Science.gov

Sample records for adaptive service selection

  1. An Adaptive Sensor Data Segments Selection Method for Wearable Health Care Services.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Yeh; Lai, Chin-Feng; Hwang, Ren-Hung; Lai, Ying-Hsun; Wang, Ming-Shi

    2015-12-01

    As cloud computing and wearable devices technologies mature, relevant services have grown more and more popular in recent years. The healthcare field is one of the popular services for this technology that adopts wearable devices to sense signals of negative physiological events, and to notify users. The development and implementation of long-term healthcare monitoring that can prevent or quickly respond to the occurrence of disease and accidents present an interesting challenge for computing power and energy limits. This study proposed an adaptive sensor data segments selection method for wearable health care services, and considered the sensing frequency of the various signals from human body, as well as the data transmission among the devices. The healthcare service regulates the sensing frequency of devices by considering the overall cloud computing environment and the sensing variations of wearable health care services. The experimental results show that the proposed service can effectively transmit the sensing data and prolong the overall lifetime of health care services.

  2. An Adaptive Sensor Data Segments Selection Method for Wearable Health Care Services.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Yeh; Lai, Chin-Feng; Hwang, Ren-Hung; Lai, Ying-Hsun; Wang, Ming-Shi

    2015-12-01

    As cloud computing and wearable devices technologies mature, relevant services have grown more and more popular in recent years. The healthcare field is one of the popular services for this technology that adopts wearable devices to sense signals of negative physiological events, and to notify users. The development and implementation of long-term healthcare monitoring that can prevent or quickly respond to the occurrence of disease and accidents present an interesting challenge for computing power and energy limits. This study proposed an adaptive sensor data segments selection method for wearable health care services, and considered the sensing frequency of the various signals from human body, as well as the data transmission among the devices. The healthcare service regulates the sensing frequency of devices by considering the overall cloud computing environment and the sensing variations of wearable health care services. The experimental results show that the proposed service can effectively transmit the sensing data and prolong the overall lifetime of health care services. PMID:26490152

  3. Event selection services in ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranshaw, J.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Gallas, E.; Hrivnac, J.; Kenyon, M.; McGlone, H.; Malon, D.; Mambelli, M.; Nowak, M.; Viegas, F.; Vinek, E.; Zhang, Q.

    2010-04-01

    ATLAS has developed and deployed event-level selection services based upon event metadata records ("TAGS") and supporting file and database technology. These services allow physicists to extract events that satisfy their selection predicates from any stage of data processing and use them as input to later analyses. One component of these services is a web-based Event-Level Selection Service Interface (ELSSI). ELSSI supports event selection by integrating run-level metadata, luminosity-block-level metadata (e.g., detector status and quality information), and event-by-event information (e.g., triggers passed and physics content). The list of events that survive after some selection criterion is returned in a form that can be used directly as input to local or distributed analysis; indeed, it is possible to submit a skimming job directly from the ELSSI interface using grid proxy credential delegation. ELSSI allows physicists to explore ATLAS event metadata as a means to understand, qualitatively and quantitatively, the distributional characteristics of ATLAS data. In fact, the ELSSI service provides an easy interface to see the highest missing ET events or the events with the most leptons, to count how many events passed a given set of triggers, or to find events that failed a given trigger but nonetheless look relevant to an analysis based upon the results of offline reconstruction, and more. This work provides an overview of ATLAS event-level selection services, with an emphasis upon the interactive Event-Level Selection Service Interface.

  4. Context aware adaptive security service model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunia, Marcin A.

    2015-09-01

    Present systems and devices are usually protected against different threats concerning digital data processing. The protection mechanisms consume resources, which are either highly limited or intensively utilized by many entities. The optimization of these resources usage is advantageous. The resources that are saved performing optimization may be utilized by other mechanisms or may be sufficient for longer time. It is usually assumed that protection has to provide specific quality and attack resistance. By interpreting context situation of business services - users and services themselves, it is possible to adapt security services parameters to countermeasure threats associated with current situation. This approach leads to optimization of used resources and maintains sufficient security level. This paper presents architecture of adaptive security service, which is context-aware and exploits quality of context data issue.

  5. Parental Expectations about Adapted Physical Education Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaapel, Holly; Columna, Luis; Lytle, Rebecca; Bailey, JoEllen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the expectations of parents of children with disabilities regarding adapted physical education services. Participants ("N" = 10) were parents of children with disabilities. Parents participated in one-on-one semistructured interviews. Transcripts were analyzed through a constant comparative…

  6. Adaptive Modeling Procedure Selection by Data Perturbation*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongli; Shen, Xiaotong

    2015-01-01

    Summary Many procedures have been developed to deal with the high-dimensional problem that is emerging in various business and economics areas. To evaluate and compare these procedures, modeling uncertainty caused by model selection and parameter estimation has to be assessed and integrated into a modeling process. To do this, a data perturbation method estimates the modeling uncertainty inherited in a selection process by perturbing the data. Critical to data perturbation is the size of perturbation, as the perturbed data should resemble the original dataset. To account for the modeling uncertainty, we derive the optimal size of perturbation, which adapts to the data, the model space, and other relevant factors in the context of linear regression. On this basis, we develop an adaptive data-perturbation method that, unlike its nonadaptive counterpart, performs well in different situations. This leads to a data-adaptive model selection method. Both theoretical and numerical analysis suggest that the data-adaptive model selection method adapts to distinct situations in that it yields consistent model selection and optimal prediction, without knowing which situation exists a priori. The proposed method is applied to real data from the commodity market and outperforms its competitors in terms of price forecasting accuracy. PMID:26640319

  7. 20 CFR 638.403 - Selective Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Selective Service. 638.403 Section 638.403... the Job Corps § 638.403 Selective Service. The Job Corps Director shall develop procedures to ensure... older has evidence that he has complied with section 3 of the Military Selective Service Act (50...

  8. 20 CFR 638.403 - Selective Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Selective Service. 638.403 Section 638.403... the Job Corps § 638.403 Selective Service. The Job Corps Director shall develop procedures to ensure... older has evidence that he has complied with section 3 of the Military Selective Service Act (50...

  9. 20 CFR 638.403 - Selective Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Selective Service. 638.403 Section 638.403... the Job Corps § 638.403 Selective Service. The Job Corps Director shall develop procedures to ensure... older has evidence that he has complied with section 3 of the Military Selective Service Act (50...

  10. Adaptive link selection algorithms for distributed estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Songcen; de Lamare, Rodrigo C.; Poor, H. Vincent

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents adaptive link selection algorithms for distributed estimation and considers their application to wireless sensor networks and smart grids. In particular, exhaustive search-based least mean squares (LMS) / recursive least squares (RLS) link selection algorithms and sparsity-inspired LMS / RLS link selection algorithms that can exploit the topology of networks with poor-quality links are considered. The proposed link selection algorithms are then analyzed in terms of their stability, steady-state, and tracking performance and computational complexity. In comparison with the existing centralized or distributed estimation strategies, the key features of the proposed algorithms are as follows: (1) more accurate estimates and faster convergence speed can be obtained and (2) the network is equipped with the ability of link selection that can circumvent link failures and improve the estimation performance. The performance of the proposed algorithms for distributed estimation is illustrated via simulations in applications of wireless sensor networks and smart grids.

  11. The VIADUC project: innovation in climate adaptation through service design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corre, L.; Dandin, P.; L'Hôte, D.; Besson, F.

    2015-07-01

    From the French National Adaptation to Climate Change Plan, the "Drias, les futurs du climat" service has been developed to provide easy access to French regional climate projections. This is a major step for the implementation of French Climate Services. The usefulness of this service for the end-users and decision makers involved with adaptation planning at a local scale is investigated. As such, the VIADUC project is: to evaluate and enhance Drias, as well as to imagine future development in support of adaptation. Climate scientists work together with end-users and a service designer. The designer's role is to propose an innovative approach based on the interaction between scientists and citizens. The chosen end-users are three Natural Regional Parks located in the South West of France. The latter parks are administrative entities which gather municipalities having a common natural and cultural heritage. They are also rural areas in which specific economic activities take place, and therefore are concerned and involved in both protecting their environment and setting-up sustainable economic development. The first year of the project has been dedicated to investigation including the questioning of relevant representatives. Three key local economic sectors have been selected: i.e. forestry, pastoral farming and building activities. Working groups were composed of technicians, administrative and maintenance staff, policy makers and climate researchers. The sectors' needs for climate information have been assessed. The lessons learned led to actions which are presented hereinafter.

  12. Adaptive Cognitive-Based Selection of Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karampiperis, Pythagoras; Lin, Taiyu; Sampson, Demetrios G.; Kinshuk

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive cognitive-based selection is recognized as among the most significant open issues in adaptive web-based learning systems. In order to adaptively select learning resources, the definition of adaptation rules according to the cognitive style or learning preferences of the learners is required. Although some efforts have been reported in…

  13. An adaptive selective frequency damping method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordi, Bastien; Cotter, Colin; Sherwin, Spencer

    2015-03-01

    The selective frequency damping (SFD) method is used to obtain unstable steady-state solutions of dynamical systems. The stability of this method is governed by two parameters that are the control coefficient and the filter width. Convergence is not guaranteed for arbitrary choice of these parameters. Even when the method does converge, the time necessary to reach a steady-state solution may be very long. We present an adaptive SFD method. We show that by modifying the control coefficient and the filter width all along the solver execution, we can reach an optimum convergence rate. This method is based on successive approximations of the dominant eigenvalue of the flow studied. We design a one-dimensional model to select SFD parameters that enable us to control the evolution of the least stable eigenvalue of the system. These parameters are then used for the application of the SFD method to the multi-dimensional flow problem. We apply this adaptive method to a set of classical test cases of computational fluid dynamics and show that the steady-state solutions obtained are similar to what can be found in the literature. Then we apply it to a specific vortex dominated flow (of interest for the automotive industry) whose stability had never been studied before. Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission - ANADE project under Grant Contract PITN-GA-289428.

  14. Assessment of Service Protocols Adaptability Using a Novel Path Computation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhangbing; Bhiri, Sami; Haller, Armin; Zhuge, Hai; Hauswirth, Manfred

    In this paper we propose a new kind of adaptability assessment that determines whether service protocols of a requestor and a provider are adaptable, computes their adaptation degree, and identifies conditions that determine when they can be adapted. We also propose a technique that implements this adaptability assessment: (1) we construct a complete adaptation graph that captures all service interactions adaptable between these two service protocols. The emptiness or non-emptiness of this graph corresponds to the fact that whether or not they are adaptable; (2) we propose a novel path computation technique to generate all instance sub-protocols which reflect valid executions of a particular service protocol, and to derive all instance sub-protocol pairs captured by the complete adaptation graph. An adaptation degree is computed as a ratio between the number of instance sub-protocols captured by these instance sub-protocol pairs with respect to a service protocol and that of this service protocol; (3) and finally we identify a set of conditions based on these instance sub-protocol pairs. A condition is the conjunction of all conditions specified on the transitions of a given pair of instance sub-protocols. This assessment is a comprehensive means of selecting the suitable service protocol among functionally-equivalent candidates according to the requestor's business requirements.

  15. A Teacher's Guide to Selective Service Registration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selective Service System, Washington, DC.

    This guide is designed to assist high school teachers in their preparation of lessons covering the Selective Service System. The guide is organized into seven chapters. Chapter 1 describes Selective Service as it exists today, explains the registration process and its role in the national defense system, details who must register, and emphasizes…

  16. Cloud Service Selection Using Multicriteria Decision Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Anuar, Nor Badrul; Shiraz, Muhammad; Haque, Israat Tanzeena

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing (CC) has recently been receiving tremendous attention from the IT industry and academic researchers. CC leverages its unique services to cloud customers in a pay-as-you-go, anytime, anywhere manner. Cloud services provide dynamically scalable services through the Internet on demand. Therefore, service provisioning plays a key role in CC. The cloud customer must be able to select appropriate services according to his or her needs. Several approaches have been proposed to solve the service selection problem, including multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA). MCDA enables the user to choose from among a number of available choices. In this paper, we analyze the application of MCDA to service selection in CC. We identify and synthesize several MCDA techniques and provide a comprehensive analysis of this technology for general readers. In addition, we present a taxonomy derived from a survey of the current literature. Finally, we highlight several state-of-the-art practical aspects of MCDA implementation in cloud computing service selection. The contributions of this study are four-fold: (a) focusing on the state-of-the-art MCDA techniques, (b) highlighting the comparative analysis and suitability of several MCDA methods, (c) presenting a taxonomy through extensive literature review, and (d) analyzing and summarizing the cloud computing service selections in different scenarios. PMID:24696645

  17. Cloud service selection using multicriteria decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Whaiduzzaman, Md; Gani, Abdullah; Anuar, Nor Badrul; Shiraz, Muhammad; Haque, Mohammad Nazmul; Haque, Israat Tanzeena

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing (CC) has recently been receiving tremendous attention from the IT industry and academic researchers. CC leverages its unique services to cloud customers in a pay-as-you-go, anytime, anywhere manner. Cloud services provide dynamically scalable services through the Internet on demand. Therefore, service provisioning plays a key role in CC. The cloud customer must be able to select appropriate services according to his or her needs. Several approaches have been proposed to solve the service selection problem, including multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA). MCDA enables the user to choose from among a number of available choices. In this paper, we analyze the application of MCDA to service selection in CC. We identify and synthesize several MCDA techniques and provide a comprehensive analysis of this technology for general readers. In addition, we present a taxonomy derived from a survey of the current literature. Finally, we highlight several state-of-the-art practical aspects of MCDA implementation in cloud computing service selection. The contributions of this study are four-fold: (a) focusing on the state-of-the-art MCDA techniques, (b) highlighting the comparative analysis and suitability of several MCDA methods, (c) presenting a taxonomy through extensive literature review, and (d) analyzing and summarizing the cloud computing service selections in different scenarios.

  18. Is sexual selection beneficial during adaptation to environmental change?

    PubMed

    Candolin, Ulrika; Heuschele, Jan

    2008-08-01

    The role of sexual selection in adaptation is disputed. A balance between sexual and viability selection can be achieved in stable environments, but environmental perturbations could change the costs and benefits arising from sexual selection and influence the rate of adaptation. Here we synthesise theoretical and empirical work on the role of sexual selection in adaptation to changed conditions. Contrasting results have been gained, but the majority of studies suggest that sexual selection has no significant effect or a negative effect on the rate of adaptation. However, once sexually selected traits start to evolve, sexual selection can accelerate adaptation. The role of sexual selection in extinction appears to be minor, but the results could be skewed.

  19. Efficiently Selecting the Best Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, Marlene; Vidal, Maria-Esther; Regalado, Alfredo; Yacoubi Ayadi, Nadia

    Emerging technologies and linking data initiatives have motivated the publication of a large number of datasets, and provide the basis for publishing Web services and tools to manage the available data. This wealth of resources opens a world of possibilities to satisfy user requests. However, Web services may have similar functionality and assess different performance; therefore, it is required to identify among the Web services that satisfy a user request, the ones with the best quality. In this paper we propose a hybrid approach that combines reasoning tasks with ranking techniques to aim at the selection of the Web services that best implement a user request. Web service functionalities are described in terms of input and output attributes annotated with existing ontologies, non-functionality is represented as Quality of Services (QoS) parameters, and user requests correspond to conjunctive queries whose sub-goals impose restrictions on the functionality and quality of the services to be selected. The ontology annotations are used in different reasoning tasks to infer service implicit properties and to augment the size of the service search space. Furthermore, QoS parameters are considered by a ranking metric to classify the services according to how well they meet a user non-functional condition. We assume that all the QoS parameters of the non-functional condition are equally important, and apply the Top-k Skyline approach to select the k services that best meet this condition. Our proposal relies on a two-fold solution which fires a deductive-based engine that performs different reasoning tasks to discover the services that satisfy the requested functionality, and an efficient implementation of the Top-k Skyline approach to compute the top-k services that meet the majority of the QoS constraints. Our Top-k Skyline solution exploits the properties of the Skyline Frequency metric and identifies the top-k services by just analyzing a subset of the services that

  20. 32 CFR 1602.21 - Selective Service Law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Selective Service Law. 1602.21 Section 1602.21 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.21 Selective Service Law. The term Selective Service Law includes the Military Selective Service...

  1. 32 CFR 1602.21 - Selective Service Law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Selective Service Law. 1602.21 Section 1602.21 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.21 Selective Service Law. The term Selective Service Law includes the Military Selective Service...

  2. 32 CFR 1602.21 - Selective Service Law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Selective Service Law. 1602.21 Section 1602.21 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.21 Selective Service Law. The term Selective Service Law includes the Military Selective Service...

  3. 32 CFR 1602.21 - Selective Service Law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Selective Service Law. 1602.21 Section 1602.21 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.21 Selective Service Law. The term Selective Service Law includes the Military Selective Service...

  4. 32 CFR 1602.21 - Selective Service Law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Selective Service Law. 1602.21 Section 1602.21 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.21 Selective Service Law. The term Selective Service Law includes the Military Selective Service...

  5. Future Service Adaptive Access/Aggregation Network Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Hiroki; Takeshita, Hidetoshi; Okamoto, Satoru

    The emergence of new services in the cloud computing era has made smooth service migration an important issue in access networks. However, different types of equipment are typically used for the different services due to differences in service requirements. This leads to an increase in not only capital expenditures but also operational expenditures. Here we propose using a service adaptive approach as a solution to this problem. We analyze the requirements of a future access network in terms of service, network, and node. We discuss available access network technologies including the passive optical network, single star network. Finally, we present a future service adaptive access/aggregation network and its architecture along with a programmable optical line terminal and optical network unit, discuss its benefit, and describe example services that it would support.

  6. Bayesian Item Selection in Constrained Adaptive Testing Using Shadow Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2010-01-01

    Application of Bayesian item selection criteria in computerized adaptive testing might result in improvement of bias and MSE of the ability estimates. The question remains how to apply Bayesian item selection criteria in the context of constrained adaptive testing, where large numbers of specifications have to be taken into account in the item…

  7. Adaptation services of floodplains and wetlands under transformational climate change.

    PubMed

    Colloff, Matthew; Lavorel, Sandra; Wise, Russell M; Dunlop, Michael; Overton, Ian C; Williams, Kristen J

    2016-06-01

    Adaptation services are the ecosystem processes and services that benefit people by increasing their ability to adapt to change. Benefits may accrue from existing but newly used services where ecosystems persist or from novel services supplied following ecosystem transformation. Ecosystem properties that enable persistence or transformation are important adaptation services because they support future options. The adaptation services approach can be applied to decisions on trade-offs between currently valued services and benefits from maintaining future options. For example, ecosystem functions and services of floodplains depend on river flows. In those regions of the world where climate change projections are for hotter, drier conditions, floods will be less frequent and floodplains will either persist, though with modified structure and function, or transform to terrestrial (flood-independent) ecosystems. Many currently valued ecosystem services will reduce in supply or become unavailable, but new options are provided by adaptation services. We present a case study from the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia, for operationalizing the adaptation services concept for floodplains and wetlands. We found large changes in flow and flood regimes are likely under a scenario of +1.6°C by 2030, even with additional water restored to rivers under the proposed Murray-Darling Basin Plan. We predict major changes to floodplain ecosystems, including contraction of riparian forests and woodlands and expansion of terrestrial, drought-tolerant vegetation communities. Examples of adaptation services under this scenario include substitution of irrigated agriculture with dryland cropping and floodplain grazing; mitigation of damage from rarer, extreme floods; and increased tourism, recreational, and cultural values derived from fewer, smaller wetlands that can be maintained with environmental flows. Management for adaptation services will require decisions on where intervention can

  8. Adaptation services of floodplains and wetlands under transformational climate change.

    PubMed

    Colloff, Matthew; Lavorel, Sandra; Wise, Russell M; Dunlop, Michael; Overton, Ian C; Williams, Kristen J

    2016-06-01

    Adaptation services are the ecosystem processes and services that benefit people by increasing their ability to adapt to change. Benefits may accrue from existing but newly used services where ecosystems persist or from novel services supplied following ecosystem transformation. Ecosystem properties that enable persistence or transformation are important adaptation services because they support future options. The adaptation services approach can be applied to decisions on trade-offs between currently valued services and benefits from maintaining future options. For example, ecosystem functions and services of floodplains depend on river flows. In those regions of the world where climate change projections are for hotter, drier conditions, floods will be less frequent and floodplains will either persist, though with modified structure and function, or transform to terrestrial (flood-independent) ecosystems. Many currently valued ecosystem services will reduce in supply or become unavailable, but new options are provided by adaptation services. We present a case study from the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia, for operationalizing the adaptation services concept for floodplains and wetlands. We found large changes in flow and flood regimes are likely under a scenario of +1.6°C by 2030, even with additional water restored to rivers under the proposed Murray-Darling Basin Plan. We predict major changes to floodplain ecosystems, including contraction of riparian forests and woodlands and expansion of terrestrial, drought-tolerant vegetation communities. Examples of adaptation services under this scenario include substitution of irrigated agriculture with dryland cropping and floodplain grazing; mitigation of damage from rarer, extreme floods; and increased tourism, recreational, and cultural values derived from fewer, smaller wetlands that can be maintained with environmental flows. Management for adaptation services will require decisions on where intervention can

  9. Perspectives on Adapted Physical Education Services to Rural Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Joe; Ellery, Peter; Maguire, Paul

    Spurred by the inclusion trend, adapted physical education (APE) has emerged as a fundamental education service for children with disabilities in recent years. Although only 15 states have a certification or endorsement in APE, the Adapted Physical Education National Standards examination has produced certified APE educators in 21 additional…

  10. Increased Service Delivery and Adaptation to Occupational Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnabel, John F.; Simoni, Joseph J.

    Effective response by community service agencies to clientele needs is an essential part of community development. A personnel screening instrument, a model for predicting different types of adaptation to occupational stress, is suggested as a means of increasing the responsiveness of service agencies to their local communities. Proposing the use…

  11. Agent-based user-adaptive service provision in ubiquitous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saddiki, H.; Harroud, H.; Karmouch, A.

    2012-11-01

    With the increasing availability of smartphones, tablets and other computing devices, technology consumers have grown accustomed to performing all of their computing tasks anytime, anywhere and on any device. There is a greater need to support ubiquitous connectivity and accommodate users by providing software as network-accessible services. In this paper, we propose a MAS-based approach to adaptive service composition and provision that automates the selection and execution of a suitable composition plan for a given service. With agents capable of autonomous and intelligent behavior, the composition plan is selected in a dynamic negotiation driven by a utility-based decision-making mechanism; and the composite service is built by a coalition of agents each providing a component necessary to the target service. The same service can be built in variations for catering to dynamic user contexts and further personalizing the user experience. Also multiple services can be grouped to satisfy new user needs.

  12. 32 CFR 1605.12 - State Director of Selective Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State Director of Selective Service. 1605.12 Section 1605.12 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION State Administration § 1605.12 State Director of Selective Service....

  13. 32 CFR 1615.6 - Selective service number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Selective service number. 1615.6 Section 1615.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION OF REGISTRATION § 1615.6 Selective service number. Every registrant shall be given a selective service number....

  14. 32 CFR 1605.1 - Director of Selective Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Director of Selective Service. 1605.1 Section 1605.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION National Administration § 1605.1 Director of Selective Service....

  15. 32 CFR 1615.6 - Selective service number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Selective service number. 1615.6 Section 1615.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION OF REGISTRATION § 1615.6 Selective service number. Every registrant shall be given a selective service number....

  16. 32 CFR 1605.12 - State Director of Selective Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State Director of Selective Service. 1605.12 Section 1605.12 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION State Administration § 1605.12 State Director of Selective Service....

  17. 34 CFR 668.37 - Selective Service registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Selective Service registration. 668.37 Section 668.37... Selective Service registration. (a)(1) To be eligible to receive title IV, HEA program funds, a male student who is subject to registration with the Selective Service must register with the Selective Service....

  18. 32 CFR 1605.1 - Director of Selective Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Director of Selective Service. 1605.1 Section 1605.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION National Administration § 1605.1 Director of Selective Service....

  19. 34 CFR 668.37 - Selective Service registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Selective Service registration. 668.37 Section 668.37... Selective Service registration. (a)(1) To be eligible to receive title IV, HEA program funds, a male student who is subject to registration with the Selective Service must register with the Selective Service....

  20. 32 CFR 1605.1 - Director of Selective Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Director of Selective Service. 1605.1 Section 1605.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION National Administration § 1605.1 Director of Selective Service....

  1. 32 CFR 1615.6 - Selective service number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Selective service number. 1615.6 Section 1615.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION OF REGISTRATION § 1615.6 Selective service number. Every registrant shall be given a selective service number....

  2. 34 CFR 668.37 - Selective Service registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Selective Service registration. 668.37 Section 668.37... Selective Service registration. (a)(1) To be eligible to receive title IV, HEA program funds, a male student who is subject to registration with the Selective Service must register with the Selective Service....

  3. 34 CFR 668.37 - Selective Service registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Selective Service registration. 668.37 Section 668.37... Selective Service registration. (a)(1) To be eligible to receive title IV, HEA program funds, a male student who is subject to registration with the Selective Service must register with the Selective Service....

  4. 32 CFR 1605.1 - Director of Selective Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Director of Selective Service. 1605.1 Section 1605.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION National Administration § 1605.1 Director of Selective Service....

  5. 34 CFR 668.37 - Selective Service registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Selective Service registration. 668.37 Section 668.37... Selective Service registration. (a)(1) To be eligible to receive title IV, HEA program funds, a male student who is subject to registration with the Selective Service must register with the Selective Service....

  6. 32 CFR 1605.1 - Director of Selective Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Director of Selective Service. 1605.1 Section 1605.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION National Administration § 1605.1 Director of Selective Service....

  7. 32 CFR 1615.6 - Selective service number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Selective service number. 1615.6 Section 1615.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION OF REGISTRATION § 1615.6 Selective service number. Every registrant shall be given a selective service number....

  8. 32 CFR 1605.12 - State Director of Selective Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State Director of Selective Service. 1605.12 Section 1605.12 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION State Administration § 1605.12 State Director of Selective Service....

  9. 32 CFR 1615.6 - Selective service number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Selective service number. 1615.6 Section 1615.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION OF REGISTRATION § 1615.6 Selective service number. Every registrant shall be given a selective service number....

  10. 32 CFR 1605.12 - State Director of Selective Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State Director of Selective Service. 1605.12 Section 1605.12 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION State Administration § 1605.12 State Director of Selective Service....

  11. 32 CFR 1605.12 - State Director of Selective Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State Director of Selective Service. 1605.12 Section 1605.12 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION State Administration § 1605.12 State Director of Selective Service....

  12. Adaptation, teleology, and selection by consequences.

    PubMed

    Ringen, Jon D

    1993-07-01

    This paper presents and defends the view that reinforcement and natural selection are selection processes, that selection processes are neither mechanistic nor teleological, and that mentalistic and vitalistic processes are teleological but not mechanistic. The differences between these types of processes are described and used in discussing the conceptual and methodological significance of "selection type theories" and B. F. Skinner's radical behaviorist view that "operant behavior is the field of intention, purpose, and expectation. It deals with that field precisely as the theory of evolution has dealt with another kind of purpose" (1986, p. 716). The antimentalism of radical behaviorism emerges as a post-Darwinian extension of Francis Bacon's (and Galileo's) influential view that "[the introduction of final causes] rather corrupts than advances the sciences" (Bacon, 1905, p. 302). PMID:16812698

  13. Adaptation, teleology, and selection by consequences

    PubMed Central

    Ringen, Jon D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents and defends the view that reinforcement and natural selection are selection processes, that selection processes are neither mechanistic nor teleological, and that mentalistic and vitalistic processes are teleological but not mechanistic. The differences between these types of processes are described and used in discussing the conceptual and methodological significance of “selection type theories” and B. F. Skinner's radical behaviorist view that “operant behavior is the field of intention, purpose, and expectation. It deals with that field precisely as the theory of evolution has dealt with another kind of purpose” (1986, p. 716). The antimentalism of radical behaviorism emerges as a post-Darwinian extension of Francis Bacon's (and Galileo's) influential view that “[the introduction of final causes] rather corrupts than advances the sciences” (Bacon, 1905, p. 302). PMID:16812698

  14. Adaptation, teleology, and selection by consequences.

    PubMed

    Ringen, Jon D

    1993-07-01

    This paper presents and defends the view that reinforcement and natural selection are selection processes, that selection processes are neither mechanistic nor teleological, and that mentalistic and vitalistic processes are teleological but not mechanistic. The differences between these types of processes are described and used in discussing the conceptual and methodological significance of "selection type theories" and B. F. Skinner's radical behaviorist view that "operant behavior is the field of intention, purpose, and expectation. It deals with that field precisely as the theory of evolution has dealt with another kind of purpose" (1986, p. 716). The antimentalism of radical behaviorism emerges as a post-Darwinian extension of Francis Bacon's (and Galileo's) influential view that "[the introduction of final causes] rather corrupts than advances the sciences" (Bacon, 1905, p. 302).

  15. Multidimensional Adaptive Testing with Optimal Design Criteria for Item Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Joris; van der Linden, Wim J.

    2009-01-01

    Several criteria from the optimal design literature are examined for use with item selection in multidimensional adaptive testing. In particular, it is examined what criteria are appropriate for adaptive testing in which all abilities are intentional, some should be considered as a nuisance, or the interest is in the testing of a composite of the…

  16. Selecting shelter dogs for service dog training.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Emily

    2002-01-01

    Service dogs are an essential aid to persons with disabilities, providing independence, mobility, and improved self-esteem. Because of these proven benefits, the growing se of service dogs is creating a demand and supply crisis. One major cause is the 50% verage dropout rate for dogs selected for training. Weiss and Greenber (1997) re-cently found that a dog, successful on the most commonly used selection test items, was as likely to be either a poor or a good candidate for service work. The experiment presented here evaluated test items developed by the author in 15 years of experience with dogs. The test items were administered to 75 dogs from the Kansas Humane So-ciety. Once tested, the dogs received obedience and retrieval training. The experiment assessed each dog on behavior over 5 weeks of training versus performance on each selection test item. A subset of the selection items, combined in a regression analysis, accounted for 36.4% of the variance with R = 0.603. This research also revealed a reli-able test for dog aggression without risking injury to dog or tester. Items for testing in-cluded fear, motivation, and submission. Another set of selection items reliably pre-dicted the trait of "high energy" commonly described as "high strung." Future research should involve investigating the effectiveness of both cortisol levels and blood pressure in predicting traits to help strengthen the predictive value of the tool and then testing on dogs trained to be full service dogs. PMID:12738588

  17. Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery: Development of an Adaptive Item Pool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestwood, J. Stephen; And Others

    In order to take advantage of advances in the field of mental measurement, the Armed Forces and the Department of Defense have supported the development of a computerized adaptive version of the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) for use in military personnel selection and classification. This report describes the development and…

  18. Genomic signatures reveal geographic adaption and human selection in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated geographic adaptation and human selection using high-density SNP data of five diverse cattle breeds. Based on allele frequency differences, we detected hundreds of candidate regions under positive selection across Holstein, Angus, Charolais, Brahman, and N'Dama. In addition to well-k...

  19. Genomic mutation rates that neutralize adaptive evolution and natural selection.

    PubMed

    Gerrish, Philip J; Colato, Alexandre; Sniegowski, Paul D

    2013-08-01

    When mutation rates are low, natural selection remains effective, and increasing the mutation rate can give rise to an increase in adaptation rate. When mutation rates are high to begin with, however, increasing the mutation rate may have a detrimental effect because of the overwhelming presence of deleterious mutations. Indeed, if mutation rates are high enough: (i) adaptive evolution may be neutralized, resulting in a zero (or negative) adaptation rate despite the continued availability of adaptive and/or compensatory mutations, or (ii) natural selection may be neutralized, because the fitness of lineages bearing adaptive and/or compensatory mutations--whether established or newly arising--is eroded by excessive mutation, causing such lineages to decline in frequency. We apply these two criteria to a standard model of asexual adaptive evolution and derive mathematical expressions--some new, some old in new guise--delineating the mutation rates under which either adaptive evolution or natural selection is neutralized. The expressions are simple and require no a priori knowledge of organism- and/or environment-specific parameters. Our discussion connects these results to each other and to previous theory, showing convergence or equivalence of the different results in most cases.

  20. Genomic mutation rates that neutralize adaptive evolution and natural selection.

    PubMed

    Gerrish, Philip J; Colato, Alexandre; Sniegowski, Paul D

    2013-08-01

    When mutation rates are low, natural selection remains effective, and increasing the mutation rate can give rise to an increase in adaptation rate. When mutation rates are high to begin with, however, increasing the mutation rate may have a detrimental effect because of the overwhelming presence of deleterious mutations. Indeed, if mutation rates are high enough: (i) adaptive evolution may be neutralized, resulting in a zero (or negative) adaptation rate despite the continued availability of adaptive and/or compensatory mutations, or (ii) natural selection may be neutralized, because the fitness of lineages bearing adaptive and/or compensatory mutations--whether established or newly arising--is eroded by excessive mutation, causing such lineages to decline in frequency. We apply these two criteria to a standard model of asexual adaptive evolution and derive mathematical expressions--some new, some old in new guise--delineating the mutation rates under which either adaptive evolution or natural selection is neutralized. The expressions are simple and require no a priori knowledge of organism- and/or environment-specific parameters. Our discussion connects these results to each other and to previous theory, showing convergence or equivalence of the different results in most cases. PMID:23720539

  1. Perceptual task induces saccadic adaptation by target selection.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Alexander C; Souto, David

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation of saccades can be induced by different error signals, such as retinal position errors, prediction errors, or reinforcement learning. Recently, we showed that a shift in the spatial goal of a perceptual task can induce saccadic adaptation, in the absence of a bottom-up position error. Here, we investigated whether this top-down effect is mediated by the visibility of the task-relevant object, by reinforcement due to the feedback about the perceptual judgment or by a target selection mechanism. Participants were asked to discriminate visual stimuli arranged in a vertical compound. To induce adaptation, the discrimination target was presented at eccentric locations in the compound. In the first experiment, we compared adaptation with an easy and difficult discrimination. In the second experiment, we compared adaptation when feedback about the perceptual task was valid and when feedback was provided but was unrelated to performance. In the third experiment, we compared adaptation with instructions to fixate one of the elements in the compound-target selection-to the perceptual task condition-target selection and discrimination. To control for a bottom-up stimulus effect, we ran a fourth experiment in which the only instruction was to look at the compound. The saccade amplitude data were fitted by a two-state model distinguishing between an immediate and a gradual error correction process. We replicated our finding that a perceptual task can drive adaptation of saccades. Adaptation showed no effect of feedback reliability, nor an effect of the perceptual task beyond target selection. Adaptation was induced by a top-down signal since it was absent when there was no target selection instruction and no perceptual task. The immediate error correction was larger for the difficult than for the easy condition, suggesting that task difficulty affects mainly voluntary saccade targeting. In addition, the repetition of experiments one week later increased the magnitude

  2. Phenotypic Plasticity and Selection: Nonexclusive Mechanisms of Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Grenier, S.; Barre, P.; Litrico, I.

    2016-01-01

    Selection and plasticity are two mechanisms that allow the adaptation of a population to a changing environment. Interaction between these nonexclusive mechanisms must be considered if we are to understand population survival. This review discusses the ways in which plasticity and selection can interact, based on a review of the literature on selection and phenotypic plasticity in the evolution of populations. The link between selection and phenotypic plasticity is analysed at the level of the individual. Plasticity can affect an individual's response to selection and so may modify the end result of genetic diversity evolution at population level. Genetic diversity increases the ability of populations or communities to adapt to new environmental conditions. Adaptive plasticity increases individual fitness. However this effect must be viewed from the perspective of the costs of plasticity, although these are not easy to estimate. It is becoming necessary to engage in new experimental research to demonstrate the combined effects of selection and plasticity for adaptation and their consequences on the evolution of genetic diversity. PMID:27313957

  3. Handling preference heterogeneity for river services' adaptation to climate change.

    PubMed

    Andreopoulos, Dimitrios; Damigos, Dimitrios; Comiti, Francesco; Fischer, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Climate projection models for the Southern Mediterranean basin indicate a strong drought trend. This pattern is anticipated to affect a range of services derived from river ecosystems and consecutively deteriorate the sectoral outputs and household welfare. This paper aims to evaluate local residents' adaptation preferences for the Piave River basin in Italy. A Discrete Choice Experiment accounting for adaptation scenarios of the Piave River services was conducted and the collected data were econometrically analyzed using Random Parameters Logit, Latent Class and Covariance Heterogeneity models. In terms of policy-relevant outcomes, the analysis indicates that respondents are willing to pay for adaptation plans. This attitude is reflected on the compensating surplus to sustain the current state of the Piave, which corresponds to a monthly contribution of 80€ per household. From an econometric point of view, the results show that it is not sufficient to take solely into account general heterogeneity, provided that distinct treatment of the heterogeneity produces rather different welfare estimates. This implies that analysts should examine a set of criteria when deciding on how to better approach heterogeneity for each empirical data set. Overall, non-market values of environmental services should be considered when formulating cost-effective adaptation measures for river systems undergoing climate change effects and appropriate heterogeneity approximation could render these values unbiased and accurate. PMID:26119330

  4. Selective Extraction of Entangled Textures via Adaptive PDE Transform.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Guo-Wei; Yang, Siyang

    2012-01-01

    Texture and feature extraction is an important research area with a wide range of applications in science and technology. Selective extraction of entangled textures is a challenging task due to spatial entanglement, orientation mixing, and high-frequency overlapping. The partial differential equation (PDE) transform is an efficient method for functional mode decomposition. The present work introduces adaptive PDE transform algorithm to appropriately threshold the statistical variance of the local variation of functional modes. The proposed adaptive PDE transform is applied to the selective extraction of entangled textures. Successful separations of human face, clothes, background, natural landscape, text, forest, camouflaged sniper and neuron skeletons have validated the proposed method.

  5. Simpler Adaptive Selection of Golomb Power-of-Two Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiely, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    An alternative method of adaptive selection of Golomb power-of-two (GPO2) codes has been devised for use in efficient, lossless encoding of sequences of non-negative integers from discrete sources. The method is intended especially for use in compression of digital image data. This method is somewhat suboptimal, but offers the advantage in that it involves significantly less computation than does a prior method of adaptive selection of optimum codes through brute force application of all code options to every block of samples.

  6. Modeling hospitals' adaptive capacity during a loss of infrastructure services.

    PubMed

    Vugrin, Eric D; Verzi, Stephen J; Finley, Patrick D; Turnquist, Mark A; Griffin, Anne R; Ricci, Karen A; Wyte-Lake, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    Resilience in hospitals - their ability to withstand, adapt to, and rapidly recover from disruptive events - is vital to their role as part of national critical infrastructure. This paper presents a model to provide planning guidance to decision makers about how to make hospitals more resilient against possible disruption scenarios. This model represents a hospital's adaptive capacities that are leveraged to care for patients during loss of infrastructure services (power, water, etc.). The model is an optimization that reallocates and substitutes resources to keep patients in a high care state or allocates resources to allow evacuation if necessary. An illustrative example demonstrates how the model might be used in practice.

  7. Adaptive Transmission Control Method for Communication-Broadcasting Integrated Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koto, Hideyuki; Furuya, Hiroki; Nakamura, Hajime

    This paper proposes an adaptive transmission control method for massive and intensive telecommunication traffic generated by communication-broadcasting integrated services. The proposed method adaptively controls data transmissions from viewers depending on the congestion states, so that severe congestion can be effectively avoided. Furthermore, it utilizes the broadcasting channel which is not only scalable, but also reliable for controlling the responses from vast numbers of viewers. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated through experiments on a test bed where approximately one million viewers are emulated. The obtained results quantitatively demonstrate the performance of the proposed method and its effectiveness under massive and intensive traffic conditions.

  8. AdaFF: Adaptive Failure-Handling Framework for Composite Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yuna; Lee, Wan Yeon; Kim, Kyong Hoon; Kim, Jong

    In this paper, we propose a novel Web service composition framework which dynamically accommodates various failure recovery requirements. In the proposed framework called Adaptive Failure-handling Framework (AdaFF), failure-handling submodules are prepared during the design of a composite service, and some of them are systematically selected and automatically combined with the composite Web service at service instantiation in accordance with the requirement of individual users. In contrast, existing frameworks cannot adapt the failure-handling behaviors to user's requirements. AdaFF rapidly delivers a composite service supporting the requirement-matched failure handling without manual development, and contributes to a flexible composite Web service design in that service architects never care about failure handling or variable requirements of users. For proof of concept, we implement a prototype system of the AdaFF, which automatically generates a composite service instance with Web Services Business Process Execution Language (WS-BPEL) according to the users' requirement specified in XML format and executes the generated instance on the ActiveBPEL engine.

  9. Why Selection Service: An Instructional Guide for High School Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selective Service System, Washington, DC.

    The booklet is designed to explain to young people whose lives may be affected by the Selective Service System the background to the standby Selective Service System as it exists today. It offers information as to the evolution and background, the purpose, and the procedures employed by Selective Service. The bulk of the booklet deals with "Why We…

  10. Hierarchy-Direction Selective Approach for Locally Adaptive Sparse Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyanov, Miroslav K

    2013-09-01

    We consider the problem of multidimensional adaptive hierarchical interpolation. We use sparse grids points and functions that are induced from a one dimensional hierarchical rule via tensor products. The classical locally adaptive sparse grid algorithm uses an isotropic refinement from the coarser to the denser levels of the hierarchy. However, the multidimensional hierarchy provides a more complex structure that allows for various anisotropic and hierarchy selective refinement techniques. We consider the more advanced refinement techniques and apply them to a number of simple test functions chosen to demonstrate the various advantages and disadvantages of each method. While there is no refinement scheme that is optimal for all functions, the fully adaptive family-direction-selective technique is usually more stable and requires fewer samples.

  11. 78 FR 63521 - Product Change-Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM... Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Contract 5 to Competitive Product List. Documents are available...

  12. 77 FR 28409 - Product Change-Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM... Postal Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select &...

  13. 77 FR 37078 - Product Change-Parcel Select and Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select and Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM... Postal Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select &...

  14. Using Response Times for Item Selection in Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2008-01-01

    Response times on items can be used to improve item selection in adaptive testing provided that a probabilistic model for their distribution is available. In this research, the author used a hierarchical modeling framework with separate first-level models for the responses and response times and a second-level model for the distribution of the…

  15. Adaptive wall wind tunnels: A selected, annotated bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, M. H.; Mineck, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    This bibliography, with abstracts, consists of 257 citations arranged in chronological order. Selection of the citations was made for their value to researchers working to solve problems associated with reducing wall interference by the design, development, and operation of adaptive wall test sections. Author, source, and subject indexes are included.

  16. Distributed estimation for adaptive sensor selection in wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Hassan Hamid, Matasm M.

    2014-05-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are usually deployed for monitoring systems with the distributed detection and estimation of sensors. Sensor selection in WSNs is considered for target tracking. A distributed estimation scenario is considered based on the extended information filter. A cost function using the geometrical dilution of precision measure is derived for active sensor selection. A consensus-based estimation method is proposed in this paper for heterogeneous WSNs with two types of sensors. The convergence properties of the proposed estimators are analyzed under time-varying inputs. Accordingly, a new adaptive sensor selection (ASS) algorithm is presented in which the number of active sensors is adaptively determined based on the absolute local innovations vector. Simulation results show that the tracking accuracy of the ASS is comparable to that of the other algorithms.

  17. Selection, adaptation, and predictive information in changing environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltgen, Quentin; Nemenman, Ilya

    2014-03-01

    Adaptation by means of natural selection is a key concept in evolutionary biology. Individuals better matched to the surrounding environment outcompete the others. This increases the fraction of the better adapted individuals in the population, and hence increases its collective fitness. Adaptation is also prominent on the physiological scale in neuroscience and cell biology. There each individual infers properties of the environment and changes to become individually better, improving the overall population as well. Traditionally, these two notions of adaption have been considered distinct. Here we argue that both types of adaptation result in the same population growth in a broad class of analytically tractable population dynamics models in temporally changing environments. In particular, both types of adaptation lead to subextensive corrections to the population growth rates. These corrections are nearly universal and are equal to the predictive information in the environment time series, which is also the characterization of the time series complexity. This work has been supported by the James S. McDonnell Foundation.

  18. Sexual selection hinders adaptation in experimental populations of yeast

    PubMed Central

    Reding, L. P.; Swaddle, J. P.; Murphy, H. A.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual selection, the suite of processes that lead to differential mating success among individuals, probably influences the evolutionary trajectory of populations. Because sexual selection often shifts traits away from their survival optima, strong sexual selection pressures are thought to increase potential for population extinction, especially during environmental change. Sexual selection pressures may also increase the opportunity for speciation by accelerating the generation of pre-zygotic isolation among populations. These relationships remain largely untested experimentally. Here, we allow populations of baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to evolve for approximately 250 generations with altered sex ratios in order to test the effect of the strength of sexual selection on the fate of populations. We find that populations experiencing stronger sexual selection are less able to adapt to a novel environment compared with populations experiencing weaker sexual selection or no sex, and that strong sexual selection erases the benefits of sexual reproduction. This pattern persists when fitness is assayed in a closely related environment. We also identify a trend that may suggest the beginning of pre-zygotic isolation between populations experiencing stronger sexual selection, though this is not statistically significant. These results highlight the importance of sexual selection in shaping macroevolutionary patterns and biodiversity. PMID:23485874

  19. Selective adaptation to "oddball" sounds by the human auditory system.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Andrew J R; Harper, Nicol S; Reiss, Joshua D; McAlpine, David

    2014-01-29

    Adaptation to both common and rare sounds has been independently reported in neurophysiological studies using probabilistic stimulus paradigms in small mammals. However, the apparent sensitivity of the mammalian auditory system to the statistics of incoming sound has not yet been generalized to task-related human auditory perception. Here, we show that human listeners selectively adapt to novel sounds within scenes unfolding over minutes. Listeners' performance in an auditory discrimination task remains steady for the most common elements within the scene but, after the first minute, performance improves for distinct and rare (oddball) sound elements, at the expense of rare sounds that are relatively less distinct. Our data provide the first evidence of enhanced coding of oddball sounds in a human auditory discrimination task and suggest the existence of an adaptive mechanism that tracks the long-term statistics of sounds and deploys coding resources accordingly. PMID:24478375

  20. Multiple pathways of selected gene amplification during adaptive mutation.

    PubMed

    Kugelberg, Elisabeth; Kofoid, Eric; Reams, Andrew B; Andersson, Dan I; Roth, John R

    2006-11-14

    In a phenomenon referred to as "adaptive mutation," a population of bacterial cells with a mutation in the lac operon (lac-) accumulates Lac+ revertants during prolonged exposure to selective growth conditions (lactose). Evidence was provided that selective conditions do not increase the mutation rate but instead favor the growth of rare cells with a duplication of the leaky lac allele. A further increase in copy number (amplification) improves growth and increases the likelihood of a sequence change by adding more mutational targets to the clone (cells and lac copies per cell). These duplications and amplifications are described here. Before selection, cells with large (134-kb) lac duplications and long junction sequences (>1 kb) were common (0.2%). The same large repeats were found after selection in cells with a low-copy-number lac amplification. Surprisingly, smaller repeats (average, 34 kb) were found in high-copy-number amplifications. The small-repeat duplications form when deletions modify a preexisting large-repeat duplication. The shorter repeat size allowed higher lac amplification and better growth on lactose. Thus, selection favors a succession of gene-amplification types that make sequence changes more probable by adding targets. These findings are relevant to genetic adaptation in any biological systems in which fitness can be increased by adding gene copies (e.g., cancer and bacterial drug resistance). PMID:17082307

  1. Adaptations to Climate-Mediated Selective Pressures in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Feng-Hua; Agha, Saif; Kantanen, Juha; Colli, Licia; Stucki, Sylvie; Kijas, James W.; Joost, Stéphane; Li, Meng-Hua; Ajmone Marsan, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Following domestication, sheep (Ovis aries) have become essential farmed animals across the world through adaptation to a diverse range of environments and varied production systems. Climate-mediated selective pressure has shaped phenotypic variation and has left genetic “footprints” in the genome of breeds raised in different agroecological zones. Unlike numerous studies that have searched for evidence of selection using only population genetics data, here, we conducted an integrated coanalysis of environmental data with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variation. By examining 49,034 SNPs from 32 old, autochthonous sheep breeds that are adapted to a spectrum of different regional climates, we identified 230 SNPs with evidence for selection that is likely due to climate-mediated pressure. Among them, 189 (82%) showed significant correlation (P ≤ 0.05) between allele frequency and climatic variables in a larger set of native populations from a worldwide range of geographic areas and climates. Gene ontology analysis of genes colocated with significant SNPs identified 17 candidates related to GTPase regulator and peptide receptor activities in the biological processes of energy metabolism and endocrine and autoimmune regulation. We also observed high linkage disequilibrium and significant extended haplotype homozygosity for the core haplotype TBC1D12-CH1 of TBC1D12. The global frequency distribution of the core haplotype and allele OAR22_18929579-A showed an apparent geographic pattern and significant (P ≤ 0.05) correlations with climatic variation. Our results imply that adaptations to local climates have shaped the spatial distribution of some variants that are candidates to underpin adaptive variation in sheep. PMID:25249477

  2. Adaptation and habitat selection in the eco-evolutionary process

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Douglas W.

    2011-01-01

    The struggle for existence occurs through the vital rates of population growth. This basic fact demonstrates the tight connection between ecology and evolution that defines the emerging field of eco-evolutionary dynamics. An effective synthesis of the interdependencies between ecology and evolution is grounded in six principles. The mechanics of evolution specifies the origin and rules governing traits and evolutionary strategies. Traits and evolutionary strategies achieve their selective value through their functional relationships with fitness. Function depends on the underlying structure of variation and the temporal, spatial and organizational scales of evolution. An understanding of how changes in traits and strategies occur requires conjoining ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Adaptation merges these five pillars to achieve a comprehensive understanding of ecological and evolutionary change. I demonstrate the value of this world-view with reference to the theory and practice of habitat selection. The theory allows us to assess evolutionarily stable strategies and states of habitat selection, and to draw the adaptive landscapes for habitat-selecting species. The landscapes can then be used to forecast future evolution under a variety of climate change and other scenarios. PMID:21613295

  3. Improving environmental and social targeting through adaptive management in Mexico's payments for hydrological services program.

    PubMed

    Sims, Katharine R E; Alix-Garcia, Jennifer M; Shapiro-Garza, Elizabeth; Fine, Leah R; Radeloff, Volker C; Aronson, Glen; Castillo, Selene; Ramirez-Reyes, Carlos; Yañez-Pagans, Patricia

    2014-10-01

    Natural resource managers are often expected to achieve both environmental protection and economic development even when there are fundamental trade-offs between these goals. Adaptive management provides a theoretical structure for program administrators to balance social priorities in the presence of trade-offs and to improve conservation targeting. We used the case of Mexico's federal Payments for Hydrological Services program (PSAH) to illustrate the importance of adaptive management for improving program targeting. We documented adaptive elements of PSAH and corresponding changes in program eligibility and selection criteria. To evaluate whether these changes resulted in enrollment of lands of high environmental and social priority, we compared the environmental and social characteristics of the areas enrolled in the program with the characteristics of all forested areas in Mexico, all areas eligible for the program, and all areas submitted for application to the program. The program successfully enrolled areas of both high ecological and social priority, and over time, adaptive changes in the program's criteria for eligibility and selection led to increased enrollment of land scoring high on both dimensions. Three factors facilitated adaptive management in Mexico and are likely to be generally important for conservation managers: a supportive political environment, including financial backing and encouragement to experiment from the federal government; availability of relatively good social and environmental data; and active participation in the review process by stakeholders and outside evaluators.

  4. Improving environmental and social targeting through adaptive management in Mexico's payments for hydrological services program.

    PubMed

    Sims, Katharine R E; Alix-Garcia, Jennifer M; Shapiro-Garza, Elizabeth; Fine, Leah R; Radeloff, Volker C; Aronson, Glen; Castillo, Selene; Ramirez-Reyes, Carlos; Yañez-Pagans, Patricia

    2014-10-01

    Natural resource managers are often expected to achieve both environmental protection and economic development even when there are fundamental trade-offs between these goals. Adaptive management provides a theoretical structure for program administrators to balance social priorities in the presence of trade-offs and to improve conservation targeting. We used the case of Mexico's federal Payments for Hydrological Services program (PSAH) to illustrate the importance of adaptive management for improving program targeting. We documented adaptive elements of PSAH and corresponding changes in program eligibility and selection criteria. To evaluate whether these changes resulted in enrollment of lands of high environmental and social priority, we compared the environmental and social characteristics of the areas enrolled in the program with the characteristics of all forested areas in Mexico, all areas eligible for the program, and all areas submitted for application to the program. The program successfully enrolled areas of both high ecological and social priority, and over time, adaptive changes in the program's criteria for eligibility and selection led to increased enrollment of land scoring high on both dimensions. Three factors facilitated adaptive management in Mexico and are likely to be generally important for conservation managers: a supportive political environment, including financial backing and encouragement to experiment from the federal government; availability of relatively good social and environmental data; and active participation in the review process by stakeholders and outside evaluators. PMID:25039240

  5. Scalable hologram video coding for adaptive transmitting service.

    PubMed

    Seo, Young-Ho; Lee, Yoon-Hyuk; Yoo, Ji-Sang; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses processing techniques for an adaptive digital holographic video service in various reconstruction environments, and proposes two new scalable coding schemes. The proposed schemes are constructed according to the hologram generation or acquisition schemes: hologram-based resolution-scalable coding (HRS) and light source-based signal-to-noise ratio scalable coding (LSS). HRS is applied for holograms that are already acquired or generated, while LSS is applied to the light sources before generating digital holograms. In the LSS scheme, the light source information is lossless coded because it is too important to lose, while the HRS scheme adopts a lossy coding method. In an experiment, we provide eight stages of an HRS scheme whose data compression ratios range from 1:1 to 100:1 for each layered data. For LSS, four layers and 16 layers of scalable coding schemes are provided. We experimentally show that the proposed techniques make it possible to service a digital hologram video adaptively to the various displays with different resolutions, computation capabilities of the receiver side, or bandwidths of the network.

  6. Selecting downscaled climate projections for water resource impacts and adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Hingray, Benoît

    2015-04-01

    Increasingly large ensembles of global and regional climate projections are being produced and delivered to the climate impact community. However, such an enormous amount of information can hardly been dealt with by some impact models due to computational constraints. Strategies for transparently selecting climate projections are therefore urgently needed for informing small-scale impact and adaptation studies and preventing potential pitfalls in interpreting ensemble results from impact models. This work proposes results from a selection approach implemented for an integrated water resource impact and adaptation study in the Durance river basin (Southern French Alps). A large ensemble of 3000 daily transient gridded climate projections was made available for this study. It was built from different runs of 4 ENSEMBLES Stream2 GCMs, statistically downscaled by 3 probabilistic methods based on the K-nearest neighbours resampling approach (Lafaysse et al., 2014). The selection approach considered here exemplifies one of the multiple possible approaches described in a framework for identifying tailored subsets of climate projections for impact and adaptation studies proposed by Vidal & Hingray (2014). It was chosen based on the specificities of both the study objectives and the characteristics of the projection dataset. This selection approach aims at propagating as far as possible the relative contributions of the four different sources of uncertainties considered, namely GCM structure, large-scale natural variability, structure of the downscaling method, and catchment-scale natural variability. Moreover, it took the form of a hierarchical structure to deal with the specific constraints of several types of impact models (hydrological models, irrigation demand models and reservoir management models). The implemented 3-layer selection approach is therefore mainly based on conditioned Latin Hypercube sampling (Christierson et al., 2012). The choice of conditioning

  7. A Teacher's Guide to the Selective Service System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selective Service System, Arlington, VA.

    This document is intended to help teachers teach their students about the Selective Service registration requirement and the need for young men to register with the Selective Service System in order to maintain their eligibility for federal loans, grants, and other educational benefits. The first 50% of the document consists of 10 sections devoted…

  8. The American Society and the Selective Service System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison Public Schools, WI.

    This unit is an attempt to provide students approaching draft age with a rationale for what we currently have in Selective Service, how it came about, and an opportunity to discuss options which are being offered to modify, change, and abolish the selective service concept. The purpose of the unit is not to promote the rightness or wrongness of a…

  9. Self-evaluation on Motion Adaptation for Service Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funabora, Yuki; Yano, Yoshikazu; Doki, Shinji; Okuma, Shigeru

    We suggest self motion evaluation method to adapt to environmental changes for service robots. Several motions such as walking, dancing, demonstration and so on are described with time series patterns. These motions are optimized with the architecture of the robot and under certain surrounding environment. Under unknown operating environment, robots cannot accomplish their tasks. We propose autonomous motion generation techniques based on heuristic search with histories of internal sensor values. New motion patterns are explored under unknown operating environment based on self-evaluation. Robot has some prepared motions which realize the tasks under the designed environment. Internal sensor values observed under the designed environment with prepared motions show the interaction results with the environment. Self-evaluation is composed of difference of internal sensor values between designed environment and unknown operating environment. Proposed method modifies the motions to synchronize the interaction results on both environment. New motion patterns are generated to maximize self-evaluation function without external information, such as run length, global position of robot, human observation and so on. Experimental results show that the possibility to adapt autonomously patterned motions to environmental changes.

  10. Limited-memory adaptive snapshot selection for proper orthogonal decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Oxberry, Geoffrey M.; Kostova-Vassilevska, Tanya; Arrighi, Bill; Chand, Kyle

    2015-04-02

    Reduced order models are useful for accelerating simulations in many-query contexts, such as optimization, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis. However, offline training of reduced order models can have prohibitively expensive memory and floating-point operation costs in high-performance computing applications, where memory per core is limited. To overcome this limitation for proper orthogonal decomposition, we propose a novel adaptive selection method for snapshots in time that limits offline training costs by selecting snapshots according an error control mechanism similar to that found in adaptive time-stepping ordinary differential equation solvers. The error estimator used in this work is related to theory bounding the approximation error in time of proper orthogonal decomposition-based reduced order models, and memory usage is minimized by computing the singular value decomposition using a single-pass incremental algorithm. Results for a viscous Burgers’ test problem demonstrate convergence in the limit as the algorithm error tolerances go to zero; in this limit, the full order model is recovered to within discretization error. The resulting method can be used on supercomputers to generate proper orthogonal decomposition-based reduced order models, or as a subroutine within hyperreduction algorithms that require taking snapshots in time, or within greedy algorithms for sampling parameter space.

  11. An efficient sampling algorithm with adaptations for Bayesian variable selection.

    PubMed

    Araki, Takamitsu; Ikeda, Kazushi; Akaho, Shotaro

    2015-01-01

    In Bayesian variable selection, indicator model selection (IMS) is a class of well-known sampling algorithms, which has been used in various models. The IMS is a class of methods that uses pseudo-priors and it contains specific methods such as Gibbs variable selection (GVS) and Kuo and Mallick's (KM) method. However, the efficiency of the IMS strongly depends on the parameters of a proposal distribution and the pseudo-priors. Specifically, the GVS determines their parameters based on a pilot run for a full model and the KM method sets their parameters as those of priors, which often leads to slow mixings of them. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that adapts the parameters of the IMS during running. The parameters obtained on the fly provide an appropriate proposal distribution and pseudo-priors, which improve the mixing of the algorithm. We also prove the convergence theorem of the proposed algorithm, and confirm that the algorithm is more efficient than the conventional algorithms by experiments of the Bayesian variable selection.

  12. Adaptive codebook selection schemes for image classification in correlated channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chia Chang; Liu, Xiang Lian; Liu, Kuan-Fu

    2015-09-01

    The multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system with the use of transmit and receive antenna arrays achieves diversity and array gains via transmit beamforming. Due to the absence of full channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter, the transmit beamforming vector can be quantized at the receiver and sent back to the transmitter by a low-rate feedback channel, called limited feedback beamforming. One of the key roles of Vector Quantization (VQ) is how to generate a good codebook such that the distortion between the original image and the reconstructed image is the minimized. In this paper, a novel adaptive codebook selection scheme for image classification is proposed with taking both spatial and temporal correlation inherent in the channel into consideration. The new codebook selection algorithm is developed to select two codebooks from the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) codebook, the generalized Lloyd algorithm (GLA) codebook and the Grassmannian codebook to be combined and used as candidates of the original image and the reconstructed image for image transmission. The channel is estimated and divided into four regions based on the spatial and temporal correlation of the channel and an appropriate codebook is assigned to each region. The proposed method can efficiently reduce the required information of feedback under the spatially and temporally correlated channels, where each region is adaptively. Simulation results show that in the case of temporally and spatially correlated channels, the bit-error-rate (BER) performance can be improved substantially by the proposed algorithm compared to the one with only single codebook.

  13. Service-level selection by HMOs in Medicare.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhun; McGuire, Thomas G

    2003-11-01

    In the federal Medicare program, contracting health maintenance organizations (HMOs) are paid on a capitated basis. There has long been concern that an "adverse selection" of risks remain in the traditional fee-for-service (FFS) sector, since beneficiaries with low costs may leave the FFS sector and join the HMOs. The distortion associated with this form of selection is that health plans may design their mix of health care services in order to effectuate favorable selection. This paper scrutinizes patterns of HMO membership and costs by service in the FFS sector for evidence consistent with the hypothesis that HMOs engage in service-level product distortion. We develop a multi-service model of choice between FFS and HMOs and show that if the HMO sector is underproviding (overproviding) a service relative to the FFS sector, we should observe a positive (negative) correlation between the HMO market share and average costs of those remaining in the FFS sector. We estimate the correlation between the HMO market share and the average FFS costs for different health care services using Medicare data for 1996. We find evidence indicating that there exists significant service-level selection by HMOs.

  14. Adaptations to sexual selection and sexual conflict: insights from experimental evolution and artificial selection.

    PubMed

    Edward, Dominic A; Fricke, Claudia; Chapman, Tracey

    2010-08-27

    Artificial selection and experimental evolution document natural selection under controlled conditions. Collectively, these techniques are continuing to provide fresh and important insights into the genetic basis of evolutionary change, and are now being employed to investigate mating behaviour. Here, we focus on how selection techniques can reveal the genetic basis of post-mating adaptations to sexual selection and sexual conflict. Alteration of the operational sex ratio of adult Drosophila over just a few tens of generations can lead to altered ejaculate allocation patterns and the evolution of resistance in females to the costly effects of elevated mating rates. We provide new data to show how male responses to the presence of rivals can evolve. For several traits, the way in which males responded to rivals was opposite in lines selected for male-biased, as opposed to female-biased, adult sex ratio. This shows that the manipulation of the relative intensity of intra- and inter-sexual selection can lead to replicable and repeatable effects on mating systems, and reveals the potential for significant contemporary evolutionary change. Such studies, with important safeguards, have potential utility for understanding sexual selection and sexual conflict across many taxa. We discuss how artificial selection studies combined with genomics will continue to deepen our knowledge of the evolutionary principles first laid down by Darwin 150 years ago.

  15. The US Forest Service Framework for Climate Adaptation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleaves, D.

    2013-12-01

    Public lands are changing in response to climate change and related stressors such that resilience-based management plans that integrate climate-smart adaptation are needed. The goal of these plans is to facilitate land managers' consideration of a range of potential futures while simplifying the complex array of choices and assumptions in a rigorous, defensible manner. The foundation for climate response has been built into recent Forest Service policies, guidance, and strategies like the climate change Roadmap and Scorecard; 2012 Planning Rule; Cohesive Wildland Fire Management strategy; and Inventory, Monitoring & Assessment strategy. This has driven the need for information that is relevant, timely, and accessible to support vulnerability assessments and risk management to aid in designing and choosing alternatives and ranking actions. Managers must also consider carbon and greenhouse gas implications as well as understand the nature and level of uncertainties. The major adjustments that need to be made involve: improving risk-based decision making and working with predictive models and information; evaluating underlying assumptions against new realities and possibilities being revealed by climate science; integrating carbon cycle science and a new ethic of carbon stewardship into management practices; and preparing systems for inevitable changes to ameliorate negative effects, capture opportunities, or accept different and perhaps novel ecosystem configurations. We need to avoid waiting for complete science that never arrives and take actions that blend science and experience to boost learning, reduce costs and irreversible losses, and buy lead time.

  16. Adaptive Topographies and Equilibrium Selection in an Evolutionary Game

    PubMed Central

    Osinga, Hinke M.; Marshall, James A. R.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known in the field of population genetics that adaptive topographies, in which population equilibria maximise mean population fitness for a trait regardless of its genetic bases, do not exist. Whether one chooses to model selection acting on a single locus or multiple loci does matter. In evolutionary game theory, analysis of a simple and general game involving distinct roles for the two players has shown that whether strategies are modelled using a single ‘locus’ or one ‘locus’ for each role, the stable population equilibria are unchanged and correspond to the fitness-maximising evolutionary stable strategies of the game. This is curious given the aforementioned population genetical results on the importance of the genetic bases of traits. Here we present a dynamical systems analysis of the game with roles detailing how, while the stable equilibria in this game are unchanged by the number of ‘loci’ modelled, equilibrium selection may differ under the two modelling approaches. PMID:25706762

  17. Adaptive breeding habitat selection: Is it for the birds?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalfoun, Anna D.; Schmidt, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    The question of why animals choose particular habitats has important implications for understanding behavioral evolution and distribution of organisms in the wild and for delineating between habitats of different quality for conservation and management. Habitats chosen by animals can influence fitness outcomes via the costs (e.g., predation risk) and benefits (e.g., food availability) of habitat use. Habitat preferences should therefore be under selection to favor those that confer fitness advantages (Clark and Shutler 1999). Indeed, prevailing theory suggests that the habitat preferences of animals should be adaptive, such that fitness is higher in preferred habitats (Hildén 1965, Southwood 1977, Martin 1998). However, studies have often identified apparent mismatches between observed habitat preferences and fitness outcomes across a wide variety of taxa (Valladares and Lawton 1991, Mayhew 1997, Kolbe and Janzen 2002, Arlt and Pärt 2007, Mägi et al. 2009). Certainly, one limitation of studies may be that assessment of “fitness” is typically constrained to fitness surrogates such as nest success rather than lifetime reproductive success or classic Fisherian fitness (Endler 1986). Nevertheless, important habitat choices such as nest sites influence the probability that temporarily sedentary, dependent young are discovered by enemies such as predators and parasites. We therefore expect, on average, to see congruence between evolved habitat preferences and relevant components of fitness (e.g., nest success). Here, we (1) review the prevalence of apparent mismatches between avian breeding-habitat preferences and fitness outcomes using nest-site selection as a focus; (2) describe several potential mechanisms for such mismatches, including anthropogenic, methodological, and ecological–evolutionary; and (3) suggest a framework for understanding the contexts in which habitat preferences represent adaptive decisions, with a primary focus on ecological information

  18. A Belief-based Trust Model for Dynamic Service Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Ali Shaikh; Rana, Omer F.

    Provision of services across institutional boundaries has become an active research area. Many such services encode access to computational and data resources (comprising single machines to computational clusters). Such services can also be informational, and integrate different resources within an institution. Consequently, we envision a service rich environment in the future, where service consumers can intelligently decide between which services to select. If interaction between service providers/users is automated, it is necessary for these service clients to be able to automatically chose between a set of equivalent (or similar) services. In such a scenario trust serves as a benchmark to differentiate between service providers. One might therefore prioritize potential cooperative partners based on the established trust. Although many approaches exist in literature about trust between online communities, the exact nature of trust for multi-institutional service sharing remains undefined. Therefore, the concept of trust suffers from an imperfect understanding, a plethora of definitions, and informal use in the literature. We present a formalism for describing trust within multi-institutional service sharing, and provide an implementation of this; enabling the agent to make trust-based decision. We evaluate our formalism through simulation.

  19. Selecting cost-effective areas for restoration of ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Adame, M F; Hermoso, V; Perhans, K; Lovelock, C E; Herrera-Silveira, J A

    2015-04-01

    Selection of areas for restoration should be based on cost-effectiveness analysis to attain the maximum benefit with a limited budget and overcome the traditional ad hoc allocation of funds for restoration projects. Restoration projects need to be planned on the basis of ecological knowledge and economic and social constraints. We devised a novel approach for selecting cost-effective areas for restoration on the basis of biodiversity and potential provision of 3 ecosystem services: carbon storage, water depuration, and coastal protection. We used Marxan, a spatial prioritization tool, to balance the provision of ecosystem services against the cost of restoration. We tested this approach in a mangrove ecosystem in the Caribbean. Our approach efficiently selected restoration areas that at low cost were compatible with biodiversity targets and that maximized the provision of one or more ecosystem services. Choosing areas for restoration of mangroves on the basis carbon storage potential, largely guaranteed the restoration of biodiversity and other ecosystem services.

  20. Transforming health care service delivery and provider selection.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Bruce I

    2011-06-01

    Commoditization pressures in medicine have risked transforming service provider selection from "survival of the fittest" to "survival of the cheapest." Quality- and safety-oriented mandates by the Institute of Medicine have led to the creation of a number of data-driven quality-centric initiatives including Pay for Performance and Evidence-Based Medicine. A synergistic approach to creating quantitative accountability in medical service delivery is through the creation of consumer-oriented performance metrics which provide patients with objective data related to individual service provider quality, safety, cost-efficacy, efficiency, and customer service. These performance metrics could in turn be customized to the individual preferences and health care needs of each individual patient, thereby providing an objective methodology for service provider selection while empowering health care consumers. PMID:21468775

  1. Assessing Satisfaction with Selected Student Services Using SERVQUAL, a Market-Driven Model of Service Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruby, Carl A.

    1998-01-01

    Demonstrates how the use of SERVQUAL, a market-driven assessment model adapted from business, can be used to study student satisfaction with four areas of support services hypothetically related to enrollment management. The sample included 748 students enrolled in general education courses at ten different private institutions. (Contains 27…

  2. Using Virtualization and Automatic Evaluation: Adapting Network Services Management Courses to the EHEA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ros, S.; Robles-Gomez, A.; Hernandez, R.; Caminero, A. C.; Pastor, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the adaptation of a course on the management of network services in operating systems, called NetServicesOS, to the context of the new European Higher Education Area (EHEA). NetServicesOS is a mandatory course in one of the official graduate programs in the Faculty of Computer Science at the Universidad Nacional de Educacion a…

  3. Analyzing Electronic Question/Answer Services: Framework and Evaluations of Selected Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Marilyn Domas, Ed.

    This report develops an analytical framework based on systems analysis for evaluating electronic question/answer or AskA services operated by a wide range of types of organizations, including libraries. Version 1.0 of this framework was applied in June 1999 to a selective sample of 11 electronic question/answer services, which cover a range of…

  4. USER SERVICES AND EXTENSION SERVICES IN SELECTED SPECIAL LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION CENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NONINI, CERISE

    A SURVEY BY QUESTIONNAIRE WAS MADE OF THE PROBLEM OF USER SERVICES AND EXTENSION SERVICES USED IN THE DISSEMINATION OF MATERIALS AND INFORMATION TO A SELECTED NUMBER OF INDUSTRIAL LIBRARIES. THE SURVEY RESULTED IN DATA CONCERNING STAFF SIZE, PROFESSIONAL-TO-CLERICAL RATIO, SIZE OF BOOK, DOCUMENT, PERIODICAL AND MICROFORM COLLECTIONS, LIBRARY…

  5. Learning to Select Supplier Portfolios for Service Supply Chain

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Li, Jingfei; Wu, Shaoyu; Meng, Dabin

    2016-01-01

    The research on service supply chain has attracted more and more focus from both academia and industrial community. In a service supply chain, the selection of supplier portfolio is an important and difficult problem due to the fact that a supplier portfolio may include multiple suppliers from a variety of fields. To address this problem, we propose a novel supplier portfolio selection method based on a well known machine learning approach, i.e., Ranking Neural Network (RankNet). In the proposed method, we regard the problem of supplier portfolio selection as a ranking problem, which integrates a large scale of decision making features into a ranking neural network. Extensive simulation experiments are conducted, which demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. The proposed supplier portfolio selection model can be applied in a real corporation easily in the future. PMID:27195756

  6. Learning to Select Supplier Portfolios for Service Supply Chain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Li, Jingfei; Wu, Shaoyu; Meng, Dabin

    2016-01-01

    The research on service supply chain has attracted more and more focus from both academia and industrial community. In a service supply chain, the selection of supplier portfolio is an important and difficult problem due to the fact that a supplier portfolio may include multiple suppliers from a variety of fields. To address this problem, we propose a novel supplier portfolio selection method based on a well known machine learning approach, i.e., Ranking Neural Network (RankNet). In the proposed method, we regard the problem of supplier portfolio selection as a ranking problem, which integrates a large scale of decision making features into a ranking neural network. Extensive simulation experiments are conducted, which demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. The proposed supplier portfolio selection model can be applied in a real corporation easily in the future. PMID:27195756

  7. Selective Service and Military Policies on Classification, Deferment, and Delay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dargusch, Carlton S.; Alden, John D.

    This handbook was primarily designed to inform employers of selective service and military policies, so that their responsibilities to the military liability of their employees may be exercised effectively. Six steps were recommended for employers in executing their responsibilities. The information for employers which is issued by the Selective…

  8. Self-Selection Effects in Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holz, Kenna Bolton; Pinnow, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    This study models the registration process in order to directly examine the possibility of pre-existing differences between undergraduate students who choose to take service-learning classes compared to those who do not. Foremost among the findings, on most measures there was no significant effect of self-selection. However, students who chose a…

  9. The roles of life-history selection and sexual selection in the adaptive evolution of mating behavior in a beetle.

    PubMed

    Maklakov, Alexei A; Cayetano, Luis; Brooks, Robert C; Bonduriansky, Russell

    2010-05-01

    Although there is continuing debate about whether sexual selection promotes or impedes adaptation to novel environments, the role of mating behavior in such adaptation remains largely unexplored. We investigated the evolution of mating behavior (latency to mating, mating probability and duration) in replicate populations of seed beetles Callosobruchus maculatus subjected to selection on life-history ("Young" vs. "Old" reproduction) under contrasting regimes of sexual selection ("Monogamy" vs. "Polygamy"). Life-history selection is predicted to favor delayed mating in "Old" females, but sexual conflict under polygamy can potentially retard adaptive life-history evolution. We found that life-history selection yielded the predicted changes in mating behavior, but sexual selection regime had no net effect. In within-line crosses, populations selected for late reproduction showed equally reduced early-life mating probability regardless of mating system. In between-line crosses, however, the effect of life-history selection on early-life mating probability was stronger in polygamous lines than in monogamous ones. Thus, although mating system influenced male-female coevolution, removal of sexual selection did not affect the adaptive evolution of mating behavior. Importantly, our study shows that the interaction between sexual selection and life-history selection can result in either increased or decreased reproductive divergence depending on the ecological context.

  10. The geography of sex-specific selection, local adaptation, and sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Connallon, Tim

    2015-09-01

    Local adaptation and sexual dimorphism are iconic evolutionary scenarios of intraspecific adaptive differentiation in the face of gene flow. Although theory has traditionally considered local adaptation and sexual dimorphism as conceptually distinct processes, emerging data suggest that they often act concurrently during evolutionary diversification. Here, I merge theories of local adaptation in space and sex-specific adaptation over time, and show that their confluence yields several new predictions about the roles of context-specific selection, migration, and genetic correlations, in adaptive diversification. I specifically revisit two influential predictions from classical studies of clinal adaptation and sexual dimorphism: (1) that local adaptation should decrease with distance from the species' range center and (2) that opposing directional selection between the sexes (sexual antagonism) should inevitably accompany the evolution of sexual dimorphism. I show that both predictions can break down under clinally varying selection. First, the geography of local adaptation can be sexually dimorphic, with locations of relatively high local adaptation differing profoundly between the sexes. Second, the intensity of sexual antagonism varies across the species' range, with subpopulations near the range center representing hotspots for antagonistic selection. The results highlight the context-dependent roles of migration versus sexual conflict as primary constraints to adaptive diversification.

  11. On-off selectivity and asymmetry in apparent contrast: An adaptation study.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiromi; Motoyoshi, Isamu; Sato, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Using textures composed of sparse bright/dark elements that can activate either on or off sensors selectively, Sato, Motoyoshi, and Sato (2012) reported simultaneous contrast-contrast effects tuned for contrast polarity. As with contrast-contrast effects, prolonged viewing of high-contrast stimuli reduces the perceived contrast of a subsequently presented stimulus. The present study examined whether contrast aftereffects are also selective for luminance polarity using texture patterns composed of sparse bright/dark elements. Results revealed that contrast aftereffects are selective for luminance polarity (polarity selectivity) but that adaptation aftereffects occur asymmetrically depending on the polarity of the adapter (polarity asymmetry). Polarity selectivity and asymmetry in adaptation aftereffects are reduced but not completely diminished if adapter and test stimuli are presented to separate eyes (dichoptically). Our results support the idea that suprathreshold contrast perception and its adaptational shifts are jointly determined by responses between monocular and binocular units.

  12. Adapting the SERVQUAL scale to hospital services: an empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Babakus, E; Mangold, W G

    1992-02-01

    Defining and measuring the quality of service has been a major challenge for health care marketers. A comprehensive service quality measurement scale (SERVQUAL) is empirically evaluated for its potential usefulness in a hospital service environment. Active participation by hospital management helped to address practical and user-related aspects of the assessment. The completed expectations and perceptions scales met various criteria for reliability and validity. Suggestions are provided for the managerial use of the scale, and a number of future research issues are identified.

  13. Adapting the SERVQUAL scale to hospital services: an empirical investigation.

    PubMed Central

    Babakus, E; Mangold, W G

    1992-01-01

    Defining and measuring the quality of service has been a major challenge for health care marketers. A comprehensive service quality measurement scale (SERVQUAL) is empirically evaluated for its potential usefulness in a hospital service environment. Active participation by hospital management helped to address practical and user-related aspects of the assessment. The completed expectations and perceptions scales met various criteria for reliability and validity. Suggestions are provided for the managerial use of the scale, and a number of future research issues are identified. PMID:1737708

  14. Adapting the SERVQUAL scale to hospital services: an empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Babakus, E; Mangold, W G

    1992-02-01

    Defining and measuring the quality of service has been a major challenge for health care marketers. A comprehensive service quality measurement scale (SERVQUAL) is empirically evaluated for its potential usefulness in a hospital service environment. Active participation by hospital management helped to address practical and user-related aspects of the assessment. The completed expectations and perceptions scales met various criteria for reliability and validity. Suggestions are provided for the managerial use of the scale, and a number of future research issues are identified. PMID:1737708

  15. A Service Brokering and Recommendation Mechanism for Better Selecting Cloud Services

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Zhipeng; Yang, Chaowei; Xia, Jizhe; Huang, Qunying; Liu, Kai; Li, Zhenlong; Yu, Manzhu; Sun, Min; Zhou, Nanyin; Jin, Baoxuan

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is becoming the new generation computing infrastructure, and many cloud vendors provide different types of cloud services. How to choose the best cloud services for specific applications is very challenging. Addressing this challenge requires balancing multiple factors, such as business demands, technologies, policies and preferences in addition to the computing requirements. This paper recommends a mechanism for selecting the best public cloud service at the levels of Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) and Platform as a Service (PaaS). A systematic framework and associated workflow include cloud service filtration, solution generation, evaluation, and selection of public cloud services. Specifically, we propose the following: a hierarchical information model for integrating heterogeneous cloud information from different providers and a corresponding cloud information collecting mechanism; a cloud service classification model for categorizing and filtering cloud services and an application requirement schema for providing rules for creating application-specific configuration solutions; and a preference-aware solution evaluation mode for evaluating and recommending solutions according to the preferences of application providers. To test the proposed framework and methodologies, a cloud service advisory tool prototype was developed after which relevant experiments were conducted. The results show that the proposed system collects/updates/records the cloud information from multiple mainstream public cloud services in real-time, generates feasible cloud configuration solutions according to user specifications and acceptable cost predication, assesses solutions from multiple aspects (e.g., computing capability, potential cost and Service Level Agreement, SLA) and offers rational recommendations based on user preferences and practical cloud provisioning; and visually presents and compares solutions through an interactive web Graphical User Interface (GUI

  16. A service brokering and recommendation mechanism for better selecting cloud services.

    PubMed

    Gui, Zhipeng; Yang, Chaowei; Xia, Jizhe; Huang, Qunying; Liu, Kai; Li, Zhenlong; Yu, Manzhu; Sun, Min; Zhou, Nanyin; Jin, Baoxuan

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is becoming the new generation computing infrastructure, and many cloud vendors provide different types of cloud services. How to choose the best cloud services for specific applications is very challenging. Addressing this challenge requires balancing multiple factors, such as business demands, technologies, policies and preferences in addition to the computing requirements. This paper recommends a mechanism for selecting the best public cloud service at the levels of Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) and Platform as a Service (PaaS). A systematic framework and associated workflow include cloud service filtration, solution generation, evaluation, and selection of public cloud services. Specifically, we propose the following: a hierarchical information model for integrating heterogeneous cloud information from different providers and a corresponding cloud information collecting mechanism; a cloud service classification model for categorizing and filtering cloud services and an application requirement schema for providing rules for creating application-specific configuration solutions; and a preference-aware solution evaluation mode for evaluating and recommending solutions according to the preferences of application providers. To test the proposed framework and methodologies, a cloud service advisory tool prototype was developed after which relevant experiments were conducted. The results show that the proposed system collects/updates/records the cloud information from multiple mainstream public cloud services in real-time, generates feasible cloud configuration solutions according to user specifications and acceptable cost predication, assesses solutions from multiple aspects (e.g., computing capability, potential cost and Service Level Agreement, SLA) and offers rational recommendations based on user preferences and practical cloud provisioning; and visually presents and compares solutions through an interactive web Graphical User Interface (GUI).

  17. A service brokering and recommendation mechanism for better selecting cloud services.

    PubMed

    Gui, Zhipeng; Yang, Chaowei; Xia, Jizhe; Huang, Qunying; Liu, Kai; Li, Zhenlong; Yu, Manzhu; Sun, Min; Zhou, Nanyin; Jin, Baoxuan

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is becoming the new generation computing infrastructure, and many cloud vendors provide different types of cloud services. How to choose the best cloud services for specific applications is very challenging. Addressing this challenge requires balancing multiple factors, such as business demands, technologies, policies and preferences in addition to the computing requirements. This paper recommends a mechanism for selecting the best public cloud service at the levels of Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) and Platform as a Service (PaaS). A systematic framework and associated workflow include cloud service filtration, solution generation, evaluation, and selection of public cloud services. Specifically, we propose the following: a hierarchical information model for integrating heterogeneous cloud information from different providers and a corresponding cloud information collecting mechanism; a cloud service classification model for categorizing and filtering cloud services and an application requirement schema for providing rules for creating application-specific configuration solutions; and a preference-aware solution evaluation mode for evaluating and recommending solutions according to the preferences of application providers. To test the proposed framework and methodologies, a cloud service advisory tool prototype was developed after which relevant experiments were conducted. The results show that the proposed system collects/updates/records the cloud information from multiple mainstream public cloud services in real-time, generates feasible cloud configuration solutions according to user specifications and acceptable cost predication, assesses solutions from multiple aspects (e.g., computing capability, potential cost and Service Level Agreement, SLA) and offers rational recommendations based on user preferences and practical cloud provisioning; and visually presents and compares solutions through an interactive web Graphical User Interface (GUI

  18. Time Adaptation Shows Duration Selectivity in the Human Parietal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masamichi J; Ditye, Thomas; Harada, Tokiko; Hashiguchi, Maho; Sadato, Norihiro; Carlson, Synnöve; Walsh, Vincent; Kanai, Ryota

    2015-01-01

    Although psychological and computational models of time estimation have postulated the existence of neural representations tuned for specific durations, empirical evidence of this notion has been lacking. Here, using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) adaptation paradigm, we show that the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) (corresponding to the supramarginal gyrus) exhibited reduction in neural activity due to adaptation when a visual stimulus of the same duration was repeatedly presented. Adaptation was strongest when stimuli of identical durations were repeated, and it gradually decreased as the difference between the reference and test durations increased. This tuning property generalized across a broad range of durations, indicating the presence of general time-representation mechanisms in the IPL. Furthermore, adaptation was observed irrespective of the subject's attention to time. Repetition of a nontemporal aspect of the stimulus (i.e., shape) did not produce neural adaptation in the IPL. These results provide neural evidence for duration-tuned representations in the human brain. PMID:26378440

  19. Time Adaptation Shows Duration Selectivity in the Human Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Masamichi J.; Ditye, Thomas; Harada, Tokiko; Hashiguchi, Maho; Sadato, Norihiro; Carlson, Synnöve; Walsh, Vincent; Kanai, Ryota

    2015-01-01

    Although psychological and computational models of time estimation have postulated the existence of neural representations tuned for specific durations, empirical evidence of this notion has been lacking. Here, using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) adaptation paradigm, we show that the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) (corresponding to the supramarginal gyrus) exhibited reduction in neural activity due to adaptation when a visual stimulus of the same duration was repeatedly presented. Adaptation was strongest when stimuli of identical durations were repeated, and it gradually decreased as the difference between the reference and test durations increased. This tuning property generalized across a broad range of durations, indicating the presence of general time-representation mechanisms in the IPL. Furthermore, adaptation was observed irrespective of the subject’s attention to time. Repetition of a nontemporal aspect of the stimulus (i.e., shape) did not produce neural adaptation in the IPL. These results provide neural evidence for duration-tuned representations in the human brain. PMID:26378440

  20. The Unfit Majority: A Research Study of the Rehabilitation of Selective Service Rejectees in South Carolina. Final Report for: Experimental Demonstration Project for Servicing Selective Service Rejectees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Hubert M.; And Others

    A 3-year demonstration project focused on the vocational rehabilitation rehabilitation of selective service rejectees in a five-county area in Central South Carolina. In 1962, over 50 percent of South Carolina's young men who were examined for military service were rejected for failure to meet physical and/or mental requirements. Of 1,450…

  1. Group Selection as Behavioral Adaptation to Systematic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruixun; Brennan, Thomas J.; Lo, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite many compelling applications in economics, sociobiology, and evolutionary psychology, group selection is still one of the most hotly contested ideas in evolutionary biology. Here we propose a simple evolutionary model of behavior and show that what appears to be group selection may, in fact, simply be the consequence of natural selection occurring in stochastic environments with reproductive risks that are correlated across individuals. Those individuals with highly correlated risks will appear to form “groups”, even if their actions are, in fact, totally autonomous, mindless, and, prior to selection, uniformly randomly distributed in the population. This framework implies that a separate theory of group selection is not strictly necessary to explain observed phenomena such as altruism and cooperation. At the same time, it shows that the notion of group selection does captures a unique aspect of evolution—selection with correlated reproductive risk–that may be sufficiently widespread to warrant a separate term for the phenomenon. PMID:25353167

  2. Multi-service terminal adapter based on IP technology applications in rural area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Li; Li, Xiaobo; Yan, Juntao; Ren, Xupeng

    Take advantage of ample modern existing telecom network resources to rural areas may achieve it's information society gradually. This includes the establishment of integrated rural information service platform, modern remote education center and electronic administration management platform for rural areas. The geographical and economic constraints must be overcome for structuring the rural service support system, in order to provide technical support, information products and information services to modern rural information service system. It is important that development an access platform based IP technology, which supports multi-service access in order to implement a variety of types of mobile terminal equipment adapter access and to reduce restrictions on mobile terminal equipment.

  3. Management of an adaptable-bit-rate video service in a MAN environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marini, Michele; Albanese, Andres

    1991-02-01

    This paper describes an adaptable-bit-rate video service concept experiment and its management in an experimental prototype of a public metropolitan area network (MAN). In the experiment the " service providers" supply their customers with a set of service management primitives to implement customer-defined management applications and provide users with a high level of flexibility in the service definition. The paper describes the architecture for an experimental service management system that includes customer controlled features for dynamic bandwidth allocation group addressing and address screening. 1

  4. Context-Adaptive Learning Designs by Using Semantic Web Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietze, Stefan; Gugliotta, Alessio; Domingue, John

    2007-01-01

    IMS Learning Design (IMS-LD) is a promising technology aimed at supporting learning processes. IMS-LD packages contain the learning process metadata as well as the learning resources. However, the allocation of resources--whether data or services--within the learning design is done manually at design-time on the basis of the subjective appraisals…

  5. The Selection of Test Items for Decision Making with a Computer Adaptive Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spray, Judith A.; Reckase, Mark D.

    The issue of test-item selection in support of decision making in adaptive testing is considered. The number of items needed to make a decision is compared for two approaches: selecting items from an item pool that are most informative at the decision point or selecting items that are most informative at the examinee's ability level. The first…

  6. Population genomics of Populus trichocarpa identifies signatures of selection and adaptive trait associations.

    PubMed

    Evans, Luke M; Slavov, Gancho T; Rodgers-Melnick, Eli; Martin, Joel; Ranjan, Priya; Muchero, Wellington; Brunner, Amy M; Schackwitz, Wendy; Gunter, Lee; Chen, Jin-Gui; Tuskan, Gerald A; DiFazio, Stephen P

    2014-10-01

    Forest trees are dominant components of terrestrial ecosystems that have global ecological and economic importance. Despite distributions that span wide environmental gradients, many tree populations are locally adapted, and mechanisms underlying this adaptation are poorly understood. Here we use a combination of whole-genome selection scans and association analyses of 544 Populus trichocarpa trees to reveal genomic bases of adaptive variation across a wide latitudinal range. Three hundred ninety-seven genomic regions showed evidence of recent positive and/or divergent selection and enrichment for associations with adaptive traits that also displayed patterns consistent with natural selection. These regions also provide unexpected insights into the evolutionary dynamics of duplicated genes and their roles in adaptive trait variation. PMID:25151358

  7. Population genomics of Populus trichocarpa identifies signatures of selection and adaptive trait associations

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Luke M; Slavov, Gancho; Rodgers-Melnick, Eli; Martin, Joel; Ranjan, Priya; Muchero, Wellington; Brunner, Amy M.; Schackwitz, Wendy; Gunter, Lee E; Chen, Jay; Tuskan, Gerald A; Difazio, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Forest trees are dominant components of terrestrial ecosystems that have global ecological and economic importance. Despite distributions that span wide environmental gradients, many tree populations are locally adapted, and mechanisms underlying this adaptation are poorly understood. Here we use a combination of whole-genome selection scans and association analyses of 544 Populus trichocarpa trees to reveal genomic bases of adaptive variation across a wide latitudinal range. Three hundred ninety-seven genomic regions showed evidence of recent positive and/or divergent selection and enrichment for associations with adaptive traits that also displayed patterns consistent with natural selection. These regions also provide unexpected insights into the evolutionary dynamics of duplicated genes and their roles in adaptive trait variation.

  8. Spatial grid services for adaptive spatial query optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Bingbo; Xie, Chuanjie; Sheng, Wentao

    2008-10-01

    Spatial information sharing and integration has now become an important issue of Geographical Information Science (GIS). Web Service technologies provide a easy and standard way to share spatial resources over network, and grid technologies which aim at sharing resources such as data, storage, and computational powers can help the sharing go deeper. However, the dynamic characteristic of grid brings complexity to spatial query optimization which is more stressed in GIS domain because spatial operations are both CPU intensive and data intensive. To address this problem, a new grid framework is employed to provide standard spatial services which can also manage and report their state information to the coordinator which is responsible for distributed spatial query optimization.

  9. A service based adaptive U-learning system using UX.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hwa-Young; Yi, Gangman

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, traditional development techniques for e-learning systems have been changing to become more convenient and efficient. One new technology in the development of application systems includes both cloud and ubiquitous computing. Cloud computing can support learning system processes by using services while ubiquitous computing can provide system operation and management via a high performance technical process and network. In the cloud computing environment, a learning service application can provide a business module or process to the user via the internet. This research focuses on providing the learning material and processes of courses by learning units using the services in a ubiquitous computing environment. And we also investigate functions that support users' tailored materials according to their learning style. That is, we analyzed the user's data and their characteristics in accordance with their user experience. We subsequently applied the learning process to fit on their learning performance and preferences. Finally, we demonstrate how the proposed system outperforms learning effects to learners better than existing techniques.

  10. A Service Based Adaptive U-Learning System Using UX

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hwa-Young

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, traditional development techniques for e-learning systems have been changing to become more convenient and efficient. One new technology in the development of application systems includes both cloud and ubiquitous computing. Cloud computing can support learning system processes by using services while ubiquitous computing can provide system operation and management via a high performance technical process and network. In the cloud computing environment, a learning service application can provide a business module or process to the user via the internet. This research focuses on providing the learning material and processes of courses by learning units using the services in a ubiquitous computing environment. And we also investigate functions that support users' tailored materials according to their learning style. That is, we analyzed the user's data and their characteristics in accordance with their user experience. We subsequently applied the learning process to fit on their learning performance and preferences. Finally, we demonstrate how the proposed system outperforms learning effects to learners better than existing techniques. PMID:25147832

  11. Using Selection Pressure as an Asset to Develop Reusable, Adaptable Software Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrick, Stephen; Lynnes, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) at NASA has over the years developed and honed several reusable architectural components for supporting large-scale data centers with a large customer base. These include a processing system (S4PM) and an archive system (S4PA) based upon a workflow engine called the Simple Scalable Script based Science Processor (S4P) and an online data visualization and analysis system (Giovanni). These subsystems are currently reused internally in a variety of combinations to implement customized data management on behalf of instrument science teams and other science investigators. Some of these subsystems (S4P and S4PM) have also been reused by other data centers for operational science processing. Our experience has been that development and utilization of robust interoperable and reusable software systems can actually flourish in environments defined by heterogeneous commodity hardware systems the emphasis on value-added customer service and the continual goal for achieving higher cost efficiencies. The repeated internal reuse that is fostered by such an environment encourages and even forces changes to the software that make it more reusable and adaptable. Allowing and even encouraging such selective pressures to software development has been a key factor In the success of S4P and S4PM which are now available to the open source community under the NASA Open source Agreement

  12. 32 CFR 1605.13 - Staff of State Headquarters for Selective Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Service. 1605.13 Section 1605.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION State Administration § 1605.13 Staff of State Headquarters for Selective Service. (a) Subject to applicable law and within the limits of available funds,...

  13. 32 CFR 1605.61 - Staff of area offices for selective service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Staff of area offices for selective service... SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Area Office Administration § 1605.61 Staff of area offices for selective service. Subject to applicable law and within the limits of available funds,...

  14. 32 CFR 1605.8 - Staff of Region Headquarters for Selective Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Service. 1605.8 Section 1605.8 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Region Administration § 1605.8 Staff of Region Headquarters for Selective Service. (a) Subject to applicable law, and within the limits of available...

  15. 32 CFR 1605.61 - Staff of area offices for selective service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Staff of area offices for selective service... SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Area Office Administration § 1605.61 Staff of area offices for selective service. Subject to applicable law and within the limits of available funds,...

  16. 32 CFR 1605.13 - Staff of State Headquarters for Selective Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Service. 1605.13 Section 1605.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION State Administration § 1605.13 Staff of State Headquarters for Selective Service. (a) Subject to applicable law and within the limits of available funds,...

  17. 32 CFR 1605.61 - Staff of area offices for selective service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Staff of area offices for selective service... SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Area Office Administration § 1605.61 Staff of area offices for selective service. Subject to applicable law and within the limits of available funds,...

  18. 32 CFR 1605.13 - Staff of State Headquarters for Selective Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Service. 1605.13 Section 1605.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION State Administration § 1605.13 Staff of State Headquarters for Selective Service. (a) Subject to applicable law and within the limits of available funds,...

  19. 32 CFR 1605.14 - State Director of Selective Service for New York City.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State Director of Selective Service for New York... SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION State Administration § 1605.14 State Director of Selective Service for New York City. The Governor of the State of New York is authorized to recommend...

  20. 32 CFR 1605.14 - State Director of Selective Service for New York City.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State Director of Selective Service for New York... SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION State Administration § 1605.14 State Director of Selective Service for New York City. The Governor of the State of New York is authorized to recommend...

  1. 32 CFR 1605.14 - State Director of Selective Service for New York City.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State Director of Selective Service for New York... SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION State Administration § 1605.14 State Director of Selective Service for New York City. The Governor of the State of New York is authorized to recommend...

  2. 32 CFR 1605.8 - Staff of Region Headquarters for Selective Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Service. 1605.8 Section 1605.8 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Region Administration § 1605.8 Staff of Region Headquarters for Selective Service. (a) Subject to applicable law, and within the limits of available...

  3. 32 CFR 1605.61 - Staff of area offices for selective service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Staff of area offices for selective service... SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Area Office Administration § 1605.61 Staff of area offices for selective service. Subject to applicable law and within the limits of available funds,...

  4. 32 CFR 1605.14 - State Director of Selective Service for New York City.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State Director of Selective Service for New York... SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION State Administration § 1605.14 State Director of Selective Service for New York City. The Governor of the State of New York is authorized to recommend...

  5. 32 CFR 1605.8 - Staff of Region Headquarters for Selective Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Service. 1605.8 Section 1605.8 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Region Administration § 1605.8 Staff of Region Headquarters for Selective Service. (a) Subject to applicable law, and within the limits of available...

  6. 32 CFR 1605.14 - State Director of Selective Service for New York City.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State Director of Selective Service for New York... SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION State Administration § 1605.14 State Director of Selective Service for New York City. The Governor of the State of New York is authorized to recommend...

  7. 32 CFR 1605.13 - Staff of State Headquarters for Selective Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Service. 1605.13 Section 1605.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION State Administration § 1605.13 Staff of State Headquarters for Selective Service. (a) Subject to applicable law and within the limits of available funds,...

  8. 32 CFR 1605.8 - Staff of Region Headquarters for Selective Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Service. 1605.8 Section 1605.8 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Region Administration § 1605.8 Staff of Region Headquarters for Selective Service. (a) Subject to applicable law, and within the limits of available...

  9. 32 CFR 1605.61 - Staff of area offices for selective service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Staff of area offices for selective service... SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Area Office Administration § 1605.61 Staff of area offices for selective service. Subject to applicable law and within the limits of available funds,...

  10. 32 CFR 1605.8 - Staff of Region Headquarters for Selective Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Service. 1605.8 Section 1605.8 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Region Administration § 1605.8 Staff of Region Headquarters for Selective Service. (a) Subject to applicable law, and within the limits of available...

  11. 32 CFR 1605.13 - Staff of State Headquarters for Selective Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Service. 1605.13 Section 1605.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION State Administration § 1605.13 Staff of State Headquarters for Selective Service. (a) Subject to applicable law and within the limits of available funds,...

  12. SLA-constrained service selection for minimizing costs of providing composite cloud services under stochastic runtime performance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Chan; Tsai, Mu-Jung; Lu, Sin-Ji; Hung, Chun-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Composite cloud services based on the methodologies of Software as a Service and Service-Oriented Architecture are transforming how people develop and use software. Cloud service providers are confronting the service selection problem when composing composite cloud services. This paper deals with an important type of service selection problem, minimizing the total cost of providing a composite cloud service with respect to the constraints of service level agreement (SLA). Two types of SLA are considered in the study: per-request-based SLA and ratio-based SLA. We present three service selection approaches for dynamic cloud environments where services' performance might vary with time. The first two are iterative compound approaches for per-request-based SLA and the third approach is a one-step method for ratio-based SLA based on the Chebyshev's theorem and nonlinear programming. Experimental results show that our approaches outperform the previous method significantly in terms of total cost reduction.

  13. SLA-constrained service selection for minimizing costs of providing composite cloud services under stochastic runtime performance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Chan; Tsai, Mu-Jung; Lu, Sin-Ji; Hung, Chun-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Composite cloud services based on the methodologies of Software as a Service and Service-Oriented Architecture are transforming how people develop and use software. Cloud service providers are confronting the service selection problem when composing composite cloud services. This paper deals with an important type of service selection problem, minimizing the total cost of providing a composite cloud service with respect to the constraints of service level agreement (SLA). Two types of SLA are considered in the study: per-request-based SLA and ratio-based SLA. We present three service selection approaches for dynamic cloud environments where services' performance might vary with time. The first two are iterative compound approaches for per-request-based SLA and the third approach is a one-step method for ratio-based SLA based on the Chebyshev's theorem and nonlinear programming. Experimental results show that our approaches outperform the previous method significantly in terms of total cost reduction. PMID:27066331

  14. Salinity Is an Agent of Divergent Selection Driving Local Adaptation of Arabidopsis to Coastal Habitats.

    PubMed

    Busoms, Silvia; Teres, Joana; Huang, Xin-Yuan; Bomblies, Kirsten; Danku, John; Douglas, Alex; Weigel, Detlef; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Salt, David E

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanism of adaptive evolution in plants provides insights into the selective forces driving adaptation and the genetic basis of adaptive traits with agricultural value. The genomic resources available for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) make it well suited to the rapid molecular dissection of adaptive processes. Although numerous potentially adaptive loci have been identified in Arabidopsis, the consequences of divergent selection and migration (both important aspects of the process of local adaptation) for Arabidopsis are not well understood. Here, we use a multiyear field-based reciprocal transplant experiment to detect local populations of Arabidopsis composed of multiple small stands of plants (demes) that are locally adapted to the coast and adjacent inland habitats in northeastern Spain. We identify fitness tradeoffs between plants from these different habitats when grown together in inland and coastal common gardens and also, under controlled conditions in soil excavated from coastal and inland sites. Plants from the coastal habitat also outperform those from inland when grown under high salinity, indicating local adaptation to soil salinity. Sodium can be toxic to plants, and we find its concentration to be elevated in soil and plants sampled at the coast. We conclude that the local adaptation that we observe between adjacent coastal and inland populations is caused by ongoing divergent selection driven by the differential salinity between coastal and inland soils.

  15. Changing Minds with the Story of Adaptation: Strategies for Teaching Young Children about Natural Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmons, Natalie; Smith, Hayley; Kelemen, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Educational guidelines recommend a delayed, piecemeal approach to instruction on adaptation by natural selection. This approach is questionable given suggestions that older students' pervasive misunderstandings about adaptation are rooted in cognitive biases that develop early. In response to this, Kelemen et al. (2014) recently…

  16. 42 CFR 61.36 - Selection and appointment of service fellows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selection and appointment of service fellows. 61.36 Section 61.36 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.36 Selection and appointment of service...

  17. 42 CFR 61.36 - Selection and appointment of service fellows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selection and appointment of service fellows. 61.36 Section 61.36 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.36 Selection and appointment of service...

  18. 42 CFR 61.36 - Selection and appointment of service fellows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Selection and appointment of service fellows. 61.36 Section 61.36 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.36 Selection and appointment of service...

  19. 42 CFR 61.36 - Selection and appointment of service fellows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Selection and appointment of service fellows. 61.36 Section 61.36 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.36 Selection and appointment of service...

  20. 42 CFR 61.36 - Selection and appointment of service fellows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Selection and appointment of service fellows. 61.36 Section 61.36 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.36 Selection and appointment of service...

  1. Adaptive Broadcasting Mechanism for Bandwidth Allocation in Mobile Services

    PubMed Central

    Horng, Gwo-Jiun; Wang, Chi-Hsuan; Chou, Chih-Lun

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a tree-based adaptive broadcasting (TAB) algorithm for data dissemination to improve data access efficiency. The proposed TAB algorithm first constructs a broadcast tree to determine the broadcast frequency of each data and splits the broadcast tree into some broadcast wood to generate the broadcast program. In addition, this paper develops an analytical model to derive the mean access latency of the generated broadcast program. In light of the derived results, both the index channel's bandwidth and the data channel's bandwidth can be optimally allocated to maximize bandwidth utilization. This paper presents experiments to help evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. From the experimental results, it can be seen that the proposed mechanism is feasible in practice. PMID:25057509

  2. Adaptive broadcasting mechanism for bandwidth allocation in mobile services.

    PubMed

    Horng, Gwo-Jiun; Wang, Chi-Hsuan; Chou, Chih-Lun

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a tree-based adaptive broadcasting (TAB) algorithm for data dissemination to improve data access efficiency. The proposed TAB algorithm first constructs a broadcast tree to determine the broadcast frequency of each data and splits the broadcast tree into some broadcast wood to generate the broadcast program. In addition, this paper develops an analytical model to derive the mean access latency of the generated broadcast program. In light of the derived results, both the index channel's bandwidth and the data channel's bandwidth can be optimally allocated to maximize bandwidth utilization. This paper presents experiments to help evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. From the experimental results, it can be seen that the proposed mechanism is feasible in practice.

  3. Coordinating Resource Usage through Adaptive Service Provisioning in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fok, Chien-Liang; Roman, Gruia-Catalin; Lu, Chenyang

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) exhibit high levels of network dynamics and consist of devices with limited energy. This results in the need to coordinate applications not only at the functional level, as is traditionally done, but also in terms of resource utilization. In this paper, we present a middleware that does this using adaptive service provisioning. Novel service binding strategies automatically adapt application behavior when opportunities for energy savings surface, and switch providers when the network topology changes. The former is accomplished by providing limited information about the energy consumption associated with using various services, systematically exploiting opportunities for sharing service invocations, and exploiting the broadcast nature of wireless communication in WSNs. The middleware has been implemented and evaluated on two disparate WSN platforms, the TelosB and Imote2. Empirical results show that adaptive service provisioning can enable energy-aware service binding decisions that result in increased energy efficiency and significantly increase service availability, while imposing minimal additional burden on the application, service, and device developers. Two applications, medical patient monitoring and structural health monitoring, demonstrate the middleware's efficacy.

  4. A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant “one model fits all” paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES - both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts.

  5. A Methodology for Adaptable and Robust Ecosystem Services Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant “one model fits all” paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES - both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts. PMID:24625496

  6. Genomic Evidence that Sexual Selection Impedes Adaptation to a Novel Environment.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, Stephen F; Appleton, Nicholas C; Allen, Scott L; Rundle, Howard D

    2015-07-20

    Sexual selection is widely appreciated for generating remarkable phenotypic diversity, but its contribution to adaptation and the purging of deleterious mutations is unresolved. To provide insight into the impact of sexual selection on naturally segregating polymorphisms across the genome, we previously evolved 12 populations of Drosophila serrata in a novel environment employing a factorial manipulation of the opportunities for natural and sexual selection. Here, we genotype more than 1,400 SNPs in the evolved populations and reveal that sexual selection affected many of the same genomic regions as natural selection, aligning with it as often as opposing it. Intriguingly, more than half of the 80 SNPs showing treatment effects revealed an interaction between natural and sexual selection. For these SNPs, while sexual selection alone often caused a change in allele frequency in the same direction as natural selection alone, when natural and sexual selection occurred together, changes in allele frequency were greatly reduced or even reversed. This suggests an antagonism between natural and sexual selection arising from male-induced harm to females. Behavioral experiments showed that males preferentially courted and mated with high-fitness females, and that the harm associated with this increased male attention eliminated the female fitness advantage. During our experiment, females carrying otherwise adaptive alleles may therefore have disproportionally suffered male-induced harm due to their increased sexual attractiveness. These results suggest that a class of otherwise adaptive mutations may not contribute to adaptation when mating systems involve sexual conflict and male mate preferences.

  7. Comparing the adaptive landscape across trait types: larger QTL effect size in traits under biotic selection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In a spatially and temporally variable adaptive landscape, mutations operating in opposite directions and mutations of large effect should be commonly fixed due to the shifting locations of phenotypic optima. Similarly, an adaptive landscape with multiple phenotypic optima and deep valleys of low fitness between peaks will favor mutations of large effect. Traits under biotic selection should experience a more spatially and temporally variable adaptive landscape with more phenotypic optima than that experienced by traits under abiotic selection. To test this hypothesis, we assemble information from QTL mapping studies conducted in plants, comparing effect directions and effect sizes of detected QTL controlling traits putatively under abiotic selection to those controlling traits putatively under biotic selection. Results We find no differences in the fraction of antagonistic QTL in traits under abiotic and biotic selection, suggesting similar consistency in selection pressure on these two types of traits. However, we find that QTL controlling traits under biotic selection have a larger effect size than those under abiotic selection, supporting our hypothesis that QTL of large effect are more commonly detected in traits under biotic selection than in traits under abiotic selection. For traits under both abiotic and biotic selection, we find a large number of QTL of large effect, with 10.7% of all QTLs detected controlling more than 20% of the variance in phenotype. Conclusion These results suggest that mutations of large effect are more common in adaptive landscapes strongly determined by biotic forces, but that these types of adaptive landscapes do not result in a higher fraction of mutations acting in opposite directions. The high number of QTL of large effect detected shows that QTL of large effect are more common than predicted by the infinitesimal model of genetic adaptation. PMID:21385379

  8. When Easy Comes Hard: The Development of Adaptive Strategy Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mata, Rui; von Helversen, Bettina; Rieskamp, Jorg

    2011-01-01

    Can children learn to select the right strategy for a given problem? In one experiment, 9- to 10-year-olds (N = 50), 11- to 12-year-olds (N = 50), and adults (N = 50) made probabilistic inferences. Participants encountered environments favoring either an information-intensive strategy that integrates all available information or an…

  9. Selective host molecules obtained by dynamic adaptive chemistry.

    PubMed

    Matache, Mihaela; Bogdan, Elena; Hădade, Niculina D

    2014-02-17

    Up till 20 years ago, in order to endow molecules with function there were two mainstream lines of thought. One was to rationally design the positioning of chemical functionalities within candidate molecules, followed by an iterative synthesis-optimization process. The second was the use of a "brutal force" approach of combinatorial chemistry coupled with advanced screening for function. Although both methods provided important results, "rational design" often resulted in time-consuming efforts of modeling and synthesis only to find that the candidate molecule was not performing the designed job. "Combinatorial chemistry" suffered from a fundamental limitation related to the focusing of the libraries employed, often using lead compounds that limit its scope. Dynamic constitutional chemistry has developed as a combination of the two approaches above. Through the rational use of reversible chemical bonds together with a large plethora of precursor libraries, one is now able to build functional structures, ranging from quite simple molecules up to large polymeric structures. Thus, by introduction of the dynamic component within the molecular recognition processes, a new perspective of deciphering the world of the molecular events has aroused together with a new field of chemistry. Since its birth dynamic constitutional chemistry has continuously gained attention, in particular due to its ability to easily create from scratch outstanding molecular structures as well as the addition of adaptive features. The fundamental concepts defining the dynamic constitutional chemistry have been continuously extended to currently place it at the intersection between the supramolecular chemistry and newly defined adaptive chemistry, a pivotal feature towards evolutive chemistry.

  10. Limits of Adaptation: The Evolution of Selective Neutrality

    PubMed Central

    Hartl, Daniel L.; Dykhuizen, Daniel E.; Dean, Antony M.

    1985-01-01

    Many enzymes in intermediary metabolism manifest saturation kinetics in which flux is a concave function of enzyme activity and often of the Michaelis-Menten form. The result is that, when natural selection favors increased enzyme activity so as to maximize flux, a point of diminishing returns will be attained in which any increase in flux results in a disproportionately small increase in fitness. Enzyme activity ultimately will reach a level at which the favorable effect of an increase in activity is of the order 1/(4Ne) or smaller, where Ne is the effective population number. At this point, many mutations that result in small changes in activity will result in negligible changes in fitness and will be selectively nearly neutral. We propose that this process is a mechanism whereby conditions for the occurrence of nearly neutral mutations and gene substitutions can be brought about by the long-continued action of natural selection. Evidence for the hypothesis derives from metabolic theory, direct studies of flux, studies of null and other types of alleles in Drosophila melanogaster and chemostat studies in Escherichia coli. Limitations and complications of the theory include changes in environment or genetic background, enzymes with sharply defined optima of activity, overdominance, pleiotropy, multifunctional enzymes and branched metabolic pathways. We conclude that the theory is a useful synthesis that unites many seemingly unrelated observations. The principal theoretical conclusion is that the conditions for the occurrence of neutral evolution can be brought about as an indirect result of the action of natural selection. PMID:3932127

  11. Bayesian Variable Selection for Detecting Adaptive Genomic Differences Among Populations

    PubMed Central

    Riebler, Andrea; Held, Leonhard; Stephan, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    We extend an Fst-based Bayesian hierarchical model, implemented via Markov chain Monte Carlo, for the detection of loci that might be subject to positive selection. This model divides the Fst-influencing factors into locus-specific effects, population-specific effects, and effects that are specific for the locus in combination with the population. We introduce a Bayesian auxiliary variable for each locus effect to automatically select nonneutral locus effects. As a by-product, the efficiency of the original approach is improved by using a reparameterization of the model. The statistical power of the extended algorithm is assessed with simulated data sets from a Wright–Fisher model with migration. We find that the inclusion of model selection suggests a clear improvement in discrimination as measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Additionally, we illustrate and discuss the quality of the newly developed method on the basis of an allozyme data set of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and a sequence data set of the wild tomato Solanum chilense. For data sets with small sample sizes, high mutation rates, and/or long sequences, however, methods based on nucleotide statistics should be preferred. PMID:18245358

  12. Orientation and spatial frequency selectivity of adaptation to color and luminance gratings.

    PubMed

    Bradley, A; Switkes, E; De Valois, K

    1988-01-01

    Prolonged viewing of sinusoidal luminance gratings produces elevated contrast detection thresholds for test gratings that are similar in spatial frequency and orientation to the adaptation stimulus. We have used this technique to investigate orientation and spatial frequency selectivity in the processing of color contrast information. Adaptation to isoluminant red-green gratings produces elevated color contrast thresholds that are selective for grating orientation and spatial frequency. Only small elevations in color contrast thresholds occur after adaptation to luminance gratings, and vice versa. Although the color adaptation effects appear slightly less selective than those for luminance, our results suggest similar spatial processing of color and luminance contrast patterns by early stages of the human visual system.

  13. Cultural adaptation of birthing services in rural Ayacucho, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Gabrysch, Sabine; Bedriñana, Eduardo; Bautista, Marco A; Malca, Rosa; Campbell, Oona MR; Miranda, J Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Problem Maternal mortality is particularly high among poor, indigenous women in rural Peru, and the use of facility care is low, partly due to cultural insensitivities of the health care system. Approach A culturally appropriate delivery care model was developed in poor and isolated rural communities, and implemented between 1999 and 2001 in cooperation with the Quechua indigenous communities and health professionals. Data on birth location and attendance in one health centre have been collected up to 2007. Local setting The international nongovernmental organization, Health Unlimited, and its Peruvian partner organization, Salud Sín Límites Perú, conducted the project in Santillana district in Ayacucho. Relevant changes The model involves features such as a rope and bench for vertical delivery position, inclusion of family and traditional birth attendants in the delivery process and use of the Quechua language. The proportion of births delivered in the health facility increased from 6% in 1999 to 83% in 2007 with high satisfaction levels. Lessons learned Implementing a model of skilled delivery attendance that integrates modern medical and traditional Andean elements is feasible and sustainable. Indigenous women with little formal education do use delivery services if their needs are met. This contradicts common victim-blaming attitudes that ascribe high levels of home births to “cultural preferences” or “ignorance”. PMID:19784454

  14. Restrictive Stochastic Item Selection Methods in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua; Huebner, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes two new item selection methods for cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing: the restrictive progressive method and the restrictive threshold method. They are built upon the posterior weighted Kullback-Leibler (KL) information index but include additional stochastic components either in the item selection index or in…

  15. Personalised Adaptive Task Selection in Air Traffic Control: Effects on Training Efficiency and Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salden, Ron J. C. M.; Paas, Fred; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2006-01-01

    The differential effects of four task selection methods on training efficiency and transfer in a computer-based training for Air Traffic Control were investigated. Two personalised conditions were compared with two corresponding yoked control conditions. The hypothesis that personalised adaptive task selection leads to more efficient training than…

  16. A Feedback Control Strategy for Enhancing Item Selection Efficiency in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    A computerized adaptive test (CAT) may be modeled as a closed-loop system, where item selection is influenced by trait level ([theta]) estimation and vice versa. When discrepancies exist between an examinee's estimated and true [theta] levels, nonoptimal item selection is a likely result. Nevertheless, examinee response behavior consistent with…

  17. The overlap of neural selectivity between faces and words: evidences from the N170 adaptation effect.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaohua; Jiang, Bei; Gaspar, Carl; Li, Chao

    2014-09-01

    Faces and words both evoke an N170, a strong electrophysiological response that is often used as a marker for the early stages of expert pattern perception. We examine the relationship of neural selectivity between faces and words by using a novel application of cross-category adaptation to the N170. We report a strong asymmetry between N170 adaptation induced by faces and by words. This is the first electrophysiological result showing that neural selectivity to faces encompasses neural selectivity to words and suggests that the N170 response to faces constitutes a neural marker for versatile representations of familiar visual patterns.

  18. Does Genetic Variation Maintained by Environmental Heterogeneity Facilitate Adaptation to Novel Selection?

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuheng; Tran, Ivan; Agrawal, Aneil F

    2016-07-01

    Environmental heterogeneity helps maintain genetic variation in fitness. Therefore, one might predict that populations living in heterogeneous environments have higher adaptive potential than populations living in homogeneous environments. Such a prediction could be useful in guiding conservation priorities without requiring detailed genetic studies. However, this prediction will be true only if the additional genetic variation maintained by environmental heterogeneity can be used to respond to novel selection. Here we examine the effect of environmental heterogeneity on future adaptability using replicated experimental Drosophila melanogaster populations that had previously evolved for ∼100 generations under one of four selective regimes: constant salt-enriched larvae medium, constant cadmium-enriched larvae medium, and two heterogeneous regimes that vary either temporally or spatially between the two media. Replicates of these experimental populations were subjected to a novel heat stress while being maintained in their original larval diet selection regimes. Adaptation to increased temperature was measured with respect to female productivity and male siring success after ∼20 generations. For female productivity, there was evidence of adaptation overall and heterogeneous populations had a larger adaptive response than homogeneous populations. There was less evidence of adaptation overall for male siring success and no support for faster adaptation in heterogeneous populations. PMID:27322119

  19. An on-demand provision model for geospatial multisource information with active self-adaption services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Hong; Li, Huan

    2015-12-01

    Location-related data are playing an increasingly irreplaceable role in business, government and scientific research. At the same time, the amount and types of data are rapidly increasing. It is a challenge how to quickly find required information from this rapidly growing volume of data, as well as how to efficiently provide different levels of geospatial data to users. This paper puts forward a data-oriented access model for geographic information science data. First, we analyze the features of GIS data including traditional types such as vector and raster data and new types such as Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI). Taking into account these analyses, a classification scheme for geographic data is proposed and TRAFIE is introduced to describe the establishment of a multi-level model for geographic data. Based on this model, a multi-level, scalable access system for geospatial information is put forward. Users can select different levels of data according to their concrete application needs. Pull-based and push-based data access mechanisms based on this model are presented. A Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) was chosen for the data processing. The model of this study has been described by providing decision-making process of government departments with a simulation of fire disaster data collection. The use case shows this data model and the data provision system is flexible and has good adaptability.

  20. Regularized logistic regression with adjusted adaptive elastic net for gene selection in high dimensional cancer classification.

    PubMed

    Algamal, Zakariya Yahya; Lee, Muhammad Hisyam

    2015-12-01

    Cancer classification and gene selection in high-dimensional data have been popular research topics in genetics and molecular biology. Recently, adaptive regularized logistic regression using the elastic net regularization, which is called the adaptive elastic net, has been successfully applied in high-dimensional cancer classification to tackle both estimating the gene coefficients and performing gene selection simultaneously. The adaptive elastic net originally used elastic net estimates as the initial weight, however, using this weight may not be preferable for certain reasons: First, the elastic net estimator is biased in selecting genes. Second, it does not perform well when the pairwise correlations between variables are not high. Adjusted adaptive regularized logistic regression (AAElastic) is proposed to address these issues and encourage grouping effects simultaneously. The real data results indicate that AAElastic is significantly consistent in selecting genes compared to the other three competitor regularization methods. Additionally, the classification performance of AAElastic is comparable to the adaptive elastic net and better than other regularization methods. Thus, we can conclude that AAElastic is a reliable adaptive regularized logistic regression method in the field of high-dimensional cancer classification.

  1. From Cellular Attractor Selection to Adaptive Signal Control for Traffic Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Daxin; Zhou, Jianshan; Sheng, Zhengguo; Wang, Yunpeng; Ma, Jianming

    2016-03-01

    The management of varying traffic flows essentially depends on signal controls at intersections. However, design an optimal control that considers the dynamic nature of a traffic network and coordinates all intersections simultaneously in a centralized manner is computationally challenging. Inspired by the stable gene expressions of Escherichia coli in response to environmental changes, we explore the robustness and adaptability performance of signalized intersections by incorporating a biological mechanism in their control policies, specifically, the evolution of each intersection is induced by the dynamics governing an adaptive attractor selection in cells. We employ a mathematical model to capture such biological attractor selection and derive a generic, adaptive and distributed control algorithm which is capable of dynamically adapting signal operations for the entire dynamical traffic network. We show that the proposed scheme based on attractor selection can not only promote the balance of traffic loads on each link of the network but also allows the global network to accommodate dynamical traffic demands. Our work demonstrates the potential of bio-inspired intelligence emerging from cells and provides a deep understanding of adaptive attractor selection-based control formation that is useful to support the designs of adaptive optimization and control in other domains.

  2. From Cellular Attractor Selection to Adaptive Signal Control for Traffic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Daxin; Zhou, Jianshan; Sheng, Zhengguo; Wang, Yunpeng; Ma, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    The management of varying traffic flows essentially depends on signal controls at intersections. However, design an optimal control that considers the dynamic nature of a traffic network and coordinates all intersections simultaneously in a centralized manner is computationally challenging. Inspired by the stable gene expressions of Escherichia coli in response to environmental changes, we explore the robustness and adaptability performance of signalized intersections by incorporating a biological mechanism in their control policies, specifically, the evolution of each intersection is induced by the dynamics governing an adaptive attractor selection in cells. We employ a mathematical model to capture such biological attractor selection and derive a generic, adaptive and distributed control algorithm which is capable of dynamically adapting signal operations for the entire dynamical traffic network. We show that the proposed scheme based on attractor selection can not only promote the balance of traffic loads on each link of the network but also allows the global network to accommodate dynamical traffic demands. Our work demonstrates the potential of bio-inspired intelligence emerging from cells and provides a deep understanding of adaptive attractor selection-based control formation that is useful to support the designs of adaptive optimization and control in other domains. PMID:26972968

  3. 77 FR 42780 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select Contract 4...

  4. 77 FR 42780 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select Contract 5...

  5. 77 FR 42780 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select Contract 3...

  6. 77 FR 28410 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select Contract 1 to...

  7. 76 FR 2930 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... ] Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select Contract 1 to...

  8. 32 CFR 1615.2 - Responsibility of Director of Selective Service in registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibility of Director of Selective Service... Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION OF REGISTRATION § 1615.2 Responsibility of Director of Selective Service in registration. Whenever the President by proclamation or other public notice fixes a...

  9. 32 CFR 1615.2 - Responsibility of Director of Selective Service in registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibility of Director of Selective Service... Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION OF REGISTRATION § 1615.2 Responsibility of Director of Selective Service in registration. Whenever the President by proclamation or other public notice fixes a...

  10. 32 CFR 1615.2 - Responsibility of Director of Selective Service in registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Responsibility of Director of Selective Service... Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION OF REGISTRATION § 1615.2 Responsibility of Director of Selective Service in registration. Whenever the President by proclamation or other public notice fixes a...

  11. 32 CFR 1615.2 - Responsibility of Director of Selective Service in registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibility of Director of Selective Service... Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION OF REGISTRATION § 1615.2 Responsibility of Director of Selective Service in registration. Whenever the President by proclamation or other public notice fixes a...

  12. 32 CFR 1615.2 - Responsibility of Director of Selective Service in registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibility of Director of Selective Service... Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION OF REGISTRATION § 1615.2 Responsibility of Director of Selective Service in registration. Whenever the President by proclamation or other public notice fixes a...

  13. Selective Service Presents a Teacher's Guide. Information Important to Pupils [Pupae] of the High School Species.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selective Service System, Arlington, VA.

    This guide is designed to help teachers prepare lessons about the purpose, history, organization, and functions of the selective service system. The following topics are covered in the guide's seven sections: the selective service system today; history of conscription in the United States; history of the selective service system; organization and…

  14. 76 FR 17784 - Forwarding and Return Service for Parcel Select Mailpieces

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... 111 Forwarding and Return Service for Parcel Select Mailpieces AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION... Parcel Select mailpieces and to eliminate the option to request discontinuance of forwarding. The Postal Service also implements a new price for Parcel Select forwards and returns; those pieces will now pay...

  15. SERVQUAL Application and Adaptation for Educational Service Quality Assessments in Russian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galeeva, Railya B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate an adaptation of the SERVQUAL survey method for measuring the quality of higher educational services in a Russian university context. We use a new analysis and a graphical technique for presentation of results. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology of this research follows the classic…

  16. The Ability of Elite Table Tennis Players with Intellectual Disabilities to Adapt Their Service/Return

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Biesen, Debbie; Verellen, Joeri; Meyer, Christophe; Mactavish, Jennifer; Van de Vliet, Peter; Vanlandewijck, Yves

    2010-01-01

    In this study the ability of elite table tennis players with intellectual disability (ID) to adapt their service/return to specific ball spin characteristics was investigated. This was done by examining the performance of 39 players with ID and a reference group of 8 players without ID on a standardized table tennis specific test battery. The…

  17. Divergent selection on locally adapted major histocompatibility complex immune genes experimentally proven in the field

    PubMed Central

    Eizaguirre, Christophe; Lenz, Tobias L; Kalbe, Martin; Milinski, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Although crucial for the understanding of adaptive evolution, genetically resolved examples of local adaptation are rare. To maximize survival and reproduction in their local environment, hosts should resist their local parasites and pathogens. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) with its key function in parasite resistance represents an ideal candidate to investigate parasite-mediated local adaptation. Using replicated field mesocosms, stocked with second-generation lab-bred three-spined stickleback hybrids of a lake and a river population, we show local adaptation of MHC genotypes to population-specific parasites, independently of the genetic background. Increased allele divergence of lake MHC genotypes allows lake fish to fight the broad range of lake parasites, whereas more specific river genotypes confer selective advantages against the less diverse river parasites. Hybrids with local MHC genotype gained more body weight and thus higher fitness than those with foreign MHC in either habitat, suggesting the evolutionary significance of locally adapted MHC genotypes. PMID:22583762

  18. Mutations in Global Regulators Lead to Metabolic Selection during Adaptation to Complex Environments

    PubMed Central

    Saxer, Gerda; Krepps, Michael D.; Merkley, Eric D.; Ansong, Charles; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L.; Valovska, Marie-Thérèse; Ristic, Nikola; Yeh, Ping T.; Prakash, Vittal P.; Leiser, Owen P.; Nakhleh, Luay; Gibbons, Henry S.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Shamoo, Yousif

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation to ecologically complex environments can provide insights into the evolutionary dynamics and functional constraints encountered by organisms during natural selection. Adaptation to a new environment with abundant and varied resources can be difficult to achieve by small incremental changes if many mutations are required to achieve even modest gains in fitness. Since changing complex environments are quite common in nature, we investigated how such an epistatic bottleneck can be avoided to allow rapid adaptation. We show that adaptive mutations arise repeatedly in independently evolved populations in the context of greatly increased genetic and phenotypic diversity. We go on to show that weak selection requiring substantial metabolic reprogramming can be readily achieved by mutations in the global response regulator arcA and the stress response regulator rpoS. We identified 46 unique single-nucleotide variants of arcA and 18 mutations in rpoS, nine of which resulted in stop codons or large deletions, suggesting that subtle modulations of ArcA function and knockouts of rpoS are largely responsible for the metabolic shifts leading to adaptation. These mutations allow a higher order metabolic selection that eliminates epistatic bottlenecks, which could occur when many changes would be required. Proteomic and carbohydrate analysis of adapting E. coli populations revealed an up-regulation of enzymes associated with the TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism, and an increase in the secretion of putrescine. The overall effect of adaptation across populations is to redirect and efficiently utilize uptake and catabolism of abundant amino acids. Concomitantly, there is a pronounced spread of more ecologically limited strains that results from specialization through metabolic erosion. Remarkably, the global regulators arcA and rpoS can provide a “one-step” mechanism of adaptation to a novel environment, which highlights the importance of global resource management

  19. Bibliography of Selected Literature in the 1970s Related to Crises, Family Stress, Coping and Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesser, Barbara

    This bibliography of literature from the 1970s related to crises, family stress, coping, and adaptation contains references of particular interest to professionals in the areas of counseling, education, and family social, psychological and health services. The bibliography is divided into 26 categories; references are classified according to major…

  20. Climate change adaptation via targeted ecosystem service provision: a sustainable land management strategy for the Segura catchment (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagaria, Cecilia; de Vente, Joris; Perez-Cutillas, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    Topical research investigating climate, land-use and management scenarios in the Segura catchment (SE Spain), depicts a landscape at high-risk of, quite literally, deserting agriculture. Land degradation in the semi-arid region of SE Spain is characterized by water shortage, high erosion rates and salinization, increasingly exacerbated by climatic changes, scarce vegetation cover and detrimental farming practices. Future climate scenarios predict increases in aridity, variability and intensity of rainfall events, leading to increasing pressure on scarce soil and water resources. This study conceptualized the impending crisis of agro-ecological systems of the Segura basin (18800 km2) as a crisis of ecosystem service deterioration. In light of existing land degradation drivers and future climate scenarios, the potential of Sustainable Land Management (SLM) strategies was evaluated to target three priority ecosystem services (water provision, sediment retention and carbon sequestration) as a means to achieve climate change adaptation and mitigation. A preceding thorough process of stakeholder engagement (as part of the EU funded DESIRE project) indicated five SLM technologies for potential implementation, all with a focus upon reducing soil erosion, increasing soil water holding capacity and soil organic matter content. These technologies have been tested for over four years in local experimental field plots, and have provided results on the local effects upon individual environmental parameters. Despite the growing emphasis witnessed in literature upon the context-specificity which characterizes adaptation solutions, the frequent analysis at the field scale is limited in both scope and utility. There is a need to investigate the effects of adaptive SLM solutions at wider, regional scales. Thus, this study modeled the cumulative effect of each of the five selected SLM technologies with InVEST, a spatial analyst tool designed for ecosystem service quantification and

  1. Mutations in global regulators lead to metabolic selection during adaptation to complex environments

    DOE PAGES

    Saxer, Gerda; Krepps, Michael D.; Merkley, Eric D.; Ansong, Charles; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L.; Valovska, Marie -Thérèse; Ristic, Nikola; Yeh, Ping T.; Prakash, Vittal P.; Leiser, Owen P.; et al

    2014-12-11

    Adaptation to ecologically complex environments can provide insights into the evolutionary dynamics and functional constraints encountered by organisms during natural selection. Unlike adaptation to a single limiting resource, adaptation to a new environment with abundant and varied resources can be difficult to achieve by small incremental changes since many mutations are required to achieve even modest gains in fitness. Since changing complex environments are quite common in nature, we investigated how such an epistatic bottleneck can be avoided to allow rapid adaptation. We show that adaptive mutations arise repeatedly in independently evolved populations in the context of greatly increased geneticmore » and phenotypic diversity. We go on to show that weak selection requiring substantial metabolic reprogramming can be readily achieved by mutations in the global response regulator arcA and the stress response regulator rpoS. We identified 46 unique single-nucleotide variants of arcA and 18 mutations in rpoS, nine of which resulted in stop codons or large deletions, suggesting that a subtle modulation of ArcA function and knockouts of rpoS are largely responsible for the metabolic shifts leading to adaptation. These mutations allow a higher order “metabolic selection” that eliminates epistatic bottlenecks, which could occur when many changes would be required. Proteomic and carbohydrate analysis of adapting E. coli populations revealed an up-regulation of enzymes associated with the TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism and an increase in the secretion of putrescine. The overall effect of adaptation across populations is to redirect and efficiently utilize uptake and catabolism of abundant amino acids. Concomitantly, there is a pronounced spread of more ecologically limited strains that results from specialization through metabolic erosion. Remarkably, the global regulators arcA and rpoS can provide a “one-step” mechanism of adaptation to a novel

  2. Interactions between genetic drift, gene flow, and selection mosaics drive parasite local adaptation.

    PubMed

    Gandon, Sylvain; Nuismer, Scott L

    2009-02-01

    Interactions between gene flow, spatially variable selection, and genetic drift have long been a central focus of evolutionary research. In contrast, only recently has the potential importance of interactions between these factors for coevolutionary dynamics and the emergence of parasite local adaptation been realized. Here we study host-parasite coevolution in a metapopulation model when both the biotic and the abiotic components of the environment vary in space. We provide a general expression for parasite local adaptation that allows local adaptation to be partitioned into the contributions of spatial covariances between host and parasite genotype frequencies within and between habitats. This partitioning clarifies how relative rates of gene flow, spatially variable patterns of selection, and genetic drift interact to shape parasite local adaptation. Specifically, by using this expression in conjunction with coevolutionary models, we show that genetic drift can dramatically increase the level of parasite local adaptation under some models of specificity. We also show that the effect of migration on parasite local adaptation depends on the geographic mosaic of selection. We discuss how these predictions could be tested empirically or experimentally using microbial systems.

  3. Adaptations and selection of harmful and other dinoflagellate species in upwelling systems 1. Morphology and adaptive polymorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smayda, T. J.

    2010-04-01

    The complex three-dimensional physical structure, spatial scale and the variations in the upwelling-relaxation cycles characterizing eastern boundary upwelling systems are summarized. It is suggested that upwelling systems and their bloom dynamics should be accorded the status of biomes. A unique upwelling dinoflagellate flora is not found. The harmful, red tide and other dinoflagellates selected to bloom are cosmopolitan in distribution and commonly bloom in coastal habitats. The morphological features of 27 dinoflagellate species that bloom in upwelling systems are compared to identify commonalities in form and function adaptations relevant to their upwelling occurrences. The upwelling dinoflagellate species are morphologically, physiologically, ecologically and toxicologically diverse; a unique set of morphological traits specifically evolved for growth in upwelling systems is not evident. The absence of a unique dinoflagellate upwelling flora is unexpected given the challenges to survival and growth in upwelling systems posed by the energetic physical conditions and spatial and temporal complexity of upwelling dynamics. Cellular defense mechanisms - “armouring” and small cell formation - against external and internal cellular damage resulting from turbulence-induced stress-strain, and the occurrence of morphological streamlining to facilitate swimming-based strategies adaptive to growth in upwelling systems are evaluated. The occurrence of autotomy, ecdysis, thecal resorption and regeneration, seasonal cyclomorphosis and polymorphism (form variation) among dinoflagellates is evaluated. The impressive commonality and rapidity of ecomorph formation suggest autoregulated polymorphism is potentially an important mode of adaptation available to upwelling dinoflagellates, and specifically directed towards adjustment of their flotation (swim:sink ratio) capacity. However, seasonal cyclomorphosis and regional and local displays of adaptive polymorphism are traits

  4. Adaptation and selective information transmission in the cricket auditory neuron AN2.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Klaus; Hildebrandt, K Jannis; Hennig, R Matthias; Obermayer, Klaus

    2008-09-26

    Sensory systems adapt their neural code to changes in the sensory environment, often on multiple time scales. Here, we report a new form of adaptation in a first-order auditory interneuron (AN2) of crickets. We characterize the response of the AN2 neuron to amplitude-modulated sound stimuli and find that adaptation shifts the stimulus-response curves toward higher stimulus intensities, with a time constant of 1.5 s for adaptation and recovery. The spike responses were thus reduced for low-intensity sounds. We then address the question whether adaptation leads to an improvement of the signal's representation and compare the experimental results with the predictions of two competing hypotheses: infomax, which predicts that information conveyed about the entire signal range should be maximized, and selective coding, which predicts that "foreground" signals should be enhanced while "background" signals should be selectively suppressed. We test how adaptation changes the input-response curve when presenting signals with two or three peaks in their amplitude distributions, for which selective coding and infomax predict conflicting changes. By means of Bayesian data analysis, we quantify the shifts of the measured response curves and also find a slight reduction of their slopes. These decreases in slopes are smaller, and the absolute response thresholds are higher than those predicted by infomax. Most remarkably, and in contrast to the infomax principle, adaptation actually reduces the amount of encoded information when considering the whole range of input signals. The response curve changes are also not consistent with the selective coding hypothesis, because the amount of information conveyed about the loudest part of the signal does not increase as predicted but remains nearly constant. Less information is transmitted about signals with lower intensity.

  5. An adaptable neuromorphic model of orientation selectivity based on floating gate dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Priti; Markan, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    The biggest challenge that the neuromorphic community faces today is to build systems that can be considered truly cognitive. Adaptation and self-organization are the two basic principles that underlie any cognitive function that the brain performs. If we can replicate this behavior in hardware, we move a step closer to our goal of having cognitive neuromorphic systems. Adaptive feature selectivity is a mechanism by which nature optimizes resources so as to have greater acuity for more abundant features. Developing neuromorphic feature maps can help design generic machines that can emulate this adaptive behavior. Most neuromorphic models that have attempted to build self-organizing systems, follow the approach of modeling abstract theoretical frameworks in hardware. While this is good from a modeling and analysis perspective, it may not lead to the most efficient hardware. On the other hand, exploiting hardware dynamics to build adaptive systems rather than forcing the hardware to behave like mathematical equations, seems to be a more robust methodology when it comes to developing actual hardware for real world applications. In this paper we use a novel time-staggered Winner Take All circuit, that exploits the adaptation dynamics of floating gate transistors, to model an adaptive cortical cell that demonstrates Orientation Selectivity, a well-known biological phenomenon observed in the visual cortex. The cell performs competitive learning, refining its weights in response to input patterns resembling different oriented bars, becoming selective to a particular oriented pattern. Different analysis performed on the cell such as orientation tuning, application of abnormal inputs, response to spatial frequency and periodic patterns reveal close similarity between our cell and its biological counterpart. Embedded in a RC grid, these cells interact diffusively exhibiting cluster formation, making way for adaptively building orientation selective maps in silicon. PMID

  6. Cosmic radiation and evolution of life on earth: Roles of environment, adaptation and selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, P.

    1994-10-01

    The role of ionizing radiation in general, and cosmic radiation in particular, in the evolution of organisms on the earth by adaptation and natural selection is considered in a series of questions: (1) Are there times during the evolution of the earth and of life when genetic material could be exposed to heavy ion radiation? (2) Throughout the course of chemical and biological evolution on the earth, what fraction of environmental mutagenesis could be attributable to cosmic and/or solar ionizing radiation? (3) Is ionizing radiation an agent of adaptation or selection, or both? (4) What can the cladistics of the evolution of genetic repair tell us about the global history of genotoxic selection pressures? (How much genetic diversity can be attributed to the selection of radiation-damage repair processes?

  7. Fine tuning of the threshold of T cell selection by the Nck adapters.

    PubMed

    Roy, Edwige; Togbe, Dieudonnée; Holdorf, Amy; Trubetskoy, Dmitry; Nabti, Sabrina; Küblbeck, Günter; Schmitt, Sabine; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Leithäuser, Frank; Möller, Peter; Bladt, Friedhelm; Hämmerling, Günter J; Arnold, Bernd; Pawson, Tony; Tafuri, Anna

    2010-12-15

    Thymic selection shapes the T cell repertoire to ensure maximal antigenic coverage against pathogens while preventing autoimmunity. Recognition of self-peptides in the context of peptide-MHC complexes by the TCR is central to this process, which remains partially understood at the molecular level. In this study we provide genetic evidence that the Nck adapter proteins are essential for thymic selection. In vivo Nck deletion resulted in a reduction of the thymic cellularity, defective positive selection of low-avidity T cells, and impaired deletion of thymocytes engaged by low-potency stimuli. Nck-deficient thymocytes were characterized by reduced ERK activation, particularly pronounced in mature single positive thymocytes. Taken together, our findings identify a crucial role for the Nck adapters in enhancing TCR signal strength, thereby fine-tuning the threshold of thymocyte selection and shaping the preimmune T cell repertoire.

  8. Fine tuning of the threshold of T cell selection by the Nck adapters.

    PubMed

    Roy, Edwige; Togbe, Dieudonnée; Holdorf, Amy; Trubetskoy, Dmitry; Nabti, Sabrina; Küblbeck, Günter; Schmitt, Sabine; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Leithäuser, Frank; Möller, Peter; Bladt, Friedhelm; Hämmerling, Günter J; Arnold, Bernd; Pawson, Tony; Tafuri, Anna

    2010-12-15

    Thymic selection shapes the T cell repertoire to ensure maximal antigenic coverage against pathogens while preventing autoimmunity. Recognition of self-peptides in the context of peptide-MHC complexes by the TCR is central to this process, which remains partially understood at the molecular level. In this study we provide genetic evidence that the Nck adapter proteins are essential for thymic selection. In vivo Nck deletion resulted in a reduction of the thymic cellularity, defective positive selection of low-avidity T cells, and impaired deletion of thymocytes engaged by low-potency stimuli. Nck-deficient thymocytes were characterized by reduced ERK activation, particularly pronounced in mature single positive thymocytes. Taken together, our findings identify a crucial role for the Nck adapters in enhancing TCR signal strength, thereby fine-tuning the threshold of thymocyte selection and shaping the preimmune T cell repertoire. PMID:21078909

  9. Artificial immune system based on adaptive clonal selection for feature selection and parameters optimisation of support vector machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadat Hashemipour, Maryam; Soleimani, Seyed Ali

    2016-01-01

    Artificial immune system (AIS) algorithm based on clonal selection method can be defined as a soft computing method inspired by theoretical immune system in order to solve science and engineering problems. Support vector machine (SVM) is a popular pattern classification method with many diverse applications. Kernel parameter setting in the SVM training procedure along with the feature selection significantly impacts on the classification accuracy rate. In this study, AIS based on Adaptive Clonal Selection (AISACS) algorithm has been used to optimise the SVM parameters and feature subset selection without degrading the SVM classification accuracy. Several public datasets of University of California Irvine machine learning (UCI) repository are employed to calculate the classification accuracy rate in order to evaluate the AISACS approach then it was compared with grid search algorithm and Genetic Algorithm (GA) approach. The experimental results show that the feature reduction rate and running time of the AISACS approach are better than the GA approach.

  10. Simultaneous selection for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes with adaptability and yield stability using mixed models.

    PubMed

    Torres, F E; Teodoro, P E; Rodrigues, E V; Santos, A; Corrêa, A M; Ceccon, G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select erect cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes simultaneously for high adaptability, stability, and yield grain in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil using mixed models. We conducted six trials of different cowpea genotypes in 2005 and 2006 in Aquidauana, Chapadão do Sul, Dourados, and Primavera do Leste. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks with four replications and 20 genotypes. Genetic parameters were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction, and selection was based on the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetic values method using three strategies: selection based on the predicted breeding value, having considered the performance mean of the genotypes in all environments (no interaction effect); the performance in each environment (with an interaction effect); and the simultaneous selection for grain yield, stability, and adaptability. The MNC99542F-5 and MNC99-537F-4 genotypes could be grown in various environments, as they exhibited high grain yield, adaptability, and stability. The average heritability of the genotypes was moderate to high and the selective accuracy was 82%, indicating an excellent potential for selection. PMID:27173301

  11. Simultaneous selection for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes with adaptability and yield stability using mixed models.

    PubMed

    Torres, F E; Teodoro, P E; Rodrigues, E V; Santos, A; Corrêa, A M; Ceccon, G

    2016-04-29

    The aim of this study was to select erect cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes simultaneously for high adaptability, stability, and yield grain in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil using mixed models. We conducted six trials of different cowpea genotypes in 2005 and 2006 in Aquidauana, Chapadão do Sul, Dourados, and Primavera do Leste. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks with four replications and 20 genotypes. Genetic parameters were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction, and selection was based on the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetic values method using three strategies: selection based on the predicted breeding value, having considered the performance mean of the genotypes in all environments (no interaction effect); the performance in each environment (with an interaction effect); and the simultaneous selection for grain yield, stability, and adaptability. The MNC99542F-5 and MNC99-537F-4 genotypes could be grown in various environments, as they exhibited high grain yield, adaptability, and stability. The average heritability of the genotypes was moderate to high and the selective accuracy was 82%, indicating an excellent potential for selection.

  12. An Approach for Web Service Selection Based on Confidence Level of Decision Maker

    PubMed Central

    Khezrian, Mojtaba; Jahan, Ali; Wan Kadir, Wan Mohd Nasir; Ibrahim, Suhaimi

    2014-01-01

    Web services today are among the most widely used groups for Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Service selection is one of the most significant current discussions in SOA, which evaluates discovered services and chooses the best candidate from them. Although a majority of service selection techniques apply Quality of Service (QoS), the behaviour of QoS-based service selection leads to service selection problems in Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM). In the existing works, the confidence level of decision makers is neglected and does not consider their expertise in assessing Web services. In this paper, we employ the VIKOR (VIšekriterijumskoKOmpromisnoRangiranje) method, which is absent in the literature for service selection, but is well-known in other research. We propose a QoS-based approach that deals with service selection by applying VIKOR with improvement of features. This research determines the weights of criteria based on user preference and accounts for the confidence level of decision makers. The proposed approach is illustrated by an example in order to demonstrate and validate the model. The results of this research may facilitate service consumers to attain a more efficient decision when selecting the appropriate service. PMID:24897426

  13. An Efficiency Balanced Information Criterion for Item Selection in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Kyung T.

    2012-01-01

    Successful administration of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) programs in educational settings requires that test security and item exposure control issues be taken seriously. Developing an item selection algorithm that strikes the right balance between test precision and level of item pool utilization is the key to successful implementation…

  14. A Comparison of Item Selection Rules at the Early Stages of Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shu-Ying; Ankenmann, Robert D.; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2000-01-01

    Compared five item selection rules with respect to the efficiency and precision of trait (theta) estimation at the early stages of computerized adaptive testing (CAT). The Fisher interval information, Fisher information with a posterior distribution, Kullback-Leibler information, and Kullback-Leibler information with a posterior distribution…

  15. Selecting Learning Tasks: Effects of Adaptation and Shared Control on Learning Efficiency and Task Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbalan, Gemma; Kester, Liesbeth; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Complex skill acquisition by performing authentic learning tasks is constrained by limited working memory capacity [Baddeley, A. D. (1992). Working memory. "Science, 255", 556-559]. To prevent cognitive overload, task difficulty and support of each newly selected learning task can be adapted to the learner's competence level and perceived task…

  16. A Method for the Comparison of Item Selection Rules in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrada, Juan Ramon; Olea, Julio; Ponsoda, Vicente; Abad, Francisco Jose

    2010-01-01

    In a typical study comparing the relative efficiency of two item selection rules in computerized adaptive testing, the common result is that they simultaneously differ in accuracy and security, making it difficult to reach a conclusion on which is the more appropriate rule. This study proposes a strategy to conduct a global comparison of two or…

  17. Identifying positive selection candidate loci for high-altitude adaptation in Andean populations

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    High-altitude environments (>2,500 m) provide scientists with a natural laboratory to study the physiological and genetic effects of low ambient oxygen tension on human populations. One approach to understanding how life at high altitude has affected human metabolism is to survey genome-wide datasets for signatures of natural selection. In this work, we report on a study to identify selection-nominated candidate genes involved in adaptation to hypoxia in one highland group, Andeans from the South American Altiplano. We analysed dense microarray genotype data using four test statistics that detect departures from neutrality. Using a candidate gene, single nucleotide polymorphism-based approach, we identified genes exhibiting preliminary evidence of recent genetic adaptation in this population. These included genes that are part of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF) pathway, a biochemical pathway involved in oxygen homeostasis, as well as three other genomic regions previously not known to be associated with high-altitude phenotypes. In addition to identifying selection-nominated candidate genes, we also tested whether the HIF pathway shows evidence of natural selection. Our results indicate that the genes of this biochemical pathway as a group show no evidence of having evolved in response to hypoxia in Andeans. Results from particular HIF-targeted genes, however, suggest that genes in this pathway could play a role in Andean adaptation to high altitude, even if the pathway as a whole does not show higher relative rates of evolution. These data suggest a genetic role in high-altitude adaptation and provide a basis for genotype/phenotype association studies that are necessary to confirm the role of putative natural selection candidate genes and gene regions in adaptation to altitude. PMID:20038496

  18. 78 FR 56248 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... the Postal Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel...

  19. 77 FR 66193 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... the Postal Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service To Add Parcel...

  20. Universal Service in a Global Networked Environment: Selected Issues and Possible Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.; Owens, Kimberly A.

    1999-01-01

    Presents selected issues related to the development of universal service to networked information resources and services in a global networked environment. Defines universal service as a set of telecommunications services to which users should have access, including appropriate funding and interconnected public telecommunications infrastructure…

  1. Rapid adaptation to a novel host in a seed beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus): the role of sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Claudia; Arnqvist, Göran

    2007-02-01

    Rapid diversification is common among herbivorous insects and is often the result of host shifts, leading to the exploitation of novel food sources. This, in turn, is associated with adaptive evolution of female oviposition behavior and larval feeding biology. Although natural selection is the typical driver of such adaptation, the role of sexual selection is less clear. In theory, sexual selection can either accelerate or impede adaptation. To assess the independent effects of natural and sexual selection on the rate of adaptation, we performed a laboratory natural selection experiment in a herbivorous bruchid beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus). We established replicated selection lines where we varied natural (food type) and sexual (mating system) selection in a 2 x 2 orthogonal design, and propagated our lines for 35 generations. In half of the lines, we induced a host shift whereas the other half was kept on the ancestral host. We experimentally enforced monogamy in half of the lines, whereas the other half remained polygamous. The beetles rapidly adapted to the novel host, which primarily involved increased host acceptance by females and an accelerated rate of larval development. We also found that our mating system treatment affected the rate of adaptation, but that this effect was contingent upon food type. As beetles adapted to the novel host, sexual selection reinforced natural selection whereas populations residing close to their adaptive peak (i.e., those using their ancestral host) exhibited higher fitness in the absence of sexual selection. We discuss our findings in light of current sexual selection theory and suggest that the net evolutionary effect of reproductive competition may critically depend on natural selection. Sexual selection may commonly accelerate adaptation under directional natural selection whereas sexual selection, and the associated load brought by sexual conflict, may tend to depress population fitness under stabilizing natural

  2. Understanding pathways for scaling up health services through the lens of complex adaptive systems.

    PubMed

    Paina, Ligia; Peters, David H

    2012-08-01

    Despite increased prominence and funding of global health initiatives, efforts to scale up health services in developing countries are falling short of the expectations of the Millennium Development Goals. Arguing that the dominant assumptions for scaling up are inadequate, we propose that interpreting change in health systems through the lens of complex adaptive systems (CAS) provides better models of pathways for scaling up. Based on an understanding of CAS behaviours, we describe how phenomena such as path dependence, feedback loops, scale-free networks, emergent behaviour and phase transitions can uncover relevant lessons for the design and implementation of health policy and programmes in the context of scaling up health services. The implications include paying more attention to local context, incentives and institutions, as well as anticipating certain types of unintended consequences that can undermine scaling up efforts, and developing and implementing programmes that engage key actors through transparent use of data for ongoing problem-solving and adaptation. We propose that future efforts to scale up should adapt and apply the models and methodologies which have been used in other fields that study CAS, yet are underused in public health. This can help policy makers, planners, implementers and researchers to explore different and innovative approaches for reaching populations in need with effective, equitable and efficient health services. The old assumptions have led to disappointed expectations about how to scale up health services, and offer little insight on how to scale up effective interventions in the future. The alternative perspectives offered by CAS may better reflect the complex and changing nature of health systems, and create new opportunities for understanding and scaling up health services.

  3. Understanding pathways for scaling up health services through the lens of complex adaptive systems.

    PubMed

    Paina, Ligia; Peters, David H

    2012-08-01

    Despite increased prominence and funding of global health initiatives, efforts to scale up health services in developing countries are falling short of the expectations of the Millennium Development Goals. Arguing that the dominant assumptions for scaling up are inadequate, we propose that interpreting change in health systems through the lens of complex adaptive systems (CAS) provides better models of pathways for scaling up. Based on an understanding of CAS behaviours, we describe how phenomena such as path dependence, feedback loops, scale-free networks, emergent behaviour and phase transitions can uncover relevant lessons for the design and implementation of health policy and programmes in the context of scaling up health services. The implications include paying more attention to local context, incentives and institutions, as well as anticipating certain types of unintended consequences that can undermine scaling up efforts, and developing and implementing programmes that engage key actors through transparent use of data for ongoing problem-solving and adaptation. We propose that future efforts to scale up should adapt and apply the models and methodologies which have been used in other fields that study CAS, yet are underused in public health. This can help policy makers, planners, implementers and researchers to explore different and innovative approaches for reaching populations in need with effective, equitable and efficient health services. The old assumptions have led to disappointed expectations about how to scale up health services, and offer little insight on how to scale up effective interventions in the future. The alternative perspectives offered by CAS may better reflect the complex and changing nature of health systems, and create new opportunities for understanding and scaling up health services. PMID:21821667

  4. The interaction of sexually and naturally selected traits in the adaptive radiations of cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Salzburger, Walter

    2009-01-01

    The question of how genetic variation translates into organismal diversity has puzzled biologists for decades. Despite recent advances in evolutionary and developmental genetics, the mechanisms that underlie adaptation, diversification and evolutionary innovation remain largely unknown. The exceptionally diverse species flocks of cichlid fishes are textbook examples of adaptive radiation and explosive speciation and emerge as powerful model systems to study the genetic basis of animal diversification. East Africa's hundreds of endemic cichlid species are akin to a natural mutagenesis screen and differ greatly not only in ecologically relevant (hence naturally selected) characters such as mouth morphology and body shape, but also in sexually selected traits such as coloration. One of the most fascinating aspects of cichlid evolution is the frequent occurrence of evolutionary parallelisms, which has led to the question whether selection alone is sufficient to produce these parallel morphologies, or whether a developmental or genetic bias has influenced the direction of diversification. Here, I review fitness-relevant traits that could be responsible for the cichlids' evolutionary success and assess whether these were shaped by sexual or natural selection. I then focus on the interaction and the relative importance of sexual vs. natural selection in cichlid evolution. Finally, I discuss what is currently known about the genes underlying the morphogenesis of adaptively relevant traits and highlight the importance of the forthcoming cichlid genomes in the quest of the genetic basis of diversification in this group. PMID:18992003

  5. The interaction of sexually and naturally selected traits in the adaptive radiations of cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Salzburger, Walter

    2009-01-01

    The question of how genetic variation translates into organismal diversity has puzzled biologists for decades. Despite recent advances in evolutionary and developmental genetics, the mechanisms that underlie adaptation, diversification and evolutionary innovation remain largely unknown. The exceptionally diverse species flocks of cichlid fishes are textbook examples of adaptive radiation and explosive speciation and emerge as powerful model systems to study the genetic basis of animal diversification. East Africa's hundreds of endemic cichlid species are akin to a natural mutagenesis screen and differ greatly not only in ecologically relevant (hence naturally selected) characters such as mouth morphology and body shape, but also in sexually selected traits such as coloration. One of the most fascinating aspects of cichlid evolution is the frequent occurrence of evolutionary parallelisms, which has led to the question whether selection alone is sufficient to produce these parallel morphologies, or whether a developmental or genetic bias has influenced the direction of diversification. Here, I review fitness-relevant traits that could be responsible for the cichlids' evolutionary success and assess whether these were shaped by sexual or natural selection. I then focus on the interaction and the relative importance of sexual vs. natural selection in cichlid evolution. Finally, I discuss what is currently known about the genes underlying the morphogenesis of adaptively relevant traits and highlight the importance of the forthcoming cichlid genomes in the quest of the genetic basis of diversification in this group.

  6. QuickStats: Percentage of Adult Day Services Center Participants, by Selected Diagnoses

    MedlinePlus

    ... MMWR ) MMWR Share Compartir QuickStats: Percentage of Adult Day Services Center Participants,* by Selected Diagnoses † — National Study ... which is the estimated number of enrolled adult day services center participants in the United States on ...

  7. Selected Federal Programs Which Provide Services Relating to Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Congressional Research Service.

    This publication lists federal programs which provide services relating to child care, grouped under the sponsoring agencies: Department of Health, Education, and Welfare; Department of Agriculture; Department of Labor, Community Services Administration, Appalachian Regional Commission, Department of the Interior, Internal Revenue Service, and…

  8. Contemporary evolution during invasion: evidence for differentiation, natural selection, and local adaptation.

    PubMed

    Colautti, Robert I; Lau, Jennifer A

    2015-05-01

    Biological invasions are 'natural' experiments that can improve our understanding of contemporary evolution. We evaluate evidence for population differentiation, natural selection and adaptive evolution of invading plants and animals at two nested spatial scales: (i) among introduced populations (ii) between native and introduced genotypes. Evolution during invasion is frequently inferred, but rarely confirmed as adaptive. In common garden studies, quantitative trait differentiation is only marginally lower (~3.5%) among introduced relative to native populations, despite genetic bottlenecks and shorter timescales (i.e. millennia vs. decades). However, differentiation between genotypes from the native vs. introduced range is less clear and confounded by nonrandom geographic sampling; simulations suggest this causes a high false-positive discovery rate (>50%) in geographically structured populations. Selection differentials (¦s¦) are stronger in introduced than in native species, although selection gradients (¦β¦) are not, consistent with introduced species experiencing weaker genetic constraints. This could facilitate rapid adaptation, but evidence is limited. For example, rapid phenotypic evolution often manifests as geographical clines, but simulations demonstrate that nonadaptive trait clines can evolve frequently during colonization (~two-thirds of simulations). Additionally, QST-FST studies may often misrepresent the strength and form of natural selection acting during invasion. Instead, classic approaches in evolutionary ecology (e.g. selection analysis, reciprocal transplant, artificial selection) are necessary to determine the frequency of adaptive evolution during invasion and its influence on establishment, spread and impact of invasive species. These studies are rare but crucial for managing biological invasions in the context of global change. PMID:25891044

  9. Contemporary evolution during invasion: evidence for differentiation, natural selection, and local adaptation.

    PubMed

    Colautti, Robert I; Lau, Jennifer A

    2015-05-01

    Biological invasions are 'natural' experiments that can improve our understanding of contemporary evolution. We evaluate evidence for population differentiation, natural selection and adaptive evolution of invading plants and animals at two nested spatial scales: (i) among introduced populations (ii) between native and introduced genotypes. Evolution during invasion is frequently inferred, but rarely confirmed as adaptive. In common garden studies, quantitative trait differentiation is only marginally lower (~3.5%) among introduced relative to native populations, despite genetic bottlenecks and shorter timescales (i.e. millennia vs. decades). However, differentiation between genotypes from the native vs. introduced range is less clear and confounded by nonrandom geographic sampling; simulations suggest this causes a high false-positive discovery rate (>50%) in geographically structured populations. Selection differentials (¦s¦) are stronger in introduced than in native species, although selection gradients (¦β¦) are not, consistent with introduced species experiencing weaker genetic constraints. This could facilitate rapid adaptation, but evidence is limited. For example, rapid phenotypic evolution often manifests as geographical clines, but simulations demonstrate that nonadaptive trait clines can evolve frequently during colonization (~two-thirds of simulations). Additionally, QST-FST studies may often misrepresent the strength and form of natural selection acting during invasion. Instead, classic approaches in evolutionary ecology (e.g. selection analysis, reciprocal transplant, artificial selection) are necessary to determine the frequency of adaptive evolution during invasion and its influence on establishment, spread and impact of invasive species. These studies are rare but crucial for managing biological invasions in the context of global change.

  10. Adapting to a Changing Environment: Modeling the Interaction of Directional Selection and Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Nunney, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Human-induced habitat loss and fragmentation constrains the range of many species, making them unable to respond to climate change by moving. For such species to avoid extinction, they must respond with some combination of phenotypic plasticity and genetic adaptation. Haldane's "cost of natural selection" limits the rate of adaptation, but, although modeling has shown that in very large populations long-term adaptation can be maintained at rates substantially faster than Haldane's suggested limit, maintaining large populations is often an impossibility, so phenotypic plasticity may be crucial in enhancing the long-term survival of small populations. The potential importance of plasticity is in "buying time" for populations subject to directional environmental change: if genotypes can encompass a greater environmental range, then populations can maintain high fitness for a longer period of time. Alternatively, plasticity could be detrimental by lessening the effectiveness of natural selection in promoting genetic adaptation. Here, I modeled a directionally changing environment in which a genotype's adaptive phenotypic plasticity is centered around the environment where its fitness is highest. Plasticity broadens environmental tolerance and, provided it is not too costly, is favored by natural selection. However, a paradoxical result of the individually advantageous spread of plasticity is that, unless the adaptive trait is determined by very few loci, the long-term extinction risk of a population increases. This effect reflects a conflict between the short-term individual benefit of plasticity and a long-term detriment to population persistence, adding to the multiple threats facing small populations under conditions of climate change.

  11. Local adaptation and cogradient selection in the alpine plant, Poa hiemata, along a narrow altitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Byars, Sean G; Papst, Warwick; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2007-12-01

    Alpine environments are particularly susceptible to environmental changes associated with global warming but there is potential for alpine plants to adapt to warming if local adaptation occurs and gene flow allows genotypes adapted to low altitudes to colonize higher altitude sites. Here we examine the adaptive potential of a common alpine grass, Poa hiemata, within the restricted alpine habitat of Australian mountains, across a narrow altitudinal gradient replicated in three areas. Grasses at high altitude sites had shorter leaf lengths and larger circumferences than those at lower sites. Transplant experiments with clonal material and plants grown from seed indicated that these differences were partly genetic, with environmental and genetic factors both contributing to the differences between altitudes. Differences in altitudinal forms were also evident in a common garden experiment. Plants showed a home-site advantage in terms of survival. A fitness analysis indicated that at high altitude sites, selection favored plants with short leaves and larger circumferences, whereas these traits were selected in the opposite direction at the low altitude sites. These findings indicate cogradient selection and potential for both plastic and genotypic shifts in response to climate change in P. hiemata.

  12. A service-oriented medical framework for fast and adaptive information delivery in mobile environment.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunjeong; Nam, Hyo Suk

    2009-11-01

    The need for fast treatment of patients in critical conditions motivates the use of mobile devices to provide prompt and consistent communication between hospitals and physicians. We propose a framework that supports ubiquitous access to medical systems using personalized mobile services and integrated medical systems. The proposed service-oriented medical framework provides dynamically composed services that are adapted to contextual variables such as the user's role, the network bandwidth, and resources available at mobile devices while supporting task allocation in distributed servers for massive resource-consuming services. It also manages accurate patient data by integrating local medical systems using medical information standards such as Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine and Health Level 7. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of our framework by building a prototype of context-based adaptation of computerized tomography image retrieval for acute stroke treatments, which allows images to be viewed on mobile devices with WiMax wireless network. The proposed medical framework reduces hospital delays of patients and facilitates treatments in the absence of medical specialists. PMID:19775976

  13. A service-oriented medical framework for fast and adaptive information delivery in mobile environment.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunjeong; Nam, Hyo Suk

    2009-11-01

    The need for fast treatment of patients in critical conditions motivates the use of mobile devices to provide prompt and consistent communication between hospitals and physicians. We propose a framework that supports ubiquitous access to medical systems using personalized mobile services and integrated medical systems. The proposed service-oriented medical framework provides dynamically composed services that are adapted to contextual variables such as the user's role, the network bandwidth, and resources available at mobile devices while supporting task allocation in distributed servers for massive resource-consuming services. It also manages accurate patient data by integrating local medical systems using medical information standards such as Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine and Health Level 7. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of our framework by building a prototype of context-based adaptation of computerized tomography image retrieval for acute stroke treatments, which allows images to be viewed on mobile devices with WiMax wireless network. The proposed medical framework reduces hospital delays of patients and facilitates treatments in the absence of medical specialists.

  14. CATCH: A Cloud-based Adaptive Data Transfer Service for HPC

    SciTech Connect

    Monti, Henri; Butt, Ali R; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S

    2011-01-01

    Modern High Performance Computing (HPC) applications process very large amounts of data. A critical research challenge lies in transporting input data to the HPC center from a number of distributed sources, e.g., scientific experiments and web repositories, etc., and offloading the result data to geographically distributed, intermittently available end-users, often over under-provisioned connections. Such end-user data services are typically performed using point-to-point transfers that are designed for well-endowed sites and are unable to reconcile the center's resource usage and users delivery deadlines, unable to adapt to changing dynamics in the end-to-end data path and are not fault-tolerant. To overcome these inefficiencies, decentralized HPC data services are emerging as viable alternatives. In this paper, we develop and enhance such distributed data services by designing CATCH, a Cloud-based Adaptive data Transfer serviCe for HPC. CATCH leverages a bevy of cloud storage resources to orchestrate a decentralized data transport with fail-over capabilities. Our results demonstrate that CATCH is a feasible approach, and can help improve the data transfer times at the HPC center by as much as 81.1% for typical HPC workloads.

  15. Velocity-selective adaptation of the horizontal and cross-axis vestibulo-ocular reflex in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Hübner, Patrick P; Khan, Serajul I; Migliaccio, Americo A

    2014-10-01

    One commonly observed phenomenon of vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) adaptation is a frequency-selective change in gain (eye velocity/head velocity) and phase (relative timing between the vestibular stimulus and response) based on the frequency content of the adaptation training stimulus. The neural mechanism behind this type of adaptation is not clear. Our aim was to determine whether there were other parameter-selective effects on VOR adaptation, specifically velocity-selective and acceleration-selective changes in the horizontal VOR gain and phase. We also wanted to determine whether parameter selectivity was also in place for cross-axis adaptation training (a visual-vestibular training stimulus that elicits a vestibular-evoked torsional eye movement during horizontal head rotations). We measured VOR gain and phase in 17 C57BL/6 mice during baseline (no adaptation training) and after gain-increase, gain-decrease and cross-axis adaptation training using a sinusoidal visual-vestibular (mismatch) stimulus with whole-body rotations (vestibular stimulus) with peak velocity 20 and 50°/s both with a fixed frequency of 0.5 Hz. Our results show pronounced velocity selectivity of VOR adaptation. The difference in horizontal VOR gain after gain-increase versus gain-decrease adaptation was maximal when the sinusoidal testing stimulus matched the adaptation training stimulus peak velocity. We also observed similar velocity selectivity after cross-axis adaptation training. Our data suggest that frequency selectivity could be a manifestation of both velocity and acceleration selectivity because when one of these is absent, e.g. acceleration selectivity in the mouse, frequency selectivity is also reduced.

  16. How does adaptation sweep through the genome? Insights from long-term selection experiments.

    PubMed

    Burke, Molly K

    2012-12-22

    A major goal in evolutionary biology is to understand the origins and fates of adaptive mutations. Natural selection may act to increase the frequency of de novo beneficial mutations, or those already present in the population as standing genetic variation. These beneficial mutations may ultimately reach fixation in a population, or they may stop increasing in frequency once a particular phenotypic state has been achieved. It is not yet well understood how different features of population biology, and/or different environmental circumstances affect these adaptive processes. Experimental evolution is a promising technique for studying the dynamics of beneficial alleles, as populations evolving in the laboratory experience natural selection in a replicated, controlled manner. Whole-genome sequencing, regularly obtained over the course of sustained laboratory selection, could potentially reveal insights into the mutational dynamics that most likely occur in natural populations under similar circumstances. To date, only a few evolution experiments for which whole-genome data are available exist. This review describes results from these resequenced laboratory-selected populations, in systems with and without sexual recombination. In asexual systems, adaptation from new mutations can be studied, and results to date suggest that the complete, unimpeded fixation of these mutations is not always observed. In sexual systems, adaptation from standing genetic variation can be studied, and in the admittedly few examples we have, the complete fixation of standing variants is not always observed. To date, the relative frequency of adaptation from new mutations versus standing variation has not been tested using a single experimental system, but recent studies using Caenorhabditis elegans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggest that this a realistic future goal.

  17. Mutations in global regulators lead to metabolic selection during adaptation to complex environments

    SciTech Connect

    Saxer, Gerda; Krepps, Michael D.; Merkley, Eric D.; Ansong, Charles; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L.; Valovska, Marie -Thérèse; Ristic, Nikola; Yeh, Ping T.; Prakash, Vittal P.; Leiser, Owen P.; Nakhleh, Luay; Gibbons, Henry S.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Shamoo, Yousif; Matic, Ivan

    2014-12-11

    Adaptation to ecologically complex environments can provide insights into the evolutionary dynamics and functional constraints encountered by organisms during natural selection. Unlike adaptation to a single limiting resource, adaptation to a new environment with abundant and varied resources can be difficult to achieve by small incremental changes since many mutations are required to achieve even modest gains in fitness. Since changing complex environments are quite common in nature, we investigated how such an epistatic bottleneck can be avoided to allow rapid adaptation. We show that adaptive mutations arise repeatedly in independently evolved populations in the context of greatly increased genetic and phenotypic diversity. We go on to show that weak selection requiring substantial metabolic reprogramming can be readily achieved by mutations in the global response regulator arcA and the stress response regulator rpoS. We identified 46 unique single-nucleotide variants of arcA and 18 mutations in rpoS, nine of which resulted in stop codons or large deletions, suggesting that a subtle modulation of ArcA function and knockouts of rpoS are largely responsible for the metabolic shifts leading to adaptation. These mutations allow a higher order “metabolic selection” that eliminates epistatic bottlenecks, which could occur when many changes would be required. Proteomic and carbohydrate analysis of adapting E. coli populations revealed an up-regulation of enzymes associated with the TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism and an increase in the secretion of putrescine. The overall effect of adaptation across populations is to redirect and efficiently utilize uptake and catabolism of abundant amino acids. Concomitantly, there is a pronounced spread of more ecologically limited strains that results from specialization through metabolic erosion. Remarkably, the global regulators arcA and rpoS can provide a

  18. Context dependence in complex adaptive landscapes: frequency and trait-dependent selection surfaces within an adaptive radiation of Caribbean pupfishes.

    PubMed

    Martin, Christopher H

    2016-06-01

    The adaptive landscape provides the foundational bridge between micro- and macroevolution. One well-known caveat to this perspective is that fitness surfaces depend on ecological context, including competitor frequency, traits measured, and resource abundance. However, this view is based largely on intraspecific studies. It is still unknown how context-dependence affects the larger features of peaks and valleys on the landscape which ultimately drive speciation and adaptive radiation. Here, I explore this question using one of the most complex fitness landscapes measured in the wild in a sympatric pupfish radiation endemic to San Salvador Island, Bahamas by tracking survival and growth of laboratory-reared F2 hybrids. I present new analyses of the effects of competitor frequency, dietary isotopes, and trait subsets on this fitness landscape. Contrary to expectations, decreasing competitor frequency increased survival only among very common phenotypes, whereas less common phenotypes rarely survived despite few competitors, suggesting that performance, not competitor frequency, shapes large-scale features of the fitness landscape. Dietary isotopes were weakly correlated with phenotype and growth, but did not explain additional survival variation. Nonlinear fitness surfaces varied substantially among trait subsets, revealing one-, two-, and three-peak landscapes, demonstrating the complexity of selection in the wild, even among similar functional traits. PMID:27130447

  19. The Origin of Mutants Under Selection: How Natural Selection Mimics Mutagenesis (Adaptive Mutation).

    PubMed

    Maisnier-Patin, Sophie; Roth, John R

    2015-07-01

    Selection detects mutants but does not cause mutations. Contrary to this dictum, Cairns and Foster plated a leaky lac mutant of Escherichia coli on lactose medium and saw revertant (Lac(+)) colonies accumulate with time above a nongrowing lawn. This result suggested that bacteria might mutagenize their own genome when growth is blocked. However, this conclusion is suspect in the light of recent evidence that revertant colonies are initiated by preexisting cells with multiple copies the conjugative F'lac plasmid, which carries the lac mutation. Some plated cells have multiple copies of the simple F'lac plasmid. This provides sufficient LacZ activity to support plasmid replication but not cell division. In nongrowing cells, repeated plasmid replication increases the likelihood of a reversion event. Reversion to lac(+) triggers exponential cell growth leading to a stable Lac(+) revertant colony. In 10% of these plated cells, the high-copy plasmid includes an internal tandem lac duplication, which provides even more LacZ activity—sufficient to support slow growth and formation of an unstable Lac(+) colony. Cells with multiple copies of the F'lac plasmid have an increased mutation rate, because the plasmid encodes the error-prone (mutagenic) DNA polymerase, DinB. Without DinB, unstable and stable Lac(+) revertant types form in equal numbers and both types arise with no mutagenesis. Amplification and selection are central to behavior of the Cairns-Foster system, whereas mutagenesis is a system-specific side effect or artifact caused by coamplification of dinB with lac. Study of this system has revealed several broadly applicable principles. In all populations, gene duplications are frequent stable genetic polymorphisms, common near-neutral mutant alleles can gain a positive phenotype when amplified under selection, and natural selection can operate without cell division when variability is generated by overreplication of local genome subregions.

  20. Selection for increased mass-independent maximal metabolic rate suppresses innate but not adaptive immune function

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Cynthia J.; Brown, Jessi L.; Wone, Bernard; Donovan, Edward R.; Hunter, Kenneth; Hayes, Jack P.

    2013-01-01

    Both appropriate metabolic rates and sufficient immune function are essential for survival. Consequently, eco-immunologists have hypothesized that animals may experience trade-offs between metabolic rates and immune function. Previous work has focused on how basal metabolic rate (BMR) may trade-off with immune function, but maximal metabolic rate (MMR), the upper limit to aerobic activity, might also trade-off with immune function. We used mice artificially selected for high mass-independent MMR to test for trade-offs with immune function. We assessed (i) innate immune function by quantifying cytokine production in response to injection with lipopolysaccharide and (ii) adaptive immune function by measuring antibody production in response to injection with keyhole limpet haemocyanin. Selection for high mass-independent MMR suppressed innate immune function, but not adaptive immune function. However, analyses at the individual level also indicate a negative correlation between MMR and adaptive immune function. By contrast BMR did not affect immune function. Evolutionarily, natural selection may favour increasing MMR to enhance aerobic performance and endurance, but the benefits of high MMR may be offset by impaired immune function. This result could be important in understanding the selective factors acting on the evolution of metabolic rates. PMID:23303541

  1. Signatures of environmental genetic adaptation pinpoint pathogens as the main selective pressure through human evolution.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Matteo; Sironi, Manuela; Pozzoli, Uberto; Ferrer-Admetlla, Anna; Ferrer-Admettla, Anna; Pattini, Linda; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2011-11-01

    Previous genome-wide scans of positive natural selection in humans have identified a number of non-neutrally evolving genes that play important roles in skin pigmentation, metabolism, or immune function. Recent studies have also shown that a genome-wide pattern of local adaptation can be detected by identifying correlations between patterns of allele frequencies and environmental variables. Despite these observations, the degree to which natural selection is primarily driven by adaptation to local environments, and the role of pathogens or other ecological factors as selective agents, is still under debate. To address this issue, we correlated the spatial allele frequency distribution of a large sample of SNPs from 55 distinct human populations to a set of environmental factors that describe local geographical features such as climate, diet regimes, and pathogen loads. In concordance with previous studies, we detected a significant enrichment of genic SNPs, and particularly non-synonymous SNPs associated with local adaptation. Furthermore, we show that the diversity of the local pathogenic environment is the predominant driver of local adaptation, and that climate, at least as measured here, only plays a relatively minor role. While background demography by far makes the strongest contribution in explaining the genetic variance among populations, we detected about 100 genes which show an unexpectedly strong correlation between allele frequencies and pathogenic environment, after correcting for demography. Conversely, for diet regimes and climatic conditions, no genes show a similar correlation between the environmental factor and allele frequencies. This result is validated using low-coverage sequencing data for multiple populations. Among the loci targeted by pathogen-driven selection, we found an enrichment of genes associated to autoimmune diseases, such as celiac disease, type 1 diabetes, and multiples sclerosis, which lends credence to the hypothesis that some

  2. Time course of shape and category selectivity revealed by EEG rapid adaptation.

    PubMed

    Scholl, Clara A; Jiang, Xiong; Martin, Jacob G; Riesenhuber, Maximilian

    2014-02-01

    A hallmark of human cognition is the ability to rapidly assign meaning to sensory stimuli. It has been suggested that this fast visual object categorization ability is accomplished by a feedforward processing hierarchy consisting of shape-selective neurons in occipito-temporal cortex that feed into task circuits in frontal cortex computing conceptual category membership. We performed an EEG rapid adaptation study to test this hypothesis. Participants were trained to categorize novel stimuli generated with a morphing system that precisely controlled both stimulus shape and category membership. We subsequently performed EEG recordings while participants performed a category matching task on pairs of successively presented stimuli. We used space-time cluster analysis to identify channels and latencies exhibiting selective neural responses. Neural signals before 200 msec on posterior channels demonstrated a release from adaptation for shape changes, irrespective of category membership, compatible with a shape- but not explicitly category-selective neural representation. A subsequent cluster with anterior topography appeared after 200 msec and exhibited release from adaptation consistent with explicit categorization. These signals were subsequently modulated by perceptual uncertainty starting around 300 msec. The degree of category selectivity of the anterior signals was strongly predictive of behavioral performance. We also observed a posterior category-selective signal after 300 msec exhibiting significant functional connectivity with the initial anterior category-selective signal. In summary, our study supports the proposition that perceptual categorization is accomplished by the brain within a quarter second through a largely feedforward process culminating in frontal areas, followed by later category-selective signals in posterior regions. PMID:24001003

  3. Selection from parasites favours immunogenetic diversity but not divergence among locally adapted host populations.

    PubMed

    Tobler, M; Plath, M; Riesch, R; Schlupp, I; Grasse, A; Munimanda, G K; Setzer, C; Penn, D J; Moodley, Y

    2014-05-01

    The unprecedented polymorphism in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes is thought to be maintained by balancing selection from parasites. However, do parasites also drive divergence at MHC loci between host populations, or do the effects of balancing selection maintain similarities among populations? We examined MHC variation in populations of the livebearing fish Poecilia mexicana and characterized their parasite communities. Poecilia mexicana populations in the Cueva del Azufre system are locally adapted to darkness and the presence of toxic hydrogen sulphide, representing highly divergent ecotypes or incipient species. Parasite communities differed significantly across populations, and populations with higher parasite loads had higher levels of diversity at class II MHC genes. However, despite different parasite communities, marked divergence in adaptive traits and in neutral genetic markers, we found MHC alleles to be remarkably similar among host populations. Our findings indicate that balancing selection from parasites maintains immunogenetic diversity of hosts, but this process does not promote MHC divergence in this system. On the contrary, we suggest that balancing selection on immunogenetic loci may outweigh divergent selection causing divergence, thereby hindering host divergence and speciation. Our findings support the hypothesis that balancing selection maintains MHC similarities among lineages during and after speciation (trans-species evolution). PMID:24725091

  4. Effects of Informed Item Selection on Test Performance and Anxiety for Examinees Administered a Self-Adapted Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plake, Barbara S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    No significant differences in performance on a self-adapted test or anxiety were found for college students (n=218) taking a self-adapted test who selected item difficulty without any prior information, inspected an item before selecting, or answered a typical item and received performance feedback. (SLD)

  5. A neural network based reputation bootstrapping approach for service selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Quanwang; Zhu, Qingsheng; Li, Peng

    2015-10-01

    With the concept of service-oriented computing becoming widely accepted in enterprise application integration, more and more computing resources are encapsulated as services and published online. Reputation mechanism has been studied to establish trust on prior unknown services. One of the limitations of current reputation mechanisms is that they cannot assess the reputation of newly deployed services as no record of their previous behaviours exists. Most of the current bootstrapping approaches merely assign default reputation values to newcomers. However, by this kind of methods, either newcomers or existing services will be favoured. In this paper, we present a novel reputation bootstrapping approach, where correlations between features and performance of existing services are learned through an artificial neural network (ANN) and they are then generalised to establish a tentative reputation when evaluating new and unknown services. Reputations of services published previously by the same provider are also incorporated for reputation bootstrapping if available. The proposed reputation bootstrapping approach is seamlessly embedded into an existing reputation model and implemented in the extended service-oriented architecture. Empirical studies of the proposed approach are shown at last.

  6. Changes in Ecosystem Services and related Livelihoods in the Mekong Delta: vulnerabilities and adaptation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebesvari, Z.; Renaud, F. G.

    2014-12-01

    The Mekong Delta (Vietnam) is highly vulnerable to the many impacts of global environmental change as well as to the accelerating anthropogenic changes in the catchment and in the delta itself. Today the delta is an agricultural landscape controlled by engineering structures such as channels, dykes, embankments, and sluice gates. These structures have been constructed gradually over the last 200 years mainly for irrigation and flood control in the upper part of the delta and to control saline intrusion in the coastal areas. Recent changes in the hydrology mainly driven by upstream hydropower development on the mainstream and the tributaries of the Mekong will likely have far reaching impacts on the delta´s social-ecological systems through changes in e.g. sedimentation processes, nutrient transport as well as the health of aquatic ecosystems. Further threats to the delta include sea level rise and an increase in seasonal rainfall variability leading to an increase in flood variability. These changes affect the lives of millions of low-income inhabitants who depend on the ecosystem services provided by the Mekong for their livelihoods and sustenance. Since the changes in ecosystem service provision are occurring relatively fast while the resource dependency of the delta population is very high, adaptation becomes a challenge. An assessment of livelihood dependencies on ecosystem services requires an understanding of ecosystem services affected by different drivers of change, as well as of the types of livelihoods likely to be jeopardized as a result of these changes. We will present main ecosystem services supporting specific livelihoods, discuss how they are threatened, and analyse the merits of potential solutions. Options based solely on grey infrastructure might be problematic on the long term while an integration of ecosystem based solution such as a (re)adaptation of agricultural production systems to floods in the upper delta might be a more sustainable

  7. Complementary effect of natural and sexual selection against immigrants maintains differentiation between locally adapted fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plath, Martin; Riesch, Rüdiger; Oranth, Alexandra; Dzienko, Justina; Karau, Nora; Schießl, Angela; Stadler, Stefan; Wigh, Adriana; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Schlupp, Ingo; Tobler, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Adaptation to ecologically heterogeneous environments can drive speciation. But what mechanisms maintain reproductive isolation among locally adapted populations? Using poeciliid fishes in a system with naturally occurring toxic hydrogen sulfide, we show that (a) fish from non-sulfidic sites ( Poecilia mexicana) show high mortality (95 %) after 24 h when exposed to the toxicant, while locally adapted fish from sulfidic sites ( Poecilia sulphuraria) experience low mortality (13 %) when transferred to non-sulfidic water. (b) Mate choice tests revealed that P. mexicana females exhibit a preference for conspecific males in non-sulfidic water, but not in sulfidic water, whereas P. sulphuraria females never showed a preference. Increased costs of mate choice in sulfidic, hypoxic water, and the lack of selection for reinforcement due to the low survival of P. mexicana may explain the absence of a preference in P. sulphuraria females. Taken together, our study may be the first to demonstrate independent—but complementary—effects of natural and sexual selection against immigrants maintaining differentiation between locally adapted fish populations.

  8. Bayesian approach increases accuracy when selecting cowpea genotypes with high adaptability and phenotypic stability.

    PubMed

    Barroso, L M A; Teodoro, P E; Nascimento, M; Torres, F E; Dos Santos, A; Corrêa, A M; Sagrilo, E; Corrêa, C C G; Silva, F A; Ceccon, G

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to verify that a Bayesian approach could be used for the selection of upright cowpea genotypes with high adaptability and phenotypic stability, and the study also evaluated the efficiency of using informative and minimally informative a priori distributions. Six trials were conducted in randomized blocks, and the grain yield of 17 upright cowpea genotypes was assessed. To represent the minimally informative a priori distributions, a probability distribution with high variance was used, and a meta-analysis concept was adopted to represent the informative a priori distributions. Bayes factors were used to conduct comparisons between the a priori distributions. The Bayesian approach was effective for selection of upright cowpea genotypes with high adaptability and phenotypic stability using the Eberhart and Russell method. Bayes factors indicated that the use of informative a priori distributions provided more accurate results than minimally informative a priori distributions. PMID:26985961

  9. Positive selection and compensatory adaptation interact to stabilize non-transmissible plasmids.

    PubMed

    San Millan, A; Peña-Miller, R; Toll-Riera, M; Halbert, Z V; McLean, A R; Cooper, B S; MacLean, R C

    2014-10-10

    Plasmids are important drivers of bacterial evolution, but it is challenging to understand how plasmids persist over the long term because plasmid carriage is costly. Classical models predict that horizontal transfer is necessary for plasmid persistence, but recent work shows that almost half of plasmids are non-transmissible. Here we use a combination of mathematical modelling and experimental evolution to investigate how a costly, non-transmissible plasmid, pNUK73, can be maintained in populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Compensatory adaptation increases plasmid stability by eliminating the cost of plasmid carriage. However, positive selection for plasmid-encoded antibiotic resistance is required to maintain the plasmid by offsetting reductions in plasmid frequency due to segregational loss. Crucially, we show that compensatory adaptation and positive selection reinforce each other's effects. Our study provides a new understanding of how plasmids persist in bacterial populations, and it helps to explain why resistance can be maintained after antibiotic use is stopped.

  10. Positive selection and compensatory adaptation interact to stabilize non-transmissible plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Millan, A. San; Peña-Miller, R.; Toll-Riera, M.; Halbert, Z. V.; McLean, A. R.; Cooper, B. S.; MacLean, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmids are important drivers of bacterial evolution, but it is challenging to understand how plasmids persist over the long term because plasmid carriage is costly. Classical models predict that horizontal transfer is necessary for plasmid persistence, but recent work shows that almost half of plasmids are non-transmissible. Here we use a combination of mathematical modelling and experimental evolution to investigate how a costly, non-transmissible plasmid, pNUK73, can be maintained in populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Compensatory adaptation increases plasmid stability by eliminating the cost of plasmid carriage. However, positive selection for plasmid-encoded antibiotic resistance is required to maintain the plasmid by offsetting reductions in plasmid frequency due to segregational loss. Crucially, we show that compensatory adaptation and positive selection reinforce each other’s effects. Our study provides a new understanding of how plasmids persist in bacterial populations, and it helps to explain why resistance can be maintained after antibiotic use is stopped. PMID:25302567

  11. Bayesian approach increases accuracy when selecting cowpea genotypes with high adaptability and phenotypic stability.

    PubMed

    Barroso, L M A; Teodoro, P E; Nascimento, M; Torres, F E; Dos Santos, A; Corrêa, A M; Sagrilo, E; Corrêa, C C G; Silva, F A; Ceccon, G

    2016-03-11

    This study aimed to verify that a Bayesian approach could be used for the selection of upright cowpea genotypes with high adaptability and phenotypic stability, and the study also evaluated the efficiency of using informative and minimally informative a priori distributions. Six trials were conducted in randomized blocks, and the grain yield of 17 upright cowpea genotypes was assessed. To represent the minimally informative a priori distributions, a probability distribution with high variance was used, and a meta-analysis concept was adopted to represent the informative a priori distributions. Bayes factors were used to conduct comparisons between the a priori distributions. The Bayesian approach was effective for selection of upright cowpea genotypes with high adaptability and phenotypic stability using the Eberhart and Russell method. Bayes factors indicated that the use of informative a priori distributions provided more accurate results than minimally informative a priori distributions.

  12. Selective visual attention based clutter metric with human visual system adaptability.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bo; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Huang, Jing-Tao; Wang, Jian; Jiang, Yang

    2016-09-20

    Most existing clutter metrics are proposed based on fixed structural features and experienced weight measures. In this paper, we identify the clutter as selective visual attention effects and propose a type of clutter metric. First, adaptive structural features are extracted from the blocks with an edge-structure similarity to the target. Next, the confusing blocks are selected by the similarity threshold based on the attention guidance map. The clutter is estimated by quantifying the effects of confusing blocks on target acquisition performance. The comparative field experiments, with a Search_2 dataset, show that the proposed metric is consistent with the adaptability of the human visual system (HVS) and outperforms other metrics. PMID:27661600

  13. An adaptive approach to invasive plant management on U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service-owned native prairies in the Prairie Pothole Region: decision support under uncertainity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannon, Jill J.; Moore, Clinton T.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Flanders-Wanner, Bridgette

    2011-01-01

    Much of the native prairie managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) is extensively invaded by the introduced cool-season grasses smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis). The central challenge to managers is selecting appropriate management actions in the face of biological and environmental uncertainties. We describe the technical components of a USGS management project, and explain how the components integrate and inform each other, how data feedback from individual cooperators serves to reduce uncertainty across the whole region, and how a successful adaptive management project is coordinated and maintained on a large scale. In partnership with the Service, the U.S. Geological Survey is developing an adaptive decision support framework to assist managers in selecting management actions under uncertainty and maximizing learning from management outcomes. The framework is built around practical constraints faced by refuge managers and includes identification of the management objective and strategies, analysis of uncertainty and construction of competing decision models, monitoring, and mechanisms for model feedback and decision selection. Nineteen Service field stations, spanning four states of the PPR, are participating in the project. They share a common management objective, available management strategies, and biological uncertainties. While the scope is broad, the project interfaces with individual land managers who provide refuge-specific information and receive updated decision guidance that incorporates understanding gained from the collective experience of all cooperators.

  14. A Structured Guide for Selecting Training Materials in Adjustment Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Thomas J.

    This guide identifies existing materials which form a nucleus of information in the adjustment services field. Five sub-processes within the larger adjustment services process are used as the framework by which this information is structured in the guide. They are (1) behavior observation, identification, and analysis; (2) developing the…

  15. Adaptation of Drosophila to a novel laboratory environment reveals temporally heterogeneous trajectories of selected alleles

    PubMed Central

    Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Kapun, Martin; Nolte, Viola; Kofler, Robert; Flatt, Thomas; Schlötterer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The genomic basis of adaptation to novel environments is a fundamental problem in evolutionary biology that has gained additional importance in the light of the recent global change discussion. Here, we combined laboratory natural selection (experimental evolution) in Drosophila melanogaster with genome-wide next generation sequencing of DNA pools (Pool-Seq) to identify alleles that are favourable in a novel laboratory environment and traced their trajectories during the adaptive process. Already after 15 generations, we identified a pronounced genomic response to selection, with almost 5000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP; genome-wide false discovery rates < 0.005%) deviating from neutral expectation. Importantly, the evolutionary trajectories of the selected alleles were heterogeneous, with the alleles falling into two distinct classes: (i) alleles that continuously rise in frequency; and (ii) alleles that at first increase rapidly but whose frequencies then reach a plateau. Our data thus suggest that the genomic response to selection can involve a large number of selected SNPs that show unexpectedly complex evolutionary trajectories, possibly due to nonadditive effects. PMID:22726122

  16. Adaptive evolution in locomotor performance: How selective pressures and functional relationships produce diversity.

    PubMed

    Scales, Jeffrey A; Butler, Marguerite A

    2016-01-01

    Despite the complexity of nature, most comparative studies of phenotypic evolution consider selective pressures in isolation. When competing pressures operate on the same system, it is commonly expected that trade-offs will occur that will limit the evolution of phenotypic diversity, however, it is possible that interactions among selective pressures may promote diversity instead. We explored the evolution of locomotor performance in lizards in relation to possible selective pressures using the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Here, we show that a combination of selection based on foraging mode and predator escape is required to explain variation in performance phenotypes. Surprisingly, habitat use contributed little explanatory power. We find that it is possible to evolve very different abilities in performance which were previously thought to be tightly correlated, supporting a growing literature that explores the many-to-one mapping of morphological design. Although we generally find the expected trade-off between maximal exertion and speed, this relationship surprisingly disappears when species experience selection for both performance types. We conclude that functional integration need not limit adaptive potential, and that an integrative approach considering multiple major influences on a phenotype allows a more complete understanding of adaptation and the evolution of diversity.

  17. Adaptation of Drosophila to a novel laboratory environment reveals temporally heterogeneous trajectories of selected alleles.

    PubMed

    Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Kapun, Martin; Nolte, Viola; Kofler, Robert; Flatt, Thomas; Schlötterer, Christian

    2012-10-01

    The genomic basis of adaptation to novel environments is a fundamental problem in evolutionary biology that has gained additional importance in the light of the recent global change discussion. Here, we combined laboratory natural selection (experimental evolution) in Drosophila melanogaster with genome-wide next generation sequencing of DNA pools (Pool-Seq) to identify alleles that are favourable in a novel laboratory environment and traced their trajectories during the adaptive process. Already after 15 generations, we identified a pronounced genomic response to selection, with almost 5000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP; genome-wide false discovery rates < 0.005%) deviating from neutral expectation. Importantly, the evolutionary trajectories of the selected alleles were heterogeneous, with the alleles falling into two distinct classes: (i) alleles that continuously rise in frequency; and (ii) alleles that at first increase rapidly but whose frequencies then reach a plateau. Our data thus suggest that the genomic response to selection can involve a large number of selected SNPs that show unexpectedly complex evolutionary trajectories, possibly due to nonadditive effects.

  18. Why don't zebras have machine guns? Adaptation, selection, and constraints in evolutionary theory.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Timothy

    2008-03-01

    In an influential paper, Stephen Jay Gould and Richard Lewontin (1979) contrasted selection-driven adaptation with phylogenetic, architectural, and developmental constraints as distinct causes of phenotypic evolution. In subsequent publications Gould (e.g., 1997a,b, 2002) has elaborated this distinction into one between a narrow "Darwinian Fundamentalist" emphasis on "external functionalist" processes, and a more inclusive "pluralist" emphasis on "internal structuralist" principles. Although theoretical integration of functionalist and structuralist explanations is the ultimate aim, natural selection and internal constraints are treated as distinct causes of evolutionary change. This distinction is now routinely taken for granted in the literature in evolutionary biology. I argue that this distinction is problematic because the effects attributed to non-selective constraints are more parsimoniously explained as the ordinary effects of selection itself. Although it may still be a useful shorthand to speak of phylogenetic, architectural, and developmental constraints on phenotypic evolution, it is important to understand that such "constraints" do not constitute an alternative set of causes of evolutionary change. The result of this analysis is a clearer understanding of the relationship between adaptation, selection and constraints as explanatory concepts in evolutionary theory.

  19. Analysis of Adaptive Evolution in Lyssavirus Genomes Reveals Pervasive Diversifying Selection during Species Diversification

    PubMed Central

    Voloch, Carolina M.; Capellão, Renata T.; Mello, Beatriz; Schrago, Carlos G.

    2014-01-01

    Lyssavirus is a diverse genus of viruses that infect a variety of mammalian hosts, typically causing encephalitis. The evolution of this lineage, particularly the rabies virus, has been a focus of research because of the extensive occurrence of cross-species transmission, and the distinctive geographical patterns present throughout the diversification of these viruses. Although numerous studies have examined pattern-related questions concerning Lyssavirus evolution, analyses of the evolutionary processes acting on Lyssavirus diversification are scarce. To clarify the relevance of positive natural selection in Lyssavirus diversification, we conducted a comprehensive scan for episodic diversifying selection across all lineages and codon sites of the five coding regions in lyssavirus genomes. Although the genomes of these viruses are generally conserved, the glycoprotein (G), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) and polymerase (P) genes were frequently targets of adaptive evolution during the diversification of the genus. Adaptive evolution is particularly manifest in the glycoprotein gene, which was inferred to have experienced the highest density of positively selected codon sites along branches. Substitutions in the L gene were found to be associated with the early diversification of phylogroups. A comparison between the number of positively selected sites inferred along the branches of RABV population branches and Lyssavirus intespecies branches suggested that the occurrence of positive selection was similar on the five coding regions of the genome in both groups. PMID:25415197

  20. Shifting habitats, morphology, and selective pressures: developmental polyphenism in an adaptive radiation of Hawaiian spiders.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Michael S; Carter, Rebecca A; Croucher, Peter J P; Gillespie, Rosemary G

    2015-01-01

    Particularly intriguing examples of adaptive radiation are those in which lineages show parallel or convergent evolution, suggesting utilization of similar genetic or developmental pathways. The current study focuses on an adaptive radiation of Hawaiian "spiny-leg" spiders in which diversification is associated with repeated convergent evolution leading to similar sets of ecomorphs on each island. However, two species on the oldest islands in the archipelago exhibit variability, occurring as two different ecomorphs. More derived species on the younger islands show much less variability, any one species displaying a single ecomorph. We measured ecomorphological features within individuals over time to determine the nature of the variability. Then, using transcriptomes, we conducted lineage-based tests for selection under varying models and analyses of gene tree versus species tree incongruencies. Our results provide strong evidence that variability in color in Tetragnatha kauaiensis and T. polychromata is associated with development within individuals (polyphenism). Moreover, a total of 28 loci showed a signature of selection associated with loss of the color-changing phenotype, and 37 loci showed a signature of selection associated with the colonization of a new environment. The results illustrate how developmental polyphenism might provide an avenue for the repeated evolution of ecomorphs during adaptive radiation.

  1. The Effect of Mutation and Selection on Codon Adaptation in Escherichia coli Bacteriophage

    PubMed Central

    Chithambaram, Shivapriya; Prabhakaran, Ramanandan; Xia, Xuhua

    2014-01-01

    Studying phage codon adaptation is important not only for understanding the process of translation elongation, but also for reengineering phages for medical and industrial purposes. To evaluate the effect of mutation and selection on phage codon usage, we developed an index to measure selection imposed by host translation machinery, based on the difference in codon usage between all host genes and highly expressed host genes. We developed linear and nonlinear models to estimate the C→T mutation bias in different phage lineages and to evaluate the relative effect of mutation and host selection on phage codon usage. C→T-biased mutations occur more frequently in single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) phages than in double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) phages and affect not only synonymous codon usage, but also nonsynonymous substitutions at second codon positions, especially in ssDNA phages. The host translation machinery affects codon adaptation in both dsDNA and ssDNA phages, with a stronger effect on dsDNA phages than on ssDNA phages. Strand asymmetry with the associated local variation in mutation bias can significantly interfere with codon adaptation in both dsDNA and ssDNA phages. PMID:24583580

  2. The effect of mutation and selection on codon adaptation in Escherichia coli bacteriophage.

    PubMed

    Chithambaram, Shivapriya; Prabhakaran, Ramanandan; Xia, Xuhua

    2014-05-01

    Studying phage codon adaptation is important not only for understanding the process of translation elongation, but also for reengineering phages for medical and industrial purposes. To evaluate the effect of mutation and selection on phage codon usage, we developed an index to measure selection imposed by host translation machinery, based on the difference in codon usage between all host genes and highly expressed host genes. We developed linear and nonlinear models to estimate the C→T mutation bias in different phage lineages and to evaluate the relative effect of mutation and host selection on phage codon usage. C→T-biased mutations occur more frequently in single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) phages than in double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) phages and affect not only synonymous codon usage, but also nonsynonymous substitutions at second codon positions, especially in ssDNA phages. The host translation machinery affects codon adaptation in both dsDNA and ssDNA phages, with a stronger effect on dsDNA phages than on ssDNA phages. Strand asymmetry with the associated local variation in mutation bias can significantly interfere with codon adaptation in both dsDNA and ssDNA phages. PMID:24583580

  3. Lineage dynamics and mutation-selection balance in non-adapting asexual populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pénisson, Sophie; Sniegowski, Paul D.; Colato, Alexandre; Gerrish, Philip J.

    2013-02-01

    In classical population genetics, mutation-selection balance refers to the equilibrium frequency of a deleterious allele established and maintained under two opposing forces: recurrent mutation, which tends to increase the frequency of the allele; and selection, which tends to decrease its frequency. In a haploid population, if μ denotes the per capita rate of production of the deleterious allele by mutation and s denotes the selective disadvantage of carrying the allele, then the classical mutation-selection balance frequency of the allele is approximated by μ/s. This calculation assumes that lineages carrying the mutant allele in question—the ‘focal allele’—do not accumulate deleterious mutations linked to the focal allele. In principle, indirect selection against the focal allele caused by such additional mutations can decrease the frequency of the focal allele below the classical mutation-selection balance. This effect of indirect selection will be strongest in an asexual population, in which the entire genome is in linkage. Here, we use an approach based on a multitype branching process to investigate this effect, analyzing lineage dynamics under mutation, direct selection, and indirect selection in a non-adapting asexual population. We find that the equilibrium balance between recurrent mutation to the focal allele and the forces of direct and indirect selection against the focal allele is closely approximated by γμ/(s + U) (s = 0 if the focal allele is neutral), where γ ≈ eθθ-(ω+θ)(ω + θ)(Γ(ω + θ) - Γ(ω + θ,θ)), \\theta =U/\\tilde {s}, and \\omega =s/\\tilde {s}; U denotes the genomic deleterious mutation rate and \\tilde {s} denotes the geometric mean selective disadvantage of deleterious mutations elsewhere on the genome. This mutation-selection balance for asexual populations can remain surprisingly invariant over wide ranges of the mutation rate.

  4. Adaptive Path Selection for Link Loss Inference in Network Tomography Applications

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Yan; Jiao, Jun; Rao, Yuan; Ma, Huimin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we address the problem of selecting the optimal end-to-end paths for link loss inference in order to improve the performance of network tomography applications, which infer the link loss rates from the path loss rates. Measuring the path loss rates using end-to-end probing packets may incur additional traffic overheads for networks, so it is important to select the minimum path set carefully while maximizing their performance. The usual approach is to select the maximum independent paths from the candidates simultaneously, while the other paths can be replaced by linear combinations of them. However, this approach ignores the fact that many paths always exist that do not lose any packets, and thus it is easy to determine that all of the links of these paths also have 0 loss rates. Not considering these good paths will inevitably lead to inefficiency and high probing costs. Thus, we propose an adaptive path selection method that selects paths sequentially based on the loss rates of previously selected paths. We also propose a theorem as well as a graph construction and decomposition approach to efficiently find the most valuable path during each round of selection. Our new method significantly outperforms the classical path selection method based on simulations in terms of the probing cost, number of accurate links determined, and the running speed. PMID:27701447

  5. Pre-Service Teachers' Comments toward Official Teacher Selection System (Civil Servant Selection Examination, KPSS) in Turkey: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugulu, Ilker; Yorek, Nurettin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the opinions of the pre-service teachers toward teacher selection system and civil servant selection exam (KPSS). In this study, qualitative re-search methods and semi-structured interviews were used and researcher-made questionnaires containing open-ended questions were administered. The study group…

  6. Student Deferment and the Selective Service College Qualification Test, 1951-1967. Research Memorandum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frusciano, Thomas J.

    The history of military manpower policy and college student deferment is reviewed, with attention to the Selective Service College Qualification Test (SSCQT). By passage of the Selective Service Act of 1948, Congress recognized the need to maintain an adequate number of scientific, professional, and specialized personnel in both civilian and…

  7. 77 FR 33063 - Selection and Functions of Farm Service Agency State and County Committees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... from the relevant United States Code in 1994 as part of the Federal Crop Insurance Reform and... CFR Part 7 RIN 0560-AG90 Selection and Functions of Farm Service Agency State and County Committees... governing the selection and functions of Farm Service Agency (FSA) State and county committees....

  8. Service Center for Climate Change Adaptation in Agriculture - an initiative of the University of West Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyas, Cs.; Berki, I.; Drüszler, A.; Eredics, A.; Galos, B.; Moricz, N.; Rasztovits, E.

    2012-04-01

    In whole Central Europe agricultural production is highly vulnerable and sensitive to impacts of projected climatic changes. The low-elevation regions of the Carpathian Basin (most of the territory of Hungary), where precipitation is the minimum factor of production, are especially exposed to climatic extremes, especially to droughts. Rainfed agriculture, animal husbandry on nature-close pastures and nature-close forestry are the most sensitive sectors due to limited possibilities to counterbalance moisture supply constraints. These sectors have to be best prepared to frequency increase of extreme events, disasters and economic losses. So far, there is a lack of information about the middle and long term consequences on regional and local level. Therefore the importance of complex, long term management planning and of land use optimation is increasing. The aim of the initiative is to set up a fine-scale, GIS-based, complex, integrated system for the definition of the most important regional and local challenges and tasks of climate change adaptation and mitigation in agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and also nature protection. The Service Center for Climate Change Adaptation in Agriculture is planned to provide the following services: § Complex, GIS-supported database, which integrates the basic information about present and projected climates, extremes, hydrology and soil conditions; § Evaluation of existing satellite-based and earth-based monitoring systems; § GIS-supported information about the future trends of climate change impacts on the agroecological potential and sensitivity status on regional and local level (e.g. land cover/use and expectable changes, production, water and carbon cycle, biodiversity and other ecosystem services, potential pests and diseases, tolerance limits etc.) in fine-scale horizontal resolution, based first of all on natural produce, including also social and economic consequences; § Complex decision supporting system on

  9. Selecting Instructors for Industry Services. Self-Paced Instructional Module. Module Number V-A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Kenneth L.

    One of 33 self-paced industry services leadership development (ISLD) modules, this module contains three sequential learning activities on selecting instructors for industry services. (The industry services program for which these materials were developed would involve provision of job training by public agencies for new or expanding private…

  10. Frame selection performance limits for statistical image reconstruction of adaptive optics compensated images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Stephen D.

    1994-12-01

    The U.S. Air Force uses adaptive optics systems to collect images of extended objects beyond the atmosphere. These systems use wavefront sensors and deformable mirrors to compensate for atmospheric turbulence induced aberrations. Adaptive optics greatly enhance image quality, however, wavefront aberrations are not completely eliminated. Therefore, post-detection processing techniques are employed to further improve the compensated images. Typically, many short exposure images are collected, recentered to compensate for tilt, and then averaged to overcome randomness in the images and improve signal-to-noise ratio. Experience shows that some short exposure images in a data set are better than others. Frame selection exploits this fact by using a quality metric to discard low quality frames. A composite image is then created by averaging only the best frames. Performance limits associated with the frame selection technique are investigated in this thesis. Limits imposed by photon noise result in a minimum object brightness of visual magnitude +8 for point sources and +4 for a typical satellite model. Effective average point spread functions for point source and extended objects after frame selection processing are almost identical across a wide range of conditions. This discovery allows the use of deconvolution techniques to sharpen images after using the frame selection technique. A new post-detection processing method, frame weighting, is investigated and may offer some improvement for dim objects during poor atmospheric seeing. Frame selection is demonstrated for the first time on actual imagery from an adaptive optics system. Data analysis indicates that signal-to-noise ratio improvements are degraded for exposure times longer than that allowed to 'freeze' individual realizations of the turbulence effects.

  11. An adaptive governance approach to disaster-related behavioural health services.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Simon A; Kendra, James M

    2012-07-01

    This paper explores the provision of disaster-related behavioural and mental health (DBH) services as a problem of institutional collective action in the United States. This study reviews the challenges that providers have in surmounting multi-organizational disconnects, unstable professional legitimacy, ambiguous information, and shifting disaster needs in developing a system for delivering DBH services. Based on the adaptive governance framework, it argues that existing protocols such as the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and Incident Command System (ICS) may be helpful in advancing collective action, but that real progress will depend on a recognition of norms, expectations, and credentials across many spheres-in other words, on the ability of responders to continuously adjust their procedures and administrative boundaries for behavioural health institutions. PMID:22066735

  12. Adaptive fixation in two-locus models of stabilizing selection and genetic drift.

    PubMed

    Wollstein, Andreas; Stephan, Wolfgang

    2014-10-01

    The relationship between quantitative genetics and population genetics has been studied for nearly a century, almost since the existence of these two disciplines. Here we ask to what extent quantitative genetic models in which selection is assumed to operate on a polygenic trait predict adaptive fixations that may lead to footprints in the genome (selective sweeps). We study two-locus models of stabilizing selection (with and without genetic drift) by simulations and analytically. For symmetric viability selection we find that ∼16% of the trajectories may lead to fixation if the initial allele frequencies are sampled from the neutral site-frequency spectrum and the effect sizes are uniformly distributed. However, if the population is preadapted when it undergoes an environmental change (i.e., sits in one of the equilibria of the model), the fixation probability decreases dramatically. In other two-locus models with general viabilities or an optimum shift, the proportion of adaptive fixations may increase to >24%. Similarly, genetic drift leads to a higher probability of fixation. The predictions of alternative quantitative genetics models, initial conditions, and effect-size distributions are also discussed.

  13. Sex-ratio control erodes sexual selection, revealing evolutionary feedback from adaptive plasticity.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, Tim W; Kuijper, Bram; Weissing, Franz J; Pen, Ido

    2011-09-20

    Female choice is a powerful selective force, driving the elaboration of conspicuous male ornaments. This process of sexual selection has profound implications for many life-history decisions, including sex allocation. For example, females with attractive partners should produce more sons, because these sons will inherit their father's attractiveness and enjoy high mating success, thereby yielding greater fitness returns than daughters. However, previous research has overlooked the fact that there is a reciprocal feedback from life-history strategies to sexual selection. Here, using a simple mathematical model, we show that if mothers adaptively control offspring sex in relation to their partner's attractiveness, sexual selection is weakened and male ornamentation declines. This weakening occurs because the ability to determine offspring sex reduces the fitness difference between females with attractive and unattractive partners. We use individual-based, evolutionary simulations to show that this result holds under more biologically realistic conditions. Sexual selection and sex allocation thus interact in a dynamic fashion: The evolution of conspicuous male ornaments favors sex-ratio adjustment, but this conditional strategy then undermines the very same process that generated it, eroding sexual selection. We predict that, all else being equal, the most elaborate sexual displays should be seen in species with little or no control over offspring sex. The feedback process we have described points to a more general evolutionary principle, in which a conditional strategy weakens directional selection on another trait by reducing fitness differences.

  14. Using Copernicus earth observation services to monitor climate change impacts and adaptations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Daniel; Zebisch, Marc; Sonnenschein, Ruth; Schönthaler, Konstanze; von Andrian-Werburg, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    In the last years, earth observation made a big leap towards an operational monitoring of the state of environment. Remote sensing provides for instance information on the dynamics, trends and anomalies of snow and glaciers, vegetation, soil moisture or water temperature. In particular, the European Copernicus initiative offers new opportunities through new satellites with a higher temporal and spatial resolution, operational services for environmental monitoring and an open data access policy. With the Copernicus climate change service and the ESA climate change initiative, specific earth observation programs are in place to address the impacts of climate change. However, such products and services are until now rarely picked up in the field of policy or decision making oriented climate impact or climate risk assessments. In this talk, we will present results of a study, which focus on the question, if and how remote sensing approaches could be integrated into operational monitoring activities of climate impacts and response measures on a national and subnational scale. We assessed all existing and planned Copernicus services regarding their relevance for climate impact monitoring by comparing them against the indication fields from an indicator system for climate impact and response monitoring in Germany, which has lately been developed in the framework of the German national adaptation strategy. For several climate impact or response indicators, an immediate integration of remote sensing data could be identified and been recommended. For these cases, we will show practical examples on the benefit of remote sensing data. For other indication fields, promising approaches were found, which need further development. We argue that remote sensing is a very valuable complement to the existing indicator schemes by contributing with spatial explicit, timely information but not always easy to integrate with classical approaches, which are oriented towards consistent long

  15. Local adaptation to parasite selective pressure: comparing three congeneric co-occurring hosts.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Carolyn L; Sanderson, Martha E; Byers, James E

    2016-01-01

    Local adaptation may optimize an organism's investment in defenses in response to the risk of infection by spatially heterogeneous parasites and other natural enemies. However, local adaptation may be constrained if recruitment is decoupled from selective pressure experienced by the parent generation. We predicted that the ability of three intertidal littorinid snail species to defend against trematode parasites would depend on prior levels of population exposure to parasites and on larval dispersal mode, a proxy for population openness. In a common garden experiment, for two snail species with direct development and localized recruitment (Littorina obtusata and Littorina saxatilis), hosts from sites with high trematode infection risk were less susceptible to infection than hosts from low-risk sites. However, this relationship was not apparent for a third host species with broadcast larvae (Littorina littorea), suggesting that broad larval dispersal can impede local adaptation; alternatively, the lack of response in this species could owe to other factors that limited experimental infection in this host. Our findings support that locally recruiting hosts can adapt their defenses to scale with localized infection risk.

  16. Local adaptation to parasite selective pressure: comparing three congeneric co-occurring hosts.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Carolyn L; Sanderson, Martha E; Byers, James E

    2016-01-01

    Local adaptation may optimize an organism's investment in defenses in response to the risk of infection by spatially heterogeneous parasites and other natural enemies. However, local adaptation may be constrained if recruitment is decoupled from selective pressure experienced by the parent generation. We predicted that the ability of three intertidal littorinid snail species to defend against trematode parasites would depend on prior levels of population exposure to parasites and on larval dispersal mode, a proxy for population openness. In a common garden experiment, for two snail species with direct development and localized recruitment (Littorina obtusata and Littorina saxatilis), hosts from sites with high trematode infection risk were less susceptible to infection than hosts from low-risk sites. However, this relationship was not apparent for a third host species with broadcast larvae (Littorina littorea), suggesting that broad larval dispersal can impede local adaptation; alternatively, the lack of response in this species could owe to other factors that limited experimental infection in this host. Our findings support that locally recruiting hosts can adapt their defenses to scale with localized infection risk. PMID:26440801

  17. Detecting Adaptive Trait Introgression Between Iris fulva and I. brevicaulis in Highly Selective Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Noland H.; Bouck, Amy C.; Arnold, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    The idea that natural hybridization has served as an important force in evolutionary and adaptive diversification has gained considerable momentum in recent years. By combining genome analyses with a highly selective field experiment, we provide evidence for adaptive trait introgression between two naturally hybridizing Louisiana Iris species, flood-tolerant Iris fulva and dry-adapted I. brevicaulis. We planted reciprocal backcross (BC1) hybrids along with pure-species plants into natural settings that, due to a flooding event, favored I. fulva. As expected, I. fulva plants survived at much higher rates than I. brevicaulis plants. Backcross hybrids toward I. fulva (BCIF) also survived at significantly higher rates than the reciprocal backcross toward I. brevicaulis (BCIB). Survivorship of BCIB hybrids was strongly influenced by the presence of a number of introgressed I. fulva alleles located throughout the genome, while survivorship in the reciprocal BCIF hybrids was heavily influenced by two epistatically acting QTL of opposite effects. These results demonstrate the potential for adaptive trait introgression between these two species and may help to explain patterns of genetic variation observed in naturally occurring hybrid zones. PMID:16415358

  18. Thermotolerant yeasts selected by adaptive evolution express heat stress response at 30 °C

    PubMed Central

    Caspeta, Luis; Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to long-term environmental changes across >100s of generations results in adapted phenotypes, but little is known about how metabolic and transcriptional responses are optimized in these processes. Here, we show that thermotolerant yeast strains selected by adaptive laboratory evolution to grow at increased temperature, activated a constitutive heat stress response when grown at the optimal ancestral temperature, and that this is associated with a reduced growth rate. This preventive response was perfected by additional transcriptional changes activated when the cultivation temperature is increased. Remarkably, the sum of global transcriptional changes activated in the thermotolerant strains when transferred from the optimal to the high temperature, corresponded, in magnitude and direction, to the global changes observed in the ancestral strain exposed to the same transition. This demonstrates robustness of the yeast transcriptional program when exposed to heat, and that the thermotolerant strains streamlined their path to rapidly and optimally reach post-stress transcriptional and metabolic levels. Thus, long-term adaptation to heat improved yeasts ability to rapidly adapt to increased temperatures, but this also causes a trade-off in the growth rate at the optimal ancestral temperature. PMID:27229477

  19. Sleep deprivation selectively disrupts top-down adaptation to cognitive conflict in the Stroop test.

    PubMed

    Gevers, Wim; Deliens, Gaetane; Hoffmann, Sophie; Notebaert, Wim; Peigneux, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to exert detrimental effects on various cognitive domains, including attention, vigilance and working memory. Seemingly at odds with these findings, prior studies repeatedly failed to evidence an impact of prior sleep deprivation on cognitive interference in the Stroop test, a hallmark paradigm in the study of cognitive control abilities. The present study investigated further the effect of sleep deprivation on cognitive control using an adapted version of the Stroop test that allows to segregate top-down (attentional reconfiguration on incongruent items) and bottom-up (facilitated processing after repetitions in responses and/or features of stimuli) components of performance. Participants underwent a regular night of sleep or a night of total sleep deprivation before cognitive testing. Results disclosed that sleep deprivation selectively impairs top-down adaptation mechanisms: cognitive control no longer increased upon detection of response conflict at the preceding trial. In parallel, bottom-up abilities were found unaffected by sleep deprivation: beneficial effects of stimulus and response repetitions persisted. Changes in vigilance states due to sleep deprivation selectively impact on cognitive control in the Stroop test by affecting top-down, but not bottom-up, mechanisms that guide adaptive behaviours.

  20. Efficient reversible watermarking based on adaptive prediction-error expansion and pixel selection.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolong; Yang, Bin; Zeng, Tieyong

    2011-12-01

    Prediction-error expansion (PEE) is an important technique of reversible watermarking which can embed large payloads into digital images with low distortion. In this paper, the PEE technique is further investigated and an efficient reversible watermarking scheme is proposed, by incorporating in PEE two new strategies, namely, adaptive embedding and pixel selection. Unlike conventional PEE which embeds data uniformly, we propose to adaptively embed 1 or 2 bits into expandable pixel according to the local complexity. This avoids expanding pixels with large prediction-errors, and thus, it reduces embedding impact by decreasing the maximum modification to pixel values. Meanwhile, adaptive PEE allows very large payload in a single embedding pass, and it improves the capacity limit of conventional PEE. We also propose to select pixels of smooth area for data embedding and leave rough pixels unchanged. In this way, compared with conventional PEE, a more sharply distributed prediction-error histogram is obtained and a better visual quality of watermarked image is observed. With these improvements, our method outperforms conventional PEE. Its superiority over other state-of-the-art methods is also demonstrated experimentally.

  1. The population genomics of rapid adaptation: disentangling signatures of selection and demography in white sands lizards.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Stefan; Pfeifer, Susanne P; Settles, Matthew L; Hunter, Samuel S; Hardwick, Kayla M; Ormond, Louise; Sousa, Vitor C; Jensen, Jeffrey D; Rosenblum, Erica Bree

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the process of adaptation during rapid environmental change remains one of the central focal points of evolutionary biology. The recently formed White Sands system of southern New Mexico offers an outstanding example of rapid adaptation, with a variety of species having rapidly evolved blanched forms on the dunes that contrast with their close relatives in the surrounding dark soil habitat. In this study, we focus on two of the White Sands lizard species, Sceloporus cowlesi and Aspidoscelis inornata, for which previous research has linked mutations in the melanocortin-1 receptor gene (Mc1r) to blanched coloration. We sampled populations both on and off the dunes and used a custom sequence capture assay based on probed fosmid libraries to obtain >50 kb of sequence around Mc1r and hundreds of other random genomic locations. We then used model-based statistical inference methods to describe the demographic and adaptive history characterizing the colonization of White Sands. We identified a number of similarities between the two focal species, including strong evidence of selection in the blanched populations in the Mc1r region. We also found important differences between the species, suggesting different colonization times, different genetic architecture underlying the blanched phenotype and different ages of the beneficial alleles. Finally, the beneficial allele is dominant in S. cowlesi and recessive in A. inornata, allowing for a rare empirical test of theoretically expected patterns of selective sweeps under these differing models.

  2. New approach for selecting pectinase producing mutants of Aspergillus niger well adapted to solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Antier, P; Minjares, A; Roussos, S; Viniegra-González, G

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review and study a new approach for improving strains of Aspergillus niger specially adapted to produce pectinases by Solid State Fermentation (SSF) with materials having low levels of water activity (a(w)), i.e., coffee pulp. Special emphasis is placed on the use of two antimetabolic compounds: 2-deoxy-glucose (DG) and 2,4-dinitro-phenol (DNP) combined with a water depressant (ethylene glycol = EG) in order to put strong selection pressures on UV treated spores from parental strain C28B25 isolated from a coffee plantation. Such a strain was found to be DG sensitive. Results suggested the existence of a reciprocal relation between adaptation of isolated strains to SSF or to Submerged Fermentation (SmF) systems. Preliminary physiological analysis of isolated strains showed that at least some few initially DG resistant mutants could revert to DG sensitive phenotype but conserving increased pectinase production. Also it was found that phenotype for DNP resistance could be associated to changes of DG resistance. Finally, it was found that low levels of a(w) produced by adding 15% EG to agar plates, were a significant selection factor for strains well adapted to SSF system.

  3. Adaptive consensus of scale-free multi-agent system by randomly selecting links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Jinping; Ge, Huafeng

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigates an adaptive consensus problem for distributed scale-free multi-agent systems (SFMASs) by randomly selecting links, where the degree of each node follows a power-law distribution. The randomly selecting links are based on the assumption that every agent decides to select links among its neighbours according to the received data with a certain probability. Accordingly, a novel consensus protocol with the range of the received data is developed, and each node updates its state according to the protocol. By the iterative method and Cauchy inequality, the theoretical analysis shows that all errors among agents converge to zero, and in the meanwhile, several criteria of consensus are obtained. One numerical example shows the reliability of the proposed methods.

  4. Selection on outlier loci and their association with adaptive phenotypes in Littorina saxatilis contact zones.

    PubMed

    Hollander, J; Galindo, J; Butlin, R K

    2015-02-01

    A fundamental issue in speciation research is to evaluate phenotypic variation and the genomics driving the evolution of reproductive isolation between sister taxa. Above all, hybrid zones are excellent study systems for researchers to examine the association of genetic differentiation, phenotypic variation and the strength of selection. We investigated two contact zones in the marine gastropod Littorina saxatilis and utilized landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis together with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to assess phenotypic and genomic divergence between ecotypes under divergent selection. From genetic markers, we calculated the cline width, linkage disequilibrium and the average effective selection on a locus. Additionally, we conducted an association analysis linking the outlier loci and phenotypic variation between ecotypes and show that a proportion of outlier loci are associated with key adaptive phenotypic traits. PMID:25439395

  5. Supporting UK adaptation: building services for the next set of UK climate projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Fai; Lowe, Jason

    2016-04-01

    As part of the Climate Change Act 2008, the UK Government sets out a national adaptation programme to address the risks and opportunities identified in a national climate change risk assessment (CCRA) every five years. The last risk assessment in 2012 was based on the probabilistic projections for the UK published in 2009 (UKCP09). The second risk assessment will also use information from UKCP09 alongside other evidence on climate projections. However, developments in the science of climate projeciton, and evolving user needs (based partly on what has been learnt about the diverse user requirements of the UK adaptation community from the seven years of delivering and managing UKCP09 products, market research and the peer-reviewed literature) suggest now is an appropriate time to update the projections and how they are delivered. A new set of UK climate projections are now being produced to upgrade UKCP09 to reflect the latest developments in climate science, the first phase of which will be delivered in 2018 to support the third CCRA. A major component of the work is the building of a tailored service to support users of the new projections during their development and to involve users in key decisions so that the projections are of most use. We will set out the plan for the new climate projections that seek to address the evolving user need. We will also present a framework which aims to (i) facilitate the dialogue between users, boundary organisations and producers, reflecting their different decision-making roles (ii) produce scientifically robust, user-relevant climate information (iii) provide the building blocks for developing further climate services to support adaptation activities in the UK.

  6. Native Prairie Adaptive Management: a multi region adaptive approach to invasive plant management on Fish and Wildlife Service owned native prairies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannon, Jill J.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Moore, Clinton T.

    2013-01-01

    Much of the native prairie managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the northern Great Plains is extensively invaded by the introduced cool-season grasses, smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis). Management to suppress these invasive plants has had poor to inconsistent success. The central challenge to managers is selecting appropriate management actions in the face of biological and environmental uncertainties. In partnership with the FWS, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed an adaptive decision support framework to assist managers in selecting management actions under uncertainty and maximizing learning from management outcomes. This joint partnership is known as the Native Prairie Adaptive Management (NPAM) initiative. The NPAM decision framework is built around practical constraints faced by FWS refuge managers and includes identification of the management objective and strategies, analysis of uncertainty and construction of competing decision models, monitoring, and mechanisms for model feedback and decision selection. Nineteen FWS field stations, spanning four states of the PPR, have participated in the initiative. These FWS cooperators share a common management objective, available management strategies, and biological uncertainties. Though the scope is broad, the initiative interfaces with individual land managers who provide site-specific information and receive updated decision guidance that incorporates understanding gained from the collective experience of all cooperators. We describe the technical components of this approach, how the components integrate and inform each other, how data feedback from individual cooperators serves to reduce uncertainty across the whole region, and how a successful adaptive management project is coordinated and maintained on a large scale. During an initial scoping workshop, FWS cooperators developed a consensus management objective

  7. Recognition of voice commands using adaptation of foreign language speech recognizer via selection of phonetic transcriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskeliunas, Rytis; Rudzionis, Vytautas

    2011-06-01

    In recent years various commercial speech recognizers have become available. These recognizers provide the possibility to develop applications incorporating various speech recognition techniques easily and quickly. All of these commercial recognizers are typically targeted to widely spoken languages having large market potential; however, it may be possible to adapt available commercial recognizers for use in environments where less widely spoken languages are used. Since most commercial recognition engines are closed systems the single avenue for the adaptation is to try set ways for the selection of proper phonetic transcription methods between the two languages. This paper deals with the methods to find the phonetic transcriptions for Lithuanian voice commands to be recognized using English speech engines. The experimental evaluation showed that it is possible to find phonetic transcriptions that will enable the recognition of Lithuanian voice commands with recognition accuracy of over 90%.

  8. Coverage of Islamic Literature in Selected Indexing Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattar, A.; Rehman, S. ur

    1985-01-01

    This study evaluates bibliographical coverage of Islamic literature provided by four Western indexing services ("Social Sciences Citation Index,""Social Sciences Index,""Humanities Index,""Index Islamicus") by using bibliographical checking method. Highlights include characteristics of literature and bibliographic coverage of literature by type of…

  9. Foundations that Provide Support for Human Services: A Selected List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bertha, Comp.

    Lists of foundations can aid the user in securing funding sources for projects in the areas of health, education, community development and/or social services. The user is cautioned that grantsmanship is a competitive process; grants application procedures vary from one foundation to another. In the absence of any specific guidelines, important…

  10. Genomic Response to Selection for Predatory Behavior in a Mammalian Model of Adaptive Radiation.

    PubMed

    Konczal, Mateusz; Koteja, Paweł; Orlowska-Feuer, Patrycja; Radwan, Jacek; Sadowska, Edyta T; Babik, Wiesław

    2016-09-01

    If genetic architectures of various quantitative traits are similar, as studies on model organisms suggest, comparable selection pressures should produce similar molecular patterns for various traits. To test this prediction, we used a laboratory model of vertebrate adaptive radiation to investigate the genetic basis of the response to selection for predatory behavior and compare it with evolution of aerobic capacity reported in an earlier work. After 13 generations of selection, the proportion of bank voles (Myodes [=Clethrionomys] glareolus) showing predatory behavior was five times higher in selected lines than in controls. We analyzed the hippocampus and liver transcriptomes and found repeatable changes in allele frequencies and gene expression. Genes with the largest differences between predatory and control lines are associated with hunger, aggression, biological rhythms, and functioning of the nervous system. Evolution of predatory behavior could be meaningfully compared with evolution of high aerobic capacity, because the experiments and analyses were performed in the same methodological framework. The number of genes that changed expression was much smaller in predatory lines, and allele frequencies changed repeatably in predatory but not in aerobic lines. This suggests that more variants of smaller effects underlie variation in aerobic performance, whereas fewer variants of larger effects underlie variation in predatory behavior. Our results thus contradict the view that comparable selection pressures for different quantitative traits produce similar molecular patterns. Therefore, to gain knowledge about molecular-level response to selection for complex traits, we need to investigate not only multiple replicate populations but also multiple quantitative traits.

  11. Genomic Response to Selection for Predatory Behavior in a Mammalian Model of Adaptive Radiation.

    PubMed

    Konczal, Mateusz; Koteja, Paweł; Orlowska-Feuer, Patrycja; Radwan, Jacek; Sadowska, Edyta T; Babik, Wiesław

    2016-09-01

    If genetic architectures of various quantitative traits are similar, as studies on model organisms suggest, comparable selection pressures should produce similar molecular patterns for various traits. To test this prediction, we used a laboratory model of vertebrate adaptive radiation to investigate the genetic basis of the response to selection for predatory behavior and compare it with evolution of aerobic capacity reported in an earlier work. After 13 generations of selection, the proportion of bank voles (Myodes [=Clethrionomys] glareolus) showing predatory behavior was five times higher in selected lines than in controls. We analyzed the hippocampus and liver transcriptomes and found repeatable changes in allele frequencies and gene expression. Genes with the largest differences between predatory and control lines are associated with hunger, aggression, biological rhythms, and functioning of the nervous system. Evolution of predatory behavior could be meaningfully compared with evolution of high aerobic capacity, because the experiments and analyses were performed in the same methodological framework. The number of genes that changed expression was much smaller in predatory lines, and allele frequencies changed repeatably in predatory but not in aerobic lines. This suggests that more variants of smaller effects underlie variation in aerobic performance, whereas fewer variants of larger effects underlie variation in predatory behavior. Our results thus contradict the view that comparable selection pressures for different quantitative traits produce similar molecular patterns. Therefore, to gain knowledge about molecular-level response to selection for complex traits, we need to investigate not only multiple replicate populations but also multiple quantitative traits. PMID:27401229

  12. A new spectral variable selection pattern using competitive adaptive reweighted sampling combined with successive projections algorithm.

    PubMed

    Tang, Guo; Huang, Yue; Tian, Kuangda; Song, Xiangzhong; Yan, Hong; Hu, Jing; Xiong, Yanmei; Min, Shungeng

    2014-10-01

    The competitive adaptive reweighted sampling-successive projections algorithm (CARS-SPA) method was proposed as a novel variable selection approach to process multivariate calibration. The CARS was first used to select informative variables, and then SPA to refine the variables with minimum redundant information. The proposed method was applied to near-infrared (NIR) reflectance data of nicotine in tobacco lamina and NIR transmission data of active ingredient in pesticide formulation. As a result, fewer but more informative variables were selected by CARS-SPA than by direct CARS. In the system of pesticide formulation, a multiple linear regression (MLR) model using variables selected by CARS-SPA provided a better prediction than the full-range partial least-squares (PLS) model, successive projections algorithm (SPA) model and uninformative variables elimination-successive projections algorithm (UVE-SPA) processed model. The variable subsets selected by CARS-SPA included the spectral ranges with sufficient chemical information, whereas the uninformative variables were hardly selected.

  13. Decision Support for Personalized Cloud Service Selection through Multi-Attribute Trustworthiness Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Shuai; Xia, Chen-Yi; Zhou, Kai-Le; Yang, Shan-Lin; Shang, Jennifer S.

    2014-01-01

    Facing a customer market with rising demands for cloud service dependability and security, trustworthiness evaluation techniques are becoming essential to cloud service selection. But these methods are out of the reach to most customers as they require considerable expertise. Additionally, since the cloud service evaluation is often a costly and time-consuming process, it is not practical to measure trustworthy attributes of all candidates for each customer. Many existing models cannot easily deal with cloud services which have very few historical records. In this paper, we propose a novel service selection approach in which the missing value prediction and the multi-attribute trustworthiness evaluation are commonly taken into account. By simply collecting limited historical records, the current approach is able to support the personalized trustworthy service selection. The experimental results also show that our approach performs much better than other competing ones with respect to the customer preference and expectation in trustworthiness assessment. PMID:24972237

  14. Selection index in the study of adaptability and stability in maize.

    PubMed

    Lunezzo de Oliveira, Rogério; Garcia Von Pinho, Renzo; Furtado Ferreira, Daniel; Miranda Pires, Luiz Paulo; Costa Melo, Wagner Mateus

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an alternative method for evaluating the stability and adaptability of maize hybrids using a genotype-ideotype distance index (GIDI) for selection. Data from seven variables were used, obtained through evaluation of 25 maize hybrids at six sites in southern Brazil. The GIDI was estimated by means of the generalized Mahalanobis distance for each plot of the test. We then proceeded to GGE biplot analysis in order to compare the predictive accuracy of the GGE models and the grouping of environments and to select the best five hybrids. The G × E interaction was significant for both variables assessed. The GGE model with two principal components obtained a predictive accuracy (PRECORR) of 0.8913 for the GIDI and 0.8709 for yield (t ha(-1)). Two groups of environments were obtained upon analyzing the GIDI, whereas all the environments remained in the same group upon analyzing yield. Coincidence occurred in only two hybrids considering evaluation of the two features. The GIDI assessment provided for selection of hybrids that combine adaptability and stability in most of the variables assessed, making its use more highly recommended than analyzing each variable separately. Not all the higher-yielding hybrids were the best in the other variables assessed.

  15. Selection index in the study of adaptability and stability in maize.

    PubMed

    Lunezzo de Oliveira, Rogério; Garcia Von Pinho, Renzo; Furtado Ferreira, Daniel; Miranda Pires, Luiz Paulo; Costa Melo, Wagner Mateus

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an alternative method for evaluating the stability and adaptability of maize hybrids using a genotype-ideotype distance index (GIDI) for selection. Data from seven variables were used, obtained through evaluation of 25 maize hybrids at six sites in southern Brazil. The GIDI was estimated by means of the generalized Mahalanobis distance for each plot of the test. We then proceeded to GGE biplot analysis in order to compare the predictive accuracy of the GGE models and the grouping of environments and to select the best five hybrids. The G × E interaction was significant for both variables assessed. The GGE model with two principal components obtained a predictive accuracy (PRECORR) of 0.8913 for the GIDI and 0.8709 for yield (t ha(-1)). Two groups of environments were obtained upon analyzing the GIDI, whereas all the environments remained in the same group upon analyzing yield. Coincidence occurred in only two hybrids considering evaluation of the two features. The GIDI assessment provided for selection of hybrids that combine adaptability and stability in most of the variables assessed, making its use more highly recommended than analyzing each variable separately. Not all the higher-yielding hybrids were the best in the other variables assessed. PMID:24696641

  16. Adaptation of Leishmania donovani to cutaneous and visceral environments: in vivo selection and proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    McCall, Laura-Isobel; Zhang, Wen-Wei; Dejgaard, Kurt; Atayde, Vanessa Diniz; Mazur, Alexander; Ranasinghe, Shalindra; Liu, Jing; Olivier, Martin; Nilsson, Tommy; Matlashewski, Greg

    2015-02-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by Leishmania protozoa. Two main forms are found in the Old World, self-limited cutaneous leishmaniasis and potentially fatal visceral leishmaniasis, with parasite dissemination to liver, bone marrow, and spleen. The Leishmania donovani species complex is the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis worldwide, but atypical L. donovani strains can cause cutaneous leishmaniasis. We hypothesized that L. donovani can adapt to survive in response to restrictions imposed by the host environment. To assess this, we performed in vivo selection in BALB/c mice with a cutaneous L. donovani clinical isolate to select for parasites with increased capacity to survive in visceral organs. We then performed whole cell proteomic analysis and compared this visceral-selected strain to the original cutaneous clinical isolate and to a visceral leishmaniasis clinical isolate. Overall, there were no major shifts in proteomic profiles; however, translation, biosynthetic processes, antioxidant protection, and signaling were elevated in visceral strains. Conversely, transport and trafficking were elevated in the cutaneous strain. Overall, these results provide new insight into the adaptability of Leishmania parasites to the host environment and on the factors that mediate their ability to survive in different organs.

  17. TU-C-17A-07: FusionARC Treatment with Adaptive Beam Selection Method

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H; Li, R; Xing, L; Lee, R

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Recently, a new treatment scheme, FusionARC, has been introduced to compensate for the pitfalls in single-arc VMAT planning. It basically allows for the static field treatment in selected locations, while the remaining is treated by single-rotational arc delivery. The important issue is how to choose the directions for static field treatment. This study presents an adaptive beam selection method to formulate fusionARC treatment scheme. Methods: The optimal plan for single-rotational arc treatment is obtained from two-step approach based on the reweighted total-variation (TV) minimization. To choose the directions for static field treatment with extra segments, a value of our proposed cost function at each field is computed on the new fluence-map, which adds an extra segment to the designated field location only. The cost function is defined as a summation of equivalent uniform dose (EUD) of all structures with the fluence-map, while assuming that the lower cost function value implies the enhancement of plan quality. Finally, the extra segments for static field treatment would be added to the selected directions with low cost function values. A prostate patient data was applied and evaluated with three different plans: conventional VMAT, fusionARC, and static IMRT. Results: The 7 field locations, corresponding to the lowest cost function values, are chosen to insert extra segment for step-and-shoot dose delivery. Our proposed fusionARC plan with the selected angles improves the dose sparing to the critical organs, relative to static IMRT and conventional VMAT plans. The dose conformity to the target is significantly enhanced at the small expense of treatment time, compared with VMAT plan. Its estimated treatment time, however, is still much faster than IMRT. Conclusion: The fusionARC treatment with adaptive beam selection method could improve the plan quality with insignificant damage in the treatment time, relative to the conventional VMAT.

  18. Non-adaptive territory selection by a bird with exceptionally long parental care

    PubMed Central

    Minias, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    High-quality territories are expected to provide greater fitness return for breeding individuals and, thus, are likely to have higher long-term occupation rate in comparison to low-quality territories. However, if environmental and ecological cues used for territory selection cannot reliably predict true territory quality, a mismatch between preferences and fitness may occur. We suggest that this kind of non-adaptive territory selection is more likely in species with long reproductive cycles, as a long time interval between territory establishment and young fledgling should reduce predictability of conditions during the critical stages of brood care. In this study, we investigated adaptiveness of territory selection in a migratory bird with exceptionally long parental care, the mute swan Cygnus olor, which requires over four months to complete the entire reproductive cycle from egg laying to young fledging. For this purpose, we collected information on the long-term (10–19 years) occupancy of 222 swan breeding territories and correlated it with reproductive performance (n = 1,345 breeding attempts) and body condition of breeding adults. We found that long-term occupancy positively correlated with the timing of breeding, suggesting that individuals settled earlier in the attractive, frequently occupied territories. By contrast, we found no relationship between territory occupancy and reproductive output (hatching and fledging success) or adult body condition. The results indicate that at the time of territory selection swans might not be able to reliably assess territory quality, likely due to: (1) exceptionally long period of parental care, which reduces temporal correlation between the conditions at the time of territory selection and conditions during chick rearing; and (2) unpredictability of human-related activities that had a major impact on reproductive output of swan pairs in our population. PMID:27042397

  19. Addressing selection bias in dental health services research.

    PubMed

    Lee, J Y; Rozier, R G; Norton, E C; Vann, W F

    2005-10-01

    When randomization is not possible, researchers must control for non-random assignment to experimental groups. One technique for statistical adjustment for non-random assignment is through the use of a two-stage analytical technique. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the use of this technique to control for selection bias in examining the effects of the The Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children's (WIC) on dental visits. From 5 data sources, an analysis file was constructed for 49,512 children ages 1-5 years. The two-stage technique was used to control for selection bias in WIC participation, the potentially endogenous variable. Specification tests showed that WIC participation was not random and that selection bias was present. The effects of the WIC on dental use differed by 36% after adjustment for selection bias by means of the two-stage technique. This technique can be used to control for potential selection bias in dental research when randomization is not possible.

  20. Adaptive Selection on Bracovirus Genomes Drives the Specialization of Cotesia Parasitoid Wasps

    PubMed Central

    Jancek, Séverine; Bézier, Annie; Gayral, Philippe; Paillusson, Corentin; Kaiser, Laure; Dupas, Stéphane; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Barbe, Valérie; Periquet, Georges; Drezen, Jean-Michel; Herniou, Elisabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    The geographic mosaic of coevolution predicts parasite virulence should be locally adapted to the host community. Cotesia parasitoid wasps adapt to local lepidopteran species possibly through their symbiotic bracovirus. The virus, essential for the parasitism success, is at the heart of the complex coevolutionary relationship linking the wasps and their hosts. The large segmented genome contained in the virus particles encodes virulence genes involved in host immune and developmental suppression. Coevolutionary arms race should result in the positive selection of particular beneficial alleles. To understand the global role of bracoviruses in the local adaptation or specialization of parasitoid wasps to their hosts, we studied the molecular evolution of four bracoviruses associated with wasps of the genus Cotesia, including C congregata, C vestalis and new data and annotation on two ecologically differentiated populations of C sesamie, Kitale and Mombasa. Paired orthologs analyses revealed more genes under positive selection when comparing the two C sesamiae bracoviruses belonging to the same species, and more genes under strong evolutionary constraint between species. Furthermore branch-site evolutionary models showed that 17 genes, out of the 54 currently available shared by the four bracoviruses, harboured sites under positive selection including: the histone H4-like, a C-type lectin, two ep1-like, ep2, a viral ankyrin, CrV1, a ben-domain, a Serine-rich, and eight unknown genes. Lastly the phylogenetic analyses of the histone, ep2 and CrV1 genes in different African C sesamiae populations showed that each gene described differently the individual relationships. In particular we found recombination had happened between the ep2 and CrV1 genes, which are localized 37.5 kb apart on the wasp chromosomes. Involved in multidirectional coevolutionary interactions, C sesamiae wasps rely on different bracovirus mediated molecular pathways to overcome local host resistance

  1. Adaptive selection on bracovirus genomes drives the specialization of Cotesia parasitoid wasps.

    PubMed

    Jancek, Séverine; Bézier, Annie; Gayral, Philippe; Paillusson, Corentin; Kaiser, Laure; Dupas, Stéphane; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Barbe, Valérie; Periquet, Georges; Drezen, Jean-Michel; Herniou, Elisabeth A

    2013-01-01

    The geographic mosaic of coevolution predicts parasite virulence should be locally adapted to the host community. Cotesia parasitoid wasps adapt to local lepidopteran species possibly through their symbiotic bracovirus. The virus, essential for the parasitism success, is at the heart of the complex coevolutionary relationship linking the wasps and their hosts. The large segmented genome contained in the virus particles encodes virulence genes involved in host immune and developmental suppression. Coevolutionary arms race should result in the positive selection of particular beneficial alleles. To understand the global role of bracoviruses in the local adaptation or specialization of parasitoid wasps to their hosts, we studied the molecular evolution of four bracoviruses associated with wasps of the genus Cotesia, including C congregata, C vestalis and new data and annotation on two ecologically differentiated populations of C sesamie, Kitale and Mombasa. Paired orthologs analyses revealed more genes under positive selection when comparing the two C sesamiae bracoviruses belonging to the same species, and more genes under strong evolutionary constraint between species. Furthermore branch-site evolutionary models showed that 17 genes, out of the 54 currently available shared by the four bracoviruses, harboured sites under positive selection including: the histone H4-like, a C-type lectin, two ep1-like, ep2, a viral ankyrin, CrV1, a ben-domain, a Serine-rich, and eight unknown genes. Lastly the phylogenetic analyses of the histone, ep2 and CrV1 genes in different African C sesamiae populations showed that each gene described differently the individual relationships. In particular we found recombination had happened between the ep2 and CrV1 genes, which are localized 37.5 kb apart on the wasp chromosomes. Involved in multidirectional coevolutionary interactions, C sesamiae wasps rely on different bracovirus mediated molecular pathways to overcome local host resistance.

  2. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  3. Salinity Is an Agent of Divergent Selection Driving Local Adaptation of Arabidopsis to Coastal Habitats1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Teres, Joana; Bomblies, Kirsten; Douglas, Alex; Salt, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanism of adaptive evolution in plants provides insights into the selective forces driving adaptation and the genetic basis of adaptive traits with agricultural value. The genomic resources available for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) make it well suited to the rapid molecular dissection of adaptive processes. Although numerous potentially adaptive loci have been identified in Arabidopsis, the consequences of divergent selection and migration (both important aspects of the process of local adaptation) for Arabidopsis are not well understood. Here, we use a multiyear field-based reciprocal transplant experiment to detect local populations of Arabidopsis composed of multiple small stands of plants (demes) that are locally adapted to the coast and adjacent inland habitats in northeastern Spain. We identify fitness tradeoffs between plants from these different habitats when grown together in inland and coastal common gardens and also, under controlled conditions in soil excavated from coastal and inland sites. Plants from the coastal habitat also outperform those from inland when grown under high salinity, indicating local adaptation to soil salinity. Sodium can be toxic to plants, and we find its concentration to be elevated in soil and plants sampled at the coast. We conclude that the local adaptation that we observe between adjacent coastal and inland populations is caused by ongoing divergent selection driven by the differential salinity between coastal and inland soils. PMID:26034264

  4. Hallauer’s Tusón: a decade of selection for tropical-to-temperate phenological adaptation in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop species exhibit an astounding capacity for environmental adaptation, but genetic bottlenecks resulting from intense selection for adaptation as well as productivity can lead to a genetically vulnerable crop. Improving the genetic resiliency of temperate maize depends upon the use of tropical ge...

  5. Directional selection for flowering time leads to adaptive evolution in Raphanus raphanistrum (Wild radish).

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Michael B; Walsh, Michael J; Flower, Ken C; Vila-Aiub, Martin M; Powles, Stephen B

    2016-04-01

    Herbicides have been the primary tool for controlling large populations of yield depleting weeds from agro-ecosystems, resulting in the evolution of widespread herbicide resistance. In response, nonherbicidal techniques have been developed which intercept weed seeds at harvest before they enter the soil seed bank. However, the efficiency of these techniques allows an intense selection for any trait that enables weeds to evade collection, with early-flowering ecotypes considered likely to result in early seed shedding. Using a field-collected wild radish population, five recurrent generations were selected for early maturity and three generations for late maturity. Phenology associated with flowering time and growth traits were measured. Our results demonstrate the adaptive capacity of wild radish to halve its time to flowering following five generations of early-flowering selection. Early-maturing phenotypes had reduced height and biomass at maturity, leading to less competitive, more prostrate growth forms. Following three generations of late-flowering selection, wild radish doubled its time to flowering time leading to increased biomass and flowering height at maturity. This study demonstrates the potential for the rapid evolution in growth traits in response to highly effective seed collection techniques that imposed a selection on weed populations within agro-ecosystems at harvest. PMID:27099626

  6. Natural Selection at the Brush-Border: Adaptations to Carbohydrate Diets in Humans and Other Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Pontremoli, Chiara; Mozzi, Alessandra; Forni, Diego; Cagliani, Rachele; Pozzoli, Uberto; Menozzi, Giorgia; Vertemara, Jacopo; Bresolin, Nereo; Clerici, Mario; Sironi, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Dietary shifts can drive molecular evolution in mammals and a major transition in human history, the agricultural revolution, favored carbohydrate consumption. We investigated the evolutionary history of nine genes encoding brush-border proteins involved in carbohydrate digestion/absorption. Results indicated widespread adaptive evolution in mammals, with several branches experiencing episodic selection, particularly strong in bats. Many positively selected sites map to functional protein regions (e.g., within glucosidase catalytic crevices), with parallel evolution at SI (sucrase-isomaltase) and MGAM (maltase-glucoamylase). In human populations, five genes were targeted by positive selection acting on noncoding variants within regulatory elements. Analysis of ancient DNA samples indicated that most derived alleles were already present in the Paleolithic. Positively selected variants at SLC2A5 (fructose transporter) were an exception and possibly spread following the domestication of specific fruit crops. We conclude that agriculture determined no major selective event at carbohydrate metabolism genes in humans, with implications for susceptibility to metabolic disorders. PMID:26319403

  7. Directional selection for flowering time leads to adaptive evolution in Raphanus raphanistrum (Wild radish).

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Michael B; Walsh, Michael J; Flower, Ken C; Vila-Aiub, Martin M; Powles, Stephen B

    2016-04-01

    Herbicides have been the primary tool for controlling large populations of yield depleting weeds from agro-ecosystems, resulting in the evolution of widespread herbicide resistance. In response, nonherbicidal techniques have been developed which intercept weed seeds at harvest before they enter the soil seed bank. However, the efficiency of these techniques allows an intense selection for any trait that enables weeds to evade collection, with early-flowering ecotypes considered likely to result in early seed shedding. Using a field-collected wild radish population, five recurrent generations were selected for early maturity and three generations for late maturity. Phenology associated with flowering time and growth traits were measured. Our results demonstrate the adaptive capacity of wild radish to halve its time to flowering following five generations of early-flowering selection. Early-maturing phenotypes had reduced height and biomass at maturity, leading to less competitive, more prostrate growth forms. Following three generations of late-flowering selection, wild radish doubled its time to flowering time leading to increased biomass and flowering height at maturity. This study demonstrates the potential for the rapid evolution in growth traits in response to highly effective seed collection techniques that imposed a selection on weed populations within agro-ecosystems at harvest.

  8. Optimization of biguanide derivatives as selective antitumor agents blocking adaptive stress responses in the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Narise, Kosuke; Okuda, Kensuke; Enomoto, Yukihiro; Hirayama, Tasuku; Nagasawa, Hideko

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive cellular responses resulting from multiple microenvironmental stresses, such as hypoxia and nutrient deprivation, are potential novel drug targets for cancer treatment. Accordingly, we focused on developing anticancer agents targeting the tumor microenvironment (TME). In this study, to search for selective antitumor agents blocking adaptive responses in the TME, thirteen new compounds, designed and synthesized on the basis of the arylmethylbiguanide scaffold of phenformin, were used in structure activity relationship studies of inhibition of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1 and unfolded protein response (UPR) activation and of selective cytotoxicity under glucose-deprived stress conditions, using HT29 cells. We conducted luciferase reporter assays using stable cell lines expressing either an HIF-1-responsive reporter gene or a glucose-regulated protein 78 promoter-reporter gene, which were induced by hypoxia and glucose deprivation stress, respectively, to screen for TME-targeting antitumor drugs. The guanidine analog (compound 2), obtained by bioisosteric replacement of the biguanide group, had activities comparable with those of phenformin (compound 1). Introduction of various substituents on the phenyl ring significantly affected the activities. In particular, the o-methylphenyl analog compound 7 and the o-chlorophenyl analog compound 12 showed considerably more potent inhibitory effects on HIF-1 and UPR activation than did phenformin, and excellent selective cytotoxicity under glucose deprivation. These compounds, therefore, represent an improvement over phenformin. They also suppressed HIF-1- and UPR-related protein expression and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor-A. Moreover, these compounds exhibited significant antiangiogenic effects in the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. Our structural development studies of biguanide derivatives provided promising candidates for a novel anticancer agent targeting the TME for selective cancer

  9. Climate Services for Adaptation Support: Sectors, Regions, and Product Lines (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, T.; Shea, E. E.

    2009-12-01

    Environmental information for decision support must be user-focused, accurate, and actionable. As the deleterious impacts of a non-stationary climate system manifest themselves through loss of civil infrastructure, cultural, and natural resources, NOAA and other science agencies are restructuring their approach to decision support, moving from a climate perspectives-centric model to one that offers more nimble, granular, and timely product lines supporting a breadth of sectoral- and regionally-focused decisions. This talk outlines NOAA’s efforts to this end, including its framing of sectors and regions, its development of emerging product lines, and its reliance on technological advances to better disseminate information. Through its climate services efforts, NOAA’s climate data resources can be leveraged to support sound adaptation decision making for societal infrastructure development and in the stewardship of marine, ocean, coastal, and terrestrial natural resources.

  10. Risk tradeoffs in adaptive ecosystem management: the case of the U.S. Forest Service.

    PubMed

    Stern, Marc J; Martin, Caysie A; Predmore, S Andrew; Morse, Wayde C

    2014-06-01

    Natural resource planning processes on public lands in the United States are driven in large part by the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which dictates general processes for analyzing and disclosing the likely impacts of proposed actions. The outcomes of these processes are the result of multiple factors, many related to the manifold smaller incremental decisions made by agency personnel directing the processes. Through interviews with decision makers, team leaders, and team members on five NEPA processes within the U.S. Forest Service, this study examines those incremental decisions. Risk, in particular external relationship risk, emerged as a dominant lens through which agency personnel weigh and make process-related decisions. We discuss the tradeoffs associated with agency actors' emphasis on this form of risk and their potential implications for adaptive ecosystem management and organizational performance.

  11. Risk Tradeoffs in Adaptive Ecosystem Management: The Case of the U.S. Forest Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Marc J.; Martin, Caysie A.; Predmore, S. Andrew; Morse, Wayde C.

    2014-06-01

    Natural resource planning processes on public lands in the United States are driven in large part by the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which dictates general processes for analyzing and disclosing the likely impacts of proposed actions. The outcomes of these processes are the result of multiple factors, many related to the manifold smaller incremental decisions made by agency personnel directing the processes. Through interviews with decision makers, team leaders, and team members on five NEPA processes within the U.S. Forest Service, this study examines those incremental decisions. Risk, in particular external relationship risk, emerged as a dominant lens through which agency personnel weigh and make process-related decisions. We discuss the tradeoffs associated with agency actors' emphasis on this form of risk and their potential implications for adaptive ecosystem management and organizational performance.

  12. Nation Binding: How Public Service Broadcasting Mitigates Political Selective Exposure.

    PubMed

    Bos, Linda; Kruikemeier, Sanne; de Vreese, Claes

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that more and more citizens select news and information that is congruent with their existing political preferences. This increase in political selective exposure (PSE) has allegedly led to an increase in polarization. The vast majority of studies stem from the US case with a particular media and political system. We contend that there are good reasons to believe PSE is less prevalent in other systems. We test this using latent profile analysis with national survey data from the Netherlands (n = 2,833). We identify four types of media use profiles and indeed only find partial evidence of PSE. In particular, we find that public broadcasting news cross-cuts all cleavages. This research note offers an important antidote in what is considered a universal phenomenon. We do find, however, a relatively large segment of citizens opting out of news consumption despite the readily available news in today's media landscape.

  13. Nation Binding: How Public Service Broadcasting Mitigates Political Selective Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kruikemeier, Sanne; de Vreese, Claes

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that more and more citizens select news and information that is congruent with their existing political preferences. This increase in political selective exposure (PSE) has allegedly led to an increase in polarization. The vast majority of studies stem from the US case with a particular media and political system. We contend that there are good reasons to believe PSE is less prevalent in other systems. We test this using latent profile analysis with national survey data from the Netherlands (n = 2,833). We identify four types of media use profiles and indeed only find partial evidence of PSE. In particular, we find that public broadcasting news cross-cuts all cleavages. This research note offers an important antidote in what is considered a universal phenomenon. We do find, however, a relatively large segment of citizens opting out of news consumption despite the readily available news in today’s media landscape. PMID:27218659

  14. An Efficient Adaptive Window Size Selection Method for Improving Spectrogram Visualization

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Omar Usman

    2016-01-01

    Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) is an important technique for the time-frequency analysis of a time varying signal. The basic approach behind it involves the application of a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to a signal multiplied with an appropriate window function with fixed resolution. The selection of an appropriate window size is difficult when no background information about the input signal is known. In this paper, a novel empirical model is proposed that adaptively adjusts the window size for a narrow band-signal using spectrum sensing technique. For wide-band signals, where a fixed time-frequency resolution is undesirable, the approach adapts the constant Q transform (CQT). Unlike the STFT, the CQT provides a varying time-frequency resolution. This results in a high spectral resolution at low frequencies and high temporal resolution at high frequencies. In this paper, a simple but effective switching framework is provided between both STFT and CQT. The proposed method also allows for the dynamic construction of a filter bank according to user-defined parameters. This helps in reducing redundant entries in the filter bank. Results obtained from the proposed method not only improve the spectrogram visualization but also reduce the computation cost and achieves 87.71% of the appropriate window length selection.

  15. Adaptive pattern of nectar volume within inflorescences: bumblebee foraging behavior and pollinator-mediated natural selection

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhigang; Lu, Ningna; Conner, Jeffrey K.

    2016-01-01

    Larger floral displays increase pollinator visitation as well as among-flower self-pollination (geitonogamy) in self-compatible species. Dichogamy (temporal separation of gender expression) can limit geitonogamy and increase outcrossing but this depends on pollinator behavior within inflorescences. Declining nectar volume from lower to upper flowers is a hypothesized adaptation to increase outcrossing and pollen export by encouraging the upward movment of pollinators from female to male flowers and by reducing the number of flowers probed per inflorescence, but supporting evidence has been equivocal. We tested this hypothesis in Aconitum gymnandrum by studying floral display and rewards, pollinator visitation, and pollinator-mediated selection on floral traits. We found that larger inflorescences of A. gymnandrum attracted more pollinators, but did not increase the number of flowers probed per visit. Nectar production declined with increasing flower height on average, but the opposite pattern was also common. Bumblebees responded strongly to the nectar pattern, moving from higher to lower nectar concentration. Finally, there was significant pollinator-mediated direct selection for this pattern of declining nectar volume after correcting for correlations with flower size, number, and mean nectar volume. Together, the results strongly suggest that declining nectar production in higher flowers is an adaptation to enhance outcrossing in A. gymnandrum. PMID:27687244

  16. An Efficient Adaptive Window Size Selection Method for Improving Spectrogram Visualization.

    PubMed

    Nisar, Shibli; Khan, Omar Usman; Tariq, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) is an important technique for the time-frequency analysis of a time varying signal. The basic approach behind it involves the application of a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to a signal multiplied with an appropriate window function with fixed resolution. The selection of an appropriate window size is difficult when no background information about the input signal is known. In this paper, a novel empirical model is proposed that adaptively adjusts the window size for a narrow band-signal using spectrum sensing technique. For wide-band signals, where a fixed time-frequency resolution is undesirable, the approach adapts the constant Q transform (CQT). Unlike the STFT, the CQT provides a varying time-frequency resolution. This results in a high spectral resolution at low frequencies and high temporal resolution at high frequencies. In this paper, a simple but effective switching framework is provided between both STFT and CQT. The proposed method also allows for the dynamic construction of a filter bank according to user-defined parameters. This helps in reducing redundant entries in the filter bank. Results obtained from the proposed method not only improve the spectrogram visualization but also reduce the computation cost and achieves 87.71% of the appropriate window length selection. PMID:27642291

  17. Self-Adaptive MOEA Feature Selection for Classification of Bankruptcy Prediction Data

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar-Cunha, A.; Recio, G.; Costa, L.; Estébanez, C.

    2014-01-01

    Bankruptcy prediction is a vast area of finance and accounting whose importance lies in the relevance for creditors and investors in evaluating the likelihood of getting into bankrupt. As companies become complex, they develop sophisticated schemes to hide their real situation. In turn, making an estimation of the credit risks associated with counterparts or predicting bankruptcy becomes harder. Evolutionary algorithms have shown to be an excellent tool to deal with complex problems in finances and economics where a large number of irrelevant features are involved. This paper provides a methodology for feature selection in classification of bankruptcy data sets using an evolutionary multiobjective approach that simultaneously minimise the number of features and maximise the classifier quality measure (e.g., accuracy). The proposed methodology makes use of self-adaptation by applying the feature selection algorithm while simultaneously optimising the parameters of the classifier used. The methodology was applied to four different sets of data. The obtained results showed the utility of using the self-adaptation of the classifier. PMID:24707201

  18. Self-adaptive MOEA feature selection for classification of bankruptcy prediction data.

    PubMed

    Gaspar-Cunha, A; Recio, G; Costa, L; Estébanez, C

    2014-01-01

    Bankruptcy prediction is a vast area of finance and accounting whose importance lies in the relevance for creditors and investors in evaluating the likelihood of getting into bankrupt. As companies become complex, they develop sophisticated schemes to hide their real situation. In turn, making an estimation of the credit risks associated with counterparts or predicting bankruptcy becomes harder. Evolutionary algorithms have shown to be an excellent tool to deal with complex problems in finances and economics where a large number of irrelevant features are involved. This paper provides a methodology for feature selection in classification of bankruptcy data sets using an evolutionary multiobjective approach that simultaneously minimise the number of features and maximise the classifier quality measure (e.g., accuracy). The proposed methodology makes use of self-adaptation by applying the feature selection algorithm while simultaneously optimising the parameters of the classifier used. The methodology was applied to four different sets of data. The obtained results showed the utility of using the self-adaptation of the classifier. PMID:24707201

  19. An Efficient Adaptive Window Size Selection Method for Improving Spectrogram Visualization

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Omar Usman

    2016-01-01

    Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) is an important technique for the time-frequency analysis of a time varying signal. The basic approach behind it involves the application of a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to a signal multiplied with an appropriate window function with fixed resolution. The selection of an appropriate window size is difficult when no background information about the input signal is known. In this paper, a novel empirical model is proposed that adaptively adjusts the window size for a narrow band-signal using spectrum sensing technique. For wide-band signals, where a fixed time-frequency resolution is undesirable, the approach adapts the constant Q transform (CQT). Unlike the STFT, the CQT provides a varying time-frequency resolution. This results in a high spectral resolution at low frequencies and high temporal resolution at high frequencies. In this paper, a simple but effective switching framework is provided between both STFT and CQT. The proposed method also allows for the dynamic construction of a filter bank according to user-defined parameters. This helps in reducing redundant entries in the filter bank. Results obtained from the proposed method not only improve the spectrogram visualization but also reduce the computation cost and achieves 87.71% of the appropriate window length selection. PMID:27642291

  20. A novel timestamp based adaptive clock method for circuit emulation service over packet network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Jin-you; Yu, Shao-hua

    2007-11-01

    It is necessary to transport TDM (time division multiplexing) over packet network such as IP and Ethernet, and synchronization is a problem when carrying TDM over the packet network. Clock methods for TDM over packet network are introduced. A new adaptive clock method is presented. The method is a kind of timestamp based adaptive method, but no timestamp needs transporting over packet network. By using the local oscillator and a counter, the timestamp information (local timestamp) related to the service clock of the remote PE (provide edge) and the near PE can be attained. By using D-EWMA filter algorithm, the noise caused by packet network can be filtered and the useful timestamp can be extracted out. With the timestamp and a voltage-controlled oscillator, clock frequency of near PE can be adjusted the same as clock frequency of the remote PE. A kind of simulation device is designed and a test network topology is set up to test and verify the method. The experiment result shows that synthetical performance of the new method is better than ordinary buffer based method and ordinary timestamp based method.

  1. Polynomial order selection in random regression models via penalizing adaptively the likelihood.

    PubMed

    Corrales, J D; Munilla, S; Cantet, R J C

    2015-08-01

    Orthogonal Legendre polynomials (LP) are used to model the shape of additive genetic and permanent environmental effects in random regression models (RRM). Frequently, the Akaike (AIC) and the Bayesian (BIC) information criteria are employed to select LP order. However, it has been theoretically shown that neither AIC nor BIC is simultaneously optimal in terms of consistency and efficiency. Thus, the goal was to introduce a method, 'penalizing adaptively the likelihood' (PAL), as a criterion to select LP order in RRM. Four simulated data sets and real data (60,513 records, 6675 Colombian Holstein cows) were employed. Nested models were fitted to the data, and AIC, BIC and PAL were calculated for all of them. Results showed that PAL and BIC identified with probability of one the true LP order for the additive genetic and permanent environmental effects, but AIC tended to favour over parameterized models. Conversely, when the true model was unknown, PAL selected the best model with higher probability than AIC. In the latter case, BIC never favoured the best model. To summarize, PAL selected a correct model order regardless of whether the 'true' model was within the set of candidates.

  2. 50 CFR 86.61 - What process does the Service use to select projects for grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What process does the Service use to select projects for grants? 86.61 Section 86.61 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE AND SPORT FISH...

  3. 50 CFR 86.61 - What process does the Service use to select projects for grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What process does the Service use to select projects for grants? 86.61 Section 86.61 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH...

  4. 50 CFR 86.61 - What process does the Service use to select projects for grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What process does the Service use to select projects for grants? 86.61 Section 86.61 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH...

  5. 50 CFR 86.61 - What process does the Service use to select projects for grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What process does the Service use to select projects for grants? 86.61 Section 86.61 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH...

  6. 50 CFR 86.61 - What process does the Service use to select projects for grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What process does the Service use to select projects for grants? 86.61 Section 86.61 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE AND SPORT FISH...

  7. Choosing to Serve? An Exploration of Student Self-Selection of Service Learning Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Paula S.; Schneider, Kenneth R.; Weber, James E.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores student selection of service learning projects in lieu of traditional library research projects. One hundred fifty-four strategic management students completed surveys exploring their tolerance of ambiguity, time pressure, attitudes toward civic participation, self-efficacy toward service, political conservatism, and the role…

  8. A Longitudinal Analysis of Satisfaction with Selected Community Services in a Non-Metropolitan Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purohit, Sally R.; Molnar, Joseph J.

    Longitudinal changes in satisfaction with selected community services were examined in three nonmetropolitan counties in central Alabama, focusing on variation in changes across three groups (government officials, business leaders, household respondents) and on the relation of changes in satisfaction for individual services to overall community…

  9. Ecological genetics of adaptive color polymorphism in pocket mice: geographic variation in selected and neutral genes.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, Hopi E; Drumm, Kristen E; Nachman, Michael W

    2004-06-01

    Patterns of geographic variation in phenotype or genotype may provide evidence for natural selection. Here, we compare phenotypic variation in color, allele frequencies of a pigmentation gene (the melanocortin-1 receptor, Mc1r), and patterns of neutral mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in rock pocket mice (Chaetodipus intermedius) across a habitat gradient in southern Arizona. Pocket mice inhabiting volcanic lava have dark coats with unbanded, uniformly melanic hairs, whereas mice from nearby light-colored granitic rocks have light coats with banded hairs. This color polymorphism is a presumed adaptation to avoid predation. Previous work has demonstrated that two Mc1r alleles, D and d, differ by four amino acids, and are responsible for the color polymorphism: DD and Dd genotypes are melanic whereas dd genotypes are light colored. To determine the frequency of the two Mc1r allelic classes across the dark-colored lava and neighboring light-colored granite, we sequenced the Mc1r gene in 175 individuals from a 35-km transect in the Pinacate lava region. We also sequenced two neutral mtDNA genes, COIII and ND3, in the same individuals. We found a strong correlation between Mc1r allele frequency and habitat color and no correlation between mtDNA markers and habitat color. Using estimates of migration from mtDNA haplotypes between dark- and light-colored sampling sites and Mc1r allele frequencies at each site, we estimated selection coefficients against mismatched Mc1r alleles, assuming a simple model of migration-selection balance. Habitat-dependent selection appears strong but asymmetric: selection is stronger against light mice on dark rock than against melanic mice on light rock. Together these results suggest that natural selection acts to match pocket mouse coat color to substrate color, despite high levels of gene flow between light and melanic populations.

  10. Sensor selection and chemo-sensory optimization: toward an adaptable chemo-sensory system.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Alexander; Llobet, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades, despite the tremendous research on chemical sensors and machine olfaction to develop micro-sensory systems that will accomplish the growing existent needs in personal health (implantable sensors), environment monitoring (widely distributed sensor networks), and security/threat detection (chemo/bio warfare agents), simple, low-cost molecular sensing platforms capable of long-term autonomous operation remain beyond the current state-of-the-art of chemical sensing. A fundamental issue within this context is that most of the chemical sensors depend on interactions between the targeted species and the surfaces functionalized with receptors that bind the target species selectively, and that these binding events are coupled with transduction processes that begin to change when they are exposed to the messy world of real samples. With the advent of fundamental breakthroughs at the intersection of materials science, micro- and nano-technology, and signal processing, hybrid chemo-sensory systems have incorporated tunable, optimizable operating parameters, through which changes in the response characteristics can be modeled and compensated as the environmental conditions or application needs change. The objective of this article, in this context, is to bring together the key advances at the device, data processing, and system levels that enable chemo-sensory systems to "adapt" in response to their environments. Accordingly, in this review we will feature the research effort made by selected experts on chemical sensing and information theory, whose work has been devoted to develop strategies that provide tunability and adaptability to single sensor devices or sensory array systems. Particularly, we consider sensor-array selection, modulation of internal sensing parameters, and active sensing. The article ends with some conclusions drawn from the results presented and a visionary look toward the future in terms of how the field may evolve. PMID

  11. Developing services for climate impact and adaptation baseline information and methodologies for the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggel, C.

    2012-04-01

    Impacts of climate change are observed and projected across a range of ecosystems and economic sectors, and mountain regions thereby rank among the hotspots of climate change. The Andes are considered particularly vulnerable to climate change, not only due to fragile ecosystems but also due to the high vulnerability of the population. Natural resources such as water systems play a critical role and are observed and projected to be seriously affected. Adaptation to climate change impacts is therefore crucial to contain the negative effects on the population. Adaptation projects require information on the climate and affected socio-environmental systems. There is, however, generally a lack of methodological guidelines how to generate the necessary scientific information and how to communicate to implementing governmental and non-governmental institutions. This is particularly important in view of the international funds for adaptation such as the Green Climate Fund established and set into process at the UNFCCC Conferences of the Parties in Cancun 2010 and Durban 2011. To facilitate this process international and regional organizations (World Bank and Andean Community) and a consortium of research institutions have joined forces to develop and define comprehensive methodologies for baseline and climate change impact assessments for the Andes, with an application potential to other mountain regions (AndesPlus project). Considered are the climatological baseline of a region, and the assessment of trends based on ground meteorological stations, reanalysis data, and satellite information. A challenge is the scarcity of climate information in the Andes, and the complex climatology of the mountain terrain. A climate data platform has been developed for the southern Peruvian Andes and is a key element for climate data service and exchange. Water resources are among the key livelihood components for the Andean population, and local and national economy, in particular for

  12. 20 CFR 667.250 - What requirements relate to the enforcement of the Military Selective Service Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of the Military Selective Service Act? 667.250 Section 667.250 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND... enforcement of the Military Selective Service Act? The requirements relating to the enforcement of the Military Selective Service Act are found at WIA section 189(h)....

  13. 20 CFR 670.420 - Are there any special requirements for enrollment related to the Military Selective Service Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... enrollment related to the Military Selective Service Act? 670.420 Section 670.420 Employees' Benefits... there any special requirements for enrollment related to the Military Selective Service Act? (a) Yes... of the Military Selective Service Act (50 U.S.C. App. 451 et seq.) if required; and (b) When a...

  14. 20 CFR 670.420 - Are there any special requirements for enrollment related to the Military Selective Service Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... enrollment related to the Military Selective Service Act? 670.420 Section 670.420 Employees' Benefits....420 Are there any special requirements for enrollment related to the Military Selective Service Act... section 3 of the Military Selective Service Act (50 U.S.C. App. 451 et seq.) if required; and (b) When...

  15. 20 CFR 670.420 - Are there any special requirements for enrollment related to the Military Selective Service Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... enrollment related to the Military Selective Service Act? 670.420 Section 670.420 Employees' Benefits... there any special requirements for enrollment related to the Military Selective Service Act? (a) Yes... of the Military Selective Service Act (50 U.S.C. App. 451 et seq.) if required; and (b) When a...

  16. 20 CFR 667.250 - What requirements relate to the enforcement of the Military Selective Service Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of the Military Selective Service Act? 667.250 Section 667.250 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND... the enforcement of the Military Selective Service Act? The requirements relating to the enforcement of the Military Selective Service Act are found at WIA section 189(h)....

  17. 20 CFR 670.420 - Are there any special requirements for enrollment related to the Military Selective Service Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... enrollment related to the Military Selective Service Act? 670.420 Section 670.420 Employees' Benefits....420 Are there any special requirements for enrollment related to the Military Selective Service Act... section 3 of the Military Selective Service Act (50 U.S.C. App. 451 et seq.) if required; and (b) When...

  18. 20 CFR 667.250 - What requirements relate to the enforcement of the Military Selective Service Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of the Military Selective Service Act? 667.250 Section 667.250 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND... the enforcement of the Military Selective Service Act? The requirements relating to the enforcement of the Military Selective Service Act are found at WIA section 189(h)....

  19. 20 CFR 667.250 - What requirements relate to the enforcement of the Military Selective Service Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of the Military Selective Service Act? 667.250 Section 667.250 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND... the enforcement of the Military Selective Service Act? The requirements relating to the enforcement of the Military Selective Service Act are found at WIA section 189(h)....

  20. 20 CFR 670.420 - Are there any special requirements for enrollment related to the Military Selective Service Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... enrollment related to the Military Selective Service Act? 670.420 Section 670.420 Employees' Benefits....420 Are there any special requirements for enrollment related to the Military Selective Service Act... section 3 of the Military Selective Service Act (50 U.S.C. App. 451 et seq.) if required; and (b) When...

  1. 20 CFR 667.250 - What requirements relate to the enforcement of the Military Selective Service Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of the Military Selective Service Act? 667.250 Section 667.250 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND... enforcement of the Military Selective Service Act? The requirements relating to the enforcement of the Military Selective Service Act are found at WIA section 189(h)....

  2. 76 FR 73521 - Statutory Bar to Appointment of Persons Who Fail To Register Under Selective Service Law

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Fail To Register Under Selective Service Law AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION... with the Selective Service System was knowing and willful. These changes are intended to ensure that... Selective Service System was knowing and willful. This delegation will facilitate more efficient...

  3. 76 FR 54001 - Agency Information Collection (Election To Apply Selected Reserve Services to either Montgomery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... Bill-Active Duty or to the Montgomery GI Bill-Selected Reserve) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY... INFORMATION: Title: Election to Apply Selected Reserve Services to Either Montgomery GI Bill-Active Duty or to... previously approved collection. Abstract: Reservist who participant in the Montgomery GI Bill-- Active...

  4. 76 FR 33416 - Proposed Information Collection (Election to Apply Selected Reserve Services to Either Montgomery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... GI Bill-Active Duty or to the Montgomery GI Bill-Selected Reserve) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY...: Election to Apply Selected Reserve Services to Either Montgomery GI Bill-Active Duty or to the Montgomery... approved collection. Abstract: Reservist who is participant in the Montgomery GI Bil- Active Duty...

  5. Effects of Informed Item Selection on Test Performance and Anxiety for Examinees Administered a Self-Adapted Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plake, Barbara S.; And Others

    In self-adapted testing (SAT), examinees select the difficulty level of items administered. This study investigated three variations of prior information provided when taking an SAT: (1) no information (examinees selected item difficulty levels without prior information); (2) view (examinees inspected a typical item from each difficulty level…

  6. Synthetic shuffling and in vitro selection reveal the rugged adaptive fitness landscape of a kinase ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Edward A.; Bartel, David P.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between genotype and phenotype is often described as an adaptive fitness landscape. In this study, we used a combination of recombination, in vitro selection, and comparative sequence analysis to characterize the fitness landscape of a previously isolated kinase ribozyme. Point mutations present in improved variants of this ribozyme were recombined in vitro in more than 1014 different arrangements using synthetic shuffling, and active variants were isolated by in vitro selection. Mutual information analysis of 65 recombinant ribozymes isolated in the selection revealed a rugged fitness landscape in which approximately one-third of the 91 pairs of positions analyzed showed evidence of correlation. Pairs of correlated positions overlapped to form densely connected networks, and groups of maximally connected nucleotides occurred significantly more often in these networks than they did in randomized control networks with the same number of links. The activity of the most efficient recombinant ribozyme isolated from the synthetically shuffled pool was 30-fold greater than that of any of the ribozymes used to build it, which indicates that synthetic shuffling can be a rich source of ribozyme variants with improved properties. PMID:23798664

  7. L-ALLIANCE: a mechanism for adaptive action selection in heterogeneous multi-robot teams

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-11-01

    In practical applications of robotics, it is usually quite difficult, if not impossible, for the system designer to fully predict the environmental states in which the robots will operate. The complexity of the problem is further increased when dealing with teams of robots which themselves may be incompletely known and characterized in advance. It is thus highly desirable for robot teams to be able to adapt their performance during the mission due to changes in the environment, or to changes in other robot team members. In previous work, we introduced a behavior-based mechanism called the ALLIANCE architecture -- that facilitates the fault tolerant cooperative control of multi-robot teams. However, this previous work did not address the issue of how to dynamically update the control parameters during a mission to adapt to ongoing changes in the environment or in the robot team, and to ensure the efficiency of the collective team actions. In this paper, we address this issue by proposing the L-ALLIANCE mechanism, which defines an automated method whereby robots can use knowledge learned from previous experience to continually improve their collective action selection when working on missions composed of loosely coupled, discrete subtasks. This ability to dynamically update robotic control parameters provides a number of distinct advantages: it alleviates the need for human tuning of control parameters, it facilitates the use of custom-designed multi-robot teams for any given application, it improves the efficiency of the mission performance, and It allows robots to continually adapt their performance over time due to changes in the robot team and/or the environment. We describe the L-ALLIANCE mechanism, present the results of various alternative update strategies we investigated, present the formal model of the L-ALLIANCE mechanism, and present the results of a simple proof of concept implementation on a small team of heterogeneous mobile robots.

  8. A New Real-coded Genetic Algorithm with an Adaptive Mating Selection for UV-landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Dan; Miyamae, Atsushi; Nagata, Yuichi; Kobayashi, Shigenobu; Ono, Isao; Sakuma, Jun

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a new real-coded genetic algorithm (RCGA) named Networked Genetic Algorithm (NGA) that intends to find multiple optima simultaneously in deceptive globally multimodal landscapes. Most current techniques such as niching for finding multiple optima take into account big valley landscapes or non-deceptive globally multimodal landscapes but not deceptive ones called UV-landscapes. Adaptive Neighboring Search (ANS) is a promising approach for finding multiple optima in UV-landscapes. ANS utilizes a restricted mating scheme with a crossover-like mutation in order to find optima in deceptive globally multimodal landscapes. However, ANS has a fundamental problem that it does not find all the optima simultaneously in many cases. NGA overcomes the problem by an adaptive parent-selection scheme and an improved crossover-like mutation. We show the effectiveness of NGA over ANS in terms of the number of detected optima in a single run on Fletcher and Powell functions as benchmark problems that are known to have multiple optima, ill-scaledness, and UV-landscapes.

  9. Selected Issues of a Coordinated Adaptive Road Traffic System Application within the Silesian Conurbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żochowska, Renata; Celiński, Ireneusz; Sobota, Aleksander; Czapkowski, Leszek

    The article deals with the selected issues of deployment of a coordinated adaptive road traffic control system within the Silesian conurbation. One needs to identify all peculiar problems allocated with this region. This will include the range, structural and administration issues. All of them are associated with the distributed traffic management realized by different local authorities. Since deployment of such complex system relies mainly on the ITS solutions, all important technical issues applying to the conurbation are being presented. The authors have specifically highlighted a problem of collecting information on travel destinations. The efficient systems in use base on the dynamic methods and need the Origin-Destination matrices to be updated due to a current situation on roads. All the conventional methods of estimating such matrices do not apply and one needs to consider the assumptions on and limitations of the input data and complexity of computing.

  10. Adaptive Selective Harmonic Minimization Based on ANNs for Cascade Multilevel Inverters With Varying DC Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Filho, Faete; Maia, Helder Z; Mateus, Tiago Henrique D; Ozpineci, Burak; Tolbert, Leon M; Pinto, Joao Onofre P

    2013-01-01

    A new approach for modulation of an 11-level cascade multilevel inverter using selective harmonic elimination is presented in this paper. The dc sources feeding the multilevel inverter are considered to be varying in time, and the switching angles are adapted to the dc source variation. This method uses genetic algorithms to obtain switching angles offline for different dc source values. Then, artificial neural networks are used to determine the switching angles that correspond to the real-time values of the dc sources for each phase. This implies that each one of the dc sources of this topology can have different values at any time, but the output fundamental voltage will stay constant and the harmonic content will still meet the specifications. The modulating switching angles are updated at each cycle of the output fundamental voltage. This paper gives details on the method in addition to simulation and experimental results.

  11. Evidence for a common motion mechanism of luminance-modulated and contrast-modulated patterns: selective adaptation.

    PubMed

    Turano, K

    1991-01-01

    Selective adaptation effects were measured with contrast-modulated patterns and sine-wave gratings in order to determine the extent to which the two patterns are processed by common mechanisms. Direction-specific adaptation effects were measured for a contrast-modulated adapting pattern and a test pattern. The contrast-modulated adapting pattern was composed of a sine-wave grating of 8 cycles deg-1 whose contrast was spatially modulated by a sinusoid of 1 cycle deg-1 at one of four levels: 100%, 60%, 30%, or 0%. The results showed that contrast-modulation thresholds for contrast-modulated gratings were raised by 0.3 to 0.5 log units following adaptation to a contrast-modulated grating moving in the same direction as the test pattern, relative to thresholds obtained following adaptation to a contrast-modulated grafting moving in the opposite direction. Cross-adaptation effects were also measured with a sine-wave adapting pattern and a contrast-modulated test pattern. The sine-wave adapting pattern was a sine-wave grating of 1 cycle deg-1 whose contrast was set to one of three levels: 16.4%, 1.25%, or 0%. The contrast-modulated test pattern was a sine-wave grating of 8 cycles deg-1 whose contrast was modulated by a sinusoid of 1 cycle deg-1. The results revealed that contrast-modulation thresholds for contrast-modulated gratings were raised by approximately 0.25 log units following adaptation to moving sine-wave gratings, relative to thresholds obtained following adaptation to a uniform field. Cross-adaptation effects were also obtained with a contrast-modulated adapting pattern and a sine-wave test pattern. The results support the view that signals generated from luminance-domain stimuli and from contrast-domain stimuli are processed by a common motion mechanism.

  12. Trust-Enhanced Cloud Service Selection Model Based on QoS Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuchen; Ding, Shuai; Fan, Wenjuan; Li, Jing; Yang, Shanlin

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing technology plays a very important role in many areas, such as in the construction and development of the smart city. Meanwhile, numerous cloud services appear on the cloud-based platform. Therefore how to how to select trustworthy cloud services remains a significant problem in such platforms, and extensively investigated owing to the ever-growing needs of users. However, trust relationship in social network has not been taken into account in existing methods of cloud service selection and recommendation. In this paper, we propose a cloud service selection model based on the trust-enhanced similarity. Firstly, the direct, indirect, and hybrid trust degrees are measured based on the interaction frequencies among users. Secondly, we estimate the overall similarity by combining the experience usability measured based on Jaccard's Coefficient and the numerical distance computed by Pearson Correlation Coefficient. Then through using the trust degree to modify the basic similarity, we obtain a trust-enhanced similarity. Finally, we utilize the trust-enhanced similarity to find similar trusted neighbors and predict the missing QoS values as the basis of cloud service selection and recommendation. The experimental results show that our approach is able to obtain optimal results via adjusting parameters and exhibits high effectiveness. The cloud services ranking by our model also have better QoS properties than other methods in the comparison experiments.

  13. Trust-Enhanced Cloud Service Selection Model Based on QoS Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yuchen; Ding, Shuai; Fan, Wenjuan; Li, Jing; Yang, Shanlin

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing technology plays a very important role in many areas, such as in the construction and development of the smart city. Meanwhile, numerous cloud services appear on the cloud-based platform. Therefore how to how to select trustworthy cloud services remains a significant problem in such platforms, and extensively investigated owing to the ever-growing needs of users. However, trust relationship in social network has not been taken into account in existing methods of cloud service selection and recommendation. In this paper, we propose a cloud service selection model based on the trust-enhanced similarity. Firstly, the direct, indirect, and hybrid trust degrees are measured based on the interaction frequencies among users. Secondly, we estimate the overall similarity by combining the experience usability measured based on Jaccard’s Coefficient and the numerical distance computed by Pearson Correlation Coefficient. Then through using the trust degree to modify the basic similarity, we obtain a trust-enhanced similarity. Finally, we utilize the trust-enhanced similarity to find similar trusted neighbors and predict the missing QoS values as the basis of cloud service selection and recommendation. The experimental results show that our approach is able to obtain optimal results via adjusting parameters and exhibits high effectiveness. The cloud services ranking by our model also have better QoS properties than other methods in the comparison experiments. PMID:26606388

  14. Trust-Enhanced Cloud Service Selection Model Based on QoS Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuchen; Ding, Shuai; Fan, Wenjuan; Li, Jing; Yang, Shanlin

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing technology plays a very important role in many areas, such as in the construction and development of the smart city. Meanwhile, numerous cloud services appear on the cloud-based platform. Therefore how to how to select trustworthy cloud services remains a significant problem in such platforms, and extensively investigated owing to the ever-growing needs of users. However, trust relationship in social network has not been taken into account in existing methods of cloud service selection and recommendation. In this paper, we propose a cloud service selection model based on the trust-enhanced similarity. Firstly, the direct, indirect, and hybrid trust degrees are measured based on the interaction frequencies among users. Secondly, we estimate the overall similarity by combining the experience usability measured based on Jaccard's Coefficient and the numerical distance computed by Pearson Correlation Coefficient. Then through using the trust degree to modify the basic similarity, we obtain a trust-enhanced similarity. Finally, we utilize the trust-enhanced similarity to find similar trusted neighbors and predict the missing QoS values as the basis of cloud service selection and recommendation. The experimental results show that our approach is able to obtain optimal results via adjusting parameters and exhibits high effectiveness. The cloud services ranking by our model also have better QoS properties than other methods in the comparison experiments. PMID:26606388

  15. Adaptation and Promotion of Emergency Medical Service Transportation for Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Chih-Long; Chiu, Chun-Wen; Wen, Jet-Chau

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to find a proper prehospital transportation scenario planning of an emergency medical service (EMS) system for possible burdensome casualties resulting from extreme climate events. This project focuses on one of the worst natural catastrophic events in Taiwan, the 88 Wind-caused Disasters, caused by the Typhoon Morakot; the case of the EMS transportation in the Xiaolin village is reviewed and analyzed. The sequential-conveyance method is designed to promote the efficiency of all the ambulance services related to transportation time and distance. Initially, a proposed mobile emergency medical center (MEMC) is constructed in a safe location near the area of the disaster. The ambulances are classified into 2 categories: the first-line ambulances, which reciprocate between the MEMC and the disaster area to save time and shorten the working distances and the second-line ambulances, which transfer patients in critical condition from the MEMC to the requested hospitals for further treatment. According to the results, the sequential-conveyance method is more efficient than the conventional method for EMS transportation in a mass-casualty incident (MCI). This method improves the time efficiency by 52.15% and the distance efficiency by 56.02%. This case study concentrates on Xiaolin, a mountain village, which was heavily destroyed by a devastating mudslide during the Typhoon Morakot. The sequential-conveyance method for the EMS transportation in this research is not only more advantageous but also more rational in adaptation to climate change. Therefore, the findings are also important to all the decision-making with respect to a promoted EMS transportation, especially in an MCI. PMID:25501065

  16. Adaptation and promotion of emergency medical service transportation for climate change.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chih-Long; Chiu, Chun-Wen; Wen, Jet-Chau

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to find a proper prehospital transportation scenario planning of an emergency medical service (EMS) system for possible burdensome casualties resulting from extreme climate events. This project focuses on one of the worst natural catastrophic events in Taiwan, the 88 Wind-caused Disasters, caused by the Typhoon Morakot; the case of the EMS transportation in the Xiaolin village is reviewed and analyzed. The sequential-conveyance method is designed to promote the efficiency of all the ambulance services related to transportation time and distance. Initially, a proposed mobile emergency medical center (MEMC) is constructed in a safe location near the area of the disaster. The ambulances are classified into 2 categories: the first-line ambulances, which reciprocate between the MEMC and the disaster area to save time and shorten the working distances and the second-line ambulances, which transfer patients in critical condition from the MEMC to the requested hospitals for further treatment. According to the results, the sequential-conveyance method is more efficient than the conventional method for EMS transportation in a mass-casualty incident (MCI). This method improves the time efficiency by 52.15% and the distance efficiency by 56.02%. This case study concentrates on Xiaolin, a mountain village, which was heavily destroyed by a devastating mudslide during the Typhoon Morakot. The sequential-conveyance method for the EMS transportation in this research is not only more advantageous but also more rational in adaptation to climate change. Therefore, the findings are also important to all the decision-making with respect to a promoted EMS transportation, especially in an MCI.

  17. Impact of relay placement on diversity order in adaptive selective DF relay-assisted FSO communications.

    PubMed

    Boluda-Ruiz, Rubén; García-Zambrana, Antonio; Castillo-Vázquez, Beatriz; Castillo-Vázquez, Carmen

    2015-02-01

    The impact of relay placement on diversity order in adaptive selective decode-and-forward (DF) cooperative strategies is here investigated in the context of free-space optical (FSO) communications over atmospheric turbulence channels with pointing errors when line of sight is available. The irradiance of the transmitted optical beam here considered is susceptible to moderate-to-strong turbulence conditions, following a gamma-gamma (GG) distribution together with a misalignment fading model where the effect of beam width, detector size and jitter variance is considered. Novel closed-form approximate bit error-rate (BER) expressions are obtained for a cooperative FSO communication setup with N relays, assuming that these relays are located in an area similar to an annulus around source or destination node. An analytical expression is here found that determines the best selection criterion based on the knowledge of the channel state information (CSI) of source-relay or relay-destination links in order to significantly increase the diversity order corresponding to the cooperative strategy under study. It is concluded that the highest diversity order is achieved when the relation β(SR(min)) > β(SD) + β(R(min)D) is satisfied, wherein β(SR(min)), β(R(min)D) and β(SD) are parameters corresponding to the atmospheric turbulence conditions of source-relay and relay-destination link with the greatest scintillation index, and source-destination link, respectively. PMID:25836124

  18. Stochastic effects in adaptive reconstruction of body damage: implied the creativity of natural selection

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Bo; Cui, Li-Qiang; Chen, Tian-Ming; Lian, Bin

    2015-01-01

    After an injury occurs, mechanical/biochemical loads on muscles influence the composition and structure of recovering muscles; this effect likely occurs in other tissues, cells and biological molecules as well owing to the similarity, interassociation and interaction among biochemical reactions and molecules. The ‘damage and reconstruction’ model provides an explanation for how an ideal cytoarchitecture is created by reducing components not suitable for bearing loads; in this model, adaptive changes are induced by promoting the stochasticity of biochemical reactions. Biochemical and mechanical loads can direct the stochasticity of biochemical reactions, which can in turn induce cellular changes. Thus, mechanical and biochemical loads, under natural selection pressure, modify the direction of cell- and tissue-level changes and guide the formation of new structures and traits, thereby influencing microevolution. In summary, the ‘damage and reconstruction’ model accounts for the role of natural selection in the formation of new organisms, helps explain punctuated equilibrium, and illustrates how macroevolution arises from microevolution. PMID:26153081

  19. Confidence intervals for the selected population in randomized trials that adapt the population enrolled

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Michael

    2014-01-01

    It is a challenge to design randomized trials when it is suspected that a treatment may benefit only certain subsets of the target population. In such situations, trial designs have been proposed that modify the population enrolled based on an interim analysis, in a preplanned manner. For example, if there is early evidence during the trial that the treatment only benefits a certain subset of the population, enrollment may then be restricted to this subset. At the end of such a trial, it is desirable to draw inferences about the selected population. We focus on constructing confidence intervals for the average treatment effect in the selected population. Confidence interval methods that fail to account for the adaptive nature of the design may fail to have the desired coverage probability. We provide a new procedure for constructing confidence intervals having at least 95% coverage probability, uniformly over a large class Q of possible data generating distributions. Our method involves computing the minimum factor c by which a standard confidence interval must be expanded in order to have, asymptotically, at least 95% coverage probability, uniformly over Q. Computing the expansion factor c is not trivial, since it is not a priori clear, for a given decision rule, which data generating distribution leads to the worst-case coverage probability. We give an algorithm that computes c, and prove an optimality property for the resulting confidence interval procedure. PMID:23553577

  20. Impact of relay placement on diversity order in adaptive selective DF relay-assisted FSO communications.

    PubMed

    Boluda-Ruiz, Rubén; García-Zambrana, Antonio; Castillo-Vázquez, Beatriz; Castillo-Vázquez, Carmen

    2015-02-01

    The impact of relay placement on diversity order in adaptive selective decode-and-forward (DF) cooperative strategies is here investigated in the context of free-space optical (FSO) communications over atmospheric turbulence channels with pointing errors when line of sight is available. The irradiance of the transmitted optical beam here considered is susceptible to moderate-to-strong turbulence conditions, following a gamma-gamma (GG) distribution together with a misalignment fading model where the effect of beam width, detector size and jitter variance is considered. Novel closed-form approximate bit error-rate (BER) expressions are obtained for a cooperative FSO communication setup with N relays, assuming that these relays are located in an area similar to an annulus around source or destination node. An analytical expression is here found that determines the best selection criterion based on the knowledge of the channel state information (CSI) of source-relay or relay-destination links in order to significantly increase the diversity order corresponding to the cooperative strategy under study. It is concluded that the highest diversity order is achieved when the relation β(SR(min)) > β(SD) + β(R(min)D) is satisfied, wherein β(SR(min)), β(R(min)D) and β(SD) are parameters corresponding to the atmospheric turbulence conditions of source-relay and relay-destination link with the greatest scintillation index, and source-destination link, respectively.

  1. Confidence intervals for confirmatory adaptive two-stage designs with treatment selection.

    PubMed

    Bebu, Ionut; Dragalin, Vladimir; Luta, George

    2013-05-01

    The construction of adequate confidence intervals for adaptive two-stage designs remains an area of ongoing research. We propose a conditional likelihood-based approach to construct a Wald confidence interval and two confidence intervals based on inverting the likelihood ratio test, one of them using first-order inference methods and the second one using higher order inference methods. The coverage probabilities of these confidence intervals, and also the average bias and mean square error of the corresponding point estimates, compare favorably with other available techniques. A small simulation study is used to evaluate the performance of the new methods. We investigate other extensions of practical interest for normal endpoints and illustrate them using real data, including the selection of more than one treatment for the second stage, selection rules based on both efficacy and safety endpoints, and the inclusion of a control/placebo arm. The new method also allows adjustment for covariates, and has been extended to deal with binomial data and other distributions from the exponential family. Although conceptually simple, the new methods have a much wider scope than the methods currently available.

  2. Interactive prostate segmentation using atlas-guided semi-supervised learning and adaptive feature selection

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sang Hyun; Gao, Yaozong; Shi, Yinghuan; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Accurate prostate segmentation is necessary for maximizing the effectiveness of radiation therapy of prostate cancer. However, manual segmentation from 3D CT images is very time-consuming and often causes large intra- and interobserver variations across clinicians. Many segmentation methods have been proposed to automate this labor-intensive process, but tedious manual editing is still required due to the limited performance. In this paper, the authors propose a new interactive segmentation method that can (1) flexibly generate the editing result with a few scribbles or dots provided by a clinician, (2) fast deliver intermediate results to the clinician, and (3) sequentially correct the segmentations from any type of automatic or interactive segmentation methods. Methods: The authors formulate the editing problem as a semisupervised learning problem which can utilize a priori knowledge of training data and also the valuable information from user interactions. Specifically, from a region of interest near the given user interactions, the appropriate training labels, which are well matched with the user interactions, can be locally searched from a training set. With voting from the selected training labels, both confident prostate and background voxels, as well as unconfident voxels can be estimated. To reflect informative relationship between voxels, location-adaptive features are selected from the confident voxels by using regression forest and Fisher separation criterion. Then, the manifold configuration computed in the derived feature space is enforced into the semisupervised learning algorithm. The labels of unconfident voxels are then predicted by regularizing semisupervised learning algorithm. Results: The proposed interactive segmentation method was applied to correct automatic segmentation results of 30 challenging CT images. The correction was conducted three times with different user interactions performed at different time periods, in order to

  3. Native Prairie Adaptive Management: a multi region adaptive approach to invasive plant management on Fish and Wildlife Service owned native prairies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannon, Jill J.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Moore, Clinton T.

    2013-01-01

    Much of the native prairie managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the northern Great Plains is extensively invaded by the introduced cool-season grasses, smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis). Management to suppress these invasive plants has had poor to inconsistent success. The central challenge to managers is selecting appropriate management actions in the face of biological and environmental uncertainties. In partnership with the FWS, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed an adaptive decision support framework to assist managers in selecting management actions under uncertainty and maximizing learning from management outcomes. This joint partnership is known as the Native Prairie Adaptive Management (NPAM) initiative. The NPAM decision framework is built around practical constraints faced by FWS refuge managers and includes identification of the management objective and strategies, analysis of uncertainty and construction of competing decision models, monitoring, and mechanisms for model feedback and decision selection. Nineteen FWS field stations, spanning four states of the PPR, have participated in the initiative. These FWS cooperators share a common management objective, available management strategies, and biological uncertainties. Though the scope is broad, the initiative interfaces with individual land managers who provide site-specific information and receive updated decision guidance that incorporates understanding gained from the collective experience of all cooperators. We describe the technical components of this approach, how the components integrate and inform each other, how data feedback from individual cooperators serves to reduce uncertainty across the whole region, and how a successful adaptive management project is coordinated and maintained on a large scale. During an initial scoping workshop, FWS cooperators developed a consensus management objective

  4. Steps to consider for effective decision making when selecting and prioritizing eHealth services.

    PubMed

    Vimarlund, Vivian; Davoody, Nadia; Koch, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Making the best choice for an organization when selecting IT applications or eHealth services is not always easy as there are a lot of parameters to take into account. The aim of this paper is to explore some steps to support effective decision making when selecting and prioritizing eHealth services prior to implementation and/or procurement. The steps presented in this paper were identified by interviewing nine key stakeholders at Stockholm County Council. They are supposed to work as a guide for decision making and aim to identify objectives and expected effects, technical, organizational, and economic requirements, and opportunities important to consider before decisions are taken. The steps and their respective issues and variables are concretized in a number of templates to be filled in by decision makers when selecting and prioritizing eHealth services.

  5. Development and Use of Curricular Adaptations for Students Receiving Special Education Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurth, Jennifer A.; Keegan, Lissa

    2014-01-01

    This study is a quasi-experimental descriptive design, with existing educator-made adaptations evaluated. The goals of this study were to (a) describe how educators develop adaptations and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of educator-made adaptations in facilitating the learning of students with disabilities. Findings suggest that (a) most…

  6. ReSS: A Resource Selection Service for the Open Science Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Garzoglio, Gabriele; Levshina, Tanya; Mhashilkar, Parag; Timm, Steve; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    The Open Science Grid offers access to hundreds of computing and storage resources via standard Grid interfaces. Before the deployment of an automated resource selection system, users had to submit jobs directly to these resources. They would manually select a resource and specify all relevant attributes in the job description prior to submitting the job. The necessity of a human intervention in resource selection and attribute specification hinders automated job management components from accessing OSG resources and it is inconvenient for the users. The Resource Selection Service (ReSS) project addresses these shortcomings. The system integrates condor technology, for the core match making service, with the gLite CEMon component, for gathering and publishing resource information in the Glue Schema format. Each one of these components communicates over secure protocols via web services interfaces. The system is currently used in production on OSG by the DZero Experiment, the Engagement Virtual Organization, and the Dark Energy. It is also the resource selection service for the Fermilab Campus Grid, FermiGrid. ReSS is considered a lightweight solution to push-based workload management. This paper describes the architecture, performance, and typical usage of the system.

  7. ReSS: Resource Selection Service for National and Campus Grid Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Mhashilkar, Parag; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Levshina, Tanya; Timm, Steve; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) offers access to around hundred Compute elements (CE) and storage elements (SE) via standard Grid interfaces. The Resource Selection Service (ReSS) is a push-based workload management system that is integrated with the OSG information systems and resources. ReSS integrates standard Grid tools such as Condor, as a brokering service and the gLite CEMon, for gathering and publishing resource information in GLUE Schema format. ReSS is used in OSG by Virtual Organizations (VO) such as Dark Energy Survey (DES), DZero and Engagement VO. ReSS is also used as a Resource Selection Service for Campus Grids, such as FermiGrid. VOs use ReSS to automate the resource selection in their workload management system to run jobs over the grid. In the past year, the system has been enhanced to enable publication and selection of storage resources and of any special software or software libraries (like MPI libraries) installed at computing resources. In this paper, we discuss the Resource Selection Service, its typical usage on the two scales of a National Cyber Infrastructure Grid, such as OSG, and of a campus Grid, such as FermiGrid.

  8. ReSS: Resource Selection Service for National and Campus Grid Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhashilkar, Parag; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Levshina, Tanya; Timm, Steve

    2010-04-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) offers access to around hundred Compute elements (CE) and storage elements (SE) via standard Grid interfaces. The Resource Selection Service (ReSS) is a push-based workload management system that is integrated with the OSG information systems and resources. ReSS integrates standard Grid tools such as Condor, as a brokering service and the gLite CEMon, for gathering and publishing resource information in GLUE Schema format. ReSS is used in OSG by Virtual Organizations (VO) such as Dark Energy Survey (DES), DZero and Engagement VO. ReSS is also used as a Resource Selection Service for Campus Grids, such as FermiGrid. VOs use ReSS to automate the resource selection in their workload management system to run jobs over the grid. In the past year, the system has been enhanced to enable publication and selection of storage resources and of any special software or software libraries (like MPI libraries) installed at computing resources. In this paper, we discuss the Resource Selection Service, its typical usage on the two scales of a National Cyber Infrastructure Grid, such as OSG, and of a campus Grid, such as FermiGrid.

  9. QuickStats: Percentages* of Residential Care Communities and Adult Day Services Centers That Provided(†) Selected Services - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, a greater percentage of residential care communities than adult day service centers provided five of seven selected services. The majority of residential care communities provided pharmacy services (82%); followed by transportation for social activities (79%); physical, occupational, or speech therapy (69%); hospice (62%); skilled nursing (59%); and mental health services (52%). Fewer than half provided social work services (48%). The majority of adult day services centers provided transportation for social activities (69%); skilled nursing (66%); and social work (52%). %). Fewer than half provided physical, occupational, or speech therapy (49%). One third or less provided mental health (33%), pharmacy (27%), and hospice services (12%). PMID:27607333

  10. 76 FR 29282 - Transfer of Post Office Box Service in Selected Locations to the Competitive Product List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... Post Office Box Service in Selected Locations to the Competitive Product List AGENCY: Postal Service TM... Postal Regulatory Commission to transfer Post Office Box service at approximately 6,800 locations from... request to transfer Post Office Box service at locations serving populations that reside within five...

  11. Scenario Planning Provides a Framework for Climate Change Adaptation in the National Park Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welling, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Resource management decisions must be based on future expectations. Abundant evidence suggests climate change will have highly consequential effects on the Nation's natural and cultural resources, but specific impacts are difficult to accurately predict. This situation of too much information but not enough specificity can often lead to either paralysis or denial for decision makers. Scenario planning is an emerging tool for climate change adaptation that provides a structured framework for identifying and exploring critical drivers of change and their uncertain outcomes. Since 2007, the National Park Service (NPS) has been working with its partners to develop and apply a scenario-based approach for adaptation planning that integrates quantitative, model-driven, climate change projections with qualitative, participatory exercises to explore management and policy options under a range of future conditions. Major outcomes of this work are (1) increased understanding of key scientific results and uncertainties, (2) incorporation of alternative perspectives into park and landscape level planning, (3) identification of "no brainer" and "no gainer" actions, (4) strengthening of regional science-management partnerships, and (5) overall improved capacity for flexible decision making. The basic approach employed by NPS for scenario planning follows a typical adaptive management process: define the focal question, assess the relevant science, explore plausible futures, identify effective strategies, prioritize and implement actions, and monitor results. Many science and management partners contributed to the process, including NOAA Regional Integrated Science and Assessment teams (RISAs) and Regional Climate Centers (RCCs), USGS Research Centers, and other university and government scientists. The Global Business Network, an internationally recognized leader in scenario development, provided expert facilitation and training techniques. Climate science input is provided

  12. Adaptation to Sea Level Rise in Coastal Units of the National Park Service (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beavers, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    83 National Park Service (NPS) units contain nearly 12,000 miles of coastal, estuarine and Great Lakes shoreline and their associated resources. Iconic natural features exist along active shorelines in NPS units, including, e.g., Cape Cod, Padre Island, Hawaii Volcanoes, and the Everglades. Iconic cultural resources managed by NPS include the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse, Fort Sumter, the Golden Gate, and heiaus and fish traps along the coast of Hawaii. Impacts anticipated from sea level rise include inundation and flooding of beaches and low lying marshes, shoreline erosion of coastal areas, and saltwater intrusion into the water table. These impacts and other coastal hazards will threaten park beaches, marshes, and other resources and values; alter the viability of coastal roads; and require the NPS to re-evaluate the financial, safety, and environmental implications of maintaining current projects and implementing future projects in ocean and coastal parks in the context of sea level rise. Coastal erosion will increase as sea levels rise. Barrier islands along the coast of Louisiana and North Carolina may have already passed the threshold for maintaining island integrity in any scenario of sea level rise (U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Program Report 4.1). Consequently, sea level rise is expected to hasten the disappearance of historic coastal villages, coastal wetlands, forests, and beaches, and threaten coastal roads, homes, and businesses. While sea level is rising in most coastal parks, some parks are experiencing lower water levels due to isostatic rebound and lower lake levels. NPS funded a Coastal Vulnerability Project to evaluate the physical and geologic factors affecting 25 coastal parks. The USGS Open File Reports for each park are available at http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/. These reports were designed to inform park planning efforts. NPS conducted a Storm Vulnerability Project to provide ocean and coastal

  13. Selecting services for a service robot: evaluating the problematic activities threatening the independence of elderly persons.

    PubMed

    Bedaf, Sandra; Gelderblom, Gert Jan; de Witte, Luc; Syrdal, Dag; Lehmann, Hagen; Amirabdollahian, Farshid; Dautenhahn, Kerstin; Hewson, David

    2013-06-01

    Sustaining independent living for the elderly is desirable both for the individual as well as for societies as a whole. Substantial care interventions are provided to citizens supporting their independent living. Currently, such interventions are primarily based on human care provision, but due to demographic changes the demand for such support is continuously increasing. Assistive Robotics has the potential to answer this growing demand. The notions research towards service robots that support the independence of elderly people has been given increased attention. The challenge is to develop robots that are able to adequately support with those activities that pose the greatest problems for elderly people seeking to remain independent. In order to develop the capabilities of the Care-O-bot 3 in the ACCOMPANY project, problematic activities that may threaten continued independent living of elderly people were studied. Focus groups were conducted in the Netherlands, UK, and France and included three separate user groups: (1) elderly (N=41), (2) formal caregivers (N=40), and (3) informal caregivers (N=32). This resulted in a top 3 of problematic activity domains that received the highest priority: (1) Mobility, (2) Self-care, and (3) Social isolation. The findings inform the further development of the Care-O-bot. In the ACCOMPANY project the Care-O-bot 3 will be developed further to enable it to support independently living older persons in one of these domains.

  14. Implementing watershed investment programs to restore fire-adapted forests for watershed services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    Payments for ecosystems services and watershed investment programs have created new solutions for restoring upland fire-adapted forests to support downstream surface-water and groundwater uses. Water from upland forests supports not only a significant percentage of the public water supplies in the U.S., but also extensive riparian, aquatic, and groundwater dependent ecosystems. Many rare, endemic, threatened, and endangered species are supported by the surface-water and groundwater generated from the forested uplands. In the Ponderosa pine forests of the Southwestern U.S., post Euro-American settlement forest management practices, coupled with climate change, has significantly impacted watershed functionality by increasing vegetation cover and associated evapotranspiration and decreasing runoff and groundwater recharge. A large Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program project known as the Four Forests Restoration Initiative is developing landscape scale processes to make the forests connected to these watersheds more resilient. However, there are challenges in financing the initial forest treatments and subsequent maintenance treatments while garnering supportive public opinion to forest thinning projects. A solution called the Flagstaff Watershed Protection Project is utilizing City tax dollars collected through a public bond to finance forest treatments. Exit polling from the bond election documented the reasons for the 73 % affirmative vote on the bond measure. These forest treatments have included in their actions restoration of associated ephemeral stream channels and spring ecosystems, but resources still need to be identified for these actions. A statewide strategy for developing additional forest restoration resources outside of the federal financing is being explored by state and local business and governmental leaders. Coordination, synthesis, and modeling supported by a NSF Water Sustainability and Climate project has been instrumental in

  15. Adapting SHIVs In Vivo Selects for Envelope-Mediated Interferon-α Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, David F.; Sharma, Amit; Humes, Daryl; Cheng-Mayer, Cecilia; Overbaugh, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Lentiviruses are able to establish persistent infection in their respective hosts despite a potent type-I interferon (IFN-I) response following transmission. A number of IFN-I-induced host factors that are able to inhibit lentiviral replication in vitro have been identified, and these studies suggest a role for IFN-induced factors as barriers to cross-species transmission. However, the ability of these factors to inhibit viral replication in vivo has not been well characterized, nor have the viral determinants that contribute to evasion or antagonism of the host IFN-I response. In this study, we hypothesized that the host IFN-I response serves as a strong selective pressure in the context of SIV/HIV chimeric virus (SHIV) infection of macaques and sought to identify the viral determinants that contribute to IFN-I resistance. We assessed the ability of SHIVs encoding HIV-1 sequences adapted by serial passage in macaques versus SHIVs encoding HIV sequences isolated directly from infected individuals to replicate in the presence of IFNα in macaque lymphocytes. We demonstrate that passage in macaques selects for IFNα resistant viruses that have higher replication kinetics and increased envelope content. SHIVs that encode HIV-1 sequences derived directly from infected humans were sensitive to IFNα –induced inhibition whereas SHIVs obtained after passage in macaques were not. This evolutionary process was directly observed in viruses that were serially passaged during the first few months of infection–a time when the IFNα response is high. Differences in IFNα sensitivity mapped to HIV-1 envelope and were associated with increased envelope levels despite similar mRNA expression, suggesting a post-transcriptional mechanism. These studies highlight critical differences in IFNα sensitivity between HIV-1 sequences in infected people and those used in SHIV models. PMID:27399306

  16. Adapting SHIVs In Vivo Selects for Envelope-Mediated Interferon-α Resistance.

    PubMed

    Boyd, David F; Sharma, Amit; Humes, Daryl; Cheng-Mayer, Cecilia; Overbaugh, Julie

    2016-07-01

    Lentiviruses are able to establish persistent infection in their respective hosts despite a potent type-I interferon (IFN-I) response following transmission. A number of IFN-I-induced host factors that are able to inhibit lentiviral replication in vitro have been identified, and these studies suggest a role for IFN-induced factors as barriers to cross-species transmission. However, the ability of these factors to inhibit viral replication in vivo has not been well characterized, nor have the viral determinants that contribute to evasion or antagonism of the host IFN-I response. In this study, we hypothesized that the host IFN-I response serves as a strong selective pressure in the context of SIV/HIV chimeric virus (SHIV) infection of macaques and sought to identify the viral determinants that contribute to IFN-I resistance. We assessed the ability of SHIVs encoding HIV-1 sequences adapted by serial passage in macaques versus SHIVs encoding HIV sequences isolated directly from infected individuals to replicate in the presence of IFNα in macaque lymphocytes. We demonstrate that passage in macaques selects for IFNα resistant viruses that have higher replication kinetics and increased envelope content. SHIVs that encode HIV-1 sequences derived directly from infected humans were sensitive to IFNα -induced inhibition whereas SHIVs obtained after passage in macaques were not. This evolutionary process was directly observed in viruses that were serially passaged during the first few months of infection-a time when the IFNα response is high. Differences in IFNα sensitivity mapped to HIV-1 envelope and were associated with increased envelope levels despite similar mRNA expression, suggesting a post-transcriptional mechanism. These studies highlight critical differences in IFNα sensitivity between HIV-1 sequences in infected people and those used in SHIV models. PMID:27399306

  17. Comparison of different automatic adaptive threshold selection techniques for estimating discharge from river width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmi, Omid; Javad Tourian, Mohammad; Sneeuw, Nico

    2015-04-01

    The importance of river discharge monitoring is critical for e.g., water resource planning, climate change, hazard monitoring. River discharge has been measured at in situ gauges for more than a century. Despite various attempts, some basins are still ungauged. Moreover, a reduction in the number of worldwide gauging stations increases the interest to employ remote sensing data for river discharge monitoring. Finding an empirical relationship between simultaneous in situ measurements of discharge and river widths derived from satellite imagery has been introduced as a straightforward remote sensing alternative. Classifying water and land in an image is the primary task for defining the river width. Water appears dark in the near infrared and infrared bands in satellite images. As a result low values in the histogram usually represent the water content. In this way, applying a threshold on the image histogram and separating into two different classes is one of the most efficient techniques to build a water mask. Beside its simple definition, finding the appropriate threshold value in each image is the most critical issue. The threshold is variable due to changes in the water level, river extent, atmosphere, sunlight radiation, onboard calibration of the satellite over time. These complexities in water body classification are the main source of error in river width estimation. In this study, we are looking for the most efficient adaptive threshold algorithm to estimate the river discharge. To do this, all cloud free MODIS images coincident with the in situ measurement are collected. Next a number of automatic threshold selection techniques are employed to generate different dynamic water masks. Then, for each of them a separate empirical relationship between river widths and discharge measurements are determined. Through these empirical relationships, we estimate river discharge at the gauge and then validate our results against in situ measurements and also

  18. Ionic selectivity and thermal adaptations within the voltage-gated sodium channel family of alkaliphilic Bacillus.

    PubMed

    DeCaen, Paul G; Takahashi, Yuka; Krulwich, Terry A; Ito, Masahiro; Clapham, David E

    2014-01-01

    Entry and extrusion of cations are essential processes in living cells. In alkaliphilic prokaryotes, high external pH activates voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav), which allows Na(+) to enter and be used as substrate for cation/proton antiporters responsible for cytoplasmic pH homeostasis. Here, we describe a new member of the prokaryotic voltage-gated Na(+) channel family (NsvBa; Non-selective voltage-gated, Bacillus alcalophilus) that is nonselective among Na(+), Ca(2+) and K(+) ions. Mutations in NsvBa can convert the nonselective filter into one that discriminates for Na(+) or divalent cations. Gain-of-function experiments demonstrate the portability of ion selectivity with filter mutations to other Bacillus Nav channels. Increasing pH and temperature shifts their activation threshold towards their native resting membrane potential. Furthermore, we find drugs that target Bacillus Nav channels also block the growth of the bacteria. This work identifies some of the adaptations to achieve ion discrimination and gating in Bacillus Nav channels. PMID:25385530

  19. Audio signal reconstruction based on adaptively selected seed points from laser speckle images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ziyi; Wang, Cheng; Huang, Chaohong; Fu, Hongyan; Luo, Huan; Wang, Hanyun

    2014-11-01

    Speckle patterns, present in the laser reflection from an object, reflect the micro-structure of the object where the laser is illuminated on. When the object surface vibrates, the speckle patterns move accordingly, and this movement can be recovered with a high-speed camera system. Due to the low signal to noise ratio (SNR), it is a challenging task to recover the micro-vibration information and reconstruct the audio signal from the captured speckle image sequences fast and effectively. In this paper, we propose a novel method based on pixels' gray value variations in laser speckle patterns to work out with the challenging task. The major contribution of the proposed method relies on using the intensity variations of the adaptively selected seed points to recover the vibration information and the audio signal with a novel model that effectively fuses the multiple seed points' information together. Experiments show that our method not only recovers the vibration information with high quality but is also robust and runs fast. The SNR of the experimental results reach about 20 dB and 10 dB at the detection distances of 10 m and 50 m, respectively.

  20. Adaptive and selective seed abortion reveals complex conditional decision making in plants.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Katrin M; Soldaat, Leo L; Auge, Harald; Thulke, Hans-Hermann

    2014-03-01

    Behavior is traditionally attributed to animals only. Recently, evidence for plant behavior is accumulating, mostly from plant physiological studies. Here, we provide ecological evidence for complex plant behavior in the form of seed abortion decisions conditional on internal and external cues. We analyzed seed abortion patterns of barberry plants exposed to seed parasitism and different environmental conditions. Without abortion, parasite infestation of seeds can lead to loss of all seeds in a fruit. We statistically tested a series of null models with Monte Carlo simulations to establish selectivity and adaptiveness of the observed seed abortion patterns. Seed abortion was more frequent in parasitized fruits and fruits from dry habitats. Surprisingly, seed abortion occurred with significantly greater probability if there was a second intact seed in the fruit. This strategy provides a fitness benefit if abortion can prevent a sibling seed from coinfestation and if nonabortion of an infested but surviving single seed saves resources invested in the fruit coat. Ecological evidence for complex decision making in plants thus includes a structural memory (the second seed), simple reasoning (integration of inner and outer conditions), conditional behavior (abortion), and anticipation of future risks (seed predation). PMID:24561600

  1. Adaptive Value of Phenological Traits in Stressful Environments: Predictions Based on Seed Production and Laboratory Natural Selection

    PubMed Central

    Glorieux, Cédric; Cuguen, Joel; Roux, Fabrice

    2012-01-01

    Phenological traits often show variation within and among natural populations of annual plants. Nevertheless, the adaptive value of post-anthesis traits is seldom tested. In this study, we estimated the adaptive values of pre- and post-anthesis traits in two stressful environments (water stress and interspecific competition), using the selfing annual species Arabidopsis thaliana. By estimating seed production and by performing laboratory natural selection (LNS), we assessed the strength and nature (directional, disruptive and stabilizing) of selection acting on phenological traits in A. thaliana under the two tested stress conditions, each with four intensities. Both the type of stress and its intensity affected the strength and nature of selection, as did genetic constraints among phenological traits. Under water stress, both experimental approaches demonstrated directional selection for a shorter life cycle, although bolting time imposes a genetic constraint on the length of the interval between bolting and anthesis. Under interspecific competition, results from the two experimental approaches showed discrepancies. Estimation of seed production predicted directional selection toward early pre-anthesis traits and long post-anthesis periods. In contrast, the LNS approach suggested neutrality for all phenological traits. This study opens questions on adaptation in complex natural environment where many selective pressures act simultaneously. PMID:22403624

  2. Modernizing Selection and Promotion Procedures in the State Employment Security Service Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derryck, Dennis A.; Leyes, Richard

    The purpose of this feasibility study was to discover the types ofselection and promotion models, strategies, and processes that must be employed if current State Employment Security Service Agency selection practices are to be made more directly relevant to the various populations currently being served. Specifically, the study sought to…

  3. Constitutional Law: Equal Protection--Sex Discrimination--Selective Service Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhl, Mary B.

    1976-01-01

    Examination of U.S. v. Reiser suggests that sex-based classifications should be subjected to close scrutiny regardless of whether men or women are harmed by the classification. The Reiser decision showed that discrimination in the Selective Service system is not necessary and that women are excluded merely for administrative convenience. (LBH)

  4. Text of the Supreme Court's Opinion in the Selective Service System Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Warren E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The texts are presented of the Supreme Court opinions in the case of the Selective Service System vs. Minnesota Public Interest Research Group, which upheld a federal law requiring college students to register for the draft before receiving federal student aid. Included are the majority opinion by Chief Justice Warren E. Burger and dissenting…

  5. 34 CFR 361.36 - Ability to serve all eligible individuals; order of selection for services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... services provided through the information and referral system established under § 361.37. (b) Basis for... with disabilities who have been unserved or underserved by the vocational rehabilitation system; and... order of selection. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number...

  6. 34 CFR 361.36 - Ability to serve all eligible individuals; order of selection for services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... services provided through the information and referral system established under § 361.37. (b) Basis for... with disabilities who have been unserved or underserved by the vocational rehabilitation system; and... order of selection. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number...

  7. 77 FR 27263 - Computer Matching Between the Selective Service System and the Department of Education

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... the Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 (Pub. L. 100-503), and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Guidelines on the Conduct of Matching Programs (54 FR 25818 (June 19, 1989)), and... Computer Matching Between the Selective Service System and the Department of Education AGENCY:...

  8. The Impact of a Special Education Related Service on Selected Behaviors of Detained Handicapped Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karcz, Stan A.

    This study analyzed the short-term effects of the Youth Advocate Liaison (YAL) service upon selected behavioral measures from the school, police, and courts, using a sample of 147 former securely detained youth, aged 13 through 18, in Lake County, Illinois. Data sources were 14 school districts, 2 special education units, 321 police…

  9. User Selection of Purchased Information Services. Interim Technical Report (June 1975-January 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Homer J.

    Interviews conducted in the first phase of a project to develop a method for user selection of purchased scientific and technical information services identified a number of relationship among different populations of users. Research scientists, engineers, and patent attorneys want convenient access to original data identified in the search.…

  10. 34 CFR 361.36 - Ability to serve all eligible individuals; order of selection for services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Ability to serve all eligible individuals; order of selection for services. 361.36 Section 361.36 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of..., gender, race, color, or national origin; (iv) Source of referral; (v) Type of expected employment...

  11. A Study of Coordinated Service Provision and Administrative Procedures in Selected University Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Strom Thurmond Inst. of Government and Public Affairs.

    This study investigated the existence of coordinated/consolidated services between colleges and universities and their communities by surveying 27 university communities of similar size and/or characteristics to Clemson University (South Carolina). The report begins with the profiles of the universities selected: their size in acreage, enrollment,…

  12. Handbook of Selective Placement of Persons with Physical and Mental Handicaps in Federal Civil Service Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Personnel Management, Washington, DC.

    This handbook for the selective placement of persons with physical and mental handicaps in federal civil service employment consists of eleven sections. Topics covered in section 1 include affirmative action, nondiscrimination, reasonable accomodation, definition of the term handicapped, acceptable terminology, and program implementation. Section…

  13. A Comparison of Convention Services for Selected Education-Related Associations. Part 2 of 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Michael L.

    1985-01-01

    Survey results of the conference services offered by 39 professional education associations were compared with data on the American Industrial Arts Association (AIAA). AIAA registration costs were well below other associations; most associations offer partial and complimentary registrations, rotate sites, and view site selection as important to…

  14. Transformation management of primary health care services in two selected local authorities in Gauteng.

    PubMed

    Sibaya, W; Muller, M

    2000-12-01

    The transformation of health services in South Africa today is governed by the political, policy and legislative frameworks. This article focuses on the transformation of a primary health care service within a local authority in Gauteng. The purpose with this article is to explore and describe the perceptions (expectations and fears) of selected managers employed in this primary health care service. The results are utilised to compile a strategy (framework) for transformation management and leadership within the primary health care service. A qualitative research design was utilised and the data was collected by means of individual interviews with selected managers in the service, followed by a content analysis. The expectations and fears of managers focus mainly on personnel matters, community participation/satisfaction, salaries and parity, inadequate stocks/supplies and medication, the deterioration of quality service delivery and the need for training and empowerment. These results are divided into structure, process and outcome dimensions and are embodied in the conceptual framework for the transformation and leadership strategy. It is recommended that standards for transformation management be formulated and that the quality of transformation management be evaluated accordingly.

  15. A Review on influencing criteria for selecting supplier of information technology services in the hospital.

    PubMed

    Ajami, Sima; Rajabzadeh, Ahmad; Ketabi, Saeedeh

    2014-01-01

    Organizations try to outsource their activities as much as possible in order to prevent the problems and use organizational capabilities in Information Technology (IT) field. The purpose of this paper was first, to express the effective criteria for selecting suppliers of IT services, second, to explain the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing IT in hospitals. This study was narrative review, which search was conducted with the help of libraries, books, conference proceedings, and databases of Science Direct, PubMed, Proquest, Springer, and SID (Scientific Information Database). In our searches, we employed the following keywords and their combinations: Outsourcing, information technology, hospital, decision making, and criteria. The preliminary search resulted in 120 articles, which were published between 2000 and 2013 during July 2013. After a careful analysis of the content of each paper, a total of 46 papers were selected based on their relevancy. The criteria and sub-criteria influencing outsourcing decisions in Iranian hospitals were identified in six major categories including administrative issues, issues related to the service/product, technology factors, environmental factors, risks, and economic factors associated with 15 sub-criteria containing business integration, dependence on suppliers, human resources, focus on core competencies, facilities and physical capital, innovation, quality, speed of service delivery, flexibility, market capabilities, geographical location, security, management control, cost, and financial capability. Identify the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing and effective criteria in IT services supplier selection causes the managers be able to take the most appropriate decision to select supplier of IT services. This is a general review on influencing criteria for electing of supplier of information technology services in hospitals.

  16. A Review on influencing criteria for selecting supplier of information technology services in the hospital

    PubMed Central

    Ajami, Sima; Rajabzadeh, Ahmad; Ketabi, Saeedeh

    2014-01-01

    Organizations try to outsource their activities as much as possible in order to prevent the problems and use organizational capabilities in Information Technology (IT) field. The purpose of this paper was first, to express the effective criteria for selecting suppliers of IT services, second, to explain the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing IT in hospitals. This study was narrative review, which search was conducted with the help of libraries, books, conference proceedings, and databases of Science Direct, PubMed, Proquest, Springer, and SID (Scientific Information Database). In our searches, we employed the following keywords and their combinations: Outsourcing, information technology, hospital, decision making, and criteria. The preliminary search resulted in 120 articles, which were published between 2000 and 2013 during July 2013. After a careful analysis of the content of each paper, a total of 46 papers were selected based on their relevancy. The criteria and sub-criteria influencing outsourcing decisions in Iranian hospitals were identified in six major categories including administrative issues, issues related to the service/product, technology factors, environmental factors, risks, and economic factors associated with 15 sub-criteria containing business integration, dependence on suppliers, human resources, focus on core competencies, facilities and physical capital, innovation, quality, speed of service delivery, flexibility, market capabilities, geographical location, security, management control, cost, and financial capability. Identify the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing and effective criteria in IT services supplier selection causes the managers be able to take the most appropriate decision to select supplier of IT services. This is a general review on influencing criteria for electing of supplier of information technology services in hospitals. PMID:25540781

  17. A Review on influencing criteria for selecting supplier of information technology services in the hospital.

    PubMed

    Ajami, Sima; Rajabzadeh, Ahmad; Ketabi, Saeedeh

    2014-01-01

    Organizations try to outsource their activities as much as possible in order to prevent the problems and use organizational capabilities in Information Technology (IT) field. The purpose of this paper was first, to express the effective criteria for selecting suppliers of IT services, second, to explain the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing IT in hospitals. This study was narrative review, which search was conducted with the help of libraries, books, conference proceedings, and databases of Science Direct, PubMed, Proquest, Springer, and SID (Scientific Information Database). In our searches, we employed the following keywords and their combinations: Outsourcing, information technology, hospital, decision making, and criteria. The preliminary search resulted in 120 articles, which were published between 2000 and 2013 during July 2013. After a careful analysis of the content of each paper, a total of 46 papers were selected based on their relevancy. The criteria and sub-criteria influencing outsourcing decisions in Iranian hospitals were identified in six major categories including administrative issues, issues related to the service/product, technology factors, environmental factors, risks, and economic factors associated with 15 sub-criteria containing business integration, dependence on suppliers, human resources, focus on core competencies, facilities and physical capital, innovation, quality, speed of service delivery, flexibility, market capabilities, geographical location, security, management control, cost, and financial capability. Identify the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing and effective criteria in IT services supplier selection causes the managers be able to take the most appropriate decision to select supplier of IT services. This is a general review on influencing criteria for electing of supplier of information technology services in hospitals. PMID:25540781

  18. Adaptation and validation of indicators concerning the sterilization process of supplies in Primary Health Care services1

    PubMed Central

    Passos, Isis Pienta Batista Dias; Padoveze, Maria Clara; Roseira, Camila Eugênia; de Figueiredo, Rosely Moralez

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to adapt and validate, by expert consensus, a set of indicators used to assess the sterilization process of dental, medical and hospital supplies to be used in PHC services. METHOD: qualitative methodological study performed in two stages. The first stage included a focal group composed of experts to adapt the indicators to be used in PHC. In the second stage, the indicators were validated using a 4-point Likert scale, which was completed by judges. A Content Validity Index of ≥ 0.75 was considered to show approval of the indicators. RESULTS: the adaptations implemented by the focal group mainly referred to the physical structure, inclusion of dental care professionals, inclusion of chemical disinfection, and replacement of the hot air and moist heat sterilization methods. The validation stage resulted in an index of 0.96, which ranged from 0.90 to 1.00, for the components of the indicators. CONCLUSION: the judges considered the indicators after adaptation to be validated. Even though there may be differences among items processed around the world, there certainly are common characteristics, especially in countries with economic and cultural environments similar to Brazil. The inclusion of these indicators to assess the safety of healthcare supplies used in PHC services should be considered. PMID:25806643

  19. On the Issue of Item Selection in Computerized Adaptive Testing with Response Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2016-01-01

    Many standardized tests are now administered via computer rather than paper-and-pencil format. The computer-based delivery mode brings with it certain advantages. One advantage is the ability to adapt the difficulty level of the test to the ability level of the test taker in what has been termed computerized adaptive testing (CAT). A second…

  20. Maize canopy architecture and adaptation to high plant density in long term selection programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain yield since the 1930s has increased more than five-fold in large part due to improvements in adaptation to high plant density. Changes to plant architecture that associated with improved light interception have made a major contribution to improved adaptation to high plant density. Improved ...

  1. Clients and clinician satisfaction with laboratory services at selected government hospitals in eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In clinical laboratory service, patients and clinical service providers are the primary focus of survey of satisfaction in many countries. The objective of the study was to assess clients’ and clinicians’ satisfaction with laboratory services at selected government hospitals in eastern Ethiopia from May to June, 2010. Findings A cross sectional study was conducted at Dil Chora, Jugal, Hiwot Fana and Bisidimo hospitals. Data were collected from 429 patients and 54 clinical service providers. A statistical analysis was conducted using Likert Scale and SPSS Version 16 software. Most of the patients (87.6%) were satisfied with the laboratory services. The lowest [2.48 ± 1.39] and highest [4.27 ± 0.83] rate satisfaction were on cleanness of latrine to collect specimens and availability of laboratory staff on working hours respectively. The extent of the patients’ satisfaction was different among the study hospitals (P-value < 0.05). Most of the clinical services providers (80%) were also satisfied with the laboratory services. The lowest [3.02 ± 1.36] and highest [3.78 ± 1.03] rate of satisfaction were found on critical value notification and timely test results for HIV/AIDS patients care respectively. Conclusion The overall degree of customers’ satisfaction with laboratory services was high. But there were some services such as the cleanness of latrines, information given during specimen collection outside laboratory and critical value notification which need attention. Therefore, the hospital administrations and the laboratory departments should work harder and closely to solve the identified problems. Further study with a larger sample size and more factors is recommended. PMID:23324260

  2. D-Fussion: A Semantic Selective Disssemination of Information Service for the Research Community in Digital Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales-del-Castillo, Jose Manuel; Peis, Eduardo; Moreno, Juan Manuel; Herrera-Viedma, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper we propose a multi-agent Selective Dissemination of Information service to improve the research community's access to digital library resources. The service also provides a new recommendation approach to satisfy researchers' specific information requirements. Method: The service model is developed by jointly applying…

  3. Readings in Homemaker Services; Selected Papers Presenting the Background, Uses and Practices of Homemaker-Home Health Aide Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for Homemaker-Home Health Aide Services, New York, NY.

    Prepared by the National Council for Homemaker Services for those concerned with homemaker programs, this document contains selected papers which summarize the developments of the homemaker-home health aide service. Sections are: (1) The Philosophy and Goals of Homemaker-Home Health Aide Service, with papers by Elizabeth G. Watkins and Ellen…

  4. Social selection and mental health service utilization among mentally ill parolees: a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Sommers, I; Baskin, D R

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a conceptual and methodological approach to research on mental health service utilization by parolees with mental illness. This approach can be used by researchers and policy makers to understand and improve the interface between criminal justice and mental health organizations. We justify the need for research on this population; discuss the conceptual framework which draws on social selection and organizational theory; describe methodological problems; and discuss implications of the research.

  5. "We Serve You, Right?" A Case Study Adapting Coorientation to Customer Service Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, JoAnna

    2010-01-01

    An abundance of academic research has focused on identifying, explicating, operationalizing, and analyzing variables used to understand the dynamics of customer service. Despite this scholarly attention, applied researchers and the popular press have long reported consumers' dissatisfaction with the service received during their customer…

  6. Climate services for adapting landslide hazard prevention measures in the Vrancea Seismic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micu, Dana; Balteanu, Dan; Jurchescu, Marta; Sima, Mihaela; Micu, Mihai

    2014-05-01

    The Vrancea Seismic Region is covering an area of about 8 000 km2 in the Romanian Curvature Carpathians and Subcarpathians and it is considered one of Europe's most intensely multi-hazard-affected areas. Due to its geomorphic traits (heterogeneous morphostructural units of flysch mountains and molasse hills and depressions), the area is strongly impacted by extreme hydro-meteorological events which are potentially enhancing the numerous damages inflicted to a dense network of human settlements. An a priori knowledge of future climate change is a useful climate service for local authorities to develop regional adapting strategies and adequate prevention/preparedness frameworks. This paper aims at integrating the results of the high-resolution climate projections over the 21st century (within the FP7 ECLISE project) into the regional landslide hazard assessment. The requirements of users (Civil Protection, Land management, local authorities) for this area refer to reliable and high-resolution spatial data on landslide and flood hazard for short and medium-term risk management strategies. An insight into the future behavior of climate variability in the Vrancea Seismic Region, based on future climate projections of three regional models, under three RCPs (2.6, 4.5, 8.6), suggests a clear warming, both annually and seasonally and a rather limited annual precipitation decrease, but with a strong change of seasonality. A landslide inventory of 2485 cases (shallow and medium seated earth, debris and rock slides and earth and debris flows) was obtained based on large scale geomorphological mapping and aerial photos support (GeoEye, DigitalGlobe; provided by GoogleEarth and BingMaps). The landslides are uniformly distributed across the area, being considered representative for the entire morphostructural environment. Landslide susceptibility map was obtained using multivariate statistical analysis (logistic regression), while a relative landslide hazard index was computed

  7. The Vulnerability, Impacts, Adaptation and Climate Services Advisory Board (VIACS AB V1.0) Contribution to CMIP6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruane, Alex C.; Teichmann, Claas; Arnell, Nigel W.; Carter, Timothy R.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Frieler, Katja; Goodess, Clare M.; Hewitson, Bruce; Horton, Radley; Kovats, R. Sari; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the motivation for the creation of the Vulnerability, Impacts, Adaptation and Climate Services (VIACS) Advisory Board for the Sixth Phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6), its initial activities, and its plans to serve as a bridge between climate change applications experts and climate modelers. The climate change application community comprises researchers and other specialists who use climate information (alongside socioeconomic and other environmental information) to analyze vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation of natural systems and society in relation to past, ongoing, and projected future climate change. Much of this activity is directed toward the co-development of information needed by decisionmakers for managing projected risks. CMIP6 provides a unique opportunity to facilitate a two-way dialog between climate modelers and VIACS experts who are looking to apply CMIP6 results for a wide array of research and climate services objectives. The VIACS Advisory Board convenes leaders of major impact sectors, international programs, and climate services to solicit community feedback that increases the applications relevance of the CMIP6-Endorsed Model Intercomparison Projects (MIPs). As an illustration of its potential, the VIACS community provided CMIP6 leadership with a list of prioritized climate model variables and MIP experiments of the greatest interest to the climate model applications community, indicating the applicability and societal relevance of climate model simulation outputs. The VIACS Advisory Board also recommended an impacts version of Obs4MIPs (observational datasets) and indicated user needs for the gridding and processing of model output.

  8. Service differentiated and adaptive CSMA/CA over IEEE 802.15.4 for Cyber-Physical Systems.

    PubMed

    Xia, Feng; Li, Jie; Hao, Ruonan; Kong, Xiangjie; Gao, Ruixia

    2013-01-01

    Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) that collect, exchange, manage information, and coordinate actions are an integral part of the Smart Grid. In addition, Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning in CPS, especially in the wireless sensor/actuator networks, plays an essential role in Smart Grid applications. IEEE 802.15.4, which is one of the most widely used communication protocols in this area, still needs to be improved to meet multiple QoS requirements. This is because IEEE 802.15.4 slotted Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) employs static parameter configuration without supporting differentiated services and network self-adaptivity. To address this issue, this paper proposes a priority-based Service Differentiated and Adaptive CSMA/CA (SDA-CSMA/CA) algorithm to provide differentiated QoS for various Smart Grid applications as well as dynamically initialize backoff exponent according to traffic conditions. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed SDA-CSMA/CA scheme significantly outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 slotted CSMA/CA in terms of effective data rate, packet loss rate, and average delay. PMID:24260021

  9. Service differentiated and adaptive CSMA/CA over IEEE 802.15.4 for Cyber-Physical Systems.

    PubMed

    Xia, Feng; Li, Jie; Hao, Ruonan; Kong, Xiangjie; Gao, Ruixia

    2013-01-01

    Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) that collect, exchange, manage information, and coordinate actions are an integral part of the Smart Grid. In addition, Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning in CPS, especially in the wireless sensor/actuator networks, plays an essential role in Smart Grid applications. IEEE 802.15.4, which is one of the most widely used communication protocols in this area, still needs to be improved to meet multiple QoS requirements. This is because IEEE 802.15.4 slotted Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) employs static parameter configuration without supporting differentiated services and network self-adaptivity. To address this issue, this paper proposes a priority-based Service Differentiated and Adaptive CSMA/CA (SDA-CSMA/CA) algorithm to provide differentiated QoS for various Smart Grid applications as well as dynamically initialize backoff exponent according to traffic conditions. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed SDA-CSMA/CA scheme significantly outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 slotted CSMA/CA in terms of effective data rate, packet loss rate, and average delay.

  10. The Vulnerability, Impacts, Adaptation and Climate Services Advisory Board (VIACS AB v1.0) contribution to CMIP6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruane, Alex C.; Teichmann, Claas; Arnell, Nigel W.; Carter, Timothy R.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Frieler, Katja; Goodess, Clare M.; Hewitson, Bruce; Horton, Radley; Sari Kovats, R.; Lotze, Heike K.; Mearns, Linda O.; Navarra, Antonio; Ojima, Dennis S.; Riahi, Keywan; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Themessl, Matthias; Vincent, Katharine

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the motivation for the creation of the Vulnerability, Impacts, Adaptation and Climate Services (VIACS) Advisory Board for the Sixth Phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6), its initial activities, and its plans to serve as a bridge between climate change applications experts and climate modelers. The climate change application community comprises researchers and other specialists who use climate information (alongside socioeconomic and other environmental information) to analyze vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation of natural systems and society in relation to past, ongoing, and projected future climate change. Much of this activity is directed toward the co-development of information needed by decision-makers for managing projected risks. CMIP6 provides a unique opportunity to facilitate a two-way dialog between climate modelers and VIACS experts who are looking to apply CMIP6 results for a wide array of research and climate services objectives. The VIACS Advisory Board convenes leaders of major impact sectors, international programs, and climate services to solicit community feedback that increases the applications relevance of the CMIP6-Endorsed Model Intercomparison Projects (MIPs). As an illustration of its potential, the VIACS community provided CMIP6 leadership with a list of prioritized climate model variables and MIP experiments of the greatest interest to the climate model applications community, indicating the applicability and societal relevance of climate model simulation outputs. The VIACS Advisory Board also recommended an impacts version of Obs4MIPs and indicated user needs for the gridding and processing of model output.

  11. Service Differentiated and Adaptive CSMA/CA over IEEE 802.15.4 for Cyber-Physical Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ruixia

    2013-01-01

    Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) that collect, exchange, manage information, and coordinate actions are an integral part of the Smart Grid. In addition, Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning in CPS, especially in the wireless sensor/actuator networks, plays an essential role in Smart Grid applications. IEEE 802.15.4, which is one of the most widely used communication protocols in this area, still needs to be improved to meet multiple QoS requirements. This is because IEEE 802.15.4 slotted Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) employs static parameter configuration without supporting differentiated services and network self-adaptivity. To address this issue, this paper proposes a priority-based Service Differentiated and Adaptive CSMA/CA (SDA-CSMA/CA) algorithm to provide differentiated QoS for various Smart Grid applications as well as dynamically initialize backoff exponent according to traffic conditions. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed SDA-CSMA/CA scheme significantly outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 slotted CSMA/CA in terms of effective data rate, packet loss rate, and average delay. PMID:24260021

  12. Financial technical indicator based on chaotic bagging predictors for adaptive stock selection in Japanese and American markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Tomoya; Ohkura, Yuushi

    2016-01-01

    In order to examine the predictability and profitability of financial markets, we introduce three ideas to improve the traditional technical analysis to detect investment timings more quickly. Firstly, a nonlinear prediction model is considered as an effective way to enhance this detection power by learning complex behavioral patterns hidden in financial markets. Secondly, the bagging algorithm can be applied to quantify the confidence in predictions and compose new technical indicators. Thirdly, we also introduce how to select more profitable stocks to improve investment performance by the two-step selection: the first step selects more predictable stocks during the learning period, and then the second step adaptively and dynamically selects the most confident stock showing the most significant technical signal in each investment. Finally, some investment simulations based on real financial data show that these ideas are successful in overcoming complex financial markets.

  13. Adaptive landscapes and density-dependent selection in declining salmonid populations: going beyond numerical responses to human disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Einum, Sigurd; Robertsen, Grethe; Fleming, Ian A

    2008-01-01

    Theory suggests an important role for population density in shaping adaptive landscapes through density-dependent selection. Here, we identify five methodological approaches for studying such selection, review the existing empirical evidence for it, and ask whether current declines in abundance can be expected to trigger evolutionary responses in salmonid fishes. Across taxa we find substantial amounts of evidence for population density influencing the location of adaptive peaks for a range of traits, and, in the presence of frequency dependence, changing the shape of selection (stabilizing versus disruptive). For salmonids, biological and theoretical considerations suggest that the optimal value of a number of traits associated with juvenile competitive ability (e.g. egg size, timing of emergence from nests, dominance ability), may depend on population density. For adults, more direct experimental and comparative evidence suggest that secondary sexual traits can be subject to density-dependent selection. There is also evidence that density affects the frequency-dependent selection likely responsible for the expression of alternative male reproductive phenotypes in salmon. Less is known however about the role of density in maintaining genetic variation among juveniles. Further efforts are required to elucidate the indirect evolutionary effects of declining population abundances, both in salmonids and in other anthropogenically challenged organisms. PMID:25567629

  14. The Evolution and Adaptive Potential of Transcriptional Variation in Sticklebacks—Signatures of Selection and Widespread Heritability

    PubMed Central

    Leder, Erica H.; McCairns, R.J. Scott; Leinonen, Tuomas; Cano, José M.; Viitaniemi, Heidi M.; Nikinmaa, Mikko; Primmer, Craig R.; Merilä, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Evidence implicating differential gene expression as a significant driver of evolutionary novelty continues to accumulate, but our understanding of the underlying sources of variation in expression, both environmental and genetic, is wanting. Heritability in particular may be underestimated when inferred from genetic mapping studies, the predominant “genetical genomics” approach to the study of expression variation. Such uncertainty represents a fundamental limitation to testing for adaptive evolution at the transcriptomic level. By studying the inheritance of expression levels in 10,495 genes (10,527 splice variants) in a threespine stickleback pedigree consisting of 563 individuals, half of which were subjected to a thermal treatment, we show that 74–98% of transcripts exhibit significant additive genetic variance. Dominance variance is also prevalent (41–99% of transcripts), and genetic sources of variation seem to play a more significant role in expression variance in the liver than a key environmental variable, temperature. Among-population comparisons suggest that the majority of differential expression in the liver is likely due to neutral divergence; however, we also show that signatures of directional selection may be more prevalent than those of stabilizing selection. This predominantly aligns with the neutral model of evolution for gene expression but also suggests that natural selection may still act on transcriptional variation in the wild. As genetic variation both within- and among-populations ultimately defines adaptive potential, these results indicate that broad adaptive potential may be found within the transcriptome. PMID:25429004

  15. Development of Object Control in the First Year: Emerging Category Discrimination and Generalization in Infants’ Adaptive Selection of Action

    PubMed Central

    Mash, Clay; Bornstein, Marc H.; Banerjee, Abhilasha

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the development of adaptive generalization in infants’ object-directed actions. Infants of 9 and 12 months participated in an object manipulation task with stimulus objects comprising two categories that differed in shape and weight and that bore a consistent shape/weight correspondence. Weight differences between categories affected infants’ actions required to handle objects effectively. Infants manually explored objects from both categories and then were tested for their selection of different actions between categories and their generalization to novel exemplars within categories. Nine-month-olds provided no evidence of category differentiation and generalization, however 12-month-olds adapted their actions selectively for objects of each category and generalized those actions to novel objects within categories. A second sample of 9-month-olds who were examined in a simplified task using just one object per weight level successfully adapted their actions by weight. Together, the findings provide evidence for the development of selection and generalization in manipulative action across the second half of the first year of life. PMID:23772823

  16. Laser-induced Breakdown spectroscopy quantitative analysis method via adaptive analytical line selection and relevance vector machine regression model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianhong; Yi, Cancan; Xu, Jinwu; Ma, Xianghong

    2015-05-01

    A new LIBS quantitative analysis method based on analytical line adaptive selection and Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) regression model is proposed. First, a scheme of adaptively selecting analytical line is put forward in order to overcome the drawback of high dependency on a priori knowledge. The candidate analytical lines are automatically selected based on the built-in characteristics of spectral lines, such as spectral intensity, wavelength and width at half height. The analytical lines which will be used as input variables of regression model are determined adaptively according to the samples for both training and testing. Second, an LIBS quantitative analysis method based on RVM is presented. The intensities of analytical lines and the elemental concentrations of certified standard samples are used to train the RVM regression model. The predicted elemental concentration analysis results will be given with a form of confidence interval of probabilistic distribution, which is helpful for evaluating the uncertainness contained in the measured spectra. Chromium concentration analysis experiments of 23 certified standard high-alloy steel samples have been carried out. The multiple correlation coefficient of the prediction was up to 98.85%, and the average relative error of the prediction was 4.01%. The experiment results showed that the proposed LIBS quantitative analysis method achieved better prediction accuracy and better modeling robustness compared with the methods based on partial least squares regression, artificial neural network and standard support vector machine.

  17. Adaptation and exogenous selection in a Picea glauca × Picea engelmannii hybrid zone: implications for forest management under climate change

    PubMed Central

    De La Torre, Amanda R; Wang, Tongli; Jaquish, Barry; Aitken, Sally N

    2014-01-01

    The nature of selection responsible for the maintenance of the economically and ecologically important Picea glauca × Picea engelmannii hybrid zone was investigated. Genomic, phenotypic and climatic data were used to test assumptions of hybrid zone maintenance and to model future scenarios under climate change. Genome-wide estimates of admixture based on a panel of 86 candidate gene single nucleotide polymorphisms were combined with long-term quantitative data on growth and survival (over 20 yr), as well as one-time assessments of bud burst and bud set phenology, and cold hardiness traits. A total of 15 498 individuals were phenotyped for growth and survival. Our results suggest that the P. glauca × P. engelmannii hybrid zone is maintained by local adaptation to growing season length and snowpack (exogenous selection). Hybrids appeared to be fitter than pure species in intermediate environments, which fits expectations of the bounded hybrid superiority model of hybrid zone maintenance. Adaptive introgression from parental species has probably contributed to increased hybrid fitness in intermediate habitats. While P. engelmannii ancestry is higher than P. glauca ancestry in hybrid populations, on average, selective breeding in managed hybrid populations is shifting genomic composition towards P. glauca, potentially pre-adapting managed populations to warmer climates. PMID:24200028

  18. Adaptability in the Development of Data Archiving Services at Johns Hopkins University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petters, J.; DiLauro, T.; Fearon, D.; Pralle, B.

    2015-12-01

    Johns Hopkins University (JHU) Data Management Services provides archiving services for institutional researchers through the JHU Data Archive, thereby increasing the access to and use of their research data. From its inception our unit's archiving service has evolved considerably. While some of these changes have been internally driven so that our unit can archive quality data collections more efficiently, we have also developed archiving policies and procedures on the fly in response to researcher needs. Providing our archiving services for JHU research groups from a variety of research disciplines have surfaced different sets of expectations and needs. We have used each interaction to help us refine our services and quickly satisfy the researchers we serve (following the first agile principle). Here we discuss the development of our newest archiving service model, its implementation over the past several months, and the processes by which we have continued to refine and improve our archiving services since its implementation. Through this discussion we will illustrate the benefits of planning, structure and flexibility in development of archiving services that maximize the potential value of research data. We will describe interactions with research groups, including those from environmental engineering and international health, and how we were able to rapidly modify and develop our archiving services to meet their needs (e.g. in an 'agile' way). For example, our interactions with both of these research groups led first to discussion in regular standing meetings and eventually development of new archiving policies and procedures. These policies and procedures centered on limiting access to archived research data while associated manuscripts progress through peer-review and publication.

  19. Video Editing: A Service-Learning Assignment in Adapted Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Deborah R.; Gurvitch, Rachel; Yao, Wei-Ru

    2016-01-01

    For most physical education teacher education (PETE) programs, the constraints surrounding the undergraduate curriculum (e.g., number of credit hours, dual content certificates such as health and physical education, content knowledge) limit PETE programs to offering only one course in adapted physical education (APE) with the expectation that this…

  20. Adopting and adapting a commercial view of web services for the Navy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Elizabeth; Ladner, Roy; Katikaneni, Uday; Petry, Fred

    2005-05-01

    Web Services are being adopted as the enabling technology to provide net-centric capabilities for many Department of Defense operations. The Navy Enterprise Portal, for example, is Web Services-based, and the Department of the Navy is promulgating guidance for developing Web Services. Web Services, however, only constitute a baseline specification that provides the foundation on which users, under current approaches, write specialized applications in order to retrieve data over the Internet. Application development may increase dramatically as the number of different available Web Services increases. Reasons for specialized application development include XML schema versioning differences, adoption/use of diverse business rules, security access issues, and time/parameter naming constraints, among others. We are currently developing for the US Navy a system which will improve delivery of timely and relevant meteorological and oceanographic (MetOc) data to the warfighter. Our objective is to develop an Advanced MetOc Broker (AMB) that leverages Web Services technology to identify, retrieve and integrate relevant MetOc data in an automated manner. The AMB will utilize a Mediator, which will be developed by applying ontological research and schema matching techniques to MetOc forms of data. The AMB, using the Mediator, will support a new, advanced approach to the use of Web Services; namely, the automated identification, retrieval and integration of MetOc data. Systems based on this approach will then not require extensive end-user application development for each Web Service from which data can be retrieved. Users anywhere on the globe will be able to receive timely environmental data that fits their particular needs.

  1. Psychometric properties of the Turkish adaptation of the Mathematics Teacher Efficacy Belief Instrument for in-service teachers.

    PubMed

    Cetinkaya, Bulent; Erbas, Ayhan Kursat

    2011-11-01

    Teaching efficacy beliefs have attracted researchers' attention in recent decades because of its close association with and potential impact on the implementation of new ideas and skills in education. In the present study, we have explored the psychometric properties and construct validity of the Turkish adaptation of the Mathematics Teacher Efficacy Belief Instrument developed by Enochs, Smith, & Huinker (2000) for in-service mathematics teachers. The instrument distinguishes between two dimensions of efficacy beliefs for mathematics teachers: personal mathematics teaching efficacy and mathematics teaching outcome expectancy. The sample consisted of 1355 in-service elementary school teachers and middle school mathematics teachers from 368 schools. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed a two-factor structure similar to that found in other studies. Also, scores from the two subscales indicated acceptable internal consistency.

  2. Dynamics of Adaptive Alleles in Divergently Selected Body Weight Lines of Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, Mats E.; Johansson, Anna M.; Siegel, Paul B.; Carlborg, Örjan

    2013-01-01

    By studying genomic changes over time in populations subjected to strong artificial directional selection, we can gain insights to the dynamics of beneficial alleles originating from the founder population or emerging as novel mutations undergoing ongoing selection. The Virginia lines are a chicken resource population generated by long-term bi-directional, single-trait selection for juvenile body weight. We studied genome-wide allele frequency changes from generation 40 to 53 using genome-wide genotypes from directional and relaxed selection lines. Overall, there were small changes in allele frequencies at individual loci over the studied time period; but, on average, the changes were greater in lines with larger phenotypic changes. This is consistent with previous findings that much of the response to selection over the first 40 years of selection was attributable to utilization of standing genetic variation at many loci in the genome, indicating a mostly polygenic architecture for body weight. Over the course of the selection experiment, the largest phenotypic response to selection was observed in the high-weight selected line, and in this line we detected a single locus where the allele frequency changed rapidly during a late stage of the experiment. This locus likely contains a novel, beneficial mutation that appeared between generations 40 and 45 and was driven to fixation in 5 to 10 generations. This result illustrates the dependence of continued long-term selection response on standing genetic variation at many loci as well as strong, novel, beneficial mutations. PMID:24170737

  3. Mutual Information Item Selection Method in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing with Short Test Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT) purports to combine the strengths of both CAT and cognitive diagnosis. Cognitive diagnosis models aim at classifying examinees into the correct mastery profile group so as to pinpoint the strengths and weakness of each examinee whereas CAT algorithms choose items to determine those…

  4. Item Selection and Hypothesis Testing for the Adaptive Measurement of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelman, Matthew D.; Weiss, David J.; Kim-Kang, Gyenam

    2010-01-01

    Assessing individual change is an important topic in both psychological and educational measurement. An adaptive measurement of change (AMC) method had previously been shown to exhibit greater efficiency in detecting change than conventional nonadaptive methods. However, little work had been done to compare different procedures within the AMC…

  5. Adaptive software architecture based on confident HCI for the deployment of sensitive services in Smart Homes.

    PubMed

    Vega-Barbas, Mario; Pau, Iván; Martín-Ruiz, María Luisa; Seoane, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Smart spaces foster the development of natural and appropriate forms of human-computer interaction by taking advantage of home customization. The interaction potential of the Smart Home, which is a special type of smart space, is of particular interest in fields in which the acceptance of new technologies is limited and restrictive. The integration of smart home design patterns with sensitive solutions can increase user acceptance. In this paper, we present the main challenges that have been identified in the literature for the successful deployment of sensitive services (e.g., telemedicine and assistive services) in smart spaces and a software architecture that models the functionalities of a Smart Home platform that are required to maintain and support such sensitive services. This architecture emphasizes user interaction as a key concept to facilitate the acceptance of sensitive services by end-users and utilizes activity theory to support its innovative design. The application of activity theory to the architecture eases the handling of novel concepts, such as understanding of the system by patients at home or the affordability of assistive services. Finally, we provide a proof-of-concept implementation of the architecture and compare the results with other architectures from the literature.

  6. Adaptive Software Architecture Based on Confident HCI for the Deployment of Sensitive Services in Smart Homes

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Barbas, Mario; Pau, Iván; Martín-Ruiz, María Luisa; Seoane, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Smart spaces foster the development of natural and appropriate forms of human-computer interaction by taking advantage of home customization. The interaction potential of the Smart Home, which is a special type of smart space, is of particular interest in fields in which the acceptance of new technologies is limited and restrictive. The integration of smart home design patterns with sensitive solutions can increase user acceptance. In this paper, we present the main challenges that have been identified in the literature for the successful deployment of sensitive services (e.g., telemedicine and assistive services) in smart spaces and a software architecture that models the functionalities of a Smart Home platform that are required to maintain and support such sensitive services. This architecture emphasizes user interaction as a key concept to facilitate the acceptance of sensitive services by end-users and utilizes activity theory to support its innovative design. The application of activity theory to the architecture eases the handling of novel concepts, such as understanding of the system by patients at home or the affordability of assistive services. Finally, we provide a proof-of-concept implementation of the architecture and compare the results with other architectures from the literature. PMID:25815449

  7. Delayed feedback during sensorimotor learning selectively disrupts adaptation but not strategy use.

    PubMed

    Brudner, Samuel N; Kethidi, Nikhit; Graeupner, Damaris; Ivry, Richard B; Taylor, Jordan A

    2016-03-01

    In sensorimotor adaptation tasks, feedback delays can cause significant reductions in the rate of learning. This constraint is puzzling given that many skilled behaviors have inherently long delays (e.g., hitting a golf ball). One difference in these task domains is that adaptation is primarily driven by error-based feedback, whereas skilled performance may also rely to a large extent on outcome-based feedback. This difference suggests that error- and outcome-based feedback may engage different learning processes, and these processes may be associated with different temporal constraints. We tested this hypothesis in a visuomotor adaptation task. Error feedback was indicated by the terminal position of a cursor, while outcome feedback was indicated by points. In separate groups of participants, the two feedback signals were presented immediately at the end of the movement, after a delay, or with just the error feedback delayed. Participants learned to counter the rotation in a similar manner regardless of feedback delay. However, the aftereffect, an indicator of implicit motor adaptation, was attenuated with delayed error feedback, consistent with the hypothesis that a different learning process supports performance under delay. We tested this by employing a task that dissociates the contribution of explicit strategies and implicit adaptation. We find that explicit aiming strategies contribute to the majority of the learning curve, regardless of delay; however, implicit learning, measured over the course of learning and by aftereffects, was significantly attenuated with delayed error-based feedback. These experiments offer new insight into the temporal constraints associated with different motor learning processes. PMID:26792878

  8. A Comparative Study of Directly Selected, In-Service Promoted and Online Selected Subject Specialists Regarding Teaching Effectiveness in Kohat Division, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleman, Qaiser; Gul, Rizwana

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to compare the teaching effectiveness of directly selected, in-service promoted and online selected subject specialists teaching at higher secondary school level in Kohat Division, Pakistan. The target population of the study was the higher secondary school students in Kohat Division, Pakistan. A sample of 600…

  9. Reliability of internal prediction/estimation and its application. I. Adaptive action selection reflecting reliability of value function.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Takano, Mitsuo

    2004-09-01

    This article proposes an adaptive action-selection method for a model-free reinforcement learning system, based on the concept of the 'reliability of internal prediction/estimation'. This concept is realized using an internal variable, called the Reliability Index (RI), which estimates the accuracy of the internal estimator. We define this index for a value function of a temporal difference learning system and substitute it for the temperature parameter of the Boltzmann action-selection rule. Accordingly, the weight of exploratory actions adaptively changes depending on the uncertainty of the prediction. We use this idea for tabular and weighted-sum type value functions. Moreover, we use the RI to adjust the learning coefficient in addition to the temperature parameter, meaning that the reliability becomes a general basis for meta-learning. Numerical experiments were performed to examine the behavior of the proposed method. The RI-based Q-learning system demonstrated its features when the adaptive learning coefficient and large RI-discount rate (which indicate how the RI values of future states are reflected in the RI value of the current state) were introduced. Statistical tests confirmed that the algorithm spent more time exploring in the initial phase of learning, but accelerated learning from the midpoint of learning. It is also shown that the proposed method does not work well with the actor-critic models. The limitations of the proposed method and its relationship to relevant research are discussed. PMID:15312837

  10. Initial Evidence for Adaptive Selection on the NADH Subunit Two of Freshwater Dolphins by Analyses of Mitochondrial Genomes.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Susana; Duchêne, Sebastian; Garavito, Manuel F; Slikas, Beth; Baker, C Scott

    2015-01-01

    A small number of cetaceans have adapted to an entirely freshwater environment, having colonized rivers in Asia and South America from an ancestral origin in the marine environment. This includes the 'river dolphins', early divergence from the odontocete lineage, and two species of true dolphins (Family Delphinidae). Successful adaptation to the freshwater environment may have required increased demands in energy involved in processes such as the mitochondrial osmotic balance. For this reason, riverine odontocetes provide a compelling natural experiment in adaptation of mammals from marine to freshwater habitats. Here we present initial evidence of positive selection in the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 of riverine odontocetes by analyses of full mitochondrial genomes, using tests of selection and protein structure modeling. The codon model with highest statistical support corresponds to three discrete categories for amino acid sites, those under positive, neutral, and purifying selection. With this model we found positive selection at site 297 of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (dN/dS>1.0,) leading to a substitution of an Ala or Val from the ancestral state of Thr. A phylogenetic reconstruction of 27 cetacean mitogenomes showed that an Ala substitution has evolved at least four times in cetaceans, once or more in the three 'river dolphins' (Families Pontoporidae, Lipotidae and Inidae), once in the riverine Sotalia fluviatilis (but not in its marine sister taxa), once in the riverine Orcaella brevirostris from the Mekong River (but not in its marine sister taxa) and once in two other related marine dolphins. We located the position of this amino acid substitution in an alpha-helix channel in the trans-membrane domain in both the E. coli structure and Sotalia fluviatilis model. In E. coli this position is located in a helix implicated in a proton translocation channel of respiratory complex 1 and may have a similar role in the NADH dehydrogenases of cetaceans.

  11. Initial Evidence for Adaptive Selection on the NADH Subunit Two of Freshwater Dolphins by Analyses of Mitochondrial Genomes.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Susana; Duchêne, Sebastian; Garavito, Manuel F; Slikas, Beth; Baker, C Scott

    2015-01-01

    A small number of cetaceans have adapted to an entirely freshwater environment, having colonized rivers in Asia and South America from an ancestral origin in the marine environment. This includes the 'river dolphins', early divergence from the odontocete lineage, and two species of true dolphins (Family Delphinidae). Successful adaptation to the freshwater environment may have required increased demands in energy involved in processes such as the mitochondrial osmotic balance. For this reason, riverine odontocetes provide a compelling natural experiment in adaptation of mammals from marine to freshwater habitats. Here we present initial evidence of positive selection in the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 of riverine odontocetes by analyses of full mitochondrial genomes, using tests of selection and protein structure modeling. The codon model with highest statistical support corresponds to three discrete categories for amino acid sites, those under positive, neutral, and purifying selection. With this model we found positive selection at site 297 of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (dN/dS>1.0,) leading to a substitution of an Ala or Val from the ancestral state of Thr. A phylogenetic reconstruction of 27 cetacean mitogenomes showed that an Ala substitution has evolved at least four times in cetaceans, once or more in the three 'river dolphins' (Families Pontoporidae, Lipotidae and Inidae), once in the riverine Sotalia fluviatilis (but not in its marine sister taxa), once in the riverine Orcaella brevirostris from the Mekong River (but not in its marine sister taxa) and once in two other related marine dolphins. We located the position of this amino acid substitution in an alpha-helix channel in the trans-membrane domain in both the E. coli structure and Sotalia fluviatilis model. In E. coli this position is located in a helix implicated in a proton translocation channel of respiratory complex 1 and may have a similar role in the NADH dehydrogenases of cetaceans. PMID

  12. Initial Evidence for Adaptive Selection on the NADH Subunit Two of Freshwater Dolphins by Analyses of Mitochondrial Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Caballero, Susana; Duchêne, Sebastian; Garavito, Manuel F.; Slikas, Beth; Baker, C. Scott

    2015-01-01

    A small number of cetaceans have adapted to an entirely freshwater environment, having colonized rivers in Asia and South America from an ancestral origin in the marine environment. This includes the ‘river dolphins’, early divergence from the odontocete lineage, and two species of true dolphins (Family Delphinidae). Successful adaptation to the freshwater environment may have required increased demands in energy involved in processes such as the mitochondrial osmotic balance. For this reason, riverine odontocetes provide a compelling natural experiment in adaptation of mammals from marine to freshwater habitats. Here we present initial evidence of positive selection in the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 of riverine odontocetes by analyses of full mitochondrial genomes, using tests of selection and protein structure modeling. The codon model with highest statistical support corresponds to three discrete categories for amino acid sites, those under positive, neutral, and purifying selection. With this model we found positive selection at site 297 of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (dN/dS>1.0,) leading to a substitution of an Ala or Val from the ancestral state of Thr. A phylogenetic reconstruction of 27 cetacean mitogenomes showed that an Ala substitution has evolved at least four times in cetaceans, once or more in the three ‘river dolphins’ (Families Pontoporidae, Lipotidae and Inidae), once in the riverine Sotalia fluviatilis (but not in its marine sister taxa), once in the riverine Orcaella brevirostris from the Mekong River (but not in its marine sister taxa) and once in two other related marine dolphins. We located the position of this amino acid substitution in an alpha-helix channel in the trans-membrane domain in both the E. coli structure and Sotalia fluviatilis model. In E. coli this position is located in a helix implicated in a proton translocation channel of respiratory complex 1 and may have a similar role in the NADH dehydrogenases of

  13. Savannas Ecosystems Services: Local Knowledge On Vulnerability And Adaptation To Climate Change In South-Western Burkina Faso (West Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimobe, K.; Goetze, D.; Ouédraogo, A.; Thiombiano, A.; Porembski, S.

    2015-12-01

    Local knowledge could form an effective channel and base through which climate change adaptation and mitigation can be realized. This paper uses the context of savannas ecosystem services in Burkina Faso to examine local knowledge and perspectives on the changing trends in vulnerability and adaptation to climate change. The survey targeted farmers, traditional authorities and administrators at the local government level. Semi-structured questionnaires were employed for one-on-one interviews and focused group discussions for data collection. Descriptive statistics and explanatory factor analysis were used to analyze the collected data. A total of 230 farmers, 6 traditional authorities and 5 administrators belonging to 32 villages were interviewed. Most of local people (95.1-96.7%) believe that climate change is occurring, and cited general increases in average temperatures, fluctuating rainfall regimes and extended drought periods as some of their observations. They explain the increasing changes and vulnerability of savannas ecosystems through the longer time spent and distance covered to collect medicinal plants and forest food; decreasing productivity and availability of fodder, fuel wood, forest food and medicinal plant, changing uses of forest food and medicinal plant species. The views of farmers were generally shared by the traditional authorities and administrators. Adaptation actions employed by local communities are tree planting, protection of forestry resources, migration, awareness raising, conservation of soil and water resources.

  14. QoS Adaptation in Multimedia Multicast Conference Applications for E-Learning Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deusdado, Sérgio; Carvalho, Paulo

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of the World Wide Web service has incorporated new distributed multimedia conference applications, powering a new generation of e-learning development and allowing improved interactivity and prohuman relations. Groupware applications are increasingly representative in the Internet home applications market, however, the Quality of…

  15. Generic Service Integration in Adaptive Learning Experiences Using IMS Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de-la-Fuente-Valentin, Luis; Pardo, Abelardo; Kloos, Carlos Delgado

    2011-01-01

    IMS Learning Design is a specification to capture the orchestration taking place in a learning scenario. This paper presents an extension called Generic Service Integration. This paradigm allows a bidirectional communication between the course engine in charge of the orchestration and conventional Web 2.0 tools. This communication allows the…

  16. Moving Research into the Classroom: Successful Adaptations at a Service Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snellman, Erick; Krueger, Jerry A.; Unangst, Edward T.

    2006-01-01

    Military service academies face unique challenges integrating research into the undergraduate curriculum. Like other institutions they have worked hard to implement strategies designed to overcome a range of barriers to student participation in research by creating opportunities in the classroom. To promote research exposure for biology students…

  17. Resilience after Maltreatment: The Importance of Social Services as Facilitators of Positive Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungar, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This practice note will show that resilience among children who have been maltreated is the result of multiple protective factors, including the quality of the services provided to children exposed to chronic adversity. This social ecological perspective of resilience suggests that resilience is a process resulting from interactions between…

  18. Adaptive Zero-Padding OFDM over Frequency-Selective Multipath Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Neng; Blostein, Steven D.

    2004-12-01

    We present a novel bandwidth (BW) efficient orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) scheme with adaptive zero-padding (AZP-OFDM) for wireless transmission. Redundancy issues in OFDM based on cyclic prefix (CP), zero-padding (ZP), as well as no guard interval (NGI) systems are analyzed. A novel system design criterion based on the channel matrix condition is studied and applied to the design of an AZP-OFDM system. Simulation results have shown that the proposed AZP-OFDM offers performance similar to that of CP-OFDM, complexity similar to that of ZP-OFDM, with BW efficiency higher than that of both CP- and ZP-OFDM in channels with small to moderate delay spread. In channels with large delay spread, AZP scheme adaptively maintains high performance at the expense of BW efficiency. Essentially, AZP-OFDM offers a more flexible tradeoff between symbol recovery, BW efficiency, and complexity.

  19. Multifunctional adaptive NS1 mutations are selected upon human influenza virus evolution in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Nicole E; Ping, Jihui; Dankar, Samar K; Jia, Jian-Jun; Selman, Mohammed; Keleta, Liya; Zhou, Yan; Brown, Earl G

    2012-01-01

    The role of the NS1 protein in modulating influenza A virulence and host range was assessed by adapting A/Hong Kong/1/1968 (H3N2) (HK-wt) to increased virulence in the mouse. Sequencing the NS genome segment of mouse-adapted variants revealed 11 mutations in the NS1 gene and 4 in the overlapping NEP gene. Using the HK-wt virus and reverse genetics to incorporate mutant NS gene segments, we demonstrated that all NS1 mutations were adaptive and enhanced virus replication (up to 100 fold) in mouse cells and/or lungs. All but one NS1 mutant was associated with increased virulence measured by survival and weight loss in the mouse. Ten of twelve NS1 mutants significantly enhanced IFN-β antagonism to reduce the level of IFN β production relative to HK-wt in infected mouse lungs at 1 day post infection, where 9 mutants induced viral yields in the lung that were equivalent to or significantly greater than HK-wt (up to 16 fold increase). Eight of 12 NS1 mutants had reduced or lost the ability to bind the 30 kDa cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF30) thus demonstrating a lack of correlation with reduced IFN β production. Mutant NS1 genes resulted in increased viral mRNA transcription (10 of 12 mutants), and protein production (6 of 12 mutants) in mouse cells. Increased transcription activity was demonstrated in the influenza mini-genome assay for 7 of 11 NS1 mutants. Although we have shown gain-of-function properties for all mutant NS genes, the contribution of the NEP mutations to phenotypic changes remains to be assessed. This study demonstrates that NS1 is a multifunctional virulence factor subject to adaptive evolution.

  20. Resilience after maltreatment: the importance of social services as facilitators of positive adaptation.

    PubMed

    Ungar, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This practice note will show that resilience among children who have been maltreated is the result of multiple protective factors, including the quality of the services provided to children exposed to chronic adversity. This social ecological perspective of resilience suggests that resilience is a process resulting from interactions between individuals and their environments, and depends upon individual characteristics (temperament and personality), the social determinants of health that affect children and children's families, formal interventions by multiple service providers (child welfare, special education, mental health, addictions, public health, and juvenile corrections), and the social policies that influence service provision to vulnerable populations. Clinicians and researchers concerned with the resilience of chronically abused and neglected children have tended to overlook the protective processes unique to children who have been abused that are different from the protective processes that promote positive development among children who have experienced no maltreatment. Most importantly, studies of resilience among maltreated children have rarely investigated the impact child welfare interventions have on the resilience of children who have been maltreated, mistakenly attributing children's abilities to cope to be the result of individual factors rather than the responsiveness of service providers and governments to tailor interventions to children's needs. To enhance the likelihood of resilience among maltreated children, those who design and implement interventions need to address three aspects of resilience-related programming: make social supports and formal services more available and accessibility; design programs flexibly so that they can respond to the differential impact specific types of interventions have on children who are exposed to different forms of maltreatment; and design interventions to be more focused on subpopulations of children

  1. The Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA) Program, Climate Services, and Meeting the National Climate Change Adaptation Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overpeck, J. T.; Udall, B.; Miles, E.; Dow, K.; Anderson, C.; Cayan, D.; Dettinger, M.; Hartmann, H.; Jones, J.; Mote, P.; Ray, A.; Shafer, M.; White, D.

    2008-12-01

    The NOAA-led RISA Program has grown steadily to nine regions and a focus that includes both natural climate variability and human-driven climate change. The RISAs are, at their core, university-based and heavily invested in partnerships, particularly with stakeholders, NOAA, and other federal agencies. RISA research, assessment and partnerships have led to new operational climate services within NOAA and other agencies, and have become important foundations in the development of local, state and regional climate change adaptation initiatives. The RISA experience indicates that a national climate service is needed, and must include: (1) services prioritized based on stakeholder needs; (2) sustained, ongoing regional interactions with users, (3) a commitment to improve climate literacy; (4) support for assessment as an ongoing, iterative process; (5) full recognition that stakeholder decisions are seldom made using climate information alone; (6) strong interagency partnership; (7) national implementation and regional in focus; (8) capability spanning local, state, tribal, regional, national and international space scales, and weeks to millennia time scales; and (9) institutional design and scientific support flexible enough to assure the effort is nimble enough to respond to rapidly-changing stakeholder needs. The RISA experience also highlights the central role that universities must play in national climate change adaptation programs. Universities have a tradition of trusted regional stakeholder partnerships, as well as the interdisciplinary expertise - including social science, ecosystem science, law, and economics - required to meet stakeholder climate-related needs; project workforce can also shift rapidly in universities. Universities have a proven ability to build and sustain interagency partnerships. Universities excel in most forms of education and training. And universities often have proven entrepreneurship, technology transfer and private sector

  2. Face-identity change activation outside the face system: "release from adaptation" may not always indicate neuronal selectivity.

    PubMed

    Mur, Marieke; Ruff, Douglas A; Bodurka, Jerzy; Bandettini, Peter A; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2010-09-01

    Face recognition is a complex cognitive process that requires distinguishable neuronal representations of individual faces. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies using the "fMRI-adaptation" technique have suggested the existence of face-identity representations in face-selective regions, including the fusiform face area (FFA). Here, we present face-identity adaptation findings that are not well explained in terms of face-identity representations. We performed blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI measurements, while participants viewed familiar faces that were shown repeatedly throughout the experiment. We found decreased activation for repeated faces in face-selective regions, as expected based on previous studies. However, we found similar effects in regions that are not face-selective, including the parahippocampal place area (PPA) and early visual cortex (EVC). These effects were present for exact-image (same view and lighting) as well as different-image (different view and/or lighting) repetition, but more widespread for exact-image repetition. Given the known functional properties of PPA and EVC, it appears unlikely that they contain domain-specific face-identity representations. Alternative interpretations include general attentional effects and carryover of activation from connected regions. These results remind us that fMRI stimulus-change effects can have a range of causes and do not provide conclusive evidence for a neuronal representation of the changed stimulus property.

  3. Linkage disequilibrium and genomic scan to detect selective loci in cattle populations adapted to different ecological conditions in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Edea, Z; Dadi, H; Kim, S-W; Park, J-H; Shin, G-H; Dessie, T; Kim, K-S

    2014-10-01

    Despite the wide range of observed phenotypic diversities and adaptation to different ecological conditions, little has been studied regarding the genetics of adaptation in the genome of indigenous cattle breeds of developing countries. Here, we investigated the linkage disequilibrium (LD) and identified the subset of outlier loci that are highly differentiated among cattle populations adapted to different ecological conditions in Ethiopia. Specifically, we genotyped 47 unrelated animals sampled from high- versus low-altitude environments using a Bovine 50K SNP BeadChip. Linkage disequilibrium was assessed using both D' and r(2) between adjacent SNPs. We calculated FST and heterozygosity at different significance levels as measures of genetic differentiation for each locus between high- and low-altitude populations following the hierarchical island model approach. We identified 816 loci (p < 0.01) showing selection signals and are associated with genes that might have roles in local adaptation. Some of them are associated with candidate genes that are involved in metabolism (ATP2A3, CA2, MYO18B, SIK3, INPP4A, and IREB2), hypoxia response (BDNF, TFRC, and PML) and heat stress (PRKDC, CDK1, and TFDC). Average r(2) and D' values were 0.14 ± 0.21 and 0.57 ± 0.34, respectively, for a minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥ 0.05 and were found to increase with increasing MAF value. The outlier loci identified in the studied Ethiopian cattle populations indicate the presence of genetic variation produced/shaped by adaptation to different environmental conditions and provide a basis for further validation and functional analysis using a reasonable sample size and high-density markers.

  4. Adaptation and selection in the Senecio (Asteraceae) hybrid zone on Mount Etna, Sicily.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Adrian C; Bridle, Jon R; Wang, Ai-Lan; Hiscock, Simon J; Abbott, Richard J

    2009-08-01

    Hybrid zone theory provides a powerful theoretical framework for measuring and testing gene flow and selection. The Senecio aethnensis and Senecio chrysanthemifolius hybrid zone on Mount Etna, Sicily, was investigated to identify phenotypic traits under divergent selection and to assess the contributions of intrinsic and extrinsic selection against hybrids to hybrid zone maintenance. Senecio samples from 14 sites across Mount Etna were analyzed for 24 quantitative traits classified into four groups (QTGs), six allozymes and seven simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci to describe patterns of variation throughout the hybrid zone. Narrower cline widths or shifts in cline centre position were observed for three QTGs relative to the molecular clines, indicating that these traits are likely to be under extrinsic environmental selection. Altitude was key to describing species distributions, but dispersal and intrinsic selection against hybrids explained patterns at smaller spatial scales. The hybrid zone was characterized by strong selection against hybrids, high dispersal rates, recent species contact and few loci differentiating QTGs based on indirect measures. These results support the hypothesis that extrinsic and intrinsic selection against hybrids maintains the hybrid zone and species distinctiveness despite gene flow between the two Senecio species on Mount Etna.

  5. Spectral Tuning of Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) Rhodopsin: Evidence for Positive Selection and Functional Adaptation in a Cetacean Visual Pigment.

    PubMed

    Dungan, Sarah Z; Kosyakov, Alexander; Chang, Belinda S W

    2016-02-01

    Cetaceans have undergone a remarkable evolutionary transition that was accompanied by many sensory adaptations, including modification of the visual system for underwater environments. Recent sequencing of cetacean genomes has made it possible to begin exploring the molecular basis of these adaptations. In this study we use in vitro expression methods to experimentally characterize the first step of the visual transduction cascade, the light activation of rhodopsin, for the killer whale. To investigate the spectral effects of amino acid substitutions thought to correspond with absorbance shifts relative to terrestrial mammals, we used the orca gene as a background for the first site-directed mutagenesis experiments in a cetacean rhodopsin. The S292A mutation had the largest effect, and was responsible for the majority of the spectral difference between killer whale and bovine (terrestrial) rhodopsin. Using codon-based likelihood models, we also found significant evidence for positive selection in cetacean rhodopsin sequences, including on spectral tuning sites we experimentally mutated. We then investigated patterns of ecological divergence that may be correlated with rhodopsin functional variation by using a series of clade models that partitioned the data set according to phylogeny, habitat, and foraging depth zone. Only the model partitioning according to depth was significant. This suggests that foraging dives might be a selective regime influencing cetacean rhodopsin divergence, and our experimental results indicate that spectral tuning may be playing an adaptive role in this process. Our study demonstrates that combining computational and experimental methods is crucial for gaining insight into the selection pressures underlying molecular evolution. PMID:26486871

  6. Spectral Tuning of Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) Rhodopsin: Evidence for Positive Selection and Functional Adaptation in a Cetacean Visual Pigment.

    PubMed

    Dungan, Sarah Z; Kosyakov, Alexander; Chang, Belinda S W

    2016-02-01

    Cetaceans have undergone a remarkable evolutionary transition that was accompanied by many sensory adaptations, including modification of the visual system for underwater environments. Recent sequencing of cetacean genomes has made it possible to begin exploring the molecular basis of these adaptations. In this study we use in vitro expression methods to experimentally characterize the first step of the visual transduction cascade, the light activation of rhodopsin, for the killer whale. To investigate the spectral effects of amino acid substitutions thought to correspond with absorbance shifts relative to terrestrial mammals, we used the orca gene as a background for the first site-directed mutagenesis experiments in a cetacean rhodopsin. The S292A mutation had the largest effect, and was responsible for the majority of the spectral difference between killer whale and bovine (terrestrial) rhodopsin. Using codon-based likelihood models, we also found significant evidence for positive selection in cetacean rhodopsin sequences, including on spectral tuning sites we experimentally mutated. We then investigated patterns of ecological divergence that may be correlated with rhodopsin functional variation by using a series of clade models that partitioned the data set according to phylogeny, habitat, and foraging depth zone. Only the model partitioning according to depth was significant. This suggests that foraging dives might be a selective regime influencing cetacean rhodopsin divergence, and our experimental results indicate that spectral tuning may be playing an adaptive role in this process. Our study demonstrates that combining computational and experimental methods is crucial for gaining insight into the selection pressures underlying molecular evolution.

  7. The status of IT service management in health care - ITIL® in selected European countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Due to the strained financial situation in the healthcare sector, hospitals and other healthcare providers are facing an increasing pressure to improve their efficiency and to reduce costs. These trends challenge health care organizations to introduce innovative information technology (IT) based supportive processes. To guarantee that IT supports the clinical processes perfectly, IT must be managed proactively. However, until now, there is only very few research on IT service management especially on ITIL® implementations in the health care context. Methods The current study aims at exploring knowledge about and acceptance of IT service management (especially ITIL®) in hospitals in Austria and its neighboring regions Bavaria (Germany), Slovakia, South Tyrol (Italy) and Switzerland. Therefore highly standardized interviews with the respective head of information technology (CIO, IT manager) were conducted for selected hospitals from the different regions. In total 75 hospitals were interviewed. Data gathered was analyzed using descriptive statistics and where necessary methods of qualitative content analysis. Results In most regions, two-thirds or more of the participating IT managers claim to be familiar with the concepts of IT service management and of ITIL®. IT managers expect from ITIL® mostly better IT services, followed by an increased productivity and a reduction of IT cost. But only five hospitals said to have implemented at least parts of ITIL®, and eight hospitals stated to be planning to do this in the next two years. When it comes to ITIL®, Switzerland and Bavaria seem to be ahead of the other countries. There, the highest levels of knowledge, the highest number of implementations or plans of an implementation as well as the highest number of ITIL® certified staff members were observed. Conclusion The results collected through this study indicate that the idea of IT services and IT service management is still not widely recognized in

  8. Payoffs, Not Tradeoffs, in the Adaptation of a Virus to Ostensibly Conflicting Selective Pressures

    PubMed Central

    McGee, Lindsey W.; Aitchison, Erick W.; Caudle, S. Brian; Morrison, Anneliese J.; Zheng, Lianqing; Yang, Wei; Rokyta, Darin R.

    2014-01-01

    The genetic architecture of many phenotypic traits is such that genes often contribute to multiple traits, and mutations in these genes can therefore affect multiple phenotypes. These pleiotropic interactions often manifest as tradeoffs between traits where improvement in one property entails a cost in another. The life cycles of many pathogens include periods of growth within a host punctuated with transmission events, such as passage through a digestive tract or a passive stage of exposure in the environment. Populations exposed to such fluctuating selective pressures are expected to acquire mutations showing tradeoffs between reproduction within and survival outside of a host. We selected for individual mutations under fluctuating selective pressures for a ssDNA microvirid bacteriophage by alternating selection for increased growth rate with selection on biophysical properties of the phage capsid in high-temperature or low-pH conditions. Surprisingly, none of the seven unique mutations identified showed a pleiotropic cost; they all improved both growth rate and pH or temperature stability, suggesting that single mutations even in a simple genetic system can simultaneously improve two distinct traits. Selection on growth rate alone revealed tradeoffs, but some mutations still benefited both traits. Tradeoffs were therefore prevalent when selection acted on a single trait, but payoffs resulted when multiple traits were selected for simultaneously. We employed a molecular-dynamics simulation method to determine the mechanisms underlying beneficial effects for three heat-shock mutations. All three mutations significantly enhanced the affinities of protein-protein interfacial bindings, thereby improving capsid stability. The ancestral residues at the mutation sites did not contribute to protein-protein interfacial binding, indicating that these sites acquired a new function. Computational models, such as those used here, may be used in future work not only as

  9. Payoffs, not tradeoffs, in the adaptation of a virus to ostensibly conflicting selective pressures.

    PubMed

    McGee, Lindsey W; Aitchison, Erick W; Caudle, S Brian; Morrison, Anneliese J; Zheng, Lianqing; Yang, Wei; Rokyta, Darin R

    2014-10-01

    The genetic architecture of many phenotypic traits is such that genes often contribute to multiple traits, and mutations in these genes can therefore affect multiple phenotypes. These pleiotropic interactions often manifest as tradeoffs between traits where improvement in one property entails a cost in another. The life cycles of many pathogens include periods of growth within a host punctuated with transmission events, such as passage through a digestive tract or a passive stage of exposure in the environment. Populations exposed to such fluctuating selective pressures are expected to acquire mutations showing tradeoffs between reproduction within and survival outside of a host. We selected for individual mutations under fluctuating selective pressures for a ssDNA microvirid bacteriophage by alternating selection for increased growth rate with selection on biophysical properties of the phage capsid in high-temperature or low-pH conditions. Surprisingly, none of the seven unique mutations identified showed a pleiotropic cost; they all improved both growth rate and pH or temperature stability, suggesting that single mutations even in a simple genetic system can simultaneously improve two distinct traits. Selection on growth rate alone revealed tradeoffs, but some mutations still benefited both traits. Tradeoffs were therefore prevalent when selection acted on a single trait, but payoffs resulted when multiple traits were selected for simultaneously. We employed a molecular-dynamics simulation method to determine the mechanisms underlying beneficial effects for three heat-shock mutations. All three mutations significantly enhanced the affinities of protein-protein interfacial bindings, thereby improving capsid stability. The ancestral residues at the mutation sites did not contribute to protein-protein interfacial binding, indicating that these sites acquired a new function. Computational models, such as those used here, may be used in future work not only as

  10. An Adaptive Rear-End Collision Warning System for Drivers That Estimates Driving Phase and Selects Training Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Kazushi; Mima, Hiroki; Inoue, Yuta; Shibata, Tomohiro; Fukaya, Naoki; Hitomi, Kentaro; Bando, Takashi

    The paper proposes a rear-end collision warning system for drivers, where the collision risk is adaptively set from driving signals. The system employs the inverse of the time-to-collision with a constant relative acceleration as the risk and the one-class support vector machine as the anomaly detector. The system also utilizes brake sequences for outliers detection. When a brake sequence has a low likelihood with respect to trained hidden Markov models, the driving data during the sequence are removed from the training dataset. This data selection is confirmed to increase the robustness of the system by computer simulations.

  11. School Climate Factors in Selected Full-Service and Traditional Elementary Schools in a Southeastern City: Contrasts and Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwill, William L.; Parks, Alicia L.

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory comparison of traditional and full-service schools' climates is an initial step in determining their differences. The authors established whether selected full-service and traditional elementary schools differ on five school climate factors indicating the student and teacher body composition, the students' socioeconomic status,…

  12. Education Funding: A Brief to the Select Standing Committee on Finance and Government Services from the British Columbia Teachers' Federation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Students in British Columbia are being shortchanged in comparison to students elsewhere in Canada. The teachers of BC are urgently appealing to the Select Standing Committee on Finance and Government Services to recommend to government sufficient increases in education funding to reverse this situation and provide more educational services to BC…

  13. Phylodynamics of H1N1/2009 influenza reveals the transition from host adaptation to immune-driven selection

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yvonne C. F.; Bahl, Justin; Joseph, Udayan; Butt, Ka Man; Peck, Heidi A.; Koay, Evelyn S. C.; Oon, Lynette L. E.; Barr, Ian G.; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Smith, Gavin J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A H1N1/2009 virus that emerged from swine rapidly replaced the previous seasonal H1N1 virus. Although the early emergence and diversification of H1N1/2009 is well characterized, the ongoing evolutionary and global transmission dynamics of the virus remain poorly investigated. To address this we analyse >3,000 H1N1/2009 genomes, including 214 full genomes generated from our surveillance in Singapore, in conjunction with antigenic data. Here we show that natural selection acting on H1N1/2009 directly after introduction into humans was driven by adaptation to the new host. Since then, selection has been driven by immunological escape, with these changes corresponding to restricted antigenic diversity in the virus population. We also show that H1N1/2009 viruses have been subject to regular seasonal bottlenecks and a global reduction in antigenic and genetic diversity in 2014. PMID:26245473

  14. Phylodynamics of H1N1/2009 influenza reveals the transition from host adaptation to immune-driven selection.

    PubMed

    Su, Yvonne C F; Bahl, Justin; Joseph, Udayan; Butt, Ka Man; Peck, Heidi A; Koay, Evelyn S C; Oon, Lynette L E; Barr, Ian G; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Smith, Gavin J D

    2015-08-06

    Influenza A H1N1/2009 virus that emerged from swine rapidly replaced the previous seasonal H1N1 virus. Although the early emergence and diversification of H1N1/2009 is well characterized, the ongoing evolutionary and global transmission dynamics of the virus remain poorly investigated. To address this we analyse >3,000 H1N1/2009 genomes, including 214 full genomes generated from our surveillance in Singapore, in conjunction with antigenic data. Here we show that natural selection acting on H1N1/2009 directly after introduction into humans was driven by adaptation to the new host. Since then, selection has been driven by immunological escape, with these changes corresponding to restricted antigenic diversity in the virus population. We also show that H1N1/2009 viruses have been subject to regular seasonal bottlenecks and a global reduction in antigenic and genetic diversity in 2014.

  15. Selection of Reference Genes for Expression Studies of Xenobiotic Adaptation in Tetranychus urticae.

    PubMed

    Morales, Mariany Ashanty; Mendoza, Bianca Marie; Lavine, Laura Corley; Lavine, Mark Daniel; Walsh, Douglas Bruce; Zhu, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is an extensively used, high-throughput method to analyze transcriptional expression of genes of interest. An appropriate normalization strategy with reliable reference genes is required for calculating gene expression across diverse experimental conditions. In this study, we aim to identify the most stable reference genes for expression studies of xenobiotic adaptation in Tetranychus urticae, an extremely polyphagous herbivore causing significant yield reduction of agriculture. We chose eight commonly used housekeeping genes as candidates. The qRT-PCR expression data for these genes were evaluated from seven populations: a susceptible and three acaricide resistant populations feeding on lima beans, and three other susceptible populations which had been shifted host from lima beans to three other plant species. The stability of the candidate reference genes was then assessed using four different algorithms (comparative ΔCt method, geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper). Additionally, we used an online web-based tool (RefFinder) to assign an overall final rank for each candidate gene. Our study found that CycA and Rp49 are best for investigating gene expression in acaricide susceptible and resistant populations. GAPDH, Rp49, and Rpl18 are best for host plant shift studies. And GAPDH and Rp49 were the most stable reference genes when investigating gene expression under changes in both experimental conditions. These results will facilitate research in revealing molecular mechanisms underlying the xenobiotic adaptation of this notorious agricultural pest. PMID:27570487

  16. Robust Cell Detection of Histopathological Brain Tumor Images Using Sparse Reconstruction and Adaptive Dictionary Selection.

    PubMed

    Su, Hai; Xing, Fuyong; Yang, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Successful diagnostic and prognostic stratification, treatment outcome prediction, and therapy planning depend on reproducible and accurate pathology analysis. Computer aided diagnosis (CAD) is a useful tool to help doctors make better decisions in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Accurate cell detection is often an essential prerequisite for subsequent cellular analysis. The major challenge of robust brain tumor nuclei/cell detection is to handle significant variations in cell appearance and to split touching cells. In this paper, we present an automatic cell detection framework using sparse reconstruction and adaptive dictionary learning. The main contributions of our method are: 1) A sparse reconstruction based approach to split touching cells; 2) An adaptive dictionary learning method used to handle cell appearance variations. The proposed method has been extensively tested on a data set with more than 2000 cells extracted from 32 whole slide scanned images. The automatic cell detection results are compared with the manually annotated ground truth and other state-of-the-art cell detection algorithms. The proposed method achieves the best cell detection accuracy with a F1 score = 0.96.

  17. Micro-Level Adaptation, Macro-Level Selection, and the Dynamics of Market Partitioning.

    PubMed

    García-Díaz, César; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen; Péli, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a micro-foundation for dual market structure formation through partitioning processes in marketplaces by developing a computational model of interacting economic agents. We propose an agent-based modeling approach, where firms are adaptive and profit-seeking agents entering into and exiting from the market according to their (lack of) profitability. Our firms are characterized by large and small sunk costs, respectively. They locate their offerings along a unimodal demand distribution over a one-dimensional product variety, with the distribution peak constituting the center and the tails standing for the peripheries. We found that large firms may first advance toward the most abundant demand spot, the market center, and release peripheral positions as predicted by extant dual market explanations. However, we also observed that large firms may then move back toward the market fringes to reduce competitive niche overlap in the center, triggering nonlinear resource occupation behavior. Novel results indicate that resource release dynamics depend on firm-level adaptive capabilities, and that a minimum scale of production for low sunk cost firms is key to the formation of the dual structure.

  18. Micro-Level Adaptation, Macro-Level Selection, and the Dynamics of Market Partitioning

    PubMed Central

    García-Díaz, César; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen; Péli, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a micro-foundation for dual market structure formation through partitioning processes in marketplaces by developing a computational model of interacting economic agents. We propose an agent-based modeling approach, where firms are adaptive and profit-seeking agents entering into and exiting from the market according to their (lack of) profitability. Our firms are characterized by large and small sunk costs, respectively. They locate their offerings along a unimodal demand distribution over a one-dimensional product variety, with the distribution peak constituting the center and the tails standing for the peripheries. We found that large firms may first advance toward the most abundant demand spot, the market center, and release peripheral positions as predicted by extant dual market explanations. However, we also observed that large firms may then move back toward the market fringes to reduce competitive niche overlap in the center, triggering nonlinear resource occupation behavior. Novel results indicate that resource release dynamics depend on firm-level adaptive capabilities, and that a minimum scale of production for low sunk cost firms is key to the formation of the dual structure. PMID:26656107

  19. Selection of Reference Genes for Expression Studies of Xenobiotic Adaptation in Tetranychus urticae

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Mariany Ashanty; Mendoza, Bianca Marie; Lavine, Laura Corley; Lavine, Mark Daniel; Walsh, Douglas Bruce; Zhu, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is an extensively used, high-throughput method to analyze transcriptional expression of genes of interest. An appropriate normalization strategy with reliable reference genes is required for calculating gene expression across diverse experimental conditions. In this study, we aim to identify the most stable reference genes for expression studies of xenobiotic adaptation in Tetranychus urticae, an extremely polyphagous herbivore causing significant yield reduction of agriculture. We chose eight commonly used housekeeping genes as candidates. The qRT-PCR expression data for these genes were evaluated from seven populations: a susceptible and three acaricide resistant populations feeding on lima beans, and three other susceptible populations which had been shifted host from lima beans to three other plant species. The stability of the candidate reference genes was then assessed using four different algorithms (comparative ΔCt method, geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper). Additionally, we used an online web-based tool (RefFinder) to assign an overall final rank for each candidate gene. Our study found that CycA and Rp49 are best for investigating gene expression in acaricide susceptible and resistant populations. GAPDH, Rp49, and Rpl18 are best for host plant shift studies. And GAPDH and Rp49 were the most stable reference genes when investigating gene expression under changes in both experimental conditions. These results will facilitate research in revealing molecular mechanisms underlying the xenobiotic adaptation of this notorious agricultural pest. PMID:27570487

  20. Multifarious selection through environmental change: acidity and predator-mediated adaptive divergence in the moor frog (Rana arvalis).

    PubMed

    Egea-Serrano, Andrés; Hangartner, Sandra; Laurila, Anssi; Räsänen, Katja

    2014-04-01

    Environmental change can simultaneously cause abiotic stress and alter biological communities, yet adaptation of natural populations to co-changing environmental factors is poorly understood. We studied adaptation to acid and predator stress in six moor frog (Rana arvalis) populations along an acidification gradient, where abundance of invertebrate predators increases with increasing acidity of R. arvalis breeding ponds. First, we quantified divergence among the populations in anti-predator traits (behaviour and morphology) at different rearing conditions in the laboratory (factorial combinations of acid or neutral pH and the presence or the absence of a caged predator). Second, we evaluated relative fitness (survival) of the populations by exposing tadpoles from the different rearing conditions to predation by free-ranging dragonfly larvae. We found that morphological defences (relative tail depth) as well as survival of tadpoles under predation increased with increasing pond acidity (under most experimental conditions). Tail depth and larval size mediated survival differences among populations, but the contribution of trait divergence to survival was strongly dependent on prior rearing conditions. Our results indicate that R. arvalis populations are adapted to the elevated predator pressure in acidified ponds and emphasize the importance of multifarious selection via both direct (here: pH) and indirect (here: predators) environmental changes. PMID:24552840

  1. Multifarious selection through environmental change: acidity and predator-mediated adaptive divergence in the moor frog (Rana arvalis).

    PubMed

    Egea-Serrano, Andrés; Hangartner, Sandra; Laurila, Anssi; Räsänen, Katja

    2014-04-01

    Environmental change can simultaneously cause abiotic stress and alter biological communities, yet adaptation of natural populations to co-changing environmental factors is poorly understood. We studied adaptation to acid and predator stress in six moor frog (Rana arvalis) populations along an acidification gradient, where abundance of invertebrate predators increases with increasing acidity of R. arvalis breeding ponds. First, we quantified divergence among the populations in anti-predator traits (behaviour and morphology) at different rearing conditions in the laboratory (factorial combinations of acid or neutral pH and the presence or the absence of a caged predator). Second, we evaluated relative fitness (survival) of the populations by exposing tadpoles from the different rearing conditions to predation by free-ranging dragonfly larvae. We found that morphological defences (relative tail depth) as well as survival of tadpoles under predation increased with increasing pond acidity (under most experimental conditions). Tail depth and larval size mediated survival differences among populations, but the contribution of trait divergence to survival was strongly dependent on prior rearing conditions. Our results indicate that R. arvalis populations are adapted to the elevated predator pressure in acidified ponds and emphasize the importance of multifarious selection via both direct (here: pH) and indirect (here: predators) environmental changes.

  2. Experimental evolution: Assortative mating and sexual selection, independent of local adaptation, lead to reproductive isolation in the nematode Caenorhabditis remanei.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Dean M; Burger, Melissa K; Lively, Curtis M; Delph, Lynda F

    2015-12-01

    Using experimental evolution, we investigated the contributions of ecological divergence, sexual selection, and genetic drift to the evolution of reproductive isolation in Caenorhabditis remanei. The nematodes were reared on two different environments for 100 generations. They were assayed for fitness on both environments after 30, 64, and 100 generations, and hybrid fitness were analyzed after 64 and 100 generations. Mating propensity within and between populations was also analyzed. The design allowed us to determine whether local adaptation was synchronous with pre- and postzygotic reproductive isolation. Prezygotic isolation evolved quickly but was unconnected with adaptation to the divergent environments. Instead, prezygotic isolation was driven by mate preferences favoring individuals from the same replicate population. A bottleneck treatment, meant to enhance the opportunity for genetic drift, had no effect on prezygotic isolation. Postzygotic isolation occurred in crosses where at least one population had a large fitness advantage in its "home" environment. Taken together, our results suggest that prezygotic isolation did not depend on drift or adaptation to divergent environments, but instead resulted from differences in sexual interactions within individual replicates. Furthermore, our results suggest that postzygotic isolation can occur between populations even when only one population has greater fitness in its home environment. PMID:26542312

  3. Sexual selection and the adaptive evolution of PKDREJ protein in primates and rodents.

    PubMed

    Vicens, Alberto; Gómez Montoto, Laura; Couso-Ferrer, Francisco; Sutton, Keith A; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2015-02-01

    PKDREJ is a testis-specific protein thought to be located on the sperm surface. Functional studies in the mouse revealed that loss of PKDREJ has effects on sperm transport and the ability to undergo an induced acrosome reaction. Thus, PKDREJ has been considered a potential target of post-copulatory sexual selection in the form of sperm competition. Proteins involved in reproductive processes often show accelerated evolution. In many cases, this rapid divergence is promoted by positive selection which may be driven, at least in part, by post-copulatory sexual selection. We analysed the evolution of the PKDREJ protein in primates and rodents and assessed whether PKDREJ divergence is associated with testes mass relative to body mass, which is a reliable proxy of sperm competition levels. Evidence of an association between the evolutionary rate of the PKDREJ gene and testes mass relative to body mass was not found in primates. Among rodents, evidence of positive selection was detected in the Pkdrej gene in the family Cricetidae but not in Muridae. We then assessed whether Pkdrej divergence is associated with episodes of sperm competition in these families. We detected a positive significant correlation between the evolutionary rates of Pkdrej and testes mass relative to body mass in cricetids. These findings constitute the first evidence of post-copulatory sexual selection influencing the evolution of a protein that participates in the mechanisms regulating sperm transport and the acrosome reaction, strongly suggesting that positive selection may act on these fertilization steps, leading to advantages in situations of sperm competition. PMID:25304980

  4. The Israeli Long-Term Care Insurance Law: selected issues in providing home care services to the frail elderly.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Hillel

    2005-05-01

    The paper describes and analyses selected issues related to the provision of home care services to frail elderly people following the Israeli Long-Term Care Insurance Law (1988). The goals and principles of the Law, which mandates the provision of home care services to frail elderly people, are presented. The paper also evaluates its contribution toward enhancing the well-being of elderly clients. Several major dilemmas that arose following implementation of the Law are analysed and evaluated in comparison with other countries that have enacted and implemented similar laws. These dilemmas are community vs institutional care; services in kind vs monetary allowances; service provision through contracting out with nongovernmental agencies; unstable and unskilled labour force; and service quality. Finally, policy implications are discussed, mainly in the following areas: investment in human resources as a condition for achieving high service quality, and the need for coordination between the agencies that provide long-term care services to elderly people. PMID:15819740

  5. An Automated End-To Multi-Agent Qos Based Architecture for Selection of Geospatial Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, M.; Verma, Y.; Nandakumar, R.

    2012-07-01

    Over the past decade, Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Web services have gained wide popularity and acceptance from researchers and industries all over the world. SOA makes it easy to build business applications with common services, and it provides like: reduced integration expense, better asset reuse, higher business agility, and reduction of business risk. Building of framework for acquiring useful geospatial information for potential users is a crucial problem faced by the GIS domain. Geospatial Web services solve this problem. With the help of web service technology, geospatial web services can provide useful geospatial information to potential users in a better way than traditional geographic information system (GIS). A geospatial Web service is a modular application designed to enable the discovery, access, and chaining of geospatial information and services across the web that are often both computation and data-intensive that involve diverse sources of data and complex processing functions. With the proliferation of web services published over the internet, multiple web services may provide similar functionality, but with different non-functional properties. Thus, Quality of Service (QoS) offers a metric to differentiate the services and their service providers. In a quality-driven selection of web services, it is important to consider non-functional properties of the web service so as to satisfy the constraints or requirements of the end users. The main intent of this paper is to build an automated end-to-end multi-agent based solution to provide the best-fit web service to service requester based on QoS.

  6. IJS: An Intelligent Junction Selection Based Routing Protocol for VANET to Support ITS Services

    PubMed Central

    Khilar, Pabitra Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Selecting junctions intelligently for data transmission provides better intelligent transportation system (ITS) services. The main problem in vehicular communication is high disturbances of link connectivity due to mobility and less density of vehicles. If link conditions are predicted earlier, then there is a less chance of performance degradation. In this paper, an intelligent junction selection based routing protocol (IJS) is proposed to transmit the data in a quickest path, in which the vehicles are mostly connected and have less link connectivity problem. In this protocol, a helping vehicle is set at every junction to control the communication by predicting link failures or network gaps in a route. Helping vehicle at the junction produces a score for every neighboring junction to forward the data to the destination by considering the current traffic information and selects that junction which has minimum score. IJS protocol is implemented and compared with GyTAR, A-STAR, and GSR routing protocols. Simulation results show that IJS performs better in terms of average end-to-end delay, network gap encounter, and number of hops. PMID:27433485

  7. Treadmill Adaptation and Verification of Self-Selected Walking Speed: A Protocol for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amorim, Paulo Roberto S.; Hills, Andrew; Byrne, Nuala

    2009-01-01

    Walking is a common activity of daily life and researchers have used the range 3-6 km.h[superscript -1] as reference for walking speeds habitually used for transportation. The term self-selected (i.e., individual or comfortable walking pace or speed) is commonly used in the literature and is identified as the most efficient walking speed, with…

  8. Evolution in an Afternoon: Rapid Natural Selection and Adaptation of Bacterial Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delpech, Roger

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a simple, rapid and low-cost technique for growing bacteria (or other microbes) in an environmental gradient, in order to determine the tolerance of the microbial population to varying concentrations of sodium chloride ions, and suggests how the evolutionary response of a microbial population to the selection pressure of the…

  9. Selection for brain size impairs innate, but not adaptive immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Kolm, Niclas; Penn, Dustin J.

    2016-01-01

    Both the brain and the immune system are energetically demanding organs, and when natural selection favours increased investment into one, then the size or performance of the other should be reduced. While comparative analyses have attempted to test this potential evolutionary trade-off, the results remain inconclusive. To test this hypothesis, we compared the tissue graft rejection (an assay for measuring innate and acquired immune responses) in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) artificially selected for large and small relative brain size. Individual scales were transplanted between pairs of fish, creating reciprocal allografts, and the rejection reaction was scored over 8 days (before acquired immunity develops). Acquired immune responses were tested two weeks later, when the same pairs of fish received a second set of allografts and were scored again. Compared with large-brained animals, small-brained animals of both sexes mounted a significantly stronger rejection response to the first allograft. The rejection response to the second set of allografts did not differ between large- and small-brained fish. Our results show that selection for large brain size reduced innate immune responses to an allograft, which supports the hypothesis that there is a selective trade-off between investing into brain size and innate immunity. PMID:26962144

  10. Adaptive Model Predictive Control of Diesel Engine Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinley, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Selective catalytic reduction or SCR is coming into worldwide use for diesel engine emissions reduction for on- and off-highway vehicles. These applications are characterized by broad operating range as well as rapid and unpredictable changes in operating conditions. Significant nonlinearity, input and output constraints, and stringent performance…

  11. RESEARCH TOWARDS DEVELOPING METHODS FOR SELECTED PHARMACEUTICAL AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS (PPCPS) ADAPTED FOR BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development, standardization, and validation of analytical methods provides state-of-the-science

    techniques to evaluate the presence, or absence, of select PPCPs in biosolids. This research

    provides the approaches, methods, and tools to assess the exposures and redu...

  12. Item Selection in Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing--Gaining Information from Different Angles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Over the past thirty years, obtaining diagnostic information from examinees' item responses has become an increasingly important feature of educational and psychological testing. The objective can be achieved by sequentially selecting multidimensional items to fit the class of latent traits being assessed, and therefore Multidimensional…

  13. Adaptive homochromous disturbance elimination and feature selection based mean-shift vehicle tracking method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jie; Lei, Bo; Hong, Pu; Wang, Chensheng

    2011-11-01

    This paper introduces a novel method to adaptively diminish the effects of disturbance in the airborne camera shooting traffic video. Based on the moving vector of the tracked vehicle, a search area in the next frame is predicted, which is the area of interest (AOI) to the mean-shift method. Background color estimation is performed according to the previous tracking, which is used to judge whether there is possible disturbance in the predicted search area in the next frame. Without disturbance, the difference image of vehicle and background could be used as input features to the mean-shift algorithm; with disturbance, the histogram of colors in the predict area is calculated to find the most and second disturbing color. Experiments proved this method could diminish or eliminate the effects of homochromous disturbance and lead to more precise and more robust tracking.

  14. Historic Buildings of the Warsaw University of Technology - Selected Issues of Renovation, Modernisation and Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Anna Agata

    2016-06-01

    The historic buildings of the Warsaw University of Technology display not only outstanding architectural values, but are also representative of the trends in preservation, restoration, and adaptation that were prevalent at the time of their modernization. The post-war rebuilding of the WUT was more akin to modernization than reconstruction. But the freedom to shape modern architectural forms in the 1960s and '70s brought with it a lack of respect for their historic environment. A change in the approach to historic buildings and their integration with modern architecture came in the late 1970s. The most recent modernization of the WUT's historic buildings, especially after Poland's accession to the EU, resulted in many good examples of proper, harmonious integration between the `modern' and the `traditional'.

  15. Effects of Selected Task Performance Criteria at Initiating Adaptive Task Real locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Demaris A.

    2001-01-01

    In the current report various performance assessment methods used to initiate mode transfers between manual control and automation for adaptive task reallocation were tested. Participants monitored two secondary tasks for critical events while actively controlling a process in a fictional system. One of the secondary monitoring tasks could be automated whenever operators' performance was below acceptable levels. Automation of the secondary task and transfer of the secondary task back to manual control were either human- or machine-initiated. Human-initiated transfers were based on the operator's assessment of the current task demands while machine-initiated transfers were based on the operators' performance. Different performance assessment methods were tested in two separate experiments.

  16. Mapping quality of perception to quality of service for a runtime-adaptable communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fish, R. S.; Ghinea, George; Thomas, Johnson P.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper we describe collaborative work between two projects at the University of Reading. We define Quality of Perception (QoP) as representing the user side of the more technical and traditional Quality of Service (QoS). QoP is a term which encompasses not only a user's satisfaction with the quality of multimedia presentations, but also his/her ability to analyze, synthesize and assimilate the informational content of multimedia displays. The Dynamically Reconfigurable Protocol Stacks (DRoPS) project addresses issues of runtime reconfigurable transport systems. Network architectures that do not support resource reservation are unable to guarantee fundamental connection characteristics such as delay, jitter, throughput, loss and bit error rates. The DRoPS architecture supports low cost reconfiguration of individual protocol mechanisms in an attempt to best maintain QoP in connections where the provided QoS fluctuates unpredictably.

  17. Improving Naive Bayes with Online Feature Selection for Quick Adaptation to Evolving Feature Usefulness

    SciTech Connect

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J

    2007-09-19

    The definition of what makes an article interesting varies from user to user and continually evolves even for a single user. As a result, for news recommendation systems, useless document features can not be determined a priori and all features are usually considered for interestingness classification. Consequently, the presence of currently useless features degrades classification performance [1], particularly over the initial set of news articles being classified. The initial set of document is critical for a user when considering which particular news recommendation system to adopt. To address these problems, we introduce an improved version of the naive Bayes classifier with online feature selection. We use correlation to determine the utility of each feature and take advantage of the conditional independence assumption used by naive Bayes for online feature selection and classification. The augmented naive Bayes classifier performs 28% better than the traditional naive Bayes classifier in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! RSS feeds.

  18. Horseshoe bats make adaptive prey-selection decisions, informed by echo cues.

    PubMed

    Koselj, Klemen; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich; Siemers, Björn M

    2011-10-22

    Foragers base their prey-selection decisions on the information acquired by the sensory systems. In bats that use echolocation to find prey in darkness, it is not clear whether the specialized diet, as sometimes found by faecal analysis, is a result of active decision-making or rather of biased sensory information. Here, we tested whether greater horseshoe bats decide economically when to attack a particular prey item and when not. This species is known to recognize different insects based on their wing-beat pattern imprinted in the echoes. We built a simulation of the natural foraging process in the laboratory, where the bats scanned for prey from a perch and, upon reaching the decision to attack, intercepted the prey in flight. To fully control echo information available to the bats and assure its unambiguity, we implemented computer-controlled propellers that produced echoes resembling those from natural insects of differing profitability. The bats monitored prey arrivals to sample the supply of prey categories in the environment and to inform foraging decisions. The bats adjusted selectivity for the more profitable prey to its inter-arrival intervals as predicted by foraging theory (an economic strategy known to benefit fitness). Moreover, unlike in previously studied vertebrates, foraging performance of horseshoe bats was not limited by costly rejections of the profitable prey. This calls for further research into the evolutionary selection pressures that sharpened the species's decision-making capacity.

  19. Complex dynamics of selection and cellular memory in adaptation to a changing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kussell, Edo; Lin, Wei-Hsiang

    We study a synthetic evolutionary system in bacteria in which an antibiotic resistance gene is controlled by a stochastic on/off switching promoter. At the population level, this system displays all the basic ingredients for evolutionary selection, including diversity, fitness differences, and heritability. At the single cell level, physiological processes can modulate the ability of selection to act. We expose the stochastic switching strains to pulses of antibiotics of different durations in periodically changing environments using microfluidics. Small populations are tracked over a large number of periods at single cell resolution, allowing the visualization and quantification of selective sweeps and counter-sweeps at the population level, as well as detailed single cell analysis. A simple model is introduced to predict long-term population growth rates from single cell measurements, and reveals unexpected aspects of population dynamics, including cellular memory that acts on a fast timescale to modulate growth rates. This work is supported by NIH Grant No. R01-GM097356.

  20. Selective forces on origin, adaptation and reduction of tympanal ears in insects.

    PubMed

    Strauß, Johannes; Stumpner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Insect ears evolved many times independently. As a consequence, a striking diversity exists in the location, construction and behavioural implementation of ears. In this review, we first summarise what is known about the evolutionary origin of ears and the presumed precursor organs in the various insect groups. Thereafter, we focus on selective forces for making and keeping an ear: we discuss detecting and localising predators and conspecifics, including establishing new "private" channels for intraspecific communication. More advanced aspects involve judging the distance of conspecifics, or assessing individual quality from songs which makes auditory processing a means for exerting sexual selection on mating partners. We try to identify negative selective forces, mainly in the context of energy expenditure for developing and keeping an ear, but also in conjunction with acoustic communication, which incorporates risks like eavesdropping by predators and parasitoids. We then discuss balancing pressures, which might oppose optimising an ear for a specific task (when it serves different functions, for example). Subsequently, we describe various scenarios that might have led to a reduction or complete loss of ears in evolution. Finally, we describe cases of sex differences in ears and potential reasons for their appearance.

  1. Horseshoe bats make adaptive prey-selection decisions, informed by echo cues

    PubMed Central

    Koselj, Klemen; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich; Siemers, Björn M.

    2011-01-01

    Foragers base their prey-selection decisions on the information acquired by the sensory systems. In bats that use echolocation to find prey in darkness, it is not clear whether the specialized diet, as sometimes found by faecal analysis, is a result of active decision-making or rather of biased sensory information. Here, we tested whether greater horseshoe bats decide economically when to attack a particular prey item and when not. This species is known to recognize different insects based on their wing-beat pattern imprinted in the echoes. We built a simulation of the natural foraging process in the laboratory, where the bats scanned for prey from a perch and, upon reaching the decision to attack, intercepted the prey in flight. To fully control echo information available to the bats and assure its unambiguity, we implemented computer-controlled propellers that produced echoes resembling those from natural insects of differing profitability. The bats monitored prey arrivals to sample the supply of prey categories in the environment and to inform foraging decisions. The bats adjusted selectivity for the more profitable prey to its inter-arrival intervals as predicted by foraging theory (an economic strategy known to benefit fitness). Moreover, unlike in previously studied vertebrates, foraging performance of horseshoe bats was not limited by costly rejections of the profitable prey. This calls for further research into the evolutionary selection pressures that sharpened the species's decision-making capacity. PMID:21367788

  2. Siderophore production and the evolution of investment in a public good: An adaptive dynamics approach to kin selection.

    PubMed

    Lee, William; van Baalen, Minus; Jansen, Vincent A A

    2016-01-01

    Like many other bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa sequesters iron from the environment through the secretion, and subsequent uptake, of iron-binding molecules. As these molecules can be taken up by other bacteria in the population than those who secreted them, this is a form of cooperation through a public good. Traditionally, this problem has been studied by comparing the relative fitnesses of siderophore-producing and non-producing strains, but this gives no information about the fate of strains that do produce intermediate amounts of siderophores. Here, we investigate theoretically how the amount invested in this form of cooperation evolves. We use a mechanistic description of the laboratory protocols used in experimental evolution studies to describe the competition and cooperation of the bacteria. From this dynamical model we derive the fitness following the adaptive dynamics method. The results show how selection is driven by local siderophore production and local competition. Because siderophore production reduces the growth rate, local competition decreases with the degree of relatedness (which is a dynamical variable in our model). Our model is not restricted to the analysis of small phenotypic differences and allows for theoretical exploration of the effects of large phenotypic differences between cooperators and cheats. We predict that an intermediate ESS level of cooperation (molecule production) should exist. The adaptive dynamics approach allows us to assess evolutionary stability, which is often not possible in other kin-selection models. We found that selection can lead to an intermediate strategy which in our model is always evolutionarily stable, yet can allow invasion of strategies that are much more cooperative. Our model describes the evolution of a public good in the context of the ecology of the microorganism, which allows us to relate the extent of production of the public good to the details of the interactions. PMID:26471069

  3. Assessing incentives for service-level selection in private health insurance exchanges.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Thomas G; Newhouse, Joseph P; Normand, Sharon-Lise; Shi, Julie; Zuvekas, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    Even with open enrollment and mandated purchase, incentives created by adverse selection may undermine the efficiency of service offerings by plans in the new health insurance Exchanges created by the Affordable Care Act. Using data on persons likely to participate in Exchanges drawn from five waves of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, we measure plan incentives in two ways. First, we construct predictive ratios, improving on current methods by taking into account the role of premiums in financing plans. Second, relying on an explicit model of plan profit maximization, we measure incentives based on the predictability and predictiveness of various medical diagnoses. Among the chronic diseases studied, plans have the greatest incentive to skimp on care for cancer, and mental health and substance abuse.

  4. Assessing Incentives for Service-Level Selection In Private Health Insurance Exchanges

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Thomas G.; Newhouse, Joseph P.; Normand, Sharon-Lise; Shi, Julie; Zuvekas, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Even with open enrollment and mandated purchase, incentives created by adverse selection may undermine the efficiency of service offerings by plans in the new health insurance Exchanges created by the Affordable Care Act. Using data on persons likely to participate in Exchanges drawn from five waves of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, we measure plan incentives in two ways. First, we construct predictive ratios, improving on current methods by taking into account the role of premiums in financing plans. Second, relying on an explicit model of plan profit maximization, we measure incentives based on the predictability and predictiveness of various medical diagnoses. Among the chronic diseases studied, plans have the greatest incentive to skimp on care for cancer, and mental health and substance abuse. PMID:24603443

  5. Rain-Related Impacts on Selected Transportation Activities and Utility Services in the Chicago Area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertness, Jan

    1980-05-01

    An intensive meteorological study of summer precipitation in the Chicago area during 1976-78 furnished detailed data needed to perform a study of the impacts of rain on selected transportation-related activities and on certain utility services. Degree of effect on these activities was studied on a rain day versus non-rain day basis and further on a land use basis to help infer changes in impacts due to urban-influenced increases in rain occurrences, rainfall amounts and storm activity. Added rain resulted in over 100% more vehicle accidents, particularly in the urban area, but the accident severity associated with rain was greater in the rural areas. Rainfall decreased ridership of mass transit systems by 3-5% and apparently this was disproportionately due to midday discretionary riders such as shoppers. Little relationship of rain to pleasure boat emergencies was found but more rain decreased usage of pleasure boats. The number of delays in flight departures from O'Hare Airport was highly related to rain, increasing from only 0.3% of all flights delayed on non-rain days to 18.2% delayed on heavy (1.3 cm) rain days. The percentage of the total electrical power outage time which was due to storms varied greatly by power district, ranging from 33% to over 80%. In general, downtown Chicago experienced less time without power due to storms, than did suburban areas. Telephone service was unaffected by rain conditions in Chicago but usage was increased. The results of these selected impacts indicate that an urban-related increase in summer rainfall will lead to certain undesirable impacts on those traveling, particularly by auto or air.

  6. Adaptation of Sindbis virus to BHK cells selects for use of heparan sulfate as an attachment receptor.

    PubMed

    Klimstra, W B; Ryman, K D; Johnston, R E

    1998-09-01

    Attachment of Sindbis virus to the cell surface glycosaminoglycan heparan sulfate (HS) and the selection of this phenotype by cell culture adaptation were investigated. Virus (TR339) was derived from a cDNA clone representing the consensus sequence of strain AR339 (K. L. McKnight, D. A. Simpson, S. C. Lin, T. A. Knott, J. M. Polo, D. F. Pence, D. B. Johannsen, H. W. Heidner, N. L. Davis, and R. E. Johnston, J. Virol. 70:1981-1989, 1996) and from mutant clones containing either one or two dominant cell culture adaptations in the E2 structural glycoprotein (Arg instead of Ser at E2 position 1 [designated TRSB]) or this mutation plus Arg for Ser at E2 114 [designated TRSB-R114]). The consensus virus, TR339, bound to baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells very poorly. The mutation in TRSB increased binding 10- to 50-fold, and the additional mutation in TRSB-R114 increased binding 3- to 5-fold over TRSB. The magnitude of binding was positively correlated with the degree of cell culture adaptation and with attenuation of these viruses in neonatal mice. HS was identified as the attachment receptor for the mutant viruses by the following experimental results. (i) Low concentrations of soluble heparin inhibited plaque formation on and binding of mutant viruses to BHK cells by >95%. In contrast, TR339 showed minimal inhibition at high concentrations. (ii) Binding and infectivity of TRSB-R114 was sensitive to digestion of cell surface HS with heparinase III, and TRSB was sensitive to both heparinase I and heparinase III. TR339 infectivity was only slightly affected by either digestion. (iii) Radiolabeled TRSB and TRSB-R114 attached efficiently to heparin-agarose beads in binding assays, while TR339 showed virtually no binding. (iv) Binding and infectivity of TRSB and TRSB-R114, but not TR339, were greatly reduced on Chinese hamster ovary cells deficient in HS specifically or all glycosaminoglycans. (v) High-multiplicity-of-infection passage of TR339 on BHK cell cultures resulted in

  7. Adaptations and selection of harmful and other dinoflagellate species in upwelling systems. 2. Motility and migratory behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smayda, T. J.

    2010-04-01

    The motility and migrational behaviour of upwelling dinoflagellates as adaptations for growth in upwelling systems is evaluated. Traits considered include hydrodynamic streamlining; chain formation; motility rates of single cells and chains; adaptations to turbulence; turbulence sensing; and migrational scattering to avoid turbulence, including its role in the maintenance of indigenous populations. Motility rates are compared to vertical mixing and upwelling rates. Diverse combinations of cell shape, size and motility rates characterize the dinoflagellate species selected for growth in physically energetic upwelling systems. Specific or unique combinations of cell shape, size, propulsion system and swimming rate are not evident. The traits are shared with dinoflagellates generally, and probably reflect their swim-based ecology. Experimental evidence - primarily from Alexandrium catenella - suggests upwelling dinoflagellates can sense turbulence leading to three distinct, but coherent, adaptive responses: chain formation (in such species); increased swimming speed (including non-chain-forming species); and the capacity to re-orient swimming trajectory in response to changes in turbulence, and at time-scales appropriate to survival and growth in the turbulence field being experienced. The added swimming power that dinoflagellates gain through chain formation does not appear to be a major requirement for their selection or success in upwelling systems. Only three of the 42 most prominent dinoflagellates that bloom in eastern boundary upwelling systems form chains, a representation far below expectations. Most chain-forming dinoflagellates are excluded from those upwelling systems. The role of temperature in this exclusion is evaluated. Field and experimental evidence suggests that strong turbulence would be required to overwhelm the swimming-based ecology of the upwelling dinoflagellates and deter their blooms. The Yamazaki-Kamykowski model demonstrating that the

  8. Selection of library services by post-registration nursing, midwifery and health visiting students.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, J; Morrissey, C

    1996-06-01

    This paper describes a small-scale survey undertaken with 300 nurses, midwives and health visitors on post-registration courses and registered for the ENB Higher Award. The aim was threefold: first to examine reasons for electing to use particular libraries; second, the relationship between workplace, home, teaching site and choice of library services; and third, the use of library enquiry services. There was a 56% response rate to the postal questionnaire and results indicated that the key factor in selecting a library was availability of resources rather than convenience to home or workplace. The third largest group of respondents worked in community organizations with little or no on-site access to resources and were dependent on access to other libraries. Most who used the library for literature searching needed to seek help in spite of preliminary user education sessions. Similar levels of assistance were needed to locate journals and use the computerized book catalogue. The paper recommends explicit information on strategic entry points, necessity of a broad central collection, integration of information retrieval into post-registration courses, use of self-study packs, better trust/university liaison and recognition of the need for resource transfer from teaching to learning.

  9. An Adaptive Framework for Selecting Environmental Monitoring Protocols to Support Ocean Renewable Energy Development

    PubMed Central

    Shumchenia, Emily J.; Smith, Sarah L.; McCann, Jennifer; Carnevale, Michelle; Fugate, Grover; Kenney, Robert D.; King, John W.; Paton, Peter; Schwartz, Malia; Spaulding, Malcolm; Winiarski, Kristopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Offshore renewable energy developments (OREDs) are projected to become common in the United States over the next two decades. There are both a need and an opportunity to guide efforts to identify and track impacts to the marine ecosystem resulting from these installations. A monitoring framework and standardized protocols that can be applied to multiple types of ORED would streamline scientific study, management, and permitting at these sites. We propose an adaptive and reactive framework based on indicators of the likely changes to the marine ecosystem due to ORED. We developed decision trees to identify suites of impacts at two scales (demonstration and commercial) depending on energy (wind, tidal, and wave), structure (e.g., turbine), and foundation type (e.g., monopile). Impacts were categorized by ecosystem component (benthic habitat and resources, fish and fisheries, avian species, marine mammals, and sea turtles) and monitoring objectives were developed for each. We present a case study at a commercial-scale wind farm and develop a monitoring plan for this development that addresses both local and national environmental concerns. In addition, framework has provided a starting point for identifying global research needs and objectives for understanding of the potential effects of ORED on the marine environment. PMID:23319884

  10. An adaptive framework for selecting environmental monitoring protocols to support ocean renewable energy development.

    PubMed

    Shumchenia, Emily J; Smith, Sarah L; McCann, Jennifer; Carnevale, Michelle; Fugate, Grover; Kenney, Robert D; King, John W; Paton, Peter; Schwartz, Malia; Spaulding, Malcolm; Winiarski, Kristopher J

    2012-01-01

    Offshore renewable energy developments (OREDs) are projected to become common in the United States over the next two decades. There are both a need and an opportunity to guide efforts to identify and track impacts to the marine ecosystem resulting from these installations. A monitoring framework and standardized protocols that can be applied to multiple types of ORED would streamline scientific study, management, and permitting at these sites. We propose an adaptive and reactive framework based on indicators of the likely changes to the marine ecosystem due to ORED. We developed decision trees to identify suites of impacts at two scales (demonstration and commercial) depending on energy (wind, tidal, and wave), structure (e.g., turbine), and foundation type (e.g., monopile). Impacts were categorized by ecosystem component (benthic habitat and resources, fish and fisheries, avian species, marine mammals, and sea turtles) and monitoring objectives were developed for each. We present a case study at a commercial-scale wind farm and develop a monitoring plan for this development that addresses both local and national environmental concerns. In addition, framework has provided a starting point for identifying global research needs and objectives for understanding of the potential effects of ORED on the marine environment. PMID:23319884

  11. An adaptive framework for selecting environmental monitoring protocols to support ocean renewable energy development.

    PubMed

    Shumchenia, Emily J; Smith, Sarah L; McCann, Jennifer; Carnevale, Michelle; Fugate, Grover; Kenney, Robert D; King, John W; Paton, Peter; Schwartz, Malia; Spaulding, Malcolm; Winiarski, Kristopher J

    2012-01-01

    Offshore renewable energy developments (OREDs) are projected to become common in the United States over the next two decades. There are both a need and an opportunity to guide efforts to identify and track impacts to the marine ecosystem resulting from these installations. A monitoring framework and standardized protocols that can be applied to multiple types of ORED would streamline scientific study, management, and permitting at these sites. We propose an adaptive and reactive framework based on indicators of the likely changes to the marine ecosystem due to ORED. We developed decision trees to identify suites of impacts at two scales (demonstration and commercial) depending on energy (wind, tidal, and wave), structure (e.g., turbine), and foundation type (e.g., monopile). Impacts were categorized by ecosystem component (benthic habitat and resources, fish and fisheries, avian species, marine mammals, and sea turtles) and monitoring objectives were developed for each. We present a case study at a commercial-scale wind farm and develop a monitoring plan for this development that addresses both local and national environmental concerns. In addition, framework has provided a starting point for identifying global research needs and objectives for understanding of the potential effects of ORED on the marine environment.

  12. Adaptive steered molecular dynamics: Validation of the selection criterion and benchmarking energetics in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozer, Gungor; Quirk, Stephen; Hernandez, Rigoberto

    2012-06-01

    The potential of mean force (PMF) for stretching decaalanine in vacuum was determined earlier by Park and Schulten [J. Chem. Phys. 120, 5946 (2004)] in a landmark article demonstrating the efficacy of combining steered molecular dynamics and Jarzynski's nonequilibrium relation. In this study, the recently developed adaptive steered molecular dynamics (ASMD) algorithm [G. Ozer, E. Valeev, S. Quirk, and R. Hernandez, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 6, 3026 (2010)] is used to reproduce the PMF of the unraveling of decaalanine in vacuum by averaging over fewer nonequilibrium trajectories. The efficiency and accuracy of the method are demonstrated through the agreement with the earlier work by Park and Schulten, a series of convergence checks compared to alternate SMD pulling strategies, and an analytical proof. The nonequilibrium trajectories obtained through ASMD have also been used to analyze the intrapeptide hydrogen bonds along the stretching coordinate. As the decaalanine helix is stretched, the initially stabilized i → i + 4 contacts (α-helix) is replaced by i → i + 3 contacts (310-helix). No significant formation of i → i + 5 hydrogen bonds (π-helix) is observed.

  13. Adaptive temporal integration of motion in direction-selective neurons in macaque visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Bair, Wyeth; Movshon, J Anthony

    2004-08-18

    Direction-selective neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) and the extrastriate motion area MT/V5 constitute a critical channel that links early cortical mechanisms of spatiotemporal integration to downstream signals that underlie motion perception. We studied how temporal integration in direction-selective cells depends on speed, spatial frequency (SF), and contrast using randomly moving sinusoidal gratings and spike-triggered average (STA) analysis. The window of temporal integration revealed by the STAs varied substantially with stimulus parameters, extending farther back in time for slow motion, high SF, and low contrast. At low speeds and high SF, STA peaks were larger, indicating that a single spike often conveyed more information about the stimulus under conditions in which the mean firing rate was very low. The observed trends were similar in V1 and MT and offer a physiological correlate for a large body of psychophysical data on temporal integration. We applied the same visual stimuli to a model of motion detection based on oriented linear filters (a motion energy model) that incorporated an integrate-and-fire mechanism and found that it did not account for the neuronal data. Our results show that cortical motion processing in V1 and in MT is highly nonlinear and stimulus dependent. They cast considerable doubt on the ability of simple oriented filter models to account for the output of direction-selective neurons in a general manner. Finally, they suggest that spike rate tuning functions may miss important aspects of the neural coding of motion for stimulus conditions that evoke low firing rates. PMID:15317857

  14. Adaptive selection and coevolution at the proteins of the Polycomb repressive complexes in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Martín, J M; Librado, P; Aguadé, M; Papaceit, M; Segarra, C

    2016-02-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are important epigenetic regulatory proteins that modulate the chromatin state through posttranslational histone modifications. These interacting proteins form multimeric complexes that repress gene expression. Thus, PcG proteins are expected to evolve coordinately, which might be reflected in their phylogenetic trees by concordant episodes of positive selection and by a correlation in evolutionary rates. In order to detect these signals of coevolution, the molecular evolution of 17 genes encoding the subunits of five Polycomb repressive complexes has been analyzed in the Drosophila genus. The observed distribution of divergence differs substantially among and along proteins. Indeed, CAF1 is uniformly conserved, whereas only the established protein domains are conserved in other proteins, such as PHO, PHOL, PSC, PH-P and ASX. Moreover, regions with a low divergence not yet described as protein domains are present, for instance, in SFMBT and SU(Z)12. Maximum likelihood methods indicate an acceleration in the nonsynonymous substitution rate at the lineage ancestral to the obscura group species in most genes encoding subunits of the Pcl-PRC2 complex and in genes Sfmbt, Psc and Kdm2. These methods also allow inferring the action of positive selection in this lineage at genes E(z) and Sfmbt. Finally, the protein interaction network predicted from the complete proteomes of 12 Drosophila species using a coevolutionary approach shows two tight PcG clusters. These clusters include well-established binary interactions among PcG proteins as well as new putative interactions.

  15. Aging-associated inflammation promotes selection for adaptive oncogenic events in B cell progenitors.

    PubMed

    Henry, Curtis J; Casás-Selves, Matias; Kim, Jihye; Zaberezhnyy, Vadym; Aghili, Leila; Daniel, Ashley E; Jimenez, Linda; Azam, Tania; McNamee, Eoin N; Clambey, Eric T; Klawitter, Jelena; Serkova, Natalie J; Tan, Aik Choon; Dinarello, Charles A; DeGregori, James

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of cancer is higher in the elderly; however, many of the underlying mechanisms for this association remain unexplored. Here, we have shown that B cell progenitors in old mice exhibit marked signaling, gene expression, and metabolic defects. Moreover, B cell progenitors that developed from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) transferred from young mice into aged animals exhibited similar fitness defects. We further demonstrated that ectopic expression of the oncogenes BCR-ABL, NRAS(V12), or Myc restored B cell progenitor fitness, leading to selection for oncogenically initiated cells and leukemogenesis specifically in the context of an aged hematopoietic system. Aging was associated with increased inflammation in the BM microenvironment, and induction of inflammation in young mice phenocopied aging-associated B lymphopoiesis. Conversely, a reduction of inflammation in aged mice via transgenic expression of α-1-antitrypsin or IL-37 preserved the function of B cell progenitors and prevented NRAS(V12)-mediated oncogenesis. We conclude that chronic inflammatory microenvironments in old age lead to reductions in the fitness of B cell progenitor populations. This reduced progenitor pool fitness engenders selection for cells harboring oncogenic mutations, in part due to their ability to correct aging-associated functional defects. Thus, modulation of inflammation--a common feature of aging--has the potential to limit aging-associated oncogenesis.

  16. Evidence that selected amplification of a bacterial lac frameshift allele stimulates Lac(+) reversion (adaptive mutation) with or without general hypermutability.

    PubMed Central

    Slechta, E Susan; Liu, Jing; Andersson, Dan I; Roth, John R

    2002-01-01

    In the genetic system of Cairns and Foster, a nongrowing population of an E. coli lac frameshift mutant appears to specifically accumulate Lac(+) revertants when starved on medium including lactose (adaptive mutation). This behavior has been attributed to stress-induced general mutagenesis in a subpopulation of starved cells (the hypermutable state model). We have suggested that, on the contrary, stress has no direct effect on mutability but favors only growth of cells that amplify their leaky mutant lac region (the amplification mutagenesis model). Selection enhances reversion primarily by increasing the mutant lac copy number within each developing clone on the selection plate. The observed general mutagenesis is attributed to a side effect of growth with an amplification-induction of SOS by DNA fragments released from a tandem array of lac copies. Here we show that the S. enterica version of the Cairns system shows SOS-dependent general mutagenesis and behaves in every way like the original E. coli system. In both systems, lac revertants are mutagenized during selection. Eliminating the 35-fold increase in mutation rate reduces revertant number only 2- to 4-fold. This discrepancy is due to continued growth of amplification cells until some clones manage to revert without mutagenesis solely by increasing their lac copy number. Reversion in the absence of mutagenesis is still dependent on RecA function, as expected if it depends on lac amplification (a recombination-dependent process). These observations support the amplification mutagenesis model. PMID:12136002

  17. On the definition of adapted audio/video profiles for high-quality video calling services over LTE/4G

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndiaye, Maty; Quinquis, Catherine; Larabi, Mohamed Chaker; Le Lay, Gwenael; Saadane, Hakim; Perrine, Clency

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, the important advances and widespread availability of mobile technology (operating systems, GPUs, terminal resolution and so on) have encouraged a fast development of voice and video services like video-calling. While multimedia services have largely grown on mobile devices, the generated increase of data consumption is leading to the saturation of mobile networks. In order to provide data with high bit-rates and maintain performance as close as possible to traditional networks, the 3GPP (The 3rd Generation Partnership Project) worked on a high performance standard for mobile called Long Term Evolution (LTE). In this paper, we aim at expressing recommendations related to audio and video media profiles (selection of audio and video codecs, bit-rates, frame-rates, audio and video formats) for a typical video-calling services held over LTE/4G mobile networks. These profiles are defined according to targeted devices (smartphones, tablets), so as to ensure the best possible quality of experience (QoE). Obtained results indicate that for a CIF format (352 x 288 pixels) which is usually used for smartphones, the VP8 codec provides a better image quality than the H.264 codec for low bitrates (from 128 to 384 kbps). However sequences with high motion, H.264 in slow mode is preferred. Regarding audio, better results are globally achieved using wideband codecs offering good quality except for opus codec (at 12.2 kbps).

  18. The attractiveness fragment—AFLP analysis of local adaptation and sexual selection in a caeliferan grasshopper, Chorthippus biguttulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klappert, Kirsten; Butlin, Roger K.; Reinhold, Klaus

    2007-08-01

    Genetic variability among males is a necessary precondition for the evolution of female choice based on indirect genetic benefits. In addition to mutations and host parasite cycles, migration of locally adapted individuals offers an explanation for the maintenance of genetic variability. In a previous study, conducting a reciprocal transplant experiment on a grasshopper, Chorthippus biguttulus, we found that environmental conditions significantly influenced not only body condition but also an important trait of male calling song, the amplitude of song. Although not significant, all other analysed physical and courtship song traits and attractiveness were superior in native than in transferred males. Thus, we concluded that local adaptation has a slight but consistent influence on a range of traits in our study populations, including male acoustic attractiveness. In our present study, we scanned male grasshoppers from the same two populations for amplification fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) loci connected with acoustic attractiveness to conspecific females. We found greater differences in allele frequencies between the two populations, for some loci, than are expected from a balance between drift and gene flow. These loci are potentially connected with locally adapted traits. We examined whether these alleles show the proposed genotype environment interaction by having different associations with attractiveness in the two populations. One locus was significantly related to sexual attractiveness; however, this was independent of the males’ population affiliation. Future research on the evolution of female choice will benefit from knowledge of the underlying genetic architecture of male traits under intraspecific sexual selection, and the ‘population genomics’ approach can be a powerful tool for revealing this structure.

  19. Adaptive selective relaying in cooperative free-space optical systems over atmospheric turbulence and misalignment fading channels.

    PubMed

    Boluda-Ruiz, Rubén; García-Zambrana, Antonio; Castillo-Vázquez, Carmen; Castillo-Vázquez, Beatriz

    2014-06-30

    In this paper, a novel adaptive cooperative protocol with multiple relays using detect-and-forward (DF) over atmospheric turbulence channels with pointing errors is proposed. The adaptive DF cooperative protocol here analyzed is based on the selection of the optical path, source-destination or different source-relay links, with a greater value of fading gain or irradiance, maintaining a high diversity order. Closed-form asymptotic bit error-rate (BER) expressions are obtained for a cooperative free-space optical (FSO) communication system with Nr relays, when the irradiance of the transmitted optical beam is susceptible to either a wide range of turbulence conditions, following a gamma-gamma distribution of parameters α and β, or pointing errors, following a misalignment fading model where the effect of beam width, detector size and jitter variance is considered. A greater robustness for different link distances and pointing errors is corroborated by the obtained results if compared with similar cooperative schemes or equivalent multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. Simulation results are further demonstrated to confirm the accuracy and usefulness of the derived results. PMID:24977911

  20. Fast and adaptive method for SAR superresolution imaging based on point scattering model and optimal basis selection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng-ming; Wang, Wei-wei

    2009-07-01

    A novel fast and adaptive method for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) superresolution imaging is developed. Based on the point scattering model in the phase history domain, a dictionary is constructed so that the superresolution imaging process can be converted to a problem of sparse parameter estimation. The approximate orthogonality of this dictionary is exploited by theoretical derivation and experimental verification. Based on the orthogonality of the dictionary, we propose a fast algorithm for basis selection. Meanwhile, a threshold for obtaining the number and positions of the scattering centers is determined automatically from the inner product curves of the bases and observed data. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the threshold on estimation performance is analyzed. To reduce the burden of mass calculation and memory, a simplified superresolution imaging process is designed according to the characteristics of the imaging parameters. The experimental results of the simulated images and an MSTAR image illustrate the validity of this method and its robustness in the case of the high noise level. Compared with the traditional regularization method with the sparsity constraint, our proposed method suffers less computation complexity and has better adaptability.