that as the nonequilibrium driving becomes stronger, the system under consideration will undergo a phase transition along a fixed direction: from non-adaptation to simple adaptation then to oscillatory adaptation, while the transition in the opposite direction is forbidden. This indicates that although adaptation may be observed in equilibrium systems, it tends to occur in systems far away from equilibrium. In addition, we find that nonequilibrium will improve the performance of adaptation by enhancing the adaptation efficiency. All these results provide a deeper insight into the connection between adaptation and nonequilibrium. Finally, we use a more complicated network model of bacterial chemotaxis to validate the main results of this paper. PMID:27195482

  2. Restricted Complexity Framework for Nonlinear Adaptive Control in Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Rube B.

    2004-02-01

    Control law adaptation that includes implicit or explicit adaptive state estimation, can be a fundamental underpinning for the success of intelligent control in complex systems, particularly during subsystem failures, where vital system states and parameters can be impractical or impossible to measure directly. A practical algorithm is proposed for adaptive state filtering and control in nonlinear dynamic systems when the state equations are unknown or are too complex to model analytically. The state equations and inverse plant model are approximated by using neural networks. A framework for a neural network based nonlinear dynamic inversion control law is proposed, as an extrapolation of prior developed restricted complexity methodology used to formulate the adaptive state filter. Examples of adaptive filter performance are presented for an SSME simulation with high pressure turbine failure to support extrapolations to adaptive control problems.

  3. Restricted Complexity Framework for Nonlinear Adaptive Control in Complex Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Rube B.

    2004-02-04

    Control law adaptation that includes implicit or explicit adaptive state estimation, can be a fundamental underpinning for the success of intelligent control in complex systems, particularly during subsystem failures, where vital system states and parameters can be impractical or impossible to measure directly. A practical algorithm is proposed for adaptive state filtering and control in nonlinear dynamic systems when the state equations are unknown or are too complex to model analytically. The state equations and inverse plant model are approximated by using neural networks. A framework for a neural network based nonlinear dynamic inversion control law is proposed, as an extrapolation of prior developed restricted complexity methodology used to formulate the adaptive state filter. Examples of adaptive filter performance are presented for an SSME simulation with high pressure turbine failure to support extrapolations to adaptive control problems.

  4. Concept Based Approach for Adaptive Personalized Course Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salahli, Mehmet Ali; Özdemir, Muzaffer; Yasar, Cumali

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important factors for improving the personalization aspects of learning systems is to enable adaptive properties to them. The aim of the adaptive personalized learning system is to offer the most appropriate learning path and learning materials to learners by taking into account their profiles. In this paper, a new approach to…

  5. Adaptive tracking control for a class of uncertain chaotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng-Xiang; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2007-09-01

    The paper is concerned with adaptive tracking problem for a class of chaotic system with time-varying uncertainty, but bounded by norm polynomial. Based on adaptive technique, it proposes a novel controller to asymptotically track the arbitrary desired bounded trajectory. Simulation on the Rossler chaotic system is performed and the result verifies the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Development of Adaptive Kanji Learning System for Mobile Phone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Mengmeng; Ogata, Hiroaki; Hou, Bin; Hashimoto, Satoshi; Liu, Yuqin; Uosaki, Noriko; Yano, Yoneo

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an adaptive learning system based on mobile phone email to support the study of Japanese Kanji. In this study, the main emphasis is on using the adaptive learning to resolve one common problem of the mobile-based email or SMS language learning systems. To achieve this goal, the authors main efforts focus on three aspects:…

  7. Adaptive Hypermedia Educational System Based on XML Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baek, Yeongtae; Wang, Changjong; Lee, Sehoon

    This paper proposes an adaptive hypermedia educational system using XML technologies, such as XML, XSL, XSLT, and XLink. Adaptive systems are capable of altering the presentation of the content of the hypermedia on the basis of a dynamic understanding of the individual user. The user profile can be collected in a user model, while the knowledge…

  8. Management Strategies for Complex Adaptive Systems: Sensemaking, Learning, and Improvisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Reuben R., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Misspecification of the nature of organizations may be a major reason for difficulty in achieving performance improvement. Organizations are often viewed as machine-like, but complexity science suggests that organizations should be viewed as complex adaptive systems. I identify the characteristics of complex adaptive systems and give examples of…

  9. Sinusoidal error perturbation reveals multiple coordinate systems for sensorymotor adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Todd E.; Landy, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    A coordinate system is composed of an encoding, defining the dimensions of the space, and an origin. We examine the coordinate encoding used to update motor plans during sensory-motor adaptation to center-out reaches. Adaptation is induced using a novel paradigm in which feedback of reach endpoints is perturbed following a sinewave pattern over trials; the perturbed dimensions of the feedback were the axes of a Cartesian coordinate system in one session and a polar coordinate system in another session. For center-out reaches to randomly chosen target locations, reach errors observed at one target will require different corrections at other targets within Cartesian- and polar-coded systems. The sinewave adaptation technique allowed us to simultaneously adapt both dimensions of each coordinate system (x-y, or reach gain and angle), and identify the contributions of each perturbed dimension by adapting each at a distinct temporal frequency. The efficiency of this technique further allowed us to employ perturbations that were a fraction the size normally used, which avoids confounding automatic adaptive processes with deliberate adjustments made in response to obvious experimental manipulations. Subjects independently corrected errors in each coordinate in both sessions, suggesting that the nervous system encodes both a Cartesian- and polar-coordinate-based internal representation for motor adaptation. The gains and phase lags of the adaptive responses are not readily explained by current theories of sensory-motor adaptation. Motor adaptation is fundamental to the neural control of movement, affording an automatic process to maintain a consistent relationship between motor plans and movement outcomes. That is, adaptation is described as updating an internal mapping between desired motor outcome and motor output (Sanger, 2004; Shadmehr, Smith, & Krakauer, 2010), not a deliberate corrective action. Here, using a method that relies on extremely small perturbations that

  10. 76 FR 36890 - Clarification of Prior Interpretations of the Seat Belt and Seating Requirements for General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ...: The seat belt is approved and rated for such use; the structural strength requirements for the seat..., this allowance was permissible because seat belts were generally rated in terms of strength and some... approved and rated for such use; (2) the structural strength requirements for the seat were not...

  11. Calibrated Methodology for Assessing Adaptation Costs for Urban Drainage Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in precipitation patterns associated with climate change may pose significant challenges for storm water management systems across much of the U.S. In particular, adapting these systems to more intense rainfall events will require significant investment. The assessment ...

  12. Seating Aggregation as an Index of Contagion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrill, David; And Others

    1970-01-01

    In a situation where cheating increases, the students most apt to become cheaters are those seated adjacent to identified cheaters. In all cases, cheaters tend to voluntarily seat themselves adjacent to one another rather than seating themselves adjacent to noncheaters. The voluntary isolation appears to persist even as cheating increases or…

  13. 14 CFR 121.585 - Exit seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operations, written procedures established for making determinations in regard to exit row seating. (g) No... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exit seating. 121.585 Section 121.585..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.585 Exit seating. (a)(1) Each...

  14. 14 CFR 121.585 - Exit seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... operations, written procedures established for making determinations in regard to exit row seating. (g) No... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exit seating. 121.585 Section 121.585..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.585 Exit seating. (a)(1) Each...

  15. Sociometry and Classroom Seat Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufman, Melody; Barbour, Alton

    Since attraction and close proxemic distances have been found to be associated throughout the study of nonverbal communication, a study was conducted that hypothesized that attraction would be a more important predictor of seat selection than any other variables. Subjects included students enrolled in introductory speech communication classes who…

  16. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... a supplemental restraint system in a motor vehicle. An air bag module is the air bag inflator plus... used in the operation of a seat-belt restraining system in a motor vehicle. (b) Classification. An air... manufacturer has submitted each design type air bag inflator, air bag module, or seat-belt pretensioner to...

  17. Recursive architecture for large-scale adaptive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanahara, Kazuyuki; Sugiyama, Yoshihiko

    1994-09-01

    'Large scale' is one of major trends in the research and development of recent engineering, especially in the field of aerospace structural system. This term expresses the large scale of an artifact in general, however, it also implies the large number of the components which make up the artifact in usual. Considering a large scale system which is especially used in remote space or deep-sea, such a system should be adaptive as well as robust by itself, because its control as well as maintenance by human operators are not easy due to the remoteness. An approach to realizing this large scale, adaptive and robust system is to build the system as an assemblage of components which are respectively adaptive by themselves. In this case, the robustness of the system can be achieved by using a large number of such components and suitable adaptation as well as maintenance strategies. Such a system gathers many research's interest and their studies such as decentralized motion control, configurating algorithm and characteristics of structural elements are reported. In this article, a recursive architecture concept is developed and discussed towards the realization of large scale system which consists of a number of uniform adaptive components. We propose an adaptation strategy based on the architecture and its implementation by means of hierarchically connected processing units. The robustness and the restoration from degeneration of the processing unit are also discussed. Two- and three-dimensional adaptive truss structures are conceptually designed based on the recursive architecture.

  18. Systems and Methods for Derivative-Free Adaptive Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yucelen, Tansel (Inventor); Kim, Kilsoo (Inventor); Calise, Anthony J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An adaptive control system is disclosed. The control system can control uncertain dynamic systems. The control system can employ one or more derivative-free adaptive control architectures. The control system can further employ one or more derivative-free weight update laws. The derivative-free weight update laws can comprise a time-varying estimate of an ideal vector of weights. The control system of the present invention can therefore quickly stabilize systems that undergo sudden changes in dynamics, caused by, for example, sudden changes in weight. Embodiments of the present invention can also provide a less complex control system than existing adaptive control systems. The control system can control aircraft and other dynamic systems, such as, for example, those with non-minimum phase dynamics.

  19. Adaptive Learning Systems: Beyond Teaching Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Nuri; Sevim, Nese

    2013-01-01

    Since 1950s, teaching machines have changed a lot. Today, we have different ideas about how people learn, what instructor should do to help students during their learning process. We have adaptive learning technologies that can create much more student oriented learning environments. The purpose of this article is to present these changes and its…

  20. Hormesis and adaptive cellular control systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hormetic dose response occurs for many endpoints associated with exposures of biological organisms to environmental stressors. Cell-based U- or inverted U-shaped responses may derive from common processes involved in activation of adaptive responses required to protect cells from...

  1. A Guide to Computer Adaptive Testing Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davey, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Some brand names are used generically to describe an entire class of products that perform the same function. "Kleenex," "Xerox," "Thermos," and "Band-Aid" are good examples. The term "computerized adaptive testing" (CAT) is similar in that it is often applied uniformly across a diverse family of testing methods. Although the various members of…

  2. Performance of Booster Seats in Side Impacts: Effect of Adjacent Passengers and Isofix Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, Judith L.; Fildes, Brian; Taranto, David; Laemmle, Ronald; Smith, Stuart; Clark, Anthony; Holden, GM

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the performance of a booster seat in different seating configurations in side-impact hyGe sled tests (crash severity 30 km/h) with two attachment systems: a standard seatbelt and ISOfix (rigid). The objectives of the study were twofold: (i) to identify the relative benefits of ISOfix attachment compared with seatbelt attachment of a near-side booster seat in a 3-abreast seating configuration with adjacent occupants in child restraints (CRS); and (ii) to examine the effects of 3-abreast seating configurations compared with no adjacent passengers on booster seat crash protection characteristics. Overall, the findings confirmed the superior performance of the rigid anchorages in reducing lateral motion of the booster as well as the two adjacent CRS. However, the expected benefits of the rigid attachment in reducing head accelerations were not uniformly observed across the three occupants/seating positions and also appeared to be influenced by seating configuration (3-abreast versus no adjacent occupant). Further research is warranted to explore the applicability of the findings for different CRS types and seating configurations. PMID:18184490

  3. Effects of Wheelchair Seat-height Settings on Alternating Lower Limb Propulsion With Both Legs.

    PubMed

    Murata, Tomoyuki; Asami, Toyoko; Matsuo, Kiyomi; Kubo, Atsuko; Okigawa, Etsumi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of seat-height settings of wheelchairs with alternating propulsion with both legs. Seven healthy individuals with no orthopedic disease participated. Flexion angles at initial contact (FA-IC) of each joint, range of motion during propulsion period (ROM-PP), and ground reaction force (GRF) were measured using a three dimensional motion capture system and force plates, and compared with different seat-height settings. Statistically significant relationships were found between seat-height and speed, stride length, knee FA-IC, ankle FA-IC, hip ROM-PP, vertical ground reaction force (VGRF), and anterior posterior ground reaction force (APGRF). Speed, hip ROM-PP, VGRF and APGRF increased as the seat-height was lowered. This effect diminished when the seat-height was set below -40 mm. VGRF increased as the seat-height was lowered. The results suggest that the seat-height effect can be attributed to hip ROM-PP; therefore, optimal foot propulsion cannot be achieved when the seat height is set either too high or too low. Efficient foot propulsion of the wheelchair can be achieved by setting the seat height to lower leg length according to a combination of physical characteristics, such as the user's physical functions, leg muscles, and range of motion.

  4. The Development and Evaluation of a Computerized Adaptive Testing System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de-la-Torre, Roberto; Vispoel, Walter P.

    The development and preliminary evaluation of the Computerized Adaptive Testing System (CATSYS), a new testing package for IBM-compatible microcomputers, are described. CATSYS can be used to administer and score operational adaptive tests or to conduct on-line computer simulation studies. The package incorporates several innovative features,…

  5. [Adaptation potential of cardio-respiratory system in dust diseases].

    PubMed

    Serebryakov, P V; Nenenko, O I; Fedina, I N; Rakhimzyanov, A R

    2016-01-01

    The article covers results of cardio-respiratory system evaluation in workers exposed to dust, on basis of adaptation potential evaluation via calculation of functional changes index and 6 minutes' walk test with continuous assessment of blood oxygenation and heart rate. Adaptation disorders are supported by results of external respiration assessment and echo-cardiography.

  6. Adaptive management of social-ecological systems: the path forward

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management remains at the forefront of environmental management nearly 40 years after its original conception, largely because we have yet to develop other methodologies that offer the same promise. Despite the criticisms of adaptive management and the numerous failed attempts to implement it, adaptive management has yet to be replaced with a better alternative. The concept persists because it is simple, allows action despite uncertainty, and fosters learning. Moving forward, adaptive management of social-ecological systems provides policymakers, managers and scientists a powerful tool for managing for resilience in the face of uncertainty.

  7. Integrated seat frame and back support

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Leo

    1999-01-01

    An integrated seating device comprises a seat frame having a front end and a rear end. The seat frame has a double wall defining an exterior wall and an interior wall. The rear end of the seat frame has a slot cut therethrough both the exterior wall and the interior wall. The front end of the seat frame has a slot cut through just the interior wall thereof. A back support comprising a generally L shape has a horizontal member, and a generally vertical member which is substantially perpendicular to the horizontal member. The horizontal member is sized to be threaded through the rear slot and is fitted into the front slot. Welded slat means secures the back support to the seat frame to result in an integrated seating device.

  8. Cyberspace: The Ultimate Complex Adaptive System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-09

    a transaction with a given agent; tags also facilitate the formation of aggregates , or meta-agents. Meta-agents help distrib- ute and decentralize...Cyber Environments Attribute Physical Environment Cyber Environment Location Latitude, Longitude IP-Address Speed Air and ground in mph Mbps or Gbps...or more capable in terms of its requisite variety (in can adapt to a wider range of conditions). The fitness of the agent is a complex aggregate

  9. Adaptive Control of Nonlinear Flexible Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-18

    disturbances. The following example illustrates the need for a robust state-feedback law and the sensi- tivity of the exact - linearization based control law... exact linearization , one can bring an input-output approach to a particular case of certainty- equivalence based adaptive control design. We now...are available for this model, exact linearization can be performed. Let C(s) be the compensator that is being used so far in the previous three

  10. Chronic infection and the origin of adaptive immune system.

    PubMed

    Usharauli, David

    2010-08-01

    It has been speculated that the rise of the adaptive immune system in jawed vertebrates some 400 million years ago gave them a superior protection to detect and defend against pathogens that became more elusive and/or virulent to the host that had only innate immune system. First, this line of thought implies that adaptive immune system was a new, more sophisticated layer of host defense that operated independently of the innate immune system. Second, the natural consequence of this scenario would be that pathogens would have exercised so strong an evolutionary pressure that eventually no host could have afforded not to have an adaptive immune system. Neither of these arguments is supported by the facts. First, new experimental evidence has firmly established that operation of adaptive immune system is critically dependent on the ability of the innate immune system to detect invader-pathogens and second, the absolute majority of animal kingdom survives just fine with only an innate immune system. Thus, these data raise the dilemma: If innate immune system was sufficient to detect and protect against pathogens, why then did adaptive immune system develop in the first place? In contrast to the innate immune system, the adaptive immune system has one important advantage, precision. By precision I mean the ability of the defense system to detect and remove the target, for example, infected cells, without causing unwanted bystander damage of surrounding tissue. While the target precision per se is not important for short-term immune response, it becomes a critical factor when the immune response is long-lasting, as during chronic infection. In this paper I would like to propose new, "toxic index" hypothesis where I argue that the need to reduce the collateral damage to the tissue during chronic infection(s) was the evolutionary pressure that led to the development of the adaptive immune system.

  11. RASCAL: A Rudimentary Adaptive System for Computer-Aided Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John Christopher

    Both the background of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems in general and the requirements of a computer-aided learning system which would be a reasonable assistant to a teacher are discussed. RASCAL (Rudimentary Adaptive System for Computer-Aided Learning) is a first attempt at defining a CAI system which would individualize the learning…

  12. Conical seat shut off valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farner, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A valve includes a housing defining a bore having an inlet and extending along a longitudinal axis. A head is attached to the housing and defines a head passage having an outlet. A piston is disposed within the bore and includes a piston passage extending through the piston along the longitudinal axis. The piston is moveable between a closed position in which a sealing end of the piston abuts a seat of the head to close fluid communication through the piston passage and an open position in which the sealing end of the piston is axially spaced along the longitudinal axis from the seat of the head to permit fluid communication through the piston passage between the inlet and the outlet. The housing defines an equalizing chamber in fluid communication with the head passage for damping movement of the piston.

  13. Design of a digital adaptive control system for reentry vehicles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picon-Jimenez, J. L.; Montgomery, R. C.; Grigsby, L. L.

    1972-01-01

    The flying qualities of atmospheric reentry vehicles experience considerable variations due to the wide changes in flight conditions characteristic of reentry trajectories. A digital adaptive control system has been designed to modify the vehicle's dynamic characteristics and to provide desired flying qualities for all flight conditions. This adaptive control system consists of a finite-memory identifier which determines the vehicle's unknown parameters, and a gain computer which calculates feedback gains to satisfy flying quality requirements.

  14. Global adaptive control for uncertain nonaffine nonlinear hysteretic systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Hua; Huang, Liangpei; Xiao, Dongming; Guo, Yong

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the global output tracking is investigated for a class of uncertain nonlinear hysteretic systems with nonaffine structures. By combining the solution properties of the hysteresis model with the novel backstepping approach, a robust adaptive control algorithm is developed without constructing a hysteresis inverse. The proposed control scheme is further modified to tackle the bounded disturbances by adaptively estimating their bounds. It is rigorously proven that the designed adaptive controllers can guarantee global stability of the closed-loop system. Two numerical examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed control schemes.

  15. Adaptive Mesh Refinement and Adaptive Time Integration for Electrical Wave Propagation on the Purkinje System.

    PubMed

    Ying, Wenjun; Henriquez, Craig S

    2015-01-01

    A both space and time adaptive algorithm is presented for simulating electrical wave propagation in the Purkinje system of the heart. The equations governing the distribution of electric potential over the system are solved in time with the method of lines. At each timestep, by an operator splitting technique, the space-dependent but linear diffusion part and the nonlinear but space-independent reactions part in the partial differential equations are integrated separately with implicit schemes, which have better stability and allow larger timesteps than explicit ones. The linear diffusion equation on each edge of the system is spatially discretized with the continuous piecewise linear finite element method. The adaptive algorithm can automatically recognize when and where the electrical wave starts to leave or enter the computational domain due to external current/voltage stimulation, self-excitation, or local change of membrane properties. Numerical examples demonstrating efficiency and accuracy of the adaptive algorithm are presented.

  16. Adaptive Mesh Refinement and Adaptive Time Integration for Electrical Wave Propagation on the Purkinje System

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Wenjun; Henriquez, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    A both space and time adaptive algorithm is presented for simulating electrical wave propagation in the Purkinje system of the heart. The equations governing the distribution of electric potential over the system are solved in time with the method of lines. At each timestep, by an operator splitting technique, the space-dependent but linear diffusion part and the nonlinear but space-independent reactions part in the partial differential equations are integrated separately with implicit schemes, which have better stability and allow larger timesteps than explicit ones. The linear diffusion equation on each edge of the system is spatially discretized with the continuous piecewise linear finite element method. The adaptive algorithm can automatically recognize when and where the electrical wave starts to leave or enter the computational domain due to external current/voltage stimulation, self-excitation, or local change of membrane properties. Numerical examples demonstrating efficiency and accuracy of the adaptive algorithm are presented. PMID:26581455

  17. Optimization of Semi-active Seat Suspension with Magnetorheological Damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segla, Stefan; Kajaste, J.; Keski-Honkola, P.

    The paper deals with modeling, control and optimization of semiactive seat suspension with pneumatic spring and magnetorheological damper. The main focus is on isolating vertical excitation from the cabin of a bucket-wheel excavator in order to protect the excavator driver against harmful vibration. Three different control algorithms are used to determine the desired semi-active damping force: skyhook control, balance control and combination of balance and skyhook controls. The dynamic behavior of the semi-active system is optimized using genetic algorithms. As the objective function the effective value of the seat (sprung mass) acceleration is used.

  18. Development of a Methodology to Gather Seated Anthropometry in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen; Mesloh, Miranda

    2009-01-01

    The Constellation Program's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is required to accommodate the full population range of crewmembers according to the anthropometry requirements stated in the Human-Systems Integration Requirement (HSIR) document (CxP70024). Seated height is one of many critical dimensions of importance to the CEV designers in determining the optimum seat configuration in the vehicle. Changes in seated height may have a large impact to the design, accommodation, and safety of the crewmembers. Seated height can change due to elongation of the spine when crewmembers are exposed to microgravity. Spinal elongation is the straightening of the natural curvature of the spine and the expansion of inter-vertebral disks. This straightening occurs due to fluid shifts in the body and the lack of compressive forces on the spinal vertebrae. Previous studies have shown that as the natural curvature of the spine straightens, an increase in overall height of 3% of stature occurs which has been the basis of the current HSIR requirements. However due to variations in the torso/leg ratio and impact of soft tissue, data is nonexistent as to how spinal elongation specifically affects the measurement of seated height. In order to obtain this data, an experiment was designed to collect spinal elongation data while in a seated posture in microgravity. The purpose of this study was to provide quantitative data that represents the amount of change that occurs in seated height due to spinal elongation in microgravity environments. Given the schedule and budget constraints of ISS and Shuttle missions and the uniqueness of the problem, a methodology had to be developed to ensure that the seated height measurements were accurately collected. Therefore, simulated microgravity evaluations were conducted to test the methodology and procedures of the experiment. This evaluation obtained seat pan pressure and seated height data to a) ensure that the lap restraint provided sufficient

  19. Optimizing Input/Output Using Adaptive File System Policies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madhyastha, Tara M.; Elford, Christopher L.; Reed, Daniel A.

    1996-01-01

    Parallel input/output characterization studies and experiments with flexible resource management algorithms indicate that adaptivity is crucial to file system performance. In this paper we propose an automatic technique for selecting and refining file system policies based on application access patterns and execution environment. An automatic classification framework allows the file system to select appropriate caching and pre-fetching policies, while performance sensors provide feedback used to tune policy parameters for specific system environments. To illustrate the potential performance improvements possible using adaptive file system policies, we present results from experiments involving classification-based and performance-based steering.

  20. Adaptive integral robust control and application to electromechanical servo systems.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wenxiang; Yao, Jianyong

    2017-03-01

    This paper proposes a continuous adaptive integral robust control with robust integral of the sign of the error (RISE) feedback for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems, in which the RISE feedback gain is adapted online to ensure the robustness against disturbances without the prior bound knowledge of the additive disturbances. In addition, an adaptive compensation integrated with the proposed adaptive RISE feedback term is also constructed to further reduce design conservatism when the system also exists parametric uncertainties. Lyapunov analysis reveals the proposed controllers could guarantee the tracking errors are asymptotically converging to zero with continuous control efforts. To illustrate the high performance nature of the developed controllers, numerical simulations are provided. At the end, an application case of an actual electromechanical servo system driven by motor is also studied, with some specific design consideration, and comparative experimental results are obtained to verify the effectiveness of the proposed controllers.

  1. An adaptive tracking observer for failure-detection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidar, M.

    1982-01-01

    The design problem of adaptive observers applied to linear, constant and variable parameters, multi-input, multi-output systems, is considered. It is shown that, in order to keep the observer's (or Kalman filter) false-alarm rate (FAR) under a certain specified value, it is necessary to have an acceptable proper matching between the observer (or KF) model and the system parameters. An adaptive observer algorithm is introduced in order to maintain desired system-observer model matching, despite initial mismatching and/or system parameter variations. Only a properly designed adaptive observer is able to detect abrupt changes in the system (actuator, sensor failures, etc.) with adequate reliability and FAR. Conditions for convergence for the adaptive process were obtained, leading to a simple adaptive law (algorithm) with the possibility of an a priori choice of fixed adaptive gains. Simulation results show good tracking performance with small observer output errors and accurate and fast parameter identification, in both deterministic and stochastic cases.

  2. Spinal Elongation and its Effects on Seated Height in a Microgravity Environment (Spinal)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to provide information pertaining to changes in seated height due to spinal elongation in a microgravity environment. The proposed experiment aims to collect seated height data for subjects exposed to microgravity environments, provide information relating to seated height rate of change over time, and feed new information regarding the elongation of the spine forward into the design of Constellation systems. Historical data indicates that spinal elongation occurs when crewmembers are subjected to microgravity. In as little as two days, the typical crewmember will exhibit increases in stature of up to 3 percent. However, data has been collected only for crewmembers in standing postures, and a limited pool of subjects was available. Due to the criticality of seated height in the design of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), a better understanding of the effects of microgravity on seated height is necessary. Small changes in seated height that may not have impacted crew accommodation in previous programs will have significant effects on crew accommodation due to the layout of seats in the CEV. The proposed study will directly measure changes in seated height for crewmembers in the Shuttle cockpit. An anthropometer will be used to record measurements to the top of the head of a seated subject, and an orthogonal photograph will be taken in order to measure seated height based on scaling references of known sizes as well as verify the posture and positioning remained consistent throughout the study. Data gained from this study will provide better information to CEV designers. Accurate measurements of crew seated height will be valuable for vehicle and habitation designers for future programs as well.

  3. Adaptive Neural Network Based Control of Noncanonical Nonlinear Systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjun; Tao, Gang; Chen, Mou

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a new study on the adaptive neural network-based control of a class of noncanonical nonlinear systems with large parametric uncertainties. Unlike commonly studied canonical form nonlinear systems whose neural network approximation system models have explicit relative degree structures, which can directly be used to derive parameterized controllers for adaptation, noncanonical form nonlinear systems usually do not have explicit relative degrees, and thus their approximation system models are also in noncanonical forms. It is well-known that the adaptive control of noncanonical form nonlinear systems involves the parameterization of system dynamics. As demonstrated in this paper, it is also the case for noncanonical neural network approximation system models. Effective control of such systems is an open research problem, especially in the presence of uncertain parameters. This paper shows that it is necessary to reparameterize such neural network system models for adaptive control design, and that such reparameterization can be realized using a relative degree formulation, a concept yet to be studied for general neural network system models. This paper then derives the parameterized controllers that guarantee closed-loop stability and asymptotic output tracking for noncanonical form neural network system models. An illustrative example is presented with the simulation results to demonstrate the control design procedure, and to verify the effectiveness of such a new design method.

  4. Seatbelt submarining injury and its prevention countermeasures: How a cantilever seat pan structure exacerbate submarining

    PubMed Central

    Thorbole, Chandrashekhar K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study and a case report was to demonstrate seat belt webbing induced injury due to seatbelt submarining during the frontal motor vehicle crash. Submarining is an undesired phenomenon during a frontal crash scenario and is dependent on design features of the seat pan and seatbelt system. The lack of adequate anti-submarining features at any seating position with three-point restraint can cause abdominal solid and hollow organ injuries. This paper reports a case of submarining and factors that exacerbated this phenomenon leading to critical occupant abdominal injury. This case report and the following injury causation analysis demonstrate the shortcomings of a cantilever seat pan design in context to the occupant safety. The inadequate seat pan anti-submarining feature in association with lack of seatbelt load-limiter and Pretensioner reduces the level of occupant protection offered by the seat belt system in the rear seat. This case report shows the dangers of cantilever seat pan design and its association with increased risk of submarining causing severe abdominal injuries. PMID:26985421

  5. Advanced Infant Car Seat Would Increase Highway Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard; Elrod, Susan

    2004-01-01

    An advanced infant car seat has been proposed to increase highway safety by reducing the incidence of crying, fussy behavior, and other child-related distractions that divert an adult driver s attention from driving. In addition to a conventional infant car seat with safety restraints, the proposed advanced infant car seat would include a number of components and subsystems that would function together as a comprehensive infant-care system that would keep its occupant safe, comfortable, and entertained, and would enable the driver to monitor the baby without having to either stop the car or turn around to face the infant during driving. The system would include a vibrator with bulb switch to operate; the switch would double as a squeeze toy that would make its own specific sound. A music subsystem would include loudspeakers built into the seat plus digital and analog circuitry that would utilize plug-in memory modules to synthesize music or a variety of other sounds. The music subsystem would include a built-in sound generator that could synthesize white noise or a human heartbeat to calm the baby to sleep. A second bulb switch could be used to control the music subsystem and would double as a squeeze toy that would make a distinct sound. An anti-noise sound-suppression system would isolate the baby from potentially disturbing ambient external noises. This subsystem would include small microphones, placed near the baby s ears, to detect ambient noise. The outputs of the microphone would be amplified and fed to the loudspeakers at appropriate amplitude and in a phase opposite that of the detected ambient noise, such that the net ambient sound arriving at the baby s ears would be almost completely cancelled. A video-camera subsystem would enable the driver to monitor the baby visually while continuing to face forward. One or more portable miniature video cameras could be embedded in the side of the infant car seat (see figure) or in a flip-down handle. The outputs of

  6. 75 FR 30775 - Availability of Seats for the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... for the following vacant seats: Heritage Tourism seat, Citizen-at-Large seat, Recreational Diving seat...-Large, Conservation, Economic Development, Education, Heritage Tourism, Maritime Archaeological...

  7. Development of a Screening Tool for Safe Wheelchair Seating

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    wheelchairs and seating systems do not fit the individual needs of nursing homes residents, many problems can become evident: pressure ulcers , difficulty in...from the MDS, including diagnosis, cognitive status, communication ability, sensation level, skin integrity (presence/absence of pressure ulcers ...Abstract Objectives: Most elderly nursing home residents who need wheelchairs are not being assessed individually to ensure proper prescription for

  8. Adaptive Fuzzy Systems in Computational Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in computational intelligence techniques, which currently includes neural networks, fuzzy systems, and evolutionary programming, has grown significantly and a number of their applications have been developed in the government and industry. In future, an essential element in these systems will be fuzzy systems that can learn from experience by using neural network in refining their performances. The GARIC architecture, introduced earlier, is an example of a fuzzy reinforcement learning system which has been applied in several control domains such as cart-pole balancing, simulation of to Space Shuttle orbital operations, and tether control. A number of examples from GARIC's applications in these domains will be demonstrated.

  9. Adaptive controller for a needle free jet-injector system.

    PubMed

    Modak, Ashin; Hogan, N Catherine; Hunter, Ian W

    2015-01-01

    A nonlinear, sliding mode adaptive controller was created for a needle-free jet injection system. The controller was based on a simplified lumped-sum parameter model of the jet-injection mechanics. The adaptive control scheme was compared to a currently-used Feed-forward+PID controller in both ejection of water into air, and injection of dye into ex-vivo porcine tissue. The adaptive controller was more successful in trajectory tracking and was more robust to the biological variations caused by a tissue load.

  10. State of the art in adaptive control of robotic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tosunoglu, Sabri; Tesar, Delbert

    1988-01-01

    An up-to-date assessment of adaptive control technology as applied to robotics is presented. Although the field is relatively new and does not yet represent a mature discipline, considerable attention for the design of sophisticated robot controllers has occured. In this presentation, adaptive control methods are divided into model reference adaptive systems and self-tuning regulators, with further definition of various approaches given in each class. The similarity and distinct features of the designed controllers are delineated and tabulated to enhance comparative review.

  11. Adaptive control of Hammerstein-Wiener nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bi; Hong, Hyokchan; Mao, Zhizhong

    2016-07-01

    The Hammerstein-Wiener model is a block-oriented model, having a linear dynamic block sandwiched by two static nonlinear blocks. This note develops an adaptive controller for a special form of Hammerstein-Wiener nonlinear systems which are parameterized by the key-term separation principle. The adaptive control law and recursive parameter estimation are updated by the use of internal variable estimations. By modeling the errors due to the estimation of internal variables, we establish convergence and stability properties. Theoretical results show that parameter estimation convergence and closed-loop system stability can be guaranteed under sufficient condition. From a qualitative analysis of the sufficient condition, we introduce an adaptive weighted factor to improve the performance of the adaptive controller. Numerical examples are given to confirm the results in this paper.

  12. Parameter testing for lattice filter based adaptive modal control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundararajan, N.; Williams, J. P.; Montgomery, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    For Large Space Structures (LSS), an adaptive control system is highly desirable. The present investigation is concerned with an 'indirect' adaptive control scheme wherein the system order, mode shapes, and modal amplitudes are estimated on-line using an identification scheme based on recursive, least-squares, lattice filters. Using the identified model parameters, a modal control law based on a pole-placement scheme with the objective of vibration suppression is employed. A method is presented for closed loop adaptive control of a flexible free-free beam. The adaptive control scheme consists of a two stage identification scheme working in series and a modal pole placement control scheme. The main conclusion from the current study is that the identified parameters cannot be directly used for controller design purposes.

  13. The reduced order model problem in distributed parameter systems adaptive identification and control. [adaptive control of flexible spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. R., Jr.; Lawrence, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The reduced order model problem in distributed parameter systems adaptive identification and control is investigated. A comprehensive examination of real-time centralized adaptive control options for flexible spacecraft is provided.

  14. Communication system with adaptive noise suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozel, David (Inventor); Devault, James A. (Inventor); Birr, Richard B. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A signal-to-noise ratio dependent adaptive spectral subtraction process eliminates noise from noise-corrupted speech signals. The process first pre-emphasizes the frequency components of the input sound signal which contain the consonant information in human speech. Next, a signal-to-noise ratio is determined and a spectral subtraction proportion adjusted appropriately. After spectral subtraction, low amplitude signals can be squelched. A single microphone is used to obtain both the noise-corrupted speech and the average noise estimate. This is done by determining if the frame of data being sampled is a voiced or unvoiced frame. During unvoiced frames an estimate of the noise is obtained. A running average of the noise is used to approximate the expected value of the noise. Spectral subtraction may be performed on a composite noise-corrupted signal, or upon individual sub-bands of the noise-corrupted signal. Pre-averaging of the input signal's magnitude spectrum over multiple time frames may be performed to reduce musical noise.

  15. The Bilingual as an Adaptive System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, David W.

    2002-01-01

    Dijkstra and van Heuven lucidly summarize the important research generated by the BIA model and provide an excellent case for the BIA+ model with its critical separation of the identification system from the task/decision system. A keynote article necessarily offers a selective exposition of the authors' thinking and so my remarks are an…

  16. 49 CFR 571.10 - Designation of seating positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... measurement. (1) As used in this section, “seating surface” only includes the seat cushion and soft trim and excludes unpadded trim components such as a decorative seat shield, seat adjusters, or adjuster covers. As... side of the seating surface at that measurement location. If outboard interior trim contacts the...

  17. Adaptive sliding mode control for a class of chaotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farid, R.; Ibrahim, A.; Zalam, B.

    2015-03-01

    Chaos control here means to design a controller that is able to mitigating or eliminating the chaos behavior of nonlinear systems that experiencing such phenomenon. In this paper, an Adaptive Sliding Mode Controller (ASMC) is presented based on Lyapunov stability theory. The well known Chua's circuit is chosen to be our case study in this paper. The study shows the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive sliding mode controller.

  18. Adaptive sliding mode control for a class of chaotic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Farid, R.; Ibrahim, A.; Zalam, B.

    2015-03-30

    Chaos control here means to design a controller that is able to mitigating or eliminating the chaos behavior of nonlinear systems that experiencing such phenomenon. In this paper, an Adaptive Sliding Mode Controller (ASMC) is presented based on Lyapunov stability theory. The well known Chua's circuit is chosen to be our case study in this paper. The study shows the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive sliding mode controller.

  19. Distributed adaptive simulation through standards-based integration of simulators and adaptive learning systems.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Bryan; Cline, Andrew; Shipley, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a distributed, standards-based architecture that enables simulation and simulator designers to leverage adaptive learning systems. Our approach, which incorporates an electronic competency record, open source LMS, and open source microcontroller hardware, is a low-cost, pragmatic option to integrating simulators with traditional courseware.

  20. MACAO-VLTI adaptive optics systems performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, Robin; Donaldson, Rob; Dupuy, Christophe; Fedrigo, Enrico; Hubin, Norbert N.; Ivanescu, Liviu; Kasper, Markus E.; Oberti, Sylvain; Paufique, Jerome; Rossi, Silvio; Silber, Armin; Delabre, Bernhard; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Gigan, Pierre

    2004-10-01

    In April and August "03 two MACAO-VLTI curvature AO systems were installed on the VLT telescopes unit 2 and 3 in Paranal (Chile). These are 60 element systems using a 150mm bimorph deformable mirror and 60 APD"s as WFS detectors. Valuable integration & commissioning experience has been gained during these 2 missions. Several tests have been performed in order to evaluate system performance on the sky. The systems have proven to be extremely robust, performing in a stable fashion in extreme seeing condition (seeing up to 3"). Strehl ratio of 0.65 and residual tilt smaller than 10 mas have been obtained on the sky in 0.8" seeing condition. Weak guide source performance is also excellent with a strehl of 0.26 on a V~16 magnitude star. Several functionalities have been successfully tested including: chopping, off-axis guiding, atmospheric refraction compensation etc. The AO system can be used in a totally automatic fashion with a small overhead: the AO loop can be closed on the target less than 60 sec after star acquisition by the telescope. It includes reading the seeing value given by the site monitor, evaluate the guide star magnitude (cycling through neutral density filters) setting the close-loop AO parameters (system gain and vibrating membrane mirror stroke) including calculation of the command-matrix. The last 2 systems will be installed in August "04 and in the course of 2005.

  1. Screening systems adapt to changing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-08-15

    Prep plants are installing larger screening systems and synthetic media is meeting those challenges. The largest manufacturer of synthetic screen media is Polydeck located in Spartanburg, South Carolina. The company's primary product lines include modular polyurethane and rubber screen panels and the frame systems to support the media. The modular approach overcomes a wear problem in one area of the deck common on Banana screens and facilitates maintenance. A rubber formation used in 1- x 2-pt screen panels called the Flexi design is softer and allows more vibration than standard urethane panels. The Maxi screen panel design combined with the PipeTop II frame makes the system highly versatile. 1 photo.

  2. An adaptive learning control system for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mekel, R.; Nachmias, S.

    1978-01-01

    A learning control system and its utilization as a flight control system for F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire (DFBW) research aircraft is studied. The system has the ability to adjust a gain schedule to account for changing plant characteristics and to improve its performance and the plant's performance in the course of its own operation. Three subsystems are detailed: (1) the information acquisition subsystem which identifies the plant's parameters at a given operating condition; (2) the learning algorithm subsystem which relates the identified parameters to predetermined analytical expressions describing the behavior of the parameters over a range of operating conditions; and (3) the memory and control process subsystem which consists of the collection of updated coefficients (memory) and the derived control laws. Simulation experiments indicate that the learning control system is effective in compensating for parameter variations caused by changes in flight conditions.

  3. Searching for the Origin through Central Nervous System: A Review and Thought which Related to Microgravity, Evolution, Big Bang Theory and Universes, Soul and Brainwaves, Greater Limbic System and Seat of the Soul.

    PubMed

    Idris, Zamzuri

    2014-07-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) serves buoyancy. The buoyancy thought to play crucial role in many aspects of the central nervous system (CNS). Weightlessness is produced mainly by the CSF. This manuscript is purposely made to discuss its significance which thought contributing towards an ideal environment for the CNS to develop and function normally. The idea of microgravity environment for the CNS is supported not only by the weightlessness concept of the brain, but also the noted anatomical position of the CNS. The CNS is positioned in bowing position (at main cephalic flexure) which is nearly similar to an astronaut in a microgravity chamber, fetus in the amniotic fluid at early gestation, and animals and plants in the ocean or on the land. Therefore, this microgravity position can bring us closer to the concept of origin. The hypothesis on 'the origin' based on the microgravity were explored and their similarities were identified including the brainwaves and soul. Subsequently a review on soul was made. Interestingly, an idea from Leonardo da Vinci seems in agreement with the notion of seat of the soul at the greater limbic system which has a distinctive feature of "from God back to God".

  4. Searching for the Origin through Central Nervous System: A Review and Thought which Related to Microgravity, Evolution, Big Bang Theory and Universes, Soul and Brainwaves, Greater Limbic System and Seat of the Soul

    PubMed Central

    IDRIS, Zamzuri

    2014-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) serves buoyancy. The buoyancy thought to play crucial role in many aspects of the central nervous system (CNS). Weightlessness is produced mainly by the CSF. This manuscript is purposely made to discuss its significance which thought contributing towards an ideal environment for the CNS to develop and function normally. The idea of microgravity environment for the CNS is supported not only by the weightlessness concept of the brain, but also the noted anatomical position of the CNS. The CNS is positioned in bowing position (at main cephalic flexure) which is nearly similar to an astronaut in a microgravity chamber, fetus in the amniotic fluid at early gestation, and animals and plants in the ocean or on the land. Therefore, this microgravity position can bring us closer to the concept of origin. The hypothesis on ‘the origin’ based on the microgravity were explored and their similarities were identified including the brainwaves and soul. Subsequently a review on soul was made. Interestingly, an idea from Leonardo da Vinci seems in agreement with the notion of seat of the soul at the greater limbic system which has a distinctive feature of “from God back to God”. PMID:25977615

  5. Adaptive Multilevel Middleware for Object Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    evaluation activities; and introduced and supported a commonly accessible testbed facility to organize and significantly improve multi-technology developer ( TD ...Technology Developers ( TDs ), BBN took on the responsibility of setting up and maintaining an ARMS project within the University of Utah’s Emulab’ system...SYSTEMS The use of the Emulab was a great success, with the majority of the TDs using it at one point or another, and a number using it on a regular basis

  6. An Adaptive Speed Control System for Micro Electro Discharge Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, S. H.; Aligiri, E.; Tan, P. C.; Zarepour, H.

    2009-11-01

    The integration of the state-of-the-art monitoring and adaptive control technologies can substantially improve the performance of EDM process. This paper reports the development of an adaptive speed control system for micro EDM which demands a higher level of accuracy. Monitoring of the machining state is conducted during the machining process so that the conditions are analysed continuously. Various schemes for the machining state are used for decision making. For instance, upon recognition of abnormal discharges, the developed adaptive speed control system would adjust the electrode feeding speed in an attempt to correct the machining state. Experimental verification shows that the proposed system can improve the machining time by more than 50%. In addition, a more accurate machined feature can be produced as compared to traditional EDM servo control systems.

  7. HIDEC F-15 adaptive engine control system flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smolka, James W.

    1987-01-01

    NASA-Ames' Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control (HIDEC) flight test program aims to develop fully integrated airframe, propulsion, and flight control systems. The HIDEC F-15 adaptive engine control system flight test program has demonstrated that significant performance improvements are obtainable through the retention of stall-free engine operation throughout the aircraft flight and maneuver envelopes. The greatest thrust increase was projected for the medium-to-high altitude flight regime at subsonic speed which is of such importance to air combat. Adaptive engine control systems such as the HIDEC F-15's can be used to upgrade the performance of existing aircraft without resort to expensive reengining programs.

  8. Adaptive synchronization of Rossler and Chen chaotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi; Han, Chong-Zhao

    2002-07-01

    A novel adaptive synchronization method is proposed for two identical Rossler and Chen systems with uncertain parameters. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, we derive an adaptive controller without the knowledge of the system parameters, which can make the states of two identical Rossler and Chen systems globally asymptotically synchronized. Especially, when some unknown uncertain parameters are positive, we can make the controller more simple and, besides, the controller is independent of those positive uncertain parameters. All results are proved using a well-known Lyapunov stability theorem. Numerical simulations are given to validate the proposed synchronization approach.

  9. Fast calibration of high-order adaptive optics systems.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Markus; Fedrigo, Enrico; Looze, Douglas P; Bonnet, Henri; Ivanescu, Liviu; Oberti, Sylvain

    2004-06-01

    We present a new method of calibrating adaptive optics systems that greatly reduces the required calibration time or, equivalently, improves the signal-to-noise ratio. The method uses an optimized actuation scheme with Hadamard patterns and does not scale with the number of actuators for a given noise level in the wavefront sensor channels. It is therefore highly desirable for high-order systems and/or adaptive secondary systems on a telescope without a Gregorian focal plane. In the latter case, the measurement noise is increased by the effects of the turbulent atmosphere when one is calibrating on a natural guide star.

  10. The Seated Soldier Study: Posture and Body Shape in Vehicle Seats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-28

    recent, large-scale Army anthropometry study UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 8 Driver Mockup • Steering wheel, pedals, adjustable seat(fore-aft, up...all configurations at all garb conditions) UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 9 Squad Mockup • Fixed seat (no sitter adjustments) • Range of seat

  11. Human Interactive Triboelectric Nanogenerator as a Self-Powered Smart Seat.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Arunkumar; Alluri, Nagamalleswara Rao; Saravanakumar, Balasubramaniam; Selvarajan, Sophia; Kim, Sang-Jae

    2016-04-20

    A lightweight, flexible, cost-effective, and robust, single-electrode-based Smart Seat-Triboelectric Nanogenerator (SS-TENG) is introduced as a promising eco-friendly approach for harvesting energy from the living environment, for use in integrated self-powered systems. An effective method for harvesting biomechanical energy from human motion such as walking, running, and sitting, utilizing widely adaptable everyday contact materials (newspaper, denim, polyethylene covers, and bus cards) is demonstrated. The working mechanism of the SS-TENG is based on the generation and transfer of triboelectric charge carriers between the active layer and user-friendly contact materials. The performance of SS-TENG (52 V and 5.2 μA for a multiunit SS-TENG) is systematically studied and demonstrated in a range of applications including a self-powered passenger seat number indicator and a STOP-indicator using LEDs, using a simple logical circuit. Harvested energy is used as a direct power source to drive 60 blue and green commercially available LEDs and a monochrome LCD. This feasibility study confirms that triboelectric nanogenerators are a suitable technology for energy harvesting from human motion during transportation, which could be used to operate a variety of wireless devices, GPS systems, electronic devices, and other sensors during travel.

  12. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLOR ENERGY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Byard D. Wood

    2004-04-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports solar light from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a large core polymer fiber optic. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of solar lighting and electric lighting. A benchmark prototype system has been developed to evaluate the HSL system. Sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. A secondary mirror consisting of eight planar-segmented mirrors directs the visible part of the spectrum to eight fibers (receiver) and subsequently to eight luminaires. This results in about 8,200 lumens incident at each fiber tip. Each fiber can illuminate about 16.7 m{sup 2} (180 ft{sup 2}) of office space. The IR spectrum is directed to a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) array to produce electricity. During this reporting period, the project team made advancements in the design of the second generation (Alpha) system. For the Alpha system, the eight individual 12 mm fibers have been replaced with a centralized bundle of 3 mm fibers. The TRNSYS Full-Spectrum Solar Energy System model has been updated and new components have been added. The TPV array and nonimaging device have been tested and progress has been made in the fiber transmission models. A test plan was developed for both the high-lumen tests and the study to determine the non-energy benefits of daylighting. The photobioreactor team also made major advancements in the testing of model scale and bench top lab-scale systems.

  13. A Model of Internal Communication in Adaptive Communication Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, M. Lee

    A study identified and categorized different types of internal communication systems and developed an applied model of internal communication in adaptive organizational systems. Twenty-one large organizations were selected for their varied missions and diverse approaches to managing internal communication. Individual face-to-face or telephone…

  14. Identification of Infinite Dimensional Systems via Adaptive Wavelet Neural Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    We consider identification of distributed systems via adaptive wavelet neural networks (AWNNs). We take advantage of the multiresolution property of...wavelet systems and the computational structure of neural networks to approximate the unknown plant successively. A systematic approach is developed

  15. Integrating Learning Styles into Adaptive E-Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truong, Huong May

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview and update on my PhD research project which focuses on integrating learning styles into adaptive e-learning system. The project, firstly, aims to develop a system to classify students' learning styles through their online learning behaviour. This will be followed by a study on the complex relationship between…

  16. Adaptive and Optimal Control of Stochastic Dynamical Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-14

    control and stochastic differential games . Stochastic linear-quadratic, continuous time, stochastic control problems are solved for systems with noise...control problems for systems with arbitrary correlated n 15. SUBJECT TERMS Adaptive control, optimal control, stochastic differential games 16. SECURITY...explicit results have been obtained for problems of stochastic control and stochastic differential games . Stochastic linear- quadratic, continuous time

  17. Understanding leukemic hematopoiesis as a complex adaptive system

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Normal and abnormal hematopoiesis is working as a complex adaptive system. From this perspective, the development and the behavior of hematopoietic cell lineages appear as a balance between normal and abnormal hematopoiesis in the setting of a functioning or malfunctioning microenvironment under the control of the immune system and the influence of hereditary and environmental events. PMID:26516407

  18. Understanding leukemic hematopoiesis as a complex adaptive system.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Xavier

    2015-10-26

    Normal and abnormal hematopoiesis is working as a complex adaptive system. From this perspective, the development and the behavior of hematopoietic cell lineages appear as a balance between normal and abnormal hematopoiesis in the setting of a functioning or malfunctioning microenvironment under the control of the immune system and the influence of hereditary and environmental events.

  19. Multiple-User Adaptive-Array Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zohar, S.

    1985-01-01

    Weights for K-beam system computed K/6 times faster. In single-frequency adaptive-array communication system in whick K mobile users communicate with central station equipped with n-antenna array. Each K signal recoverable by taking specific weighted sum of n complex antenna voltages.

  20. Network adaptable information systems for safeguard applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, C.; Burczyk, L.; Chare, P.; Wagner, H.

    1996-09-01

    While containment and surveillance systems designed for nuclear safeguards have greatly improved through advances in computer, sensor, and microprocessor technologies, the authors recognize the need to continue the advancement of these systems to provide more standardized solutions for safeguards applications of the future. The benefits to be gained from the use of standardized technologies are becoming evident as safeguard activities are increasing world-wide while funding of these activities is becoming more limited. The EURATOM Safeguards Directorate and Los Alamos National Laboratory are developing and testing advanced monitoring technologies coupled with the most efficient solutions for the safeguards applications of the future.

  1. Framework for Adaptable Operating and Runtime Systems: Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick G. Bridges

    2012-02-01

    In this grant, we examined a wide range of techniques for constructing high-performance con gurable system software for HPC systems and its application to DOE-relevant problems. Overall, research and development on this project focused in three specifc areas: (1) software frameworks for constructing and deploying con gurable system software, (2) applcation of these frameworks to HPC-oriented adaptable networking software, (3) performance analysis of HPC system software to understand opportunities for performance optimization.

  2. Method and system for environmentally adaptive fault tolerant computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copenhaver, Jason L. (Inventor); Jeremy, Ramos (Inventor); Wolfe, Jeffrey M. (Inventor); Brenner, Dean (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method and system for adapting fault tolerant computing. The method includes the steps of measuring an environmental condition representative of an environment. An on-board processing system's sensitivity to the measured environmental condition is measured. It is determined whether to reconfigure a fault tolerance of the on-board processing system based in part on the measured environmental condition. The fault tolerance of the on-board processing system may be reconfigured based in part on the measured environmental condition.

  3. Lessons from Adaptive Level One Accelerator (ALOA) System Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Umesh D.; Brambora, Clifford; Ghuman, Parminder; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Adaptive Level One Accelerator (ALOA) system was developed as part of the Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) project. The reconfigurable computing technologies were investigated for Level 1 satellite telemetry data processing to achieve computing acceleration and cost reduction for the next-generation Level 1 data processing systems. The MODIS instrument calibration algorithm was implemented using reconfigurable a computer. The system development process and the lessons learned throughout the design cycle are summarized in this paper.

  4. Climate change: Cropping system changes and adaptations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change impacts the life of every person; however, there is little comprehensive understanding of the direct and indirect effects of climate change on agriculture. Since our food, feed, fiber, and fruit is derived from agricultural systems, understanding the effects of changing temperature, p...

  5. Adaptive Device Context Based Mobile Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pu, Haitao; Lin, Jinjiao; Song, Yanwei; Liu, Fasheng

    2011-01-01

    Mobile learning is e-learning delivered through mobile computing devices, which represents the next stage of computer-aided, multi-media based learning. Therefore, mobile learning is transforming the way of traditional education. However, as most current e-learning systems and their contents are not suitable for mobile devices, an approach for…

  6. Robust Adaptive Control of Multivariable Nonlinear Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-28

    Systems: Challenge Problem Integration and NASA s Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control . We also revealed some similarities with the disturbance ... observer (DOB) controllers and identified the main features in the difference between them. The key feature of this difference is that the estimation loop

  7. The Moon System Adapted for Musical Notation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Michael

    1987-01-01

    A means is presented for using William Moon's embossed symbols to represent musical notation for blind individuals, as an alternative to braille notation. The proposed system includes pitch symbols, octave indicators, duration symbols, accidentals, key signatures, rests, stress symbols, ornaments, and other symbols. (Author/JDD)

  8. Adaptive control with an expert system based supervisory level. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Gerald A.

    1991-01-01

    Adaptive control is presently one of the methods available which may be used to control plants with poorly modelled dynamics or time varying dynamics. Although many variations of adaptive controllers exist, a common characteristic of all adaptive control schemes, is that input/output measurements from the plant are used to adjust a control law in an on-line fashion. Ideally the adjustment mechanism of the adaptive controller is able to learn enough about the dynamics of the plant from input/output measurements to effectively control the plant. In practice, problems such as measurement noise, controller saturation, and incorrect model order, to name a few, may prevent proper adjustment of the controller and poor performance or instability result. In this work we set out to avoid the inadequacies of procedurally implemented safety nets, by introducing a two level control scheme in which an expert system based 'supervisor' at the upper level provides all the safety net functions for an adaptive controller at the lower level. The expert system is based on a shell called IPEX, (Interactive Process EXpert), that we developed specifically for the diagnosis and treatment of dynamic systems. Some of the more important functions that the IPEX system provides are: (1) temporal reasoning; (2) planning of diagnostic activities; and (3) interactive diagnosis. Also, because knowledge and control logic are separate, the incorporation of new diagnostic and treatment knowledge is relatively simple. We note that the flexibility available in the system to express diagnostic and treatment knowledge, allows much greater functionality than could ever be reasonably expected from procedural implementations of safety nets. The remainder of this chapter is divided into three sections. In section 1.1 we give a detailed review of the literature in the area of supervisory systems for adaptive controllers. In particular, we describe the evolution of safety nets from simple ad hoc techniques, up

  9. Effects of adaptive task allocation on monitoring of automated systems.

    PubMed

    Parasuraman, R; Mouloua, M; Molloy, R

    1996-12-01

    The effects of adaptive task allocation on monitoring for automation failure during multitask flight simulation were examined. Participants monitored an automated engine status task while simultaneously performing tracking and fuel management tasks over three 30-min sessions. Two methods of adaptive task allocation, both involving temporary return of the automated engine status task to the human operator ("human control"), were examined as a possible countermeasure to monitoring inefficiency. For the model-based adaptive group, the engine status task was allocated to all participants in the middle of the second session for 10 min, following which it was again returned to automation control. The same occurred for the performance-based adaptive group, but only if an individual participant's monitoring performance up to that point did not meet a specified criterion. For the nonadaptive control groups, the engine status task remained automated throughout the experiment. All groups had low probabilities of detection of automation failures for the first 40 min spent with automation. However, following the 10-min intervening period of human control, both adaptive groups detected significantly more automation failures during the subsequent blocks under automation control. The results show that adaptive task allocation can enhance monitoring of automated systems. Both model-based and performance-based allocation improved monitoring of automation. Implications for the design of automated systems are discussed.

  10. Adaptive Management of Computing and Network Resources for Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfarr, Barbara; Welch, Lonnie R.; Detter, Ryan; Tjaden, Brett; Huh, Eui-Nam; Szczur, Martha R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    It is likely that NASA's future spacecraft systems will consist of distributed processes which will handle dynamically varying workloads in response to perceived scientific events, the spacecraft environment, spacecraft anomalies and user commands. Since all situations and possible uses of sensors cannot be anticipated during pre-deployment phases, an approach for dynamically adapting the allocation of distributed computational and communication resources is needed. To address this, we are evolving the DeSiDeRaTa adaptive resource management approach to enable reconfigurable ground and space information systems. The DeSiDeRaTa approach embodies a set of middleware mechanisms for adapting resource allocations, and a framework for reasoning about the real-time performance of distributed application systems. The framework and middleware will be extended to accommodate (1) the dynamic aspects of intra-constellation network topologies, and (2) the complete real-time path from the instrument to the user. We are developing a ground-based testbed that will enable NASA to perform early evaluation of adaptive resource management techniques without the expense of first deploying them in space. The benefits of the proposed effort are numerous, including the ability to use sensors in new ways not anticipated at design time; the production of information technology that ties the sensor web together; the accommodation of greater numbers of missions with fewer resources; and the opportunity to leverage the DeSiDeRaTa project's expertise, infrastructure and models for adaptive resource management for distributed real-time systems.

  11. Adaptation in the innate immune system and heterologous innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stefan F

    2014-11-01

    The innate immune system recognizes deviation from homeostasis caused by infectious or non-infectious assaults. The threshold for its activation seems to be established by a calibration process that includes sensing of microbial molecular patterns from commensal bacteria and of endogenous signals. It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptive features, a hallmark of the adaptive immune system, can also be identified in the innate immune system. Such adaptations can result in the manifestation of a primed state of immune and tissue cells with a decreased activation threshold. This keeps the system poised to react quickly. Moreover, the fact that the innate immune system recognizes a wide variety of danger signals via pattern recognition receptors that often activate the same signaling pathways allows for heterologous innate immune stimulation. This implies that, for example, the innate immune response to an infection can be modified by co-infections or other innate stimuli. This "design feature" of the innate immune system has many implications for our understanding of individual susceptibility to diseases or responsiveness to therapies and vaccinations. In this article, adaptive features of the innate immune system as well as heterologous innate immunity and their implications are discussed.

  12. An Approach to V&V of Embedded Adaptive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yan; Yerramalla, Sampath; Fuller, Edgar; Cukic, Bojan; Gururajan, Srikaruth

    2004-01-01

    Rigorous Verification and Validation (V&V) techniques are essential for high assurance systems. Lately, the performance of some of these systems is enhanced by embedded adaptive components in order to cope with environmental changes. Although the ability of adapting is appealing, it actually poses a problem in terms of V&V. Since uncertainties induced by environmental changes have a significant impact on system behavior, the applicability of conventional V&V techniques is limited. In safety-critical applications such as flight control system, the mechanisms of change must be observed, diagnosed, accommodated and well understood prior to deployment. In this paper, we propose a non-conventional V&V approach suitable for online adaptive systems. We apply our approach to an intelligent flight control system that employs a particular type of Neural Networks (NN) as the adaptive learning paradigm. Presented methodology consists of a novelty detection technique and online stability monitoring tools. The novelty detection technique is based on Support Vector Data Description that detects novel (abnormal) data patterns. The Online Stability Monitoring tools based on Lyapunov's Stability Theory detect unstable learning behavior in neural networks. Cases studies based on a high fidelity simulator of NASA's Intelligent Flight Control System demonstrate a successful application of the presented V&V methodology. ,

  13. Adaptive carrier recovery systems for digital data communications receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cupo, Robert L.; Gitlin, Richard D.

    1989-12-01

    Adaptive or predictive carrier recovery systems, which are essential in high-performance quadrature-amplitude-modulated (QAM) data communications systems to correct for phase jitter and frequency offset, are considered. Analytical and experimental results are presented for two structures that implement a predictive carrier recovery system. These systems, which adapt their structure to match the spectral properties of the impairments, avoid the conflict between a wide bandwidth (to track fast jitter) and a narrow bandwidth (to minimize output noise) inherent in most carrier recovery loops. Such a system increases the likelihood that very bandwidth-efficient modems (e.g., 7 bits/s/Hz for 19.2 kbits/s voiceband modem applications) can provide reliable transmission in the presence of severe phase jitter and frequency offset. In particular, the predictive carrier recovery systems can track sinusoidal jitter present at more than one frequency as well as generalized time-varying phase jitter processes. Both finite-impulse-response and infinite-impulse-response (IIR) adaptive phase tracking systems are considered. Prior limitations on adaptive IIR filters are overcome by designing a structure that is guaranteed to be stable and to possess only a global minimum as the filter coefficients converge to their desired values.

  14. Adaptive optics at Lick Observatory: System architecture and operations

    SciTech Connect

    Brase, J.M.; An, J.; Avicola, K.

    1994-03-01

    We will describe an adaptive optics system developed for the 1 meter Nickel and 3 meter Shane telescopes at Lick Observatory. Observing wavelengths will be in the visible for the 1 meter telescope and in the near IR on the 3 meter. The adaptive optics system design is based on a 69 actuator continuous surface deformable mirror and a Hartmann wavefront sensor equipped with an intensified CCD framing camera. The system has been tested at the Cassegrain focus of the 1 meter telescope where the subaperture size is 12.5 cm. The wavefront control calculations are performed on a four processor single board computer controlled by a Unix-based system. We will describe the optical system and give details of the wavefront control system design. We will present predictions of the system performance and initial test results.

  15. Adaptive optics at Lick Observatory: system architecture and operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brase, James M.; An, Jong; Avicola, Kenneth; Bissinger, Horst D.; Friedman, Herbert W.; Gavel, Donald T.; Johnston, Brooks; Max, Claire E.; Olivier, Scot S.; Presta, Robert W.; Rapp, David A.; Salmon, J. Thaddeus; Waltjen, Kenneth E.; Fisher, William A.

    1994-05-01

    We will describe an adaptive optics system developed for the 1 meter Nickel and 3 meter Shane telescopes at Lick Observatory. Observing wavelengths will be in the visible for the 1 meter telescope and in the near IR on the 3 meter. The adaptive optics system design is based on a 69 actuator continuous surface deformable mirror and a Hartmann wavefront sensor equipped with an intensified CCD framing camera. The system has been tested at the Cassegrain focus of the 1 meter telescope where the subaperture size is 12.5 cm. The wavefront control calculations are performed on a four processor single board computer controlled by a Unix-based system. We will describe the optical system and give details of the wavefront control system design. We will present predictions of the system performance and initial test results.

  16. SDR implementation of the receiver of adaptive communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarzynski, Jacek; Darmetko, Marcin; Kozlowski, Sebastian; Kurek, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents software implementation of a receiver forming a part of an adaptive communication system. The system is intended for communication with a satellite placed in a low Earth orbit (LEO). The ability of adaptation is believed to increase the total amount of data transmitted from the satellite to the ground station. Depending on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the received signal, adaptive transmission is realized using different transmission modes, i.e., different modulation schemes (BPSK, QPSK, 8-PSK, and 16-APSK) and different convolutional code rates (1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 5/6, and 7/8). The receiver consists of a software-defined radio (SDR) module (National Instruments USRP-2920) and a multithread reception software running on Windows operating system. In order to increase the speed of signal processing, the software takes advantage of single instruction multiple data instructions supported by x86 processor architecture.

  17. Laser Adaptive System for Measurement of Molecule Mass and Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romashko, R. V.; Kulchin, Y. N.; Efimov, T. A.; Sergeev, A. A.; Nepomnyashiy, A. V.

    A Laser adaptive microweighting system for measurement of molecules mass based on the principles of adaptive holog aphic interferometry is proposed and experimentally tested in task of gas concentration measurement. A sensitive element of the system is a microcantilever coated by a layer of chitosan, which can adsorb different molecules. Changes in gas concentration re ult in change in mass of molecules adsorbed in chitosan, and, as sequence, result in change in natural frequency of cantilever oscillations, which are measured by an adaptive holographic interferometer. The operation of the system has been experimentally demonstrated in measurement of water vapor concentration. The detected change in concentration of H2O molecules amounted to 125 ppm.

  18. Adaptive synchronization of two chaotic systems with stochastic unknown parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salarieh, Hassan; Alasty, Aria

    2009-02-01

    Using the Lyapunov stability theory an adaptive control is proposed for chaos synchronization between two different systems which have stochastically time varying unknown coefficients. The stochastic variations of the coefficients about their unknown mean values are modeled through white Gaussian noise produced by the Weiner process. It is shown that using the proposed adaptive control the mean square of synchronization error converges to an arbitrarily small bound around zero. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique, it is applied to the Lorenz-Chen and the Chen-Rossler dynamical systems, as some case studies. Simulation results indicate that the proposed adaptive controller has a high performance in synchronization of chaotic systems in noisy environment.

  19. An adaptive brain actuated system for augmenting rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Roset, Scott A.; Gant, Katie; Prasad, Abhishek; Sanchez, Justin C.

    2014-01-01

    For people living with paralysis, restoration of hand function remains the top priority because it leads to independence and improvement in quality of life. In approaches to restore hand and arm function, a goal is to better engage voluntary control and counteract maladaptive brain reorganization that results from non-use. Standard rehabilitation augmented with developments from the study of brain-computer interfaces could provide a combined therapy approach for motor cortex rehabilitation and to alleviate motor impairments. In this paper, an adaptive brain-computer interface system intended for application to control a functional electrical stimulation (FES) device is developed as an experimental test bed for augmenting rehabilitation with a brain-computer interface. The system's performance is improved throughout rehabilitation by passive user feedback and reinforcement learning. By continuously adapting to the user's brain activity, similar adaptive systems could be used to support clinical brain-computer interface neurorehabilitation over multiple days. PMID:25565945

  20. Software Technology for Adaptable, Reliable Systems (STARS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-02

    through the use of a single intermediate language. However, certain evolutionary paths, i.e., translators and funtional interfaces, must be established...Systems Ada compiler beginning in December 1984 and was presented at an Arcadia consortium meeting held in December 1984. Iris concepts and a grammar ...Page 11 2 November 1990 STARS-RC-01430/001/00 o An LALR parser generator and an Ada grammar , used to produce the parse phase of the Ada-to-DIANA

  1. Electrical Connector Mechanical Seating Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, Ellen; Captain, Janine; Youngquist, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A sensor provides a measurement of the degree of seating of an electrical connector. This sensor provides a number of discrete distances that a plug is inserted into a socket or receptacle. The number of measurements is equal to the number of pins available in the connector for sensing. On at least two occasions, the Shuttle Program has suffered serious time delays and incurred excessive costs simply because a plug was not seated well within a receptacle. Two methods were designed to address this problem: (1) the resistive pin technique and (2) the discrete length pins technique. In the resistive pin approach, a standard pin in a male connector is replaced with a pin that has a uniform resistivity along its length. This provides a variable resistance on that pin that is dependent on how far the pin is inserted into a socket. This is essentially a linear potentiometer. The discrete approach uses a pin (or a few pins) in the connector as a displacement indicator by truncating the pin length so it sits shorter in the connector than the other pins. A loss of signal on this pin would indicate a discrete amount of displacement of the connector. This approach would only give discrete values of connector displacement, and at least one pin would be needed for each displacement value that would be of interest.

  2. ADAPTIVE CLEARANCE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR TURBINE ENGINES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, Keith M.

    2004-01-01

    The Controls and Dynamics Technology Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center primarily deals in developing controls, dynamic models, and health management technologies for air and space propulsion systems. During the summer of 2004 I was granted the privilege of working alongside professionals who were developing an active clearance control system for commercial jet engines. Clearance, the gap between the turbine blade tip and the encompassing shroud, increases as a result of wear mechanisms and rubbing of the turbine blades on shroud. Increases in clearance cause larger specific fuel consumption (SFC) and loss of efficient air flow. This occurs because, as clearances increase, the engine must run hotter and bum more fuel to achieve the same thrust. In order to maintain efficiency, reduce fuel bum, and reduce exhaust gas temperature (EGT), the clearance must be accurately controlled to gap sizes no greater than a few hundredths of an inch. To address this problem, NASA Glenn researchers have developed a basic control system with actuators and sensors on each section of the shroud. Instead of having a large uniform metal casing, there would be sections of the shroud with individual sensors attached internally that would move slightly to reform and maintain clearance. The proposed method would ultimately save the airline industry millions of dollars.

  3. Relationships between seat properties and human subject kinematics in rear impact tests.

    PubMed

    Welcher, J B; Szabo, T J

    2001-05-01

    The mitigation of whiplash associated disorders (WAD) has received increased priority in the last 10 years. Although the exact mechanism(s) for WAD causation have not been established, several have been proposed and it is likely the mechanism(s) are associated with the kinematics of the head relative to the torso. It follows that automotive seat designs that address reductions in certain head-torso kinematics may lead to a reduction in WAD potential. Seat properties that may have an effect on head-neck kinematics include geometry, stiffness and energy absorption. This study evaluated the performance of five seats with varying properties, including the new Volvo 'WHIPS' seat. Seat properties such as geometry relative to the occupant's head, dynamic and static stiffness, and energy absorption were determined via component testing. A new prototype dynamic seat test, which used a pendulum and seat back pan, was evaluated. Human subject impact tests were conducted using three occupants in rear impacts with velocity changes of 4 and 8 km/h. Potentially relevant occupant kinematic parameters were identified, and then correlated with seat properties in an attempt to determine any relative influence of seat properties on potential WAD mechanisms. Two higher velocity human subject tests using the Volvo Whiplash Injury Protection System (WHIPS) seat were also conducted. Vertical and horizontal head to head restraint distances were found to be most influential on occupant head-neck kinematics. Horizontal and vertical head to head restraint offsets were significantly correlated with rearward translational motion of the head center of gravity relative to the upper torso across all occupants. Rearward offset was also significantly correlated with rearward rotation of the head relative to upper torso, while vertical offset was significantly correlated with head acceleration relative to the upper torso during the flexion phase of the impact. Seat constitutive properties such as

  4. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  5. The dynamic response of human subjects while seated in car seats.

    PubMed Central

    Pope, M. H.; Magnusson, M.; Broman, N. H.; Hasson, T.

    1998-01-01

    A pendulum impact method was used to establish the dynamic response of the seated subject. Threaded K wires were placed in the L3 spinous process. The gain and phase angle between the platform and the vertebra were established. The response of the subject was observed while seated on a platform and a variety of other seats. The seats were found to be very important in the attenuation of the impulse, leading to a higher transmissibility. Clinical Relevance Skeletal impact through the lower extremity is quite common in many occupations. The importance of posture and seat design in attenuation of impulses has been established. PMID:9807718

  6. Situational adapting system supporting team situation awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helldin, Tove; Erlandsson, Tina; Niklasson, Lars; Falkman, Göran

    2010-10-01

    Military fighter pilots have to make suitable decisions fast in an environment where continuously increasing flows of information from sensors, team members and databases are provided. Not only do the huge amounts of data aggravate the pilots' decision making process: time-pressure, presence of uncertain data and high workload are factors that can worsen the performance of pilot decision making. In this paper, initial ideas of how to support the pilots accomplishing their tasks are presented. Results from interviews with two fighter pilots are described as well as a discussion about how these results can guide the design of a military fighter pilot decision support system, with focus on team cooperation.

  7. Real-time control system for adaptive resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Flath, L; An, J; Brase, J; Hurd, R; Kartz, M; Sawvel, R; Silva, D

    2000-07-24

    Sustained operation of high average power solid-state lasers currently requires an adaptive resonator to produce the optimal beam quality. We describe the architecture of a real-time adaptive control system for correcting intra-cavity aberrations in a heat capacity laser. Image data collected from a wavefront sensor are processed and used to control phase with a high-spatial-resolution deformable mirror. Our controller takes advantage of recent developments in low-cost, high-performance processor technology. A desktop-based computational engine and object-oriented software architecture replaces the high-cost rack-mount embedded computers of previous systems.

  8. Design of suboptimal adaptive filter for stochastic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Jun Il; Shin, Vladimir

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, the problem of estimating the system state in for linear discrete-time systems with uncertainties is considered. In [1], [2], we have proposed the fusion formula (FF) for an arbitrary number of correlated and uncorrelated estimates. The FF is applied to detection and filtering problem. The new suboptimal adaptive filter with parallel structure is herein proposed. In consequence of parallel structure of the proposed filter, parallel computers can be used for their design. A lower computational complexity and lower memory demand are achieved with the proposed filter than in the optimal adaptive Lainiotis-Kalman filter. Example demonstrates the accuracy of the new filter.

  9. Evolution of innate and adaptive immune systems in jawless vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Kasamatsu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Because jawless vertebrates are the most primitive vertebrates, they have been studied to gain understanding of the evolutionary processes that gave rise to the innate and adaptive immune systems in vertebrates. Jawless vertebrates have developed lymphocyte-like cells that morphologically resemble the T and B cells of jawed vertebrates, but they express variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) instead of the T and B cell receptors that specifically recognize antigens in jawed vertebrates. These VLRs act as antigen receptors, diversity being generated in their antigen-binding sites by assembly of highly diverse leucine-rich repeat modules. Therefore, jawless vertebrates have developed adaptive immune systems based on the VLRs. Although pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Rig-like receptors (RLRs), and their adaptor genes are conserved in jawless vertebrates, some transcription factor and inflammatory cytokine genes in the TLR and RLR pathways are not present. However, like jawed vertebrates, the initiation of adaptive immune responses in jawless vertebrates appears to require prior activation of the innate immune system. These observations imply that the innate immune systems of jawless vertebrates have a unique molecular basis that is distinct from that of jawed vertebrates. Altogether, although the molecular details of the innate and adaptive immune systems differ between jawless and jawed vertebrates, jawless vertebrates have developed versions of these immune systems that are similar to those of jawed vertebrates.

  10. Adaptive Modeling of the International Space Station Electrical Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Justin Ray

    2007-01-01

    Software simulations provide NASA engineers the ability to experiment with spacecraft systems in a computer-imitated environment. Engineers currently develop software models that encapsulate spacecraft system behavior. These models can be inaccurate due to invalid assumptions, erroneous operation, or system evolution. Increasing accuracy requires manual calibration and domain-specific knowledge. This thesis presents a method for automatically learning system models without any assumptions regarding system behavior. Data stream mining techniques are applied to learn models for critical portions of the International Space Station (ISS) Electrical Power System (EPS). We also explore a knowledge fusion approach that uses traditional engineered EPS models to supplement the learned models. We observed that these engineered EPS models provide useful background knowledge to reduce predictive error spikes when confronted with making predictions in situations that are quite different from the training scenarios used when learning the model. Evaluations using ISS sensor data and existing EPS models demonstrate the success of the adaptive approach. Our experimental results show that adaptive modeling provides reductions in model error anywhere from 80% to 96% over these existing models. Final discussions include impending use of adaptive modeling technology for ISS mission operations and the need for adaptive modeling in future NASA lunar and Martian exploration.

  11. Adaptive mass expulsion attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodden, John J. (Inventor); Stevens, Homer D. (Inventor); Carrou, Stephane (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An attitude control system and method operative with a thruster controls the attitude of a vehicle carrying the thruster, wherein the thruster has a valve enabling the formation of pulses of expelled gas from a source of compressed gas. Data of the attitude of the vehicle is gathered, wherein the vehicle is located within a force field tending to orient the vehicle in a first attitude different from a desired attitude. The attitude data is evaluated to determine a pattern of values of attitude of the vehicle in response to the gas pulses of the thruster and in response to the force field. The system and the method maintain the attitude within a predetermined band of values of attitude which includes the desired attitude. Computation circuitry establishes an optimal duration of each of the gas pulses based on the pattern of values of attitude, the optimal duration providing for a minimal number of opening and closure operations of the valve. The thruster is operated to provide gas pulses having the optimal duration.

  12. Adaptive data acquisition multiplexing system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinderson, Richard L. (Inventor); Salazar, George A. (Inventor); Haddick, Clyde M., Jr. (Inventor); Spahn, Caroll J. (Inventor); Venkatesh, Chikkabelarangala N. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A reconfigurable telemetry multiplexer is described which includes a monitor-terminal and a plurality of remote terminals. The remote terminals each include signal conditioning for a plurality of sensors for measuring parameters which are converted by an analog to digital converter. CPU's in the remote terminals store instructions for prompting system configuration and reconfiguration commands. The measurements, instructions, and the terminal's present configuration and status data are transmitted to the monitor-terminal and displayed. In response to menu-driven prompts generated and displayed at the monitor-terminal, data generation request commands, status and health commands, and the like are input at the monitor-terminal and transmitted to the remote terminals. The CPU in each remote terminal receives the various commands, stores them in electrically alterable memory, and reacts in accordance with the commands to reconfigure a plurality of aspects of the system. The CPU in each terminal also generates parameter measurements, status and health signals, and transmits these signals of the respective terminals to the monitor-terminal for low data rate operator viewing and to higher rate external transmission/monitor equipment. Reconfiguration may be in real time during the general period of parameter measurement acquisition, and may include alteration of the gain, automatic gain rescaling, bias, and or sampling rates associated with one or more of the parameter measurements made by the remote terminals.

  13. 14 CFR 121.585 - Exit seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exit seating. 121.585 Section 121.585 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., or otherwise open emergency exits; (iv) To lift out, hold, deposit on nearby seats, or maneuver...

  14. School Buses & Seat Belts: A Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Safety belts are not installed in school buses for several reasons. School buses are constructed differently from automobiles in terms of (1) the locations of doors and instrument panels relative to passengers, (2) outer construction, (3) seat design and padding, and (4) visibility on the road. Under current regulations, bus seats are constructed…

  15. Seat Belts on School Buses: Some Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soule, David

    1982-01-01

    A representative of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration weighs advantages and discusses issues associated with installing seat belts in school buses. Federal regulations and research findings are considered. A list of guideline questions for school districts planning to install seat belts is included. (PP)

  16. Pregnancy: Should I Use a Seat Belt?

    MedlinePlus

    ... injury or death in the event of a car crash. You should wear a seat belt no matter where you sit in the car.How should I wear my seat belt?The ... together keep you from being thrown from the car during an accident. The shoulder strap also keeps ...

  17. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  18. Quantitative adaptation analytics for assessing dynamic systems of systems: LDRD Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gauthier, John H.; Miner, Nadine E.; Wilson, Michael L.; Le, Hai D.; Kao, Gio K.; Melander, Darryl J.; Longsine, Dennis Earl; Vander Meer, Jr., Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Our society is increasingly reliant on systems and interoperating collections of systems, known as systems of systems (SoS). These SoS are often subject to changing missions (e.g., nation- building, arms-control treaties), threats (e.g., asymmetric warfare, terrorism), natural environments (e.g., climate, weather, natural disasters) and budgets. How well can SoS adapt to these types of dynamic conditions? This report details the results of a three year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project aimed at developing metrics and methodologies for quantifying the adaptability of systems and SoS. Work products include: derivation of a set of adaptability metrics, a method for combining the metrics into a system of systems adaptability index (SoSAI) used to compare adaptability of SoS designs, development of a prototype dynamic SoS (proto-dSoS) simulation environment which provides the ability to investigate the validity of the adaptability metric set, and two test cases that evaluate the usefulness of a subset of the adaptability metrics and SoSAI for distinguishing good from poor adaptability in a SoS. Intellectual property results include three patents pending: A Method For Quantifying Relative System Adaptability, Method for Evaluating System Performance, and A Method for Determining Systems Re-Tasking.

  19. Aircraft seating comfort: the influence of seat pitch on passengers' well-being.

    PubMed

    Kremser, Florian; Guenzkofer, Fabian; Sedlmeier, Claudia; Sabbah, Olaf; Bengler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important factors influencing aircraft seating comfort in economy class, is legroom. In an airline interior mock up, with the ability to adjust the seat pitch in a range of 28 inches to 43 inches, a study to investigate the influence of seat pitch on passengers' well-being was conducted. In a pre-study, aspects of subjective postural sensations and spatial perception were identified, and a questionnaire was developed. In the main study, 30 subjects rated at different seat pitch settings the spatial perception and the ability of adopting and changing sitting postures. As a result a functional relationship between overall well-being, the subjects' anthropometry and seat pitch was developed. Furthermore it was identified, that there is a maximum overall well-being at a seat pitch of 34 inches to 40 inches, depending on the passengers' anthropometry. A further enlargement of seat pitch, led to a reduction of well-being.

  20. Development of adaptive control applied to chaotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhode, Martin Andreas

    1997-12-01

    Continuous-time derivative control and adaptive map-based recursive feedback control techniques are used to control chaos in a variety of systems and in situations that are of practical interest. The theoretical part of the research includes the review of fundamental concept of control theory in the context of its applications to deterministic chaotic systems, the development of a new adaptive algorithm to identify the linear system properties necessary for control, and the extension of the recursive proportional feedback control technique, RPF, to high dimensional systems. Chaos control was applied to models of a thermal pulsed combustor, electro-chemical dissolution and the hyperchaotic Rossler system. Important implications for combustion engineering were suggested by successful control of the model of the thermal pulsed combustor. The system was automatically tracked while maintaining control into regions of parameter and state space where no stable attractors exist. In a simulation of the electrochemical dissolution system, application of derivative control to stabilize a steady state, and adaptive RPF to stabilize a period one orbit, was demonstrated. The high dimensional adaptive control algorithm was applied in a simulation using the Rossler hyperchaotic system, where a period-two orbit with two unstable directions was stabilized and tracked over a wide range of a system parameter. In the experimental part, the electrochemical system was studied in parameter space, by scanning the applied potential and the frequency of the rotating copper disk. The automated control algorithm is demonstrated to be effective when applied to stabilize a period-one orbit in the experiment. We show the necessity of small random perturbations applied to the system in order to both learn the dynamics and control the system at the same time. The simultaneous learning and control capability is shown to be an important part of the active feedback control.

  1. Decision-making in healthcare as a complex adaptive system.

    PubMed

    Kuziemsky, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare transformation requires a change in how the business of healthcare is done. Traditional decision-making approaches based on stable and predictable systems are inappropriate in healthcare because of the complex nature of healthcare delivery. This article reviews challenges to using traditional decision-making approaches in healthcare and how insight from Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) could support healthcare management. The article also provides a system model to guide decision-making in healthcare as a CAS.

  2. Effect of a suspension seat support chair on the trunk flexion angle and gluteal pressure during computer work

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We assessed the effects of a suspension seat support chair on the trunk flexion angle and gluteal pressure during computer work. [Subjects] Ten males were recruited. [Methods] The suspension seat support was developed to prevent abnormal gluteal pressure and a slumped sitting posture during computer work. The gluteal pressure was measured with a TekScan system and the trunk flexion angle was measured with a video camera, to compare the differences between a general chair and the suspension seat support. [Results] The gluteal peak pressures were decreased significantly in the suspension seat support versus the general chair. The trunk flexion angle was also decreased significantly in the suspension seat support compared with the general chair. [Conclusions] This study suggests that the suspension seat support chair contributes to preventing abnormal gluteal pressure and a slumped sitting posture. PMID:26504341

  3. Effect of a suspension seat support chair on the trunk flexion angle and gluteal pressure during computer work.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] We assessed the effects of a suspension seat support chair on the trunk flexion angle and gluteal pressure during computer work. [Subjects] Ten males were recruited. [Methods] The suspension seat support was developed to prevent abnormal gluteal pressure and a slumped sitting posture during computer work. The gluteal pressure was measured with a TekScan system and the trunk flexion angle was measured with a video camera, to compare the differences between a general chair and the suspension seat support. [Results] The gluteal peak pressures were decreased significantly in the suspension seat support versus the general chair. The trunk flexion angle was also decreased significantly in the suspension seat support compared with the general chair. [Conclusions] This study suggests that the suspension seat support chair contributes to preventing abnormal gluteal pressure and a slumped sitting posture.

  4. Self-characterization of linear and nonlinear adaptive optics systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampton, Peter J.; Conan, Rodolphe; Keskin, Onur; Bradley, Colin; Agathoklis, Pan

    2008-01-01

    We present methods used to determine the linear or nonlinear static response and the linear dynamic response of an adaptive optics (AO) system. This AO system consists of a nonlinear microelectromechanical systems deformable mirror (DM), a linear tip-tilt mirror (TTM), a control computer, and a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The system is modeled using a single-input-single-output structure to determine the one-dimensional transfer function of the dynamic response of the chain of system hardware. An AO system has been shown to be able to characterize its own response without additional instrumentation. Experimentally determined models are given for a TTM and a DM.

  5. [Caffeine and adaptive changes in the circulatory system during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Cendrowska-Pinkosz, Monika; Dworzański, Wojciech; Krauze, Magdalena; Burdan, Franciszek

    2017-01-23

    Adaptive physiological changes that occur in pregnant women can fluctuate with the intake of substances with proven, adverse biological effect on the body. Due to the fact that caffeine is one of the most chronically used xenobiotics, the impact of consuming caffeine on adaptive processes in the circulatory system of a pregnant women required a research. Many researchers emphasise its negative effect on the circulatory system of the mother and her offspring. However, in spite of years of observation, there is no clear answer to what extent dose or in what period of time the caffeine modulates the adaptive processes during pregnancy. Because of the potential risk the supply of caffeine during pregnancy should be subjected to considerable restrictions.

  6. A dual-modal retinal imaging system with adaptive optics

    PubMed Central

    Meadway, Alexander; Girkin, Christopher A.; Zhang, Yuhua

    2013-01-01

    An adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO) is adapted to provide optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. The AO-SLO function is unchanged. The system uses the same light source, scanning optics, and adaptive optics in both imaging modes. The result is a dual-modal system that can acquire retinal images in both en face and cross-section planes at the single cell level. A new spectral shaping method is developed to reduce the large sidelobes in the coherence profile of the OCT imaging when a non-ideal source is used with a minimal introduction of noise. The technique uses a combination of two existing digital techniques. The thickness and position of the traditionally named inner segment/outer segment junction are measured from individual photoreceptors. In-vivo images of healthy and diseased human retinas are demonstrated. PMID:24514529

  7. Adapting ISA system warnings to enhance user acceptance.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Felipe; Liang, Yingzhen; Aparicio, Francisco

    2012-09-01

    Inappropriate speed is a major cause of traffic accidents. Different measures have been considered to control traffic speed, and intelligent speed adaptation (ISA) systems are one of the alternatives. These systems know the speed limits and try to improve compliance with them. This paper deals with an informative ISA system that provides the driver with an advance warning before reaching a road section with singular characteristics that require a lower safe speed than the current speed. In spite of the extensive tests performed using ISA systems, few works show how warnings can be adapted to the driver. This paper describes a method to adapt warning parameters (safe speed on curves, zone of influence of a singular stretch, deceleration process and reaction time) to normal driving behavior. The method is based on a set of tests with and without the ISA system. This adjustment, as well as the analysis of driver acceptance before and after the adaptation and changes in driver behavior (changes in speed and path) resulting from the tested ISA regarding a driver's normal driving style, is shown in this paper. The main conclusion is that acceptance by drivers increased significantly after redefining the warning parameters, but the effect of speed homogenization was not reduced.

  8. Control of adaptive immunity by the innate immune system

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Akiko; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2015-01-01

    Microbial infections are recognized by the innate immune system both to elicit immediate defense and to generate long-lasting adaptive immunity. To detect and respond to vastly different groups of pathogens, the innate immune system uses several recognition systems that rely on sensing common structural and functional features associated with different classes of microorganisms. These recognition systems determine microbial location, viability, replication and pathogenicity. Detection of these features by recognition pathways of the innate immune system is translated into different classes of effector responses though specialized populations of dendritic cells. Multiple mechanisms for the induction of immune responses are variations on a common design principle wherein the cells that sense infections produce one set of cytokines to induce lymphocytes to produce another set of cytokines, which in turn activate effector responses. Here we discuss these emerging principles of innate control of adaptive immunity. PMID:25789684

  9. Classrooms as Complex Adaptive Systems: A Relational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Anne; Knox, John S.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we describe and model the language classroom as a complex adaptive system (see Logan & Schumann, 2005). We argue that linear, categorical descriptions of classroom processes and interactions do not sufficiently explain the complex nature of classrooms, and cannot account for how classroom change occurs (or does not occur), over…

  10. Aptitudes and Symbol Systems in Adaptive Classroom Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Richard E.

    1997-01-01

    Education at its best is an "aptitude development program" that promotes development of learning abilities and effective personal styles needed for future learning in school and throughout life. Much of this development involves adapting and expanding the symbol systems used in teaching and learning to convey essential meanings. Adaptive…

  11. Adaptive mechanism-based congestion control for networked systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi; Zhang, Yun; Chen, C. L. Philip

    2013-03-01

    In order to assure the communication quality in network systems with heavy traffic and limited bandwidth, a new ATRED (adaptive thresholds random early detection) congestion control algorithm is proposed for the congestion avoidance and resource management of network systems. Different to the traditional AQM (active queue management) algorithms, the control parameters of ATRED are not configured statically, but dynamically adjusted by the adaptive mechanism. By integrating with the adaptive strategy, ATRED alleviates the tuning difficulty of RED (random early detection) and shows a better control on the queue management, and achieve a more robust performance than RED under varying network conditions. Furthermore, a dynamic transmission control protocol-AQM control system using ATRED controller is introduced for the systematic analysis. It is proved that the stability of the network system can be guaranteed when the adaptive mechanism is finely designed. Simulation studies show the proposed ATRED algorithm achieves a good performance in varying network environments, which is superior to the RED and Gentle-RED algorithm, and providing more reliable service under varying network conditions.

  12. Adaptive comanagement for building resilience in social-ecological systems.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Per; Folke, Carl; Berkes, Fikret

    2004-07-01

    Ecosystems are complex adaptive systems that require flexible governance with the ability to respond to environmental feedback. We present, through examples from Sweden and Canada, the development of adaptive comanagement systems, showing how local groups self-organize, learn, and actively adapt to and shape change with social networks that connect institutions and organizations across levels and scales and that facilitate information flows. The development took place through a sequence of responses to environmental events that widened the scope of local management from a particular issue or resource to a broad set of issues related to ecosystem processes across scales and from individual actors, to group of actors to multiple-actor processes. The results suggest that the institutional and organizational landscapes should be approached as carefully as the ecological in order to clarify features that contribute to the resilience of social-ecological systems. These include the following: vision, leadership, and trust; enabling legislation that creates social space for ecosystem management; funds for responding to environmental change and for remedial action; capacity for monitoring and responding to environmental feedback; information flow through social networks; the combination of various sources of information and knowledge; and sense-making and arenas of collaborative learning for ecosystem management. We propose that the self-organizing process of adaptive comanagement development, facilitated by rules and incentives of higher levels, has the potential to expand desirable stability domains of a region and make social-ecological systems more robust to change.

  13. Complex Adaptive Systems as Metaphors for Organizational Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmberg, Klara

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of complex adaptive systems (CAS) from the perspective of managing organizations, to describe and explore the management principles in a case study of an organization with unconventional ways of management and to present a tentative model for managing organizations as CAS--system…

  14. Enhancing Adaptive Filtering Approaches for Land Data Assimilation Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent work has presented the initial application of adaptive filtering techniques to land surface data assimilation systems. Such techniques are motivated by our current lack of knowledge concerning the structure of large-scale error in either land surface modeling output or remotely-sensed estima...

  15. The New Trends in Adaptive Educational Hypermedia Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somyürek, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to give a general review of existing literature on adaptive educational hypermedia systems and to reveal technological trends and approaches within these studies. Fifty-six studies conducted between 2002 and 2012 were examined, to identify prominent themes and approaches. According to the content analysis, the new technological…

  16. Modeling Students' Memory for Application in Adaptive Educational Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelánek, Radek

    2015-01-01

    Human memory has been thoroughly studied and modeled in psychology, but mainly in laboratory setting under simplified conditions. For application in practical adaptive educational systems we need simple and robust models which can cope with aspects like varied prior knowledge or multiple-choice questions. We discuss and evaluate several models of…

  17. The Transfer of Abstract Principles Governing Complex Adaptive Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstone, Robert L.; Sakamoto, Yasuaki

    2003-01-01

    Four experiments explored participants' understanding of the abstract principles governing computer simulations of complex adaptive systems. Experiments 1, 2, and 3 showed better transfer of abstract principles across simulations that were relatively dissimilar, and that this effect was due to participants who performed relatively poorly on the…

  18. Adaptive control system having hedge unit and related apparatus and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Eric Norman (Inventor); Calise, Anthony J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The invention includes an adaptive control system used to control a plant. The adaptive control system includes a hedge unit that receives at least one control signal and a plant state signal. The hedge unit generates a hedge signal based on the control signal, the plant state signal, and a hedge model including a first model having one or more characteristics to which the adaptive control system is not to adapt, and a second model not having the characteristic(s) to which the adaptive control system is not to adapt. The hedge signal is used in the adaptive control system to remove the effect of the characteristic from a signal supplied to an adaptation law unit of the adaptive control system so that the adaptive control system does not adapt to the characteristic in controlling the plant.

  19. Adaptive control system having hedge unit and related apparatus and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Eric Norman (Inventor); Calise, Anthony J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The invention includes an adaptive control system used to control a plant. The adaptive control system includes a hedge unit that receives at least one control signal and a plant state signal. The hedge unit generates a hedge signal based on the control signal, the plant state signal, and a hedge model including a first model having one or more characteristics to which the adaptive control system is not to adapt, and a second model not having the characteristic(s) to which the adaptive control system is not to adapt. The hedge signal is used in the adaptive control system to remove the effect of the characteristic from a signal supplied to an adaptation law unit of the adaptive control system so that the adaptive control system does not adapt to the characteristic in controlling the plant.

  20. Close up view of the Commander's Seat on the Flight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close up view of the Commander's Seat on the Flight Deck of the Orbiter Discovery. Toward the right of the view and in front of te seat is the commander's Rotational Hand Controller. The pilot station has an identical controller. These control the acceleration in the roll pitch and yaw directions via the reaction control system and/or the orbiter maneuvering system while outside of Earth's atmosphere or via the orbiter's aerosurfaces wile in Earth's atmosphere when the atmospheric density permits the surfaces to be effective. There are a number of switches on the controller, most notably a trigger switch which is a push-to-talk switch for voice communication and a large button on top of the controller which is a switch to engage the backup flight system. This view was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  1. Guiding Climate Change Adaptation Within Vulnerable Natural Resource Management Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardsley, Douglas K.; Sweeney, Susan M.

    2010-05-01

    Climate change has the potential to compromise the sustainability of natural resources in Mediterranean climatic systems, such that short-term reactive responses will increasingly be insufficient to ensure effective management. There is a simultaneous need for both the clear articulation of the vulnerabilities of specific management systems to climate risk, and the development of appropriate short- and long-term strategic planning responses that anticipate environmental change or allow for sustainable adaptive management in response to trends in resource condition. Governments are developing climate change adaptation policy frameworks, but without the recognition of the importance of responding strategically, regional stakeholders will struggle to manage future climate risk. In a partnership between the South Australian Government, the Adelaide and Mt Lofty Ranges Natural Resource Management Board and the regional community, a range of available research approaches to support regional climate change adaptation decision-making, were applied and critically examined, including: scenario modelling; applied and participatory Geographical Information Systems modelling; environmental risk analysis; and participatory action learning. As managers apply ideas for adaptation within their own biophysical and socio-cultural contexts, there would be both successes and failures, but a learning orientation to societal change will enable improvements over time. A base-line target for regional responses to climate change is the ownership of the issue by stakeholders, which leads to an acceptance that effective actions to adapt are now both possible and vitally important. Beyond such baseline knowledge, the research suggests that there is a range of tools from the social and physical sciences available to guide adaptation decision-making.

  2. Adaptive multibeam concepts for traffic management satellite systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bisaga, J. J.; Blank, H. A.; Klein, S. A.

    1973-01-01

    The analysis of the performance of the various implementations of the simultaneous system in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans has demonstrated that the use of adaptive system concepts in satellite traffic management systems can greatly improve the performance capabilities of these systems as compared to the corresponding performance capabilities of conventional nonadaptive satellite communications systems. It is considered that the techniques developed and analyzed represent a significant technological advance, and that the performance improvement achieved will generally outweigh the increased cost and implementation factors.

  3. Integrated modeling of the GMT laser tomography adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatrou, Piotr

    2014-08-01

    Laser Tomography Adaptive Optics (LTAO) is one of adaptive optics systems planned for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). End-to-end simulation tools that are able to cope with the complexity and computational burden of the AO systems to be installed on the extremely large telescopes such as GMT prove to be an integral part of the GMT LTAO system development endeavors. SL95, the Fortran 95 Simulation Library, is one of the software tools successfully used for the LTAO system end-to-end simulations. The goal of SL95 project is to provide a complete set of generic, richly parameterized mathematical models for key elements of the segmented telescope wavefront control systems including both active and adaptive optics as well as the models for atmospheric turbulence, extended light sources like Laser Guide Stars (LGS), light propagation engines and closed-loop controllers. The library is implemented as a hierarchical collection of classes capable of mutual interaction, which allows one to assemble complex wavefront control system configurations with multiple interacting control channels. In this paper we demonstrate the SL95 capabilities by building an integrated end-to-end model of the GMT LTAO system with 7 control channels: LGS tomography with Adaptive Secondary and on-instrument deformable mirrors, tip-tilt and vibration control, LGS stabilization, LGS focus control, truth sensor-based dynamic noncommon path aberration rejection, pupil position control, SLODAR-like embedded turbulence profiler. The rich parameterization of the SL95 classes allows to build detailed error budgets propagating through the system multiple errors and perturbations such as turbulence-, telescope-, telescope misalignment-, segment phasing error-, non-common path-induced aberrations, sensor noises, deformable mirror-to-sensor mis-registration, vibration, temporal errors, etc. We will present a short description of the SL95 architecture, as well as the sample GMT LTAO system simulation

  4. Flexible Ubiquitous Learning Management System Adapted to Learning Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Ji-Seong; Kim, Mihye; Park, Chan; Yoo, Jae-Soo; Yoo, Kwan-Hee

    This paper proposes a u-learning management system (ULMS) appropriate to the ubiquitous learning environment, with emphasis on the significance of context awareness and adaptation in learning. The proposed system supports the basic functions of an e-learning management system and incorporates a number of tools and additional features to provide a more customized learning service. The proposed system automatically corresponds to various forms of user terminal without modifying the existing system. The functions, formats, and course learning activities of the system are dynamically and adaptively constructed at runtime according to user terminals, course types, pedagogical goals as well as student characteristics and learning context. A prototype for university use has been implemented to demonstrate and evaluate the proposed approach. We regard the proposed ULMS as an ideal u-learning system because it can not only lead students into continuous and mobile 'anytime, anywhere' learning using any kind of terminal, but can also foster enhanced self-directed learning through the establishment of an adaptive learning environment.

  5. Adaptive Optics System Design and Operation at Lick Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, S. S.; Max, C. E.; Avicola, K.; Bissinger, H. D.; Brase, J. M.; Friedman, H. W.; Gavel, D. T.; Salmon, J. T.; Waltjen, K. E.

    1993-12-01

    An adaptive optics system developed for the 40 inch Nickel and 120 inch Shane telescopes at Lick Observatory is described. The adaptive optics system design is based on a 69 actuator continuous-surface deformable mirror and a Hartmann wavefront sensor equipped with a commercial intensified CCD fast-framing camera. The system has been tested at the Cassegrain focus of the 40 inch Nickel telescope where the subaperture diameter is 12 cm. The subaperture slope and mirror control calculations are performed on a four processor single board computer controlled by a Unix workstation. This configuration is capable of up to 1 KHz frame rates. The optical configuration of the system and its interface to the telescope is described. Details of the control system design, operation, and user interface are given. Initial test results emphasizing control system operations of this adaptive optics system using natural reference stars on the 40 inch Nickel telescope are presented. The initial test results are compared to predictions from analyses and simulations. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-Eng-48.

  6. Adaptive backstepping slide mode control of pneumatic position servo system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Haipeng; Fan, Juntao

    2016-09-01

    With the price decreasing of the pneumatic proportional valve and the high performance micro controller, the simple structure and high tracking performance pneumatic servo system demonstrates more application potential in many fields. However, most existing control methods with high tracking performance need to know the model information and to use pressure sensor. This limits the application of the pneumatic servo system. An adaptive backstepping slide mode control method is proposed for pneumatic position servo system. The proposed method designs adaptive slide mode controller using backstepping design technique. The controller parameter adaptive law is derived from Lyapunov analysis to guarantee the stability of the system. A theorem is testified to show that the state of closed-loop system is uniformly bounded, and the closed-loop system is stable. The advantages of the proposed method include that system dynamic model parameters are not required for the controller design, uncertain parameters bounds are not need, and the bulk and expensive pressure sensor is not needed as well. Experimental results show that the designed controller can achieve better tracking performance, as compared with some existing methods.

  7. Generating Shifting Workloads to Benchmark Adaptability in Relational Database Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabl, Tilmann; Lang, Andreas; Hackl, Thomas; Sick, Bernhard; Kosch, Harald

    A large body of research concerns the adaptability of database systems. Many commercial systems already contain autonomic processes that adapt configurations as well as data structures and data organization. Yet there is virtually no possibility for a just measurement of the quality of such optimizations. While standard benchmarks have been developed that simulate real-world database applications very precisely, none of them considers variations in workloads produced by human factors. Today’s benchmarks test the performance of database systems by measuring peak performance on homogeneous request streams. Nevertheless, in systems with user interaction access patterns are constantly shifting. We present a benchmark that simulates a web information system with interaction of large user groups. It is based on the analysis of a real online eLearning management system with 15,000 users. The benchmark considers the temporal dependency of user interaction. Main focus is to measure the adaptability of a database management system according to shifting workloads. We will give details on our design approach that uses sophisticated pattern analysis and data mining techniques.

  8. Adaptive conventional power system stabilizer based on artificial neural network

    SciTech Connect

    Kothari, M.L.; Segal, R.; Ghodki, B.K.

    1995-12-31

    This paper deals with an artificial neural network (ANN) based adaptive conventional power system stabilizer (PSS). The ANN comprises an input layer, a hidden layer and an output layer. The input vector to the ANN comprises real power (P) and reactive power (Q), while the output vector comprises optimum PSS parameters. A systematic approach for generating training set covering wide range of operating conditions, is presented. The ANN has been trained using back-propagation training algorithm. Investigations reveal that the dynamic performance of ANN based adaptive conventional PSS is quite insensitive to wide variations in loading conditions.

  9. Design optimization of system level adaptive optical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michels, Gregory J.; Genberg, Victor L.; Doyle, Keith B.; Bisson, Gary R.

    2005-09-01

    By linking predictive methods from multiple engineering disciplines, engineers are able to compute more meaningful predictions of a product's performance. By coupling mechanical and optical predictive techniques mechanical design can be performed to optimize optical performance. This paper demonstrates how mechanical design optimization using system level optical performance can be used in the development of the design of a high precision adaptive optical telescope. While mechanical design parameters are treated as the design variables, the objective function is taken to be the adaptively corrected optical imaging performance of an orbiting two-mirror telescope.

  10. Linear adaptive control of a single-tether system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, M. E.; Carter, J. T.; Walls, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    A control law for a single-tether orbiting satellite system based on a reduced order linear adaptive control technique is presented. The main advantages of this technique are its design simplicity and the facts that specific system parameters and model linearization are not required when designing the controller. Two controllers are developed: one which uses only tension in the tether as control actuation and one which uses both tension and in-plane thrusters as control actuation. Both a sixth-order nonlinear and an 11th-order bead model of a tethered satellite system are used for simulation purposes, demonstrating the ability of the controller to manage an uncertain system. Retrieval and stationkeeping results using these nonlinear models and the linear adaptive controller demonstrate the feasibility of the method. The robustness of the controller with respect to parameter uncertainties is also demonstrated by changing the nonlinear model and parameters within the model without redesigning the controller.

  11. Variable Neural Adaptive Robust Control: A Switched System Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Lian, Jianming; Hu, Jianghai; Zak, Stanislaw H.

    2015-05-01

    Variable neural adaptive robust control strategies are proposed for the output tracking control of a class of multi-input multi-output uncertain systems. The controllers incorporate a variable-structure radial basis function (RBF) network as the self-organizing approximator for unknown system dynamics. The variable-structure RBF network solves the problem of structure determination associated with fixed-structure RBF networks. It can determine the network structure on-line dynamically by adding or removing radial basis functions according to the tracking performance. The structure variation is taken into account in the stability analysis of the closed-loop system using a switched system approach with the aid of the piecewise quadratic Lyapunov function. The performance of the proposed variable neural adaptive robust controllers is illustrated with simulations.

  12. An Approach to Automated Fusion System Design and Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Fritze, Alexander; Mönks, Uwe; Holst, Christoph-Alexander; Lohweg, Volker

    2017-01-01

    Industrial applications are in transition towards modular and flexible architectures that are capable of self-configuration and -optimisation. This is due to the demand of mass customisation and the increasing complexity of industrial systems. The conversion to modular systems is related to challenges in all disciplines. Consequently, diverse tasks such as information processing, extensive networking, or system monitoring using sensor and information fusion systems need to be reconsidered. The focus of this contribution is on distributed sensor and information fusion systems for system monitoring, which must reflect the increasing flexibility of fusion systems. This contribution thus proposes an approach, which relies on a network of self-descriptive intelligent sensor nodes, for the automatic design and update of sensor and information fusion systems. This article encompasses the fusion system configuration and adaptation as well as communication aspects. Manual interaction with the flexibly changing system is reduced to a minimum. PMID:28300762

  13. Guidance and Actuation Systems for an Adaptive-Suspension Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-14

    FORM 1. REPORT NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3 . RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER G8186-685-84 ’D Ji 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED...Adaptive-Suspension Vehicle ..... ........ 2 2.2.2 The Terrain-Sensing System ...... .......... 3 2.3 Guidance System Algorithms... 3 2.3.1 Overview ............. ................... 3 2.3.2 Elevation Map Algorithms ...... ........... 3 2.3.3 Vehicle Guidance Algorithms

  14. System integration of pattern recognition, adaptive aided, upper limb prostheses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyman, J.; Freedy, A.; Solomonow, M.

    1975-01-01

    The requirements for successful integration of a computer aided control system for multi degree of freedom artificial arms are discussed. Specifications are established for a system which shares control between a human amputee and an automatic control subsystem. The approach integrates the following subsystems: (1) myoelectric pattern recognition, (2) adaptive computer aiding; (3) local reflex control; (4) prosthetic sensory feedback; and (5) externally energized arm with the functions of prehension, wrist rotation, elbow extension and flexion and humeral rotation.

  15. An information adaptive system study report and development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ataras, W. S.; Eng, K.; Morone, J. J.; Beaudet, P. R.; Chin, R.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the information adaptive system (IAS) study was to determine how some selected Earth resource applications may be processed onboard a spacecraft and to provide a detailed preliminary IAS design for these applications. Detailed investigations of a number of applications were conducted with regard to IAS and three were selected for further analysis. Areas of future research and development include algorithmic specifications, system design specifications, and IAS recommended time lines.

  16. Modeling of Complex Adaptive Systems in Air Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    control of C3 in an increasingly complex military environment. Control theory is a multidisciplinary science associated with dynamic systems and, while...AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2006-282 In- House Final Technical Report September 2006 MODELING OF COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS IN AIR OPERATIONS...NOTICE AND SIGNATURE PAGE Using Government drawings, specifications, or other data included in this document for any purpose other than Government

  17. On Development of an Adaptive Tutoring System for Calculus Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Hisashi

    2010-06-01

    One-on-one tutoring is known to be an effective model for learning calculus. Therefore, implementing one-on-one tutoring system into calculus learning software is a natural thing to do. The purpose of this article is to describe how to diagnose a students' knowledge structure about calculus without asking many questions and to show how an adaptive tutoring system is implemented into our calculus learning software JCALC.

  18. Selective adaptation to "oddball" sounds by the human auditory system.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Andrew J R; Harper, Nicol S; Reiss, Joshua D; McAlpine, David

    2014-01-29

    Adaptation to both common and rare sounds has been independently reported in neurophysiological studies using probabilistic stimulus paradigms in small mammals. However, the apparent sensitivity of the mammalian auditory system to the statistics of incoming sound has not yet been generalized to task-related human auditory perception. Here, we show that human listeners selectively adapt to novel sounds within scenes unfolding over minutes. Listeners' performance in an auditory discrimination task remains steady for the most common elements within the scene but, after the first minute, performance improves for distinct and rare (oddball) sound elements, at the expense of rare sounds that are relatively less distinct. Our data provide the first evidence of enhanced coding of oddball sounds in a human auditory discrimination task and suggest the existence of an adaptive mechanism that tracks the long-term statistics of sounds and deploys coding resources accordingly.

  19. Autonomous navigation system using a fuzzy adaptive nonlinear H∞ filter.

    PubMed

    Outamazirt, Fariz; Li, Fu; Yan, Lin; Nemra, Abdelkrim

    2014-09-19

    Although nonlinear H∞ (NH∞) filters offer good performance without requiring assumptions concerning the characteristics of process and/or measurement noises, they still require additional tuning parameters that remain fixed and that need to be determined through trial and error. To address issues associated with NH∞ filters, a new SINS/GPS sensor fusion scheme known as the Fuzzy Adaptive Nonlinear H∞ (FANH∞) filter is proposed for the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) localization problem. Based on a real-time Fuzzy Inference System (FIS), the FANH∞ filter continually adjusts the higher order of the Taylor development thorough adaptive bounds  and adaptive disturbance attenuation , which significantly increases the UAV localization performance. The results obtained using the FANH∞ navigation filter are compared to the NH∞ navigation filter results and are validated using a 3D UAV flight scenario. The comparison proves the efficiency and robustness of the UAV localization process using the FANH∞ filter.

  20. Evolutionary adaptation of phenotypic plasticity in a synthetic microbial system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tans, Sander

    2010-03-01

    While phenotypic plasticity -the capability to respond to the environment- is vital to organisms, tests of its adaptation have remained indecisive because constraints and selection in variable environments are unknown and entangled. We show that one can determine the phenotype-fitness landscape that specifies selection on plasticity, by uncoupling the environmental cue and stress in a genetically engineered microbial system. Evolutionary trajectories revealed genetic constraints in a regulatory protein, which imposed cross-environment trade-offs that favored specialization. However, depending on the synchronicity and amplitude of the applied cue and stress variations, adaptation could break constraints, resolve trade-offs, and evolve optimal phenotypes that exhibit qualitatively altered (inverse) responses to the cue. Our results provide a first step to explain the adaptive origins of complex behavior in heterogeneous environments.

  1. Astronomical coronagraphy with high-order adaptive optics systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, James P.; Graham, James R.; Kalas, Paul; Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Makidon, Russell B.; Macintosh, Bruce A.; Max, Claire E.; Baudoz, Pierre; Kuhn, Jeff R.; Potter, Dan

    2001-12-01

    Space surveillance systems have recently been developed that exploit high order adaptive optics systems to take diffraction limited images in visible light on 4 meter class telescopes. Most astronomical targets are faint, thus driving astronomical AO systems towards larger subapertures, and thus longer observing wavelengths for diffraction limited imaging at moderate Strehl ratio. There is, however, a particular niche that can be exploited by turning these visible light space surveillance systems to astronomical use at infrared wavelengths. At the longer wavelengths, the Strehl ratio rises dramatically, thus placing more light into the diffracted Airy pattern compared to the atmospheric halo. A Lyot coronagraph can be used to suppress the diffracted light from an on axis star, and observe faint companions and debris disks around nearby, bright stars. These very high contrast objects can only be observed with much higher order adaptive optics systems than are presently available to the astronomical community. We describe simulations of high order adaptive optics coronagraphs, and outline a project to deploy an astronomical coronagraph at the Air Force AEOS facility at the Maui Space Surveillance System.

  2. People at the centre of complex adaptive health systems reform.

    PubMed

    Sturmberg, Joachim P; O'Halloran, Diana M; Martin, Carmel M

    2010-10-18

    Health systems are increasingly recognised to be complex adaptive systems (CASs), functionally characterised by their continuing and dynamic adaptation in response to core system drivers, or attractors. The core driver for our health system (and for the health reform strategies intended to achieve it) should clearly be the improvement of people's health - the personal experience of health, regardless of organic abnormalities; we contend that a patient-centred health system requires flexible localised decision making and resource use. The prevailing trend is to use disease protocols, financial management strategies and centralised control of siloed programs to manage our health system. This strategy is suggested to be fatally flawed, as: people's health and health experience as core system drivers are inevitably pre-empted by centralised and standardised strategies; the context specificity of personal experience and the capacity of local systems are overlooked; and in line with CAS patterns and characteristics, these strategies will lead to "unintended" consequences on all parts of the system. In Australia, there is still the time and opportunity for health system redesign that truly places people and their health at the core of the system.

  3. Homeostatic regulation of memory systems and adaptive decisions.

    PubMed

    Mizumori, Sheri J Y; Jo, Yong Sang

    2013-11-01

    While it is clear that many brain areas process mnemonic information, understanding how their interactions result in continuously adaptive behaviors has been a challenge. A homeostatic-regulated prediction model of memory is presented that considers the existence of a single memory system that is based on a multilevel coordinated and integrated network (from cells to neural systems) that determines the extent to which events and outcomes occur as predicted. The "multiple memory systems of the brain" have in common output that signals errors in the prediction of events and/or their outcomes, although these signals differ in terms of what the error signal represents (e.g., hippocampus: context prediction errors vs. midbrain/striatum: reward prediction errors). The prefrontal cortex likely plays a pivotal role in the coordination of prediction analysis within and across prediction brain areas. By virtue of its widespread control and influence, and intrinsic working memory mechanisms. Thus, the prefrontal cortex supports the flexible processing needed to generate adaptive behaviors and predict future outcomes. It is proposed that prefrontal cortex continually and automatically produces adaptive responses according to homeostatic regulatory principles: prefrontal cortex may serve as a controller that is intrinsically driven to maintain in prediction areas an experience-dependent firing rate set point that ensures adaptive temporally and spatially resolved neural responses to future prediction errors. This same drive by prefrontal cortex may also restore set point firing rates after deviations (i.e. prediction errors) are detected. In this way, prefrontal cortex contributes to reducing uncertainty in prediction systems. An emergent outcome of this homeostatic view may be the flexible and adaptive control that prefrontal cortex is known to implement (i.e. working memory) in the most challenging of situations. Compromise to any of the prediction circuits should result in

  4. Homeostatic Regulation of Memory Systems and Adaptive Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Mizumori, Sheri JY; Jo, Yong Sang

    2013-01-01

    While it is clear that many brain areas process mnemonic information, understanding how their interactions result in continuously adaptive behaviors has been a challenge. A homeostatic-regulated prediction model of memory is presented that considers the existence of a single memory system that is based on a multilevel coordinated and integrated network (from cells to neural systems) that determines the extent to which events and outcomes occur as predicted. The “multiple memory systems of the brain” have in common output that signals errors in the prediction of events and/or their outcomes, although these signals differ in terms of what the error signal represents (e.g., hippocampus: context prediction errors vs. midbrain/striatum: reward prediction errors). The prefrontal cortex likely plays a pivotal role in the coordination of prediction analysis within and across prediction brain areas. By virtue of its widespread control and influence, and intrinsic working memory mechanisms. Thus, the prefrontal cortex supports the flexible processing needed to generate adaptive behaviors and predict future outcomes. It is proposed that prefrontal cortex continually and automatically produces adaptive responses according to homeostatic regulatory principles: prefrontal cortex may serve as a controller that is intrinsically driven to maintain in prediction areas an experience-dependent firing rate set point that ensures adaptive temporally and spatially resolved neural responses to future prediction errors. This same drive by prefrontal cortex may also restore set point firing rates after deviations (i.e. prediction errors) are detected. In this way, prefrontal cortex contributes to reducing uncertainty in prediction systems. An emergent outcome of this homeostatic view may be the flexible and adaptive control that prefrontal cortex is known to implement (i.e. working memory) in the most challenging of situations. Compromise to any of the prediction circuits should result

  5. Adaptive feed array compensation system for reflector antenna surface distortion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Roberto J.; Zaman, A.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of a closed loop adaptive feed array system for compensating reflector surface deformations has been investigated. The performance characteristics (gain, sidelobe level, pointing, etc.) of large communication antenna systems degrade as the reflector surface distorts mainly due to thermal effects from a varying solar flux. The compensating systems described in this report can be used to maintain the design performance characteristics independent of thermal effects on the reflector surface. The proposed compensating system employs the concept of conjugate field matching to adjust the feed array complex excitation coefficients.

  6. Contingency support using adaptive telemetry extractor and expert system technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Thomas; Cruse, Bryant; Wende, Charles

    1987-01-01

    The 'telemetry analysis logic for operations support' prototype system constitutes an expert system that is charged with contingency planning for the NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST); this system has demonstrated the feasibility of using an adaptive telemetry extractor/reformatter that is integrated with an expert system. A test case generated by a simulator has demonstrated the reduction of the time required for analysis of a complex series of failures to a few minutes, from the hour usually required. The HST's telemetry extractor will be able to read real-time engineering telemetry streams and disk-based data. Telemetry format changes will be handled almost instantaneously.

  7. A Comparison of a Brain-Based Adaptive System and a Manual Adaptable System for Invoking Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Nathan R.; Scerbo, Mark W.; Freeman, Frederick G.; Mikulka, Peter J.; Scott, Lorissa A.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments are presented that examine alternative methods for invoking automation. In each experiment, participants were asked to perform simultaneously a monitoring task and a resource management task as well as a tracking task that changed between automatic and manual modes. The monitoring task required participants to detect failures of an automated system to correct aberrant conditions under either high or low system reliability. Performance on each task was assessed as well as situation awareness and subjective workload. In the first experiment, half of the participants worked with a brain-based system that used their EEG signals to switch the tracking task between automatic and manual modes. The remaining participants were yoked to participants from the adaptive condition and received the same schedule of mode switches, but their EEG had no effect on the automation. Within each group, half of the participants were assigned to either the low or high reliability monitoring task. In addition, within each combination of automation invocation and system reliability, participants were separated into high and low complacency potential groups. The results revealed no significant effects of automation invocation on the performance measures; however, the high complacency individuals demonstrated better situation awareness when working with the adaptive automation system. The second experiment was the same as the first with one important exception. Automation was invoked manually. Thus, half of the participants pressed a button to invoke automation for 10 s. The remaining participants were yoked to participants from the adaptable condition and received the same schedule of mode switches, but they had no control over the automation. The results showed that participants who could invoke automation performed more poorly on the resource management task and reported higher levels of subjective workload. Further, those who invoked automation more frequently performed

  8. Robust adaptive dynamic programming and feedback stabilization of nonlinear systems.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Jiang, Zhong-Ping

    2014-05-01

    This paper studies the robust optimal control design for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems from a perspective of robust adaptive dynamic programming (RADP). The objective is to fill up a gap in the past literature of adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) where dynamic uncertainties or unmodeled dynamics are not addressed. A key strategy is to integrate tools from modern nonlinear control theory, such as the robust redesign and the backstepping techniques as well as the nonlinear small-gain theorem, with the theory of ADP. The proposed RADP methodology can be viewed as an extension of ADP to uncertain nonlinear systems. Practical learning algorithms are developed in this paper, and have been applied to the controller design problems for a jet engine and a one-machine power system.

  9. Embedded intelligent adaptive PI controller for an electromechanical system.

    PubMed

    El-Nagar, Ahmad M

    2016-09-01

    In this study, an intelligent adaptive controller approach using the interval type-2 fuzzy neural network (IT2FNN) is presented. The proposed controller consists of a lower level proportional - integral (PI) controller, which is the main controller and an upper level IT2FNN which tuning on-line the parameters of a PI controller. The proposed adaptive PI controller based on IT2FNN (API-IT2FNN) is implemented practically using the Arduino DUE kit for controlling the speed of a nonlinear DC motor-generator system. The parameters of the IT2FNN are tuned on-line using back-propagation algorithm. The Lyapunov theorem is used to derive the stability and convergence of the IT2FNN. The obtained experimental results, which are compared with other controllers, demonstrate that the proposed API-IT2FNN is able to improve the system response over a wide range of system uncertainties.

  10. Coronagraphy with the AEOS High Order Adaptive Optics System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, J. P.; Graham, J. R.; Kalas, P.; Oppenheimer, B. R.; Sivaramakrishnan, A.; Makidon, R. B.; Macintosh, B. A.; Max, C. E.; Baudoz, P.; Kuhn, J. R.; Potter, D.

    2001-05-01

    Adaptive Optics has recently become a widely used technique to acquire sensitive, diffraction limited images in the near infrared with large ground based telescopes. Most astronomical targets are faint; driving astronomical AO systems towards large subapertures; resulting in a compromise between guide star brightness, observing wavelength, resolution and Strehl ratio. Space surveilance systems have recently been developed that exploit high order adaptive optics systems to take diffraction limited images in visible light on 4 meter class telescopes on bright (V<8) targets. There is, however, a particular niche that can be exploited by turning these visible light space surveillance systems to astronomical use at infrared wavelengths. At the longer wavelengths, the strehl ratio rises dramatically, thus placing more light into the diffracted Airy pattern at the expense of the atmospheric halo. A coronagraph can be used to suppress the diffracted light, and observe faint companions and debris disks around nearby, bright stars. Observations of these very high contrast objects benefit greatly from much higher order adaptive optics systems than are presently available to the astronomical commnunity. The National Science Foundation and Air Force Office of Scientific Research is sponsoring a program to conduct astronomical observations at the AEOS facility. We are presently developing an astronomical coronagraph to be deployed at the Air Force AEOS facility. We describe the coronagraph, and discuss the advantages and limitations of ground based high order AO for high contrast imaging.

  11. Soft systems thinking and social learning for adaptive management.

    PubMed

    Cundill, G; Cumming, G S; Biggs, D; Fabricius, C

    2012-02-01

    The success of adaptive management in conservation has been questioned and the objective-based management paradigm on which it is based has been heavily criticized. Soft systems thinking and social-learning theory expose errors in the assumption that complex systems can be dispassionately managed by objective observers and highlight the fact that conservation is a social process in which objectives are contested and learning is context dependent. We used these insights to rethink adaptive management in a way that focuses on the social processes involved in management and decision making. Our approach to adaptive management is based on the following assumptions: action toward a common goal is an emergent property of complex social relationships; the introduction of new knowledge, alternative values, and new ways of understanding the world can become a stimulating force for learning, creativity, and change; learning is contextual and is fundamentally about practice; and defining the goal to be addressed is continuous and in principle never ends. We believe five key activities are crucial to defining the goal that is to be addressed in an adaptive-management context and to determining the objectives that are desirable and feasible to the participants: situate the problem in its social and ecological context; raise awareness about alternative views of a problem and encourage enquiry and deconstruction of frames of reference; undertake collaborative actions; and reflect on learning.

  12. Magnetorheological impact seat suspensions for ground vehicle crash mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xian-Xu; Wereley, Norman M.

    2014-04-01

    Semi-active magnetorheological energy absorbers (MREAs) are one type of the most promising actuator for both the vibration and shock control. This paper investigates the frontal crash mitigation performance of semi-active MR impact seat suspensions for ground vehicles. The characteristics of two MREAs, a conventional MREA and an MREA with an internal bypass, with an identical volume, are theoretically evaluated and compared. To explore the control effectiveness of MREAs in the shock control systems, the mechanical model of a 4-degree-of-freedom (4DOF) sliding seat suspension system with MREAs is constructed. An optimal Bingham number control, which is to minimize the crash pulse loads transmitted to occupants by utilizing maximum stroke of the MREAs based on initial velocity of crash pulse, mass, and damping, is proposed and developed to improve the crash mitigation performance of the 4DOF MR sliding seat suspension control systems. The simulated control performances of the mitigation systems based on the MREAs with different functional structures are evaluated, compared, and analyzed. The research results indicate that (1) the constant stroking load velocity range of the MREAs is of significance to evaluate the controllability of the MREAs (i.e., the effectiveness of the semi-active shock control systems), and (2) suboptimal Bingham number control cannot realize "soft landing" (i.e., either an end-stop impact or incomplete utilization of the MREA stroke happens).

  13. Comparison of Contact Stress Distribution for Foam Seat and Seat of Auxetic Spring Skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janus-Michalska, M.; Jasińska, D.; Smardzewski, J.

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to present and compare the results of numerical solutions of contact problem for two types of seats subjected to typical sitting loadings. The first seat is made of a typical hyperelastic foam, the other is designed with an auxetic polyamid spring skeleton. Computer simulations of the seat structure under a typical static loading exerted by a human body are performed by means of ABAQUS FEA. The model provides an insight into deformation modes and stress field in relation to geometric and material parameters of the seat structure.The other type of seat, due to the fact of global auxecity and progressive springs characteristics reduces contact stress concentrations, giving an advantegous distribution of pressure and provides the sensation of physical comfort. The proper seat skeleton shape leads to an improvement of ergonomic quality.

  14. Preliminary Results of the Effect of Spinal Elongation in Microgravity on Seated Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen; Mesloh, Miranda

    2009-01-01

    The Constellation Program is designing a new vehicle for future space travel to the International Space Station and to the Moon and beyond. One major accommodation and design issue that needs to be addressed with the current seat layout design is spinal elongation. Spinal elongation is the spinal growth that occurs due to straightening of the spinal curve and expansion of the inter-verbal discs in microgravity. Spinal elongation is critical to the design of the seats, seat layout, suit fit, and crew accommodation because of the implications it can have on the a safe return of the crewmembers or during the mission. Inadequate clearance between crewmembers and/or between crewmember hardware interfaces may potentially result in injury during the mission or upon returning to earth. Therefore, design requirements need to be determined that will allow for the elongation of the spine. The current requirement as specified in the Human Systems Integration Requirement (HSIR) document states that a 3% increase in standing height must be accommodated. However, it cannot be assumed that the amount of standing height growth is equivalent to the amount of spinal elongation because of the variation in body proportions between the lower body and torso. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the amount of spinal elongation for a seated posture for 6 Shuttle and 7 ISS missions. Crewmembers seated heights were collected before, during, and after spaceflight to determine the change in seated height and the amount of spinal growth that occurs due to microgravity. The changes in seated height will provide the designers with a design requirement that will allow for change in spinal growth for a seated posture. Preliminary results have shown that increase in seated height is greater than the 3% increase currently stated in the requirement.

  15. Algebraic and adaptive learning in neural control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Silvia

    A systematic approach is developed for designing adaptive and reconfigurable nonlinear control systems that are applicable to plants modeled by ordinary differential equations. The nonlinear controller comprising a network of neural networks is taught using a two-phase learning procedure realized through novel techniques for initialization, on-line training, and adaptive critic design. A critical observation is that the gradients of the functions defined by the neural networks must equal corresponding linear gain matrices at chosen operating points. On-line training is based on a dual heuristic adaptive critic architecture that improves control for large, coupled motions by accounting for actual plant dynamics and nonlinear effects. An action network computes the optimal control law; a critic network predicts the derivative of the cost-to-go with respect to the state. Both networks are algebraically initialized based on prior knowledge of satisfactory pointwise linear controllers and continue to adapt on line during full-scale simulations of the plant. On-line training takes place sequentially over discrete periods of time and involves several numerical procedures. A backpropagating algorithm called Resilient Backpropagation is modified and successfully implemented to meet these objectives, without excessive computational expense. This adaptive controller is as conservative as the linear designs and as effective as a global nonlinear controller. The method is successfully implemented for the full-envelope control of a six-degree-of-freedom aircraft simulation. The results show that the on-line adaptation brings about improved performance with respect to the initialization phase during aircraft maneuvers that involve large-angle and coupled dynamics, and parameter variations.

  16. 28 CFR 36.308 - Seating in assembly areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... areas. A public accommodation shall ensure that wheelchair spaces and companion seats are provided in... place wheelchair spaces and companion seats in each such specialty seating area, it shall provide those... locations at no additional cost. The number of wheelchair spaces and companion seats provided in...

  17. 28 CFR 36.308 - Seating in assembly areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... areas. A public accommodation shall ensure that wheelchair spaces and companion seats are provided in... place wheelchair spaces and companion seats in each such specialty seating area, it shall provide those... locations at no additional cost. The number of wheelchair spaces and companion seats provided in...

  18. 28 CFR 36.308 - Seating in assembly areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... areas. A public accommodation shall ensure that wheelchair spaces and companion seats are provided in... place wheelchair spaces and companion seats in each such specialty seating area, it shall provide those... locations at no additional cost. The number of wheelchair spaces and companion seats provided in...

  19. 28 CFR 36.308 - Seating in assembly areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... areas. A public accommodation shall ensure that wheelchair spaces and companion seats are provided in... place wheelchair spaces and companion seats in each such specialty seating area, it shall provide those... locations at no additional cost. The number of wheelchair spaces and companion seats provided in...

  20. 49 CFR 393.91 - Buses, aisle seats prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Buses, aisle seats prohibited. 393.91 Section 393... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.91 Buses, aisle seats prohibited. No bus shall be equipped with aisle seats unless such seats are so designed and installed as...

  1. 49 CFR 393.91 - Buses, aisle seats prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Buses, aisle seats prohibited. 393.91 Section 393... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.91 Buses, aisle seats prohibited. No bus shall be equipped with aisle seats unless such seats are so designed and installed as...

  2. 49 CFR 393.91 - Buses, aisle seats prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Buses, aisle seats prohibited. 393.91 Section 393... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.91 Buses, aisle seats prohibited. No bus shall be equipped with aisle seats unless such seats are so designed and installed as...

  3. 49 CFR 393.91 - Buses, aisle seats prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Buses, aisle seats prohibited. 393.91 Section 393... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.91 Buses, aisle seats prohibited. No bus shall be equipped with aisle seats unless such seats are so designed and installed as...

  4. 49 CFR 393.91 - Buses, aisle seats prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buses, aisle seats prohibited. 393.91 Section 393... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.91 Buses, aisle seats prohibited. No bus shall be equipped with aisle seats unless such seats are so designed and installed as...

  5. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a) Seat belts shall be provided and worn in haulage trucks. (b) Seat belts shall be maintained in...

  6. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a) Seat belts shall be provided and worn in haulage trucks. (b) Seat belts shall be maintained in...

  7. Digital adaptive optics line-scanning confocal imaging system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changgeng; Kim, Myung K

    2015-01-01

    A digital adaptive optics line-scanning confocal imaging (DAOLCI) system is proposed by applying digital holographic adaptive optics to a digital form of line-scanning confocal imaging system. In DAOLCI, each line scan is recorded by a digital hologram, which allows access to the complex optical field from one slice of the sample through digital holography. This complex optical field contains both the information of one slice of the sample and the optical aberration of the system, thus allowing us to compensate for the effect of the optical aberration, which can be sensed by a complex guide star hologram. After numerical aberration compensation, the corrected optical fields of a sequence of line scans are stitched into the final corrected confocal image. In DAOLCI, a numerical slit is applied to realize the confocality at the sensor end. The width of this slit can be adjusted to control the image contrast and speckle noise for scattering samples. DAOLCI dispenses with the hardware pieces, such as Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor and deformable mirror, and the closed-loop feedbacks adopted in the conventional adaptive optics confocal imaging system, thus reducing the optomechanical complexity and cost. Numerical simulations and proof-of-principle experiments are presented that demonstrate the feasibility of this idea.

  8. Adaptive control of artificial pancreas systems - a review.

    PubMed

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Cinar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Artificial pancreas (AP) systems offer an important improvement in regulating blood glucose concentration for patients with type 1 diabetes, compared to current approaches. AP consists of sensors, control algorithms and an insulin pump. Different AP control algorithms such as proportional-integral-derivative, model-predictive control, adaptive control, and fuzzy logic control have been investigated in simulation and clinical studies in the past three decades. The variability over time and complexity of the dynamics of blood glucose concentration, unsteady disturbances such as meals, time-varying delays on measurements and insulin infusion, and noisy data from sensors create a challenging system to AP. Adaptive control is a powerful control technique that can deal with such challenges. In this paper, a review of adaptive control techniques for blood glucose regulation with an AP system is presented. The investigations and advances in technology produced impressive results, but there is still a need for a reliable AP system that is both commercially viable and appealing to patients with type 1 diabetes.

  9. Risk-return relationship in a complex adaptive system.

    PubMed

    Song, Kunyu; An, Kenan; Yang, Guang; Huang, Jiping

    2012-01-01

    For survival and development, autonomous agents in complex adaptive systems involving the human society must compete against or collaborate with others for sharing limited resources or wealth, by using different methods. One method is to invest, in order to obtain payoffs with risk. It is a common belief that investments with a positive risk-return relationship (namely, high risk high return and vice versa) are dominant over those with a negative risk-return relationship (i.e., high risk low return and vice versa) in the human society; the belief has a notable impact on daily investing activities of investors. Here we investigate the risk-return relationship in a model complex adaptive system, in order to study the effect of both market efficiency and closeness that exist in the human society and play an important role in helping to establish traditional finance/economics theories. We conduct a series of computer-aided human experiments, and also perform agent-based simulations and theoretical analysis to confirm the experimental observations and reveal the underlying mechanism. We report that investments with a negative risk-return relationship have dominance over those with a positive risk-return relationship instead in such a complex adaptive systems. We formulate the dynamical process for the system's evolution, which helps to discover the different role of identical and heterogeneous preferences. This work might be valuable not only to complexity science, but also to finance and economics, to management and social science, and to physics.

  10. Digital adaptive optics line-scanning confocal imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changgeng; Kim, Myung K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. A digital adaptive optics line-scanning confocal imaging (DAOLCI) system is proposed by applying digital holographic adaptive optics to a digital form of line-scanning confocal imaging system. In DAOLCI, each line scan is recorded by a digital hologram, which allows access to the complex optical field from one slice of the sample through digital holography. This complex optical field contains both the information of one slice of the sample and the optical aberration of the system, thus allowing us to compensate for the effect of the optical aberration, which can be sensed by a complex guide star hologram. After numerical aberration compensation, the corrected optical fields of a sequence of line scans are stitched into the final corrected confocal image. In DAOLCI, a numerical slit is applied to realize the confocality at the sensor end. The width of this slit can be adjusted to control the image contrast and speckle noise for scattering samples. DAOLCI dispenses with the hardware pieces, such as Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor and deformable mirror, and the closed-loop feedbacks adopted in the conventional adaptive optics confocal imaging system, thus reducing the optomechanical complexity and cost. Numerical simulations and proof-of-principle experiments are presented that demonstrate the feasibility of this idea. PMID:26140334

  11. Reduced energy and volume air pump for a seat cushion

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, M.R.; Constantineau, E.J.; Groves, G.E.

    1997-08-19

    An efficient pump system is described for transferring air between sets of bladders in a cushion. The pump system utilizes a reversible piston within a cylinder in conjunction with an equalizing valve in the piston which opens when the piston reaches the end of travel in one direction. The weight of a seated user then forces air back across the piston from an inflated bladder to the previously deflated bladder until the pressure is equalized. In this fashion the work done by the pump is cut in half. The inflation and deflation of the different bladders is controlled to vary the pressure on the several pressure points of a seated user. A principal application is for wheel chair use to prevent pressure ulcers. 12 figs.

  12. Reduced energy and volume air pump for a seat cushion

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, Mark R.; Constantineau, Edward J.; Groves, Gordon E.

    1997-01-01

    An efficient pump system for transferring air between sets of bladders in a cushion. The pump system utilizes a reversible piston within a cylinder in conjunction with an equalizing valve in the piston which opens when the piston reaches the end of travel in one direction. The weight of a seated user then forces air back across the piston from an inflated bladder to the previously deflated bladder until the pressure is equalized. In this fashion the work done by the pump is cut in half. The inflation and deflation of the different bladders is controlled to vary the pressure on the several pressure points of a seated user. A principal application is for wheel chair use to prevent pressure ulcers.

  13. Biomechanical considerations for abdominal loading by seat belt pretensioners.

    PubMed

    Rouhana, Stephen W; El-Jawahri, Raed E; Laituri, Tony R

    2010-11-01

    While seat belts are the most effective safety technology in vehicles today, there are continual efforts in the industry to improve their ability to reduce the risk of injury. In this paper, seat belt pretensioners and current trends towards more powerful systems were reviewed and analyzed. These more powerful systems may be, among other things, systems that develop higher belt forces, systems that remove slack from belt webbing at higher retraction speeds, or both. The analysis started with validation of the Ford Human Body Finite Element Model for use in evaluation of abdominal belt loading by pretensioners. The model was then used to show that those studies, done with lap-only belts, can be used to establish injury metrics for tests done with lap-shoulder belts. Then, previously-performed PMHS studies were used to develop AIS 2+ and AIS 3+ injury risk curves for abdominal interaction with seat belts via logistic regression and reliability analysis with interval censoring. Finally, some considerations were developed for a possible laboratory test to evaluate higher-powered pretensioners.

  14. Performance predictions for the Keck telescope adaptive optics system

    SciTech Connect

    Gavel, D.T.; Olivier, S.S.

    1995-08-07

    The second Keck ten meter telescope (Keck-11) is slated to have an infrared-optimized adaptive optics system in the 1997--1998 time frame. This system will provide diffraction-limited images in the 1--3 micron region and the ability to use a diffraction-limited spectroscopy slit. The AO system is currently in the preliminary design phase and considerable analysis has been performed in order to predict its performance under various seeing conditions. In particular we have investigated the point-spread function, energy through a spectroscopy slit, crowded field contrast, object limiting magnitude, field of view, and sky coverage with natural and laser guide stars.

  15. Development of the Seating and Mobility Script Concordance Test for Spinal Cord Injury: Obtaining Content Validity Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Laura J.; Fitzgerald, Shirley G.; Lane, Suzanne; Boninger, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    The appropriateness of a consumer's seating and mobility system varies considerably depending on the competence, proficiency, and experience of the professionals assisting the user. At present, there is a scarcity of skilled and knowledgeable therapists to evaluate and recommend seating and mobility devices. There is also a lack of measurement…

  16. Design of high temperature adaptability cassegrain collimation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhibin; Song, Yan; Liu, Xianhong; Xiao, Wenjian

    2014-12-01

    Collimation system is an indispensable part of the photoelectric detection equipment. Aimed at meeting the demand of field on-line detection for photoelectric system, the system must have higher requirements for its volume, quality and the anti-interference ability of all sorts of complex weather conditions. In order to solve this problem, this paper designed a kind of high temperature adaptability reflex cassegrain collimation system. First the technical indexes of the system was put forward according to the requirements of practical application, then the initial structure parameters was calculated by gaussian optical computing and optimized processing through Zemax. The simulation results showed that the MTF of the system was close to the diffraction limit, which had a good image quality. The system structure tube adopted hard steel material; the primary mirror and secondary mirror used low expansion coefficient of microcrystalline glass, which effectively reduced the deformation due to temperature difference and remained little change in quality and volume at the same time. The experiment results in high and low temperature environments also showed that the collimation system could keep within 30 "beam divergence angle, which proved to have good temperature adaptability, so that it can be used in the field of complex bad conditions.

  17. Seat Belt Usage on School Buses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Ernest

    1985-01-01

    Studies on seat belt usage conducted under contract with governmental organizations or prepared by professional societies, state and local organizations, and transportation specialists have made significant contributions, but none has successfully resolved the issue. (MLF)

  18. Quantifying Adaptive Evolution in the Drosophila Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Obbard, Darren J.; Welch, John J.; Kim, Kang-Wook; Jiggins, Francis M.

    2009-01-01

    It is estimated that a large proportion of amino acid substitutions in Drosophila have been fixed by natural selection, and as organisms are faced with an ever-changing array of pathogens and parasites to which they must adapt, we have investigated the role of parasite-mediated selection as a likely cause. To quantify the effect, and to identify which genes and pathways are most likely to be involved in the host–parasite arms race, we have re-sequenced population samples of 136 immunity and 287 position-matched non-immunity genes in two species of Drosophila. Using these data, and a new extension of the McDonald-Kreitman approach, we estimate that natural selection fixes advantageous amino acid changes in immunity genes at nearly double the rate of other genes. We find the rate of adaptive evolution in immunity genes is also more variable than other genes, with a small subset of immune genes evolving under intense selection. These genes, which are likely to represent hotspots of host–parasite coevolution, tend to share similar functions or belong to the same pathways, such as the antiviral RNAi pathway and the IMD signalling pathway. These patterns appear to be general features of immune system evolution in both species, as rates of adaptive evolution are correlated between the D. melanogaster and D. simulans lineages. In summary, our data provide quantitative estimates of the elevated rate of adaptive evolution in immune system genes relative to the rest of the genome, and they suggest that adaptation to parasites is an important force driving molecular evolution. PMID:19851448

  19. Low Temperature Shape Memory Alloys for Adaptive, Autonomous Systems Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falker, John; Zeitlin, Nancy; Williams, Martha; Benafan, Othmane; Fesmire, James

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this joint activity between Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Glenn Research Center (GRC) is to develop and evaluate the applicability of 2-way SMAs in proof-of-concept, low-temperature adaptive autonomous systems. As part of this low technology readiness (TRL) activity, we will develop and train low-temperature novel, 2-way shape memory alloys (SMAs) with actuation temperatures ranging from 0 C to 150 C. These experimental alloys will also be preliminary tested to evaluate their performance parameters and transformation (actuation) temperatures in low- temperature or cryogenic adaptive proof-of-concept systems. The challenge will be in the development, design, and training of the alloys for 2-way actuation at those temperatures.

  20. CRISPR-Cas systems: Prokaryotes upgrade to adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Barrangou, Rodolphe; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2014-04-24

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), and associated proteins (Cas) comprise the CRISPR-Cas system, which confers adaptive immunity against exogenic elements in many bacteria and most archaea. CRISPR-mediated immunization occurs through the uptake of DNA from invasive genetic elements such as plasmids and viruses, followed by its integration into CRISPR loci. These loci are subsequently transcribed and processed into small interfering RNAs that guide nucleases for specific cleavage of complementary sequences. Conceptually, CRISPR-Cas shares functional features with the mammalian adaptive immune system, while also exhibiting characteristics of Lamarckian evolution. Because immune markers spliced from exogenous agents are integrated iteratively in CRISPR loci, they constitute a genetic record of vaccination events and reflect environmental conditions and changes over time. Cas endonucleases, which can be reprogrammed by small guide RNAs have shown unprecedented potential and flexibility for genome editing and can be repurposed for numerous DNA targeting applications including transcriptional control.

  1. A System Approach to Adaptive Multi-Modal Sensor Designs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    Email: rhody@cis.rit.edu Program Managers: Dr. Douglas Cochran <douglas.cochran@afosr.af.mil> Dr. Kitt C. Reinhardt <kitt.reinhardt...DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE CONVENT AVE & 138TH ST SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING NEW YORK, NY 10031 Approved for public release...FA9550-08-1-0199 A System Approach to Adaptive Multi-Modal Sensor Designs 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  2. RAINBOW: Architecture-Based Adaptation of Complex Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    architectural level. The second problem is to translate architectural repairs into actual system changes. To do this we write a simple table-driven...bandwidth, regardless of the adaptation. Similarly, it is possible to use general probe technology to ameliorate the task of writing probes for particular...it is possible to use existing technologies like ProbeMeister [21] to generate the actual probes, without writing any additional code. 2.3

  3. Operational Effects on Crashworthy Seat Attenuators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    absorbers not meeting the manufacturer’s specified load-deflection characteristics were modeled by computer simulation to determine the change In injury...21 TABLE S. TROOP SEAT ENERGY ABSORBER TEST RESULTS SUIMMARY (3) pek Meet $ Energy Energy(I) Average Peak Manufacturer Absorber Aircraft Test T=2...deflection requirmansts may have been violated. 22 TABLE 5 (CONTO). TROOP SEAT ENERGY ABSORBER TEST RESULTS SU4ARY Meet $ Energy Energy") Average Peak

  4. Adaptive and neuroadaptive control for nonnegative and compartmental dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volyanskyy, Kostyantyn Y.

    Neural networks have been extensively used for adaptive system identification as well as adaptive and neuroadaptive control of highly uncertain systems. The goal of adaptive and neuroadaptive control is to achieve system performance without excessive reliance on system models. To improve robustness and the speed of adaptation of adaptive and neuroadaptive controllers several controller architectures have been proposed in the literature. In this dissertation, we develop a new neuroadaptive control architecture for nonlinear uncertain dynamical systems. The proposed framework involves a novel controller architecture with additional terms in the update laws that are constructed using a moving window of the integrated system uncertainty. These terms can be used to identify the ideal system weights of the neural network as well as effectively suppress system uncertainty. Linear and nonlinear parameterizations of the system uncertainty are considered and state and output feedback neuroadaptive controllers are developed. Furthermore, we extend the developed framework to discrete-time dynamical systems. To illustrate the efficacy of the proposed approach we apply our results to an aircraft model with wing rock dynamics, a spacecraft model with unknown moment of inertia, and an unmanned combat aerial vehicle undergoing actuator failures, and compare our results with standard neuroadaptive control methods. Nonnegative systems are essential in capturing the behavior of a wide range of dynamical systems involving dynamic states whose values are nonnegative. A sub-class of nonnegative dynamical systems are compartmental systems. These systems are derived from mass and energy balance considerations and are comprised of homogeneous interconnected microscopic subsystems or compartments which exchange variable quantities of material via intercompartmental flow laws. In this dissertation, we develop direct adaptive and neuroadaptive control framework for stabilization, disturbance

  5. A mathematical model of the impact response of the seated subject.

    PubMed

    Broman, H; Pope, M; Hansson, T

    1996-07-01

    A model of the lumbar spine, pelvis and buttocks is developed, based on linear horizontal and vertical systems along with a rotational subsystem. The model can mimic qualitatively different experimental observations of transmission of vibrations from the seat to L3 in the sitting posture. It is concluded that while the model lacks detailed sophistication, it adds to our qualitative understanding of the biomechanics of seated vibrations by pointing to those subsystems responsible for the observed transfer functions.

  6. Adaptation with disturbance attenuation in nonlinear control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Basar, T.

    1997-12-31

    We present an optimization-based adaptive controller design for nonlinear systems exhibiting parametric as well as functional uncertainty. The approach involves the formulation of an appropriate cost functional that places positive weight on deviations from the achievement of desired objectives (such as tracking of a reference trajectory while the system exhibits good transient performance) and negative weight on the energy of the uncertainty. This cost functional also translates into a disturbance attenuation inequality which quantifies the effect of the presence of uncertainty on the desired objective, which in turn yields an interpretation for the optimizing control as one that optimally attenuates the disturbance, viewed as the collection of unknown parameters and unknown signals entering the system dynamics. In addition to this disturbance attenuation property, the controllers obtained also feature adaptation in the sense that they help with identification of the unknown parameters, even though this has not been set as the primary goal of the design. In spite of this adaptation/identification role, the controllers obtained are not of certainty-equivalent type, which means that the identification and the control phases of the design are not decoupled.

  7. A role of the adaptive immune system in glucose homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Bronsart, Laura L; Contag, Christopher H

    2016-01-01

    Objective The immune system, including the adaptive immune response, has recently been recognized as having a significant role in diet-induced insulin resistance. In this study, we aimed to determine if the adaptive immune system also functions in maintaining physiological glucose homeostasis in the absence of diet-induced disease. Research design and methods SCID mice and immunocompetent control animals were phenotypically assessed for variations in metabolic parameters and cytokine profiles. Additionally, the glucose tolerance of SCID and immunocompetent control animals was assessed following introduction of a high-fat diet. Results SCID mice on a normal chow diet were significantly insulin resistant relative to control animals despite having less fat mass. This was associated with a significant increase in the innate immunity-stimulating cytokines granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1), and MCP3. Additionally, the SCID mouse phenotype was exacerbated in response to a high-fat diet as evidenced by the further significant progression of glucose intolerance. Conclusions These results support the notion that the adaptive immune system plays a fundamental biological role in glucose homeostasis, and that the absence of functional B and T cells results in disruption in the concentrations of various cytokines associated with macrophage proliferation and recruitment. Additionally, the absence of functional B and T cells is not protective against diet-induced pathology. PMID:27026807

  8. The plasma membrane transport systems and adaptation to salinity.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Mohamed Magdy F

    2014-11-15

    Salt stress represents one of the environmental challenges that drastically affect plant growth and yield. Evidence suggests that glycophytes and halophytes have a salt tolerance mechanisms working at the cellular level, and the plasma membrane (PM) is believed to be one facet of the cellular mechanisms. The responses of the PM transport proteins to salinity in contrasting species/cultivars were discussed. The review provides a comprehensive overview of the recent advances describing the crucial roles that the PM transport systems have in plant adaptation to salt. Several lines of evidence were presented to demonstrate the correlation between the PM transport proteins and adaptation of plants to high salinity. How alterations in these transport systems of the PM allow plants to cope with the salt stress was also addressed. Although inconsistencies exist in some of the information related to the responses of the PM transport proteins to salinity in different species/cultivars, their key roles in adaptation of plants to high salinity is obvious and evident, and cannot be precluded. Despite the promising results, detailed investigations at the cellular/molecular level are needed in some issues of the PM transport systems in response to salinity to further evaluate their implication in salt tolerance.

  9. Adaptive and Rational Anticipations in Risk Management Systems and Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Daniel M.; Holmberg, Stig C.

    2010-11-01

    The global financial crisis of year 2009 is explained as a result of uncoordinated risk management decisions in business firms and economic organisations. The underlying reason for this can be found in the current financial system. As the financial market has lost much of its direct coupling to the concrete economy it provides misleading information to economic decision makers at all levels. Hence, the financial system has moved from a state of moderate and slow cyclical fluctuations into a state of fast and chaotic ones. Those misleading decisions can further be described, but not explained, by help of adaptive and rational expectations from macroeconomic theory. In this context, AE, the Adaptive Expectations are related to weak passive Exo-anticipation, and RE, the Rational expectations can be related to a strong, active and design oriented anticipation. The shortcomings of conventional cures, which builds on a reactive paradigm, have already been demonstrated in economic literature and are here further underlined by help of Ashby's "Law of Requisite Variety", Weaver's distinction between systems of "Disorganized Complexity" and those of "Organized Complexity", and Klir's "Reconstructability Analysis". Anticipatory decision-making is hence here proposed as a replacement to current expectation based and passive risk management. An anticipatory model of the business cycle is presented for supporting that proposition. The model, which is an extension of the Kaldor-Kalecki model, includes both retardation and anticipation. While cybernetics with the feedback process in control system deals with an explicit goal or purpose given to a system, the anticipatory system discussed here deals with a behaviour for which the future state of the system is built by the system itself, without explicit goal. A system with weak anticipation is based on a predictive model of the system, while a system with strong anticipation builds its own future by itself. Numerical simulations on

  10. An adaptive neuro-control system of synchronous generator for power system stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Takenori; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    1996-09-01

    This paper proposes a nonlinear adaptive generator control system using neural networks, called an adaptive neuro-control system (ANCS). This system generates supplementary control signals to conventional controllers and works adaptively in response to changes in operating conditions and network configuration. Through digital time simulations for a one-machine infinite bus test power system, the control performance of the ANCS and advanced controllers such as a linear optimal regulator and a self-tuning regulator is evaluated from the viewpoint of stability enhancement. As a result, the proposed ANCS using neural networks with nonlinear characteristics improves system damping more effectively and more adaptively than the other two controllers designed for the linearized model of the power system.

  11. Downhole tool for use with a ball and seat traveling valve for a fluid pump

    SciTech Connect

    Spears, H.L.

    1989-07-18

    This paper describes a downhole tool for use with a ball and seat travelling valve associated with a movable plunger, having upper and lower ends, for pumping well fluids. It comprises: an upper housing; a lower housing adapted to be associated with the upper end of the plunger; and means for causing relative movement between the upper and lower housings and abutment of the upper housing against the lower housing to impart a bumping force to the plunger during the downward movement of the plunger, whereby the ball is moved from its seat to permit the passage of well fluids through the travelling valve.

  12. Development of 2 underseat energy absorbers for application to crashworthy passenger seats for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warrick, J. C.; Desjardins, S. P.

    1979-01-01

    This report presents the methodology and results of a program conducted to develop two underseat energy absorber (E/A) concepts for application to nonadjustable crashworthy passenger seats for general aviation aircraft. One concept utilizes an inflated air bag, and the other, a convoluted sheet metal bellows. Prototypes of both were designed, built, and tested. Both concepts demonstrated the necessary features of an energy absorber (load-limiter); however, the air bag concept is particularly encouraging because of its light weight. Several seat frame concepts also were investigated as a means of resisting longitudinal and lateral loads and of guiding the primary vertical stroke of the underseat energy absorber. Further development of a seat system design using the underseat energy absorbers is recommended because they provide greatly enhanced crash survivability as compared with existing general aviation aircraft seats.

  13. The NASA Ames integral aircraft passenger seat concept - A human engineering approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubokawa, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    A new NASA Ames concept for an aircraft passenger seat has been under research and development since 1968. It includes many human-factor features that will provide protection to the passenger from vibration, jostle, and high impact. It is comfortable and safer than any of the seats presently in use. An in-depth design, fabrication, and impact analysis was conducted in order to design a seat that will maximize passenger protection in high g impacts (20 g horizontal -Gx, 36 g vertical +Gz, 16 g lateral Gy). The method for absorbing impact energy was accomplished with a combination of stretching stainless steel cables, thread breaking of stitches, hydraulic mechanism and the special Temper Form cushions. The restraint system for the seat consisted of a lap belt and shoulder harness inertia reel combination.

  14. Adaptive Mesh Refinement in Curvilinear Body-Fitted Grid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinthorsson, Erlendur; Modiano, David; Colella, Phillip

    1995-01-01

    To be truly compatible with structured grids, an AMR algorithm should employ a block structure for the refined grids to allow flow solvers to take advantage of the strengths of unstructured grid systems, such as efficient solution algorithms for implicit discretizations and multigrid schemes. One such algorithm, the AMR algorithm of Berger and Colella, has been applied to and adapted for use with body-fitted structured grid systems. Results are presented for a transonic flow over a NACA0012 airfoil (AGARD-03 test case) and a reflection of a shock over a double wedge.

  15. An experimental study of a hybrid adaptive control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lizewski, E. F.; Monopoli, R. V.

    1974-01-01

    A Liapunov type model reference adaptive control system with five adjustable gains is implemented using a PDP-11 digital computer and an EAI 380 analog computer. The plant controlled is a laboratory type dc servo system. It is made to follow closely a second order linear model. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of implementing this rather complex design using only a minicomputer and a reasonable number of operational amplifiers. Also, it points out that satisfactory performance can be achieved even when certain assumptions necessary for the theory are not satisfied.

  16. ISAARE: Information System for Adaptive, Assistive, and Recreational Equipment: Volume I: Existence; Volume II, Communication; Volume V, Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melichar, Joseph F.

    Described as part of the Information System for Adaptive, Assistive and Recreational Equipment are equipment items for physically handicapped pupils in the functional areas of existence, equipment and adaptation. Reviewed in the existence section are such items as assistive food containers and container stabilizers, feeder accessories, bowel and…

  17. Experiment of space laser communication based on adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Zhun; Ai, Yong; Chen, Jin; Chen, Erhu; Wu, Yunyun

    2011-11-01

    The adaptive optics(AO) technology is adopted in the demo experiment of indoor space laser communication system. In transmit terminal, 650nm beacon and 1550nm signal beam with OOK modulation propagate through atmosphere turbulence simulator which simulate the laser's propagation in real atmosphere conditions. The AO system corrects real time wave-front information. In received terminal, signal intensity is collected and the bit error rate(BER) is recorded. Experiment data is obtained in different status of the AO system. Combined with signal beam wave-front reconstructed and image quality of far-field laser spot, results show that the received average power of communication system increases when using the AO system to correct low-order aberration. Also it rejects signal fading and makes the BER lower.

  18. Experiment of space laser communication based on adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Zhun; Ai, Yong; Chen, Jin; Chen, Erhu; Wu, Yunyun

    2012-02-01

    The adaptive optics(AO) technology is adopted in the demo experiment of indoor space laser communication system. In transmit terminal, 650nm beacon and 1550nm signal beam with OOK modulation propagate through atmosphere turbulence simulator which simulate the laser's propagation in real atmosphere conditions. The AO system corrects real time wave-front information. In received terminal, signal intensity is collected and the bit error rate(BER) is recorded. Experiment data is obtained in different status of the AO system. Combined with signal beam wave-front reconstructed and image quality of far-field laser spot, results show that the received average power of communication system increases when using the AO system to correct low-order aberration. Also it rejects signal fading and makes the BER lower.

  19. [Incorporation and adaptation of the postmodern belief system].

    PubMed

    Garzón Pérez, Adela

    2012-01-01

    Every society develops a particular system of beliefs that summarizes its vision of socio-political organization, culture and interpersonal relationships. Each of these three basic dimensions has different forms, depending on the spatial and temporal context of societies. The belief system of the service societies is characterized by a democratic vision of social and political organization, rejection of radical social changes and high levels of interpersonal trust. This paper empirically examines the incorporation and adaptation of the postmodern belief system in a sample of university students. The participants belong to a country that is slowly integrating into the service societies. We used a scale of postmodernity to analyze the incorporation of the postmodern belief system. The results indicate that there is a peculiar combination of the three basic dimensions of the postmodern belief system, where the postmodern conceptions of culture and social relationships have lower acceptance.

  20. Test methodology for evaluation of fireworthy aircraft seat cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Aircraft seat materials were evaluated in terms of their thermal performance. The materials were evaluated using (a) thermogravimetric analysis, (b) differential scanning calorimetry, (c) a modified NBS smoke chamber to determine the rate of mass loss and (d) the NASA T-3 apparatus to determine the thermal efficiency. In this paper, the modified NBS smoke chamber will be described in detail since it provided the most conclusive results. The NBS smoke chamber was modified to measure the weight loss of materials when exposed to a radiant heat source over the range of 2.5 to 7.5 W/cm sq. This chamber has been utilized to evaluate the thermal performance of various heat blocking layers utilized to protect the polyurethane cushioning foam used in aircraft seats. Various kinds of heat blocking layers were evaluated by monitoring the weight loss of miniature seat cushions when exposed to the radiant heat. The effectiveness of aluminized heat blocking systems was demonstrated when compared to conventional heat blocking layers such as neoprene. All heat blocking systems showed good fire protection capabilities when compared to the state-of-the-art, i.e., wool-nylon over polyurethane foam.

  1. Adaptive-passive vibration control systems for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, D.; Pfeiffer, T.; Vrbata, J.; Melz, T.

    2015-04-01

    Tuned vibration absorbers have become common for passive vibration reduction in many industrial applications. Lightly damped absorbers (also called neutralizers) can be used to suppress narrowband disturbances by tuning them to the excitation frequency. If the resonance is adapted in-operation, the performance of those devices can be significantly enhanced, or inertial mass can be decreased. However, the integration of actuators, sensors and control electronics into the system raises new design challenges. In this work, the development of adaptive-passive systems for vibration reduction at an industrial scale is presented. As an example, vibration reduction of a ship engine was studied in a full scale test. Simulations were used to study the feasibility and evaluate the system concept at an early stage. Several ways to adjust the resonance of the neutralizer were evaluated, including piezoelectric actuation and common mechatronic drives. Prototypes were implemented and tested. Since vibration absorbers suffer from high dynamic loads, reliability tests were used to assess the long-term behavior under operational conditions and to improve the components. It was proved that the adaptive systems are capable to withstand the mechanical loads in an industrial application. Also a control strategy had to be implemented in order to track the excitation frequency. The most mature concepts were integrated into the full scale test. An imbalance exciter was used to simulate the engine vibrations at a realistic level experimentally. The neutralizers were tested at varying excitation frequencies to evaluate the tracking capabilities of the control system. It was proved that a significant vibration reduction is possible.

  2. Fuzzy Adaptive Cubature Kalman Filter for Integrated Navigation Systems.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chien-Hao; Lin, Sheng-Fuu; Jwo, Dah-Jing

    2016-07-26

    This paper presents a sensor fusion method based on the combination of cubature Kalman filter (CKF) and fuzzy logic adaptive system (FLAS) for the integrated navigation systems, such as the GPS/INS (Global Positioning System/inertial navigation system) integration. The third-degree spherical-radial cubature rule applied in the CKF has been employed to avoid the numerically instability in the system model. In processing navigation integration, the performance of nonlinear filter based estimation of the position and velocity states may severely degrade caused by modeling errors due to dynamics uncertainties of the vehicle. In order to resolve the shortcoming for selecting the process noise covariance through personal experience or numerical simulation, a scheme called the fuzzy adaptive cubature Kalman filter (FACKF) is presented by introducing the FLAS to adjust the weighting factor of the process noise covariance matrix. The FLAS is incorporated into the CKF framework as a mechanism for timely implementing the tuning of process noise covariance matrix based on the information of degree of divergence (DOD) parameter. The proposed FACKF algorithm shows promising accuracy improvement as compared to the extended Kalman filter (EKF), unscented Kalman filter (UKF), and CKF approaches.

  3. Fuzzy Adaptive Cubature Kalman Filter for Integrated Navigation Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Chien-Hao; Lin, Sheng-Fuu; Jwo, Dah-Jing

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a sensor fusion method based on the combination of cubature Kalman filter (CKF) and fuzzy logic adaptive system (FLAS) for the integrated navigation systems, such as the GPS/INS (Global Positioning System/inertial navigation system) integration. The third-degree spherical-radial cubature rule applied in the CKF has been employed to avoid the numerically instability in the system model. In processing navigation integration, the performance of nonlinear filter based estimation of the position and velocity states may severely degrade caused by modeling errors due to dynamics uncertainties of the vehicle. In order to resolve the shortcoming for selecting the process noise covariance through personal experience or numerical simulation, a scheme called the fuzzy adaptive cubature Kalman filter (FACKF) is presented by introducing the FLAS to adjust the weighting factor of the process noise covariance matrix. The FLAS is incorporated into the CKF framework as a mechanism for timely implementing the tuning of process noise covariance matrix based on the information of degree of divergence (DOD) parameter. The proposed FACKF algorithm shows promising accuracy improvement as compared to the extended Kalman filter (EKF), unscented Kalman filter (UKF), and CKF approaches. PMID:27472336

  4. Adaptive mechanical properties of topologically interlocking material systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, S.; Siegmund, T.; Cipra, R. J.; Bolton, J. S.

    2015-04-01

    Topologically interlocked material systems are two-dimensional granular crystals created as ordered and adhesion-less assemblies of unit elements of the shape of platonic solids. The assembly resists transverse forces due to the interlocking geometric arrangement of the unit elements. Topologically interlocked material systems yet require an external constraint to provide resistance under the action of external load. Past work considered fixed and passive constraints only. The objective of the present study is to consider active and adaptive external constraints with the goal to achieve variable stiffness and energy absorption characteristics of the topologically interlocked material system through an active control of the in-plane constraint conditions. Experiments and corresponding model analysis are used to demonstrate control of system stiffness over a wide range, including negative stiffness, and energy absorption characteristics. The adaptive characteristics of the topologically interlocked material system are shown to solve conflicting requirements of simultaneously providing energy absorption while keeping loads controlled. Potential applications can be envisioned in smart structure enhanced response characteristics as desired in shock absorption, protective packaging and catching mechanisms.

  5. The PDZ domain as a complex adaptive system.

    PubMed

    Kurakin, Alexei; Swistowski, Andrzej; Wu, Susan C; Bredesen, Dale E

    2007-09-26

    Specific protein associations define the wiring of protein interaction networks and thus control the organization and functioning of the cell as a whole. Peptide recognition by PDZ and other protein interaction domains represents one of the best-studied classes of specific protein associations. However, a mechanistic understanding of the relationship between selectivity and promiscuity commonly observed in the interactions mediated by peptide recognition modules as well as its functional meaning remain elusive. To address these questions in a comprehensive manner, two large populations of artificial and natural peptide ligands of six archetypal PDZ domains from the synaptic proteins PSD95 and SAP97 were generated by target-assisted iterative screening (TAIS) of combinatorial peptide libraries and by synthesis of proteomic fragments, correspondingly. A comparative statistical analysis of affinity-ranked artificial and natural ligands yielded a comprehensive picture of known and novel PDZ ligand specificity determinants, revealing a hitherto unappreciated combination of specificity and adaptive plasticity inherent to PDZ domain recognition. We propose a reconceptualization of the PDZ domain in terms of a complex adaptive system representing a flexible compromise between the rigid order of exquisite specificity and the chaos of unselective promiscuity, which has evolved to mediate two mutually contradictory properties required of such higher order sub-cellular organizations as synapses, cell junctions, and others--organizational structure and organizational plasticity/adaptability. The generalization of this reconceptualization in regard to other protein interaction modules and specific protein associations is consistent with the image of the cell as a complex adaptive macromolecular system as opposed to clockwork.

  6. 76 FR 64795 - Airworthiness Directives; Sicma Aero Seat Passenger Seat Assemblies Installed on Various...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... Passenger Seat Assemblies Installed on Various Transport Category Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation... passenger seat assemblies, installed on various transport category airplanes. This AD results from mandatory... supplemental NPRM (76 FR 22830, April 25, 2011). Request to Remove Airplanes From the Proposed...

  7. 77 FR 24360 - Airworthiness Directives; Sicma Aero Seat Passenger Seat Assemblies, Installed on, But Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... Passenger Seat Assemblies, Installed on, But Not Limited to, ATR-GIE Avions de Transport R gional Airplanes... assemblies, installed on, but not limited to, ATR--GIE Avions de Transport R gional Model ATR42 and ATR72... assemblies in the applicability instead of Model 9405 series passenger seat assemblies. We are issuing...

  8. 77 FR 30885 - Clarification of Prior Interpretations of the Seat Belt and Seating Requirements for General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... structural strength requirements for the seat are not exceeded. This clarification also emphasizes that... appropriate if: (1) The belt is approved and rated for this type of use; (2) the structural strength... because seat belts were generally rated in terms of strength and some were rated for more than...

  9. Agent Technology, Complex Adaptive Systems, and Autonomic Systems: Their Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Rouff, Chistopher; Hincheny, Mike

    2004-01-01

    To reduce the cost of future spaceflight missions and to perform new science, NASA has been investigating autonomous ground and space flight systems. These goals of cost reduction have been further complicated by nanosatellites for future science data-gathering which will have large communications delays and at times be out of contact with ground control for extended periods of time. This paper describes two prototype agent-based systems, the Lights-out Ground Operations System (LOGOS) and the Agent Concept Testbed (ACT), and their autonomic properties that were developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to demonstrate autonomous operations of future space flight missions. The paper discusses the architecture of the two agent-based systems, operational scenarios of both, and the two systems autonomic properties.

  10. Adaptive Systems Engineering: A Medical Paradigm for Practicing Systems Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    R. Douglas Hamelin; Ron D. Klingler; Christopher Dieckmann

    2011-06-01

    From its inception in the defense and aerospace industries, SE has applied holistic, interdisciplinary tools and work-process to improve the design and management of 'large, complex engineering projects.' The traditional scope of engineering in general embraces the design, development, production, and operation of physical systems, and SE, as originally conceived, falls within that scope. While this 'traditional' view has expanded over the years to embrace wider, more holistic applications, much of the literature and training currently available is still directed almost entirely at addressing the large, complex, NASA and defense-sized systems wherein the 'ideal' practice of SE provides the cradle-to-grave foundation for system development and deployment. Under such scenarios, systems engineers are viewed as an integral part of the system and project life-cycle from conception to decommissioning. In far less 'ideal' applications, SE principles are equally applicable to a growing number of complex systems and projects that need to be 'rescued' from overwhelming challenges that threaten imminent failure. The medical profession provides a unique analogy for this latter concept and offers a useful paradigm for tailoring our 'practice' of SE to address the unexpected dynamics of applying SE in the real world. In short, we can be much more effective as systems engineers as we change some of the paradigms under which we teach and 'practice' SE.

  11. Adaptive intelligent systems for pHealth - an architectural approach.

    PubMed

    González, Carolina; Blobel, Bernd; López, Diego M

    2012-01-01

    Health systems around the globe, especially in developing countries, are facing the challenge of delivering effective, safe, and high quality public health and individualized health services independent of time and location, and with minimum of allocated resources (pHealth). In this context, health promotion and health education services are very important, especially in primary care settings. The objective of this paper is to describe the architecture of an adaptive intelligent system mainly developed to support education and training of citizens, but also of health professionals. The proposed architecture describes a system consisting of several agents that cooperatively interact to find and process tutoring materials to disseminate them to users (multi-agent system). A prototype is being implemented which includes medical students from the Medical Faculty at University of Cauca (Colombia). In the experimental process, the student´s learning style - detected with the Bayesian Model - is compared against the learning style obtained from a questioner (manual approach).

  12. Dual-phase evolution in complex adaptive systems

    PubMed Central

    Paperin, Greg; Green, David G.; Sadedin, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the origins of complexity is a key challenge in many sciences. Although networks are known to underlie most systems, showing how they contribute to well-known phenomena remains an issue. Here, we show that recurrent phase transitions in network connectivity underlie emergent phenomena in many systems. We identify properties that are typical of systems in different connectivity phases, as well as characteristics commonly associated with the phase transitions. We synthesize these common features into a common framework, which we term dual-phase evolution (DPE). Using this framework, we review the literature from several disciplines to show that recurrent connectivity phase transitions underlie the complex properties of many biological, physical and human systems. We argue that the DPE framework helps to explain many complex phenomena, including perpetual novelty, modularity, scale-free networks and criticality. Our review concludes with a discussion of the way DPE relates to other frameworks, in particular, self-organized criticality and the adaptive cycle. PMID:21247947

  13. HARNESS: Heterogeneous Adaptable Reconfigurable Networked Systems. Final Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fagg, G. E.

    2004-01-20

    HARNESS was proposed as a system that combined the best of emerging technologies found in current distributed computing research and commercial products into a very flexible, dynamically adaptable framework that could be used by applications to allow them to evolve and better handle their execution environment. The HARNESS system was designed using the considerable experience from previous projects such as PVM, MPI, IceT and Cumulvs. As such, the system was designed to avoid any of the common problems found with using these current systems, such as no single point of failure, ability to survive machine, node and software failures. Additional features included improved intercomponent connectivity, with full support for dynamic down loading of addition components at run-time thus reducing the stress on application developers to build in all the libraries they need in advance.

  14. Self-* and Adaptive Mechanisms for Large Scale Distributed Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragopoulou, P.; Mastroianni, C.; Montero, R.; Andrjezak, A.; Kondo, D.

    Large-scale distributed computing systems and infrastructure, such as Grids, P2P systems and desktop Grid platforms, are decentralized, pervasive, and composed of a large number of autonomous entities. The complexity of these systems is such that human administration is nearly impossible and centralized or hierarchical control is highly inefficient. These systems need to run on highly dynamic environments, where content, network topologies and workloads are continuously changing. Moreover, they are characterized by the high degree of volatility of their components and the need to provide efficient service management and to handle efficiently large amounts of data. This paper describes some of the areas for which adaptation emerges as a key feature, namely, the management of computational Grids, the self-management of desktop Grid platforms and the monitoring and healing of complex applications. It also elaborates on the use of bio-inspired algorithms to achieve self-management. Related future trends and challenges are described.

  15. Fourier transform digital holographic adaptive optics imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changgeng; Yu, Xiao; Kim, Myung K.

    2013-01-01

    A Fourier transform digital holographic adaptive optics imaging system and its basic principles are proposed. The CCD is put at the exact Fourier transform plane of the pupil of the eye lens. The spherical curvature introduced by the optics except the eye lens itself is eliminated. The CCD is also at image plane of the target. The point-spread function of the system is directly recorded, making it easier to determine the correct guide-star hologram. Also, the light signal will be stronger at the CCD, especially for phase-aberration sensing. Numerical propagation is avoided. The sensor aperture has nothing to do with the resolution and the possibility of using low coherence or incoherent illumination is opened. The system becomes more efficient and flexible. Although it is intended for ophthalmic use, it also shows potential application in microscopy. The robustness and feasibility of this compact system are demonstrated by simulations and experiments using scattering objects. PMID:23262541

  16. Distributed Adaptive Neural Control for Stochastic Nonlinear Multiagent Systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Chen, Bing; Lin, Chong; Li, Xuehua

    2016-11-14

    In this paper, a consensus tracking problem of nonlinear multiagent systems is investigated under a directed communication topology. All the followers are modeled by stochastic nonlinear systems in nonstrict feedback form, where nonlinearities and stochastic disturbance terms are totally unknown. Based on the structural characteristic of neural networks (in Lemma 4), a novel distributed adaptive neural control scheme is put forward. The raised control method not only effectively handles unknown nonlinearities in nonstrict feedback systems, but also copes with the interactions among agents and coupling terms. Based on the stochastic Lyapunov functional method, it is indicated that all the signals of the closed-loop system are bounded in probability and all followers' outputs are convergent to a neighborhood of the output of leader. At last, the efficiency of the control method is testified by a numerical example.

  17. Chandra Automatic Processing Task Interface: An Adaptable System Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grier, J. D., Jr.; Plummer, D.

    2007-10-01

    The Chandra Automatic Processing Task Interface (CAPTAIN) is an operations interface to Chandra Automatic Processing (AP) that provides detail management and execution of the AP pipelines. In particular, this kind of management is used in Special Automatic Processing (SAP) where there is a need to select specific pipelines that require non-standard handling for reprocessing of a given data set. Standard AP currently contains approximately 200 pipelines with complex interactions between them. As AP has evolved over the life of the mission, so has the number and attributes of these pipelines. As a result, CAPTAIN provides a system architecture capable of managing and adapting to this evolving system. This adaptability has allowed CAPTAIN to also be used to initiate Chandra Source Catalog Automatic Processing (Level~3 AP) and positions it for use with future automatic processing systems. This paper describes the approach to the development of the CAPTAIN system architecture and the maintainable, extensible and reusable software architecture by which it is implemented.

  18. Cross-Layer Adaptive Feedback Scheduling of Wireless Control Systems

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Feng; Ma, Longhua; Peng, Chen; Sun, Youxian; Dong, Jinxiang

    2008-01-01

    There is a trend towards using wireless technologies in networked control systems. However, the adverse properties of the radio channels make it difficult to design and implement control systems in wireless environments. To attack the uncertainty in available communication resources in wireless control systems closed over WLAN, a cross-layer adaptive feedback scheduling (CLAFS) scheme is developed, which takes advantage of the co-design of control and wireless communications. By exploiting cross-layer design, CLAFS adjusts the sampling periods of control systems at the application layer based on information about deadline miss ratio and transmission rate from the physical layer. Within the framework of feedback scheduling, the control performance is maximized through controlling the deadline miss ratio. Key design parameters of the feedback scheduler are adapted to dynamic changes in the channel condition. An event-driven invocation mechanism for the feedback scheduler is also developed. Simulation results show that the proposed approach is efficient in dealing with channel capacity variations and noise interference, thus providing an enabling technology for control over WLAN. PMID:27879934

  19. Status of the ARGOS ground layer adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gässler, Wolfgang; Rabien, Sebastian; Esposito, Simone; Lloyd-Hart, Michael; Barl, Lothar; Beckmann, Udo; Bluemchen, Thomas; Bonaglia, Marco; Borelli, José Luis; Brusa, Guido; Brynnel, Joar; Buschkamp, Peter; Busoni, Lorenzo; Carbonaro, Luca; Connot, Claus; Davies, Richard; Deysenroth, Matthias; Durney, Olivier; Green, Richard; Gemperlein, Hans; Gasho, Victor; Haug, Marcus; Hubbard, Pete; Ihle, Sebastian; Kulas, Martin; Lederer, Reinhard; Lewis, Jason; Loose, Christina; Lehmitz, Michael; Noenickx, Jamison; Nussbaum, Edmund; Orban de Xivry, Gilles; Peter, Diethard; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Rademacher, Matt; Raab, Walfried; Storm, Jesper; Schwab, Christian; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya; Ziegleder, Julian

    2012-07-01

    ARGOS the Advanced Rayleigh guided Ground layer adaptive Optics System for the LBT (Large Binocular Telescope) is built by a German-Italian-American consortium. It will be a seeing reducer correcting the turbulence in the lower atmosphere over a field of 2' radius. In such way we expect to improve the spatial resolution over the seeing of about a factor of two and more and to increase the throughput for spectroscopy accordingly. In its initial implementation, ARGOS will feed the two near-infrared spectrograph and imager - LUCI I and LUCI II. The system consist of six Rayleigh lasers - three per eye of the LBT. The lasers are launched from the back of the adaptive secondary mirror of the LBT. ARGOS has one wavefront sensor unit per primary mirror of the LBT, each of the units with three Shack-Hartmann sensors, which are imaged on one detector. In 2010 and 2011, we already mounted parts of the instrument at the telescope to provide an environment for the main sub-systems. The commissioning of the instrument will start in 2012 in a staged approach. We will give an overview of ARGOS and its goals and report about the status and new challenges we encountered during the building phase. Finally we will give an outlook of the upcoming work, how we will operate it and further possibilities the system enables by design.

  20. Stable direct adaptive control of linear infinite-dimensional systems using a command generator tracker approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balas, Mark; Kaufman, Howard; Wen, John

    1984-01-01

    The topics are presented in view graph form and include the following: an adaptive model following control; adaptive control of a distributed parameter system (DPS) with a finite-dimensional controller; a direct adaptive controller; a closed-loop adaptively controlled DPS; Lyapunov stability; the asymptotic stability of the closed loop; and model control of a simply supported beam.

  1. Adapting classical Systems Engineering to Department of Energy (DOE) needs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Rather than discuss Systems Engineering (SE) as applied by aerospace contractors to military programs, this document provides an adapted model well suited for use by DOE and represents 18 months of applying SE principles to the challenges faced by INEL. The real-life examples are drawn from INEL`s ongoing effort to integrate activities across the entire spectrum of within its Environmental Management program. Since the traditional SE process, with its initial focus on requirements identification and analysis, must be modified to provide tangible results in the short term, the adapted SE model starts with the external driver of ``reducing costs without increasing risks`` and performs an initial integration effort to identify high-potential, cost-saving opportunities. Elements from traditional alternatives development and analysis stages are used; then the adapted model cycles back to include more traditional requirements analysis activities. These cycles continue in an iterative manner, adding rigor and detail at each successive iteration, throughout the life-cycle of a program or project. Detailed lessons learned are included.

  2. An adaptive learning control system for large flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thau, F. E.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the research has been to study the design of adaptive/learning control systems for the control of large flexible structures. In the first activity an adaptive/learning control methodology for flexible space structures was investigated. The approach was based on using a modal model of the flexible structure dynamics and an output-error identification scheme to identify modal parameters. In the second activity, a least-squares identification scheme was proposed for estimating both modal parameters and modal-to-actuator and modal-to-sensor shape functions. The technique was applied to experimental data obtained from the NASA Langley beam experiment. In the third activity, a separable nonlinear least-squares approach was developed for estimating the number of excited modes, shape functions, modal parameters, and modal amplitude and velocity time functions for a flexible structure. In the final research activity, a dual-adaptive control strategy was developed for regulating the modal dynamics and identifying modal parameters of a flexible structure. A min-max approach was used for finding an input to provide modal parameter identification while not exceeding reasonable bounds on modal displacement.

  3. 76 FR 9551 - Availability of Seats for the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    .../Commercial Fishing seats, Heritage Tourism seat, and Economic Development seat. Applicants are chosen based... Development, Education, Heritage Tourism, Maritime Archaeological Research, North Carolina Maritime...

  4. Application of neural adaptive power system stabilizer in a multi-machine power system

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsollahi, P.; Malik, O.P.

    1999-09-01

    Application of a neural adaptive power system stabilizer (NAPSS) to a five-machine power system is described in this paper. The proposed NAPSS comprises two subnetworks. The adaptive neuro-identifier (ANI) to dynamically identify the non-linear plant, and the adaptive neuro-controller (ANC) to damp output oscillations. The back-propagation training method is used on-line to train these subnetworks. The effectiveness of the proposed NAPSS in damping both local and inter-area modes of oscillations and its self-coordination ability are demonstrated.

  5. Seating Considerations for Spaceflight: The Human to Machine Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gohmert, Dustin M.

    2011-01-01

    Seating is one of the most critical components to be considered during design of a spacecraft. Since seats are the final interface between the occupant and the vehicle wherein all launch and landing operations are performed, significant effort must be spent to ensure proper integration of the human to the spacecraft. The importance of seating can be divided into two categories: seat layout and seat design. The layout of the seats drives the overall cabin configuration - from displays and controls, to windows, to stowage, to egress paths. Since the layout of the seats is such a critical design parameter within the crew compartment, it is one of the first design challenges that must be completed in the critical path of the spacecraft design. In consideration of seat layout in the vehicle, it is important for the designers to account for often intangible factors such as safety, operability, contingency performance, crew rescue. Seat layout will lead to definition of the quantity, shape, and posture of the seats. The seats of the craft must restrain and protect the occupant in all seated phases of flight, while allowing for nominal mission performance. In design of a spacecraft seat, the general posture of the occupant and the landing loads to be encountered are the greatest drivers of overall design. Variances, such as upright versus recumbent postures will dictate fit of the seat to the occupant and drive the total envelope of the seat around the occupant. Seat design revolves around applying sound principles of seated occupant protection coupled with the unique environments driven by the seat layout, landing loads, and operational and emergency scenarios.

  6. Seating Considerations for Spaceflight: The Human to Machine Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohmert, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Seating is one of the most critical components to be considered during design of a spacecraft. Since seats are the final interface between the occupant and the vehicle wherein all launch and landing operations are performed, significant effort must be spent to ensure proper integration of the human to the spacecraft. The importance of seating can be divided into two categories: seat layout and seat design. The layout of the seats drives the overall cabin configuration - from displays and controls, to windows, to stowage, to egress paths. Since the layout of the seats is such a critical design parameter within the crew compartment, it is one of the first design challenges that must be completed in the critical path of the spacecraft design. In consideration of seat layout in the vehicle, it is important for the designers to account for often intangible factors such as safety, operability, contingency performance, and crew rescue. Seat layout will lead to definition of the quantity, shape, and posture of the seats. The seats of the craft must restrain and protect the occupant in all seated phases of flight, while allowing for nominal mission performance. In design of a spacecraft seat, the general posture of the occupant and the landing loads to be encountered are the greatest drivers of overall design. Variances, such as upright versus recumbent postures will dictate fit of the seat to the occupant and drive the total envelope of the seat around the occupant. Seat design revolves around applying sound principles of seated occupant protection coupled with the unique environments driven by the seat layout, landing loads, and operational and emergency scenarios.

  7. Vasodilator factors in the systemic and local adaptations to pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Valdes, Gloria; Kaufmann, Peter; Corthorn, Jenny; Erices, Rafaela; Brosnihan, K Bridget; Joyner-Grantham, JaNae

    2009-01-01

    We postulate that an orchestrated network composed of various vasodilatory systems participates in the systemic and local hemodynamic adaptations in pregnancy. The temporal patterns of increase in the circulating and urinary levels of five vasodilator factors/systems, prostacyclin, nitric oxide, kallikrein, angiotensin-(1–7) and VEGF, in normal pregnant women and animals, as well as the changes observed in preeclamptic pregnancies support their functional role in maintaining normotension by opposing the vasoconstrictor systems. In addition, the expression of these vasodilators in the different trophoblastic subtypes in various species supports their role in the transformation of the uterine arteries. Moreover, their expression in the fetal endothelium and in the syncytiotrophoblast in humans, rats and guinea-pigs, favour their participation in maintaining the uteroplacental circulation. The findings that sustain the functional associations of the various vasodilators, and their participation by endocrine, paracrine and autocrine regulation of the systemic and local vasoactive changes of pregnancy are abundant and compelling. However, further elucidation of the role of the various players is hampered by methodological problems. Among these difficulties is the complexity of the interactions between the different factors, the likelihood that experimental alterations induced in one system may be compensated by the other players of the network, and the possibility that data obtained by manipulating single factors in vitro or in animal studies may be difficult to translate to the human. In addition, the impossibility of sampling the uteroplacental interface along normal pregnancy precludes obtaining longitudinal profiles of the various players. Nevertheless, the possibility of improving maternal blood pressure regulation, trophoblast invasion and uteroplacental flow by enhancing vasodilation (e.g. L-arginine, NO donors, VEGF transfection) deserves unravelling the

  8. Climate change adaptation for the US National Wildlife Refuge System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffith, Brad; Scott, J. Michael; Adamcik, Robert S.; Ashe, Daniel; Czech, Brian; Fischman, Robert; Gonzalez, Patrick; Lawler, Joshua J.; McGuire, A. David; Pidgorna, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Since its establishment in 1903, the National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) has grown to 635 units and 37 Wetland Management Districts in the United States and its territories. These units provide the seasonal habitats necessary for migratory waterfowl and other species to complete their annual life cycles. Habitat conversion and fragmentation, invasive species, pollution, and competition for water have stressed refuges for decades, but the interaction of climate change with these stressors presents the most recent, pervasive, and complex conservation challenge to the NWRS. Geographic isolation and small unit size compound the challenges of climate change, but a combined emphasis on species that refuges were established to conserve and on maintaining biological integrity, diversity, and environmental health provides the NWRS with substantial latitude to respond. Individual symptoms of climate change can be addressed at the refuge level, but the strategic response requires system-wide planning. A dynamic vision of the NWRS in a changing climate, an explicit national strategic plan to implement that vision, and an assessment of representation, redundancy, size, and total number of units in relation to conservation targets are the first steps toward adaptation. This adaptation must begin immediately and be built on more closely integrated research and management. Rigorous projections of possible futures are required to facilitate adaptation to change. Furthermore, the effective conservation footprint of the NWRS must be increased through land acquisition, creative partnerships, and educational programs in order for the NWRS to meet its legal mandate to maintain the biological integrity, diversity, and environmental health of the system and the species and ecosystems that it supports.

  9. Climate change adaptation for the US National Wildlife Refuge System.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Brad; Scott, J Michael; Adamcik, Robert; Ashe, Daniel; Czech, Brian; Fischman, Robert; Gonzalez, Patrick; Lawler, Joshua; McGuire, A David; Pidgorna, Anna

    2009-12-01

    Since its establishment in 1903, the National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) has grown to 635 units and 37 Wetland Management Districts in the United States and its territories. These units provide the seasonal habitats necessary for migratory waterfowl and other species to complete their annual life cycles. Habitat conversion and fragmentation, invasive species, pollution, and competition for water have stressed refuges for decades, but the interaction of climate change with these stressors presents the most recent, pervasive, and complex conservation challenge to the NWRS. Geographic isolation and small unit size compound the challenges of climate change, but a combined emphasis on species that refuges were established to conserve and on maintaining biological integrity, diversity, and environmental health provides the NWRS with substantial latitude to respond. Individual symptoms of climate change can be addressed at the refuge level, but the strategic response requires system-wide planning. A dynamic vision of the NWRS in a changing climate, an explicit national strategic plan to implement that vision, and an assessment of representation, redundancy, size, and total number of units in relation to conservation targets are the first steps toward adaptation. This adaptation must begin immediately and be built on more closely integrated research and management. Rigorous projections of possible futures are required to facilitate adaptation to change. Furthermore, the effective conservation footprint of the NWRS must be increased through land acquisition, creative partnerships, and educational programs in order for the NWRS to meet its legal mandate to maintain the biological integrity, diversity, and environmental health of the system and the species and ecosystems that it supports.

  10. Landsat ecosystem disturbance adaptive processing system (LEDAPS) algorithm description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Gail; Jenkerson, Calli; Masek, Jeffrey; Vermote, Eric; Gao, Feng

    2013-01-01

    The Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) software was originally developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration–Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland to produce top-of-atmosphere reflectance from LandsatThematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus Level 1 digital numbers and to apply atmospheric corrections to generate a surface-reflectance product.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has adopted the LEDAPS algorithm for producing the Landsat Surface Reflectance Climate Data Record.This report discusses the LEDAPS algorithm, which was implemented by the USGS.

  11. Performance of the Gemini Planet Imager's adaptive optics system.

    PubMed

    Poyneer, Lisa A; Palmer, David W; Macintosh, Bruce; Savransky, Dmitry; Sadakuni, Naru; Thomas, Sandrine; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Follette, Katherine B; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z; Ammons, S Mark; Bailey, Vanessa P; Bauman, Brian; Cardwell, Andrew; Dillon, Daren; Gavel, Donald; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Perrin, Marshall D; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Wang, Jason J

    2016-01-10

    The Gemini Planet Imager's adaptive optics (AO) subsystem was designed specifically to facilitate high-contrast imaging. A definitive description of the system's algorithms and technologies as built is given. 564 AO telemetry measurements from the Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey campaign are analyzed. The modal gain optimizer tracks changes in atmospheric conditions. Science observations show that image quality can be improved with the use of both the spatially filtered wavefront sensor and linear-quadratic-Gaussian control of vibration. The error budget indicates that for all targets and atmospheric conditions AO bandwidth error is the largest term.

  12. The influence of active seating on car passengers' perceived comfort and activity levels.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, S; Kamp, I; van Veen, S A T; Vink, P; Bosch, T

    2015-03-01

    New technologies have led to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Sedentary behaviour is characterised by physical inactivity and is associated with several health risks. This excessive sitting does not only take place in the office or at home, but also during daily commute. Therefore, BMW AG developed an active seating system for the back seat of a car, consisting of sensors in the back rest that register upper body movements of the passenger, with which the passenger controls a game. This study evaluated three different aspects of active seating compared to other tasks (reading, working on laptop, and gaming on tablet). First, discomfort and comfort perception were measured in a 30-minute driving test. Discomfort was very low for all activities and participants felt significantly more challenged, more fit and more refreshed during active seating. Second, heart rate was measured, indicating a light intensity, but nevertheless non-sedentary, activity. Third, average and variability in activity of six postural muscles was measured by electromyography (EMG), showing a higher muscle activity and higher muscle variability for active seating compared to other activities. Active seating might stimulate movements, thereby increasing comfort and well-being.

  13. Adaptive optoelectronic camouflage systems with designs inspired by cephalopod skins.

    PubMed

    Yu, Cunjiang; Li, Yuhang; Zhang, Xun; Huang, Xian; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Wang, Shuodao; Shi, Yan; Gao, Li; Su, Yewang; Zhang, Yihui; Xu, Hangxun; Hanlon, Roger T; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2014-09-09

    Octopus, squid, cuttlefish, and other cephalopods exhibit exceptional capabilities for visually adapting to or differentiating from the coloration and texture of their surroundings, for the purpose of concealment, communication, predation, and reproduction. Long-standing interest in and emerging understanding of the underlying ultrastructure, physiological control, and photonic interactions has recently led to efforts in the construction of artificial systems that have key attributes found in the skins of these organisms. Despite several promising options in active materials for mimicking biological color tuning, existing routes to integrated systems do not include critical capabilities in distributed sensing and actuation. Research described here represents progress in this direction, demonstrated through the construction, experimental study, and computational modeling of materials, device elements, and integration schemes for cephalopod-inspired flexible sheets that can autonomously sense and adapt to the coloration of their surroundings. These systems combine high-performance, multiplexed arrays of actuators and photodetectors in laminated, multilayer configurations on flexible substrates, with overlaid arrangements of pixelated, color-changing elements. The concepts provide realistic routes to thin sheets that can be conformally wrapped onto solid objects to modulate their visual appearance, with potential relevance to consumer, industrial, and military applications.

  14. Adaptive optoelectronic camouflage systems with designs inspired by cephalopod skins

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Cunjiang; Li, Yuhang; Zhang, Xun; Huang, Xian; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Wang, Shuodao; Shi, Yan; Gao, Li; Su, Yewang; Zhang, Yihui; Xu, Hangxun; Hanlon, Roger T.; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Octopus, squid, cuttlefish, and other cephalopods exhibit exceptional capabilities for visually adapting to or differentiating from the coloration and texture of their surroundings, for the purpose of concealment, communication, predation, and reproduction. Long-standing interest in and emerging understanding of the underlying ultrastructure, physiological control, and photonic interactions has recently led to efforts in the construction of artificial systems that have key attributes found in the skins of these organisms. Despite several promising options in active materials for mimicking biological color tuning, existing routes to integrated systems do not include critical capabilities in distributed sensing and actuation. Research described here represents progress in this direction, demonstrated through the construction, experimental study, and computational modeling of materials, device elements, and integration schemes for cephalopod-inspired flexible sheets that can autonomously sense and adapt to the coloration of their surroundings. These systems combine high-performance, multiplexed arrays of actuators and photodetectors in laminated, multilayer configurations on flexible substrates, with overlaid arrangements of pixelated, color-changing elements. The concepts provide realistic routes to thin sheets that can be conformally wrapped onto solid objects to modulate their visual appearance, with potential relevance to consumer, industrial, and military applications. PMID:25136094

  15. Understanding global health governance as a complex adaptive system.

    PubMed

    Hill, Peter S

    2011-01-01

    The transition from international to global health reflects the rapid growth in the numbers and nature of stakeholders in health, as well as the constant change embodied in the process of globalisation itself. This paper argues that global health governance shares the characteristics of complex adaptive systems, with its multiple and diverse players, and their polyvalent and constantly evolving relationships, and rich and dynamic interactions. The sheer quantum of initiatives, the multiple networks through which stakeholders (re)configure their influence, the range of contexts in which development for health is played out - all compound the complexity of this system. This paper maps out the characteristics of complex adaptive systems as they apply to global health governance, linking them to developments in the past two decades, and the multiple responses to these changes. Examining global health governance through the frame of complexity theory offers insight into the current dynamics of governance, and while providing a framework for making meaning of the whole, opens up ways of accessing this complexity through local points of engagement.

  16. Ecosystems and the Biosphere as Complex Adaptive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Simon A.

    1998-01-01

    Ecosystems are prototypical examples of complex adaptive systems, in which patterns at higher levels emerge from localized interactions and selection processes acting at lower levels. An essential aspect of such systems is nonlinearity, leading to historical dependency and multiple possible outcomes of dynamics. Given this, it is essential to determine the degree to which system features are determined by environmental conditions, and the degree to which they are the result of self-organization. Furthermore, given the multiple levels at which dynamics become apparent and at which selection can act, central issues relate to how evolution shapes ecosystems properties, and whether ecosystems become buffered to changes (more resilient) over their ecological and evolutionary development or proceed to critical states and the edge of chaos.

  17. System reliability, performance and trust in adaptable automation.

    PubMed

    Chavaillaz, Alain; Wastell, David; Sauer, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of reduced system reliability on operator performance and automation management in an adaptable automation environment. 39 operators were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups: low (60%), medium (80%), and high (100%) reliability of automation support. The support system provided five incremental levels of automation which operators could freely select according to their needs. After 3 h of training on a simulated process control task (AutoCAMS) in which the automation worked infallibly, operator performance and automation management were measured during a 2.5-h testing session. Trust and workload were also assessed through questionnaires. Results showed that although reduced system reliability resulted in lower levels of trust towards automation, there were no corresponding differences in the operators' reliance on automation. While operators showed overall a noteworthy ability to cope with automation failure, there were, however, decrements in diagnostic speed and prospective memory with lower reliability.

  18. Complex Features in Lotka-Volterra Systems with Behavioral Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tebaldi, Claudio; Lacitignola, Deborah

    Lotka-Volterra systems have played a fundamental role for mathematical modelling in many branches of theoretical biology and proved to describe, at least qualitatively, the essential features of many phenomena, see for example Murray [Murray 2002]. Furthermore models of that kind have been considered successfully also in quite different and less mathematically formalized context: Goodwin' s model of economic growth cycles [Goodwin 1967] and urban dynamics [Dendrinos 1992] are only two of a number of examples. Such systems can certainly be defined as complex ones and in fact the aim of modelling was essentially to clarify mechanims rather than to provide actual precise simulations and predictions. With regards to complex systems, we recall that one of their main feature, no matter of the specific definition one has in mind, is adaptation, i. e. the ability to adjust.

  19. Performance of the Keck Observatory adaptive optics system

    SciTech Connect

    van Dam, M A; Mignant, D L; Macintosh, B A

    2004-01-19

    In this paper, the adaptive optics (AO) system at the W.M. Keck Observatory is characterized. The authors calculate the error budget of the Keck AO system operating in natural guide star mode with a near infrared imaging camera. By modeling the control loops and recording residual centroids, the measurement noise and band-width errors are obtained. The error budget is consistent with the images obtained. Results of sky performance tests are presented: the AO system is shown to deliver images with average Strehl ratios of up to 0.37 at 1.58 {micro}m using a bright guide star and 0.19 for a magnitude 12 star.

  20. Neuromorphic adaptive plastic scalable electronics: analog learning systems.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa, Narayan; Cruz-Albrecht, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Decades of research to build programmable intelligent machines have demonstrated limited utility in complex, real-world environments. Comparing their performance with biological systems, these machines are less efficient by a factor of 1 million1 billion in complex, real-world environments. The Systems of Neuromorphic Adaptive Plastic Scalable Electronics (SyNAPSE) program is a multifaceted Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) project that seeks to break the programmable machine paradigm and define a new path for creating useful, intelligent machines. Since real-world systems exhibit infinite combinatorial complexity, electronic neuromorphic machine technology would be preferable in a host of applications, but useful and practical implementations still do not exist. HRL Laboratories LLC has embarked on addressing these challenges, and, in this article, we provide an overview of our project and progress made thus far.