Science.gov

Sample records for adaptive service selection

  1. Service Selection Adaptation Through Anticipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Carbonell, Juan Jesús

    2008-10-01

    Services provided by organizations and public administration to end users, are based, in most of the cases, in accurate user identification. This identification can be done, among other possibilities, through the use of digital certificates. Certification Authorities (CA) are the organizations that provide information about the certificates' state to the Validation Authorities that are the organizations responsible for the validation of the information about user's certificate. Because the validation of a digital certificate will be a key element in users identification, it is cautious to use several Validation Authorities (VA), choosing one of them in each case a validation is needed. In this paper we approach the mechanism of service provider selection under the point of view of Anticipation and Incursion. In this case we consider the selection of the Validation Authority that provides the validation service as a selection process in which the system makes decisions according to the current state, the previous states, a set of specific parameters and the future state, that is to say, it is an Incursive System. Furthermore, as long as there are several Validation Authorities, we can consider that we are dealing with a hyperincursive system with several possible states to be reached.

  2. An Adaptive Sensor Data Segments Selection Method for Wearable Health Care Services.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Yeh; Lai, Chin-Feng; Hwang, Ren-Hung; Lai, Ying-Hsun; Wang, Ming-Shi

    2015-12-01

    As cloud computing and wearable devices technologies mature, relevant services have grown more and more popular in recent years. The healthcare field is one of the popular services for this technology that adopts wearable devices to sense signals of negative physiological events, and to notify users. The development and implementation of long-term healthcare monitoring that can prevent or quickly respond to the occurrence of disease and accidents present an interesting challenge for computing power and energy limits. This study proposed an adaptive sensor data segments selection method for wearable health care services, and considered the sensing frequency of the various signals from human body, as well as the data transmission among the devices. The healthcare service regulates the sensing frequency of devices by considering the overall cloud computing environment and the sensing variations of wearable health care services. The experimental results show that the proposed service can effectively transmit the sensing data and prolong the overall lifetime of health care services. PMID:26490152

  3. Adaptive Service Binding with Lightweight Semantic Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrinaci, Carlos; Lambert, Dave; Maleshkova, Maria; Liu, Dong; Domingue, John; Krummenacher, Reto

    Adaptive service selection is acknowledged to provide a certain number of advantages to optimise the service provisioning process or to cater for advanced service brokering. Semantic Web Services, that is services that have been enriched with semantic annotations have often been used for providing adaptive service selection by deferring the binding of services until runtime. Thus far, however, research on Semantic Web Services has mainly been dominated by rich conceptual frameworks such as WSMO and OWL-S which require a significant effort towards the annotation of services and rely on complex reasoning for which there are no efficient solutions that can scale to the Web yet. In this chapter, inline with current trends on the Semantic Web that sacrifice expressivity in favour of performance, we present a novel approach to providing adaptive service selection that relies on simple conceptual models for services and less expressive formalisms for which there currently exist mature and performant implementations. In particular, we present a set of conceptual models defined in RDF(S) that support both Web services and Web APIs and we show how simple templates abstracting user requirements can be automatically transformed into SPARQL to enable service selection in a scalable manner.

  4. Model for adaptive multimedia services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forstadius, Jari; Ala-Kurikka, Jussi; Koivisto, Antti T.; Sauvola, Jaakko J.

    2001-11-01

    Development towards high-bandwidth wireless devices that are capable of processing complex, streaming multimedia is enabling a new breed of network-based media services. Coping with the diversity of network and device capabilities requires services to be flexible and able to adapt to the needs and limitations of the environment at hand. Before efficient deployment, multi-platform services require additional issues to be considered, e.g. content handling, digital rights management, adaptability of content, user profiling, provisioning, and the available access methods. The key issue is how the content and the service is being modelled and stored for inauguration. We propose a new service content model based on persistent media objects able to store and manage XHTML-based multimedia services. In our approach, media, content summaries, and other meta-information are stored within media objects that can be queried from the object database. The content of the media objects can also specify queries to the database and links to other media objects. The final presentation is created dynamically according to the service request and user profiles. Our approach allows for dynamic updating of the service database together with user group management, and provides a method for notifying the registered users by different smart messaging methods, e.g. via e-mail or a SMS message. The model is demonstrated with an 'ice-hockey service' running in our platform called Princess. The service also utilizes SMIL and key frame techniques for the video representation.

  5. [Peculiarities of adaptation of servicemen service].

    PubMed

    Shelepov, A M; Smagulov, N K; Mukhametzhanov, A M

    2012-09-01

    Review of issues about the adaptation of servicemen in the process of military service is presented. Characteristics of military service, conditions and levels of official-military activity, peculiarities of adaptation, factors providing progression of psychosomatic diseases and dysaptation, concept "occupational health" are considered. PMID:23156112

  6. Selected Health Service Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Arthur D.

    Prepared by an occupational analyst of the Utah Department of Employment Security, this manual provides job guides for 39 health service occupations concerned mainly with doctors, nurses, and related hospital-medical-health consultants and services. Classified according to "The Dictionary of Occupational Titles," each occupational description…

  7. Adapting Service Quality Concepts to Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Discusses limitations and possibilities of the service quality model, originally developed in a commercial environment, for academic libraries. Examines ways in which the model can be adapted to library reference services, access services, document delivery, and collection development. (62 references) (Author/AEF)

  8. Event selection services in ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranshaw, J.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Gallas, E.; Hrivnac, J.; Kenyon, M.; McGlone, H.; Malon, D.; Mambelli, M.; Nowak, M.; Viegas, F.; Vinek, E.; Zhang, Q.

    2010-04-01

    ATLAS has developed and deployed event-level selection services based upon event metadata records ("TAGS") and supporting file and database technology. These services allow physicists to extract events that satisfy their selection predicates from any stage of data processing and use them as input to later analyses. One component of these services is a web-based Event-Level Selection Service Interface (ELSSI). ELSSI supports event selection by integrating run-level metadata, luminosity-block-level metadata (e.g., detector status and quality information), and event-by-event information (e.g., triggers passed and physics content). The list of events that survive after some selection criterion is returned in a form that can be used directly as input to local or distributed analysis; indeed, it is possible to submit a skimming job directly from the ELSSI interface using grid proxy credential delegation. ELSSI allows physicists to explore ATLAS event metadata as a means to understand, qualitatively and quantitatively, the distributional characteristics of ATLAS data. In fact, the ELSSI service provides an easy interface to see the highest missing ET events or the events with the most leptons, to count how many events passed a given set of triggers, or to find events that failed a given trigger but nonetheless look relevant to an analysis based upon the results of offline reconstruction, and more. This work provides an overview of ATLAS event-level selection services, with an emphasis upon the interactive Event-Level Selection Service Interface.

  9. Context aware adaptive security service model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunia, Marcin A.

    2015-09-01

    Present systems and devices are usually protected against different threats concerning digital data processing. The protection mechanisms consume resources, which are either highly limited or intensively utilized by many entities. The optimization of these resources usage is advantageous. The resources that are saved performing optimization may be utilized by other mechanisms or may be sufficient for longer time. It is usually assumed that protection has to provide specific quality and attack resistance. By interpreting context situation of business services - users and services themselves, it is possible to adapt security services parameters to countermeasure threats associated with current situation. This approach leads to optimization of used resources and maintains sufficient security level. This paper presents architecture of adaptive security service, which is context-aware and exploits quality of context data issue.

  10. Modeling Adaptable Business Service for Enterprise Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukadi, Khouloud; Vincent, Lucien; Burlat, Patrick

    Nowadays, a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) seems to be one of the most promising paradigms for leveraging enterprise information systems. SOA creates opportunities for enterprises to provide value added service tailored for on demand enterprise collaboration. With the emergence and rapid development of Web services technologies, SOA is being paid increasing attention and has become widespread. In spite of the popularity of SOA, a standardized framework for modeling and implementing business services are still in progress. For the purpose of supporting these service-oriented solutions, we adopt a model driven development approach. This paper outlines the Contextual Service Oriented Modeling and Analysis (CSOMA) methodology and presents UML profiles for the PIM level service-oriented architectural modeling, as well as its corresponding meta-models. The proposed PIM (Platform Independent Model) describes the business SOA at a high level of abstraction regardless of techniques involved in the application employment. In addition, all essential service-specific concerns required for delivering quality and context-aware service are covered. Some of the advantages of this approach are that it is generic and thus not closely allied with Web service technology as well as specifically treating the service adaptability during the design stage.

  11. Parental Expectations about Adapted Physical Education Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaapel, Holly; Columna, Luis; Lytle, Rebecca; Bailey, JoEllen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the expectations of parents of children with disabilities regarding adapted physical education services. Participants ("N" = 10) were parents of children with disabilities. Parents participated in one-on-one semistructured interviews. Transcripts were analyzed through a constant comparative…

  12. Adaptive link selection algorithms for distributed estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Songcen; de Lamare, Rodrigo C.; Poor, H. Vincent

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents adaptive link selection algorithms for distributed estimation and considers their application to wireless sensor networks and smart grids. In particular, exhaustive search-based least mean squares (LMS) / recursive least squares (RLS) link selection algorithms and sparsity-inspired LMS / RLS link selection algorithms that can exploit the topology of networks with poor-quality links are considered. The proposed link selection algorithms are then analyzed in terms of their stability, steady-state, and tracking performance and computational complexity. In comparison with the existing centralized or distributed estimation strategies, the key features of the proposed algorithms are as follows: (1) more accurate estimates and faster convergence speed can be obtained and (2) the network is equipped with the ability of link selection that can circumvent link failures and improve the estimation performance. The performance of the proposed algorithms for distributed estimation is illustrated via simulations in applications of wireless sensor networks and smart grids.

  13. Adaptive multisatellite systems for aeronautical services.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bisaga, J. J.; Redisch, W. N.

    1971-01-01

    The use of satellite systems to provide operational communications and ATC services to aircraft flying the oceanic routes has been the subject of considerable interest recently. Since most of the link factors are functions of geometry and the aircraft traffic density varies with time, the satellite power needed to meet the communication demand varies considerably in an oceanic area as a function of both location and time. An adaptive system that tailors the use of system resources to the needs of the user can result in an additional system capacity improvement by a factor of between two and three. Results of studies conducted to date indicate that simple implementation of adaptive techniques in aeronautical satellite systems is feasible. Study is continuing in this area and on the application of satellite multibeam techniques to gain even further increase in capacity.

  14. The VIADUC project: innovation in climate adaptation through service design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corre, L.; Dandin, P.; L'Hôte, D.; Besson, F.

    2015-07-01

    From the French National Adaptation to Climate Change Plan, the "Drias, les futurs du climat" service has been developed to provide easy access to French regional climate projections. This is a major step for the implementation of French Climate Services. The usefulness of this service for the end-users and decision makers involved with adaptation planning at a local scale is investigated. As such, the VIADUC project is: to evaluate and enhance Drias, as well as to imagine future development in support of adaptation. Climate scientists work together with end-users and a service designer. The designer's role is to propose an innovative approach based on the interaction between scientists and citizens. The chosen end-users are three Natural Regional Parks located in the South West of France. The latter parks are administrative entities which gather municipalities having a common natural and cultural heritage. They are also rural areas in which specific economic activities take place, and therefore are concerned and involved in both protecting their environment and setting-up sustainable economic development. The first year of the project has been dedicated to investigation including the questioning of relevant representatives. Three key local economic sectors have been selected: i.e. forestry, pastoral farming and building activities. Working groups were composed of technicians, administrative and maintenance staff, policy makers and climate researchers. The sectors' needs for climate information have been assessed. The lessons learned led to actions which are presented hereinafter.

  15. Service Orientation as a Selection Criterion for Public Services Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Gillian; Allen, Bryce

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the use of service orientation as a selection criterion for public services librarians in public and academic libraries. Analysis of job advertisements and data collected by questionnaires sent to a sample of individuals responsible for hiring public services librarians indicated the importance of service orientation. (three…

  16. Adaptive Cognitive-Based Selection of Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karampiperis, Pythagoras; Lin, Taiyu; Sampson, Demetrios G.; Kinshuk

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive cognitive-based selection is recognized as among the most significant open issues in adaptive web-based learning systems. In order to adaptively select learning resources, the definition of adaptation rules according to the cognitive style or learning preferences of the learners is required. Although some efforts have been reported in…

  17. Dynamic selection mechanism for quality of service aware web services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Mello, Demian Antony; Ananthanarayana, V. S.

    2010-02-01

    A web service is an interface of the software component that can be accessed by standard Internet protocols. The web service technology enables an application to application communication and interoperability. The increasing number of web service providers throughout the globe have produced numerous web services providing the same or similar functionality. This necessitates the use of tools and techniques to search the suitable services available over the Web. UDDI (universal description, discovery and integration) is the first initiative to find the suitable web services based on the requester's functional demands. However, the requester's requirements may also include non-functional aspects like quality of service (QoS). In this paper, the authors define a QoS model for QoS aware and business driven web service publishing and selection. The authors propose a QoS requirement format for the requesters, to specify their complex demands on QoS for the web service selection. The authors define a tree structure called quality constraint tree (QCT) to represent the requester's variety of requirements on QoS properties having varied preferences. The paper proposes a QoS broker based architecture for web service selection, which facilitates the requesters to specify their QoS requirements to select qualitatively optimal web service. A web service selection algorithm is presented, which ranks the functionally similar web services based on the degree of satisfaction of the requester's QoS requirements and preferences. The paper defines web service provider qualities to distinguish qualitatively competitive web services. The paper also presents the modelling and selection mechanism for the requester's alternative constraints defined on the QoS. The authors implement the QoS broker based system to prove the correctness of the proposed web service selection mechanism.

  18. An adaptive selective frequency damping method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordi, Bastien; Cotter, Colin; Sherwin, Spencer

    2015-03-01

    The selective frequency damping (SFD) method is used to obtain unstable steady-state solutions of dynamical systems. The stability of this method is governed by two parameters that are the control coefficient and the filter width. Convergence is not guaranteed for arbitrary choice of these parameters. Even when the method does converge, the time necessary to reach a steady-state solution may be very long. We present an adaptive SFD method. We show that by modifying the control coefficient and the filter width all along the solver execution, we can reach an optimum convergence rate. This method is based on successive approximations of the dominant eigenvalue of the flow studied. We design a one-dimensional model to select SFD parameters that enable us to control the evolution of the least stable eigenvalue of the system. These parameters are then used for the application of the SFD method to the multi-dimensional flow problem. We apply this adaptive method to a set of classical test cases of computational fluid dynamics and show that the steady-state solutions obtained are similar to what can be found in the literature. Then we apply it to a specific vortex dominated flow (of interest for the automotive industry) whose stability had never been studied before. Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission - ANADE project under Grant Contract PITN-GA-289428.

  19. A Teacher's Guide to Selective Service Registration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selective Service System, Washington, DC.

    This guide is designed to assist high school teachers in their preparation of lessons covering the Selective Service System. The guide is organized into seven chapters. Chapter 1 describes Selective Service as it exists today, explains the registration process and its role in the national defense system, details who must register, and emphasizes…

  20. Cloud service selection using multicriteria decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Whaiduzzaman, Md; Gani, Abdullah; Anuar, Nor Badrul; Shiraz, Muhammad; Haque, Mohammad Nazmul; Haque, Israat Tanzeena

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing (CC) has recently been receiving tremendous attention from the IT industry and academic researchers. CC leverages its unique services to cloud customers in a pay-as-you-go, anytime, anywhere manner. Cloud services provide dynamically scalable services through the Internet on demand. Therefore, service provisioning plays a key role in CC. The cloud customer must be able to select appropriate services according to his or her needs. Several approaches have been proposed to solve the service selection problem, including multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA). MCDA enables the user to choose from among a number of available choices. In this paper, we analyze the application of MCDA to service selection in CC. We identify and synthesize several MCDA techniques and provide a comprehensive analysis of this technology for general readers. In addition, we present a taxonomy derived from a survey of the current literature. Finally, we highlight several state-of-the-art practical aspects of MCDA implementation in cloud computing service selection. The contributions of this study are four-fold: (a) focusing on the state-of-the-art MCDA techniques, (b) highlighting the comparative analysis and suitability of several MCDA methods, (c) presenting a taxonomy through extensive literature review, and (d) analyzing and summarizing the cloud computing service selections in different scenarios. PMID:24696645

  1. Cloud Service Selection Using Multicriteria Decision Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Anuar, Nor Badrul; Shiraz, Muhammad; Haque, Israat Tanzeena

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing (CC) has recently been receiving tremendous attention from the IT industry and academic researchers. CC leverages its unique services to cloud customers in a pay-as-you-go, anytime, anywhere manner. Cloud services provide dynamically scalable services through the Internet on demand. Therefore, service provisioning plays a key role in CC. The cloud customer must be able to select appropriate services according to his or her needs. Several approaches have been proposed to solve the service selection problem, including multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA). MCDA enables the user to choose from among a number of available choices. In this paper, we analyze the application of MCDA to service selection in CC. We identify and synthesize several MCDA techniques and provide a comprehensive analysis of this technology for general readers. In addition, we present a taxonomy derived from a survey of the current literature. Finally, we highlight several state-of-the-art practical aspects of MCDA implementation in cloud computing service selection. The contributions of this study are four-fold: (a) focusing on the state-of-the-art MCDA techniques, (b) highlighting the comparative analysis and suitability of several MCDA methods, (c) presenting a taxonomy through extensive literature review, and (d) analyzing and summarizing the cloud computing service selections in different scenarios. PMID:24696645

  2. Efficiently Selecting the Best Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, Marlene; Vidal, Maria-Esther; Regalado, Alfredo; Yacoubi Ayadi, Nadia

    Emerging technologies and linking data initiatives have motivated the publication of a large number of datasets, and provide the basis for publishing Web services and tools to manage the available data. This wealth of resources opens a world of possibilities to satisfy user requests. However, Web services may have similar functionality and assess different performance; therefore, it is required to identify among the Web services that satisfy a user request, the ones with the best quality. In this paper we propose a hybrid approach that combines reasoning tasks with ranking techniques to aim at the selection of the Web services that best implement a user request. Web service functionalities are described in terms of input and output attributes annotated with existing ontologies, non-functionality is represented as Quality of Services (QoS) parameters, and user requests correspond to conjunctive queries whose sub-goals impose restrictions on the functionality and quality of the services to be selected. The ontology annotations are used in different reasoning tasks to infer service implicit properties and to augment the size of the service search space. Furthermore, QoS parameters are considered by a ranking metric to classify the services according to how well they meet a user non-functional condition. We assume that all the QoS parameters of the non-functional condition are equally important, and apply the Top-k Skyline approach to select the k services that best meet this condition. Our proposal relies on a two-fold solution which fires a deductive-based engine that performs different reasoning tasks to discover the services that satisfy the requested functionality, and an efficient implementation of the Top-k Skyline approach to compute the top-k services that meet the majority of the QoS constraints. Our Top-k Skyline solution exploits the properties of the Skyline Frequency metric and identifies the top-k services by just analyzing a subset of the services that

  3. 32 CFR 1602.21 - Selective Service Law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Selective Service Law. 1602.21 Section 1602.21 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.21 Selective Service Law. The term Selective Service Law includes the Military Selective Service...

  4. Bayesian Item Selection in Constrained Adaptive Testing Using Shadow Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2010-01-01

    Application of Bayesian item selection criteria in computerized adaptive testing might result in improvement of bias and MSE of the ability estimates. The question remains how to apply Bayesian item selection criteria in the context of constrained adaptive testing, where large numbers of specifications have to be taken into account in the item…

  5. Adaptation services of floodplains and wetlands under transformational climate change.

    PubMed

    Colloff, Matthew; Lavorel, Sandra; Wise, Russell M; Dunlop, Michael; Overton, Ian C; Williams, Kristen J

    2016-06-01

    Adaptation services are the ecosystem processes and services that benefit people by increasing their ability to adapt to change. Benefits may accrue from existing but newly used services where ecosystems persist or from novel services supplied following ecosystem transformation. Ecosystem properties that enable persistence or transformation are important adaptation services because they support future options. The adaptation services approach can be applied to decisions on trade-offs between currently valued services and benefits from maintaining future options. For example, ecosystem functions and services of floodplains depend on river flows. In those regions of the world where climate change projections are for hotter, drier conditions, floods will be less frequent and floodplains will either persist, though with modified structure and function, or transform to terrestrial (flood-independent) ecosystems. Many currently valued ecosystem services will reduce in supply or become unavailable, but new options are provided by adaptation services. We present a case study from the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia, for operationalizing the adaptation services concept for floodplains and wetlands. We found large changes in flow and flood regimes are likely under a scenario of +1.6°C by 2030, even with additional water restored to rivers under the proposed Murray-Darling Basin Plan. We predict major changes to floodplain ecosystems, including contraction of riparian forests and woodlands and expansion of terrestrial, drought-tolerant vegetation communities. Examples of adaptation services under this scenario include substitution of irrigated agriculture with dryland cropping and floodplain grazing; mitigation of damage from rarer, extreme floods; and increased tourism, recreational, and cultural values derived from fewer, smaller wetlands that can be maintained with environmental flows. Management for adaptation services will require decisions on where intervention can

  6. Perspectives on Adapted Physical Education Services to Rural Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Joe; Ellery, Peter; Maguire, Paul

    Spurred by the inclusion trend, adapted physical education (APE) has emerged as a fundamental education service for children with disabilities in recent years. Although only 15 states have a certification or endorsement in APE, the Adapted Physical Education National Standards examination has produced certified APE educators in 21 additional…

  7. Increased Service Delivery and Adaptation to Occupational Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnabel, John F.; Simoni, Joseph J.

    Effective response by community service agencies to clientele needs is an essential part of community development. A personnel screening instrument, a model for predicting different types of adaptation to occupational stress, is suggested as a means of increasing the responsiveness of service agencies to their local communities. Proposing the use…

  8. Strong selection barriers explain microgeographic adaptation in wild salamander populations.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Jonathan L; Urban, Mark C

    2013-06-01

    Microgeographic adaptation occurs when populations evolve divergent fitness advantages across the spatial scales at which focal organisms regularly disperse. Although an increasing number of studies find evidence for microgeographic adaptation, the underlying causes often remain unknown. Adaptive divergence requires some combination of limited gene flow and strong divergent natural selection among populations. In this study, we estimated the relative influence of selection, gene flow, and the spatial arrangement of populations in shaping patterns of adaptive divergence in natural populations of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum). Within the study region, A. maculatum co-occur with the predatory marbled salamander (Ambystoma opacum) in some ponds, and past studies have established a link between predation risk and adaptive trait variation in A. maculatum. Using 14 microsatellite loci, we found a significant pattern of genetic divergence among A. maculatum populations corresponding to levels of A. opacum predation risk. Additionally, A. maculatum foraging rate was strongly associated with predation risk, genetic divergence, and the spatial relationship of ponds on the landscape. Our results indicate the sorting of adaptive genotypes by selection regime and strongly suggest that substantial selective barriers operate against gene flow. This outcome suggests that microgeographic adaptation in A. maculatum is possible because strong antagonistic selection quickly eliminates maladapted phenotypes despite ongoing and substantial immigration. Increasing evidence for microgeographic adaptation suggests a strong role for selective barriers in counteracting the homogenizing influence of gene flow. PMID:23730765

  9. Agent-based user-adaptive service provision in ubiquitous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saddiki, H.; Harroud, H.; Karmouch, A.

    2012-11-01

    With the increasing availability of smartphones, tablets and other computing devices, technology consumers have grown accustomed to performing all of their computing tasks anytime, anywhere and on any device. There is a greater need to support ubiquitous connectivity and accommodate users by providing software as network-accessible services. In this paper, we propose a MAS-based approach to adaptive service composition and provision that automates the selection and execution of a suitable composition plan for a given service. With agents capable of autonomous and intelligent behavior, the composition plan is selected in a dynamic negotiation driven by a utility-based decision-making mechanism; and the composite service is built by a coalition of agents each providing a component necessary to the target service. The same service can be built in variations for catering to dynamic user contexts and further personalizing the user experience. Also multiple services can be grouped to satisfy new user needs.

  10. 34 CFR 668.37 - Selective Service registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Selective Service registration. 668.37 Section 668.37... Selective Service registration. (a)(1) To be eligible to receive title IV, HEA program funds, a male student who is subject to registration with the Selective Service must register with the Selective Service....

  11. 32 CFR 1605.1 - Director of Selective Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Director of Selective Service. 1605.1 Section... SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION National Administration § 1605.1 Director of Selective Service. The Director of Selective Service shall be responsible directly to the President. The Director of...

  12. 32 CFR 1605.1 - Director of Selective Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Director of Selective Service. 1605.1 Section... SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION National Administration § 1605.1 Director of Selective Service. The Director of Selective Service shall be responsible directly to the President. The Director of...

  13. 32 CFR 1605.1 - Director of Selective Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Director of Selective Service. 1605.1 Section... SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION National Administration § 1605.1 Director of Selective Service. The Director of Selective Service shall be responsible directly to the President. The Director of...

  14. 32 CFR 1605.1 - Director of Selective Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Director of Selective Service. 1605.1 Section... SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION National Administration § 1605.1 Director of Selective Service. The Director of Selective Service shall be responsible directly to the President. The Director of...

  15. 20 CFR 627.422 - Selection of service providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Selection of service providers. 627.422... Selection of service providers. (a) Service providers selected under titles I, II, and III of the Act shall... requirements for selection of service providers by substate grantees are described at section 313(b)(6) of...

  16. Multidimensional Adaptive Testing with Optimal Design Criteria for Item Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Joris; van der Linden, Wim J.

    2009-01-01

    Several criteria from the optimal design literature are examined for use with item selection in multidimensional adaptive testing. In particular, it is examined what criteria are appropriate for adaptive testing in which all abilities are intentional, some should be considered as a nuisance, or the interest is in the testing of a composite of the…

  17. Adaptation, teleology, and selection by consequences

    PubMed Central

    Ringen, Jon D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents and defends the view that reinforcement and natural selection are selection processes, that selection processes are neither mechanistic nor teleological, and that mentalistic and vitalistic processes are teleological but not mechanistic. The differences between these types of processes are described and used in discussing the conceptual and methodological significance of “selection type theories” and B. F. Skinner's radical behaviorist view that “operant behavior is the field of intention, purpose, and expectation. It deals with that field precisely as the theory of evolution has dealt with another kind of purpose” (1986, p. 716). The antimentalism of radical behaviorism emerges as a post-Darwinian extension of Francis Bacon's (and Galileo's) influential view that “[the introduction of final causes] rather corrupts than advances the sciences” (Bacon, 1905, p. 302). PMID:16812698

  18. Adaptation, teleology, and selection by consequences.

    PubMed

    Ringen, Jon D

    1993-07-01

    This paper presents and defends the view that reinforcement and natural selection are selection processes, that selection processes are neither mechanistic nor teleological, and that mentalistic and vitalistic processes are teleological but not mechanistic. The differences between these types of processes are described and used in discussing the conceptual and methodological significance of "selection type theories" and B. F. Skinner's radical behaviorist view that "operant behavior is the field of intention, purpose, and expectation. It deals with that field precisely as the theory of evolution has dealt with another kind of purpose" (1986, p. 716). The antimentalism of radical behaviorism emerges as a post-Darwinian extension of Francis Bacon's (and Galileo's) influential view that "[the introduction of final causes] rather corrupts than advances the sciences" (Bacon, 1905, p. 302). PMID:16812698

  19. Genomic signatures reveal geographic adaption and human selection in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated geographic adaptation and human selection using high-density SNP data of five diverse cattle breeds. Based on allele frequency differences, we detected hundreds of candidate regions under positive selection across Holstein, Angus, Charolais, Brahman, and N'Dama. In addition to well-k...

  20. Adaptive Learning Object Selection in Intelligent Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karampiperis, Pythagoras; Sampson, Demetrios

    2004-01-01

    Adaptive learning object selection and sequencing is recognized as among the most interesting research questions in intelligent web-based education. In most intelligent learning systems that incorporate course sequencing techniques, learning object selection is based on a set of teaching rules according to the cognitive style or learning…

  1. Phenotypic Plasticity and Selection: Nonexclusive Mechanisms of Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Grenier, S.; Barre, P.; Litrico, I.

    2016-01-01

    Selection and plasticity are two mechanisms that allow the adaptation of a population to a changing environment. Interaction between these nonexclusive mechanisms must be considered if we are to understand population survival. This review discusses the ways in which plasticity and selection can interact, based on a review of the literature on selection and phenotypic plasticity in the evolution of populations. The link between selection and phenotypic plasticity is analysed at the level of the individual. Plasticity can affect an individual's response to selection and so may modify the end result of genetic diversity evolution at population level. Genetic diversity increases the ability of populations or communities to adapt to new environmental conditions. Adaptive plasticity increases individual fitness. However this effect must be viewed from the perspective of the costs of plasticity, although these are not easy to estimate. It is becoming necessary to engage in new experimental research to demonstrate the combined effects of selection and plasticity for adaptation and their consequences on the evolution of genetic diversity. PMID:27313957

  2. Handling preference heterogeneity for river services' adaptation to climate change.

    PubMed

    Andreopoulos, Dimitrios; Damigos, Dimitrios; Comiti, Francesco; Fischer, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Climate projection models for the Southern Mediterranean basin indicate a strong drought trend. This pattern is anticipated to affect a range of services derived from river ecosystems and consecutively deteriorate the sectoral outputs and household welfare. This paper aims to evaluate local residents' adaptation preferences for the Piave River basin in Italy. A Discrete Choice Experiment accounting for adaptation scenarios of the Piave River services was conducted and the collected data were econometrically analyzed using Random Parameters Logit, Latent Class and Covariance Heterogeneity models. In terms of policy-relevant outcomes, the analysis indicates that respondents are willing to pay for adaptation plans. This attitude is reflected on the compensating surplus to sustain the current state of the Piave, which corresponds to a monthly contribution of 80€ per household. From an econometric point of view, the results show that it is not sufficient to take solely into account general heterogeneity, provided that distinct treatment of the heterogeneity produces rather different welfare estimates. This implies that analysts should examine a set of criteria when deciding on how to better approach heterogeneity for each empirical data set. Overall, non-market values of environmental services should be considered when formulating cost-effective adaptation measures for river systems undergoing climate change effects and appropriate heterogeneity approximation could render these values unbiased and accurate. PMID:26119330

  3. Modeling quality attributes and metrics for web service selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskooei, Meysam Ahmadi; Daud, Salwani binti Mohd; Chua, Fang-Fang

    2014-06-01

    Since the service-oriented architecture (SOA) has been designed to develop the system as a distributed application, the service selection has become a vital aspect of service-oriented computing (SOC). Selecting the appropriate web service with respect to quality of service (QoS) through using mathematical solution for optimization of problem turns the service selection problem into a common concern for service users. Nowadays, number of web services that provide the same functionality is increased and selection of services from a set of alternatives which differ in quality parameters can be difficult for service consumers. In this paper, a new model for QoS attributes and metrics is proposed to provide a suitable solution for optimizing web service selection and composition with low complexity.

  4. 32 CFR 1615.6 - Selective service number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Selective service number. 1615.6 Section 1615.6... REGISTRATION § 1615.6 Selective service number. Every registrant shall be given a selective service number. The Social Security Account Number will not be used for this purpose....

  5. Selecting, adapting, and sustaining programs in health care systems.

    PubMed

    Zullig, Leah L; Bosworth, Hayden B

    2015-01-01

    Practitioners and researchers often design behavioral programs that are effective for a specific population or problem. Despite their success in a controlled setting, relatively few programs are scaled up and implemented in health care systems. Planning for scale-up is a critical, yet often overlooked, element in the process of program design. Equally as important is understanding how to select a program that has already been developed, and adapt and implement the program to meet specific organizational goals. This adaptation and implementation requires attention to organizational goals, available resources, and program cost. We assert that translational behavioral medicine necessitates expanding successful programs beyond a stand-alone research study. This paper describes key factors to consider when selecting, adapting, and sustaining programs for scale-up in large health care systems and applies the Knowledge to Action (KTA) Framework to a case study, illustrating knowledge creation and an action cycle of implementation and evaluation activities. PMID:25931825

  6. Hierarchy-Direction Selective Approach for Locally Adaptive Sparse Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyanov, Miroslav K

    2013-09-01

    We consider the problem of multidimensional adaptive hierarchical interpolation. We use sparse grids points and functions that are induced from a one dimensional hierarchical rule via tensor products. The classical locally adaptive sparse grid algorithm uses an isotropic refinement from the coarser to the denser levels of the hierarchy. However, the multidimensional hierarchy provides a more complex structure that allows for various anisotropic and hierarchy selective refinement techniques. We consider the more advanced refinement techniques and apply them to a number of simple test functions chosen to demonstrate the various advantages and disadvantages of each method. While there is no refinement scheme that is optimal for all functions, the fully adaptive family-direction-selective technique is usually more stable and requires fewer samples.

  7. Adaptive wall wind tunnels: A selected, annotated bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, M. H.; Mineck, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    This bibliography, with abstracts, consists of 257 citations arranged in chronological order. Selection of the citations was made for their value to researchers working to solve problems associated with reducing wall interference by the design, development, and operation of adaptive wall test sections. Author, source, and subject indexes are included.

  8. Mutual Information Item Selection in Adaptive Classification Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    A general approach for item selection in adaptive multiple-category classification tests is provided. The approach uses mutual information (MI), a special case of the Kullback-Leibler distance, or relative entropy. MI works efficiently with the sequential probability ratio test and alleviates the difficulties encountered with using other local-…

  9. Using Response Times for Item Selection in Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2008-01-01

    Response times on items can be used to improve item selection in adaptive testing provided that a probabilistic model for their distribution is available. In this research, the author used a hierarchical modeling framework with separate first-level models for the responses and response times and a second-level model for the distribution of the…

  10. Towards Self-adaptation for Dependable Service-Oriented Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardellini, Valeria; Casalicchio, Emiliano; Grassi, Vincenzo; Lo Presti, Francesco; Mirandola, Raffaela

    Increasingly complex information systems operating in dynamic environments ask for management policies able to deal intelligently and autonomously with problems and tasks. An attempt to deal with these aspects can be found in the Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) paradigm that foresees the creation of business applications from independently developed services, where services and applications build up complex dependencies. Therefore the dependability of SOA systems strongly depends on their ability to self-manage and adapt themselves to cope with changes in the operating conditions and to meet the required dependability with a minimum of resources. In this paper we propose a model-based approach to the realization of self-adaptable SOA systems, aimed at the fulfillment of dependability requirements. Specifically, we provide a methodology driving the system adaptation and we discuss the architectural issues related to its implementation. To bring this approach to fruition, we developed a prototype tool and we show the results that can be achieved with a simple example.

  11. 77 FR 37078 - Product Change-Parcel Select and Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select and Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM... Postal Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select &...

  12. 78 FR 63521 - Product Change-Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM... Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Contract 5 to Competitive Product List. Documents are available...

  13. 77 FR 28409 - Product Change-Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM... Postal Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select &...

  14. Achieving runtime adaptability through automated model evolution and variant selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosincat, Adina; Binder, Walter; Jazayeri, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Dynamically adaptive systems propose adaptation by means of variants that are specified in the system model at design time and allow for a fixed set of different runtime configurations. However, in a dynamic environment, unanticipated changes may result in the inability of the system to meet its quality requirements. To allow the system to react to these changes, this article proposes a solution for automatically evolving the system model by integrating new variants and periodically validating the existing ones based on updated quality parameters. To illustrate this approach, the article presents a BPEL-based framework using a service composition model to represent the functional requirements of the system. The framework estimates quality of service (QoS) values based on information provided by a monitoring mechanism, ensuring that changes in QoS are reflected in the system model. The article shows how the evolved model can be used at runtime to increase the system's autonomic capabilities and delivered QoS.

  15. Distributed estimation for adaptive sensor selection in wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Hassan Hamid, Matasm M.

    2014-05-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are usually deployed for monitoring systems with the distributed detection and estimation of sensors. Sensor selection in WSNs is considered for target tracking. A distributed estimation scenario is considered based on the extended information filter. A cost function using the geometrical dilution of precision measure is derived for active sensor selection. A consensus-based estimation method is proposed in this paper for heterogeneous WSNs with two types of sensors. The convergence properties of the proposed estimators are analyzed under time-varying inputs. Accordingly, a new adaptive sensor selection (ASS) algorithm is presented in which the number of active sensors is adaptively determined based on the absolute local innovations vector. Simulation results show that the tracking accuracy of the ASS is comparable to that of the other algorithms.

  16. Fluctuating selection: the perpetual renewal of adaptation in variable environments

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Darwin insisted that evolutionary change occurs very slowly over long periods of time, and this gradualist view was accepted by his supporters and incorporated into the infinitesimal model of quantitative genetics developed by R. A. Fisher and others. It dominated the first century of evolutionary biology, but has been challenged in more recent years both by field surveys demonstrating strong selection in natural populations and by quantitative trait loci and genomic studies, indicating that adaptation is often attributable to mutations in a few genes. The prevalence of strong selection seems inconsistent, however, with the high heritability often observed in natural populations, and with the claim that the amount of morphological change in contemporary and fossil lineages is independent of elapsed time. I argue that these discrepancies are resolved by realistic accounts of environmental and evolutionary changes. First, the physical and biotic environment varies on all time-scales, leading to an indefinite increase in environmental variance over time. Secondly, the intensity and direction of natural selection are also likely to fluctuate over time, leading to an indefinite increase in phenotypic variance in any given evolving lineage. Finally, detailed long-term studies of selection in natural populations demonstrate that selection often changes in direction. I conclude that the traditional gradualist scheme of weak selection acting on polygenic variation should be supplemented by the view that adaptation is often based on oligogenic variation exposed to commonplace, strong, fluctuating natural selection. PMID:20008388

  17. Adaptive shaping of cortical response selectivity in the vibrissa pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, He J. V.; Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    One embodiment of context-dependent sensory processing is bottom-up adaptation, where persistent stimuli decrease neuronal firing rate over hundreds of milliseconds. Adaptation is not, however, simply the fatigue of the sensory pathway, but shapes the information flow and selectivity to stimulus features. Adaptation enhances spatial discriminability (distinguishing stimulus location) while degrading detectability (reporting presence of the stimulus), for both the ideal observer of the cortex and awake, behaving animals. However, how the dynamics of the adaptation shape the cortical response and this detection and discrimination tradeoff is unknown, as is to what degree this phenomenon occurs on a continuum as opposed to a switching of processing modes. Using voltage-sensitive dye imaging in anesthetized rats to capture the temporal and spatial characteristics of the cortical response to tactile inputs, we showed that the suppression of the cortical response, in both magnitude and spatial spread, is continuously modulated by the increasing amount of energy in the adapting stimulus, which is nonuniquely determined by its frequency and velocity. Single-trial ideal observer analysis demonstrated a tradeoff between detectability and spatial discriminability up to a moderate amount of adaptation, which corresponds to the frequency range in natural whisking. This was accompanied by a decrease in both detectability and discriminability with high-energy adaptation, which indicates a more complex coupling between detection and discrimination than a simple switching of modes. Taken together, the results suggest that adaptation operates on a continuum and modulates the tradeoff between detectability and discriminability that has implications for information processing in ethological contexts. PMID:25787959

  18. Selective adaptation to "oddball" sounds by the human auditory system.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Andrew J R; Harper, Nicol S; Reiss, Joshua D; McAlpine, David

    2014-01-29

    Adaptation to both common and rare sounds has been independently reported in neurophysiological studies using probabilistic stimulus paradigms in small mammals. However, the apparent sensitivity of the mammalian auditory system to the statistics of incoming sound has not yet been generalized to task-related human auditory perception. Here, we show that human listeners selectively adapt to novel sounds within scenes unfolding over minutes. Listeners' performance in an auditory discrimination task remains steady for the most common elements within the scene but, after the first minute, performance improves for distinct and rare (oddball) sound elements, at the expense of rare sounds that are relatively less distinct. Our data provide the first evidence of enhanced coding of oddball sounds in a human auditory discrimination task and suggest the existence of an adaptive mechanism that tracks the long-term statistics of sounds and deploys coding resources accordingly. PMID:24478375

  19. Interference between adaptation to double steps and adaptation to rotated feedback in spite of differences in directional selectivity.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Gerd

    2016-06-01

    Two key features of sensorimotor adaptation are the directional selectivity of adaptive changes and the interference of adaptations to opposite directions. The present study investigated whether directional selectivity and interference of adaptation are related to executive functions and whether these phenomena differ between two methods for visuomotor adaptation. Subjects adapted at three target directions to clockwise or counterclockwise rotated feedback or to clockwise or counterclockwise target displacements (double steps). Both adaptation methods induce rotations of movement trajectories into the same direction, but provide visual information differently. The results showed that adaptation progressed differently between three targets. When movements adapted clockwise, adaptation was best at the most clockwise located target, and when movements adapted counterclockwise, it was best at the most counterclockwise located target, suggesting that spatial generalization between target directions is related to the direction of motor adaptation. The two adaptation methods produced different adaptation patterns, which indicate a further impact of visual information. A second adaptation to the other and opposite-directed discordance was worse than naive adaptation and washed out the aftereffects from the first adaptation, confirming that both adaptation methods interfered. Executive functions were significant covariate for overall interference and interference of target-specific adaptation. The results suggest that directional selectivity of adaptation is shaped by the direction of motor adaptation and the visual information provided. The interference of both adaptation methods indicates that they share adaptive mechanisms for recalibration. The interference is the lower the better subjects are able to cognitively switch between tasks and to inhibit prepotent responses. Therefore, cognitive functions seem to be involved in the inhibition of non-adequate sensorimotor

  20. Service Mediation and Negotiation Bootstrapping as First Achievements Towards Self-adaptable Cloud Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandic, Ivona; Music, Dejan; Dustdar, Schahram

    Nowadays, novel computing paradigms as for example Cloud Computing are gaining more and more on importance. In case of Cloud Computing users pay for the usage of the computing power provided as a service. Beforehand they can negotiate specific functional and non-functional requirements relevant for the application execution. However, providing computing power as a service bears different research challenges. On one hand dynamic, versatile, and adaptable services are required, which can cope with system failures and environmental changes. On the other hand, human interaction with the system should be minimized. In this chapter we present the first results in establishing adaptable, versatile, and dynamic services considering negotiation bootstrapping and service mediation achieved in context of the Foundations of Self-Governing ICT Infrastructures (FoSII) project. We discuss novel meta-negotiation and SLA mapping solutions for Cloud services bridging the gap between current QoS models and Cloud middleware and representing important prerequisites for the establishment of autonomic Cloud services.

  1. Multiple pathways of selected gene amplification during adaptive mutation.

    PubMed

    Kugelberg, Elisabeth; Kofoid, Eric; Reams, Andrew B; Andersson, Dan I; Roth, John R

    2006-11-14

    In a phenomenon referred to as "adaptive mutation," a population of bacterial cells with a mutation in the lac operon (lac-) accumulates Lac+ revertants during prolonged exposure to selective growth conditions (lactose). Evidence was provided that selective conditions do not increase the mutation rate but instead favor the growth of rare cells with a duplication of the leaky lac allele. A further increase in copy number (amplification) improves growth and increases the likelihood of a sequence change by adding more mutational targets to the clone (cells and lac copies per cell). These duplications and amplifications are described here. Before selection, cells with large (134-kb) lac duplications and long junction sequences (>1 kb) were common (0.2%). The same large repeats were found after selection in cells with a low-copy-number lac amplification. Surprisingly, smaller repeats (average, 34 kb) were found in high-copy-number amplifications. The small-repeat duplications form when deletions modify a preexisting large-repeat duplication. The shorter repeat size allowed higher lac amplification and better growth on lactose. Thus, selection favors a succession of gene-amplification types that make sequence changes more probable by adding targets. These findings are relevant to genetic adaptation in any biological systems in which fitness can be increased by adding gene copies (e.g., cancer and bacterial drug resistance). PMID:17082307

  2. Dissociating visual and motor directional selectivity using visuomotor adaptation.

    PubMed

    Haar, Shlomi; Donchin, Opher; Dinstein, Ilan

    2015-04-29

    Directional selectivity during visually guided hand movements is a fundamental characteristic of neural populations in multiple motor areas of the primate brain. In the current study, we assessed how directional selectivity changes when reaching movements are dissociated from their visual feedback by rotating the visual field. We recorded simultaneous movement kinematics and fMRI activity while human subjects performed out-and-back movements to four peripheral targets before and after adaptation to a 45° visuomotor rotation. A classification algorithm was trained to identify movement direction according to voxel-by-voxel fMRI patterns in each of several brain areas. The direction of movements was successfully decoded with above-chance accuracy in multiple motor and visual areas when training and testing the classifier on trials within each condition, thereby demonstrating the existence of directionally selective fMRI patterns within each stage of the experiment. Most importantly, when training the classifier on baseline trials and decoding rotated trials, motor brain areas exhibited above-chance decoding according to the original movement direction and visual brain areas exhibited above-chance decoding according to the rotated visual target location, while posterior parietal cortex (PPC) exhibited chance-level decoding according to both. These results reveal that directionally selective fMRI patterns in motor system areas faithfully represent movement direction regardless of visual feedback, while fMRI patterns in visual system areas faithfully represent target location regardless of movement direction. Directionally selective fMRI patterns in PPC, however, were altered following adaptation learning, thereby suggesting that the novel visuomotor mapping, which was learned during visuomotor adaptation, is stored in PPC. PMID:25926457

  3. Adaptations to Climate-Mediated Selective Pressures in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Feng-Hua; Agha, Saif; Kantanen, Juha; Colli, Licia; Stucki, Sylvie; Kijas, James W.; Joost, Stéphane; Li, Meng-Hua; Ajmone Marsan, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Following domestication, sheep (Ovis aries) have become essential farmed animals across the world through adaptation to a diverse range of environments and varied production systems. Climate-mediated selective pressure has shaped phenotypic variation and has left genetic “footprints” in the genome of breeds raised in different agroecological zones. Unlike numerous studies that have searched for evidence of selection using only population genetics data, here, we conducted an integrated coanalysis of environmental data with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variation. By examining 49,034 SNPs from 32 old, autochthonous sheep breeds that are adapted to a spectrum of different regional climates, we identified 230 SNPs with evidence for selection that is likely due to climate-mediated pressure. Among them, 189 (82%) showed significant correlation (P ≤ 0.05) between allele frequency and climatic variables in a larger set of native populations from a worldwide range of geographic areas and climates. Gene ontology analysis of genes colocated with significant SNPs identified 17 candidates related to GTPase regulator and peptide receptor activities in the biological processes of energy metabolism and endocrine and autoimmune regulation. We also observed high linkage disequilibrium and significant extended haplotype homozygosity for the core haplotype TBC1D12-CH1 of TBC1D12. The global frequency distribution of the core haplotype and allele OAR22_18929579-A showed an apparent geographic pattern and significant (P ≤ 0.05) correlations with climatic variation. Our results imply that adaptations to local climates have shaped the spatial distribution of some variants that are candidates to underpin adaptive variation in sheep. PMID:25249477

  4. Structural adaptations to diverse fighting styles in sexually selected weapons

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Erin L.; Tobalske, Bret W.; Emlen, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    The shapes of sexually selected weapons differ widely among species, but the drivers of this diversity remain poorly understood. Existing explanations suggest weapon shapes reflect structural adaptations to different fighting styles, yet explicit tests of this hypothesis are lacking. We constructed finite element models of the horns of different rhinoceros beetle species to test whether functional specializations for increased performance under species-specific fighting styles could have contributed to the diversification of weapon form. We find that horns are both stronger and stiffer in response to species-typical fighting loads and that they perform more poorly under atypical fighting loads, which suggests weapons are structurally adapted to meet the functional demands of fighting. Our research establishes a critical link between weapon form and function, revealing one way male–male competition can drive the diversification of animal weapons. PMID:25201949

  5. Estimation after subpopulation selection in adaptive seamless trials.

    PubMed

    Kimani, Peter K; Todd, Susan; Stallard, Nigel

    2015-08-15

    During the development of new therapies, it is not uncommon to test whether a new treatment works better than the existing treatment for all patients who suffer from a condition (full population) or for a subset of the full population (subpopulation). One approach that may be used for this objective is to have two separate trials, where in the first trial, data are collected to determine if the new treatment benefits the full population or the subpopulation. The second trial is a confirmatory trial to test the new treatment in the population selected in the first trial. In this paper, we consider the more efficient two-stage adaptive seamless designs (ASDs), where in stage 1, data are collected to select the population to test in stage 2. In stage 2, additional data are collected to perform confirmatory analysis for the selected population. Unlike the approach that uses two separate trials, for ASDs, stage 1 data are also used in the confirmatory analysis. Although ASDs are efficient, using stage 1 data both for selection and confirmatory analysis introduces selection bias and consequently statistical challenges in making inference. We will focus on point estimation for such trials. In this paper, we describe the extent of bias for estimators that ignore multiple hypotheses and selecting the population that is most likely to give positive trial results based on observed stage 1 data. We then derive conditionally unbiased estimators and examine their mean squared errors for different scenarios. PMID:25903293

  6. Selecting downscaled climate projections for water resource impacts and adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Hingray, Benoît

    2015-04-01

    Increasingly large ensembles of global and regional climate projections are being produced and delivered to the climate impact community. However, such an enormous amount of information can hardly been dealt with by some impact models due to computational constraints. Strategies for transparently selecting climate projections are therefore urgently needed for informing small-scale impact and adaptation studies and preventing potential pitfalls in interpreting ensemble results from impact models. This work proposes results from a selection approach implemented for an integrated water resource impact and adaptation study in the Durance river basin (Southern French Alps). A large ensemble of 3000 daily transient gridded climate projections was made available for this study. It was built from different runs of 4 ENSEMBLES Stream2 GCMs, statistically downscaled by 3 probabilistic methods based on the K-nearest neighbours resampling approach (Lafaysse et al., 2014). The selection approach considered here exemplifies one of the multiple possible approaches described in a framework for identifying tailored subsets of climate projections for impact and adaptation studies proposed by Vidal & Hingray (2014). It was chosen based on the specificities of both the study objectives and the characteristics of the projection dataset. This selection approach aims at propagating as far as possible the relative contributions of the four different sources of uncertainties considered, namely GCM structure, large-scale natural variability, structure of the downscaling method, and catchment-scale natural variability. Moreover, it took the form of a hierarchical structure to deal with the specific constraints of several types of impact models (hydrological models, irrigation demand models and reservoir management models). The implemented 3-layer selection approach is therefore mainly based on conditioned Latin Hypercube sampling (Christierson et al., 2012). The choice of conditioning

  7. Direction Selectivity Mediated by Adaptation in the Owl's Inferior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Peña, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Motion direction is a crucial cue for predicting future states in natural scenes. In the auditory system, the mechanisms that confer direction selectivity to neurons are not well understood. Neither is it known whether sound motion is encoded independently of stationary sound location. Here we investigated these questions in neurons of the owl's external nucleus of the inferior colliculus, where auditory space is represented in a map. Using a high-density speaker array, we show that the preferred direction and the degree of direction selectivity can be predicted by response adaptation to sounds moving over asymmetric spatial receptive fields. At the population level, we found that preference for sounds moving toward frontal space increased with eccentricity in spatial tuning. This distribution was consistent with larger receptive-field asymmetry in neurons tuned to more peripheral auditory space. A model of suppression based on spatiotemporal summation predicted the observations. Thus, response adaptation and receptive-field shape can explain direction selectivity to acoustic motion and an orderly distribution of preferred direction. PMID:24305813

  8. Study on architecture and implementation of adaptive spatial information service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhuoyuan; Wang, Yingjie; Luo, Bin

    2007-06-01

    More and more geo-spatial information has been disseminated to the Internet based on WebGIS architecture. Some of these online mapping applications have already been widely used in recent years, such as Google map, MapQuest, go2map, mapbar. However, due to the limitation of web map technology and transmit speed of large geo-spatial data through the Internet, most of these web map systems employ (pyramid-indexed) raster map modeling technology. This method can shorten server's response time but largely reduces the flexibility and visualization effect of the web map provided. It will be difficult for them to adaptively change the map contents or map styles for variant user demands. This paper propose a new system architecture for adaptive web map service by integrating latest network technology and web map technology, such as SVG, Ajax, user modeling. Its main advantages include: Firstly, it is user customized. In this proposed map system, user can design the map contents, styles and interfaces online by themselves; secondly, it is more intelligent. It can record user interactive actions with the system, analyze user profiles, predict user behavior. User's interests will be obtained and tasks will be suggested based on different user models, which are generated from the system. For instance, if a new user login in, the nearest user model will be matched and some interactive suggestions will be provided by the system for the user. It is a more powerful and efficient way for spatial information sharing. This paper first discusses the main system architecture of adaptive spatial information service which consists of three parts: user layer, map application layer and database layer. User layer is distributed on client side which includes Web map (SVG) browser, map renderer and map visualization component. Application layer includes map application server, user interface generation, user analysis and user modeling, etc. Based on user models, map content, style and user

  9. 34 CFR 668.37 - Selective Service registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Student Eligibility § 668.37 Selective Service registration. (a)(1) To be eligible to receive title IV, HEA program funds, a male student...) A male student does not have to register with the Selective Service if the student— (i) Is below...

  10. Limited-memory adaptive snapshot selection for proper orthogonal decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Oxberry, Geoffrey M.; Kostova-Vassilevska, Tanya; Arrighi, Bill; Chand, Kyle

    2015-04-02

    Reduced order models are useful for accelerating simulations in many-query contexts, such as optimization, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis. However, offline training of reduced order models can have prohibitively expensive memory and floating-point operation costs in high-performance computing applications, where memory per core is limited. To overcome this limitation for proper orthogonal decomposition, we propose a novel adaptive selection method for snapshots in time that limits offline training costs by selecting snapshots according an error control mechanism similar to that found in adaptive time-stepping ordinary differential equation solvers. The error estimator used in this work is related to theory bounding the approximation error in time of proper orthogonal decomposition-based reduced order models, and memory usage is minimized by computing the singular value decomposition using a single-pass incremental algorithm. Results for a viscous Burgers’ test problem demonstrate convergence in the limit as the algorithm error tolerances go to zero; in this limit, the full order model is recovered to within discretization error. The resulting method can be used on supercomputers to generate proper orthogonal decomposition-based reduced order models, or as a subroutine within hyperreduction algorithms that require taking snapshots in time, or within greedy algorithms for sampling parameter space.

  11. FPGA-based RF spectrum merging and adaptive hopset selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, R. K.; Flatley, B. N.; Silvius, M. D.; Hopkinson, K. M.

    The radio frequency (RF) spectrum is a limited resource. Spectrum allotment disputes stem from this scarcity as many radio devices are confined to a fixed frequency or frequency sequence. One alternative is to incorporate cognition within a reconfigurable radio platform, therefore enabling the radio to adapt to dynamic RF spectrum environments. In this way, the radio is able to actively sense the RF spectrum, decide, and act accordingly, thereby sharing the spectrum and operating in more flexible manner. In this paper, we present a novel solution for merging many distributed RF spectrum maps into one map and for subsequently creating an adaptive hopset. We also provide an example of our system in operation, the result of which is a pseudorandom adaptive hopset. The paper then presents a novel hardware design for the frequency merger and adaptive hopset selector, both of which are written in VHDL and implemented as a custom IP core on an FPGA-based embedded system using the Xilinx Embedded Development Kit (EDK) software tool. The design of the custom IP core is optimized for area, and it can process a high-volume digital input via a low-latency circuit architecture. The complete embedded system includes the Xilinx PowerPC microprocessor, UART serial connection, and compact flash memory card IP cores, and our custom map merging/hopset selection IP core, all of which are targeted to the Virtex IV FPGA. This system is then incorporated into a cognitive radio prototype on a Rice University Wireless Open Access Research Platform (WARP) reconfigurable radio.

  12. Site-specific group selection drives locally adapted group compositions.

    PubMed

    Pruitt, Jonathan N; Goodnight, Charles J

    2014-10-16

    Group selection may be defined as selection caused by the differential extinction or proliferation of groups. The socially polymorphic spider Anelosimus studiosus exhibits a behavioural polymorphism in which females exhibit either a 'docile' or 'aggressive' behavioural phenotype. Natural colonies are composed of a mixture of related docile and aggressive individuals, and populations differ in colonies' characteristic docile:aggressive ratios. Using experimentally constructed colonies of known composition, here we demonstrate that population-level divergence in docile:aggressive ratios is driven by site-specific selection at the group level--certain ratios yield high survivorship at some sites but not others. Our data also indicate that colonies responded to the risk of extinction: perturbed colonies tended to adjust their composition over two generations to match the ratio characteristic of their native site, thus promoting their long-term survival in their natal habitat. However, colonies of displaced individuals continued to shift their compositions towards mixtures that would have promoted their survival had they remained at their home sites, regardless of their contemporary environment. Thus, the regulatory mechanisms that colonies use to adjust their composition appear to be locally adapted. Our data provide experimental evidence of group selection driving collective traits in wild populations. PMID:25274310

  13. Development and characterization of positively selected brain-adapted SIV

    PubMed Central

    Gaskill, Peter J; Watry, Debbie D; Burdo, Tricia H; Fox, Howard S

    2005-01-01

    HIV is found in the brains of most infected individuals but only 30% develop neurological disease. Both viral and host factors are thought to contribute to the motor and cognitive disorders resulting from HIV infection. Here, using the SIV/rhesus monkey system, we characterize the salient characteristics of the virus from the brain of animals with neuropathological disorders. Nine unique molecular clones of SIV were derived from virus released by microglia cultured from the brains of two macaques with SIV encephalitis. Sequence analysis revealed a remarkably high level of similarity between their env and nef genes as well as their 3' LTR. As this genotype was found in the brains of two separate animals, and it encoded a set of distinct amino acid changes from the infecting virus, it demonstrates the convergent evolution of the virus to a unique brain-adapted genotype. This genotype was distinct from other macrophage-tropic and neurovirulent strains of SIV. Functional characterization of virus derived from representative clones showed a robust in vitro infection of 174xCEM cells, primary macrophages and primary microglia. The infectious phenotype of this virus is distinct from that shown by other strains of SIV, potentially reflecting the method by which the virus successfully infiltrates and infects the CNS. Positive in vivo selection of a brain-adapted strain of SIV resulted in a near-homogeneous strain of virus with distinct properties that may give clues to the viral basis of neuroAIDS. PMID:15890081

  14. Selection of active member locations in adaptive structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, G.-S.; Bruno, R.; Salama, M.

    1989-01-01

    The effective use of multiple passive and active members in adaptive structures necessitates that these members be optimally distributed throughout the structure. In truss structures, the problem falls into the class of combinatorial optimization for which the solution becomes exceedingly intractable as the problem size increases. This is overcome by using the simulated annealing algorithm to obtain near optimal locations for passive and/or active members. The maximization of the rate of energy dissipation over a finite time period as the measure of optimality is adopted. The selection of optimal locations for both passive and active members is consistently treated through the use of the energy dissipation rate criterion within the simulated annealing algorithm. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the methodology for large truss structures.

  15. The US Forest Service Framework for Climate Adaptation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleaves, D.

    2013-12-01

    Public lands are changing in response to climate change and related stressors such that resilience-based management plans that integrate climate-smart adaptation are needed. The goal of these plans is to facilitate land managers' consideration of a range of potential futures while simplifying the complex array of choices and assumptions in a rigorous, defensible manner. The foundation for climate response has been built into recent Forest Service policies, guidance, and strategies like the climate change Roadmap and Scorecard; 2012 Planning Rule; Cohesive Wildland Fire Management strategy; and Inventory, Monitoring & Assessment strategy. This has driven the need for information that is relevant, timely, and accessible to support vulnerability assessments and risk management to aid in designing and choosing alternatives and ranking actions. Managers must also consider carbon and greenhouse gas implications as well as understand the nature and level of uncertainties. The major adjustments that need to be made involve: improving risk-based decision making and working with predictive models and information; evaluating underlying assumptions against new realities and possibilities being revealed by climate science; integrating carbon cycle science and a new ethic of carbon stewardship into management practices; and preparing systems for inevitable changes to ameliorate negative effects, capture opportunities, or accept different and perhaps novel ecosystem configurations. We need to avoid waiting for complete science that never arrives and take actions that blend science and experience to boost learning, reduce costs and irreversible losses, and buy lead time.

  16. Adaptations to sexual selection and sexual conflict: insights from experimental evolution and artificial selection.

    PubMed

    Edward, Dominic A; Fricke, Claudia; Chapman, Tracey

    2010-08-27

    Artificial selection and experimental evolution document natural selection under controlled conditions. Collectively, these techniques are continuing to provide fresh and important insights into the genetic basis of evolutionary change, and are now being employed to investigate mating behaviour. Here, we focus on how selection techniques can reveal the genetic basis of post-mating adaptations to sexual selection and sexual conflict. Alteration of the operational sex ratio of adult Drosophila over just a few tens of generations can lead to altered ejaculate allocation patterns and the evolution of resistance in females to the costly effects of elevated mating rates. We provide new data to show how male responses to the presence of rivals can evolve. For several traits, the way in which males responded to rivals was opposite in lines selected for male-biased, as opposed to female-biased, adult sex ratio. This shows that the manipulation of the relative intensity of intra- and inter-sexual selection can lead to replicable and repeatable effects on mating systems, and reveals the potential for significant contemporary evolutionary change. Such studies, with important safeguards, have potential utility for understanding sexual selection and sexual conflict across many taxa. We discuss how artificial selection studies combined with genomics will continue to deepen our knowledge of the evolutionary principles first laid down by Darwin 150 years ago. PMID:20643744

  17. Adaptive breeding habitat selection: Is it for the birds?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalfoun, Anna D.; Schmidt, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    The question of why animals choose particular habitats has important implications for understanding behavioral evolution and distribution of organisms in the wild and for delineating between habitats of different quality for conservation and management. Habitats chosen by animals can influence fitness outcomes via the costs (e.g., predation risk) and benefits (e.g., food availability) of habitat use. Habitat preferences should therefore be under selection to favor those that confer fitness advantages (Clark and Shutler 1999). Indeed, prevailing theory suggests that the habitat preferences of animals should be adaptive, such that fitness is higher in preferred habitats (Hildén 1965, Southwood 1977, Martin 1998). However, studies have often identified apparent mismatches between observed habitat preferences and fitness outcomes across a wide variety of taxa (Valladares and Lawton 1991, Mayhew 1997, Kolbe and Janzen 2002, Arlt and Pärt 2007, Mägi et al. 2009). Certainly, one limitation of studies may be that assessment of “fitness” is typically constrained to fitness surrogates such as nest success rather than lifetime reproductive success or classic Fisherian fitness (Endler 1986). Nevertheless, important habitat choices such as nest sites influence the probability that temporarily sedentary, dependent young are discovered by enemies such as predators and parasites. We therefore expect, on average, to see congruence between evolved habitat preferences and relevant components of fitness (e.g., nest success). Here, we (1) review the prevalence of apparent mismatches between avian breeding-habitat preferences and fitness outcomes using nest-site selection as a focus; (2) describe several potential mechanisms for such mismatches, including anthropogenic, methodological, and ecological–evolutionary; and (3) suggest a framework for understanding the contexts in which habitat preferences represent adaptive decisions, with a primary focus on ecological information

  18. A study of an adaptive replication framework for orchestrated composite web services.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Marwa F; Elyamany, Hany F; Nassar, Hamed M

    2013-01-01

    Replication is considered one of the most important techniques to improve the Quality of Services (QoS) of published Web Services. It has achieved impressive success in managing resource sharing and usage in order to moderate the energy consumed in IT environments. For a robust and successful replication process, attention should be paid to suitable time as well as the constraints and capabilities in which the process runs. The replication process is time-consuming since outsourcing some new replicas into other hosts is lengthy. Furthermore, nowadays, most of the business processes that might be implemented over the Web are composed of multiple Web services working together in two main styles: Orchestration and Choreography. Accomplishing a replication over such business processes is another challenge due to the complexity and flexibility involved. In this paper, we present an adaptive replication framework for regular and orchestrated composite Web services. The suggested framework includes a number of components for detecting unexpected and unhappy events that might occur when consuming the original published web services including failure or overloading. It also includes a specific replication controller to manage the replication process and select the best host that would encapsulate a new replica. In addition, it includes a component for predicting the incoming load in order to decrease the time needed for outsourcing new replicas, enhancing the performance greatly. A simulation environment has been created to measure the performance of the suggested framework. The results indicate that adaptive replication with prediction scenario is the best option for enhancing the performance of the replication process in an online business environment. PMID:24255826

  19. Selecting cost-effective areas for restoration of ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Adame, M F; Hermoso, V; Perhans, K; Lovelock, C E; Herrera-Silveira, J A

    2015-04-01

    Selection of areas for restoration should be based on cost-effectiveness analysis to attain the maximum benefit with a limited budget and overcome the traditional ad hoc allocation of funds for restoration projects. Restoration projects need to be planned on the basis of ecological knowledge and economic and social constraints. We devised a novel approach for selecting cost-effective areas for restoration on the basis of biodiversity and potential provision of 3 ecosystem services: carbon storage, water depuration, and coastal protection. We used Marxan, a spatial prioritization tool, to balance the provision of ecosystem services against the cost of restoration. We tested this approach in a mangrove ecosystem in the Caribbean. Our approach efficiently selected restoration areas that at low cost were compatible with biodiversity targets and that maximized the provision of one or more ecosystem services. Choosing areas for restoration of mangroves on the basis carbon storage potential, largely guaranteed the restoration of biodiversity and other ecosystem services. PMID:25199996

  20. Transforming health care service delivery and provider selection.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Bruce I

    2011-06-01

    Commoditization pressures in medicine have risked transforming service provider selection from "survival of the fittest" to "survival of the cheapest." Quality- and safety-oriented mandates by the Institute of Medicine have led to the creation of a number of data-driven quality-centric initiatives including Pay for Performance and Evidence-Based Medicine. A synergistic approach to creating quantitative accountability in medical service delivery is through the creation of consumer-oriented performance metrics which provide patients with objective data related to individual service provider quality, safety, cost-efficacy, efficiency, and customer service. These performance metrics could in turn be customized to the individual preferences and health care needs of each individual patient, thereby providing an objective methodology for service provider selection while empowering health care consumers. PMID:21468775

  1. Re-examining selective adaptation: Fatiguing feature detectors, or distributional learning?

    PubMed

    Kleinschmidt, Dave F; Jaeger, T Florian

    2016-06-01

    When a listener hears many good examples of a /b/ in a row, they are less likely to classify other sounds on, e.g., a /b/-to-/d/ continuum as /b/. This phenomenon is known as selective adaptation and is a well-studied property of speech perception. Traditionally, selective adaptation is seen as a mechanistic property of the speech perception system, and attributed to fatigue in acoustic-phonetic feature detectors. However, recent developments in our understanding of non-linguistic sensory adaptation and higher-level adaptive plasticity in speech perception and language comprehension suggest that it is time to re-visit the phenomenon of selective adaptation. We argue that selective adaptation is better thought of as a computational property of the speech perception system. Drawing on a common thread in recent work on both non-linguistic sensory adaptation and plasticity in language comprehension, we furthermore propose that selective adaptation can be seen as a consequence of distributional learning across multiple levels of representation. This proposal opens up new questions for research on selective adaptation itself, and also suggests that selective adaptation can be an important bridge between work on adaptation in low-level sensory systems and the complicated plasticity of the adult language comprehension system. PMID:26438255

  2. Providing Service-Based Personalization in an Adaptive Hypermedia System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yudelson, Michael V.

    2010-01-01

    Adaptive hypermedia is one of the most popular approaches of personalized information access. When the field started to emerge, the expectation was that soon nearly all published hypermedia content could be adapted to the needs, preferences, and abilities of its users. However, after a decade and a half, the gap between the amount of total…

  3. Climate services within a regional climate adaptation project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsel, Stephanie; Heidenreich, Majana; Franke, Johannes; Riedel, Kathrin; Matschullat, Jörg; Bernhofer, Christian

    2013-04-01

    In recent years the demand for adapting to climate variability and change became more and more obvious. Thus a multitude of projects dealing with climate adaptation strategies and concrete measures was launched. Commonly, developing adaptation options is based on downscaled climate model outputs. These outputs have to be provided within the projects, but just providing the data is far from being sufficient. Obstacles connected with using climate projections for climate adaptation include uncertainties and bandwidths of climate projections and the inability of models to describe parameters such as extreme weather events, which are particularly relevant for many climate adaptation decisions. Climate scientists know that model outputs are no climate data and cannot be treated as observational data were treated in the past. Still, many practitioners demand precise values for future climate to replace past CLINO-values and to run their applications. Thus, climate adaptation involves adapting the instruments and processes used in deriving climate-related decisions. Communicating the challenges arising from this need in rethinking common procedures is of outstanding significance for any successful adaptation practice. Dealing with uncertainties of climate projections is a constant necessity, since they are always based on several simplifications, parameterisations and assumptions, e.g., on the future socioeconomic development or on climate sensitivity. Future climate should thus be communicated in bandwidths. Working with just one scenario, one climate model, or even working with ensemble means is risky as it evokes a higher than appropriate perceived confidence in the results. It encourages using familiar tools in processing climate information, rather than caution. Consequences are suboptimal adaption and misallocation of finances. We encourage working with bandwidths and testing climate adaptation options against a broad range of possible future climates. Climate

  4. Using Virtualization and Automatic Evaluation: Adapting Network Services Management Courses to the EHEA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ros, S.; Robles-Gomez, A.; Hernandez, R.; Caminero, A. C.; Pastor, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the adaptation of a course on the management of network services in operating systems, called NetServicesOS, to the context of the new European Higher Education Area (EHEA). NetServicesOS is a mandatory course in one of the official graduate programs in the Faculty of Computer Science at the Universidad Nacional de Educacion a…

  5. Assessing Satisfaction with Selected Student Services Using SERVQUAL, a Market-Driven Model of Service Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruby, Carl A.

    1998-01-01

    Demonstrates how the use of SERVQUAL, a market-driven assessment model adapted from business, can be used to study student satisfaction with four areas of support services hypothetically related to enrollment management. The sample included 748 students enrolled in general education courses at ten different private institutions. (Contains 27…

  6. Selective and non-selective deposition of thick polysilicon layers for adaptive mirror device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartek, M.; Vdovin, G. V.; Wolffenbuttel, R. F.

    1997-09-01

    Two IC-process-compatible fabrication schemes, based on the selective and non-selective deposition of a thick polysilicon layer in an epitaxial reactor, are used for adaptive micromirror device fabrication. The micromirror consists of a composite diaphragm (a 0960-1317/7/3/014/img1 square-shaped silicon nitride membrane on which an additional 0960-1317/7/3/014/img2 thick polycrystalline silicon layer with a circular aperture is formed) coated with a 0960-1317/7/3/014/img3 reflective aluminium layer on a bulk micromachined 10.5 mm by 10.5 mm square silicon frame. The additional polycrystalline silicon layer with a circular aperture improves the optical properties of a deflected square-shaped silicon nitride membrane resulting from anisotropic KOH etching.

  7. Analyzing Electronic Question/Answer Services: Framework and Evaluations of Selected Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Marilyn Domas, Ed.

    This report develops an analytical framework based on systems analysis for evaluating electronic question/answer or AskA services operated by a wide range of types of organizations, including libraries. Version 1.0 of this framework was applied in June 1999 to a selective sample of 11 electronic question/answer services, which cover a range of…

  8. USER SERVICES AND EXTENSION SERVICES IN SELECTED SPECIAL LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION CENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NONINI, CERISE

    A SURVEY BY QUESTIONNAIRE WAS MADE OF THE PROBLEM OF USER SERVICES AND EXTENSION SERVICES USED IN THE DISSEMINATION OF MATERIALS AND INFORMATION TO A SELECTED NUMBER OF INDUSTRIAL LIBRARIES. THE SURVEY RESULTED IN DATA CONCERNING STAFF SIZE, PROFESSIONAL-TO-CLERICAL RATIO, SIZE OF BOOK, DOCUMENT, PERIODICAL AND MICROFORM COLLECTIONS, LIBRARY…

  9. Learning to Select Supplier Portfolios for Service Supply Chain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Li, Jingfei; Wu, Shaoyu; Meng, Dabin

    2016-01-01

    The research on service supply chain has attracted more and more focus from both academia and industrial community. In a service supply chain, the selection of supplier portfolio is an important and difficult problem due to the fact that a supplier portfolio may include multiple suppliers from a variety of fields. To address this problem, we propose a novel supplier portfolio selection method based on a well known machine learning approach, i.e., Ranking Neural Network (RankNet). In the proposed method, we regard the problem of supplier portfolio selection as a ranking problem, which integrates a large scale of decision making features into a ranking neural network. Extensive simulation experiments are conducted, which demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. The proposed supplier portfolio selection model can be applied in a real corporation easily in the future. PMID:27195756

  10. Learning to Select Supplier Portfolios for Service Supply Chain

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Li, Jingfei; Wu, Shaoyu; Meng, Dabin

    2016-01-01

    The research on service supply chain has attracted more and more focus from both academia and industrial community. In a service supply chain, the selection of supplier portfolio is an important and difficult problem due to the fact that a supplier portfolio may include multiple suppliers from a variety of fields. To address this problem, we propose a novel supplier portfolio selection method based on a well known machine learning approach, i.e., Ranking Neural Network (RankNet). In the proposed method, we regard the problem of supplier portfolio selection as a ranking problem, which integrates a large scale of decision making features into a ranking neural network. Extensive simulation experiments are conducted, which demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. The proposed supplier portfolio selection model can be applied in a real corporation easily in the future. PMID:27195756

  11. The geography of sex-specific selection, local adaptation, and sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Connallon, Tim

    2015-09-01

    Local adaptation and sexual dimorphism are iconic evolutionary scenarios of intraspecific adaptive differentiation in the face of gene flow. Although theory has traditionally considered local adaptation and sexual dimorphism as conceptually distinct processes, emerging data suggest that they often act concurrently during evolutionary diversification. Here, I merge theories of local adaptation in space and sex-specific adaptation over time, and show that their confluence yields several new predictions about the roles of context-specific selection, migration, and genetic correlations, in adaptive diversification. I specifically revisit two influential predictions from classical studies of clinal adaptation and sexual dimorphism: (1) that local adaptation should decrease with distance from the species' range center and (2) that opposing directional selection between the sexes (sexual antagonism) should inevitably accompany the evolution of sexual dimorphism. I show that both predictions can break down under clinally varying selection. First, the geography of local adaptation can be sexually dimorphic, with locations of relatively high local adaptation differing profoundly between the sexes. Second, the intensity of sexual antagonism varies across the species' range, with subpopulations near the range center representing hotspots for antagonistic selection. The results highlight the context-dependent roles of migration versus sexual conflict as primary constraints to adaptive diversification. PMID:26194274

  12. Online Reference Service--How to Begin: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shroder, Emelie J., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Materials in this bibliography were selected and recommended by members of the Use of Machine-Assisted Reference in Public Libraries Committee, Reference and Adult Services Division, American Library Association. Topics include: financial aspects, equipment and communications considerations, comparing databases and database systems, advertising…

  13. Self-Selection Effects in Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holz, Kenna Bolton; Pinnow, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    This study models the registration process in order to directly examine the possibility of pre-existing differences between undergraduate students who choose to take service-learning classes compared to those who do not. Foremost among the findings, on most measures there was no significant effect of self-selection. However, students who chose a…

  14. Implementing Service-Learning in Undergraduate Adapted Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Jason; Driver, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Service-learning (SL) integrates academic learning with relevant community service in an educational setting. Many fields of study, including kinesiology, have incorporated SL into their course curriculums. Research indicates that SL has many benefits to students, including exposure to a different learning approach, opportunities to apply…

  15. Adapting the SERVQUAL scale to hospital services: an empirical investigation.

    PubMed Central

    Babakus, E; Mangold, W G

    1992-01-01

    Defining and measuring the quality of service has been a major challenge for health care marketers. A comprehensive service quality measurement scale (SERVQUAL) is empirically evaluated for its potential usefulness in a hospital service environment. Active participation by hospital management helped to address practical and user-related aspects of the assessment. The completed expectations and perceptions scales met various criteria for reliability and validity. Suggestions are provided for the managerial use of the scale, and a number of future research issues are identified. PMID:1737708

  16. Adapting the SERVQUAL scale to hospital services: an empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Babakus, E; Mangold, W G

    1992-02-01

    Defining and measuring the quality of service has been a major challenge for health care marketers. A comprehensive service quality measurement scale (SERVQUAL) is empirically evaluated for its potential usefulness in a hospital service environment. Active participation by hospital management helped to address practical and user-related aspects of the assessment. The completed expectations and perceptions scales met various criteria for reliability and validity. Suggestions are provided for the managerial use of the scale, and a number of future research issues are identified. PMID:1737708

  17. A Service Brokering and Recommendation Mechanism for Better Selecting Cloud Services

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Zhipeng; Yang, Chaowei; Xia, Jizhe; Huang, Qunying; Liu, Kai; Li, Zhenlong; Yu, Manzhu; Sun, Min; Zhou, Nanyin; Jin, Baoxuan

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is becoming the new generation computing infrastructure, and many cloud vendors provide different types of cloud services. How to choose the best cloud services for specific applications is very challenging. Addressing this challenge requires balancing multiple factors, such as business demands, technologies, policies and preferences in addition to the computing requirements. This paper recommends a mechanism for selecting the best public cloud service at the levels of Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) and Platform as a Service (PaaS). A systematic framework and associated workflow include cloud service filtration, solution generation, evaluation, and selection of public cloud services. Specifically, we propose the following: a hierarchical information model for integrating heterogeneous cloud information from different providers and a corresponding cloud information collecting mechanism; a cloud service classification model for categorizing and filtering cloud services and an application requirement schema for providing rules for creating application-specific configuration solutions; and a preference-aware solution evaluation mode for evaluating and recommending solutions according to the preferences of application providers. To test the proposed framework and methodologies, a cloud service advisory tool prototype was developed after which relevant experiments were conducted. The results show that the proposed system collects/updates/records the cloud information from multiple mainstream public cloud services in real-time, generates feasible cloud configuration solutions according to user specifications and acceptable cost predication, assesses solutions from multiple aspects (e.g., computing capability, potential cost and Service Level Agreement, SLA) and offers rational recommendations based on user preferences and practical cloud provisioning; and visually presents and compares solutions through an interactive web Graphical User Interface (GUI

  18. Time Adaptation Shows Duration Selectivity in the Human Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Masamichi J.; Ditye, Thomas; Harada, Tokiko; Hashiguchi, Maho; Sadato, Norihiro; Carlson, Synnöve; Walsh, Vincent; Kanai, Ryota

    2015-01-01

    Although psychological and computational models of time estimation have postulated the existence of neural representations tuned for specific durations, empirical evidence of this notion has been lacking. Here, using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) adaptation paradigm, we show that the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) (corresponding to the supramarginal gyrus) exhibited reduction in neural activity due to adaptation when a visual stimulus of the same duration was repeatedly presented. Adaptation was strongest when stimuli of identical durations were repeated, and it gradually decreased as the difference between the reference and test durations increased. This tuning property generalized across a broad range of durations, indicating the presence of general time-representation mechanisms in the IPL. Furthermore, adaptation was observed irrespective of the subject’s attention to time. Repetition of a nontemporal aspect of the stimulus (i.e., shape) did not produce neural adaptation in the IPL. These results provide neural evidence for duration-tuned representations in the human brain. PMID:26378440

  19. Group Selection as Behavioral Adaptation to Systematic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruixun; Brennan, Thomas J.; Lo, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite many compelling applications in economics, sociobiology, and evolutionary psychology, group selection is still one of the most hotly contested ideas in evolutionary biology. Here we propose a simple evolutionary model of behavior and show that what appears to be group selection may, in fact, simply be the consequence of natural selection occurring in stochastic environments with reproductive risks that are correlated across individuals. Those individuals with highly correlated risks will appear to form “groups”, even if their actions are, in fact, totally autonomous, mindless, and, prior to selection, uniformly randomly distributed in the population. This framework implies that a separate theory of group selection is not strictly necessary to explain observed phenomena such as altruism and cooperation. At the same time, it shows that the notion of group selection does captures a unique aspect of evolution—selection with correlated reproductive risk–that may be sufficiently widespread to warrant a separate term for the phenomenon. PMID:25353167

  20. Multi-service terminal adapter based on IP technology applications in rural area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Li; Li, Xiaobo; Yan, Juntao; Ren, Xupeng

    Take advantage of ample modern existing telecom network resources to rural areas may achieve it's information society gradually. This includes the establishment of integrated rural information service platform, modern remote education center and electronic administration management platform for rural areas. The geographical and economic constraints must be overcome for structuring the rural service support system, in order to provide technical support, information products and information services to modern rural information service system. It is important that development an access platform based IP technology, which supports multi-service access in order to implement a variety of types of mobile terminal equipment adapter access and to reduce restrictions on mobile terminal equipment.

  1. Context-Adaptive Learning Designs by Using Semantic Web Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietze, Stefan; Gugliotta, Alessio; Domingue, John

    2007-01-01

    IMS Learning Design (IMS-LD) is a promising technology aimed at supporting learning processes. IMS-LD packages contain the learning process metadata as well as the learning resources. However, the allocation of resources--whether data or services--within the learning design is done manually at design-time on the basis of the subjective appraisals…

  2. The Selection of Test Items for Decision Making with a Computer Adaptive Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spray, Judith A.; Reckase, Mark D.

    The issue of test-item selection in support of decision making in adaptive testing is considered. The number of items needed to make a decision is compared for two approaches: selecting items from an item pool that are most informative at the decision point or selecting items that are most informative at the examinee's ability level. The first…

  3. Population genomics of Populus trichocarpa identifies signatures of selection and adaptive trait associations.

    PubMed

    Evans, Luke M; Slavov, Gancho T; Rodgers-Melnick, Eli; Martin, Joel; Ranjan, Priya; Muchero, Wellington; Brunner, Amy M; Schackwitz, Wendy; Gunter, Lee; Chen, Jin-Gui; Tuskan, Gerald A; DiFazio, Stephen P

    2014-10-01

    Forest trees are dominant components of terrestrial ecosystems that have global ecological and economic importance. Despite distributions that span wide environmental gradients, many tree populations are locally adapted, and mechanisms underlying this adaptation are poorly understood. Here we use a combination of whole-genome selection scans and association analyses of 544 Populus trichocarpa trees to reveal genomic bases of adaptive variation across a wide latitudinal range. Three hundred ninety-seven genomic regions showed evidence of recent positive and/or divergent selection and enrichment for associations with adaptive traits that also displayed patterns consistent with natural selection. These regions also provide unexpected insights into the evolutionary dynamics of duplicated genes and their roles in adaptive trait variation. PMID:25151358

  4. Population genomics of Populus trichocarpa identifies signatures of selection and adaptive trait associations

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Luke M; Slavov, Gancho; Rodgers-Melnick, Eli; Martin, Joel; Ranjan, Priya; Muchero, Wellington; Brunner, Amy M.; Schackwitz, Wendy; Gunter, Lee E; Chen, Jay; Tuskan, Gerald A; Difazio, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Forest trees are dominant components of terrestrial ecosystems that have global ecological and economic importance. Despite distributions that span wide environmental gradients, many tree populations are locally adapted, and mechanisms underlying this adaptation are poorly understood. Here we use a combination of whole-genome selection scans and association analyses of 544 Populus trichocarpa trees to reveal genomic bases of adaptive variation across a wide latitudinal range. Three hundred ninety-seven genomic regions showed evidence of recent positive and/or divergent selection and enrichment for associations with adaptive traits that also displayed patterns consistent with natural selection. These regions also provide unexpected insights into the evolutionary dynamics of duplicated genes and their roles in adaptive trait variation.

  5. A service based adaptive U-learning system using UX.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hwa-Young; Yi, Gangman

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, traditional development techniques for e-learning systems have been changing to become more convenient and efficient. One new technology in the development of application systems includes both cloud and ubiquitous computing. Cloud computing can support learning system processes by using services while ubiquitous computing can provide system operation and management via a high performance technical process and network. In the cloud computing environment, a learning service application can provide a business module or process to the user via the internet. This research focuses on providing the learning material and processes of courses by learning units using the services in a ubiquitous computing environment. And we also investigate functions that support users' tailored materials according to their learning style. That is, we analyzed the user's data and their characteristics in accordance with their user experience. We subsequently applied the learning process to fit on their learning performance and preferences. Finally, we demonstrate how the proposed system outperforms learning effects to learners better than existing techniques. PMID:25147832

  6. A Service Based Adaptive U-Learning System Using UX

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hwa-Young

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, traditional development techniques for e-learning systems have been changing to become more convenient and efficient. One new technology in the development of application systems includes both cloud and ubiquitous computing. Cloud computing can support learning system processes by using services while ubiquitous computing can provide system operation and management via a high performance technical process and network. In the cloud computing environment, a learning service application can provide a business module or process to the user via the internet. This research focuses on providing the learning material and processes of courses by learning units using the services in a ubiquitous computing environment. And we also investigate functions that support users' tailored materials according to their learning style. That is, we analyzed the user's data and their characteristics in accordance with their user experience. We subsequently applied the learning process to fit on their learning performance and preferences. Finally, we demonstrate how the proposed system outperforms learning effects to learners better than existing techniques. PMID:25147832

  7. Salinity Is an Agent of Divergent Selection Driving Local Adaptation of Arabidopsis to Coastal Habitats.

    PubMed

    Busoms, Silvia; Teres, Joana; Huang, Xin-Yuan; Bomblies, Kirsten; Danku, John; Douglas, Alex; Weigel, Detlef; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Salt, David E

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanism of adaptive evolution in plants provides insights into the selective forces driving adaptation and the genetic basis of adaptive traits with agricultural value. The genomic resources available for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) make it well suited to the rapid molecular dissection of adaptive processes. Although numerous potentially adaptive loci have been identified in Arabidopsis, the consequences of divergent selection and migration (both important aspects of the process of local adaptation) for Arabidopsis are not well understood. Here, we use a multiyear field-based reciprocal transplant experiment to detect local populations of Arabidopsis composed of multiple small stands of plants (demes) that are locally adapted to the coast and adjacent inland habitats in northeastern Spain. We identify fitness tradeoffs between plants from these different habitats when grown together in inland and coastal common gardens and also, under controlled conditions in soil excavated from coastal and inland sites. Plants from the coastal habitat also outperform those from inland when grown under high salinity, indicating local adaptation to soil salinity. Sodium can be toxic to plants, and we find its concentration to be elevated in soil and plants sampled at the coast. We conclude that the local adaptation that we observe between adjacent coastal and inland populations is caused by ongoing divergent selection driven by the differential salinity between coastal and inland soils. PMID:26034264

  8. Orientation-selective adaptation to illusory contours in human visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Montaser-Kouhsari, Leila; Landy, Michael S.; Heeger, David J.; Larsson, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    Humans can perceive illusory or subjective contours in the absence of any real physical boundaries. We used an adaptation protocol to look for orientation-selective neural responses to illusory contours defined by phase-shifted abutting line gratings in the human visual cortex. We measured fMRI responses to illusory-contour test stimuli after adapting to an illusory-contour adapter stimulus that was oriented parallel or orthogonal to the test stimulus. We found orientation-selective adaptation to illusory contours in early (V1 and V2) and higher-tier visual areas (V3, hV4, VO1, V3A/B, V7, LO1, LO2). That is, fMRI responses were smaller for test stimuli parallel to the adapter than for test stimuli orthogonal to the adapter. In two control experiments using spatially jittered and phase-randomized stimuli, we demonstrated that this adaptation was not just in response to differences in the distribution of spectral power in the stimuli. Orientation-selective adaptation to illusory contours increased from early to higher-tier visual areas. Thus, both early and higher-tier visual areas contain neurons selective for the orientation of this type of illusory contour. PMID:17329415

  9. Using Selection Pressure as an Asset to Develop Reusable, Adaptable Software Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrick, Stephen; Lynnes, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) at NASA has over the years developed and honed several reusable architectural components for supporting large-scale data centers with a large customer base. These include a processing system (S4PM) and an archive system (S4PA) based upon a workflow engine called the Simple Scalable Script based Science Processor (S4P) and an online data visualization and analysis system (Giovanni). These subsystems are currently reused internally in a variety of combinations to implement customized data management on behalf of instrument science teams and other science investigators. Some of these subsystems (S4P and S4PM) have also been reused by other data centers for operational science processing. Our experience has been that development and utilization of robust interoperable and reusable software systems can actually flourish in environments defined by heterogeneous commodity hardware systems the emphasis on value-added customer service and the continual goal for achieving higher cost efficiencies. The repeated internal reuse that is fostered by such an environment encourages and even forces changes to the software that make it more reusable and adaptable. Allowing and even encouraging such selective pressures to software development has been a key factor In the success of S4P and S4PM which are now available to the open source community under the NASA Open source Agreement

  10. Adaptive Broadcasting Mechanism for Bandwidth Allocation in Mobile Services

    PubMed Central

    Horng, Gwo-Jiun; Wang, Chi-Hsuan; Chou, Chih-Lun

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a tree-based adaptive broadcasting (TAB) algorithm for data dissemination to improve data access efficiency. The proposed TAB algorithm first constructs a broadcast tree to determine the broadcast frequency of each data and splits the broadcast tree into some broadcast wood to generate the broadcast program. In addition, this paper develops an analytical model to derive the mean access latency of the generated broadcast program. In light of the derived results, both the index channel's bandwidth and the data channel's bandwidth can be optimally allocated to maximize bandwidth utilization. This paper presents experiments to help evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. From the experimental results, it can be seen that the proposed mechanism is feasible in practice. PMID:25057509

  11. SLA-constrained service selection for minimizing costs of providing composite cloud services under stochastic runtime performance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Chan; Tsai, Mu-Jung; Lu, Sin-Ji; Hung, Chun-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Composite cloud services based on the methodologies of Software as a Service and Service-Oriented Architecture are transforming how people develop and use software. Cloud service providers are confronting the service selection problem when composing composite cloud services. This paper deals with an important type of service selection problem, minimizing the total cost of providing a composite cloud service with respect to the constraints of service level agreement (SLA). Two types of SLA are considered in the study: per-request-based SLA and ratio-based SLA. We present three service selection approaches for dynamic cloud environments where services' performance might vary with time. The first two are iterative compound approaches for per-request-based SLA and the third approach is a one-step method for ratio-based SLA based on the Chebyshev's theorem and nonlinear programming. Experimental results show that our approaches outperform the previous method significantly in terms of total cost reduction. PMID:27066331

  12. A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment.

    PubMed

    Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant "one model fits all" paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES--both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts. PMID:24625496

  13. A Methodology for Adaptable and Robust Ecosystem Services Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant “one model fits all” paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES - both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts. PMID:24625496

  14. A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant “one model fits all” paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES - both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts.

  15. 42 CFR 61.36 - Selection and appointment of service fellows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Selection and appointment of service fellows. 61.36 Section 61.36 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.36 Selection and appointment of service...

  16. 42 CFR 61.36 - Selection and appointment of service fellows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selection and appointment of service fellows. 61.36 Section 61.36 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.36 Selection and appointment of service...

  17. 42 CFR 61.36 - Selection and appointment of service fellows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selection and appointment of service fellows. 61.36 Section 61.36 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.36 Selection and appointment of service...

  18. 42 CFR 61.36 - Selection and appointment of service fellows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Selection and appointment of service fellows. 61.36 Section 61.36 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.36 Selection and appointment of service...

  19. 42 CFR 61.36 - Selection and appointment of service fellows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Selection and appointment of service fellows. 61.36 Section 61.36 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.36 Selection and appointment of service...

  20. Genomic Evidence that Sexual Selection Impedes Adaptation to a Novel Environment.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, Stephen F; Appleton, Nicholas C; Allen, Scott L; Rundle, Howard D

    2015-07-20

    Sexual selection is widely appreciated for generating remarkable phenotypic diversity, but its contribution to adaptation and the purging of deleterious mutations is unresolved. To provide insight into the impact of sexual selection on naturally segregating polymorphisms across the genome, we previously evolved 12 populations of Drosophila serrata in a novel environment employing a factorial manipulation of the opportunities for natural and sexual selection. Here, we genotype more than 1,400 SNPs in the evolved populations and reveal that sexual selection affected many of the same genomic regions as natural selection, aligning with it as often as opposing it. Intriguingly, more than half of the 80 SNPs showing treatment effects revealed an interaction between natural and sexual selection. For these SNPs, while sexual selection alone often caused a change in allele frequency in the same direction as natural selection alone, when natural and sexual selection occurred together, changes in allele frequency were greatly reduced or even reversed. This suggests an antagonism between natural and sexual selection arising from male-induced harm to females. Behavioral experiments showed that males preferentially courted and mated with high-fitness females, and that the harm associated with this increased male attention eliminated the female fitness advantage. During our experiment, females carrying otherwise adaptive alleles may therefore have disproportionally suffered male-induced harm due to their increased sexual attractiveness. These results suggest that a class of otherwise adaptive mutations may not contribute to adaptation when mating systems involve sexual conflict and male mate preferences. PMID:26119752

  1. Adaptive fault diagnosis in rotating machines using indicators selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khelf, Ilyes; Laouar, Lakhdar; Bouchelaghem, Abdelaziz M.; Rémond, Didier; Saad, Salah

    2013-11-01

    Over the past two decades, condition monitoring and faults diagnosis in rotating machinery have been widely studied and reported. In the present paper an algorithm for fault diagnosis in industrial rotating machines facing new operating conditions emergence is developed on the basis of input indicators, extracted from vibrations spectrums. Indicators selection is used to improve diagnosis performances by the help of a hybrid approach using several selection criteria and different classifiers. To validate the performances of this algorithm, experimental tests were conducted on two industrial systems with various operating conditions. The results have proved the effectiveness of the developed algorithm compared to the "J48 decision tree" and also reveal the need to re-select the indicators for reliable monitoring of working conditions.

  2. When Easy Comes Hard: The Development of Adaptive Strategy Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mata, Rui; von Helversen, Bettina; Rieskamp, Jorg

    2011-01-01

    Can children learn to select the right strategy for a given problem? In one experiment, 9- to 10-year-olds (N = 50), 11- to 12-year-olds (N = 50), and adults (N = 50) made probabilistic inferences. Participants encountered environments favoring either an information-intensive strategy that integrates all available information or an…

  3. Genes under weaker stabilizing selection increase network evolvability and rapid regulatory adaptation to an environmental shift.

    PubMed

    Laarits, T; Bordalo, P; Lemos, B

    2016-08-01

    Regulatory networks play a central role in the modulation of gene expression, the control of cellular differentiation, and the emergence of complex phenotypes. Regulatory networks could constrain or facilitate evolutionary adaptation in gene expression levels. Here, we model the adaptation of regulatory networks and gene expression levels to a shift in the environment that alters the optimal expression level of a single gene. Our analyses show signatures of natural selection on regulatory networks that both constrain and facilitate rapid evolution of gene expression level towards new optima. The analyses are interpreted from the standpoint of neutral expectations and illustrate the challenge to making inferences about network adaptation. Furthermore, we examine the consequence of variable stabilizing selection across genes on the strength and direction of interactions in regulatory networks and in their subsequent adaptation. We observe that directional selection on a highly constrained gene previously under strong stabilizing selection was more efficient when the gene was embedded within a network of partners under relaxed stabilizing selection pressure. The observation leads to the expectation that evolutionarily resilient regulatory networks will contain optimal ratios of genes whose expression is under weak and strong stabilizing selection. Altogether, our results suggest that the variable strengths of stabilizing selection across genes within regulatory networks might itself contribute to the long-term adaptation of complex phenotypes. PMID:27213992

  4. Adapting selected nucleic acid ligands (aptamers) to biosensors.

    PubMed

    Potyrailo, R A; Conrad, R C; Ellington, A D; Hieftje, G M

    1998-08-15

    A flexible biosensor has been developed that utilizes immobilized nucleic acid aptamers to specifically detect free nonlabeled non-nucleic acid targets such as proteins. In a model system, an anti-thrombin DNA aptamer was fluorescently labeled and covalently attached to a glass support. Thrombin in solution was selectively detected by following changes in the evanescent-wave-induced fluorescence anisotropy of the immobilized aptamer. The new biosensor can detect as little as 0.7 amol of thrombin in a 140-pL interrogated volume, has a dynamic range of 3 orders of magnitude, has an inter-sensing-element measurement precision of better than 4% RSD over the range 0-200 nM, and requires less than 10 min for sample analysis. The aptamer-sensor format is generalizable and should allow sensitive, selective, and fast determination of a wide range of analytes. PMID:9726167

  5. Adaptive Resource Allocation for the PB/MC-CDMA System in Frequency Selective Fading Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyujin; Lee, Kyesan

    We propose Adaptive Resource Allocation for the Partial Block MC-CDMA (ARA-PB/MC-CDMA) system. The ARA-PB/MC-CDMA system aims to improve total throughput performance and frequency efficiency across various channel conditions. It adaptively changes the number of blocks to improve the throughput performance and frequency efficiency according to the Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR). Therefore, the proposed system supports various Quality of Service (QoS) requirements for various SIR values.

  6. Bayesian Variable Selection for Detecting Adaptive Genomic Differences Among Populations

    PubMed Central

    Riebler, Andrea; Held, Leonhard; Stephan, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    We extend an Fst-based Bayesian hierarchical model, implemented via Markov chain Monte Carlo, for the detection of loci that might be subject to positive selection. This model divides the Fst-influencing factors into locus-specific effects, population-specific effects, and effects that are specific for the locus in combination with the population. We introduce a Bayesian auxiliary variable for each locus effect to automatically select nonneutral locus effects. As a by-product, the efficiency of the original approach is improved by using a reparameterization of the model. The statistical power of the extended algorithm is assessed with simulated data sets from a Wright–Fisher model with migration. We find that the inclusion of model selection suggests a clear improvement in discrimination as measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Additionally, we illustrate and discuss the quality of the newly developed method on the basis of an allozyme data set of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and a sequence data set of the wild tomato Solanum chilense. For data sets with small sample sizes, high mutation rates, and/or long sequences, however, methods based on nucleotide statistics should be preferred. PMID:18245358

  7. Bayesian variable selection for detecting adaptive genomic differences among populations.

    PubMed

    Riebler, Andrea; Held, Leonhard; Stephan, Wolfgang

    2008-03-01

    We extend an F(st)-based Bayesian hierarchical model, implemented via Markov chain Monte Carlo, for the detection of loci that might be subject to positive selection. This model divides the F(st)-influencing factors into locus-specific effects, population-specific effects, and effects that are specific for the locus in combination with the population. We introduce a Bayesian auxiliary variable for each locus effect to automatically select nonneutral locus effects. As a by-product, the efficiency of the original approach is improved by using a reparameterization of the model. The statistical power of the extended algorithm is assessed with simulated data sets from a Wright-Fisher model with migration. We find that the inclusion of model selection suggests a clear improvement in discrimination as measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Additionally, we illustrate and discuss the quality of the newly developed method on the basis of an allozyme data set of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and a sequence data set of the wild tomato Solanum chilense. For data sets with small sample sizes, high mutation rates, and/or long sequences, however, methods based on nucleotide statistics should be preferred. PMID:18245358

  8. Restrictive Stochastic Item Selection Methods in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua; Huebner, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes two new item selection methods for cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing: the restrictive progressive method and the restrictive threshold method. They are built upon the posterior weighted Kullback-Leibler (KL) information index but include additional stochastic components either in the item selection index or in…

  9. On the Impact of Adaptive Test Question Selection for Learning Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barla, Michal; Bielikova, Maria; Ezzeddinne, Anna Bou; Kramar, Tomas; Simko, Marian; Vozar, Oto

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for adaptive selection of test questions according to the individual needs of students within a web-based educational system. It functions as a combination of three particular methods. The first method is based on the course structure and focuses on the selection of the most appropriate topic for learning. The…

  10. A Feedback Control Strategy for Enhancing Item Selection Efficiency in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    A computerized adaptive test (CAT) may be modeled as a closed-loop system, where item selection is influenced by trait level ([theta]) estimation and vice versa. When discrepancies exist between an examinee's estimated and true [theta] levels, nonoptimal item selection is a likely result. Nevertheless, examinee response behavior consistent with…

  11. An on-demand provision model for geospatial multisource information with active self-adaption services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Hong; Li, Huan

    2015-12-01

    Location-related data are playing an increasingly irreplaceable role in business, government and scientific research. At the same time, the amount and types of data are rapidly increasing. It is a challenge how to quickly find required information from this rapidly growing volume of data, as well as how to efficiently provide different levels of geospatial data to users. This paper puts forward a data-oriented access model for geographic information science data. First, we analyze the features of GIS data including traditional types such as vector and raster data and new types such as Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI). Taking into account these analyses, a classification scheme for geographic data is proposed and TRAFIE is introduced to describe the establishment of a multi-level model for geographic data. Based on this model, a multi-level, scalable access system for geospatial information is put forward. Users can select different levels of data according to their concrete application needs. Pull-based and push-based data access mechanisms based on this model are presented. A Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) was chosen for the data processing. The model of this study has been described by providing decision-making process of government departments with a simulation of fire disaster data collection. The use case shows this data model and the data provision system is flexible and has good adaptability.

  12. Does Genetic Variation Maintained by Environmental Heterogeneity Facilitate Adaptation to Novel Selection?

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuheng; Tran, Ivan; Agrawal, Aneil F

    2016-07-01

    Environmental heterogeneity helps maintain genetic variation in fitness. Therefore, one might predict that populations living in heterogeneous environments have higher adaptive potential than populations living in homogeneous environments. Such a prediction could be useful in guiding conservation priorities without requiring detailed genetic studies. However, this prediction will be true only if the additional genetic variation maintained by environmental heterogeneity can be used to respond to novel selection. Here we examine the effect of environmental heterogeneity on future adaptability using replicated experimental Drosophila melanogaster populations that had previously evolved for ∼100 generations under one of four selective regimes: constant salt-enriched larvae medium, constant cadmium-enriched larvae medium, and two heterogeneous regimes that vary either temporally or spatially between the two media. Replicates of these experimental populations were subjected to a novel heat stress while being maintained in their original larval diet selection regimes. Adaptation to increased temperature was measured with respect to female productivity and male siring success after ∼20 generations. For female productivity, there was evidence of adaptation overall and heterogeneous populations had a larger adaptive response than homogeneous populations. There was less evidence of adaptation overall for male siring success and no support for faster adaptation in heterogeneous populations. PMID:27322119

  13. From Cellular Attractor Selection to Adaptive Signal Control for Traffic Networks.

    PubMed

    Tian, Daxin; Zhou, Jianshan; Sheng, Zhengguo; Wang, Yunpeng; Ma, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    The management of varying traffic flows essentially depends on signal controls at intersections. However, design an optimal control that considers the dynamic nature of a traffic network and coordinates all intersections simultaneously in a centralized manner is computationally challenging. Inspired by the stable gene expressions of Escherichia coli in response to environmental changes, we explore the robustness and adaptability performance of signalized intersections by incorporating a biological mechanism in their control policies, specifically, the evolution of each intersection is induced by the dynamics governing an adaptive attractor selection in cells. We employ a mathematical model to capture such biological attractor selection and derive a generic, adaptive and distributed control algorithm which is capable of dynamically adapting signal operations for the entire dynamical traffic network. We show that the proposed scheme based on attractor selection can not only promote the balance of traffic loads on each link of the network but also allows the global network to accommodate dynamical traffic demands. Our work demonstrates the potential of bio-inspired intelligence emerging from cells and provides a deep understanding of adaptive attractor selection-based control formation that is useful to support the designs of adaptive optimization and control in other domains. PMID:26972968

  14. Regularized logistic regression with adjusted adaptive elastic net for gene selection in high dimensional cancer classification.

    PubMed

    Algamal, Zakariya Yahya; Lee, Muhammad Hisyam

    2015-12-01

    Cancer classification and gene selection in high-dimensional data have been popular research topics in genetics and molecular biology. Recently, adaptive regularized logistic regression using the elastic net regularization, which is called the adaptive elastic net, has been successfully applied in high-dimensional cancer classification to tackle both estimating the gene coefficients and performing gene selection simultaneously. The adaptive elastic net originally used elastic net estimates as the initial weight, however, using this weight may not be preferable for certain reasons: First, the elastic net estimator is biased in selecting genes. Second, it does not perform well when the pairwise correlations between variables are not high. Adjusted adaptive regularized logistic regression (AAElastic) is proposed to address these issues and encourage grouping effects simultaneously. The real data results indicate that AAElastic is significantly consistent in selecting genes compared to the other three competitor regularization methods. Additionally, the classification performance of AAElastic is comparable to the adaptive elastic net and better than other regularization methods. Thus, we can conclude that AAElastic is a reliable adaptive regularized logistic regression method in the field of high-dimensional cancer classification. PMID:26520484

  15. From Cellular Attractor Selection to Adaptive Signal Control for Traffic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Daxin; Zhou, Jianshan; Sheng, Zhengguo; Wang, Yunpeng; Ma, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    The management of varying traffic flows essentially depends on signal controls at intersections. However, design an optimal control that considers the dynamic nature of a traffic network and coordinates all intersections simultaneously in a centralized manner is computationally challenging. Inspired by the stable gene expressions of Escherichia coli in response to environmental changes, we explore the robustness and adaptability performance of signalized intersections by incorporating a biological mechanism in their control policies, specifically, the evolution of each intersection is induced by the dynamics governing an adaptive attractor selection in cells. We employ a mathematical model to capture such biological attractor selection and derive a generic, adaptive and distributed control algorithm which is capable of dynamically adapting signal operations for the entire dynamical traffic network. We show that the proposed scheme based on attractor selection can not only promote the balance of traffic loads on each link of the network but also allows the global network to accommodate dynamical traffic demands. Our work demonstrates the potential of bio-inspired intelligence emerging from cells and provides a deep understanding of adaptive attractor selection-based control formation that is useful to support the designs of adaptive optimization and control in other domains. PMID:26972968

  16. From Cellular Attractor Selection to Adaptive Signal Control for Traffic Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Daxin; Zhou, Jianshan; Sheng, Zhengguo; Wang, Yunpeng; Ma, Jianming

    2016-03-01

    The management of varying traffic flows essentially depends on signal controls at intersections. However, design an optimal control that considers the dynamic nature of a traffic network and coordinates all intersections simultaneously in a centralized manner is computationally challenging. Inspired by the stable gene expressions of Escherichia coli in response to environmental changes, we explore the robustness and adaptability performance of signalized intersections by incorporating a biological mechanism in their control policies, specifically, the evolution of each intersection is induced by the dynamics governing an adaptive attractor selection in cells. We employ a mathematical model to capture such biological attractor selection and derive a generic, adaptive and distributed control algorithm which is capable of dynamically adapting signal operations for the entire dynamical traffic network. We show that the proposed scheme based on attractor selection can not only promote the balance of traffic loads on each link of the network but also allows the global network to accommodate dynamical traffic demands. Our work demonstrates the potential of bio-inspired intelligence emerging from cells and provides a deep understanding of adaptive attractor selection-based control formation that is useful to support the designs of adaptive optimization and control in other domains.

  17. Adaptation of Flemish Services to Accommodate and Support the Aging of People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maes, Bea; Van Puyenbroeck, Joris

    2008-01-01

    The authors attempted to find out to what extent and in which ways, in Belgium, have Flemish services for people with intellectual disability adapted to the specific needs of aging people. A study was undertaken and a questionnaire was developed to address the following research topics: (1) accommodations and personnel, (2) staff working methods,…

  18. The Ability of Elite Table Tennis Players with Intellectual Disabilities to Adapt Their Service/Return

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Biesen, Debbie; Verellen, Joeri; Meyer, Christophe; Mactavish, Jennifer; Van de Vliet, Peter; Vanlandewijck, Yves

    2010-01-01

    In this study the ability of elite table tennis players with intellectual disability (ID) to adapt their service/return to specific ball spin characteristics was investigated. This was done by examining the performance of 39 players with ID and a reference group of 8 players without ID on a standardized table tennis specific test battery. The…

  19. SERVQUAL Application and Adaptation for Educational Service Quality Assessments in Russian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galeeva, Railya B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate an adaptation of the SERVQUAL survey method for measuring the quality of higher educational services in a Russian university context. We use a new analysis and a graphical technique for presentation of results. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology of this research follows the classic…

  20. 77 FR 28410 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select Contract 1 to...

  1. 77 FR 42780 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select Contract 5...

  2. 76 FR 2930 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... ] Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select Contract 1 to...

  3. 77 FR 42780 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select Contract 4...

  4. 77 FR 42780 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select Contract 3...

  5. SLOPE—ADAPTIVE VARIABLE SELECTION VIA CONVEX OPTIMIZATION

    PubMed Central

    Bogdan, Małgorzata; van den Berg, Ewout; Sabatti, Chiara; Su, Weijie; Candès, Emmanuel J.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new estimator for the vector of coefficients β in the linear model y = Xβ + z, where X has dimensions n × p with p possibly larger than n. SLOPE, short for Sorted L-One Penalized Estimation, is the solution to minb∈ℝp12‖y−Xb‖ℓ22+λ1|b|(1)+λ2|b|(2)+⋯+λp|b|(p),where λ1 ≥ λ2 ≥ … ≥ λp ≥ 0 and |b|(1)≥|b|(2)≥⋯≥|b|(p) are the decreasing absolute values of the entries of b. This is a convex program and we demonstrate a solution algorithm whose computational complexity is roughly comparable to that of classical ℓ1 procedures such as the Lasso. Here, the regularizer is a sorted ℓ1 norm, which penalizes the regression coefficients according to their rank: the higher the rank—that is, stronger the signal—the larger the penalty. This is similar to the Benjamini and Hochberg [J. Roy. Statist. Soc. Ser. B 57 (1995) 289–300] procedure (BH) which compares more significant p-values with more stringent thresholds. One notable choice of the sequence {λi} is given by the BH critical values λBH(i)=z(1−i⋅q/2p), where q ∈ (0, 1) and z(α) is the quantile of a standard normal distribution. SLOPE aims to provide finite sample guarantees on the selected model; of special interest is the false discovery rate (FDR), defined as the expected proportion of irrelevant regressors among all selected predictors. Under orthogonal designs, SLOPE with λBH provably controls FDR at level q. Moreover, it also appears to have appreciable inferential properties under more general designs X while having substantial power, as demonstrated in a series of experiments running on both simulated and real data. PMID:26709357

  6. 32 CFR 1605.8 - Staff of Region Headquarters for Selective Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Staff of Region Headquarters for Selective... SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Region Administration § 1605.8 Staff of Region..., the staff of each region for Selective Service shall consist of as many officers, either military...

  7. 76 FR 17784 - Forwarding and Return Service for Parcel Select Mailpieces

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... 111 Forwarding and Return Service for Parcel Select Mailpieces AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION... Parcel Select mailpieces and to eliminate the option to request discontinuance of forwarding. The Postal Service also implements a new price for Parcel Select forwards and returns; those pieces will now pay...

  8. Natural selection and self-organization in complex adaptive systems.

    PubMed

    Di Bernardo, Mirko

    2010-01-01

    The central theme of this work is self-organization "interpreted" both from the point of view of theoretical biology, and from a philosophical point of view. By analysing, on the one hand, those which are now considered--not only in the field of physics--some of the most important discoveries, that is complex systems and deterministic chaos and, on the other hand, the new frontiers of systemic biology, this work highlights how large thermodynamic systems which are open can spontaneously stay in an orderly regime. Such systems can represent the natural source of the order required for a stable self-organization, for homoeostasis and for hereditary variations. The order, emerging in enormous randomly interconnected nets of binary variables, is almost certainly only the precursor of similar orders emerging in all the varieties of complex systems. Hence, this work, by finding new foundations for the order pervading the living world, advances the daring hypothesis according to which Darwinian natural selection is not the only source of order in the biosphere. Thus, the article, by examining the passage from Prigogine's dissipative structures theory to the contemporary theory of biological complexity, highlights the development of a coherent and continuous line of research which is set to individuate the general principles marking the profound reality of that mysterious self-organization characterizing the complexity of life. PMID:20882479

  9. Climate change adaptation via targeted ecosystem service provision: a sustainable land management strategy for the Segura catchment (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagaria, Cecilia; de Vente, Joris; Perez-Cutillas, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    Topical research investigating climate, land-use and management scenarios in the Segura catchment (SE Spain), depicts a landscape at high-risk of, quite literally, deserting agriculture. Land degradation in the semi-arid region of SE Spain is characterized by water shortage, high erosion rates and salinization, increasingly exacerbated by climatic changes, scarce vegetation cover and detrimental farming practices. Future climate scenarios predict increases in aridity, variability and intensity of rainfall events, leading to increasing pressure on scarce soil and water resources. This study conceptualized the impending crisis of agro-ecological systems of the Segura basin (18800 km2) as a crisis of ecosystem service deterioration. In light of existing land degradation drivers and future climate scenarios, the potential of Sustainable Land Management (SLM) strategies was evaluated to target three priority ecosystem services (water provision, sediment retention and carbon sequestration) as a means to achieve climate change adaptation and mitigation. A preceding thorough process of stakeholder engagement (as part of the EU funded DESIRE project) indicated five SLM technologies for potential implementation, all with a focus upon reducing soil erosion, increasing soil water holding capacity and soil organic matter content. These technologies have been tested for over four years in local experimental field plots, and have provided results on the local effects upon individual environmental parameters. Despite the growing emphasis witnessed in literature upon the context-specificity which characterizes adaptation solutions, the frequent analysis at the field scale is limited in both scope and utility. There is a need to investigate the effects of adaptive SLM solutions at wider, regional scales. Thus, this study modeled the cumulative effect of each of the five selected SLM technologies with InVEST, a spatial analyst tool designed for ecosystem service quantification and

  10. Bibliography of Selected Literature in the 1970s Related to Crises, Family Stress, Coping and Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesser, Barbara

    This bibliography of literature from the 1970s related to crises, family stress, coping, and adaptation contains references of particular interest to professionals in the areas of counseling, education, and family social, psychological and health services. The bibliography is divided into 26 categories; references are classified according to major…

  11. Mutations in global regulators lead to metabolic selection during adaptation to complex environments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Saxer, Gerda; Krepps, Michael D.; Merkley, Eric D.; Ansong, Charles; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L.; Valovska, Marie -Thérèse; Ristic, Nikola; Yeh, Ping T.; Prakash, Vittal P.; Leiser, Owen P.; et al

    2014-12-11

    Adaptation to ecologically complex environments can provide insights into the evolutionary dynamics and functional constraints encountered by organisms during natural selection. Unlike adaptation to a single limiting resource, adaptation to a new environment with abundant and varied resources can be difficult to achieve by small incremental changes since many mutations are required to achieve even modest gains in fitness. Since changing complex environments are quite common in nature, we investigated how such an epistatic bottleneck can be avoided to allow rapid adaptation. We show that adaptive mutations arise repeatedly in independently evolved populations in the context of greatly increased geneticmore » and phenotypic diversity. We go on to show that weak selection requiring substantial metabolic reprogramming can be readily achieved by mutations in the global response regulator arcA and the stress response regulator rpoS. We identified 46 unique single-nucleotide variants of arcA and 18 mutations in rpoS, nine of which resulted in stop codons or large deletions, suggesting that a subtle modulation of ArcA function and knockouts of rpoS are largely responsible for the metabolic shifts leading to adaptation. These mutations allow a higher order “metabolic selection” that eliminates epistatic bottlenecks, which could occur when many changes would be required. Proteomic and carbohydrate analysis of adapting E. coli populations revealed an up-regulation of enzymes associated with the TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism and an increase in the secretion of putrescine. The overall effect of adaptation across populations is to redirect and efficiently utilize uptake and catabolism of abundant amino acids. Concomitantly, there is a pronounced spread of more ecologically limited strains that results from specialization through metabolic erosion. Remarkably, the global regulators arcA and rpoS can provide a “one-step” mechanism of adaptation to a novel

  12. Adapt globally, act locally: the effect of selective sweeps on bacterial sequence diversity.

    PubMed Central

    Majewski, J; Cohan, F M

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that genetic exchange in bacteria is too rare to prevent neutral sequence divergence between ecological populations. That is, despite genetic exchange, each population should diverge into its own DNA sequence-similarity cluster. In those studies, each selective sweep was limited to acting within a single ecological population. Here we postulate the existence of globally adaptive mutations, which may confer a selective advantage to all ecological populations constituting a metapopulation. Such adaptations cause global selective sweeps, which purge the divergence both within and between populations. We found that the effect of recurrent global selective sweeps on neutral sequence divergence is highly dependent on the mechanism of genetic exchange. Global selective sweeps can prevent populations from reaching high levels of neutral sequence divergence, but they cannot cause two populations to become identical in neutral sequence characters. The model supports the earlier conclusion that each ecological population of bacteria should form its own distinct DNA sequence-similarity cluster. PMID:10430576

  13. An Adaptive Failure Detector Based on Quality of Service in Peer-to-Peer Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jian; Ren, Xiao; Zuo, Decheng; Liu, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    The failure detector is one of the fundamental components that maintain high availability of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks. Under different network conditions, the adaptive failure detector based on quality of service (QoS) can achieve the detection time and accuracy required by upper applications with lower detection overhead. In P2P systems, complexity of network and high churn lead to high message loss rate. To reduce the impact on detection accuracy, baseline detection strategy based on retransmission mechanism has been employed widely in many P2P applications; however, Chen's classic adaptive model cannot describe this kind of detection strategy. In order to provide an efficient service of failure detection in P2P systems, this paper establishes a novel QoS evaluation model for the baseline detection strategy. The relationship between the detection period and the QoS is discussed and on this basis, an adaptive failure detector (B-AFD) is proposed, which can meet the quantitative QoS metrics under changing network environment. Meanwhile, it is observed from the experimental analysis that B-AFD achieves better detection accuracy and time with lower detection overhead compared to the traditional baseline strategy and the adaptive detectors based on Chen's model. Moreover, B-AFD has better adaptability to P2P network. PMID:25198005

  14. An adaptive failure detector based on quality of service in peer-to-peer networks.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jian; Ren, Xiao; Zuo, Decheng; Liu, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    The failure detector is one of the fundamental components that maintain high availability of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks. Under different network conditions, the adaptive failure detector based on quality of service (QoS) can achieve the detection time and accuracy required by upper applications with lower detection overhead. In P2P systems, complexity of network and high churn lead to high message loss rate. To reduce the impact on detection accuracy, baseline detection strategy based on retransmission mechanism has been employed widely in many P2P applications; however, Chen's classic adaptive model cannot describe this kind of detection strategy. In order to provide an efficient service of failure detection in P2P systems, this paper establishes a novel QoS evaluation model for the baseline detection strategy. The relationship between the detection period and the QoS is discussed and on this basis, an adaptive failure detector (B-AFD) is proposed, which can meet the quantitative QoS metrics under changing network environment. Meanwhile, it is observed from the experimental analysis that B-AFD achieves better detection accuracy and time with lower detection overhead compared to the traditional baseline strategy and the adaptive detectors based on Chen's model. Moreover, B-AFD has better adaptability to P2P network. PMID:25198005

  15. Selection of Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells Based on Adaptability of Their Metabolic State

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Balraj; Tai, Karen; Madan, Simran; Raythatha, Milan R.; Cady, Amanda M.; Braunlin, Megan; Irving, LaTashia R.; Bajaj, Ankur; Lucci, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    A small subpopulation of highly adaptable breast cancer cells within a vastly heterogeneous population drives cancer metastasis. Here we describe a function-based strategy for selecting rare cancer cells that are highly adaptable and drive malignancy. Although cancer cells are dependent on certain nutrients, e.g., glucose and glutamine, we hypothesized that the adaptable cancer cells that drive malignancy must possess an adaptable metabolic state and that such cells could be identified using a robust selection strategy. As expected, more than 99.99% of cells died upon glutamine withdrawal from the aggressive breast cancer cell line SUM149. The rare cells that survived and proliferated without glutamine were highly adaptable, as judged by additional robust adaptability assays involving prolonged cell culture without glucose or serum. We were successful in isolating rare metabolically plastic glutamine-independent (Gln-ind) variants from several aggressive breast cancer cell lines that we tested. The Gln-ind cells overexpressed cyclooxygenase-2, an indicator of tumor aggressiveness, and they were able to adjust their glutaminase level to suit glutamine availability. The Gln-ind cells were anchorage-independent, resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs doxorubicin and paclitaxel, and resistant to a high concentration of a COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib. The number of cells being able to adapt to non-availability of glutamine increased upon prior selection of cells for resistance to chemotherapy drugs or resistance to celecoxib, further supporting a linkage between cellular adaptability and therapeutic resistance. Gln-ind cells showed indications of oxidative stress, and they produced cadherin11 and vimentin, indicators of mesenchymal phenotype. Gln-ind cells were more tumorigenic and more metastatic in nude mice than the parental cell line as judged by incidence and time of occurrence. As we decreased the number of cancer cells in xenografts, lung metastasis and then primary

  16. An adaptable neuromorphic model of orientation selectivity based on floating gate dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Priti; Markan, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    The biggest challenge that the neuromorphic community faces today is to build systems that can be considered truly cognitive. Adaptation and self-organization are the two basic principles that underlie any cognitive function that the brain performs. If we can replicate this behavior in hardware, we move a step closer to our goal of having cognitive neuromorphic systems. Adaptive feature selectivity is a mechanism by which nature optimizes resources so as to have greater acuity for more abundant features. Developing neuromorphic feature maps can help design generic machines that can emulate this adaptive behavior. Most neuromorphic models that have attempted to build self-organizing systems, follow the approach of modeling abstract theoretical frameworks in hardware. While this is good from a modeling and analysis perspective, it may not lead to the most efficient hardware. On the other hand, exploiting hardware dynamics to build adaptive systems rather than forcing the hardware to behave like mathematical equations, seems to be a more robust methodology when it comes to developing actual hardware for real world applications. In this paper we use a novel time-staggered Winner Take All circuit, that exploits the adaptation dynamics of floating gate transistors, to model an adaptive cortical cell that demonstrates Orientation Selectivity, a well-known biological phenomenon observed in the visual cortex. The cell performs competitive learning, refining its weights in response to input patterns resembling different oriented bars, becoming selective to a particular oriented pattern. Different analysis performed on the cell such as orientation tuning, application of abnormal inputs, response to spatial frequency and periodic patterns reveal close similarity between our cell and its biological counterpart. Embedded in a RC grid, these cells interact diffusively exhibiting cluster formation, making way for adaptively building orientation selective maps in silicon. PMID

  17. Adaptation and Selective Information Transmission in the Cricket Auditory Neuron AN2

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, R. Matthias; Obermayer, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Sensory systems adapt their neural code to changes in the sensory environment, often on multiple time scales. Here, we report a new form of adaptation in a first-order auditory interneuron (AN2) of crickets. We characterize the response of the AN2 neuron to amplitude-modulated sound stimuli and find that adaptation shifts the stimulus–response curves toward higher stimulus intensities, with a time constant of 1.5 s for adaptation and recovery. The spike responses were thus reduced for low-intensity sounds. We then address the question whether adaptation leads to an improvement of the signal's representation and compare the experimental results with the predictions of two competing hypotheses: infomax, which predicts that information conveyed about the entire signal range should be maximized, and selective coding, which predicts that “foreground” signals should be enhanced while “background” signals should be selectively suppressed. We test how adaptation changes the input–response curve when presenting signals with two or three peaks in their amplitude distributions, for which selective coding and infomax predict conflicting changes. By means of Bayesian data analysis, we quantify the shifts of the measured response curves and also find a slight reduction of their slopes. These decreases in slopes are smaller, and the absolute response thresholds are higher than those predicted by infomax. Most remarkably, and in contrast to the infomax principle, adaptation actually reduces the amount of encoded information when considering the whole range of input signals. The response curve changes are also not consistent with the selective coding hypothesis, because the amount of information conveyed about the loudest part of the signal does not increase as predicted but remains nearly constant. Less information is transmitted about signals with lower intensity. PMID:18818723

  18. Cosmic radiation and evolution of life on earth: Roles of environment, adaptation and selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, P.

    1994-10-01

    The role of ionizing radiation in general, and cosmic radiation in particular, in the evolution of organisms on the earth by adaptation and natural selection is considered in a series of questions: (1) Are there times during the evolution of the earth and of life when genetic material could be exposed to heavy ion radiation? (2) Throughout the course of chemical and biological evolution on the earth, what fraction of environmental mutagenesis could be attributable to cosmic and/or solar ionizing radiation? (3) Is ionizing radiation an agent of adaptation or selection, or both? (4) What can the cladistics of the evolution of genetic repair tell us about the global history of genotoxic selection pressures? (How much genetic diversity can be attributed to the selection of radiation-damage repair processes?

  19. Fine tuning of the threshold of T cell selection by the Nck adapters.

    PubMed

    Roy, Edwige; Togbe, Dieudonnée; Holdorf, Amy; Trubetskoy, Dmitry; Nabti, Sabrina; Küblbeck, Günter; Schmitt, Sabine; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Leithäuser, Frank; Möller, Peter; Bladt, Friedhelm; Hämmerling, Günter J; Arnold, Bernd; Pawson, Tony; Tafuri, Anna

    2010-12-15

    Thymic selection shapes the T cell repertoire to ensure maximal antigenic coverage against pathogens while preventing autoimmunity. Recognition of self-peptides in the context of peptide-MHC complexes by the TCR is central to this process, which remains partially understood at the molecular level. In this study we provide genetic evidence that the Nck adapter proteins are essential for thymic selection. In vivo Nck deletion resulted in a reduction of the thymic cellularity, defective positive selection of low-avidity T cells, and impaired deletion of thymocytes engaged by low-potency stimuli. Nck-deficient thymocytes were characterized by reduced ERK activation, particularly pronounced in mature single positive thymocytes. Taken together, our findings identify a crucial role for the Nck adapters in enhancing TCR signal strength, thereby fine-tuning the threshold of thymocyte selection and shaping the preimmune T cell repertoire. PMID:21078909

  20. Artificial immune system based on adaptive clonal selection for feature selection and parameters optimisation of support vector machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadat Hashemipour, Maryam; Soleimani, Seyed Ali

    2016-01-01

    Artificial immune system (AIS) algorithm based on clonal selection method can be defined as a soft computing method inspired by theoretical immune system in order to solve science and engineering problems. Support vector machine (SVM) is a popular pattern classification method with many diverse applications. Kernel parameter setting in the SVM training procedure along with the feature selection significantly impacts on the classification accuracy rate. In this study, AIS based on Adaptive Clonal Selection (AISACS) algorithm has been used to optimise the SVM parameters and feature subset selection without degrading the SVM classification accuracy. Several public datasets of University of California Irvine machine learning (UCI) repository are employed to calculate the classification accuracy rate in order to evaluate the AISACS approach then it was compared with grid search algorithm and Genetic Algorithm (GA) approach. The experimental results show that the feature reduction rate and running time of the AISACS approach are better than the GA approach.

  1. Orientation-selective adaptation to first- and second-order patterns in human visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Jonas; Landy, Michael S.; Heeger, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Second-order textures – patterns that cannot be detected by mechanisms sensitive only to luminance changes – are ubiquitous in visual scenes, but the neuronal mechanisms mediating perception of such stimuli are not well understood. We used an adaptation protocol to measure neural activity in the human brain selective for the orientation of second-order textures. FMRI responses were measured in three subjects to presentations of first- and second-order probe gratings after adapting to a high-contrast first- or second-order grating that was either parallel or orthogonal to the probe gratings. First-order (LM) stimuli were generated by modulating the stimulus luminance. Second-order stimuli were generated by modulating the contrast (CM) or orientation (OM) of a first-order carrier. We used four combinations of adapter and probe stimuli: LM:LM, CM:CM, OM:OM, and LM:OM. The fourth condition tested for cross-modal adaptation with first-order adapter and second-order probe stimuli. Attention was diverted from the stimulus by a demanding task at fixation. Both first- and second-order stimuli elicited orientation-selective adaptation in multiple cortical visual areas, including V1, V2, V3, V3A/B, a newly identified visual area anterior to dorsal V3 which we have termed LO1, hV4, and VO1. For first-order stimuli (condition LM:LM), the adaptation was no larger in extrastriate areas than in V1, implying that the orientation-selective first-order (luminance) adaptation originated in V1. For second-order stimuli (conditions CM:CM and OM:OM), the magnitude of adaptation, relative to the absolute response magnitude, was significantly larger in VO1 (and for condition CM:CM, also in V3A/B and LO1) than in V1, suggesting that second-order stimulus orientation was extracted by additional processing after V1. There was little difference in the amplitude of adaptation between the second-order conditions. No consistent effect of adaptation was found in the cross-modal condition LM

  2. Adaptive Square-Shaped Trajectory-Based Service Location Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hwa-Jung; Lee, Joa-Hyoung; Lee, Heon-Guil

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose an adaptive square-shaped trajectory (ASST)-based service location method to ensure load scalability in wireless sensor networks. This first establishes a square-shaped trajectory over the nodes that surround a target point computed by the hash function and any user can access it, using the hash. Both the width and the size of the trajectory are dynamically adjustable, depending on the number of queries made to the service information on the trajectory. The number of sensor nodes on the trajectory varies in proportion to the changing trajectory shape, allowing high loads to be distributed around the hot spot area. PMID:22399889

  3. Simultaneous selection for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes with adaptability and yield stability using mixed models.

    PubMed

    Torres, F E; Teodoro, P E; Rodrigues, E V; Santos, A; Corrêa, A M; Ceccon, G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select erect cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes simultaneously for high adaptability, stability, and yield grain in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil using mixed models. We conducted six trials of different cowpea genotypes in 2005 and 2006 in Aquidauana, Chapadão do Sul, Dourados, and Primavera do Leste. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks with four replications and 20 genotypes. Genetic parameters were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction, and selection was based on the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetic values method using three strategies: selection based on the predicted breeding value, having considered the performance mean of the genotypes in all environments (no interaction effect); the performance in each environment (with an interaction effect); and the simultaneous selection for grain yield, stability, and adaptability. The MNC99542F-5 and MNC99-537F-4 genotypes could be grown in various environments, as they exhibited high grain yield, adaptability, and stability. The average heritability of the genotypes was moderate to high and the selective accuracy was 82%, indicating an excellent potential for selection. PMID:27173301

  4. Genomic Signature of Selective Sweeps Illuminates Adaptation of Medicago truncatula to Root-Associated Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Bonhomme, Maxime; Boitard, Simon; San Clemente, Hélène; Dumas, Bernard; Young, Nevin; Jacquet, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Medicago truncatula is a model legume species used to investigate plant–microorganism interactions, notably root symbioses. Massive population genomic and transcriptomic data now available for this species open the way for a comprehensive investigation of genomic variations associated with adaptation of M. truncatula to its environment. Here we performed a fine-scale genome scan of selective sweep signatures in M. truncatula using more than 15 million single nucleotide polymorphisms identified on 283 accessions from two populations (Circum and Far West), and exploited annotation and published transcriptomic data to identify biological processes associated with molecular adaptation. We identified 58 swept genomic regions with a 15 kb average length and comprising 3.3 gene models on average. The unimodal sweep state probability distribution in these regions enabled us to focus on the best single candidate gene per region. We detected two unambiguous species-wide selective sweeps, one of which appears to underlie morphological adaptation. Population genomic analyses of the remaining 56 sweep signatures indicate that sweeps identified in the Far West population are less population-specific and probably more ancient than those identified in the Circum population. Functional annotation revealed a predominance of immunity-related adaptations in the Circum population. Transcriptomic data from accessions of the Far West population allowed inference of four clusters of coregulated genes putatively involved in the adaptive control of symbiotic carbon flow and nodule senescence, as well as in other root adaptations upon infection with soil microorganisms. We demonstrate that molecular adaptations in M. truncatula were primarily triggered by selective pressures from root-associated microorganisms. PMID:25901015

  5. Selecting Learning Tasks: Effects of Adaptation and Shared Control on Learning Efficiency and Task Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbalan, Gemma; Kester, Liesbeth; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Complex skill acquisition by performing authentic learning tasks is constrained by limited working memory capacity [Baddeley, A. D. (1992). Working memory. "Science, 255", 556-559]. To prevent cognitive overload, task difficulty and support of each newly selected learning task can be adapted to the learner's competence level and perceived task…

  6. Applying Bayesian Item Selection Approaches to Adaptive Tests Using Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Randall D.

    2006-01-01

    This study applied the maximum expected information (MEI) and the maximum posterior-weighted information (MPI) approaches of computer adaptive testing item selection to the case of a test using polytomous items following the partial credit model. The MEI and MPI approaches are described. A simulation study compared the efficiency of ability…

  7. An Efficiency Balanced Information Criterion for Item Selection in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Kyung T.

    2012-01-01

    Successful administration of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) programs in educational settings requires that test security and item exposure control issues be taken seriously. Developing an item selection algorithm that strikes the right balance between test precision and level of item pool utilization is the key to successful implementation…

  8. Studying the Genetics of Behavior and Evolution by Adaptation and Natural Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Jules

    1998-01-01

    Provides an exercise designed to give students an appreciation for the genetic basis of behavior. Employs the phenomenon of glucose aversion as an example of evolution by mutation and accelerated natural selection, thereby revealing one of the ways in which organisms adapt to human interference. (DDR)

  9. A Comparison of Item-Selection Methods for Adaptive Tests with Content Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2005-01-01

    In test assembly, a fundamental difference exists between algorithms that select a test sequentially or simultaneously. Sequential assembly allows us to optimize an objective function at the examinee's ability estimate, such as the test information function in computerized adaptive testing. But it leads to the non-trivial problem of how to realize…

  10. A Method for the Comparison of Item Selection Rules in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrada, Juan Ramon; Olea, Julio; Ponsoda, Vicente; Abad, Francisco Jose

    2010-01-01

    In a typical study comparing the relative efficiency of two item selection rules in computerized adaptive testing, the common result is that they simultaneously differ in accuracy and security, making it difficult to reach a conclusion on which is the more appropriate rule. This study proposes a strategy to conduct a global comparison of two or…

  11. An approach for Web service selection based on confidence level of decision maker.

    PubMed

    Khezrian, Mojtaba; Jahan, Ali; Kadir, Wan Mohd Nasir Wan; Ibrahim, Suhaimi

    2014-01-01

    Web services today are among the most widely used groups for Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Service selection is one of the most significant current discussions in SOA, which evaluates discovered services and chooses the best candidate from them. Although a majority of service selection techniques apply Quality of Service (QoS), the behaviour of QoS-based service selection leads to service selection problems in Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM). In the existing works, the confidence level of decision makers is neglected and does not consider their expertise in assessing Web services. In this paper, we employ the VIKOR (VIšekriterijumskoKOmpromisnoRangiranje) method, which is absent in the literature for service selection, but is well-known in other research. We propose a QoS-based approach that deals with service selection by applying VIKOR with improvement of features. This research determines the weights of criteria based on user preference and accounts for the confidence level of decision makers. The proposed approach is illustrated by an example in order to demonstrate and validate the model. The results of this research may facilitate service consumers to attain a more efficient decision when selecting the appropriate service. PMID:24897426

  12. Identifying positive selection candidate loci for high-altitude adaptation in Andean populations

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    High-altitude environments (>2,500 m) provide scientists with a natural laboratory to study the physiological and genetic effects of low ambient oxygen tension on human populations. One approach to understanding how life at high altitude has affected human metabolism is to survey genome-wide datasets for signatures of natural selection. In this work, we report on a study to identify selection-nominated candidate genes involved in adaptation to hypoxia in one highland group, Andeans from the South American Altiplano. We analysed dense microarray genotype data using four test statistics that detect departures from neutrality. Using a candidate gene, single nucleotide polymorphism-based approach, we identified genes exhibiting preliminary evidence of recent genetic adaptation in this population. These included genes that are part of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF) pathway, a biochemical pathway involved in oxygen homeostasis, as well as three other genomic regions previously not known to be associated with high-altitude phenotypes. In addition to identifying selection-nominated candidate genes, we also tested whether the HIF pathway shows evidence of natural selection. Our results indicate that the genes of this biochemical pathway as a group show no evidence of having evolved in response to hypoxia in Andeans. Results from particular HIF-targeted genes, however, suggest that genes in this pathway could play a role in Andean adaptation to high altitude, even if the pathway as a whole does not show higher relative rates of evolution. These data suggest a genetic role in high-altitude adaptation and provide a basis for genotype/phenotype association studies that are necessary to confirm the role of putative natural selection candidate genes and gene regions in adaptation to altitude. PMID:20038496

  13. 32 CFR 1605.14 - State Director of Selective Service for New York City.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... City. 1605.14 Section 1605.14 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE... Selective Service for New York City. The Governor of the State of New York is authorized to recommend a person to be appointed by the President as State Director of Selective Service for New York City,...

  14. 32 CFR 1605.14 - State Director of Selective Service for New York City.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City. 1605.14 Section 1605.14 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE... Selective Service for New York City. The Governor of the State of New York is authorized to recommend a person to be appointed by the President as State Director of Selective Service for New York City,...

  15. 32 CFR 1605.14 - State Director of Selective Service for New York City.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... City. 1605.14 Section 1605.14 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE... Selective Service for New York City. The Governor of the State of New York is authorized to recommend a person to be appointed by the President as State Director of Selective Service for New York City,...

  16. 32 CFR 1605.14 - State Director of Selective Service for New York City.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... City. 1605.14 Section 1605.14 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE... Selective Service for New York City. The Governor of the State of New York is authorized to recommend a person to be appointed by the President as State Director of Selective Service for New York City,...

  17. 32 CFR 1605.14 - State Director of Selective Service for New York City.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... City. 1605.14 Section 1605.14 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE... Selective Service for New York City. The Governor of the State of New York is authorized to recommend a person to be appointed by the President as State Director of Selective Service for New York City,...

  18. 47 CFR 1.824 - Random selection procedures for Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service and Multipoint...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Random selection procedures for Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service and Multipoint Distribution Service H-Channel stations. 1.824 Section 1.824... for Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service and Multipoint Distribution Service...

  19. 78 FR 56248 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... the Postal Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel...

  20. 77 FR 66193 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... the Postal Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service To Add Parcel...

  1. The interaction of sexually and naturally selected traits in the adaptive radiations of cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Salzburger, Walter

    2009-01-01

    The question of how genetic variation translates into organismal diversity has puzzled biologists for decades. Despite recent advances in evolutionary and developmental genetics, the mechanisms that underlie adaptation, diversification and evolutionary innovation remain largely unknown. The exceptionally diverse species flocks of cichlid fishes are textbook examples of adaptive radiation and explosive speciation and emerge as powerful model systems to study the genetic basis of animal diversification. East Africa's hundreds of endemic cichlid species are akin to a natural mutagenesis screen and differ greatly not only in ecologically relevant (hence naturally selected) characters such as mouth morphology and body shape, but also in sexually selected traits such as coloration. One of the most fascinating aspects of cichlid evolution is the frequent occurrence of evolutionary parallelisms, which has led to the question whether selection alone is sufficient to produce these parallel morphologies, or whether a developmental or genetic bias has influenced the direction of diversification. Here, I review fitness-relevant traits that could be responsible for the cichlids' evolutionary success and assess whether these were shaped by sexual or natural selection. I then focus on the interaction and the relative importance of sexual vs. natural selection in cichlid evolution. Finally, I discuss what is currently known about the genes underlying the morphogenesis of adaptively relevant traits and highlight the importance of the forthcoming cichlid genomes in the quest of the genetic basis of diversification in this group. PMID:18992003

  2. An adaptive model order reduction by proper snapshot selection for nonlinear dynamical problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigro, P. S. B.; Anndif, M.; Teixeira, Y.; Pimenta, P. M.; Wriggers, P.

    2016-04-01

    Model Order Reduction (MOR) methods are employed in many fields of Engineering in order to reduce the processing time of complex computational simulations. A usual approach to achieve this is the application of Galerkin projection to generate representative subspaces (reduced spaces). However, when strong nonlinearities in a dynamical system are present and this technique is employed several times along the simulation, it can be very inefficient. This work proposes a new adaptive strategy, which ensures low computational cost and small error to deal with this problem. This work also presents a new method to select snapshots named Proper Snapshot Selection (PSS). The objective of the PSS is to obtain a good balance between accuracy and computational cost by improving the adaptive strategy through a better snapshot selection in real time (online analysis). With this method, it is possible a substantial reduction of the subspace, keeping the quality of the model without the use of the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD).

  3. Adaptive Response of a Gene Network to Environmental Changes by Fitness-Induced Attractor Selection

    PubMed Central

    Kashiwagi, Akiko; Urabe, Itaru; Kaneko, Kunihiko; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2006-01-01

    Cells switch between various stable genetic programs (attractors) to accommodate environmental conditions. Signal transduction machineries efficiently convey environmental changes to the gene regulation apparatus in order to express the appropriate genetic program. However, since the number of environmental conditions is much larger than that of available genetic programs so that the cell may utilize the same genetic program for a large set of conditions, it may not have evolved a signaling pathway for every environmental condition, notably those that are rarely encountered. Here we show that in the absence of signal transduction, switching to the appropriate attractor state expressing the genes that afford adaptation to the external condition can occur. In a synthetic bistable gene switch in Escherichia coli in which mutually inhibitory operons govern the expression of two genes required in two alternative nutritional environments, cells reliably selected the “adaptive attractor” driven by gene expression noise. A mathematical model suggests that the “non-adaptive attractor” is avoided because in unfavorable conditions, cellular activity is lower, which suppresses mRNA metabolism, leading to larger fluctuations in gene expression. This, in turn, renders the non-adaptive state less stable. Although attractor selection is not as efficient as signal transduction via a dedicated cascade, it is simple and robust, and may represent a primordial mechanism for adaptive responses that preceded the evolution of signaling cascades for the frequently encountered environmental changes. PMID:17183678

  4. A service-oriented medical framework for fast and adaptive information delivery in mobile environment.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunjeong; Nam, Hyo Suk

    2009-11-01

    The need for fast treatment of patients in critical conditions motivates the use of mobile devices to provide prompt and consistent communication between hospitals and physicians. We propose a framework that supports ubiquitous access to medical systems using personalized mobile services and integrated medical systems. The proposed service-oriented medical framework provides dynamically composed services that are adapted to contextual variables such as the user's role, the network bandwidth, and resources available at mobile devices while supporting task allocation in distributed servers for massive resource-consuming services. It also manages accurate patient data by integrating local medical systems using medical information standards such as Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine and Health Level 7. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of our framework by building a prototype of context-based adaptation of computerized tomography image retrieval for acute stroke treatments, which allows images to be viewed on mobile devices with WiMax wireless network. The proposed medical framework reduces hospital delays of patients and facilitates treatments in the absence of medical specialists. PMID:19775976

  5. QuickStats: Percentage of Adult Day Services Center Participants, by Selected Diagnoses

    MedlinePlus

    ... MMWR ) MMWR Share Compartir QuickStats: Percentage of Adult Day Services Center Participants,* by Selected Diagnoses † — National Study ... which is the estimated number of enrolled adult day services center participants in the United States on ...

  6. Contemporary evolution during invasion: evidence for differentiation, natural selection, and local adaptation.

    PubMed

    Colautti, Robert I; Lau, Jennifer A

    2015-05-01

    Biological invasions are 'natural' experiments that can improve our understanding of contemporary evolution. We evaluate evidence for population differentiation, natural selection and adaptive evolution of invading plants and animals at two nested spatial scales: (i) among introduced populations (ii) between native and introduced genotypes. Evolution during invasion is frequently inferred, but rarely confirmed as adaptive. In common garden studies, quantitative trait differentiation is only marginally lower (~3.5%) among introduced relative to native populations, despite genetic bottlenecks and shorter timescales (i.e. millennia vs. decades). However, differentiation between genotypes from the native vs. introduced range is less clear and confounded by nonrandom geographic sampling; simulations suggest this causes a high false-positive discovery rate (>50%) in geographically structured populations. Selection differentials (¦s¦) are stronger in introduced than in native species, although selection gradients (¦β¦) are not, consistent with introduced species experiencing weaker genetic constraints. This could facilitate rapid adaptation, but evidence is limited. For example, rapid phenotypic evolution often manifests as geographical clines, but simulations demonstrate that nonadaptive trait clines can evolve frequently during colonization (~two-thirds of simulations). Additionally, QST-FST studies may often misrepresent the strength and form of natural selection acting during invasion. Instead, classic approaches in evolutionary ecology (e.g. selection analysis, reciprocal transplant, artificial selection) are necessary to determine the frequency of adaptive evolution during invasion and its influence on establishment, spread and impact of invasive species. These studies are rare but crucial for managing biological invasions in the context of global change. PMID:25891044

  7. Adapting to a Changing Environment: Modeling the Interaction of Directional Selection and Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Nunney, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Human-induced habitat loss and fragmentation constrains the range of many species, making them unable to respond to climate change by moving. For such species to avoid extinction, they must respond with some combination of phenotypic plasticity and genetic adaptation. Haldane's "cost of natural selection" limits the rate of adaptation, but, although modeling has shown that in very large populations long-term adaptation can be maintained at rates substantially faster than Haldane's suggested limit, maintaining large populations is often an impossibility, so phenotypic plasticity may be crucial in enhancing the long-term survival of small populations. The potential importance of plasticity is in "buying time" for populations subject to directional environmental change: if genotypes can encompass a greater environmental range, then populations can maintain high fitness for a longer period of time. Alternatively, plasticity could be detrimental by lessening the effectiveness of natural selection in promoting genetic adaptation. Here, I modeled a directionally changing environment in which a genotype's adaptive phenotypic plasticity is centered around the environment where its fitness is highest. Plasticity broadens environmental tolerance and, provided it is not too costly, is favored by natural selection. However, a paradoxical result of the individually advantageous spread of plasticity is that, unless the adaptive trait is determined by very few loci, the long-term extinction risk of a population increases. This effect reflects a conflict between the short-term individual benefit of plasticity and a long-term detriment to population persistence, adding to the multiple threats facing small populations under conditions of climate change. PMID:26563131

  8. Mutations in global regulators lead to metabolic selection during adaptation to complex environments

    SciTech Connect

    Saxer, Gerda; Krepps, Michael D.; Merkley, Eric D.; Ansong, Charles; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L.; Valovska, Marie -Thérèse; Ristic, Nikola; Yeh, Ping T.; Prakash, Vittal P.; Leiser, Owen P.; Nakhleh, Luay; Gibbons, Henry S.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Shamoo, Yousif; Matic, Ivan

    2014-12-11

    Adaptation to ecologically complex environments can provide insights into the evolutionary dynamics and functional constraints encountered by organisms during natural selection. Unlike adaptation to a single limiting resource, adaptation to a new environment with abundant and varied resources can be difficult to achieve by small incremental changes since many mutations are required to achieve even modest gains in fitness. Since changing complex environments are quite common in nature, we investigated how such an epistatic bottleneck can be avoided to allow rapid adaptation. We show that adaptive mutations arise repeatedly in independently evolved populations in the context of greatly increased genetic and phenotypic diversity. We go on to show that weak selection requiring substantial metabolic reprogramming can be readily achieved by mutations in the global response regulator arcA and the stress response regulator rpoS. We identified 46 unique single-nucleotide variants of arcA and 18 mutations in rpoS, nine of which resulted in stop codons or large deletions, suggesting that a subtle modulation of ArcA function and knockouts of rpoS are largely responsible for the metabolic shifts leading to adaptation. These mutations allow a higher order “metabolic selection” that eliminates epistatic bottlenecks, which could occur when many changes would be required. Proteomic and carbohydrate analysis of adapting E. coli populations revealed an up-regulation of enzymes associated with the TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism and an increase in the secretion of putrescine. The overall effect of adaptation across populations is to redirect and efficiently utilize uptake and catabolism of abundant amino acids. Concomitantly, there is a pronounced spread of more ecologically limited strains that results from specialization through metabolic erosion. Remarkably, the global regulators arcA and rpoS can provide a

  9. Context dependence in complex adaptive landscapes: frequency and trait-dependent selection surfaces within an adaptive radiation of Caribbean pupfishes.

    PubMed

    Martin, Christopher H

    2016-06-01

    The adaptive landscape provides the foundational bridge between micro- and macroevolution. One well-known caveat to this perspective is that fitness surfaces depend on ecological context, including competitor frequency, traits measured, and resource abundance. However, this view is based largely on intraspecific studies. It is still unknown how context-dependence affects the larger features of peaks and valleys on the landscape which ultimately drive speciation and adaptive radiation. Here, I explore this question using one of the most complex fitness landscapes measured in the wild in a sympatric pupfish radiation endemic to San Salvador Island, Bahamas by tracking survival and growth of laboratory-reared F2 hybrids. I present new analyses of the effects of competitor frequency, dietary isotopes, and trait subsets on this fitness landscape. Contrary to expectations, decreasing competitor frequency increased survival only among very common phenotypes, whereas less common phenotypes rarely survived despite few competitors, suggesting that performance, not competitor frequency, shapes large-scale features of the fitness landscape. Dietary isotopes were weakly correlated with phenotype and growth, but did not explain additional survival variation. Nonlinear fitness surfaces varied substantially among trait subsets, revealing one-, two-, and three-peak landscapes, demonstrating the complexity of selection in the wild, even among similar functional traits. PMID:27130447

  10. Adaptation to Fluctuating Temperatures in an RNA Virus Is Driven by the Most Stringent Selective Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Arribas, María; Kubota, Kirina; Cabanillas, Laura; Lázaro, Ester

    2014-01-01

    The frequency of change in the selective pressures is one of the main factors driving evolution. It is generally accepted that constant environments select specialist organisms whereas changing environments favour generalists. The particular outcome achieved in either case also depends on the relative strength of the selective pressures and on the fitness costs of mutations across environments. RNA viruses are characterized by their high genetic diversity, which provides fast adaptation to environmental changes and helps them evade most antiviral treatments. Therefore, the study of the adaptive possibilities of RNA viruses is highly relevant for both basic and applied research. In this study we have evolved an RNA virus, the bacteriophage Qβ, under three different temperatures that either were kept constant or alternated periodically. The populations obtained were analyzed at the phenotypic and the genotypic level to characterize the evolutionary process followed by the virus in each case and the amount of convergent genetic changes attained. Finally, we also investigated the influence of the pre-existent genetic diversity on adaptation to high temperature. The main conclusions that arise from our results are: i) under periodically changing temperature conditions, evolution of bacteriophage Qβ is driven by the most stringent selective pressure, ii) there is a high degree of evolutionary convergence between replicated populations and also among populations evolved at different temperatures, iii) there are mutations specific of a particular condition, and iv) adaptation to high temperatures in populations differing in their pre-existent genetic diversity takes place through the selection of a common set of mutations. PMID:24963780

  11. Time course of shape and category selectivity revealed by EEG rapid adaptation.

    PubMed

    Scholl, Clara A; Jiang, Xiong; Martin, Jacob G; Riesenhuber, Maximilian

    2014-02-01

    A hallmark of human cognition is the ability to rapidly assign meaning to sensory stimuli. It has been suggested that this fast visual object categorization ability is accomplished by a feedforward processing hierarchy consisting of shape-selective neurons in occipito-temporal cortex that feed into task circuits in frontal cortex computing conceptual category membership. We performed an EEG rapid adaptation study to test this hypothesis. Participants were trained to categorize novel stimuli generated with a morphing system that precisely controlled both stimulus shape and category membership. We subsequently performed EEG recordings while participants performed a category matching task on pairs of successively presented stimuli. We used space-time cluster analysis to identify channels and latencies exhibiting selective neural responses. Neural signals before 200 msec on posterior channels demonstrated a release from adaptation for shape changes, irrespective of category membership, compatible with a shape- but not explicitly category-selective neural representation. A subsequent cluster with anterior topography appeared after 200 msec and exhibited release from adaptation consistent with explicit categorization. These signals were subsequently modulated by perceptual uncertainty starting around 300 msec. The degree of category selectivity of the anterior signals was strongly predictive of behavioral performance. We also observed a posterior category-selective signal after 300 msec exhibiting significant functional connectivity with the initial anterior category-selective signal. In summary, our study supports the proposition that perceptual categorization is accomplished by the brain within a quarter second through a largely feedforward process culminating in frontal areas, followed by later category-selective signals in posterior regions. PMID:24001003

  12. Effects of Informed Item Selection on Test Performance and Anxiety for Examinees Administered a Self-Adapted Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plake, Barbara S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    No significant differences in performance on a self-adapted test or anxiety were found for college students (n=218) taking a self-adapted test who selected item difficulty without any prior information, inspected an item before selecting, or answered a typical item and received performance feedback. (SLD)

  13. Selection for Adaptation to Dietary Shifts: Towards Sustainable Breeding of Carnivorous Fish

    PubMed Central

    Le Boucher, Richard; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Vandeputte, Marc; Kerneïs, Thierry; Goardon, Lionel; Labbé, Laurent; Chatain, Béatrice; Bothaire, Marie Josée; Larroquet, Laurence; Médale, Françoise; Quillet, Edwige

    2012-01-01

    Genetic adaptation to dietary environments is a key process in the evolution of natural populations and is of great interest in animal breeding. In fish farming, the use of fish meal and fish oil has been widely challenged, leading to the rapidly increasing use of plant-based products in feed. However, high substitution rates impair fish health and growth in carnivorous species. We demonstrated that survival rate, mean body weight and biomass can be improved in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after a single generation of selection for the ability to adapt to a totally plant-based diet (15.1%, 35.3% and 54.4%, respectively). Individual variability in the ability to adapt to major diet changes can be effectively used to promote fish welfare and a more sustainable aquaculture. PMID:23028667

  14. Changes in Ecosystem Services and related Livelihoods in the Mekong Delta: vulnerabilities and adaptation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebesvari, Z.; Renaud, F. G.

    2014-12-01

    The Mekong Delta (Vietnam) is highly vulnerable to the many impacts of global environmental change as well as to the accelerating anthropogenic changes in the catchment and in the delta itself. Today the delta is an agricultural landscape controlled by engineering structures such as channels, dykes, embankments, and sluice gates. These structures have been constructed gradually over the last 200 years mainly for irrigation and flood control in the upper part of the delta and to control saline intrusion in the coastal areas. Recent changes in the hydrology mainly driven by upstream hydropower development on the mainstream and the tributaries of the Mekong will likely have far reaching impacts on the delta´s social-ecological systems through changes in e.g. sedimentation processes, nutrient transport as well as the health of aquatic ecosystems. Further threats to the delta include sea level rise and an increase in seasonal rainfall variability leading to an increase in flood variability. These changes affect the lives of millions of low-income inhabitants who depend on the ecosystem services provided by the Mekong for their livelihoods and sustenance. Since the changes in ecosystem service provision are occurring relatively fast while the resource dependency of the delta population is very high, adaptation becomes a challenge. An assessment of livelihood dependencies on ecosystem services requires an understanding of ecosystem services affected by different drivers of change, as well as of the types of livelihoods likely to be jeopardized as a result of these changes. We will present main ecosystem services supporting specific livelihoods, discuss how they are threatened, and analyse the merits of potential solutions. Options based solely on grey infrastructure might be problematic on the long term while an integration of ecosystem based solution such as a (re)adaptation of agricultural production systems to floods in the upper delta might be a more sustainable

  15. A neural network based reputation bootstrapping approach for service selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Quanwang; Zhu, Qingsheng; Li, Peng

    2015-10-01

    With the concept of service-oriented computing becoming widely accepted in enterprise application integration, more and more computing resources are encapsulated as services and published online. Reputation mechanism has been studied to establish trust on prior unknown services. One of the limitations of current reputation mechanisms is that they cannot assess the reputation of newly deployed services as no record of their previous behaviours exists. Most of the current bootstrapping approaches merely assign default reputation values to newcomers. However, by this kind of methods, either newcomers or existing services will be favoured. In this paper, we present a novel reputation bootstrapping approach, where correlations between features and performance of existing services are learned through an artificial neural network (ANN) and they are then generalised to establish a tentative reputation when evaluating new and unknown services. Reputations of services published previously by the same provider are also incorporated for reputation bootstrapping if available. The proposed reputation bootstrapping approach is seamlessly embedded into an existing reputation model and implemented in the extended service-oriented architecture. Empirical studies of the proposed approach are shown at last.

  16. An adaptive approach to invasive plant management on U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service-owned native prairies in the Prairie Pothole Region: decision support under uncertainity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannon, Jill J.; Moore, Clinton T.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Flanders-Wanner, Bridgette

    2011-01-01

    Much of the native prairie managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) is extensively invaded by the introduced cool-season grasses smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis). The central challenge to managers is selecting appropriate management actions in the face of biological and environmental uncertainties. We describe the technical components of a USGS management project, and explain how the components integrate and inform each other, how data feedback from individual cooperators serves to reduce uncertainty across the whole region, and how a successful adaptive management project is coordinated and maintained on a large scale. In partnership with the Service, the U.S. Geological Survey is developing an adaptive decision support framework to assist managers in selecting management actions under uncertainty and maximizing learning from management outcomes. The framework is built around practical constraints faced by refuge managers and includes identification of the management objective and strategies, analysis of uncertainty and construction of competing decision models, monitoring, and mechanisms for model feedback and decision selection. Nineteen Service field stations, spanning four states of the PPR, are participating in the project. They share a common management objective, available management strategies, and biological uncertainties. While the scope is broad, the project interfaces with individual land managers who provide refuge-specific information and receive updated decision guidance that incorporates understanding gained from the collective experience of all cooperators.

  17. Effects of Selective Adaptation on Coding Sugar and Salt Tastes in Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Goyert, Holly F.; Formaker, Bradley K.; Hettinger, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about coding of taste mixtures in complex dynamic stimulus environments. A protocol developed for odor stimuli was used to test whether rapid selective adaptation extracted sugar and salt component tastes from mixtures as it did component odors. Seventeen human subjects identified taste components of “salt + sugar” mixtures. In 4 sessions, 16 adapt–test stimulus pairs were presented as atomized, 150-μL “taste puffs” to the tongue tip to simulate odor sniffs. Stimuli were NaCl, sucrose, “NaCl + sucrose,” and water. The sugar was 98% identified but the suppressed salt 65% identified in unadapted mixtures of 2 concentrations of NaCl, 0.1 or 0.05 M, and sucrose at 3 times those concentrations, 0.3 or 0.15 M. Rapid selective adaptation decreased identification of sugar and salt preadapted ambient components to 35%, well below the 74% self-adapted level, despite variation in stimulus concentration and adapting time (<5 or >10 s). The 96% identification of sugar and salt extra mixture components was as certain as identification of single compounds. The results revealed that salt–sugar mixture suppression, dependent on relative mixture-component concentration, was mutual. Furthermore, like odors, stronger and recent tastes are emphasized in dynamic experimental conditions replicating natural situations. PMID:22562765

  18. Complementary effect of natural and sexual selection against immigrants maintains differentiation between locally adapted fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plath, Martin; Riesch, Rüdiger; Oranth, Alexandra; Dzienko, Justina; Karau, Nora; Schießl, Angela; Stadler, Stefan; Wigh, Adriana; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Schlupp, Ingo; Tobler, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Adaptation to ecologically heterogeneous environments can drive speciation. But what mechanisms maintain reproductive isolation among locally adapted populations? Using poeciliid fishes in a system with naturally occurring toxic hydrogen sulfide, we show that (a) fish from non-sulfidic sites ( Poecilia mexicana) show high mortality (95 %) after 24 h when exposed to the toxicant, while locally adapted fish from sulfidic sites ( Poecilia sulphuraria) experience low mortality (13 %) when transferred to non-sulfidic water. (b) Mate choice tests revealed that P. mexicana females exhibit a preference for conspecific males in non-sulfidic water, but not in sulfidic water, whereas P. sulphuraria females never showed a preference. Increased costs of mate choice in sulfidic, hypoxic water, and the lack of selection for reinforcement due to the low survival of P. mexicana may explain the absence of a preference in P. sulphuraria females. Taken together, our study may be the first to demonstrate independent—but complementary—effects of natural and sexual selection against immigrants maintaining differentiation between locally adapted fish populations.

  19. Bayesian approach increases accuracy when selecting cowpea genotypes with high adaptability and phenotypic stability.

    PubMed

    Barroso, L M A; Teodoro, P E; Nascimento, M; Torres, F E; Dos Santos, A; Corrêa, A M; Sagrilo, E; Corrêa, C C G; Silva, F A; Ceccon, G

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to verify that a Bayesian approach could be used for the selection of upright cowpea genotypes with high adaptability and phenotypic stability, and the study also evaluated the efficiency of using informative and minimally informative a priori distributions. Six trials were conducted in randomized blocks, and the grain yield of 17 upright cowpea genotypes was assessed. To represent the minimally informative a priori distributions, a probability distribution with high variance was used, and a meta-analysis concept was adopted to represent the informative a priori distributions. Bayes factors were used to conduct comparisons between the a priori distributions. The Bayesian approach was effective for selection of upright cowpea genotypes with high adaptability and phenotypic stability using the Eberhart and Russell method. Bayes factors indicated that the use of informative a priori distributions provided more accurate results than minimally informative a priori distributions. PMID:26985961

  20. Selective Bottlenecks Shape Evolutionary Pathways Taken during Mammalian Adaptation of a 1918-like Avian Influenza Virus.

    PubMed

    Moncla, Louise H; Zhong, Gongxun; Nelson, Chase W; Dinis, Jorge M; Mutschler, James; Hughes, Austin L; Watanabe, Tokiko; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Friedrich, Thomas C

    2016-02-10

    Avian influenza virus reassortants resembling the 1918 human pandemic virus can become transmissible among mammals by acquiring mutations in hemagglutinin (HA) and polymerase. Using the ferret model, we trace the evolutionary pathway by which an avian-like virus evolves the capacity for mammalian replication and airborne transmission. During initial infection, within-host HA diversity increased drastically. Then, airborne transmission fixed two polymerase mutations that do not confer a detectable replication advantage. In later transmissions, selection fixed advantageous HA1 variants. Transmission initially involved a "loose" bottleneck, which became strongly selective after additional HA mutations emerged. The stringency and evolutionary forces governing between-host bottlenecks may therefore change throughout host adaptation. Mutations occurred in multiple combinations in transmitted viruses, suggesting that mammalian transmissibility can evolve through multiple genetic pathways despite phenotypic constraints. Our data provide a glimpse into avian influenza virus adaptation in mammals, with broad implications for surveillance on potentially zoonotic viruses. PMID:26867176

  1. Does selection by resistant hosts trigger local adaptation in plant-pathogen systems?

    PubMed

    Montarry, J; Corbiere, R; Lesueur, S; Glais, I; Andrivon, D

    2006-03-01

    Understanding the consequences of selection by host resistance on pathogen population structure provides useful insights into the dynamics of host-parasite co-evolution processes and is crucial for effective disease management through resistant cultivars. We tested general vs. local population adaptation to host cultivars, by characterizing a French collection of Phytophthora infestans (the causal organism of potato late blight) sampled during two consecutive years on cultivars exhibiting various levels of resistance. Local populations were structured by the host for virulence (qualitative pathogenicity) but also for aggressiveness (quantitative pathogenicity). All populations had a low genotypic diversity for amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), and presumably consisted of a few closely related clonal lineages. No correlation was detected between pathogenicity traits and AFLP genotypes. The data support the hypothesis of general adaptation for aggressiveness, to which directional selection for virulence is superimposed when race-specific resistance is introduced. PMID:16599928

  2. Adaptive IF selection and IQ mismatch compensation in a low-IF GSM receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhang; Lifang, Wang; Xi, Tan; Hao, Min

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents an algorithm that can adaptively select the intermediate frequency (IF) and compensate the IQ mismatch according to the power ratio of the adjacent channel interference to the desired signal in a low-IF GSM receiver. The IF can be adaptively selected between 100 and 130 kHz. Test result shows an improvement of phase error from 6.78° to 3.23°. Also a least mean squares (LMS) based IQ mismatch compensation algorithm is applied to improve image rejection ratio (IRR) for the desired signal along with strong adjacent channel interference. The IRR is improved from 29.1 to 44.3 dB in measurement. The design is verified in a low-IF GSM receiver fabricated in SMIC 0.13 μm RF CMOS process with a working voltage of 1.2 V.

  3. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  4. Reimbursement for Medical Genetics Services: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Univ., Farmington. Div. of Human Genetics.

    This bibliography cites genetics literature identified during a project to investigate the issue of accessibility to genetics services through the reimbursement process. Citations represent both traditional published literature and such "fugitive literature" as unpublished manuscripts, government documents, service provider protocols, and health…

  5. Adaptive evolution in locomotor performance: How selective pressures and functional relationships produce diversity.

    PubMed

    Scales, Jeffrey A; Butler, Marguerite A

    2016-01-01

    Despite the complexity of nature, most comparative studies of phenotypic evolution consider selective pressures in isolation. When competing pressures operate on the same system, it is commonly expected that trade-offs will occur that will limit the evolution of phenotypic diversity, however, it is possible that interactions among selective pressures may promote diversity instead. We explored the evolution of locomotor performance in lizards in relation to possible selective pressures using the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Here, we show that a combination of selection based on foraging mode and predator escape is required to explain variation in performance phenotypes. Surprisingly, habitat use contributed little explanatory power. We find that it is possible to evolve very different abilities in performance which were previously thought to be tightly correlated, supporting a growing literature that explores the many-to-one mapping of morphological design. Although we generally find the expected trade-off between maximal exertion and speed, this relationship surprisingly disappears when species experience selection for both performance types. We conclude that functional integration need not limit adaptive potential, and that an integrative approach considering multiple major influences on a phenotype allows a more complete understanding of adaptation and the evolution of diversity. PMID:26614565

  6. Codon Usage Selection Can Bias Estimation of the Fraction of Adaptive Amino Acid Fixations.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tomotaka; John, Anoop; Baeza-Centurion, Pablo; Li, Boyang; Akashi, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    A growing number of molecular evolutionary studies are estimating the proportion of adaptive amino acid substitutions (α) from comparisons of ratios of polymorphic and fixed DNA mutations. Here, we examine how violations of two of the model assumptions, neutral evolution of synonymous mutations and stationary base composition, affect α estimation. We simulated the evolution of coding sequences assuming weak selection on synonymous codon usage bias and neutral protein evolution, α = 0. We show that weak selection on synonymous mutations can give polymorphism/divergence ratios that yield α-hat (estimated α) considerably larger than its true value. Nonstationary evolution (changes in population size, selection, or mutation) can exacerbate such biases or, in some scenarios, give biases in the opposite direction, α-hat < α. These results demonstrate that two factors that appear to be prevalent among taxa, weak selection on synonymous mutations and non-steady-state nucleotide composition, should be considered when estimating α. Estimates of the proportion of adaptive amino acid fixations from large-scale analyses of Drosophila melanogaster polymorphism and divergence data are positively correlated with codon usage bias. Such patterns are consistent with α-hat inflation from weak selection on synonymous mutations and/or mutational changes within the examined gene trees. PMID:26873577

  7. Analysis of Adaptive Evolution in Lyssavirus Genomes Reveals Pervasive Diversifying Selection during Species Diversification

    PubMed Central

    Voloch, Carolina M.; Capellão, Renata T.; Mello, Beatriz; Schrago, Carlos G.

    2014-01-01

    Lyssavirus is a diverse genus of viruses that infect a variety of mammalian hosts, typically causing encephalitis. The evolution of this lineage, particularly the rabies virus, has been a focus of research because of the extensive occurrence of cross-species transmission, and the distinctive geographical patterns present throughout the diversification of these viruses. Although numerous studies have examined pattern-related questions concerning Lyssavirus evolution, analyses of the evolutionary processes acting on Lyssavirus diversification are scarce. To clarify the relevance of positive natural selection in Lyssavirus diversification, we conducted a comprehensive scan for episodic diversifying selection across all lineages and codon sites of the five coding regions in lyssavirus genomes. Although the genomes of these viruses are generally conserved, the glycoprotein (G), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) and polymerase (P) genes were frequently targets of adaptive evolution during the diversification of the genus. Adaptive evolution is particularly manifest in the glycoprotein gene, which was inferred to have experienced the highest density of positively selected codon sites along branches. Substitutions in the L gene were found to be associated with the early diversification of phylogroups. A comparison between the number of positively selected sites inferred along the branches of RABV population branches and Lyssavirus intespecies branches suggested that the occurrence of positive selection was similar on the five coding regions of the genome in both groups. PMID:25415197

  8. Evolution of increased adult longevity in Drosophila melanogaster populations selected for adaptation to larval crowding.

    PubMed

    Shenoi, V N; Ali, S Z; Prasad, N G

    2016-02-01

    In holometabolous animals such as Drosophila melanogaster, larval crowding can affect a wide range of larval and adult traits. Adults emerging from high larval density cultures have smaller body size and increased mean life span compared to flies emerging from low larval density cultures. Therefore, adaptation to larval crowding could potentially affect adult longevity as a correlated response. We addressed this issue by studying a set of large, outbred populations of D. melanogaster, experimentally evolved for adaptation to larval crowding for 83 generations. We assayed longevity of adult flies from both selected (MCUs) and control populations (MBs) after growing them at different larval densities. We found that MCUs have evolved increased mean longevity compared to MBs at all larval densities. The interaction between selection regime and larval density was not significant, indicating that the density dependence of mean longevity had not evolved in the MCU populations. The increase in longevity in MCUs can be partially attributed to their lower rates of ageing. It is also noteworthy that reaction norm of dry body weight, a trait probably under direct selection in our populations, has indeed evolved in MCU populations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the evolution of adult longevity as a correlated response of adaptation to larval crowding. PMID:26575793

  9. Service Center for Climate Change Adaptation in Agriculture - an initiative of the University of West Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyas, Cs.; Berki, I.; Drüszler, A.; Eredics, A.; Galos, B.; Moricz, N.; Rasztovits, E.

    2012-04-01

    In whole Central Europe agricultural production is highly vulnerable and sensitive to impacts of projected climatic changes. The low-elevation regions of the Carpathian Basin (most of the territory of Hungary), where precipitation is the minimum factor of production, are especially exposed to climatic extremes, especially to droughts. Rainfed agriculture, animal husbandry on nature-close pastures and nature-close forestry are the most sensitive sectors due to limited possibilities to counterbalance moisture supply constraints. These sectors have to be best prepared to frequency increase of extreme events, disasters and economic losses. So far, there is a lack of information about the middle and long term consequences on regional and local level. Therefore the importance of complex, long term management planning and of land use optimation is increasing. The aim of the initiative is to set up a fine-scale, GIS-based, complex, integrated system for the definition of the most important regional and local challenges and tasks of climate change adaptation and mitigation in agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and also nature protection. The Service Center for Climate Change Adaptation in Agriculture is planned to provide the following services: § Complex, GIS-supported database, which integrates the basic information about present and projected climates, extremes, hydrology and soil conditions; § Evaluation of existing satellite-based and earth-based monitoring systems; § GIS-supported information about the future trends of climate change impacts on the agroecological potential and sensitivity status on regional and local level (e.g. land cover/use and expectable changes, production, water and carbon cycle, biodiversity and other ecosystem services, potential pests and diseases, tolerance limits etc.) in fine-scale horizontal resolution, based first of all on natural produce, including also social and economic consequences; § Complex decision supporting system on

  10. Lineage dynamics and mutation-selection balance in non-adapting asexual populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pénisson, Sophie; Sniegowski, Paul D.; Colato, Alexandre; Gerrish, Philip J.

    2013-02-01

    In classical population genetics, mutation-selection balance refers to the equilibrium frequency of a deleterious allele established and maintained under two opposing forces: recurrent mutation, which tends to increase the frequency of the allele; and selection, which tends to decrease its frequency. In a haploid population, if μ denotes the per capita rate of production of the deleterious allele by mutation and s denotes the selective disadvantage of carrying the allele, then the classical mutation-selection balance frequency of the allele is approximated by μ/s. This calculation assumes that lineages carrying the mutant allele in question—the ‘focal allele’—do not accumulate deleterious mutations linked to the focal allele. In principle, indirect selection against the focal allele caused by such additional mutations can decrease the frequency of the focal allele below the classical mutation-selection balance. This effect of indirect selection will be strongest in an asexual population, in which the entire genome is in linkage. Here, we use an approach based on a multitype branching process to investigate this effect, analyzing lineage dynamics under mutation, direct selection, and indirect selection in a non-adapting asexual population. We find that the equilibrium balance between recurrent mutation to the focal allele and the forces of direct and indirect selection against the focal allele is closely approximated by γμ/(s + U) (s = 0 if the focal allele is neutral), where γ ≈ eθθ-(ω+θ)(ω + θ)(Γ(ω + θ) - Γ(ω + θ,θ)), \\theta =U/\\tilde {s}, and \\omega =s/\\tilde {s}; U denotes the genomic deleterious mutation rate and \\tilde {s} denotes the geometric mean selective disadvantage of deleterious mutations elsewhere on the genome. This mutation-selection balance for asexual populations can remain surprisingly invariant over wide ranges of the mutation rate.

  11. An adaptive governance approach to disaster-related behavioural health services.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Simon A; Kendra, James M

    2012-07-01

    This paper explores the provision of disaster-related behavioural and mental health (DBH) services as a problem of institutional collective action in the United States. This study reviews the challenges that providers have in surmounting multi-organizational disconnects, unstable professional legitimacy, ambiguous information, and shifting disaster needs in developing a system for delivering DBH services. Based on the adaptive governance framework, it argues that existing protocols such as the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and Incident Command System (ICS) may be helpful in advancing collective action, but that real progress will depend on a recognition of norms, expectations, and credentials across many spheres-in other words, on the ability of responders to continuously adjust their procedures and administrative boundaries for behavioural health institutions. PMID:22066735

  12. Pre-Service Teachers' Comments toward Official Teacher Selection System (Civil Servant Selection Examination, KPSS) in Turkey: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugulu, Ilker; Yorek, Nurettin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the opinions of the pre-service teachers toward teacher selection system and civil servant selection exam (KPSS). In this study, qualitative re-search methods and semi-structured interviews were used and researcher-made questionnaires containing open-ended questions were administered. The study group…

  13. Using Copernicus earth observation services to monitor climate change impacts and adaptations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Daniel; Zebisch, Marc; Sonnenschein, Ruth; Schönthaler, Konstanze; von Andrian-Werburg, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    In the last years, earth observation made a big leap towards an operational monitoring of the state of environment. Remote sensing provides for instance information on the dynamics, trends and anomalies of snow and glaciers, vegetation, soil moisture or water temperature. In particular, the European Copernicus initiative offers new opportunities through new satellites with a higher temporal and spatial resolution, operational services for environmental monitoring and an open data access policy. With the Copernicus climate change service and the ESA climate change initiative, specific earth observation programs are in place to address the impacts of climate change. However, such products and services are until now rarely picked up in the field of policy or decision making oriented climate impact or climate risk assessments. In this talk, we will present results of a study, which focus on the question, if and how remote sensing approaches could be integrated into operational monitoring activities of climate impacts and response measures on a national and subnational scale. We assessed all existing and planned Copernicus services regarding their relevance for climate impact monitoring by comparing them against the indication fields from an indicator system for climate impact and response monitoring in Germany, which has lately been developed in the framework of the German national adaptation strategy. For several climate impact or response indicators, an immediate integration of remote sensing data could be identified and been recommended. For these cases, we will show practical examples on the benefit of remote sensing data. For other indication fields, promising approaches were found, which need further development. We argue that remote sensing is a very valuable complement to the existing indicator schemes by contributing with spatial explicit, timely information but not always easy to integrate with classical approaches, which are oriented towards consistent long

  14. Policies Guiding Library Service and Selection of Library Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma County Libraries, Oklahoma City, OK.

    This collection provides summaries of documents on which the policies of the Oklahoma County Libraries System are based, the "Statement of Purpose and Goals," and "Policy for Selection of Materials," as well as brief descriptions of procedures for materials selection and handling complaints or suggestions from patrons. Documents include: (1) the…

  15. U.S. Forest Service Leads Climate Change Adaptation in the Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halofsky, J.; Peterson, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Effective climate change engagement on public lands is characterized by (1) an enduring science-management partnership, (2) involvement of key stakeholders, (3) consideration of broad landscapes with multiple landowners, (4) science-based, peer-reviewed assessments of sensitivity of natural resources to climate change, (5) adaptation strategies and tactics developed by resource managers, (6) leadership and a workforce motivated to implement climate-smart practices in resource planning and project management. Using this approach, the U.S. Forest Service, in partnership with other organizations, has developed climate change vulnerability assessments and adaptation plans for diverse ecosystems and multiple resources in national forests and other lands in the western United States, although implementation (step 6) has been slow in some cases. Hundreds of meetings, strategies, plans, and panels have focused on climate change adaptation over the past decade, but only direct engagement between scientists and resource managers (less research, less planning, more action) has resulted in substantive outcomes and increased organizational capacity for climate-smart management.

  16. Local adaptation to parasite selective pressure: comparing three congeneric co-occurring hosts.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Carolyn L; Sanderson, Martha E; Byers, James E

    2016-01-01

    Local adaptation may optimize an organism's investment in defenses in response to the risk of infection by spatially heterogeneous parasites and other natural enemies. However, local adaptation may be constrained if recruitment is decoupled from selective pressure experienced by the parent generation. We predicted that the ability of three intertidal littorinid snail species to defend against trematode parasites would depend on prior levels of population exposure to parasites and on larval dispersal mode, a proxy for population openness. In a common garden experiment, for two snail species with direct development and localized recruitment (Littorina obtusata and Littorina saxatilis), hosts from sites with high trematode infection risk were less susceptible to infection than hosts from low-risk sites. However, this relationship was not apparent for a third host species with broadcast larvae (Littorina littorea), suggesting that broad larval dispersal can impede local adaptation; alternatively, the lack of response in this species could owe to other factors that limited experimental infection in this host. Our findings support that locally recruiting hosts can adapt their defenses to scale with localized infection risk. PMID:26440801

  17. Thermotolerant yeasts selected by adaptive evolution express heat stress response at 30 °C

    PubMed Central

    Caspeta, Luis; Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to long-term environmental changes across >100s of generations results in adapted phenotypes, but little is known about how metabolic and transcriptional responses are optimized in these processes. Here, we show that thermotolerant yeast strains selected by adaptive laboratory evolution to grow at increased temperature, activated a constitutive heat stress response when grown at the optimal ancestral temperature, and that this is associated with a reduced growth rate. This preventive response was perfected by additional transcriptional changes activated when the cultivation temperature is increased. Remarkably, the sum of global transcriptional changes activated in the thermotolerant strains when transferred from the optimal to the high temperature, corresponded, in magnitude and direction, to the global changes observed in the ancestral strain exposed to the same transition. This demonstrates robustness of the yeast transcriptional program when exposed to heat, and that the thermotolerant strains streamlined their path to rapidly and optimally reach post-stress transcriptional and metabolic levels. Thus, long-term adaptation to heat improved yeasts ability to rapidly adapt to increased temperatures, but this also causes a trade-off in the growth rate at the optimal ancestral temperature. PMID:27229477

  18. Thermotolerant yeasts selected by adaptive evolution express heat stress response at 30 °C.

    PubMed

    Caspeta, Luis; Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to long-term environmental changes across >100s of generations results in adapted phenotypes, but little is known about how metabolic and transcriptional responses are optimized in these processes. Here, we show that thermotolerant yeast strains selected by adaptive laboratory evolution to grow at increased temperature, activated a constitutive heat stress response when grown at the optimal ancestral temperature, and that this is associated with a reduced growth rate. This preventive response was perfected by additional transcriptional changes activated when the cultivation temperature is increased. Remarkably, the sum of global transcriptional changes activated in the thermotolerant strains when transferred from the optimal to the high temperature, corresponded, in magnitude and direction, to the global changes observed in the ancestral strain exposed to the same transition. This demonstrates robustness of the yeast transcriptional program when exposed to heat, and that the thermotolerant strains streamlined their path to rapidly and optimally reach post-stress transcriptional and metabolic levels. Thus, long-term adaptation to heat improved yeasts ability to rapidly adapt to increased temperatures, but this also causes a trade-off in the growth rate at the optimal ancestral temperature. PMID:27229477

  19. Natural selection fails to optimize mutation rates for long-term adaptation on rugged fitness landscapes.

    PubMed

    Clune, Jeff; Misevic, Dusan; Ofria, Charles; Lenski, Richard E; Elena, Santiago F; Sanjuán, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    The rate of mutation is central to evolution. Mutations are required for adaptation, yet most mutations with phenotypic effects are deleterious. As a consequence, the mutation rate that maximizes adaptation will be some intermediate value. Here, we used digital organisms to investigate the ability of natural selection to adjust and optimize mutation rates. We assessed the optimal mutation rate by empirically determining what mutation rate produced the highest rate of adaptation. Then, we allowed mutation rates to evolve, and we evaluated the proximity to the optimum. Although we chose conditions favorable for mutation rate optimization, the evolved rates were invariably far below the optimum across a wide range of experimental parameter settings. We hypothesized that the reason that mutation rates evolved to be suboptimal was the ruggedness of fitness landscapes. To test this hypothesis, we created a simplified landscape without any fitness valleys and found that, in such conditions, populations evolved near-optimal mutation rates. In contrast, when fitness valleys were added to this simple landscape, the ability of evolving populations to find the optimal mutation rate was lost. We conclude that rugged fitness landscapes can prevent the evolution of mutation rates that are optimal for long-term adaptation. This finding has important implications for applied evolutionary research in both biological and computational realms. PMID:18818724

  20. Natural Selection Fails to Optimize Mutation Rates for Long-Term Adaptation on Rugged Fitness Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Clune, Jeff; Misevic, Dusan; Ofria, Charles; Lenski, Richard E.; Elena, Santiago F.; Sanjuán, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    The rate of mutation is central to evolution. Mutations are required for adaptation, yet most mutations with phenotypic effects are deleterious. As a consequence, the mutation rate that maximizes adaptation will be some intermediate value. Here, we used digital organisms to investigate the ability of natural selection to adjust and optimize mutation rates. We assessed the optimal mutation rate by empirically determining what mutation rate produced the highest rate of adaptation. Then, we allowed mutation rates to evolve, and we evaluated the proximity to the optimum. Although we chose conditions favorable for mutation rate optimization, the evolved rates were invariably far below the optimum across a wide range of experimental parameter settings. We hypothesized that the reason that mutation rates evolved to be suboptimal was the ruggedness of fitness landscapes. To test this hypothesis, we created a simplified landscape without any fitness valleys and found that, in such conditions, populations evolved near-optimal mutation rates. In contrast, when fitness valleys were added to this simple landscape, the ability of evolving populations to find the optimal mutation rate was lost. We conclude that rugged fitness landscapes can prevent the evolution of mutation rates that are optimal for long-term adaptation. This finding has important implications for applied evolutionary research in both biological and computational realms. PMID:18818724

  1. An investigation of selected on-orbit satellite servicing issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    1986-01-01

    The results of three separate investigations performed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) between August 1985 and October 1986 as the second phase of the two-phase Satellite Services System Program Plan contract for the Engineering Directorate of the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center are discussed. The objectives of the first phase of this contract (reported in SAIC-85/1762) were to determine the potential for servicing a diverse range of spacecraft from the Space Shuttle Orbiter and to assess NASA's role as the catalyst in enabling routine on-orbit servicing. The second area of investigation was prompted by the need to understand satellite servicing requirements in the far term (1995 to 2010) and how results from the first phase of this contract could support these requirements. The mission model developed during the first phase was extended using new data and information from studies which address the later time period. The third area of investigation looked at a new servicing mode which had not been studied previously. This mode involves the on-orbit exchange of very large modules with masses greater than approximately 9,000 kilograms and/or lengths greater than approximately nine meters. The viewgraphs used for the final briefing for each of the three investigations, as presented to NASA are given.

  2. Sleep deprivation selectively disrupts top-down adaptation to cognitive conflict in the Stroop test.

    PubMed

    Gevers, Wim; Deliens, Gaetane; Hoffmann, Sophie; Notebaert, Wim; Peigneux, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to exert detrimental effects on various cognitive domains, including attention, vigilance and working memory. Seemingly at odds with these findings, prior studies repeatedly failed to evidence an impact of prior sleep deprivation on cognitive interference in the Stroop test, a hallmark paradigm in the study of cognitive control abilities. The present study investigated further the effect of sleep deprivation on cognitive control using an adapted version of the Stroop test that allows to segregate top-down (attentional reconfiguration on incongruent items) and bottom-up (facilitated processing after repetitions in responses and/or features of stimuli) components of performance. Participants underwent a regular night of sleep or a night of total sleep deprivation before cognitive testing. Results disclosed that sleep deprivation selectively impairs top-down adaptation mechanisms: cognitive control no longer increased upon detection of response conflict at the preceding trial. In parallel, bottom-up abilities were found unaffected by sleep deprivation: beneficial effects of stimulus and response repetitions persisted. Changes in vigilance states due to sleep deprivation selectively impact on cognitive control in the Stroop test by affecting top-down, but not bottom-up, mechanisms that guide adaptive behaviours. PMID:26173051

  3. The population genomics of rapid adaptation: disentangling signatures of selection and demography in white sands lizards.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Stefan; Pfeifer, Susanne P; Settles, Matthew L; Hunter, Samuel S; Hardwick, Kayla M; Ormond, Louise; Sousa, Vitor C; Jensen, Jeffrey D; Rosenblum, Erica Bree

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the process of adaptation during rapid environmental change remains one of the central focal points of evolutionary biology. The recently formed White Sands system of southern New Mexico offers an outstanding example of rapid adaptation, with a variety of species having rapidly evolved blanched forms on the dunes that contrast with their close relatives in the surrounding dark soil habitat. In this study, we focus on two of the White Sands lizard species, Sceloporus cowlesi and Aspidoscelis inornata, for which previous research has linked mutations in the melanocortin-1 receptor gene (Mc1r) to blanched coloration. We sampled populations both on and off the dunes and used a custom sequence capture assay based on probed fosmid libraries to obtain >50 kb of sequence around Mc1r and hundreds of other random genomic locations. We then used model-based statistical inference methods to describe the demographic and adaptive history characterizing the colonization of White Sands. We identified a number of similarities between the two focal species, including strong evidence of selection in the blanched populations in the Mc1r region. We also found important differences between the species, suggesting different colonization times, different genetic architecture underlying the blanched phenotype and different ages of the beneficial alleles. Finally, the beneficial allele is dominant in S. cowlesi and recessive in A. inornata, allowing for a rare empirical test of theoretically expected patterns of selective sweeps under these differing models. PMID:26363411

  4. Supporting UK adaptation: building services for the next set of UK climate projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Fai; Lowe, Jason

    2016-04-01

    As part of the Climate Change Act 2008, the UK Government sets out a national adaptation programme to address the risks and opportunities identified in a national climate change risk assessment (CCRA) every five years. The last risk assessment in 2012 was based on the probabilistic projections for the UK published in 2009 (UKCP09). The second risk assessment will also use information from UKCP09 alongside other evidence on climate projections. However, developments in the science of climate projeciton, and evolving user needs (based partly on what has been learnt about the diverse user requirements of the UK adaptation community from the seven years of delivering and managing UKCP09 products, market research and the peer-reviewed literature) suggest now is an appropriate time to update the projections and how they are delivered. A new set of UK climate projections are now being produced to upgrade UKCP09 to reflect the latest developments in climate science, the first phase of which will be delivered in 2018 to support the third CCRA. A major component of the work is the building of a tailored service to support users of the new projections during their development and to involve users in key decisions so that the projections are of most use. We will set out the plan for the new climate projections that seek to address the evolving user need. We will also present a framework which aims to (i) facilitate the dialogue between users, boundary organisations and producers, reflecting their different decision-making roles (ii) produce scientifically robust, user-relevant climate information (iii) provide the building blocks for developing further climate services to support adaptation activities in the UK.

  5. Selection on outlier loci and their association with adaptive phenotypes in Littorina saxatilis contact zones.

    PubMed

    Hollander, J; Galindo, J; Butlin, R K

    2015-02-01

    A fundamental issue in speciation research is to evaluate phenotypic variation and the genomics driving the evolution of reproductive isolation between sister taxa. Above all, hybrid zones are excellent study systems for researchers to examine the association of genetic differentiation, phenotypic variation and the strength of selection. We investigated two contact zones in the marine gastropod Littorina saxatilis and utilized landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis together with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to assess phenotypic and genomic divergence between ecotypes under divergent selection. From genetic markers, we calculated the cline width, linkage disequilibrium and the average effective selection on a locus. Additionally, we conducted an association analysis linking the outlier loci and phenotypic variation between ecotypes and show that a proportion of outlier loci are associated with key adaptive phenotypic traits. PMID:25439395

  6. Adaptive consensus of scale-free multi-agent system by randomly selecting links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Jinping; Ge, Huafeng

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigates an adaptive consensus problem for distributed scale-free multi-agent systems (SFMASs) by randomly selecting links, where the degree of each node follows a power-law distribution. The randomly selecting links are based on the assumption that every agent decides to select links among its neighbours according to the received data with a certain probability. Accordingly, a novel consensus protocol with the range of the received data is developed, and each node updates its state according to the protocol. By the iterative method and Cauchy inequality, the theoretical analysis shows that all errors among agents converge to zero, and in the meanwhile, several criteria of consensus are obtained. One numerical example shows the reliability of the proposed methods.

  7. Native Prairie Adaptive Management: a multi region adaptive approach to invasive plant management on Fish and Wildlife Service owned native prairies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannon, Jill J.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Moore, Clinton T.

    2013-01-01

    Much of the native prairie managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the northern Great Plains is extensively invaded by the introduced cool-season grasses, smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis). Management to suppress these invasive plants has had poor to inconsistent success. The central challenge to managers is selecting appropriate management actions in the face of biological and environmental uncertainties. In partnership with the FWS, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed an adaptive decision support framework to assist managers in selecting management actions under uncertainty and maximizing learning from management outcomes. This joint partnership is known as the Native Prairie Adaptive Management (NPAM) initiative. The NPAM decision framework is built around practical constraints faced by FWS refuge managers and includes identification of the management objective and strategies, analysis of uncertainty and construction of competing decision models, monitoring, and mechanisms for model feedback and decision selection. Nineteen FWS field stations, spanning four states of the PPR, have participated in the initiative. These FWS cooperators share a common management objective, available management strategies, and biological uncertainties. Though the scope is broad, the initiative interfaces with individual land managers who provide site-specific information and receive updated decision guidance that incorporates understanding gained from the collective experience of all cooperators. We describe the technical components of this approach, how the components integrate and inform each other, how data feedback from individual cooperators serves to reduce uncertainty across the whole region, and how a successful adaptive management project is coordinated and maintained on a large scale. During an initial scoping workshop, FWS cooperators developed a consensus management objective

  8. Recognition of voice commands using adaptation of foreign language speech recognizer via selection of phonetic transcriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskeliunas, Rytis; Rudzionis, Vytautas

    2011-06-01

    In recent years various commercial speech recognizers have become available. These recognizers provide the possibility to develop applications incorporating various speech recognition techniques easily and quickly. All of these commercial recognizers are typically targeted to widely spoken languages having large market potential; however, it may be possible to adapt available commercial recognizers for use in environments where less widely spoken languages are used. Since most commercial recognition engines are closed systems the single avenue for the adaptation is to try set ways for the selection of proper phonetic transcription methods between the two languages. This paper deals with the methods to find the phonetic transcriptions for Lithuanian voice commands to be recognized using English speech engines. The experimental evaluation showed that it is possible to find phonetic transcriptions that will enable the recognition of Lithuanian voice commands with recognition accuracy of over 90%.

  9. Genomic Response to Selection for Predatory Behavior in a Mammalian Model of Adaptive Radiation.

    PubMed

    Konczal, Mateusz; Koteja, Paweł; Orlowska-Feuer, Patrycja; Radwan, Jacek; Sadowska, Edyta T; Babik, Wiesław

    2016-09-01

    If genetic architectures of various quantitative traits are similar, as studies on model organisms suggest, comparable selection pressures should produce similar molecular patterns for various traits. To test this prediction, we used a laboratory model of vertebrate adaptive radiation to investigate the genetic basis of the response to selection for predatory behavior and compare it with evolution of aerobic capacity reported in an earlier work. After 13 generations of selection, the proportion of bank voles (Myodes [=Clethrionomys] glareolus) showing predatory behavior was five times higher in selected lines than in controls. We analyzed the hippocampus and liver transcriptomes and found repeatable changes in allele frequencies and gene expression. Genes with the largest differences between predatory and control lines are associated with hunger, aggression, biological rhythms, and functioning of the nervous system. Evolution of predatory behavior could be meaningfully compared with evolution of high aerobic capacity, because the experiments and analyses were performed in the same methodological framework. The number of genes that changed expression was much smaller in predatory lines, and allele frequencies changed repeatably in predatory but not in aerobic lines. This suggests that more variants of smaller effects underlie variation in aerobic performance, whereas fewer variants of larger effects underlie variation in predatory behavior. Our results thus contradict the view that comparable selection pressures for different quantitative traits produce similar molecular patterns. Therefore, to gain knowledge about molecular-level response to selection for complex traits, we need to investigate not only multiple replicate populations but also multiple quantitative traits. PMID:27401229

  10. Decision Support for Personalized Cloud Service Selection through Multi-Attribute Trustworthiness Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Shuai; Xia, Chen-Yi; Zhou, Kai-Le; Yang, Shan-Lin; Shang, Jennifer S.

    2014-01-01

    Facing a customer market with rising demands for cloud service dependability and security, trustworthiness evaluation techniques are becoming essential to cloud service selection. But these methods are out of the reach to most customers as they require considerable expertise. Additionally, since the cloud service evaluation is often a costly and time-consuming process, it is not practical to measure trustworthy attributes of all candidates for each customer. Many existing models cannot easily deal with cloud services which have very few historical records. In this paper, we propose a novel service selection approach in which the missing value prediction and the multi-attribute trustworthiness evaluation are commonly taken into account. By simply collecting limited historical records, the current approach is able to support the personalized trustworthy service selection. The experimental results also show that our approach performs much better than other competing ones with respect to the customer preference and expectation in trustworthiness assessment. PMID:24972237

  11. Decision support for personalized cloud service selection through multi-attribute trustworthiness evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shuai; Xia, Cheng-Yi; Xia, Chen-Yi; Zhou, Kai-Le; Yang, Shan-Lin; Shang, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    Facing a customer market with rising demands for cloud service dependability and security, trustworthiness evaluation techniques are becoming essential to cloud service selection. But these methods are out of the reach to most customers as they require considerable expertise. Additionally, since the cloud service evaluation is often a costly and time-consuming process, it is not practical to measure trustworthy attributes of all candidates for each customer. Many existing models cannot easily deal with cloud services which have very few historical records. In this paper, we propose a novel service selection approach in which the missing value prediction and the multi-attribute trustworthiness evaluation are commonly taken into account. By simply collecting limited historical records, the current approach is able to support the personalized trustworthy service selection. The experimental results also show that our approach performs much better than other competing ones with respect to the customer preference and expectation in trustworthiness assessment. PMID:24972237

  12. BRBN-T validation: adaptation of the Selective Reminding Test and Word List Generation.

    PubMed

    Neves, Mariana Rigueiro; Passos, Ana Margarida; Ferreira, Aristides; Sousa, Cláudia; Sá, Andreia; Sá, Maria José

    2015-10-01

    Objective This study aims to present the Selective Reminding Test(SRT) and Word List Generation (WLG) adaptation to the Portuguese population, within the validation of the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests (BRBN-T)for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients.Method 66 healthy participants (54.5% female) recruited from the community volunteered to participate in this study.Results A combination of procedures from Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (ITR) were applied to item analysis and selection. For each SRT list, 12 words were selected and 3 letters were chosen for WLG to constitute the final versions of these tests for the Portuguese population.Conclusion The combination of CTT and ITR maximized the decision making process in the adaptation of the SRT and WLG to a different culture and language (Portuguese). The relevance of this study lies on the production of reliable standardized neuropsychological tests, so that they can be used to facilitate a more rigorous monitoring of the evolution of MS, as well as any therapeutic effects and cognitive rehabilitation. PMID:26465404

  13. Selection Index in the Study of Adaptability and Stability in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Lunezzo de Oliveira, Rogério; Garcia Von Pinho, Renzo; Furtado Ferreira, Daniel; Costa Melo, Wagner Mateus

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an alternative method for evaluating the stability and adaptability of maize hybrids using a genotype-ideotype distance index (GIDI) for selection. Data from seven variables were used, obtained through evaluation of 25 maize hybrids at six sites in southern Brazil. The GIDI was estimated by means of the generalized Mahalanobis distance for each plot of the test. We then proceeded to GGE biplot analysis in order to compare the predictive accuracy of the GGE models and the grouping of environments and to select the best five hybrids. The G × E interaction was significant for both variables assessed. The GGE model with two principal components obtained a predictive accuracy (PRECORR) of 0.8913 for the GIDI and 0.8709 for yield (t ha−1). Two groups of environments were obtained upon analyzing the GIDI, whereas all the environments remained in the same group upon analyzing yield. Coincidence occurred in only two hybrids considering evaluation of the two features. The GIDI assessment provided for selection of hybrids that combine adaptability and stability in most of the variables assessed, making its use more highly recommended than analyzing each variable separately. Not all the higher-yielding hybrids were the best in the other variables assessed. PMID:24696641

  14. Selection index in the study of adaptability and stability in maize.

    PubMed

    Lunezzo de Oliveira, Rogério; Garcia Von Pinho, Renzo; Furtado Ferreira, Daniel; Miranda Pires, Luiz Paulo; Costa Melo, Wagner Mateus

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an alternative method for evaluating the stability and adaptability of maize hybrids using a genotype-ideotype distance index (GIDI) for selection. Data from seven variables were used, obtained through evaluation of 25 maize hybrids at six sites in southern Brazil. The GIDI was estimated by means of the generalized Mahalanobis distance for each plot of the test. We then proceeded to GGE biplot analysis in order to compare the predictive accuracy of the GGE models and the grouping of environments and to select the best five hybrids. The G × E interaction was significant for both variables assessed. The GGE model with two principal components obtained a predictive accuracy (PRECORR) of 0.8913 for the GIDI and 0.8709 for yield (t ha(-1)). Two groups of environments were obtained upon analyzing the GIDI, whereas all the environments remained in the same group upon analyzing yield. Coincidence occurred in only two hybrids considering evaluation of the two features. The GIDI assessment provided for selection of hybrids that combine adaptability and stability in most of the variables assessed, making its use more highly recommended than analyzing each variable separately. Not all the higher-yielding hybrids were the best in the other variables assessed. PMID:24696641

  15. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  16. TU-C-17A-07: FusionARC Treatment with Adaptive Beam Selection Method

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H; Li, R; Xing, L; Lee, R

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Recently, a new treatment scheme, FusionARC, has been introduced to compensate for the pitfalls in single-arc VMAT planning. It basically allows for the static field treatment in selected locations, while the remaining is treated by single-rotational arc delivery. The important issue is how to choose the directions for static field treatment. This study presents an adaptive beam selection method to formulate fusionARC treatment scheme. Methods: The optimal plan for single-rotational arc treatment is obtained from two-step approach based on the reweighted total-variation (TV) minimization. To choose the directions for static field treatment with extra segments, a value of our proposed cost function at each field is computed on the new fluence-map, which adds an extra segment to the designated field location only. The cost function is defined as a summation of equivalent uniform dose (EUD) of all structures with the fluence-map, while assuming that the lower cost function value implies the enhancement of plan quality. Finally, the extra segments for static field treatment would be added to the selected directions with low cost function values. A prostate patient data was applied and evaluated with three different plans: conventional VMAT, fusionARC, and static IMRT. Results: The 7 field locations, corresponding to the lowest cost function values, are chosen to insert extra segment for step-and-shoot dose delivery. Our proposed fusionARC plan with the selected angles improves the dose sparing to the critical organs, relative to static IMRT and conventional VMAT plans. The dose conformity to the target is significantly enhanced at the small expense of treatment time, compared with VMAT plan. Its estimated treatment time, however, is still much faster than IMRT. Conclusion: The fusionARC treatment with adaptive beam selection method could improve the plan quality with insignificant damage in the treatment time, relative to the conventional VMAT.

  17. Non-adaptive territory selection by a bird with exceptionally long parental care

    PubMed Central

    Minias, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    High-quality territories are expected to provide greater fitness return for breeding individuals and, thus, are likely to have higher long-term occupation rate in comparison to low-quality territories. However, if environmental and ecological cues used for territory selection cannot reliably predict true territory quality, a mismatch between preferences and fitness may occur. We suggest that this kind of non-adaptive territory selection is more likely in species with long reproductive cycles, as a long time interval between territory establishment and young fledgling should reduce predictability of conditions during the critical stages of brood care. In this study, we investigated adaptiveness of territory selection in a migratory bird with exceptionally long parental care, the mute swan Cygnus olor, which requires over four months to complete the entire reproductive cycle from egg laying to young fledging. For this purpose, we collected information on the long-term (10–19 years) occupancy of 222 swan breeding territories and correlated it with reproductive performance (n = 1,345 breeding attempts) and body condition of breeding adults. We found that long-term occupancy positively correlated with the timing of breeding, suggesting that individuals settled earlier in the attractive, frequently occupied territories. By contrast, we found no relationship between territory occupancy and reproductive output (hatching and fledging success) or adult body condition. The results indicate that at the time of territory selection swans might not be able to reliably assess territory quality, likely due to: (1) exceptionally long period of parental care, which reduces temporal correlation between the conditions at the time of territory selection and conditions during chick rearing; and (2) unpredictability of human-related activities that had a major impact on reproductive output of swan pairs in our population. PMID:27042397

  18. Non-adaptive territory selection by a bird with exceptionally long parental care.

    PubMed

    Włodarczyk, Radosław; Minias, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    High-quality territories are expected to provide greater fitness return for breeding individuals and, thus, are likely to have higher long-term occupation rate in comparison to low-quality territories. However, if environmental and ecological cues used for territory selection cannot reliably predict true territory quality, a mismatch between preferences and fitness may occur. We suggest that this kind of non-adaptive territory selection is more likely in species with long reproductive cycles, as a long time interval between territory establishment and young fledgling should reduce predictability of conditions during the critical stages of brood care. In this study, we investigated adaptiveness of territory selection in a migratory bird with exceptionally long parental care, the mute swan Cygnus olor, which requires over four months to complete the entire reproductive cycle from egg laying to young fledging. For this purpose, we collected information on the long-term (10-19 years) occupancy of 222 swan breeding territories and correlated it with reproductive performance (n = 1,345 breeding attempts) and body condition of breeding adults. We found that long-term occupancy positively correlated with the timing of breeding, suggesting that individuals settled earlier in the attractive, frequently occupied territories. By contrast, we found no relationship between territory occupancy and reproductive output (hatching and fledging success) or adult body condition. The results indicate that at the time of territory selection swans might not be able to reliably assess territory quality, likely due to: (1) exceptionally long period of parental care, which reduces temporal correlation between the conditions at the time of territory selection and conditions during chick rearing; and (2) unpredictability of human-related activities that had a major impact on reproductive output of swan pairs in our population. PMID:27042397

  19. Adaptation to shape switching by component selection in a constitutional dynamic system.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Sébastien; Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2009-04-22

    Molecules having different accessible shape states, which can be addressed in an effector-controlled manner, may be termed morphological switches. A dynamic covalent system can undergo adaptation to each state of a two-state morphological switch by generation of an optimal constitution through component selection. We have studied such a component selection in the dynamic covalent constituents generated by metal cation-induced shape switching of a core component between two states of W and U shape, characterized by both different geometries and different coordination features. The system performs shape-dependent self-sorting of metal ions and components. The origin of the selectivity was investigated through competition experiments, in solution and by analysis of solid state structures, which reveal the role of the molecular shape in the formation of a particular self-assembled architecture. The coordination features of each state as well as phase change also play an important role, in addition to the shape plasticity, in steering the covalent dynamic system toward the formation of a given entity by the selection of the most appropriate components. Different examples are described which show that the morphological switching of one component of a given self-assembled entity can lead to the exchange of the complementary one, which is no longer the best partner, for a new partner, able to form a more stable new assembly. Thus, the constitutional evolution of these dynamic systems is steered by the shape of a given state via both its geometry and its coordination features toward metal ions, leading to incorporation/decorporation of the most appropriate components. The controlled interconversion of the shape states of the morphological switches, induced by addition/removal of metal ions, results in a constitutional adaptation behavior through inversion of the selection preferences. PMID:19206535

  20. Salinity Is an Agent of Divergent Selection Driving Local Adaptation of Arabidopsis to Coastal Habitats1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Teres, Joana; Bomblies, Kirsten; Douglas, Alex; Salt, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanism of adaptive evolution in plants provides insights into the selective forces driving adaptation and the genetic basis of adaptive traits with agricultural value. The genomic resources available for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) make it well suited to the rapid molecular dissection of adaptive processes. Although numerous potentially adaptive loci have been identified in Arabidopsis, the consequences of divergent selection and migration (both important aspects of the process of local adaptation) for Arabidopsis are not well understood. Here, we use a multiyear field-based reciprocal transplant experiment to detect local populations of Arabidopsis composed of multiple small stands of plants (demes) that are locally adapted to the coast and adjacent inland habitats in northeastern Spain. We identify fitness tradeoffs between plants from these different habitats when grown together in inland and coastal common gardens and also, under controlled conditions in soil excavated from coastal and inland sites. Plants from the coastal habitat also outperform those from inland when grown under high salinity, indicating local adaptation to soil salinity. Sodium can be toxic to plants, and we find its concentration to be elevated in soil and plants sampled at the coast. We conclude that the local adaptation that we observe between adjacent coastal and inland populations is caused by ongoing divergent selection driven by the differential salinity between coastal and inland soils. PMID:26034264

  1. Hallauer’s Tusón: a decade of selection for tropical-to-temperate phenological adaptation in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop species exhibit an astounding capacity for environmental adaptation, but genetic bottlenecks resulting from intense selection for adaptation as well as productivity can lead to a genetically vulnerable crop. Improving the genetic resiliency of temperate maize depends upon the use of tropical ge...

  2. Natural Selection at the Brush-Border: Adaptations to Carbohydrate Diets in Humans and Other Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Pontremoli, Chiara; Mozzi, Alessandra; Forni, Diego; Cagliani, Rachele; Pozzoli, Uberto; Menozzi, Giorgia; Vertemara, Jacopo; Bresolin, Nereo; Clerici, Mario; Sironi, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Dietary shifts can drive molecular evolution in mammals and a major transition in human history, the agricultural revolution, favored carbohydrate consumption. We investigated the evolutionary history of nine genes encoding brush-border proteins involved in carbohydrate digestion/absorption. Results indicated widespread adaptive evolution in mammals, with several branches experiencing episodic selection, particularly strong in bats. Many positively selected sites map to functional protein regions (e.g., within glucosidase catalytic crevices), with parallel evolution at SI (sucrase-isomaltase) and MGAM (maltase-glucoamylase). In human populations, five genes were targeted by positive selection acting on noncoding variants within regulatory elements. Analysis of ancient DNA samples indicated that most derived alleles were already present in the Paleolithic. Positively selected variants at SLC2A5 (fructose transporter) were an exception and possibly spread following the domestication of specific fruit crops. We conclude that agriculture determined no major selective event at carbohydrate metabolism genes in humans, with implications for susceptibility to metabolic disorders. PMID:26319403

  3. Natural Selection at the Brush-Border: Adaptations to Carbohydrate Diets in Humans and Other Mammals.

    PubMed

    Pontremoli, Chiara; Mozzi, Alessandra; Forni, Diego; Cagliani, Rachele; Pozzoli, Uberto; Menozzi, Giorgia; Vertemara, Jacopo; Bresolin, Nereo; Clerici, Mario; Sironi, Manuela

    2015-09-01

    Dietary shifts can drive molecular evolution in mammals and a major transition in human history, the agricultural revolution, favored carbohydrate consumption. We investigated the evolutionary history of nine genes encoding brush-border proteins involved in carbohydrate digestion/absorption. Results indicated widespread adaptive evolution in mammals, with several branches experiencing episodic selection, particularly strong in bats. Many positively selected sites map to functional protein regions (e.g., within glucosidase catalytic crevices), with parallel evolution at SI (sucrase-isomaltase) and MGAM (maltase-glucoamylase). In human populations, five genes were targeted by positive selection acting on noncoding variants within regulatory elements. Analysis of ancient DNA samples indicated that most derived alleles were already present in the Paleolithic. Positively selected variants at SLC2A5 (fructose transporter) were an exception and possibly spread following the domestication of specific fruit crops. We conclude that agriculture determined no major selective event at carbohydrate metabolism genes in humans, with implications for susceptibility to metabolic disorders. PMID:26319403

  4. Directional selection for flowering time leads to adaptive evolution in Raphanus raphanistrum (Wild radish).

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Michael B; Walsh, Michael J; Flower, Ken C; Vila-Aiub, Martin M; Powles, Stephen B

    2016-04-01

    Herbicides have been the primary tool for controlling large populations of yield depleting weeds from agro-ecosystems, resulting in the evolution of widespread herbicide resistance. In response, nonherbicidal techniques have been developed which intercept weed seeds at harvest before they enter the soil seed bank. However, the efficiency of these techniques allows an intense selection for any trait that enables weeds to evade collection, with early-flowering ecotypes considered likely to result in early seed shedding. Using a field-collected wild radish population, five recurrent generations were selected for early maturity and three generations for late maturity. Phenology associated with flowering time and growth traits were measured. Our results demonstrate the adaptive capacity of wild radish to halve its time to flowering following five generations of early-flowering selection. Early-maturing phenotypes had reduced height and biomass at maturity, leading to less competitive, more prostrate growth forms. Following three generations of late-flowering selection, wild radish doubled its time to flowering time leading to increased biomass and flowering height at maturity. This study demonstrates the potential for the rapid evolution in growth traits in response to highly effective seed collection techniques that imposed a selection on weed populations within agro-ecosystems at harvest. PMID:27099626

  5. Climate Services for Adaptation Support: Sectors, Regions, and Product Lines (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, T.; Shea, E. E.

    2009-12-01

    Environmental information for decision support must be user-focused, accurate, and actionable. As the deleterious impacts of a non-stationary climate system manifest themselves through loss of civil infrastructure, cultural, and natural resources, NOAA and other science agencies are restructuring their approach to decision support, moving from a climate perspectives-centric model to one that offers more nimble, granular, and timely product lines supporting a breadth of sectoral- and regionally-focused decisions. This talk outlines NOAA’s efforts to this end, including its framing of sectors and regions, its development of emerging product lines, and its reliance on technological advances to better disseminate information. Through its climate services efforts, NOAA’s climate data resources can be leveraged to support sound adaptation decision making for societal infrastructure development and in the stewardship of marine, ocean, coastal, and terrestrial natural resources.

  6. Risk Tradeoffs in Adaptive Ecosystem Management: The Case of the U.S. Forest Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Marc J.; Martin, Caysie A.; Predmore, S. Andrew; Morse, Wayde C.

    2014-06-01

    Natural resource planning processes on public lands in the United States are driven in large part by the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which dictates general processes for analyzing and disclosing the likely impacts of proposed actions. The outcomes of these processes are the result of multiple factors, many related to the manifold smaller incremental decisions made by agency personnel directing the processes. Through interviews with decision makers, team leaders, and team members on five NEPA processes within the U.S. Forest Service, this study examines those incremental decisions. Risk, in particular external relationship risk, emerged as a dominant lens through which agency personnel weigh and make process-related decisions. We discuss the tradeoffs associated with agency actors' emphasis on this form of risk and their potential implications for adaptive ecosystem management and organizational performance.

  7. Risk tradeoffs in adaptive ecosystem management: the case of the U.S. Forest Service.

    PubMed

    Stern, Marc J; Martin, Caysie A; Predmore, S Andrew; Morse, Wayde C

    2014-06-01

    Natural resource planning processes on public lands in the United States are driven in large part by the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which dictates general processes for analyzing and disclosing the likely impacts of proposed actions. The outcomes of these processes are the result of multiple factors, many related to the manifold smaller incremental decisions made by agency personnel directing the processes. Through interviews with decision makers, team leaders, and team members on five NEPA processes within the U.S. Forest Service, this study examines those incremental decisions. Risk, in particular external relationship risk, emerged as a dominant lens through which agency personnel weigh and make process-related decisions. We discuss the tradeoffs associated with agency actors' emphasis on this form of risk and their potential implications for adaptive ecosystem management and organizational performance. PMID:24687320

  8. Stochastic effects in adaptive reconstruction of body damage: implied the creativity of natural selection.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bo; Cui, Li-Qiang; Chen, Tian-Ming; Lian, Bin

    2015-11-01

    After an injury occurs, mechanical/biochemical loads on muscles influence the composition and structure of recovering muscles; this effect likely occurs in other tissues, cells and biological molecules as well owing to the similarity, interassociation and interaction among biochemical reactions and molecules. The 'damage and reconstruction' model provides an explanation for how an ideal cytoarchitecture is created by reducing components not suitable for bearing loads; in this model, adaptive changes are induced by promoting the stochasticity of biochemical reactions. Biochemical and mechanical loads can direct the stochasticity of biochemical reactions, which can in turn induce cellular changes. Thus, mechanical and biochemical loads, under natural selection pressure, modify the direction of cell- and tissue-level changes and guide the formation of new structures and traits, thereby influencing microevolution. In summary, the 'damage and reconstruction' model accounts for the role of natural selection in the formation of new organisms, helps explain punctuated equilibrium, and illustrates how macroevolution arises from microevolution. PMID:26153081

  9. An adaptable image retrieval system with relevance feedback using kernel machines and selective sampling.

    PubMed

    Azimi-Sadjadi, Mahmood R; Salazar, Jaime; Srinivasan, Saravanakumar

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents an adaptable content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system developed using regularization theory, kernel-based machines, and Fisher information measure. The system consists of a retrieval subsystem that carries out similarity matching using image-dependant information, multiple mapping subsystems that adaptively modify the similarity measures, and a relevance feedback mechanism that incorporates user information. The adaptation process drives the retrieval error to zero in order to exactly meet either an existing multiclass classification model or the user high-level concepts using reference-model or relevance feedback learning, respectively. To facilitate the selection of the most informative query images during relevance feedback learning a new method based upon the Fisher information is introduced. Model-reference and relevance feedback learning mechanisms are thoroughly tested on a domain-specific image database that encompasses a wide range of underwater objects captured using an electro-optical sensor. Benchmarking results with two other relevance feedback learning methods are also provided. PMID:19447718

  10. A novel timestamp based adaptive clock method for circuit emulation service over packet network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Jin-you; Yu, Shao-hua

    2007-11-01

    It is necessary to transport TDM (time division multiplexing) over packet network such as IP and Ethernet, and synchronization is a problem when carrying TDM over the packet network. Clock methods for TDM over packet network are introduced. A new adaptive clock method is presented. The method is a kind of timestamp based adaptive method, but no timestamp needs transporting over packet network. By using the local oscillator and a counter, the timestamp information (local timestamp) related to the service clock of the remote PE (provide edge) and the near PE can be attained. By using D-EWMA filter algorithm, the noise caused by packet network can be filtered and the useful timestamp can be extracted out. With the timestamp and a voltage-controlled oscillator, clock frequency of near PE can be adjusted the same as clock frequency of the remote PE. A kind of simulation device is designed and a test network topology is set up to test and verify the method. The experiment result shows that synthetical performance of the new method is better than ordinary buffer based method and ordinary timestamp based method.

  11. Nation Binding: How Public Service Broadcasting Mitigates Political Selective Exposure.

    PubMed

    Bos, Linda; Kruikemeier, Sanne; de Vreese, Claes

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that more and more citizens select news and information that is congruent with their existing political preferences. This increase in political selective exposure (PSE) has allegedly led to an increase in polarization. The vast majority of studies stem from the US case with a particular media and political system. We contend that there are good reasons to believe PSE is less prevalent in other systems. We test this using latent profile analysis with national survey data from the Netherlands (n = 2,833). We identify four types of media use profiles and indeed only find partial evidence of PSE. In particular, we find that public broadcasting news cross-cuts all cleavages. This research note offers an important antidote in what is considered a universal phenomenon. We do find, however, a relatively large segment of citizens opting out of news consumption despite the readily available news in today's media landscape. PMID:27218659

  12. Nation Binding: How Public Service Broadcasting Mitigates Political Selective Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kruikemeier, Sanne; de Vreese, Claes

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that more and more citizens select news and information that is congruent with their existing political preferences. This increase in political selective exposure (PSE) has allegedly led to an increase in polarization. The vast majority of studies stem from the US case with a particular media and political system. We contend that there are good reasons to believe PSE is less prevalent in other systems. We test this using latent profile analysis with national survey data from the Netherlands (n = 2,833). We identify four types of media use profiles and indeed only find partial evidence of PSE. In particular, we find that public broadcasting news cross-cuts all cleavages. This research note offers an important antidote in what is considered a universal phenomenon. We do find, however, a relatively large segment of citizens opting out of news consumption despite the readily available news in today’s media landscape. PMID:27218659

  13. Adaptive pixel-selection using chaotic map lattices for image cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittigorn, Jirasak; Paithoonwattanakij, Kitti; Surawatpunya, Charray

    2014-01-01

    Chaotic theory has been used in cryptography application for generating a sequence of data that is close to pseudorandom number based on an adjusted initial condition and a parameter. However, data recovery becomes a crucial problem due to the precision of the parameters. This difficulty leads to limited usage of Chaotic-based cryptography especially for error sensitive applications such as voice cryptography. In order to enhance the encryption security and overcome this limitation, an Adaptive Pixel-Selection using Chaotic Map Lattices (APCML) is proposed. In APCML, the encryption sequence has been adaptively selected based on chaos generator. Moreover, the chaotic transformation and normalization boundary have been revised to alleviate the rounding error and inappropriate normalization boundary problems. In the experiments, the measurement indices of originality preservation, visual inspection, and statistical analysis are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed APCML compared to that of the original CML. Consequently, the APCML algorithm offers greater performance with full recovery of the original message.

  14. Self-Adaptive MOEA Feature Selection for Classification of Bankruptcy Prediction Data

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar-Cunha, A.; Recio, G.; Costa, L.; Estébanez, C.

    2014-01-01

    Bankruptcy prediction is a vast area of finance and accounting whose importance lies in the relevance for creditors and investors in evaluating the likelihood of getting into bankrupt. As companies become complex, they develop sophisticated schemes to hide their real situation. In turn, making an estimation of the credit risks associated with counterparts or predicting bankruptcy becomes harder. Evolutionary algorithms have shown to be an excellent tool to deal with complex problems in finances and economics where a large number of irrelevant features are involved. This paper provides a methodology for feature selection in classification of bankruptcy data sets using an evolutionary multiobjective approach that simultaneously minimise the number of features and maximise the classifier quality measure (e.g., accuracy). The proposed methodology makes use of self-adaptation by applying the feature selection algorithm while simultaneously optimising the parameters of the classifier used. The methodology was applied to four different sets of data. The obtained results showed the utility of using the self-adaptation of the classifier. PMID:24707201

  15. Self-adaptive MOEA feature selection for classification of bankruptcy prediction data.

    PubMed

    Gaspar-Cunha, A; Recio, G; Costa, L; Estébanez, C

    2014-01-01

    Bankruptcy prediction is a vast area of finance and accounting whose importance lies in the relevance for creditors and investors in evaluating the likelihood of getting into bankrupt. As companies become complex, they develop sophisticated schemes to hide their real situation. In turn, making an estimation of the credit risks associated with counterparts or predicting bankruptcy becomes harder. Evolutionary algorithms have shown to be an excellent tool to deal with complex problems in finances and economics where a large number of irrelevant features are involved. This paper provides a methodology for feature selection in classification of bankruptcy data sets using an evolutionary multiobjective approach that simultaneously minimise the number of features and maximise the classifier quality measure (e.g., accuracy). The proposed methodology makes use of self-adaptation by applying the feature selection algorithm while simultaneously optimising the parameters of the classifier used. The methodology was applied to four different sets of data. The obtained results showed the utility of using the self-adaptation of the classifier. PMID:24707201

  16. 50 CFR 86.61 - What process does the Service use to select projects for grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What process does the Service use to select projects for grants? 86.61 Section 86.61 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE AND SPORT FISH...

  17. 50 CFR 86.61 - What process does the Service use to select projects for grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What process does the Service use to select projects for grants? 86.61 Section 86.61 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH...

  18. 50 CFR 86.61 - What process does the Service use to select projects for grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What process does the Service use to select projects for grants? 86.61 Section 86.61 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH...

  19. 50 CFR 86.61 - What process does the Service use to select projects for grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What process does the Service use to select projects for grants? 86.61 Section 86.61 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH...

  20. 50 CFR 86.61 - What process does the Service use to select projects for grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What process does the Service use to select projects for grants? 86.61 Section 86.61 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE AND SPORT FISH...

  1. A Longitudinal Analysis of Satisfaction with Selected Community Services in a Non-Metropolitan Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purohit, Sally R.; Molnar, Joseph J.

    Longitudinal changes in satisfaction with selected community services were examined in three nonmetropolitan counties in central Alabama, focusing on variation in changes across three groups (government officials, business leaders, household respondents) and on the relation of changes in satisfaction for individual services to overall community…

  2. Choosing to Serve? An Exploration of Student Self-Selection of Service Learning Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Paula S.; Schneider, Kenneth R.; Weber, James E.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores student selection of service learning projects in lieu of traditional library research projects. One hundred fifty-four strategic management students completed surveys exploring their tolerance of ambiguity, time pressure, attitudes toward civic participation, self-efficacy toward service, political conservatism, and the role…

  3. Guide for the Establishment and Evaluation of Services for Selective Dissemination of Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poncelet, J.

    This guide describes the components of a selective dissemination of information (SDI) service which is designed to give developing countries access to international sources of bibliographic information and provides guidelines for the establishment and evaluation of this type of service. It defines the main features of a computerized documentation…

  4. Developing services for climate impact and adaptation baseline information and methodologies for the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggel, C.

    2012-04-01

    Impacts of climate change are observed and projected across a range of ecosystems and economic sectors, and mountain regions thereby rank among the hotspots of climate change. The Andes are considered particularly vulnerable to climate change, not only due to fragile ecosystems but also due to the high vulnerability of the population. Natural resources such as water systems play a critical role and are observed and projected to be seriously affected. Adaptation to climate change impacts is therefore crucial to contain the negative effects on the population. Adaptation projects require information on the climate and affected socio-environmental systems. There is, however, generally a lack of methodological guidelines how to generate the necessary scientific information and how to communicate to implementing governmental and non-governmental institutions. This is particularly important in view of the international funds for adaptation such as the Green Climate Fund established and set into process at the UNFCCC Conferences of the Parties in Cancun 2010 and Durban 2011. To facilitate this process international and regional organizations (World Bank and Andean Community) and a consortium of research institutions have joined forces to develop and define comprehensive methodologies for baseline and climate change impact assessments for the Andes, with an application potential to other mountain regions (AndesPlus project). Considered are the climatological baseline of a region, and the assessment of trends based on ground meteorological stations, reanalysis data, and satellite information. A challenge is the scarcity of climate information in the Andes, and the complex climatology of the mountain terrain. A climate data platform has been developed for the southern Peruvian Andes and is a key element for climate data service and exchange. Water resources are among the key livelihood components for the Andean population, and local and national economy, in particular for

  5. Quality and Business Offer Driven Selection of Web Services for Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Mello, Demian Antony; Ananthanarayana, V. S.

    The service composition makes use of the existing services to produce a new value added service to execute the complex business process. The service discovery finds the suitable services (candidates) for the various tasks of the composition based on the functionality. The service selection in composition assigns the best candidate for each tasks of the pre-structured composition plan based on the non-functional properties. In this paper, we propose the broker based architecture for the QoS and business offer aware Web service compositions. The broker architecture facilitates the registration of a new composite service into three different registries. The broker publishes service information into the service registry and QoS into the QoS registry. The business offers of the composite Web service are published into a separate repository called business offer (BO) registry. The broker employs the mechanism for the optimal assignment of the Web services to the individual tasks of the composition. The assignment is based on the composite service providers’s (CSP) variety of requirements defined on the QoS and business offers. The broker also computes the QoS of resulting composition and provides the useful information for the CSP to publish thier business offers.

  6. Sensor selection and chemo-sensory optimization: toward an adaptable chemo-sensory system.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Alexander; Llobet, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades, despite the tremendous research on chemical sensors and machine olfaction to develop micro-sensory systems that will accomplish the growing existent needs in personal health (implantable sensors), environment monitoring (widely distributed sensor networks), and security/threat detection (chemo/bio warfare agents), simple, low-cost molecular sensing platforms capable of long-term autonomous operation remain beyond the current state-of-the-art of chemical sensing. A fundamental issue within this context is that most of the chemical sensors depend on interactions between the targeted species and the surfaces functionalized with receptors that bind the target species selectively, and that these binding events are coupled with transduction processes that begin to change when they are exposed to the messy world of real samples. With the advent of fundamental breakthroughs at the intersection of materials science, micro- and nano-technology, and signal processing, hybrid chemo-sensory systems have incorporated tunable, optimizable operating parameters, through which changes in the response characteristics can be modeled and compensated as the environmental conditions or application needs change. The objective of this article, in this context, is to bring together the key advances at the device, data processing, and system levels that enable chemo-sensory systems to "adapt" in response to their environments. Accordingly, in this review we will feature the research effort made by selected experts on chemical sensing and information theory, whose work has been devoted to develop strategies that provide tunability and adaptability to single sensor devices or sensory array systems. Particularly, we consider sensor-array selection, modulation of internal sensing parameters, and active sensing. The article ends with some conclusions drawn from the results presented and a visionary look toward the future in terms of how the field may evolve. PMID

  7. Effects of Informed Item Selection on Test Performance and Anxiety for Examinees Administered a Self-Adapted Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plake, Barbara S.; And Others

    In self-adapted testing (SAT), examinees select the difficulty level of items administered. This study investigated three variations of prior information provided when taking an SAT: (1) no information (examinees selected item difficulty levels without prior information); (2) view (examinees inspected a typical item from each difficulty level…

  8. Synthetic shuffling and in vitro selection reveal the rugged adaptive fitness landscape of a kinase ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Edward A.; Bartel, David P.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between genotype and phenotype is often described as an adaptive fitness landscape. In this study, we used a combination of recombination, in vitro selection, and comparative sequence analysis to characterize the fitness landscape of a previously isolated kinase ribozyme. Point mutations present in improved variants of this ribozyme were recombined in vitro in more than 1014 different arrangements using synthetic shuffling, and active variants were isolated by in vitro selection. Mutual information analysis of 65 recombinant ribozymes isolated in the selection revealed a rugged fitness landscape in which approximately one-third of the 91 pairs of positions analyzed showed evidence of correlation. Pairs of correlated positions overlapped to form densely connected networks, and groups of maximally connected nucleotides occurred significantly more often in these networks than they did in randomized control networks with the same number of links. The activity of the most efficient recombinant ribozyme isolated from the synthetically shuffled pool was 30-fold greater than that of any of the ribozymes used to build it, which indicates that synthetic shuffling can be a rich source of ribozyme variants with improved properties. PMID:23798664

  9. New adaptive branch and bound algorithm for hyperspectral waveband selection for chicken skin tumor detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakariyakul, Songyot; Casasent, David

    2006-10-01

    Detection of skin tumors on chicken carcasses is considered. A chicken skin tumor consists of an ulcerous lesion region surrounded by a region of thickened-skin. We use a new adaptive branch-and-bound (ABB) feature selection algorithm to choose only a few useful wavebands from hyperspectral data for use in a real-time multispectral camera. The ABB algorithm selects an optimal feature subset and is shown to be much faster than any other versions of the branch and bound algorithm. We found that the spectral responses of the lesion and the thickened-skin regions of tumors are considerably different; thus we train our feature selection algorithm to separately detect the lesion regions and thickened-skin regions of tumors. We then fuse the two HS detection results of lesion and thickened-skin regions to reduce false alarms. Initial results on six hyperspectral cubes show that our method gives an excellent tumor detection rate and a low false alarm rate.

  10. A method for computing the reputation of multimedia services through selection and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atrey, Pradeep K.; Hossain, M. Anwar; El Saddik, Abdulmotaleb

    2008-01-01

    Multimedia services are usually selected and composed for processing, analyzing and transporting multimedia data over the Internet for end-users. The selection of these services is often performed based on their reputation, which is usually computed based on the feedback provided by the users. The users' feedback bears many problems including the low incentive for providing ratings and the bias towards positive or negative ratings. To overcome the dependency on the user's feedback, this paper presents a method that dynamically computes the reputation of a multimedia service based on its association with other multimedia services in a composition task. The degree of association between any two services is computed by utilizing the statistics of how often they have been composed together, which is used in our method to show the evolution of reputation over a period of time. The experimental results demonstrate the utility of the proposed method.

  11. L-ALLIANCE: a mechanism for adaptive action selection in heterogeneous multi-robot teams

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-11-01

    In practical applications of robotics, it is usually quite difficult, if not impossible, for the system designer to fully predict the environmental states in which the robots will operate. The complexity of the problem is further increased when dealing with teams of robots which themselves may be incompletely known and characterized in advance. It is thus highly desirable for robot teams to be able to adapt their performance during the mission due to changes in the environment, or to changes in other robot team members. In previous work, we introduced a behavior-based mechanism called the ALLIANCE architecture -- that facilitates the fault tolerant cooperative control of multi-robot teams. However, this previous work did not address the issue of how to dynamically update the control parameters during a mission to adapt to ongoing changes in the environment or in the robot team, and to ensure the efficiency of the collective team actions. In this paper, we address this issue by proposing the L-ALLIANCE mechanism, which defines an automated method whereby robots can use knowledge learned from previous experience to continually improve their collective action selection when working on missions composed of loosely coupled, discrete subtasks. This ability to dynamically update robotic control parameters provides a number of distinct advantages: it alleviates the need for human tuning of control parameters, it facilitates the use of custom-designed multi-robot teams for any given application, it improves the efficiency of the mission performance, and It allows robots to continually adapt their performance over time due to changes in the robot team and/or the environment. We describe the L-ALLIANCE mechanism, present the results of various alternative update strategies we investigated, present the formal model of the L-ALLIANCE mechanism, and present the results of a simple proof of concept implementation on a small team of heterogeneous mobile robots.

  12. A New Real-coded Genetic Algorithm with an Adaptive Mating Selection for UV-landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Dan; Miyamae, Atsushi; Nagata, Yuichi; Kobayashi, Shigenobu; Ono, Isao; Sakuma, Jun

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a new real-coded genetic algorithm (RCGA) named Networked Genetic Algorithm (NGA) that intends to find multiple optima simultaneously in deceptive globally multimodal landscapes. Most current techniques such as niching for finding multiple optima take into account big valley landscapes or non-deceptive globally multimodal landscapes but not deceptive ones called UV-landscapes. Adaptive Neighboring Search (ANS) is a promising approach for finding multiple optima in UV-landscapes. ANS utilizes a restricted mating scheme with a crossover-like mutation in order to find optima in deceptive globally multimodal landscapes. However, ANS has a fundamental problem that it does not find all the optima simultaneously in many cases. NGA overcomes the problem by an adaptive parent-selection scheme and an improved crossover-like mutation. We show the effectiveness of NGA over ANS in terms of the number of detected optima in a single run on Fletcher and Powell functions as benchmark problems that are known to have multiple optima, ill-scaledness, and UV-landscapes.

  13. Adaptive Selective Harmonic Minimization Based on ANNs for Cascade Multilevel Inverters With Varying DC Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Filho, Faete; Maia, Helder Z; Mateus, Tiago Henrique D; Ozpineci, Burak; Tolbert, Leon M; Pinto, Joao Onofre P

    2013-01-01

    A new approach for modulation of an 11-level cascade multilevel inverter using selective harmonic elimination is presented in this paper. The dc sources feeding the multilevel inverter are considered to be varying in time, and the switching angles are adapted to the dc source variation. This method uses genetic algorithms to obtain switching angles offline for different dc source values. Then, artificial neural networks are used to determine the switching angles that correspond to the real-time values of the dc sources for each phase. This implies that each one of the dc sources of this topology can have different values at any time, but the output fundamental voltage will stay constant and the harmonic content will still meet the specifications. The modulating switching angles are updated at each cycle of the output fundamental voltage. This paper gives details on the method in addition to simulation and experimental results.

  14. Automatic window size selection in Windowed Fourier Transform for 3D reconstruction using adapted mother wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Sergio; Gdeisat, Munther A.; Salvi, Joaquim; Burton, David

    2011-06-01

    Fringe pattern analysis in coded structured light constitutes an active field of research. Techniques based on first projecting a sinusoidal pattern and then recovering the phase deviation permit the computation of the phase map and its corresponding depth map, leading to a dense acquisition of the measuring object. Among these techniques, the ones based on time-frequency analysis permit to extract the depth map from a single image, thus having potential applications measuring moving objects. The main techniques are Fourier Transform (FT), Windowed Fourier Transform (WFT) and Wavelet Transform (WT). This paper first analyzes the pros and cons of these three techniques, then a new algorithm for the automatic selection of the window size in WFT is proposed. This algorithm is compared to the traditional WT using adapted mother wavelet signals both with simulated and real objects, showing the performance results for quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the new method.

  15. 78 FR 42503 - Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program Select Service for Calendar Year 2014

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... International Trade Administration Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program Select Service for... applications for the International Buyer Program (IBP) Select service for calendar year 2014 (January 1, 2014... criteria for IBP Select. Under the IBP Select the International Trade Administration (ITA)...

  16. Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Testing: Adaptation of the A-Stratified Strategy in Item Selection with Content Balancing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huo, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Variable-length computerized adaptive testing (CAT) can provide examinees with tailored test lengths. With the fixed standard error of measurement ("SEM") termination rule, variable-length CAT can achieve predetermined measurement precision by using relatively shorter tests compared to fixed-length CAT. To explore the application of…

  17. Adaptation and promotion of emergency medical service transportation for climate change.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chih-Long; Chiu, Chun-Wen; Wen, Jet-Chau

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to find a proper prehospital transportation scenario planning of an emergency medical service (EMS) system for possible burdensome casualties resulting from extreme climate events. This project focuses on one of the worst natural catastrophic events in Taiwan, the 88 Wind-caused Disasters, caused by the Typhoon Morakot; the case of the EMS transportation in the Xiaolin village is reviewed and analyzed. The sequential-conveyance method is designed to promote the efficiency of all the ambulance services related to transportation time and distance. Initially, a proposed mobile emergency medical center (MEMC) is constructed in a safe location near the area of the disaster. The ambulances are classified into 2 categories: the first-line ambulances, which reciprocate between the MEMC and the disaster area to save time and shorten the working distances and the second-line ambulances, which transfer patients in critical condition from the MEMC to the requested hospitals for further treatment. According to the results, the sequential-conveyance method is more efficient than the conventional method for EMS transportation in a mass-casualty incident (MCI). This method improves the time efficiency by 52.15% and the distance efficiency by 56.02%. This case study concentrates on Xiaolin, a mountain village, which was heavily destroyed by a devastating mudslide during the Typhoon Morakot. The sequential-conveyance method for the EMS transportation in this research is not only more advantageous but also more rational in adaptation to climate change. Therefore, the findings are also important to all the decision-making with respect to a promoted EMS transportation, especially in an MCI. PMID:25501065

  18. Adaptation and Promotion of Emergency Medical Service Transportation for Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Chih-Long; Chiu, Chun-Wen; Wen, Jet-Chau

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to find a proper prehospital transportation scenario planning of an emergency medical service (EMS) system for possible burdensome casualties resulting from extreme climate events. This project focuses on one of the worst natural catastrophic events in Taiwan, the 88 Wind-caused Disasters, caused by the Typhoon Morakot; the case of the EMS transportation in the Xiaolin village is reviewed and analyzed. The sequential-conveyance method is designed to promote the efficiency of all the ambulance services related to transportation time and distance. Initially, a proposed mobile emergency medical center (MEMC) is constructed in a safe location near the area of the disaster. The ambulances are classified into 2 categories: the first-line ambulances, which reciprocate between the MEMC and the disaster area to save time and shorten the working distances and the second-line ambulances, which transfer patients in critical condition from the MEMC to the requested hospitals for further treatment. According to the results, the sequential-conveyance method is more efficient than the conventional method for EMS transportation in a mass-casualty incident (MCI). This method improves the time efficiency by 52.15% and the distance efficiency by 56.02%. This case study concentrates on Xiaolin, a mountain village, which was heavily destroyed by a devastating mudslide during the Typhoon Morakot. The sequential-conveyance method for the EMS transportation in this research is not only more advantageous but also more rational in adaptation to climate change. Therefore, the findings are also important to all the decision-making with respect to a promoted EMS transportation, especially in an MCI. PMID:25501065

  19. An adapted modulation transfer function for x-ray backscatter radiography by selective detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabri, Nissia; Dugan, Edward T.; Jacobs, Alan M.; Shedlock, Daniel

    2007-09-01

    The Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) is a quantitative function based on frequency resolution that characterizes imaging system performance. In this study, a new MTF methodology is investigated for application to Radiography by Selective Detection (RSD), an enhanced single-side x-ray Compton backscatter imaging (CBI) technique which detects selected scatter components. The RSD imaging modality is a unique type of real-time radiography that uses a set of fin and sleeve collimators to preferentially select different components of the x-ray backscattered field. Radiography by selective detection has performed successfully in different non-destructive evaluation (NDE) applications. A customized RSD imaging system was built at the University of Florida for inspection of the space shuttle external tank spray-on foam insulation (SOFI). The x-ray backscatter RSD imaging system has been successfully used for crack and corrosion detection in a variety of materials. The conventional transmission x-ray image quality characterization tools do not apply for RSD because of the different physical process involved. Thus, the main objective of this project is to provide an adapted tool for dynamic evaluation of RSD system image quality. For this purpose, an analytical model of the RSD imaging system response is developed and supported. Two approaches are taken for the MTF calculations: one using the Fourier Transform of a line spread function and the other one using a sine function pattern. Calibration and test targets are then designed according to this proposed model. A customized Matlab code using image contrast and digital curve recognition is developed to support the experimental data and provide the Modulation Transfer Functions for RSD.

  20. A new approach to optimal selection of services in health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Adolphson, D L; Baird, M L; Lawrence, K D

    1991-01-01

    A new reimbursement policy adopted by Medicare in 1983 caused financial difficulties for many hospitals and health care organizations. Several organizations responded to these difficulties by developing systems to carefully measure their costs of providing services. The purpose of such systems was to provide relevant information about the profitability of hospital services. This paper presents a new method of making hospital service selection decisions: it is based on an optimization model that avoids arbitrary cost allocations as a basis for computing the costs of offering a given service. The new method provides more reliable information about which services are profitable or unprofitable, and it provides an accurate measure of the degree to which a service is profitable or unprofitable. The new method also provides useful information about the sensitivity of the optimal decision to changes in costs and revenues. Specialized algorithms for the optimization model lead to very efficient implementation of the method, even for the largest health care organizations. PMID:10111676

  1. Trust-Enhanced Cloud Service Selection Model Based on QoS Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yuchen; Ding, Shuai; Fan, Wenjuan; Li, Jing; Yang, Shanlin

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing technology plays a very important role in many areas, such as in the construction and development of the smart city. Meanwhile, numerous cloud services appear on the cloud-based platform. Therefore how to how to select trustworthy cloud services remains a significant problem in such platforms, and extensively investigated owing to the ever-growing needs of users. However, trust relationship in social network has not been taken into account in existing methods of cloud service selection and recommendation. In this paper, we propose a cloud service selection model based on the trust-enhanced similarity. Firstly, the direct, indirect, and hybrid trust degrees are measured based on the interaction frequencies among users. Secondly, we estimate the overall similarity by combining the experience usability measured based on Jaccard’s Coefficient and the numerical distance computed by Pearson Correlation Coefficient. Then through using the trust degree to modify the basic similarity, we obtain a trust-enhanced similarity. Finally, we utilize the trust-enhanced similarity to find similar trusted neighbors and predict the missing QoS values as the basis of cloud service selection and recommendation. The experimental results show that our approach is able to obtain optimal results via adjusting parameters and exhibits high effectiveness. The cloud services ranking by our model also have better QoS properties than other methods in the comparison experiments. PMID:26606388

  2. Trust-Enhanced Cloud Service Selection Model Based on QoS Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuchen; Ding, Shuai; Fan, Wenjuan; Li, Jing; Yang, Shanlin

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing technology plays a very important role in many areas, such as in the construction and development of the smart city. Meanwhile, numerous cloud services appear on the cloud-based platform. Therefore how to how to select trustworthy cloud services remains a significant problem in such platforms, and extensively investigated owing to the ever-growing needs of users. However, trust relationship in social network has not been taken into account in existing methods of cloud service selection and recommendation. In this paper, we propose a cloud service selection model based on the trust-enhanced similarity. Firstly, the direct, indirect, and hybrid trust degrees are measured based on the interaction frequencies among users. Secondly, we estimate the overall similarity by combining the experience usability measured based on Jaccard's Coefficient and the numerical distance computed by Pearson Correlation Coefficient. Then through using the trust degree to modify the basic similarity, we obtain a trust-enhanced similarity. Finally, we utilize the trust-enhanced similarity to find similar trusted neighbors and predict the missing QoS values as the basis of cloud service selection and recommendation. The experimental results show that our approach is able to obtain optimal results via adjusting parameters and exhibits high effectiveness. The cloud services ranking by our model also have better QoS properties than other methods in the comparison experiments. PMID:26606388

  3. Stochastic effects in adaptive reconstruction of body damage: implied the creativity of natural selection

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Bo; Cui, Li-Qiang; Chen, Tian-Ming; Lian, Bin

    2015-01-01

    After an injury occurs, mechanical/biochemical loads on muscles influence the composition and structure of recovering muscles; this effect likely occurs in other tissues, cells and biological molecules as well owing to the similarity, interassociation and interaction among biochemical reactions and molecules. The ‘damage and reconstruction’ model provides an explanation for how an ideal cytoarchitecture is created by reducing components not suitable for bearing loads; in this model, adaptive changes are induced by promoting the stochasticity of biochemical reactions. Biochemical and mechanical loads can direct the stochasticity of biochemical reactions, which can in turn induce cellular changes. Thus, mechanical and biochemical loads, under natural selection pressure, modify the direction of cell- and tissue-level changes and guide the formation of new structures and traits, thereby influencing microevolution. In summary, the ‘damage and reconstruction’ model accounts for the role of natural selection in the formation of new organisms, helps explain punctuated equilibrium, and illustrates how macroevolution arises from microevolution. PMID:26153081

  4. Confidence intervals for the selected population in randomized trials that adapt the population enrolled

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Michael

    2014-01-01

    It is a challenge to design randomized trials when it is suspected that a treatment may benefit only certain subsets of the target population. In such situations, trial designs have been proposed that modify the population enrolled based on an interim analysis, in a preplanned manner. For example, if there is early evidence during the trial that the treatment only benefits a certain subset of the population, enrollment may then be restricted to this subset. At the end of such a trial, it is desirable to draw inferences about the selected population. We focus on constructing confidence intervals for the average treatment effect in the selected population. Confidence interval methods that fail to account for the adaptive nature of the design may fail to have the desired coverage probability. We provide a new procedure for constructing confidence intervals having at least 95% coverage probability, uniformly over a large class Q of possible data generating distributions. Our method involves computing the minimum factor c by which a standard confidence interval must be expanded in order to have, asymptotically, at least 95% coverage probability, uniformly over Q. Computing the expansion factor c is not trivial, since it is not a priori clear, for a given decision rule, which data generating distribution leads to the worst-case coverage probability. We give an algorithm that computes c, and prove an optimality property for the resulting confidence interval procedure. PMID:23553577

  5. Insights into the Selective Pressures Restricting Pelargonium Flower Break Virus Genome Variability: Evidence for Host Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Rico, Patricia; Ivars, Pilar; Elena, Santiago F.; Hernández, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    The molecular diversity of Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV) was assessed using a collection of isolates from different geographical origins, hosts, and collecting times. The genomic region examined was 1,828 nucleotides (nt) long and comprised the coding sequences for the movement (p7 and p12) and the coat (CP) proteins, as well as flanking segments including the entire 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR). Some constraints limiting viral heterogeneity could be inferred from sequence analyses, such as the conservation of the amino acid sequences of p7 and of the shell domain of the CP, the maintenance of a leucine zipper motif in p12, and the preservation of a particular folding in the 3′ UTR. A remarkable covariation, involving five specific amino acid sites, was found in the CP of isolates largely propagated in the local lesion host Chenopodium quinoa and in the progeny of a PFBV variant subjected to serial passages in this host. Concomitant with this covariation, up to 30 nucleotide substitutions in a 1,428-nt region of the viral RNA could be attributable to C. quinoa-specific adaptation, representing one of the most outstanding cases of host-driven genome variation for a plant virus. Globally, the results indicate that the selective pressures exerted by the host play a critical role in shaping PFBV populations and that these populations are likely being selected for at both protein and RNA levels. PMID:16873268

  6. Interactive prostate segmentation using atlas-guided semi-supervised learning and adaptive feature selection

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sang Hyun; Gao, Yaozong; Shi, Yinghuan; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Accurate prostate segmentation is necessary for maximizing the effectiveness of radiation therapy of prostate cancer. However, manual segmentation from 3D CT images is very time-consuming and often causes large intra- and interobserver variations across clinicians. Many segmentation methods have been proposed to automate this labor-intensive process, but tedious manual editing is still required due to the limited performance. In this paper, the authors propose a new interactive segmentation method that can (1) flexibly generate the editing result with a few scribbles or dots provided by a clinician, (2) fast deliver intermediate results to the clinician, and (3) sequentially correct the segmentations from any type of automatic or interactive segmentation methods. Methods: The authors formulate the editing problem as a semisupervised learning problem which can utilize a priori knowledge of training data and also the valuable information from user interactions. Specifically, from a region of interest near the given user interactions, the appropriate training labels, which are well matched with the user interactions, can be locally searched from a training set. With voting from the selected training labels, both confident prostate and background voxels, as well as unconfident voxels can be estimated. To reflect informative relationship between voxels, location-adaptive features are selected from the confident voxels by using regression forest and Fisher separation criterion. Then, the manifold configuration computed in the derived feature space is enforced into the semisupervised learning algorithm. The labels of unconfident voxels are then predicted by regularizing semisupervised learning algorithm. Results: The proposed interactive segmentation method was applied to correct automatic segmentation results of 30 challenging CT images. The correction was conducted three times with different user interactions performed at different time periods, in order to

  7. Development and Use of Curricular Adaptations for Students Receiving Special Education Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurth, Jennifer A.; Keegan, Lissa

    2014-01-01

    This study is a quasi-experimental descriptive design, with existing educator-made adaptations evaluated. The goals of this study were to (a) describe how educators develop adaptations and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of educator-made adaptations in facilitating the learning of students with disabilities. Findings suggest that (a) most…

  8. [Selection and Identification of the Biological Characteristics of a Cold-adapted Genotype G1P[8] ZTR-68 Rotavirus by Serial Cold-adapted Passaging].

    PubMed

    Xie, Li; Mi, Kai; Ye, Jing; Niu, Xianglian; Sun, Xiaoqin; Yi, Shan; Li, Hongjun; Sun, Maosheng

    2015-09-01

    We wished to select a cold-adapted genotype G1P[8] ZTR-68 rotavirus (China southwest strain) in MA104 cells for possible use as a live vaccine. ZTR-68 was recovered originally from children with diarrhea. The virus was cultivated at 37 degrees C at the first passage. Then, the cultivation temperature was decreased stepwise by 3 degrees C per eight passages. In total, the virus was passaged 32 times, and cultivation was terminated at 28 degrees C. Biological characteristics of the virus were analyzed during serial passages. There was no difference between the migration patterns of genomic dsRNA segments according to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of original and cold-adapted viruses. Infectious and red cell-agglutination titers of cold-adapted virus were lower than those of the parent virus. Also, the virus formed small-size plaques with irregular shapes at 31 degrees C and 28 degrees C. These results suggested that a genetically stable attenuated virus can be obtained through serial cold-adapted passages. Thus, an alternative strategy is provided by cold-adaption for development of attenuated live rotavirus vaccines. PMID:26738294

  9. Sensor Selection and Chemo-Sensory Optimization: Toward an Adaptable Chemo-Sensory System

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Alexander; Llobet, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades, despite the tremendous research on chemical sensors and machine olfaction to develop micro-sensory systems that will accomplish the growing existent needs in personal health (implantable sensors), environment monitoring (widely distributed sensor networks), and security/threat detection (chemo/bio warfare agents), simple, low-cost molecular sensing platforms capable of long-term autonomous operation remain beyond the current state-of-the-art of chemical sensing. A fundamental issue within this context is that most of the chemical sensors depend on interactions between the targeted species and the surfaces functionalized with receptors that bind the target species selectively, and that these binding events are coupled with transduction processes that begin to change when they are exposed to the messy world of real samples. With the advent of fundamental breakthroughs at the intersection of materials science, micro- and nano-technology, and signal processing, hybrid chemo-sensory systems have incorporated tunable, optimizable operating parameters, through which changes in the response characteristics can be modeled and compensated as the environmental conditions or application needs change. The objective of this article, in this context, is to bring together the key advances at the device, data processing, and system levels that enable chemo-sensory systems to “adapt” in response to their environments. Accordingly, in this review we will feature the research effort made by selected experts on chemical sensing and information theory, whose work has been devoted to develop strategies that provide tunability and adaptability to single sensor devices or sensory array systems. Particularly, we consider sensor-array selection, modulation of internal sensing parameters, and active sensing. The article ends with some conclusions drawn from the results presented and a visionary look toward the future in terms of how the field may evolve. PMID

  10. Adaptive tradeoffs in Selenastrum capricornutum associated with colony size selection on growth media with high and low copper content

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, R.; Klaine, S.

    1995-12-31

    Modified Bold`s Basic Medium (MBBM) with no EDTA, 50 {micro}g L{sup {minus}1} Cu{sup +2}, 5% of other micro nutrients and stabilized with 1.5 % agar produced rapid colony growth of stock cells. Addition of 1,000 {micro}g L{sup {minus}1} Cu{sup +2} substantially reduced colony diameters of stock cells. Cell strains isolated from colonies on Cu spiked medium were better adapted than the stock population to both unspiked and Cu spiked MBBM and were insensitive to elevated Cu. Results suggested identical changes in metal sensitivity might be selected by differential growth on unspiked MBBM. Cells were isolated from colonies larger than 2 standard deviations from the mean. Most, but not all, isolated strains produced larger colonies on both unspiked and Cu spiked MBBM, but in contrast to earlier results, relative growth reduction was more pronounced in the selected strains. Stock cells are normally cultured in liquid EPA medium (.005 {at}g Cu + 2 L-1) and are probably highly adapted to this condition. Selection on both unspiked and Cu spiked MBBM resulted in strains generally better adapted to solidified medium. Costs of adaptation were low, since ancestral and selected strains showed similar growth in unspiked EPA medium. However, costs of exposure were different for strains selected on spiked versus unspiked MBBM. Strains selected on spiked MBBM were Cu insensitive on solid substrates, but grew more slowly than the stock (ancestral) population in Cu spiked liquid EPA medium (50 ug L{sup {minus}1} Cu{sup +2}). In contrast, strains selected on unspiked MBBM were most Cu sensitive on solidified substrates, but could not be distinguished from stock cells in Cu spiked EPA medium. Adaptive tradeoffs may often be pronounced across environmental extremes, but relatively minor with respect to low stress conditions.

  11. ReSS: Resource Selection Service for National and Campus Grid Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhashilkar, Parag; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Levshina, Tanya; Timm, Steve

    2010-04-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) offers access to around hundred Compute elements (CE) and storage elements (SE) via standard Grid interfaces. The Resource Selection Service (ReSS) is a push-based workload management system that is integrated with the OSG information systems and resources. ReSS integrates standard Grid tools such as Condor, as a brokering service and the gLite CEMon, for gathering and publishing resource information in GLUE Schema format. ReSS is used in OSG by Virtual Organizations (VO) such as Dark Energy Survey (DES), DZero and Engagement VO. ReSS is also used as a Resource Selection Service for Campus Grids, such as FermiGrid. VOs use ReSS to automate the resource selection in their workload management system to run jobs over the grid. In the past year, the system has been enhanced to enable publication and selection of storage resources and of any special software or software libraries (like MPI libraries) installed at computing resources. In this paper, we discuss the Resource Selection Service, its typical usage on the two scales of a National Cyber Infrastructure Grid, such as OSG, and of a campus Grid, such as FermiGrid.

  12. ReSS: Resource Selection Service for National and Campus Grid Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Mhashilkar, Parag; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Levshina, Tanya; Timm, Steve; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) offers access to around hundred Compute elements (CE) and storage elements (SE) via standard Grid interfaces. The Resource Selection Service (ReSS) is a push-based workload management system that is integrated with the OSG information systems and resources. ReSS integrates standard Grid tools such as Condor, as a brokering service and the gLite CEMon, for gathering and publishing resource information in GLUE Schema format. ReSS is used in OSG by Virtual Organizations (VO) such as Dark Energy Survey (DES), DZero and Engagement VO. ReSS is also used as a Resource Selection Service for Campus Grids, such as FermiGrid. VOs use ReSS to automate the resource selection in their workload management system to run jobs over the grid. In the past year, the system has been enhanced to enable publication and selection of storage resources and of any special software or software libraries (like MPI libraries) installed at computing resources. In this paper, we discuss the Resource Selection Service, its typical usage on the two scales of a National Cyber Infrastructure Grid, such as OSG, and of a campus Grid, such as FermiGrid.

  13. ReSS: A Resource Selection Service for the Open Science Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Garzoglio, Gabriele; Levshina, Tanya; Mhashilkar, Parag; Timm, Steve; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    The Open Science Grid offers access to hundreds of computing and storage resources via standard Grid interfaces. Before the deployment of an automated resource selection system, users had to submit jobs directly to these resources. They would manually select a resource and specify all relevant attributes in the job description prior to submitting the job. The necessity of a human intervention in resource selection and attribute specification hinders automated job management components from accessing OSG resources and it is inconvenient for the users. The Resource Selection Service (ReSS) project addresses these shortcomings. The system integrates condor technology, for the core match making service, with the gLite CEMon component, for gathering and publishing resource information in the Glue Schema format. Each one of these components communicates over secure protocols via web services interfaces. The system is currently used in production on OSG by the DZero Experiment, the Engagement Virtual Organization, and the Dark Energy. It is also the resource selection service for the Fermilab Campus Grid, FermiGrid. ReSS is considered a lightweight solution to push-based workload management. This paper describes the architecture, performance, and typical usage of the system.

  14. Payment mechanism and GP self-selection: capitation versus fee for service.

    PubMed

    Allard, Marie; Jelovac, Izabela; Léger, Pierre-Thomas

    2014-06-01

    This paper analyzes the consequences of allowing gatekeeping general practitioners (GPs) to select their payment mechanism. We model GPs' behavior under the most common payment schemes (capitation and fee for service) and when GPs can select one among them. Our analysis considers GP heterogeneity in terms of both ability and concern for their patients' health. We show that when the costs of wasteful referrals to costly specialized care are relatively high, fee for service payments are optimal to maximize the expected patients' health net of treatment costs. Conversely, when the losses associated with failed referrals of severely ill patients are relatively high, we show that either GPs' self-selection of a payment form or capitation is optimal. Last, we extend our analysis to endogenous effort and to competition among GPs. In both cases, we show that self-selection is never optimal. PMID:24671705

  15. Adaptation to Sea Level Rise in Coastal Units of the National Park Service (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beavers, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    83 National Park Service (NPS) units contain nearly 12,000 miles of coastal, estuarine and Great Lakes shoreline and their associated resources. Iconic natural features exist along active shorelines in NPS units, including, e.g., Cape Cod, Padre Island, Hawaii Volcanoes, and the Everglades. Iconic cultural resources managed by NPS include the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse, Fort Sumter, the Golden Gate, and heiaus and fish traps along the coast of Hawaii. Impacts anticipated from sea level rise include inundation and flooding of beaches and low lying marshes, shoreline erosion of coastal areas, and saltwater intrusion into the water table. These impacts and other coastal hazards will threaten park beaches, marshes, and other resources and values; alter the viability of coastal roads; and require the NPS to re-evaluate the financial, safety, and environmental implications of maintaining current projects and implementing future projects in ocean and coastal parks in the context of sea level rise. Coastal erosion will increase as sea levels rise. Barrier islands along the coast of Louisiana and North Carolina may have already passed the threshold for maintaining island integrity in any scenario of sea level rise (U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Program Report 4.1). Consequently, sea level rise is expected to hasten the disappearance of historic coastal villages, coastal wetlands, forests, and beaches, and threaten coastal roads, homes, and businesses. While sea level is rising in most coastal parks, some parks are experiencing lower water levels due to isostatic rebound and lower lake levels. NPS funded a Coastal Vulnerability Project to evaluate the physical and geologic factors affecting 25 coastal parks. The USGS Open File Reports for each park are available at http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/. These reports were designed to inform park planning efforts. NPS conducted a Storm Vulnerability Project to provide ocean and coastal

  16. Scenario Planning Provides a Framework for Climate Change Adaptation in the National Park Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welling, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Resource management decisions must be based on future expectations. Abundant evidence suggests climate change will have highly consequential effects on the Nation's natural and cultural resources, but specific impacts are difficult to accurately predict. This situation of too much information but not enough specificity can often lead to either paralysis or denial for decision makers. Scenario planning is an emerging tool for climate change adaptation that provides a structured framework for identifying and exploring critical drivers of change and their uncertain outcomes. Since 2007, the National Park Service (NPS) has been working with its partners to develop and apply a scenario-based approach for adaptation planning that integrates quantitative, model-driven, climate change projections with qualitative, participatory exercises to explore management and policy options under a range of future conditions. Major outcomes of this work are (1) increased understanding of key scientific results and uncertainties, (2) incorporation of alternative perspectives into park and landscape level planning, (3) identification of "no brainer" and "no gainer" actions, (4) strengthening of regional science-management partnerships, and (5) overall improved capacity for flexible decision making. The basic approach employed by NPS for scenario planning follows a typical adaptive management process: define the focal question, assess the relevant science, explore plausible futures, identify effective strategies, prioritize and implement actions, and monitor results. Many science and management partners contributed to the process, including NOAA Regional Integrated Science and Assessment teams (RISAs) and Regional Climate Centers (RCCs), USGS Research Centers, and other university and government scientists. The Global Business Network, an internationally recognized leader in scenario development, provided expert facilitation and training techniques. Climate science input is provided

  17. QuickStats: Percentages* of Residential Care Communities and Adult Day Services Centers That Provided(†) Selected Services - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, a greater percentage of residential care communities than adult day service centers provided five of seven selected services. The majority of residential care communities provided pharmacy services (82%); followed by transportation for social activities (79%); physical, occupational, or speech therapy (69%); hospice (62%); skilled nursing (59%); and mental health services (52%). Fewer than half provided social work services (48%). The majority of adult day services centers provided transportation for social activities (69%); skilled nursing (66%); and social work (52%). %). Fewer than half provided physical, occupational, or speech therapy (49%). One third or less provided mental health (33%), pharmacy (27%), and hospice services (12%). PMID:27607333

  18. Implementing watershed investment programs to restore fire-adapted forests for watershed services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    Payments for ecosystems services and watershed investment programs have created new solutions for restoring upland fire-adapted forests to support downstream surface-water and groundwater uses. Water from upland forests supports not only a significant percentage of the public water supplies in the U.S., but also extensive riparian, aquatic, and groundwater dependent ecosystems. Many rare, endemic, threatened, and endangered species are supported by the surface-water and groundwater generated from the forested uplands. In the Ponderosa pine forests of the Southwestern U.S., post Euro-American settlement forest management practices, coupled with climate change, has significantly impacted watershed functionality by increasing vegetation cover and associated evapotranspiration and decreasing runoff and groundwater recharge. A large Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program project known as the Four Forests Restoration Initiative is developing landscape scale processes to make the forests connected to these watersheds more resilient. However, there are challenges in financing the initial forest treatments and subsequent maintenance treatments while garnering supportive public opinion to forest thinning projects. A solution called the Flagstaff Watershed Protection Project is utilizing City tax dollars collected through a public bond to finance forest treatments. Exit polling from the bond election documented the reasons for the 73 % affirmative vote on the bond measure. These forest treatments have included in their actions restoration of associated ephemeral stream channels and spring ecosystems, but resources still need to be identified for these actions. A statewide strategy for developing additional forest restoration resources outside of the federal financing is being explored by state and local business and governmental leaders. Coordination, synthesis, and modeling supported by a NSF Water Sustainability and Climate project has been instrumental in

  19. Adaptation of green microalgae to the herbicides simazine and diquat as result of pre-selective mutations.

    PubMed

    Marvá, Fernando; López-Rodas, Victoria; Rouco, Mónica; Navarro, Macarena; Toro, F Javier; Costas, Eduardo; Flores-Moya, Antonio

    2010-01-31

    Aquatic ecosystems located close to agricultural areas are increasingly polluted by herbicides. We evaluated the capacity for adaptation of green microalgae to lethal concentrations of the herbicide simazine in one strain of Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides and two strains of Scenedesmus intermedius, as well as adaptation to the herbicide diquat in one of the strains of S. intermedius. A Luria-Delbrück fluctuation analysis was carried out in order to distinguish between resistant cells arising from physiological adaptation (acclimatization) or post-adaptive mutation (both events occurring after the exposure to the herbicides), and adaptation due to mutations before the exposure to the herbicides. Simazine-resistant cells arose by rare spontaneous mutations before the exposure to simazine, with a rate of 3.0 x 10(-6) mutants per cell per generation in both strains of S. intermedius, and of 9.2 x 10(-6) mutants per cell per generation in D. chlorelloides. Diquat-resistant cells in S. intermedius arose by pre-selective mutations with a rate of 17.9 x 10(-6) per cell per generation. Rare, pre-selective mutations may allow the survival of green microalgae in simazine- or diquat-polluted waters, via herbicide-resistant selection. Therefore, human-synthesized pollutants, such as the herbicides simazine and diquat, could cause the emergence of evolutionary novelties in aquatic environments. PMID:19883946

  20. 38 CFR 13.55 - Veterans Service Center Manager to select and appoint or recommend for appointment the person or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Manager to select and appoint or recommend for appointment the person or legal entity to receive....55 Veterans Service Center Manager to select and appoint or recommend for appointment the person or.... The Veterans Service Center Manager is authorized to select and appoint (or in the case of a...

  1. 76 FR 29282 - Transfer of Post Office Box Service in Selected Locations to the Competitive Product List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... Post Office Box Service in Selected Locations to the Competitive Product List AGENCY: Postal Service TM... Postal Regulatory Commission to transfer Post Office Box service at approximately 6,800 locations from... request to transfer Post Office Box service at locations serving populations that reside within five...

  2. Adapting SHIVs In Vivo Selects for Envelope-Mediated Interferon-α Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, David F.; Sharma, Amit; Humes, Daryl; Cheng-Mayer, Cecilia; Overbaugh, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Lentiviruses are able to establish persistent infection in their respective hosts despite a potent type-I interferon (IFN-I) response following transmission. A number of IFN-I-induced host factors that are able to inhibit lentiviral replication in vitro have been identified, and these studies suggest a role for IFN-induced factors as barriers to cross-species transmission. However, the ability of these factors to inhibit viral replication in vivo has not been well characterized, nor have the viral determinants that contribute to evasion or antagonism of the host IFN-I response. In this study, we hypothesized that the host IFN-I response serves as a strong selective pressure in the context of SIV/HIV chimeric virus (SHIV) infection of macaques and sought to identify the viral determinants that contribute to IFN-I resistance. We assessed the ability of SHIVs encoding HIV-1 sequences adapted by serial passage in macaques versus SHIVs encoding HIV sequences isolated directly from infected individuals to replicate in the presence of IFNα in macaque lymphocytes. We demonstrate that passage in macaques selects for IFNα resistant viruses that have higher replication kinetics and increased envelope content. SHIVs that encode HIV-1 sequences derived directly from infected humans were sensitive to IFNα –induced inhibition whereas SHIVs obtained after passage in macaques were not. This evolutionary process was directly observed in viruses that were serially passaged during the first few months of infection–a time when the IFNα response is high. Differences in IFNα sensitivity mapped to HIV-1 envelope and were associated with increased envelope levels despite similar mRNA expression, suggesting a post-transcriptional mechanism. These studies highlight critical differences in IFNα sensitivity between HIV-1 sequences in infected people and those used in SHIV models. PMID:27399306

  3. Comparison of different automatic adaptive threshold selection techniques for estimating discharge from river width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmi, Omid; Javad Tourian, Mohammad; Sneeuw, Nico

    2015-04-01

    The importance of river discharge monitoring is critical for e.g., water resource planning, climate change, hazard monitoring. River discharge has been measured at in situ gauges for more than a century. Despite various attempts, some basins are still ungauged. Moreover, a reduction in the number of worldwide gauging stations increases the interest to employ remote sensing data for river discharge monitoring. Finding an empirical relationship between simultaneous in situ measurements of discharge and river widths derived from satellite imagery has been introduced as a straightforward remote sensing alternative. Classifying water and land in an image is the primary task for defining the river width. Water appears dark in the near infrared and infrared bands in satellite images. As a result low values in the histogram usually represent the water content. In this way, applying a threshold on the image histogram and separating into two different classes is one of the most efficient techniques to build a water mask. Beside its simple definition, finding the appropriate threshold value in each image is the most critical issue. The threshold is variable due to changes in the water level, river extent, atmosphere, sunlight radiation, onboard calibration of the satellite over time. These complexities in water body classification are the main source of error in river width estimation. In this study, we are looking for the most efficient adaptive threshold algorithm to estimate the river discharge. To do this, all cloud free MODIS images coincident with the in situ measurement are collected. Next a number of automatic threshold selection techniques are employed to generate different dynamic water masks. Then, for each of them a separate empirical relationship between river widths and discharge measurements are determined. Through these empirical relationships, we estimate river discharge at the gauge and then validate our results against in situ measurements and also

  4. Conformational selection and adaptation to ligand binding in T4 lysozyme cavity mutants.

    PubMed

    López, Carlos J; Yang, Zhongyu; Altenbach, Christian; Hubbell, Wayne L

    2013-11-12

    The studies presented here explore the relationship between protein packing and molecular flexibility using ligand-binding cavity mutants of T4 lysozyme. Although previously reported crystal structures of the mutants investigated show single conformations that are similar to the WT protein, site-directed spin labeling in solution reveals additional conformational substates in equilibrium exchange with a WT-like population. Remarkably, binding of ligands, including the general anesthetic halothane shifts the population to the WT-like state, consistent with a conformational selection model of ligand binding, but structural adaptation to the ligand is also apparent in one mutant. Distance mapping with double electron-electron resonance spectroscopy and the absence of ligand binding suggest that the new substates induced by the cavity-creating mutations represent alternate packing modes in which the protein fills or partially fills the cavity with side chains, including the spin label in one case; external ligands compete with the side chains for the cavity space, stabilizing the WT conformation. The results have implications for mechanisms of anesthesia, the response of proteins to hydrostatic pressure, and protein engineering. PMID:24167295

  5. Ionic selectivity and thermal adaptations within the voltage-gated sodium channel family of alkaliphilic Bacillus.

    PubMed

    DeCaen, Paul G; Takahashi, Yuka; Krulwich, Terry A; Ito, Masahiro; Clapham, David E

    2014-01-01

    Entry and extrusion of cations are essential processes in living cells. In alkaliphilic prokaryotes, high external pH activates voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav), which allows Na(+) to enter and be used as substrate for cation/proton antiporters responsible for cytoplasmic pH homeostasis. Here, we describe a new member of the prokaryotic voltage-gated Na(+) channel family (NsvBa; Non-selective voltage-gated, Bacillus alcalophilus) that is nonselective among Na(+), Ca(2+) and K(+) ions. Mutations in NsvBa can convert the nonselective filter into one that discriminates for Na(+) or divalent cations. Gain-of-function experiments demonstrate the portability of ion selectivity with filter mutations to other Bacillus Nav channels. Increasing pH and temperature shifts their activation threshold towards their native resting membrane potential. Furthermore, we find drugs that target Bacillus Nav channels also block the growth of the bacteria. This work identifies some of the adaptations to achieve ion discrimination and gating in Bacillus Nav channels. PMID:25385530

  6. Adaptive and selective seed abortion reveals complex conditional decision making in plants.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Katrin M; Soldaat, Leo L; Auge, Harald; Thulke, Hans-Hermann

    2014-03-01

    Behavior is traditionally attributed to animals only. Recently, evidence for plant behavior is accumulating, mostly from plant physiological studies. Here, we provide ecological evidence for complex plant behavior in the form of seed abortion decisions conditional on internal and external cues. We analyzed seed abortion patterns of barberry plants exposed to seed parasitism and different environmental conditions. Without abortion, parasite infestation of seeds can lead to loss of all seeds in a fruit. We statistically tested a series of null models with Monte Carlo simulations to establish selectivity and adaptiveness of the observed seed abortion patterns. Seed abortion was more frequent in parasitized fruits and fruits from dry habitats. Surprisingly, seed abortion occurred with significantly greater probability if there was a second intact seed in the fruit. This strategy provides a fitness benefit if abortion can prevent a sibling seed from coinfestation and if nonabortion of an infested but surviving single seed saves resources invested in the fruit coat. Ecological evidence for complex decision making in plants thus includes a structural memory (the second seed), simple reasoning (integration of inner and outer conditions), conditional behavior (abortion), and anticipation of future risks (seed predation). PMID:24561600

  7. Recognizing the Effects of Comprehension Language Barriers and Adaptability Cultural Barriers on Selected First-Generation Undergraduate Vietnamese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Christian Phuoc-Lanh

    2009-01-01

    This investigation is about recognizing the effects of comprehension language barriers and adaptability cultural barriers on selected first-generation Vietnamese undergraduate students in the Puget Sound region of Washington State. Most Vietnamese students know little or no English before immigrating to the United States; as such, language and…

  8. Attitudes of Youth Toward Military Service: Selected Data from Four Surveys, May 1971 to November 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadel, Aaron B.

    Selected data tabulations were extracted from a Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) Consulting Report summarizing the results of three national surveys of attitudes of youth toward military service. Data from the fourth survey were added to complete the two year series of surveys so far available. The period covered included the two…

  9. 77 FR 28797 - Redundancy of Communications Systems: Backup Power Private Land Mobile Radio Services: Selection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 12 and 90 Redundancy of Communications Systems: Backup Power Private Land Mobile Radio Services: Selection and Assignment of Frequencies, and Transition of the Upper 200 Channels in...

  10. A Study of Coordinated Service Provision and Administrative Procedures in Selected University Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Strom Thurmond Inst. of Government and Public Affairs.

    This study investigated the existence of coordinated/consolidated services between colleges and universities and their communities by surveying 27 university communities of similar size and/or characteristics to Clemson University (South Carolina). The report begins with the profiles of the universities selected: their size in acreage, enrollment,…

  11. User Selection of Purchased Information Services. Interim Technical Report (June 1975-January 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Homer J.

    Interviews conducted in the first phase of a project to develop a method for user selection of purchased scientific and technical information services identified a number of relationship among different populations of users. Research scientists, engineers, and patent attorneys want convenient access to original data identified in the search.…

  12. The Impact of a Special Education Related Service on Selected Behaviors of Detained Handicapped Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karcz, Stan A.

    This study analyzed the short-term effects of the Youth Advocate Liaison (YAL) service upon selected behavioral measures from the school, police, and courts, using a sample of 147 former securely detained youth, aged 13 through 18, in Lake County, Illinois. Data sources were 14 school districts, 2 special education units, 321 police…

  13. 77 FR 27263 - Computer Matching Between the Selective Service System and the Department of Education

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... the Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 (Pub. L. 100-503), and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Guidelines on the Conduct of Matching Programs (54 FR 25818 (June 19, 1989)), and... Computer Matching Between the Selective Service System and the Department of Education AGENCY:...

  14. 34 CFR 361.36 - Ability to serve all eligible individuals; order of selection for services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... services provided through the information and referral system established under § 361.37. (b) Basis for... with disabilities who have been unserved or underserved by the vocational rehabilitation system; and... order of selection. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number...

  15. 34 CFR 361.36 - Ability to serve all eligible individuals; order of selection for services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... services provided through the information and referral system established under § 361.37. (b) Basis for... with disabilities who have been unserved or underserved by the vocational rehabilitation system; and... order of selection. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number...

  16. 34 CFR 361.36 - Ability to serve all eligible individuals; order of selection for services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... services provided through the information and referral system established under § 361.37. (b) Basis for... with disabilities who have been unserved or underserved by the vocational rehabilitation system; and... order of selection. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number...

  17. 34 CFR 361.36 - Ability to serve all eligible individuals; order of selection for services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... services provided through the information and referral system established under § 361.37. (b) Basis for... with disabilities who have been unserved or underserved by the vocational rehabilitation system; and... order of selection. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number...

  18. 34 CFR 361.36 - Ability to serve all eligible individuals; order of selection for services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... services provided through the information and referral system established under § 361.37. (b) Basis for... with disabilities who have been unserved or underserved by the vocational rehabilitation system; and... order of selection. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number...

  19. The Implications of Selected School Reform Approaches for School Library Media Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartzell, Gary N.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the implications of selected school reforms for library media services. Topics include school-based management; school choice; home schooling; inclusion of special education students; at-risk elementary students; adolescents and middle schools; secondary school issues, including school-to-work transition, curriculum reform, distance…

  20. Adaptation and validation of indicators concerning the sterilization process of supplies in Primary Health Care services1

    PubMed Central

    Passos, Isis Pienta Batista Dias; Padoveze, Maria Clara; Roseira, Camila Eugênia; de Figueiredo, Rosely Moralez

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to adapt and validate, by expert consensus, a set of indicators used to assess the sterilization process of dental, medical and hospital supplies to be used in PHC services. METHOD: qualitative methodological study performed in two stages. The first stage included a focal group composed of experts to adapt the indicators to be used in PHC. In the second stage, the indicators were validated using a 4-point Likert scale, which was completed by judges. A Content Validity Index of ≥ 0.75 was considered to show approval of the indicators. RESULTS: the adaptations implemented by the focal group mainly referred to the physical structure, inclusion of dental care professionals, inclusion of chemical disinfection, and replacement of the hot air and moist heat sterilization methods. The validation stage resulted in an index of 0.96, which ranged from 0.90 to 1.00, for the components of the indicators. CONCLUSION: the judges considered the indicators after adaptation to be validated. Even though there may be differences among items processed around the world, there certainly are common characteristics, especially in countries with economic and cultural environments similar to Brazil. The inclusion of these indicators to assess the safety of healthcare supplies used in PHC services should be considered. PMID:25806643

  1. A Review on influencing criteria for selecting supplier of information technology services in the hospital

    PubMed Central

    Ajami, Sima; Rajabzadeh, Ahmad; Ketabi, Saeedeh

    2014-01-01

    Organizations try to outsource their activities as much as possible in order to prevent the problems and use organizational capabilities in Information Technology (IT) field. The purpose of this paper was first, to express the effective criteria for selecting suppliers of IT services, second, to explain the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing IT in hospitals. This study was narrative review, which search was conducted with the help of libraries, books, conference proceedings, and databases of Science Direct, PubMed, Proquest, Springer, and SID (Scientific Information Database). In our searches, we employed the following keywords and their combinations: Outsourcing, information technology, hospital, decision making, and criteria. The preliminary search resulted in 120 articles, which were published between 2000 and 2013 during July 2013. After a careful analysis of the content of each paper, a total of 46 papers were selected based on their relevancy. The criteria and sub-criteria influencing outsourcing decisions in Iranian hospitals were identified in six major categories including administrative issues, issues related to the service/product, technology factors, environmental factors, risks, and economic factors associated with 15 sub-criteria containing business integration, dependence on suppliers, human resources, focus on core competencies, facilities and physical capital, innovation, quality, speed of service delivery, flexibility, market capabilities, geographical location, security, management control, cost, and financial capability. Identify the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing and effective criteria in IT services supplier selection causes the managers be able to take the most appropriate decision to select supplier of IT services. This is a general review on influencing criteria for electing of supplier of information technology services in hospitals. PMID:25540781

  2. A Review on influencing criteria for selecting supplier of information technology services in the hospital.

    PubMed

    Ajami, Sima; Rajabzadeh, Ahmad; Ketabi, Saeedeh

    2014-01-01

    Organizations try to outsource their activities as much as possible in order to prevent the problems and use organizational capabilities in Information Technology (IT) field. The purpose of this paper was first, to express the effective criteria for selecting suppliers of IT services, second, to explain the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing IT in hospitals. This study was narrative review, which search was conducted with the help of libraries, books, conference proceedings, and databases of Science Direct, PubMed, Proquest, Springer, and SID (Scientific Information Database). In our searches, we employed the following keywords and their combinations: Outsourcing, information technology, hospital, decision making, and criteria. The preliminary search resulted in 120 articles, which were published between 2000 and 2013 during July 2013. After a careful analysis of the content of each paper, a total of 46 papers were selected based on their relevancy. The criteria and sub-criteria influencing outsourcing decisions in Iranian hospitals were identified in six major categories including administrative issues, issues related to the service/product, technology factors, environmental factors, risks, and economic factors associated with 15 sub-criteria containing business integration, dependence on suppliers, human resources, focus on core competencies, facilities and physical capital, innovation, quality, speed of service delivery, flexibility, market capabilities, geographical location, security, management control, cost, and financial capability. Identify the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing and effective criteria in IT services supplier selection causes the managers be able to take the most appropriate decision to select supplier of IT services. This is a general review on influencing criteria for electing of supplier of information technology services in hospitals. PMID:25540781

  3. [Why is environmental adaptation and acculturation relevant when seeking to conduct qualitative research in drug dependency services?].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Dione Viégas de Almeida; de Azevedo, Renata Cruz Soares; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro

    2013-06-01

    This study conducted at the Outpatient Service of Psychoactive Substances, in the University General Hospital of Campinas, sought to report on an experience of proactive participation to study the life experience of chemically dependent patients attended in a specialized university service. These observations emerged from the researcher's experiences in the environmental adaptation and acculturation period, namely through the researcher insertion in the outpatient service, during the preliminary data collection for qualitative research. This experience was important as it enabled clearer comprehension of the psycho-cultural universe of the population attended and how the relation professional-patient is conducted, broadening the knowledge of the field where the research was later carried out. From this initial entry in the field, it was possible to define the subject-matter and the population being studied more clearly, adapting to the needs and the reality observed in that service, as well as to reflect on the research method that serve to better understand the issues raised, and even draw up a roadmap for future interviews in the study. It was concluded that this preliminary stage is very useful as standard practice in new studies using the same methodology in clinical settings. PMID:23752548

  4. On the Issue of Item Selection in Computerized Adaptive Testing with Response Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2016-01-01

    Many standardized tests are now administered via computer rather than paper-and-pencil format. The computer-based delivery mode brings with it certain advantages. One advantage is the ability to adapt the difficulty level of the test to the ability level of the test taker in what has been termed computerized adaptive testing (CAT). A second…

  5. Clients and clinician satisfaction with laboratory services at selected government hospitals in eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In clinical laboratory service, patients and clinical service providers are the primary focus of survey of satisfaction in many countries. The objective of the study was to assess clients’ and clinicians’ satisfaction with laboratory services at selected government hospitals in eastern Ethiopia from May to June, 2010. Findings A cross sectional study was conducted at Dil Chora, Jugal, Hiwot Fana and Bisidimo hospitals. Data were collected from 429 patients and 54 clinical service providers. A statistical analysis was conducted using Likert Scale and SPSS Version 16 software. Most of the patients (87.6%) were satisfied with the laboratory services. The lowest [2.48 ± 1.39] and highest [4.27 ± 0.83] rate satisfaction were on cleanness of latrine to collect specimens and availability of laboratory staff on working hours respectively. The extent of the patients’ satisfaction was different among the study hospitals (P-value < 0.05). Most of the clinical services providers (80%) were also satisfied with the laboratory services. The lowest [3.02 ± 1.36] and highest [3.78 ± 1.03] rate of satisfaction were found on critical value notification and timely test results for HIV/AIDS patients care respectively. Conclusion The overall degree of customers’ satisfaction with laboratory services was high. But there were some services such as the cleanness of latrines, information given during specimen collection outside laboratory and critical value notification which need attention. Therefore, the hospital administrations and the laboratory departments should work harder and closely to solve the identified problems. Further study with a larger sample size and more factors is recommended. PMID:23324260

  6. Positive selection drives adaptive diversification of the 4-coumarate: CoA ligase (4CL) gene in angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Haiyan; Guo, Kai; Feng, Shengqiu; Zou, Weihua; Li, Ying; Fan, Chunfen; Peng, Liangcai

    2015-01-01

    Lignin and flavonoids play a vital role in the adaption of plants to a terrestrial environment. 4-Coumarate: coenzyme A ligase (4CL) is a key enzyme of general phenylpropanoid metabolism which provides the precursors for both lignin and flavonoids biosynthesis. However, very little is known about how such essential enzymatic functions evolve and diversify. Here, we analyze 4CL sequence variation patterns in a phylogenetic framework to further identify the evolutionary forces that lead to functional divergence. The results reveal that lignin-biosynthetic 4CLs are under positive selection. The majority of the positively selected sites are located in the substrate-binding pocket and the catalytic center, indicating that nonsynonymous substitutions might contribute to the functional evolution of 4CLs for lignin biosynthesis. The evolution of 4CLs involved in flavonoid biosynthesis is constrained by purifying selection and maintains the ancestral role of the protein in response to biotic and abiotic factors. Overall, our results demonstrate that protein sequence evolution via positive selection is an important evolutionary force driving adaptive diversification in 4CL proteins in angiosperms. This diversification is associated with adaption to a terrestrial environment. PMID:26380674

  7. Impact of Cardiac Service Availability on Case-Selection for Angiography and Survival Associated with Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Dendukuri, Nandini; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; McNeil, Barbara J

    2003-01-01

    Objective To examine whether availability of cardiac services at the admitting hospital affects case-selection for angiography and one-year survival following angiography, within groups of patients who have similar clinical need for angiography according to published criteria. Study Setting Elderly Medicare beneficiaries (37,788) discharged with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) from hospitals in seven U.S. states between February 1994 and July 1995. We focused on patients who were eligible to receive angiography 12 or more hours after symptom onset. Data Collection Data were abstracted from patient's medical records, Medicare National Claims Standard Analytic Files, Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) Provider of Service File and Health Insurance Master File. Methods Admitting hospitals were classified as offering no cardiac services, angiography only, or revascularization. Case-selection differences across these three types of hospitals were examined by comparing relative risk of receiving angiography for various patient and hospital characteristics. Relative differences in one-year survival rate, comparing patients who received angiography to those who did not, were estimated within each hospital type and clinical need category (necessary, appropriate, or uncertain) after matching on propensity to receive angiography. Principal Findings Compared to patients for whom angiography was deemed necessary, the relative risk of receiving angiography among those for whom it was deemed of uncertain benefit was 0.58, 0.79, and 0.92 (p-value of homogeneity test < 0.001) at hospitals offering no cardiac services, angiography only, and revascularization, respectively. There was no significant difference in survival following angiography across hospital types, overall as well as within clinical need categories. Conclusions Despite increased case selection at hospitals with on-site cardiac services, there was no evidence of increase in the survival rate

  8. Climate services for adapting landslide hazard prevention measures in the Vrancea Seismic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micu, Dana; Balteanu, Dan; Jurchescu, Marta; Sima, Mihaela; Micu, Mihai

    2014-05-01

    The Vrancea Seismic Region is covering an area of about 8 000 km2 in the Romanian Curvature Carpathians and Subcarpathians and it is considered one of Europe's most intensely multi-hazard-affected areas. Due to its geomorphic traits (heterogeneous morphostructural units of flysch mountains and molasse hills and depressions), the area is strongly impacted by extreme hydro-meteorological events which are potentially enhancing the numerous damages inflicted to a dense network of human settlements. An a priori knowledge of future climate change is a useful climate service for local authorities to develop regional adapting strategies and adequate prevention/preparedness frameworks. This paper aims at integrating the results of the high-resolution climate projections over the 21st century (within the FP7 ECLISE project) into the regional landslide hazard assessment. The requirements of users (Civil Protection, Land management, local authorities) for this area refer to reliable and high-resolution spatial data on landslide and flood hazard for short and medium-term risk management strategies. An insight into the future behavior of climate variability in the Vrancea Seismic Region, based on future climate projections of three regional models, under three RCPs (2.6, 4.5, 8.6), suggests a clear warming, both annually and seasonally and a rather limited annual precipitation decrease, but with a strong change of seasonality. A landslide inventory of 2485 cases (shallow and medium seated earth, debris and rock slides and earth and debris flows) was obtained based on large scale geomorphological mapping and aerial photos support (GeoEye, DigitalGlobe; provided by GoogleEarth and BingMaps). The landslides are uniformly distributed across the area, being considered representative for the entire morphostructural environment. Landslide susceptibility map was obtained using multivariate statistical analysis (logistic regression), while a relative landslide hazard index was computed

  9. Adaptation of a plant pathogen to partial host resistance: selection for greater aggressiveness in grapevine downy mildew.

    PubMed

    Delmas, Chloé E L; Fabre, Frédéric; Jolivet, Jérôme; Mazet, Isabelle D; Richart Cervera, Sylvie; Delière, Laurent; Delmotte, François

    2016-06-01

    An understanding of the evolution of pathogen quantitative traits in response to host selective pressures is essential for the development of durable management strategies for resistant crops. However, we still lack experimental data on the effects of partial host resistance on multiple phenotypic traits (aggressiveness) and evolutionary strategies in pathogens. We performed a cross-inoculation experiment with four grapevine hosts and 103 isolates of grapevine downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) sampled from susceptible and partially resistant grapevine varieties. We analysed the neutral and adaptive genetic differentiation of five quantitative traits relating to pathogen transmission. Isolates from resistant hosts were more aggressive than isolates from susceptible hosts, as they had a shorter latency period and higher levels of spore production. This pattern of adaptation contrasted with the lack of neutral genetic differentiation, providing evidence for directional selection. No specificity for a particular host variety was detected. Adapted isolates had traits that were advantageous on all resistant varieties. There was no fitness cost associated with this genetic adaptation, but several trade-offs between pathogen traits were observed. These results should improve the accuracy of prediction of fitness trajectories for this biotrophic pathogen, an essential element for the modelling of durable deployment strategies for resistant varieties. PMID:27247621

  10. D-Fussion: A Semantic Selective Disssemination of Information Service for the Research Community in Digital Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales-del-Castillo, Jose Manuel; Peis, Eduardo; Moreno, Juan Manuel; Herrera-Viedma, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper we propose a multi-agent Selective Dissemination of Information service to improve the research community's access to digital library resources. The service also provides a new recommendation approach to satisfy researchers' specific information requirements. Method: The service model is developed by jointly applying…

  11. Service Differentiated and Adaptive CSMA/CA over IEEE 802.15.4 for Cyber-Physical Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ruixia

    2013-01-01

    Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) that collect, exchange, manage information, and coordinate actions are an integral part of the Smart Grid. In addition, Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning in CPS, especially in the wireless sensor/actuator networks, plays an essential role in Smart Grid applications. IEEE 802.15.4, which is one of the most widely used communication protocols in this area, still needs to be improved to meet multiple QoS requirements. This is because IEEE 802.15.4 slotted Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) employs static parameter configuration without supporting differentiated services and network self-adaptivity. To address this issue, this paper proposes a priority-based Service Differentiated and Adaptive CSMA/CA (SDA-CSMA/CA) algorithm to provide differentiated QoS for various Smart Grid applications as well as dynamically initialize backoff exponent according to traffic conditions. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed SDA-CSMA/CA scheme significantly outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 slotted CSMA/CA in terms of effective data rate, packet loss rate, and average delay. PMID:24260021

  12. Service differentiated and adaptive CSMA/CA over IEEE 802.15.4 for Cyber-Physical Systems.

    PubMed

    Xia, Feng; Li, Jie; Hao, Ruonan; Kong, Xiangjie; Gao, Ruixia

    2013-01-01

    Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) that collect, exchange, manage information, and coordinate actions are an integral part of the Smart Grid. In addition, Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning in CPS, especially in the wireless sensor/actuator networks, plays an essential role in Smart Grid applications. IEEE 802.15.4, which is one of the most widely used communication protocols in this area, still needs to be improved to meet multiple QoS requirements. This is because IEEE 802.15.4 slotted Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) employs static parameter configuration without supporting differentiated services and network self-adaptivity. To address this issue, this paper proposes a priority-based Service Differentiated and Adaptive CSMA/CA (SDA-CSMA/CA) algorithm to provide differentiated QoS for various Smart Grid applications as well as dynamically initialize backoff exponent according to traffic conditions. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed SDA-CSMA/CA scheme significantly outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 slotted CSMA/CA in terms of effective data rate, packet loss rate, and average delay. PMID:24260021

  13. "We Serve You, Right?" A Case Study Adapting Coorientation to Customer Service Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, JoAnna

    2010-01-01

    An abundance of academic research has focused on identifying, explicating, operationalizing, and analyzing variables used to understand the dynamics of customer service. Despite this scholarly attention, applied researchers and the popular press have long reported consumers' dissatisfaction with the service received during their customer…

  14. Beyond the GAO Cleveland study: client selection for home care services.

    PubMed

    Willemain, T R

    1980-01-01

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) study of home care services in the Cleveland area is a prominent attempt to inform the selection of clients for these services. This paper critiques two major portions of the GAO study: the "break even" analysis relating level of client impairment to the comparative costs of care in home and institutional settings, and the analysis of risk of institutionalization as a function of client characteristics. Detailed review shows serious flaws in the GAO methodology which undermine the credibility of its estimates of relative service costs and risks of institutionalization. This paper proceeds to place the GAO study within a conceptual framework that permits more systematic consideration of the issue of client selection. Analysis of a model of institutionalization shows that the strategy recommended by GAO of targeting the highest risk individuals may be an inefficient way to use home care resources. Factors pertinent to client selection include not only risk of institutionalization but also level of private support, changes in risk and private support occasioned by an increase in public support, number of clients in the target group, and political attractiveness of the target group. PMID:10309874

  15. Financial technical indicator based on chaotic bagging predictors for adaptive stock selection in Japanese and American markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Tomoya; Ohkura, Yuushi

    2016-01-01

    In order to examine the predictability and profitability of financial markets, we introduce three ideas to improve the traditional technical analysis to detect investment timings more quickly. Firstly, a nonlinear prediction model is considered as an effective way to enhance this detection power by learning complex behavioral patterns hidden in financial markets. Secondly, the bagging algorithm can be applied to quantify the confidence in predictions and compose new technical indicators. Thirdly, we also introduce how to select more profitable stocks to improve investment performance by the two-step selection: the first step selects more predictable stocks during the learning period, and then the second step adaptively and dynamically selects the most confident stock showing the most significant technical signal in each investment. Finally, some investment simulations based on real financial data show that these ideas are successful in overcoming complex financial markets.

  16. Adaptation and exogenous selection in a Picea glauca × Picea engelmannii hybrid zone: implications for forest management under climate change

    PubMed Central

    De La Torre, Amanda R; Wang, Tongli; Jaquish, Barry; Aitken, Sally N

    2014-01-01

    The nature of selection responsible for the maintenance of the economically and ecologically important Picea glauca × Picea engelmannii hybrid zone was investigated. Genomic, phenotypic and climatic data were used to test assumptions of hybrid zone maintenance and to model future scenarios under climate change. Genome-wide estimates of admixture based on a panel of 86 candidate gene single nucleotide polymorphisms were combined with long-term quantitative data on growth and survival (over 20 yr), as well as one-time assessments of bud burst and bud set phenology, and cold hardiness traits. A total of 15 498 individuals were phenotyped for growth and survival. Our results suggest that the P. glauca × P. engelmannii hybrid zone is maintained by local adaptation to growing season length and snowpack (exogenous selection). Hybrids appeared to be fitter than pure species in intermediate environments, which fits expectations of the bounded hybrid superiority model of hybrid zone maintenance. Adaptive introgression from parental species has probably contributed to increased hybrid fitness in intermediate habitats. While P. engelmannii ancestry is higher than P. glauca ancestry in hybrid populations, on average, selective breeding in managed hybrid populations is shifting genomic composition towards P. glauca, potentially pre-adapting managed populations to warmer climates. PMID:24200028

  17. Laser-induced Breakdown spectroscopy quantitative analysis method via adaptive analytical line selection and relevance vector machine regression model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianhong; Yi, Cancan; Xu, Jinwu; Ma, Xianghong

    2015-05-01

    A new LIBS quantitative analysis method based on analytical line adaptive selection and Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) regression model is proposed. First, a scheme of adaptively selecting analytical line is put forward in order to overcome the drawback of high dependency on a priori knowledge. The candidate analytical lines are automatically selected based on the built-in characteristics of spectral lines, such as spectral intensity, wavelength and width at half height. The analytical lines which will be used as input variables of regression model are determined adaptively according to the samples for both training and testing. Second, an LIBS quantitative analysis method based on RVM is presented. The intensities of analytical lines and the elemental concentrations of certified standard samples are used to train the RVM regression model. The predicted elemental concentration analysis results will be given with a form of confidence interval of probabilistic distribution, which is helpful for evaluating the uncertainness contained in the measured spectra. Chromium concentration analysis experiments of 23 certified standard high-alloy steel samples have been carried out. The multiple correlation coefficient of the prediction was up to 98.85%, and the average relative error of the prediction was 4.01%. The experiment results showed that the proposed LIBS quantitative analysis method achieved better prediction accuracy and better modeling robustness compared with the methods based on partial least squares regression, artificial neural network and standard support vector machine.

  18. Video Editing: A Service-Learning Assignment in Adapted Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Deborah R.; Gurvitch, Rachel; Yao, Wei-Ru

    2016-01-01

    For most physical education teacher education (PETE) programs, the constraints surrounding the undergraduate curriculum (e.g., number of credit hours, dual content certificates such as health and physical education, content knowledge) limit PETE programs to offering only one course in adapted physical education (APE) with the expectation that this…

  19. Experimental studies of adaptation in Clarkia xantiana. III. Phenotypic selection across a subspecies border.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jill T; Eckhart, Vincent M; Geber, Monica A

    2015-09-01

    Sister taxa with distinct phenotypes often occupy contrasting environments in parapatric ranges, yet we generally do not know whether trait divergence reflects spatially varying selection. We conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment to test whether selection favors "native phenotypes" in two subspecies of Clarkia xantiana (Onagraceae), an annual plant in California. For four quantitative traits that differ between subspecies, we estimated phenotypic selection in subspecies' exclusive ranges and their contact zone in two consecutive years. We predicted that in the arid, pollinator-scarce eastern region, selection favors phenotypes of the native subspecies parviflora: small leaves, slow leaf growth, early flowering, and diminutive flowers. In the wetter, pollinator-rich, western range of subspecies xantiana, we expected selection for opposite phenotypes. We investigated pollinator contributions to selection by comparing naturally pollinated and pollen-supplemented individuals. For reproductive traits and for subspecies xantiana, selection generally matched expectations. The contact zone sometimes showed distinctive selection, and in ssp. parviflora selection sometimes favored nonnative phenotypes. Pollinators influenced selection on flowering time but not on flower size. Little temporal variation in selection occurred, possibly because of plastic trait responses across years. Though there were exceptions and some causes of selection remain obscure, phenotypic differentiation between subspecies appears to reflect spatially variable selection. PMID:26257193

  20. Adaptive Software Architecture Based on Confident HCI for the Deployment of Sensitive Services in Smart Homes

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Barbas, Mario; Pau, Iván; Martín-Ruiz, María Luisa; Seoane, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Smart spaces foster the development of natural and appropriate forms of human-computer interaction by taking advantage of home customization. The interaction potential of the Smart Home, which is a special type of smart space, is of particular interest in fields in which the acceptance of new technologies is limited and restrictive. The integration of smart home design patterns with sensitive solutions can increase user acceptance. In this paper, we present the main challenges that have been identified in the literature for the successful deployment of sensitive services (e.g., telemedicine and assistive services) in smart spaces and a software architecture that models the functionalities of a Smart Home platform that are required to maintain and support such sensitive services. This architecture emphasizes user interaction as a key concept to facilitate the acceptance of sensitive services by end-users and utilizes activity theory to support its innovative design. The application of activity theory to the architecture eases the handling of novel concepts, such as understanding of the system by patients at home or the affordability of assistive services. Finally, we provide a proof-of-concept implementation of the architecture and compare the results with other architectures from the literature. PMID:25815449

  1. Adaptive software architecture based on confident HCI for the deployment of sensitive services in Smart Homes.

    PubMed

    Vega-Barbas, Mario; Pau, Iván; Martín-Ruiz, María Luisa; Seoane, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Smart spaces foster the development of natural and appropriate forms of human-computer interaction by taking advantage of home customization. The interaction potential of the Smart Home, which is a special type of smart space, is of particular interest in fields in which the acceptance of new technologies is limited and restrictive. The integration of smart home design patterns with sensitive solutions can increase user acceptance. In this paper, we present the main challenges that have been identified in the literature for the successful deployment of sensitive services (e.g., telemedicine and assistive services) in smart spaces and a software architecture that models the functionalities of a Smart Home platform that are required to maintain and support such sensitive services. This architecture emphasizes user interaction as a key concept to facilitate the acceptance of sensitive services by end-users and utilizes activity theory to support its innovative design. The application of activity theory to the architecture eases the handling of novel concepts, such as understanding of the system by patients at home or the affordability of assistive services. Finally, we provide a proof-of-concept implementation of the architecture and compare the results with other architectures from the literature. PMID:25815449

  2. Mutual Information Item Selection Method in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing with Short Test Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT) purports to combine the strengths of both CAT and cognitive diagnosis. Cognitive diagnosis models aim at classifying examinees into the correct mastery profile group so as to pinpoint the strengths and weakness of each examinee whereas CAT algorithms choose items to determine those…

  3. Savannas Ecosystems Services: Local Knowledge On Vulnerability And Adaptation To Climate Change In South-Western Burkina Faso (West Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimobe, K.; Goetze, D.; Ouédraogo, A.; Thiombiano, A.; Porembski, S.

    2015-12-01

    Local knowledge could form an effective channel and base through which climate change adaptation and mitigation can be realized. This paper uses the context of savannas ecosystem services in Burkina Faso to examine local knowledge and perspectives on the changing trends in vulnerability and adaptation to climate change. The survey targeted farmers, traditional authorities and administrators at the local government level. Semi-structured questionnaires were employed for one-on-one interviews and focused group discussions for data collection. Descriptive statistics and explanatory factor analysis were used to analyze the collected data. A total of 230 farmers, 6 traditional authorities and 5 administrators belonging to 32 villages were interviewed. Most of local people (95.1-96.7%) believe that climate change is occurring, and cited general increases in average temperatures, fluctuating rainfall regimes and extended drought periods as some of their observations. They explain the increasing changes and vulnerability of savannas ecosystems through the longer time spent and distance covered to collect medicinal plants and forest food; decreasing productivity and availability of fodder, fuel wood, forest food and medicinal plant, changing uses of forest food and medicinal plant species. The views of farmers were generally shared by the traditional authorities and administrators. Adaptation actions employed by local communities are tree planting, protection of forestry resources, migration, awareness raising, conservation of soil and water resources.

  4. Reliability of internal prediction/estimation and its application. I. Adaptive action selection reflecting reliability of value function.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Takano, Mitsuo

    2004-09-01

    This article proposes an adaptive action-selection method for a model-free reinforcement learning system, based on the concept of the 'reliability of internal prediction/estimation'. This concept is realized using an internal variable, called the Reliability Index (RI), which estimates the accuracy of the internal estimator. We define this index for a value function of a temporal difference learning system and substitute it for the temperature parameter of the Boltzmann action-selection rule. Accordingly, the weight of exploratory actions adaptively changes depending on the uncertainty of the prediction. We use this idea for tabular and weighted-sum type value functions. Moreover, we use the RI to adjust the learning coefficient in addition to the temperature parameter, meaning that the reliability becomes a general basis for meta-learning. Numerical experiments were performed to examine the behavior of the proposed method. The RI-based Q-learning system demonstrated its features when the adaptive learning coefficient and large RI-discount rate (which indicate how the RI values of future states are reflected in the RI value of the current state) were introduced. Statistical tests confirmed that the algorithm spent more time exploring in the initial phase of learning, but accelerated learning from the midpoint of learning. It is also shown that the proposed method does not work well with the actor-critic models. The limitations of the proposed method and its relationship to relevant research are discussed. PMID:15312837

  5. Initial Evidence for Adaptive Selection on the NADH Subunit Two of Freshwater Dolphins by Analyses of Mitochondrial Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Caballero, Susana; Duchêne, Sebastian; Garavito, Manuel F.; Slikas, Beth; Baker, C. Scott

    2015-01-01

    A small number of cetaceans have adapted to an entirely freshwater environment, having colonized rivers in Asia and South America from an ancestral origin in the marine environment. This includes the ‘river dolphins’, early divergence from the odontocete lineage, and two species of true dolphins (Family Delphinidae). Successful adaptation to the freshwater environment may have required increased demands in energy involved in processes such as the mitochondrial osmotic balance. For this reason, riverine odontocetes provide a compelling natural experiment in adaptation of mammals from marine to freshwater habitats. Here we present initial evidence of positive selection in the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 of riverine odontocetes by analyses of full mitochondrial genomes, using tests of selection and protein structure modeling. The codon model with highest statistical support corresponds to three discrete categories for amino acid sites, those under positive, neutral, and purifying selection. With this model we found positive selection at site 297 of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (dN/dS>1.0,) leading to a substitution of an Ala or Val from the ancestral state of Thr. A phylogenetic reconstruction of 27 cetacean mitogenomes showed that an Ala substitution has evolved at least four times in cetaceans, once or more in the three ‘river dolphins’ (Families Pontoporidae, Lipotidae and Inidae), once in the riverine Sotalia fluviatilis (but not in its marine sister taxa), once in the riverine Orcaella brevirostris from the Mekong River (but not in its marine sister taxa) and once in two other related marine dolphins. We located the position of this amino acid substitution in an alpha-helix channel in the trans-membrane domain in both the E. coli structure and Sotalia fluviatilis model. In E. coli this position is located in a helix implicated in a proton translocation channel of respiratory complex 1 and may have a similar role in the NADH dehydrogenases of

  6. Initial Evidence for Adaptive Selection on the NADH Subunit Two of Freshwater Dolphins by Analyses of Mitochondrial Genomes.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Susana; Duchêne, Sebastian; Garavito, Manuel F; Slikas, Beth; Baker, C Scott

    2015-01-01

    A small number of cetaceans have adapted to an entirely freshwater environment, having colonized rivers in Asia and South America from an ancestral origin in the marine environment. This includes the 'river dolphins', early divergence from the odontocete lineage, and two species of true dolphins (Family Delphinidae). Successful adaptation to the freshwater environment may have required increased demands in energy involved in processes such as the mitochondrial osmotic balance. For this reason, riverine odontocetes provide a compelling natural experiment in adaptation of mammals from marine to freshwater habitats. Here we present initial evidence of positive selection in the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 of riverine odontocetes by analyses of full mitochondrial genomes, using tests of selection and protein structure modeling. The codon model with highest statistical support corresponds to three discrete categories for amino acid sites, those under positive, neutral, and purifying selection. With this model we found positive selection at site 297 of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (dN/dS>1.0,) leading to a substitution of an Ala or Val from the ancestral state of Thr. A phylogenetic reconstruction of 27 cetacean mitogenomes showed that an Ala substitution has evolved at least four times in cetaceans, once or more in the three 'river dolphins' (Families Pontoporidae, Lipotidae and Inidae), once in the riverine Sotalia fluviatilis (but not in its marine sister taxa), once in the riverine Orcaella brevirostris from the Mekong River (but not in its marine sister taxa) and once in two other related marine dolphins. We located the position of this amino acid substitution in an alpha-helix channel in the trans-membrane domain in both the E. coli structure and Sotalia fluviatilis model. In E. coli this position is located in a helix implicated in a proton translocation channel of respiratory complex 1 and may have a similar role in the NADH dehydrogenases of cetaceans. PMID

  7. Delayed feedback during sensorimotor learning selectively disrupts adaptation but not strategy use.

    PubMed

    Brudner, Samuel N; Kethidi, Nikhit; Graeupner, Damaris; Ivry, Richard B; Taylor, Jordan A

    2016-03-01

    In sensorimotor adaptation tasks, feedback delays can cause significant reductions in the rate of learning. This constraint is puzzling given that many skilled behaviors have inherently long delays (e.g., hitting a golf ball). One difference in these task domains is that adaptation is primarily driven by error-based feedback, whereas skilled performance may also rely to a large extent on outcome-based feedback. This difference suggests that error- and outcome-based feedback may engage different learning processes, and these processes may be associated with different temporal constraints. We tested this hypothesis in a visuomotor adaptation task. Error feedback was indicated by the terminal position of a cursor, while outcome feedback was indicated by points. In separate groups of participants, the two feedback signals were presented immediately at the end of the movement, after a delay, or with just the error feedback delayed. Participants learned to counter the rotation in a similar manner regardless of feedback delay. However, the aftereffect, an indicator of implicit motor adaptation, was attenuated with delayed error feedback, consistent with the hypothesis that a different learning process supports performance under delay. We tested this by employing a task that dissociates the contribution of explicit strategies and implicit adaptation. We find that explicit aiming strategies contribute to the majority of the learning curve, regardless of delay; however, implicit learning, measured over the course of learning and by aftereffects, was significantly attenuated with delayed error-based feedback. These experiments offer new insight into the temporal constraints associated with different motor learning processes. PMID:26792878

  8. A Comparative Study of Directly Selected, In-Service Promoted and Online Selected Subject Specialists Regarding Teaching Effectiveness in Kohat Division, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleman, Qaiser; Gul, Rizwana

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to compare the teaching effectiveness of directly selected, in-service promoted and online selected subject specialists teaching at higher secondary school level in Kohat Division, Pakistan. The target population of the study was the higher secondary school students in Kohat Division, Pakistan. A sample of 600…

  9. QoS Adaptation in Multimedia Multicast Conference Applications for E-Learning Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deusdado, Sérgio; Carvalho, Paulo

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of the World Wide Web service has incorporated new distributed multimedia conference applications, powering a new generation of e-learning development and allowing improved interactivity and prohuman relations. Groupware applications are increasingly representative in the Internet home applications market, however, the Quality of…

  10. Resilience after Maltreatment: The Importance of Social Services as Facilitators of Positive Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungar, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This practice note will show that resilience among children who have been maltreated is the result of multiple protective factors, including the quality of the services provided to children exposed to chronic adversity. This social ecological perspective of resilience suggests that resilience is a process resulting from interactions between…

  11. Generic Service Integration in Adaptive Learning Experiences Using IMS Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de-la-Fuente-Valentin, Luis; Pardo, Abelardo; Kloos, Carlos Delgado

    2011-01-01

    IMS Learning Design is a specification to capture the orchestration taking place in a learning scenario. This paper presents an extension called Generic Service Integration. This paradigm allows a bidirectional communication between the course engine in charge of the orchestration and conventional Web 2.0 tools. This communication allows the…

  12. Resilience after maltreatment: the importance of social services as facilitators of positive adaptation.

    PubMed

    Ungar, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This practice note will show that resilience among children who have been maltreated is the result of multiple protective factors, including the quality of the services provided to children exposed to chronic adversity. This social ecological perspective of resilience suggests that resilience is a process resulting from interactions between individuals and their environments, and depends upon individual characteristics (temperament and personality), the social determinants of health that affect children and children's families, formal interventions by multiple service providers (child welfare, special education, mental health, addictions, public health, and juvenile corrections), and the social policies that influence service provision to vulnerable populations. Clinicians and researchers concerned with the resilience of chronically abused and neglected children have tended to overlook the protective processes unique to children who have been abused that are different from the protective processes that promote positive development among children who have experienced no maltreatment. Most importantly, studies of resilience among maltreated children have rarely investigated the impact child welfare interventions have on the resilience of children who have been maltreated, mistakenly attributing children's abilities to cope to be the result of individual factors rather than the responsiveness of service providers and governments to tailor interventions to children's needs. To enhance the likelihood of resilience among maltreated children, those who design and implement interventions need to address three aspects of resilience-related programming: make social supports and formal services more available and accessibility; design programs flexibly so that they can respond to the differential impact specific types of interventions have on children who are exposed to different forms of maltreatment; and design interventions to be more focused on subpopulations of children

  13. The Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA) Program, Climate Services, and Meeting the National Climate Change Adaptation Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overpeck, J. T.; Udall, B.; Miles, E.; Dow, K.; Anderson, C.; Cayan, D.; Dettinger, M.; Hartmann, H.; Jones, J.; Mote, P.; Ray, A.; Shafer, M.; White, D.

    2008-12-01

    The NOAA-led RISA Program has grown steadily to nine regions and a focus that includes both natural climate variability and human-driven climate change. The RISAs are, at their core, university-based and heavily invested in partnerships, particularly with stakeholders, NOAA, and other federal agencies. RISA research, assessment and partnerships have led to new operational climate services within NOAA and other agencies, and have become important foundations in the development of local, state and regional climate change adaptation initiatives. The RISA experience indicates that a national climate service is needed, and must include: (1) services prioritized based on stakeholder needs; (2) sustained, ongoing regional interactions with users, (3) a commitment to improve climate literacy; (4) support for assessment as an ongoing, iterative process; (5) full recognition that stakeholder decisions are seldom made using climate information alone; (6) strong interagency partnership; (7) national implementation and regional in focus; (8) capability spanning local, state, tribal, regional, national and international space scales, and weeks to millennia time scales; and (9) institutional design and scientific support flexible enough to assure the effort is nimble enough to respond to rapidly-changing stakeholder needs. The RISA experience also highlights the central role that universities must play in national climate change adaptation programs. Universities have a tradition of trusted regional stakeholder partnerships, as well as the interdisciplinary expertise - including social science, ecosystem science, law, and economics - required to meet stakeholder climate-related needs; project workforce can also shift rapidly in universities. Universities have a proven ability to build and sustain interagency partnerships. Universities excel in most forms of education and training. And universities often have proven entrepreneurship, technology transfer and private sector

  14. Adaptive Zero-Padding OFDM over Frequency-Selective Multipath Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Neng; Blostein, Steven D.

    2004-12-01

    We present a novel bandwidth (BW) efficient orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) scheme with adaptive zero-padding (AZP-OFDM) for wireless transmission. Redundancy issues in OFDM based on cyclic prefix (CP), zero-padding (ZP), as well as no guard interval (NGI) systems are analyzed. A novel system design criterion based on the channel matrix condition is studied and applied to the design of an AZP-OFDM system. Simulation results have shown that the proposed AZP-OFDM offers performance similar to that of CP-OFDM, complexity similar to that of ZP-OFDM, with BW efficiency higher than that of both CP- and ZP-OFDM in channels with small to moderate delay spread. In channels with large delay spread, AZP scheme adaptively maintains high performance at the expense of BW efficiency. Essentially, AZP-OFDM offers a more flexible tradeoff between symbol recovery, BW efficiency, and complexity.

  15. Adaptive Norm Selection for Regularized Image Restoration and Super-Resolution.

    PubMed

    Shen, Huanfeng; Peng, Li; Yue, Linwei; Yuan, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Liangpei

    2016-06-01

    In the commonly employed regularization models of image restoration and super-resolution (SR), the norm determination is often challenging. This paper proposes a method to adaptively determine the optimal norms for both fidelity term and regularization term in the (SR) restoration model. Inspired by a generalized likelihood ratio test, a piecewise function is proposed to solve the norm of the fidelity term. This function can find the stable norm value in a certain number of iterations, regardless of whether the noise type is Gaussian, impulse, or mixed. For the regularization norm, the main advantage of the proposed method is that it is locally adaptive. Specifically, it assigns different norms for different pixel locations, according to the local activity measured by a structure tensor metric. The proposed method was tested using different types of images. The experimental results and error analyses verify the efficacy of the method. PMID:26208375

  16. Face-identity change activation outside the face system: "release from adaptation" may not always indicate neuronal selectivity.

    PubMed

    Mur, Marieke; Ruff, Douglas A; Bodurka, Jerzy; Bandettini, Peter A; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2010-09-01

    Face recognition is a complex cognitive process that requires distinguishable neuronal representations of individual faces. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies using the "fMRI-adaptation" technique have suggested the existence of face-identity representations in face-selective regions, including the fusiform face area (FFA). Here, we present face-identity adaptation findings that are not well explained in terms of face-identity representations. We performed blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI measurements, while participants viewed familiar faces that were shown repeatedly throughout the experiment. We found decreased activation for repeated faces in face-selective regions, as expected based on previous studies. However, we found similar effects in regions that are not face-selective, including the parahippocampal place area (PPA) and early visual cortex (EVC). These effects were present for exact-image (same view and lighting) as well as different-image (different view and/or lighting) repetition, but more widespread for exact-image repetition. Given the known functional properties of PPA and EVC, it appears unlikely that they contain domain-specific face-identity representations. Alternative interpretations include general attentional effects and carryover of activation from connected regions. These results remind us that fMRI stimulus-change effects can have a range of causes and do not provide conclusive evidence for a neuronal representation of the changed stimulus property. PMID:20051364

  17. Spectral Tuning of Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) Rhodopsin: Evidence for Positive Selection and Functional Adaptation in a Cetacean Visual Pigment.

    PubMed

    Dungan, Sarah Z; Kosyakov, Alexander; Chang, Belinda S W

    2016-02-01

    Cetaceans have undergone a remarkable evolutionary transition that was accompanied by many sensory adaptations, including modification of the visual system for underwater environments. Recent sequencing of cetacean genomes has made it possible to begin exploring the molecular basis of these adaptations. In this study we use in vitro expression methods to experimentally characterize the first step of the visual transduction cascade, the light activation of rhodopsin, for the killer whale. To investigate the spectral effects of amino acid substitutions thought to correspond with absorbance shifts relative to terrestrial mammals, we used the orca gene as a background for the first site-directed mutagenesis experiments in a cetacean rhodopsin. The S292A mutation had the largest effect, and was responsible for the majority of the spectral difference between killer whale and bovine (terrestrial) rhodopsin. Using codon-based likelihood models, we also found significant evidence for positive selection in cetacean rhodopsin sequences, including on spectral tuning sites we experimentally mutated. We then investigated patterns of ecological divergence that may be correlated with rhodopsin functional variation by using a series of clade models that partitioned the data set according to phylogeny, habitat, and foraging depth zone. Only the model partitioning according to depth was significant. This suggests that foraging dives might be a selective regime influencing cetacean rhodopsin divergence, and our experimental results indicate that spectral tuning may be playing an adaptive role in this process. Our study demonstrates that combining computational and experimental methods is crucial for gaining insight into the selection pressures underlying molecular evolution. PMID:26486871

  18. The status of IT service management in health care - ITIL® in selected European countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Due to the strained financial situation in the healthcare sector, hospitals and other healthcare providers are facing an increasing pressure to improve their efficiency and to reduce costs. These trends challenge health care organizations to introduce innovative information technology (IT) based supportive processes. To guarantee that IT supports the clinical processes perfectly, IT must be managed proactively. However, until now, there is only very few research on IT service management especially on ITIL® implementations in the health care context. Methods The current study aims at exploring knowledge about and acceptance of IT service management (especially ITIL®) in hospitals in Austria and its neighboring regions Bavaria (Germany), Slovakia, South Tyrol (Italy) and Switzerland. Therefore highly standardized interviews with the respective head of information technology (CIO, IT manager) were conducted for selected hospitals from the different regions. In total 75 hospitals were interviewed. Data gathered was analyzed using descriptive statistics and where necessary methods of qualitative content analysis. Results In most regions, two-thirds or more of the participating IT managers claim to be familiar with the concepts of IT service management and of ITIL®. IT managers expect from ITIL® mostly better IT services, followed by an increased productivity and a reduction of IT cost. But only five hospitals said to have implemented at least parts of ITIL®, and eight hospitals stated to be planning to do this in the next two years. When it comes to ITIL®, Switzerland and Bavaria seem to be ahead of the other countries. There, the highest levels of knowledge, the highest number of implementations or plans of an implementation as well as the highest number of ITIL® certified staff members were observed. Conclusion The results collected through this study indicate that the idea of IT services and IT service management is still not widely recognized in

  19. Selection pressure transforms the nature of social dilemmas in adaptive networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Segbroeck, Sven; Santos, Francisco C.; Lenaerts, Tom; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the evolution of cooperation in structured populations whose topology coevolves with the game strategies of the individuals. Strategy evolution proceeds according to an update rule with a free parameter, which measures the selection pressure. We explore how this parameter affects the interplay between network dynamics and strategy dynamics. A dynamical network topology can influence the strategy dynamics in two ways: (i) by modifying the expected payoff associated with each strategy and (ii) by reshaping the imitation network that underlies the evolutionary process. We show here that the selection pressure tunes the relative contribution of each of these two forces to the final outcome of strategy evolution. The dynamics of the imitation network plays only a minor role under strong selection, but becomes the dominant force under weak selection. We demonstrate how these findings constitute a mechanism supporting cooperative behavior.

  20. Payoffs, not tradeoffs, in the adaptation of a virus to ostensibly conflicting selective pressures.

    PubMed

    McGee, Lindsey W; Aitchison, Erick W; Caudle, S Brian; Morrison, Anneliese J; Zheng, Lianqing; Yang, Wei; Rokyta, Darin R

    2014-10-01

    The genetic architecture of many phenotypic traits is such that genes often contribute to multiple traits, and mutations in these genes can therefore affect multiple phenotypes. These pleiotropic interactions often manifest as tradeoffs between traits where improvement in one property entails a cost in another. The life cycles of many pathogens include periods of growth within a host punctuated with transmission events, such as passage through a digestive tract or a passive stage of exposure in the environment. Populations exposed to such fluctuating selective pressures are expected to acquire mutations showing tradeoffs between reproduction within and survival outside of a host. We selected for individual mutations under fluctuating selective pressures for a ssDNA microvirid bacteriophage by alternating selection for increased growth rate with selection on biophysical properties of the phage capsid in high-temperature or low-pH conditions. Surprisingly, none of the seven unique mutations identified showed a pleiotropic cost; they all improved both growth rate and pH or temperature stability, suggesting that single mutations even in a simple genetic system can simultaneously improve two distinct traits. Selection on growth rate alone revealed tradeoffs, but some mutations still benefited both traits. Tradeoffs were therefore prevalent when selection acted on a single trait, but payoffs resulted when multiple traits were selected for simultaneously. We employed a molecular-dynamics simulation method to determine the mechanisms underlying beneficial effects for three heat-shock mutations. All three mutations significantly enhanced the affinities of protein-protein interfacial bindings, thereby improving capsid stability. The ancestral residues at the mutation sites did not contribute to protein-protein interfacial binding, indicating that these sites acquired a new function. Computational models, such as those used here, may be used in future work not only as

  1. MACAO-VLTI first light: adaptive optics at the service of interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, R.; Alonso, J.; Bonnet, H.; Brynnel, J.; Delabre, B.; Donaldson, R.; Dupuy, C.; Fedrigo, E.; Spyromilio, J.; Erm, T.; Farinato, J.; Hubin, N.; Ivanescu, L.; Kasper, M.; Oberti, S.; Paufique, J.; Rossi, S.; Tordo, S.; Stroebele, S.; Lizon, J.-L.; Gigan, P.; Pouplard, F.; Delplancke, F.; Silber, A.; Quattri, M.; Reiss, R.

    2003-06-01

    The AO department of ESO has completed the design of an adaptive AO system for the VLT Interferometer. Ordering of components, manufacturing and integration took place in 2001 and 2002. The system is built in four copies, one for each VLT. It is installed at the Coudé room and the Coudé train is used as a 'science path'. Only one of the mirrors (M8, pupil conjugated) is replaced by the corrective optics. The 60 elements system should allow a Strehl ratio of ~0.6 on bright sources. Commissioning activities started in April 2003 and the delivery of the 4th system is planned for late 2004. At the time of this writing the first commissioning of the first MACAO has been completed and results are encouraging. The integration and test phase of the 2nd system is in full swing.

  2. Adaptation of healthy adult cats to select dietary fibers in vivo affects gas and short-chain fatty acid production from fiber fermentation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Barry, K A; Wojcicki, B J; Bauer, L L; Middelbos, I S; Vester Boler, B M; Swanson, K S; Fahey, G C

    2011-10-01

    Nine young adult (1.73 ± 0.03 yr) male cats were used to determine the effects of microbial adaptation to select dietary fiber sources on changes in pH in vitro and on total and hydrogen gas, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), and branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA) production. Cats were adapted to diets containing 4% cellulose, fructooligosaccharides (FOS), or pectin for 30 d before fecal sampling. Each cat was used as a single donor, and fecal inoculum was reacted with each of the aforementioned fiber substrates. Adaptation to dietary FOS resulted in a greater change in pH when exposed to FOS than pectin (adaptation × substrate, P < 0.001). When exposed to the FOS substrate, adaptation to dietary FOS or pectin increased hydrogen gas production (adaptation × substrate, P = 0.021). Adaptation to dietary FOS increased acetate and total SCFA production when exposed to FOS substrate in vitro (adaptation × substrate, P = 0.001). When exposed to the FOS substrate, propionate production tended to increase with adaptation to dietary cellulose (adaptation × substrate, P = 0.060). The BCFA + valerate tended to decrease with adaptation to dietary FOS when exposed to FOS substrate in vitro (adaptation × substrate, P = 0.092). Fructooligosaccharides resulted in the greatest change in pH and production of total gas (P < 0.001), hydrogen gas (P < 0.001), acetate (P < 0.001), propionate (P < 0.001), butyrate (P < 0.001), total SCFA (P < 0.001), and total BCFA + valerate production (P < 0.001). Adaptation to the FOS or pectin diet increased production of hydrogen gas with FOS and pectin substrates. Adaptation to pectin increased (P = 0.033) total gas production with FOS and pectin substrates. Overall, adaptation to either FOS or pectin led to greater SCFA and gas production, but adaptation to FOS resulted in the greatest effect overall. PMID:21531846

  3. Multi-QoS Criteria Based Selection of Web Services by Using AHP Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Vuong Xuan; Tsuji, Hidekazu; Masuda, Ryosuke

    QoS-based Web service ranking problem is complex due to the diverse characteristic of QoS properties and the trade-off issue between them. A ranking mechanism needs to take into account different ways to effectively handle different types of QoS properties measured by different methods with different units and value types, as well as to unify those various QoS measurements in a fair comparison method. In this paper, we present a novel method for ranking and selecting Web services by introducing an extensible QoS model and a corresponding ranking algorithm. The QoS model takes into account the following considerations: different roles and preferences of users and system brokers in specifying QoS demand, different important levels between required QoS constraints and optional QoS preferences, and different QoS value comparison rules with respect to value types and comparative effects of QoS properties. AHP, a multiple criteria decision making method, is applied as an underlying mechanism for developing a flexible and effective ranking algorithm. The experimental results verify that our proposal produces significant achievement with our extensible QoS model and the new service ranking algorithm.

  4. School Climate Factors in Selected Full-Service and Traditional Elementary Schools in a Southeastern City: Contrasts and Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwill, William L.; Parks, Alicia L.

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory comparison of traditional and full-service schools' climates is an initial step in determining their differences. The authors established whether selected full-service and traditional elementary schools differ on five school climate factors indicating the student and teacher body composition, the students' socioeconomic status,…

  5. Education Funding: A Brief to the Select Standing Committee on Finance and Government Services from the British Columbia Teachers' Federation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Students in British Columbia are being shortchanged in comparison to students elsewhere in Canada. The teachers of BC are urgently appealing to the Select Standing Committee on Finance and Government Services to recommend to government sufficient increases in education funding to reverse this situation and provide more educational services to BC…

  6. An Experimental Study of the Effects of Employer-Sponsored Child Care Services on Selected Employee Behaviors. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Ann Gilman; And Others

    This executive summary describes a study conducted to determine whether different kinds of employer-supported child care services had differing effects on service users. Turnover and attendance data on 891 randomly selected female employees were gathered from 39 companies and hospitals offering on-site or off-site child care, information and…

  7. An Experimental Study of the Effects of Employer-Sponsored Child Care Services on Selected Employee Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Ann Gilman; And Others

    Described in this report is a study conducted to determine whether different kinds of employer-supported child care services had differing effects on the users of these services. Data were gathered on a year's attendance and turnover rates for 891 female employees who had used employer-provided child care. Subjects were randomly selected from 39…

  8. Phylodynamics of H1N1/2009 influenza reveals the transition from host adaptation to immune-driven selection.

    PubMed

    Su, Yvonne C F; Bahl, Justin; Joseph, Udayan; Butt, Ka Man; Peck, Heidi A; Koay, Evelyn S C; Oon, Lynette L E; Barr, Ian G; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Smith, Gavin J D

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A H1N1/2009 virus that emerged from swine rapidly replaced the previous seasonal H1N1 virus. Although the early emergence and diversification of H1N1/2009 is well characterized, the ongoing evolutionary and global transmission dynamics of the virus remain poorly investigated. To address this we analyse >3,000 H1N1/2009 genomes, including 214 full genomes generated from our surveillance in Singapore, in conjunction with antigenic data. Here we show that natural selection acting on H1N1/2009 directly after introduction into humans was driven by adaptation to the new host. Since then, selection has been driven by immunological escape, with these changes corresponding to restricted antigenic diversity in the virus population. We also show that H1N1/2009 viruses have been subject to regular seasonal bottlenecks and a global reduction in antigenic and genetic diversity in 2014. PMID:26245473

  9. Phylodynamics of H1N1/2009 influenza reveals the transition from host adaptation to immune-driven selection

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yvonne C. F.; Bahl, Justin; Joseph, Udayan; Butt, Ka Man; Peck, Heidi A.; Koay, Evelyn S. C.; Oon, Lynette L. E.; Barr, Ian G.; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Smith, Gavin J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A H1N1/2009 virus that emerged from swine rapidly replaced the previous seasonal H1N1 virus. Although the early emergence and diversification of H1N1/2009 is well characterized, the ongoing evolutionary and global transmission dynamics of the virus remain poorly investigated. To address this we analyse >3,000 H1N1/2009 genomes, including 214 full genomes generated from our surveillance in Singapore, in conjunction with antigenic data. Here we show that natural selection acting on H1N1/2009 directly after introduction into humans was driven by adaptation to the new host. Since then, selection has been driven by immunological escape, with these changes corresponding to restricted antigenic diversity in the virus population. We also show that H1N1/2009 viruses have been subject to regular seasonal bottlenecks and a global reduction in antigenic and genetic diversity in 2014. PMID:26245473

  10. Multifarious selection through environmental change: acidity and predator-mediated adaptive divergence in the moor frog (Rana arvalis).

    PubMed

    Egea-Serrano, Andrés; Hangartner, Sandra; Laurila, Anssi; Räsänen, Katja

    2014-04-01

    Environmental change can simultaneously cause abiotic stress and alter biological communities, yet adaptation of natural populations to co-changing environmental factors is poorly understood. We studied adaptation to acid and predator stress in six moor frog (Rana arvalis) populations along an acidification gradient, where abundance of invertebrate predators increases with increasing acidity of R. arvalis breeding ponds. First, we quantified divergence among the populations in anti-predator traits (behaviour and morphology) at different rearing conditions in the laboratory (factorial combinations of acid or neutral pH and the presence or the absence of a caged predator). Second, we evaluated relative fitness (survival) of the populations by exposing tadpoles from the different rearing conditions to predation by free-ranging dragonfly larvae. We found that morphological defences (relative tail depth) as well as survival of tadpoles under predation increased with increasing pond acidity (under most experimental conditions). Tail depth and larval size mediated survival differences among populations, but the contribution of trait divergence to survival was strongly dependent on prior rearing conditions. Our results indicate that R. arvalis populations are adapted to the elevated predator pressure in acidified ponds and emphasize the importance of multifarious selection via both direct (here: pH) and indirect (here: predators) environmental changes. PMID:24552840

  11. Sociolinguistic reflection on neuropsychological assessment: an insight into selected culturally adapted battery of Lebanese Arabic cognitive testing.

    PubMed

    Abou-Mrad, Fadi; Tarabey, Lubna; Zamrini, Edward; Pasquier, Florence; Chelune, Gordon; Fadel, Patricia; Hayek, Maryse

    2015-10-01

    Neuropsychological tests (NPTs) are highly dependent on education, culture differences as well as age and sex. It is therefore essential to take these factors into consideration when translating NPTs to be used in screening for cognitive impairment. Translations into Arabic must respect the principles of linguistic relativity and cultural specificity of the population under study. The objective is to assess feasibility and outcome of translating neuropsychological tests to Arabic. A team of Lebanese professionals selected a battery of screening NPTs. These tests were translated into Arabic and independently back translated by a team of sociolinguists and cultural specialists. The translations were adapted to suit the Lebanese culture. The final NPT translated versions were reached by consensus of an expert panel and tested on a group of independently living community-dwelling elderly. Translated items had to be modified when: (1) terms could not be translated using one word as required by the test; (2) Concepts were foreign to the culture; (3) Translated words carried multiple meanings; (4) Words were rarely used in Lebanon; (5) Sentences did not have an equivalent; and (6) Words had letters pronounced differently by subgroups in Lebanon. Despite all measures to maintain cultural sensitivity in translations, non-linguistic challenges remained. A battery of cognitive screening tests were translated into Arabic and adapted for the Lebanese population. These adaptations allow for a better assessment of cognitive abilities since they reflect the thought patterns of the population. The challenge is to establish local normative data. PMID:26012851

  12. Experimental evolution: Assortative mating and sexual selection, independent of local adaptation, lead to reproductive isolation in the nematode Caenorhabditis remanei.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Dean M; Burger, Melissa K; Lively, Curtis M; Delph, Lynda F

    2015-12-01

    Using experimental evolution, we investigated the contributions of ecological divergence, sexual selection, and genetic drift to the evolution of reproductive isolation in Caenorhabditis remanei. The nematodes were reared on two different environments for 100 generations. They were assayed for fitness on both environments after 30, 64, and 100 generations, and hybrid fitness were analyzed after 64 and 100 generations. Mating propensity within and between populations was also analyzed. The design allowed us to determine whether local adaptation was synchronous with pre- and postzygotic reproductive isolation. Prezygotic isolation evolved quickly but was unconnected with adaptation to the divergent environments. Instead, prezygotic isolation was driven by mate preferences favoring individuals from the same replicate population. A bottleneck treatment, meant to enhance the opportunity for genetic drift, had no effect on prezygotic isolation. Postzygotic isolation occurred in crosses where at least one population had a large fitness advantage in its "home" environment. Taken together, our results suggest that prezygotic isolation did not depend on drift or adaptation to divergent environments, but instead resulted from differences in sexual interactions within individual replicates. Furthermore, our results suggest that postzygotic isolation can occur between populations even when only one population has greater fitness in its home environment. PMID:26542312

  13. Occupational health services in adaptation to the challenges of global market competition--new needs, new strategies, new partnerships.

    PubMed

    Froneberg, Brigitte

    2007-01-01

    Occupational health services (OHS) have developed together with other social protection measures in response to the challenges of the Industrial Revolution and associated demographic changes of the 19th century. They were perceived as necessary and often even initiated by industry. Their organization and tasks are defined by tripartite international labor law which is largely reflected in national legislations. Increasing global trade and competition based on new technology, have changed not only occupational hazards, but also resulted in a considerable shift of power from national states to corporate enterprises as visible also from increasing deregulation. The development requires adaptation from both, OHS and enterprises, in the best interest of a healthy and productive workforce, of social and economic stability, and of sustainability. PMID:17284866

  14. Adaptive global training set selection for spectral estimation of printed inks using reflectance modeling.

    PubMed

    Eckhard, Timo; Valero, Eva M; Hernández-Andrés, Javier; Schnitzlein, Markus

    2014-02-01

    The performance of learning-based spectral estimation is greatly influenced by the set of training samples selected to create the reconstruction model. Training sample selection schemes can be categorized into global and local approaches. Most of the previously proposed global training schemes aim to reduce the number of training samples, or a selection of representative samples, to maintain the generality of the training dataset. This work relates to printed ink reflectance estimation for quality assessment in in-line print inspection. We propose what we believe is a novel global training scheme that models a large population of realistic printable ink reflectances. Based on this dataset, we used a recursive top-down algorithm to reject clusters of training samples that do not enhance the performance of a linear least-square regression (pseudoinverse-based estimation) process. A set of experiments with real camera response data of a 12-channel multispectral camera system illustrate the advantages of this selection scheme over some other state-of-the-art algorithms. For our data, our method of global training sample selection outperforms other methods in terms of estimation quality and, more importantly, can quickly handle large datasets. Furthermore, we show that reflectance modeling is a reasonable, convenient tool to generate large training sets for print inspection applications. PMID:24514188

  15. Robust Cell Detection of Histopathological Brain Tumor Images Using Sparse Reconstruction and Adaptive Dictionary Selection.

    PubMed

    Su, Hai; Xing, Fuyong; Yang, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Successful diagnostic and prognostic stratification, treatment outcome prediction, and therapy planning depend on reproducible and accurate pathology analysis. Computer aided diagnosis (CAD) is a useful tool to help doctors make better decisions in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Accurate cell detection is often an essential prerequisite for subsequent cellular analysis. The major challenge of robust brain tumor nuclei/cell detection is to handle significant variations in cell appearance and to split touching cells. In this paper, we present an automatic cell detection framework using sparse reconstruction and adaptive dictionary learning. The main contributions of our method are: 1) A sparse reconstruction based approach to split touching cells; 2) An adaptive dictionary learning method used to handle cell appearance variations. The proposed method has been extensively tested on a data set with more than 2000 cells extracted from 32 whole slide scanned images. The automatic cell detection results are compared with the manually annotated ground truth and other state-of-the-art cell detection algorithms. The proposed method achieves the best cell detection accuracy with a F1 score = 0.96. PMID:26812706

  16. Selection of Reference Genes for Expression Studies of Xenobiotic Adaptation in Tetranychus urticae

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Mariany Ashanty; Mendoza, Bianca Marie; Lavine, Laura Corley; Lavine, Mark Daniel; Walsh, Douglas Bruce; Zhu, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is an extensively used, high-throughput method to analyze transcriptional expression of genes of interest. An appropriate normalization strategy with reliable reference genes is required for calculating gene expression across diverse experimental conditions. In this study, we aim to identify the most stable reference genes for expression studies of xenobiotic adaptation in Tetranychus urticae, an extremely polyphagous herbivore causing significant yield reduction of agriculture. We chose eight commonly used housekeeping genes as candidates. The qRT-PCR expression data for these genes were evaluated from seven populations: a susceptible and three acaricide resistant populations feeding on lima beans, and three other susceptible populations which had been shifted host from lima beans to three other plant species. The stability of the candidate reference genes was then assessed using four different algorithms (comparative ΔCt method, geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper). Additionally, we used an online web-based tool (RefFinder) to assign an overall final rank for each candidate gene. Our study found that CycA and Rp49 are best for investigating gene expression in acaricide susceptible and resistant populations. GAPDH, Rp49, and Rpl18 are best for host plant shift studies. And GAPDH and Rp49 were the most stable reference genes when investigating gene expression under changes in both experimental conditions. These results will facilitate research in revealing molecular mechanisms underlying the xenobiotic adaptation of this notorious agricultural pest. PMID:27570487

  17. Selection of Reference Genes for Expression Studies of Xenobiotic Adaptation in Tetranychus urticae.

    PubMed

    Morales, Mariany Ashanty; Mendoza, Bianca Marie; Lavine, Laura Corley; Lavine, Mark Daniel; Walsh, Douglas Bruce; Zhu, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is an extensively used, high-throughput method to analyze transcriptional expression of genes of interest. An appropriate normalization strategy with reliable reference genes is required for calculating gene expression across diverse experimental conditions. In this study, we aim to identify the most stable reference genes for expression studies of xenobiotic adaptation in Tetranychus urticae, an extremely polyphagous herbivore causing significant yield reduction of agriculture. We chose eight commonly used housekeeping genes as candidates. The qRT-PCR expression data for these genes were evaluated from seven populations: a susceptible and three acaricide resistant populations feeding on lima beans, and three other susceptible populations which had been shifted host from lima beans to three other plant species. The stability of the candidate reference genes was then assessed using four different algorithms (comparative ΔCt method, geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper). Additionally, we used an online web-based tool (RefFinder) to assign an overall final rank for each candidate gene. Our study found that CycA and Rp49 are best for investigating gene expression in acaricide susceptible and resistant populations. GAPDH, Rp49, and Rpl18 are best for host plant shift studies. And GAPDH and Rp49 were the most stable reference genes when investigating gene expression under changes in both experimental conditions. These results will facilitate research in revealing molecular mechanisms underlying the xenobiotic adaptation of this notorious agricultural pest. PMID:27570487

  18. Micro-Level Adaptation, Macro-Level Selection, and the Dynamics of Market Partitioning.

    PubMed

    García-Díaz, César; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen; Péli, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a micro-foundation for dual market structure formation through partitioning processes in marketplaces by developing a computational model of interacting economic agents. We propose an agent-based modeling approach, where firms are adaptive and profit-seeking agents entering into and exiting from the market according to their (lack of) profitability. Our firms are characterized by large and small sunk costs, respectively. They locate their offerings along a unimodal demand distribution over a one-dimensional product variety, with the distribution peak constituting the center and the tails standing for the peripheries. We found that large firms may first advance toward the most abundant demand spot, the market center, and release peripheral positions as predicted by extant dual market explanations. However, we also observed that large firms may then move back toward the market fringes to reduce competitive niche overlap in the center, triggering nonlinear resource occupation behavior. Novel results indicate that resource release dynamics depend on firm-level adaptive capabilities, and that a minimum scale of production for low sunk cost firms is key to the formation of the dual structure. PMID:26656107

  19. Micro-Level Adaptation, Macro-Level Selection, and the Dynamics of Market Partitioning

    PubMed Central

    García-Díaz, César; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen; Péli, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a micro-foundation for dual market structure formation through partitioning processes in marketplaces by developing a computational model of interacting economic agents. We propose an agent-based modeling approach, where firms are adaptive and profit-seeking agents entering into and exiting from the market according to their (lack of) profitability. Our firms are characterized by large and small sunk costs, respectively. They locate their offerings along a unimodal demand distribution over a one-dimensional product variety, with the distribution peak constituting the center and the tails standing for the peripheries. We found that large firms may first advance toward the most abundant demand spot, the market center, and release peripheral positions as predicted by extant dual market explanations. However, we also observed that large firms may then move back toward the market fringes to reduce competitive niche overlap in the center, triggering nonlinear resource occupation behavior. Novel results indicate that resource release dynamics depend on firm-level adaptive capabilities, and that a minimum scale of production for low sunk cost firms is key to the formation of the dual structure. PMID:26656107

  20. Sexual selection and the adaptive evolution of PKDREJ protein in primates and rodents.

    PubMed

    Vicens, Alberto; Gómez Montoto, Laura; Couso-Ferrer, Francisco; Sutton, Keith A; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2015-02-01

    PKDREJ is a testis-specific protein thought to be located on the sperm surface. Functional studies in the mouse revealed that loss of PKDREJ has effects on sperm transport and the ability to undergo an induced acrosome reaction. Thus, PKDREJ has been considered a potential target of post-copulatory sexual selection in the form of sperm competition. Proteins involved in reproductive processes often show accelerated evolution. In many cases, this rapid divergence is promoted by positive selection which may be driven, at least in part, by post-copulatory sexual selection. We analysed the evolution of the PKDREJ protein in primates and rodents and assessed whether PKDREJ divergence is associated with testes mass relative to body mass, which is a reliable proxy of sperm competition levels. Evidence of an association between the evolutionary rate of the PKDREJ gene and testes mass relative to body mass was not found in primates. Among rodents, evidence of positive selection was detected in the Pkdrej gene in the family Cricetidae but not in Muridae. We then assessed whether Pkdrej divergence is associated with episodes of sperm competition in these families. We detected a positive significant correlation between the evolutionary rates of Pkdrej and testes mass relative to body mass in cricetids. These findings constitute the first evidence of post-copulatory sexual selection influencing the evolution of a protein that participates in the mechanisms regulating sperm transport and the acrosome reaction, strongly suggesting that positive selection may act on these fertilization steps, leading to advantages in situations of sperm competition. PMID:25304980

  1. Selection and sex-biased dispersal in a coastal shark: the influence of philopatry on adaptive variation.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, D S; Puritz, J B; Hollenbeck, C M; Gelsleichter, J; Chapman, D; Gold, J R

    2015-12-01

    Sex-biased dispersal is expected to homogenize nuclear genetic variation relative to variation in genetic material inherited through the philopatric sex. When site fidelity occurs across a heterogeneous environment, local selective regimes may alter this pattern. We assessed spatial patterns of variation in nuclear-encoded, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and sequences of the mitochondrial control region in bonnethead sharks (Sphyrna tiburo), a species thought to exhibit female philopatry, collected from summer habitats used for gestation. Geographic patterns of mtDNA haplotypes and putatively neutral SNPs confirmed female philopatry and male-mediated gene flow along the northeastern coast of the Gulf of Mexico. A total of 30 outlier SNP loci were identified; alleles at over half of these loci exhibited signatures of latitude-associated selection. Our results indicate that in species with sex-biased dispersal, philopatry can facilitate sorting of locally adaptive variation, with the dispersing sex facilitating movement of potentially adaptive variation among locations and environments. PMID:26518727

  2. IJS: An Intelligent Junction Selection Based Routing Protocol for VANET to Support ITS Services

    PubMed Central

    Khilar, Pabitra Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Selecting junctions intelligently for data transmission provides better intelligent transportation system (ITS) services. The main problem in vehicular communication is high disturbances of link connectivity due to mobility and less density of vehicles. If link conditions are predicted earlier, then there is a less chance of performance degradation. In this paper, an intelligent junction selection based routing protocol (IJS) is proposed to transmit the data in a quickest path, in which the vehicles are mostly connected and have less link connectivity problem. In this protocol, a helping vehicle is set at every junction to control the communication by predicting link failures or network gaps in a route. Helping vehicle at the junction produces a score for every neighboring junction to forward the data to the destination by considering the current traffic information and selects that junction which has minimum score. IJS protocol is implemented and compared with GyTAR, A-STAR, and GSR routing protocols. Simulation results show that IJS performs better in terms of average end-to-end delay, network gap encounter, and number of hops.

  3. The Israeli Long-Term Care Insurance Law: selected issues in providing home care services to the frail elderly.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Hillel

    2005-05-01

    The paper describes and analyses selected issues related to the provision of home care services to frail elderly people following the Israeli Long-Term Care Insurance Law (1988). The goals and principles of the Law, which mandates the provision of home care services to frail elderly people, are presented. The paper also evaluates its contribution toward enhancing the well-being of elderly clients. Several major dilemmas that arose following implementation of the Law are analysed and evaluated in comparison with other countries that have enacted and implemented similar laws. These dilemmas are community vs institutional care; services in kind vs monetary allowances; service provision through contracting out with nongovernmental agencies; unstable and unskilled labour force; and service quality. Finally, policy implications are discussed, mainly in the following areas: investment in human resources as a condition for achieving high service quality, and the need for coordination between the agencies that provide long-term care services to elderly people. PMID:15819740

  4. An Automated End-To Multi-Agent Qos Based Architecture for Selection of Geospatial Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, M.; Verma, Y.; Nandakumar, R.

    2012-07-01

    Over the past decade, Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Web services have gained wide popularity and acceptance from researchers and industries all over the world. SOA makes it easy to build business applications with common services, and it provides like: reduced integration expense, better asset reuse, higher business agility, and reduction of business risk. Building of framework for acquiring useful geospatial information for potential users is a crucial problem faced by the GIS domain. Geospatial Web services solve this problem. With the help of web service technology, geospatial web services can provide useful geospatial information to potential users in a better way than traditional geographic information system (GIS). A geospatial Web service is a modular application designed to enable the discovery, access, and chaining of geospatial information and services across the web that are often both computation and data-intensive that involve diverse sources of data and complex processing functions. With the proliferation of web services published over the internet, multiple web services may provide similar functionality, but with different non-functional properties. Thus, Quality of Service (QoS) offers a metric to differentiate the services and their service providers. In a quality-driven selection of web services, it is important to consider non-functional properties of the web service so as to satisfy the constraints or requirements of the end users. The main intent of this paper is to build an automated end-to-end multi-agent based solution to provide the best-fit web service to service requester based on QoS.

  5. Adaptive Model Predictive Control of Diesel Engine Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinley, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Selective catalytic reduction or SCR is coming into worldwide use for diesel engine emissions reduction for on- and off-highway vehicles. These applications are characterized by broad operating range as well as rapid and unpredictable changes in operating conditions. Significant nonlinearity, input and output constraints, and stringent performance…

  6. Evolution in an Afternoon: Rapid Natural Selection and Adaptation of Bacterial Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delpech, Roger

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a simple, rapid and low-cost technique for growing bacteria (or other microbes) in an environmental gradient, in order to determine the tolerance of the microbial population to varying concentrations of sodium chloride ions, and suggests how the evolutionary response of a microbial population to the selection pressure of the…

  7. Treadmill Adaptation and Verification of Self-Selected Walking Speed: A Protocol for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amorim, Paulo Roberto S.; Hills, Andrew; Byrne, Nuala

    2009-01-01

    Walking is a common activity of daily life and researchers have used the range 3-6 km.h[superscript -1] as reference for walking speeds habitually used for transportation. The term self-selected (i.e., individual or comfortable walking pace or speed) is commonly used in the literature and is identified as the most efficient walking speed, with…

  8. Item Selection in Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing--Gaining Information from Different Angles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Over the past thirty years, obtaining diagnostic information from examinees' item responses has become an increasingly important feature of educational and psychological testing. The objective can be achieved by sequentially selecting multidimensional items to fit the class of latent traits being assessed, and therefore Multidimensional…

  9. Selection for brain size impairs innate, but not adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Kolm, Niclas; Penn, Dustin J

    2016-03-16

    Both the brain and the immune system are energetically demanding organs, and when natural selection favours increased investment into one, then the size or performance of the other should be reduced. While comparative analyses have attempted to test this potential evolutionary trade-off, the results remain inconclusive. To test this hypothesis, we compared the tissue graft rejection (an assay for measuring innate and acquired immune responses) in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) artificially selected for large and small relative brain size. Individual scales were transplanted between pairs of fish, creating reciprocal allografts, and the rejection reaction was scored over 8 days (before acquired immunity develops). Acquired immune responses were tested two weeks later, when the same pairs of fish received a second set of allografts and were scored again. Compared with large-brained animals, small-brained animals of both sexes mounted a significantly stronger rejection response to the first allograft. The rejection response to the second set of allografts did not differ between large- and small-brained fish. Our results show that selection for large brain size reduced innate immune responses to an allograft, which supports the hypothesis that there is a selective trade-off between investing into brain size and innate immunity. PMID:26962144

  10. Selection for brain size impairs innate, but not adaptive immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Kolm, Niclas; Penn, Dustin J.

    2016-01-01

    Both the brain and the immune system are energetically demanding organs, and when natural selection favours increased investment into one, then the size or performance of the other should be reduced. While comparative analyses have attempted to test this potential evolutionary trade-off, the results remain inconclusive. To test this hypothesis, we compared the tissue graft rejection (an assay for measuring innate and acquired immune responses) in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) artificially selected for large and small relative brain size. Individual scales were transplanted between pairs of fish, creating reciprocal allografts, and the rejection reaction was scored over 8 days (before acquired immunity develops). Acquired immune responses were tested two weeks later, when the same pairs of fish received a second set of allografts and were scored again. Compared with large-brained animals, small-brained animals of both sexes mounted a significantly stronger rejection response to the first allograft. The rejection response to the second set of allografts did not differ between large- and small-brained fish. Our results show that selection for large brain size reduced innate immune responses to an allograft, which supports the hypothesis that there is a selective trade-off between investing into brain size and innate immunity. PMID:26962144

  11. RESEARCH TOWARDS DEVELOPING METHODS FOR SELECTED PHARMACEUTICAL AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS (PPCPS) ADAPTED FOR BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development, standardization, and validation of analytical methods provides state-of-the-science

    techniques to evaluate the presence, or absence, of select PPCPs in biosolids. This research

    provides the approaches, methods, and tools to assess the exposures and redu...

  12. Covariance of phenotypically plastic traits induces an adaptive shift in host selection behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Lee M; Roitberg, Bernard D; Gillespie, David R

    2006-01-01

    Flexibility in adult body size allows generalist parasitoids to use many host species at a cost of producing a range of adult sizes. Consequently, host selection behaviour must also maintain a level of flexibility as adult size is related to capture efficiency. In the present study, we investigated covariance of two plastic traits—size at pupation and host size selection behaviour—using Aphidius ervi reared on either Acyrthosiphon pisum or Aulacorthum solani, generating females of disparate sizes. Natal host was shown to change the ranking of perceived host quality with relation to host size. Parasitoids preferentially attacked hosts that corresponded to the size of the second instar of their natal host species. This resulted in optimal host selection behaviour when parasitoids were exposed to the same host species from which they emerged. Parasitoid size was positively correlated with host size preference, indicating that females use relative measurements when selecting suitable hosts. These coadapted gene complexes allow generalist parasitoids to effectively use multiple host species over several generations. However, the fixed nature of the behavioural response, within a parasitoid's lifetime, suggests that these traits may have evolved in a patchy host species environment. PMID:17015365

  13. Developing local climate services to support climate adaptation policies for Greek region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsanis, Ioannis; Grillakis, Manolis; Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Jacob, Daniela

    2013-04-01

    The main aim of the Eclise EU FP6 project is to improve the delivery of climate services. The realization of climate service to Greek stakeholders is attempted in several sectors of interest within the project framework. High interest was raised for climate information related to solar energy, extremes of precipitation and temperature and information related to water resources. Technical University of Crete, partner of the ECLISE project has the role of delivering this information to relevant end users in the form of report and datasets with appropriate spatiotemporal resolution, as well as communication of the embedded uncertainties. Currently, simulations from 10 RCMs in the frame of ENSEMBLES FP6 under A1B emission scenario at a spatial resolution of 25km and data from 3 GCMs in the frame of WATCH FP6 for A2 and B1 emission scenarios interpolated at a spatial resolution of 0.5o were used for the analysis. Additionally, RCM runs of RCA model at various spatial resolutions (50, 25, 12.5 and 6km) were provided from SMHI in order to study the effect of model scale on the ability to simulate the present climate. The analysis of the climate simulations will assist in the long-term strategic water resources planning and climate hazard mitigation. Regarding solar energy information, historical and projected radiation data from 11 RCMs in the frame of ENSEMBLES FP6 under A1B emission scenario at a spatial resolution of 25km were downloaded for comparison with local measurements. The produced information will assist the future solar energy investments planning and security.

  14. Pairwise-additive force fields for selected aqueous monovalent ions from adaptive force matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jicun; Wang, Feng

    2015-11-01

    Simple non-polarizable potentials were developed for Na+, K+, Cl-, and Br- using the adaptive force matching (AFM) method with ab initio MP2 method as reference. Our MP2-AFM force field predicts the solvation free energies of the four salts formed by the ions with an error of no more than 5%. Other properties such as the ion-water radial distribution functions, first solvation shell water tilt angle distributions, ion diffusion constants, concentration dependent diffusion constant of water, and concentration dependent surface tension of the solutions were calculated with this potential. Very good agreement was achieved for these properties. In particular, the diffusion constants of the ions are within 6% of experimental measurements. The model predicts bromide to be enriched at the interface in the 1.6M KBr solution but predicts the ion to be repelled for the surface at lower concentration.

  15. Historic Buildings of the Warsaw University of Technology - Selected Issues of Renovation, Modernisation and Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Anna Agata

    2016-06-01

    The historic buildings of the Warsaw University of Technology display not only outstanding architectural values, but are also representative of the trends in preservation, restoration, and adaptation that were prevalent at the time of their modernization. The post-war rebuilding of the WUT was more akin to modernization than reconstruction. But the freedom to shape modern architectural forms in the 1960s and '70s brought with it a lack of respect for their historic environment. A change in the approach to historic buildings and their integration with modern architecture came in the late 1970s. The most recent modernization of the WUT's historic buildings, especially after Poland's accession to the EU, resulted in many good examples of proper, harmonious integration between the `modern' and the `traditional'.

  16. Effects of Selected Task Performance Criteria at Initiating Adaptive Task Real locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Demaris A.

    2001-01-01

    In the current report various performance assessment methods used to initiate mode transfers between manual control and automation for adaptive task reallocation were tested. Participants monitored two secondary tasks for critical events while actively controlling a process in a fictional system. One of the secondary monitoring tasks could be automated whenever operators' performance was below acceptable levels. Automation of the secondary task and transfer of the secondary task back to manual control were either human- or machine-initiated. Human-initiated transfers were based on the operator's assessment of the current task demands while machine-initiated transfers were based on the operators' performance. Different performance assessment methods were tested in two separate experiments.

  17. Adaptive selection of minimally correlated data for optimization of source-detector configuration in diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabir, Sohail; Kim, Keehyun; Heo, Duchang; Cho, Seungryong

    2016-03-01

    The optimization of experimental design prior to deployment, not only for cost effective solution but also for computationally efficient image reconstruction has taken up for this study. We implemented the iterative method also known as effective independence (EFI) method for optimization of source/detector pair configuration. The notion behind for adaptive selection of minimally correlated measurements was to evaluate the information content passed by each measurement for estimation of unknown parameter. The EFI method actually ranks measurements according to their contribution to the linear independence of unknown parameter basis. Typically, to improve the solvability of ill conditioned system, regularization parameter is added, which may affect the source/detector selection configuration. We show that the source/detector pairs selected by EFI method were least prone to vary with sub optimal regularization value. Moreover, through series of simulation studies we also confirmed that sparse source/detector pair measurements selected by EFI method offered similar results in comparison with the dense measurement configuration for unknown parameters qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Additionally, EFI method also allow us to incorporate the prior knowledge, extracted in multimodality imaging cases, to design source/detector configuration sensitive to specific region of interest. The source/detector ranking method was further analyzed to derive the automatic cut off number for iterative scheme.

  18. An adaptive genetic algorithm for selection of blood-based biomarkers for prediction of Alzheimer's disease progression

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Alzheimer's disease is a multifactorial disorder that may be diagnosed earlier using a combination of tests rather than any single test. Search algorithms and optimization techniques in combination with model evaluation techniques have been used previously to perform the selection of suitable feature sets. Previously we successfully applied GA with LR to neuropsychological data contained within the The Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study of aging, to select cognitive tests for prediction of progression of AD. This research addresses an Adaptive Genetic Algorithm (AGA) in combination with LR for identifying the best biomarker combination for prediction of the progression to AD. Results The model has been explored in terms of parameter optimization to predict conversion from healthy stage to AD with high accuracy. Several feature sets were selected - the resulting prediction moddels showed higher area under the ROC values (0.83-0.89). The results has shown consistency with some of the medical research reported in literature. Conclusion The AGA has proven useful in selecting the best combination of biomarkers for prediction of AD progression. The algorithm presented here is generic and can be extended to other data sets generated in projects that seek to identify combination of biomarkers or other features that are predictive of disease onset or progression. PMID:26680269

  19. Photometry and models of selected main belt asteroids. IX. Introducing interactive service for asteroid models (ISAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marciniak, A.; Bartczak, P.; Santana-Ros, T.; Michałowski, T.; Antonini, P.; Behrend, R.; Bembrick, C.; Bernasconi, L.; Borczyk, W.; Colas, F.; Coloma, J.; Crippa, R.; Esseiva, N.; Fagas, M.; Fauvaud, M.; Fauvaud, S.; Ferreira, D. D. M.; Hein Bertelsen, R. P.; Higgins, D.; Hirsch, R.; Kajava, J. J. E.; Kamiński, K.; Kryszczyńska, A.; Kwiatkowski, T.; Manzini, F.; Michałowski, J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Paschke, A.; Polińska, M.; Poncy, R.; Roy, R.; Santacana, G.; Sobkowiak, K.; Stasik, M.; Starczewski, S.; Velichko, F.; Wucher, H.; Zafar, T.

    2012-09-01

    Context. The shapes and spin states of asteroids observed with photometric techniques can be reconstructed using the lightcurve inversion method. The resultant models can then be confirmed or exploited further by other techniques, such as adaptive optics, radar, thermal infrared, stellar occultations, or space probe imaging. Aims: During our ongoing work to increase the set of asteroids with known spin and shape parameters, there appeared a need for displaying the model plane-of-sky orientations for specific epochs to compare models from different techniques. It would also be instructive to be able to track how the complex lightcurves are produced by various asteroid shapes. Methods: Basing our analysis on an extensive photometric observational dataset, we obtained eight asteroid models with the convex lightcurve inversion method. To enable comparison of the photometric models with those from other observing/modelling techniques, we created an on-line service where we allow the inversion models to be orientated interactively. Results: Our sample of objects is quite representative, containing both relatively fast and slow rotators with highly and lowly inclined spin axes. With this work, we increase the sample of asteroid spin and shape models based on disk-integrated photometry to over 200. Three of the shape models obtained here are confirmed by the stellar occultation data; this also allowed independent determinations of their sizes to be made. Conclusions: The ISAM service can be widely exploited for past and future asteroid observations with various, complementary techniques and for asteroid dimension determination. http://isam.astro.amu.edu.pl Photometric data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/545/A131

  20. Adaptive and phase selective spike timing dependent plasticity in synaptically coupled neuronal oscillators.

    PubMed

    Kazantsev, Victor; Tyukin, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    We consider and analyze the influence of spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) on homeostatic states in synaptically coupled neuronal oscillators. In contrast to conventional models of STDP in which spike-timing affects weights of synaptic connections, we consider a model of STDP in which the time lags between pre- and/or post-synaptic spikes change internal state of pre- and/or post-synaptic neurons respectively. The analysis reveals that STDP processes of this type, modeled by a single ordinary differential equation, may ensure efficient, yet coarse, phase-locking of spikes in the system to a given reference phase. Precision of the phase locking, i.e. the amplitude of relative phase deviations from the reference, depends on the values of natural frequencies of oscillators and, additionally, on parameters of the STDP law. These deviations can be optimized by appropriate tuning of gains (i.e. sensitivity to spike-timing mismatches) of the STDP mechanism. However, as we demonstrate, such deviations can not be made arbitrarily small neither by mere tuning of STDP gains nor by adjusting synaptic weights. Thus if accurate phase-locking in the system is required then an additional tuning mechanism is generally needed. We found that adding a very simple adaptation dynamics in the form of slow fluctuations of the base line in the STDP mechanism enables accurate phase tuning in the system with arbitrary high precision. Adaptation operating at a slow time scale may be associated with extracellular matter such as matrix and glia. Thus the findings may suggest a possible role of the latter in regulating synaptic transmission in neuronal circuits. PMID:22412830

  1. In Vitro Cytotoxicity and Adaptive Stress Responses to Selected Haloacetic Acid and Halobenzoquinone Water Disinfection Byproducts.

    PubMed

    Procházka, Erik; Escher, Beate I; Plewa, Michael J; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2015-10-19

    The process of disinfecting drinking water inadvertently leads to the formation of numerous disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Some of these are mutagenic, genotoxic, teratogenic, and cytotoxic, as well as potentially carcinogenic both in vivo and in vitro. We investigated the in vitro biological activity of five DBPs: three monohaloacetic acids (monoHAAs) [chloroacetic acid (CAA), bromoacetic acid (BAA), and iodoacetic acid (IAA)] and two novel halobenzoquinones (HBQs) [2,6-dichloro-p-benzoquinone (DCBQ) and 2,6-dibromo-p-benzoquinone]. We focused particularly on cytotoxicity and induction of two adaptive stress response pathways: the oxidative stress responsive Nrf2/ARE and DNA-damage responsive p53 pathways. All five DBPs were cytotoxic to the Caco-2 cell line after a 4 h exposure, and all DBPs induced both of the adaptive stress response pathways, Nrf2/ARE and p53, in the micromolar range, as measured by two β-lactamase-based reporter gene assays. The decreasing order of potency for all three endpoints for the five DBPs was IAA ∼ BAA > DCBQ ∼ DBBQ > CAA. Induction of oxidative stress was previously proposed to be the molecular initiating event (MIE) for both classes of DBPs. However, comparing the levels of activation of the two pathways uncovered that the Nrf2/ARE pathway was the more sensitive endpoint for HAAs, whereas the p53 pathway was more sensitive in the case of HBQs. Therefore, the DNA damage-responsive p53 pathway may be an important piece of information to fill in a gap in the adverse outcome pathway framework for the assessment of HBQs. Finally, we cautiously compared the potential risk of the two novel HBQs using a benchmarking approach to that of the well-studied CAA, which suggested that their relative risk may be lower than that of BAA and IAA. PMID:26327680

  2. Adaptive and Phase Selective Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity in Synaptically Coupled Neuronal Oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Kazantsev, Victor; Tyukin, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    We consider and analyze the influence of spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) on homeostatic states in synaptically coupled neuronal oscillators. In contrast to conventional models of STDP in which spike-timing affects weights of synaptic connections, we consider a model of STDP in which the time lags between pre- and/or post-synaptic spikes change internal state of pre- and/or post-synaptic neurons respectively. The analysis reveals that STDP processes of this type, modeled by a single ordinary differential equation, may ensure efficient, yet coarse, phase-locking of spikes in the system to a given reference phase. Precision of the phase locking, i.e. the amplitude of relative phase deviations from the reference, depends on the values of natural frequencies of oscillators and, additionally, on parameters of the STDP law. These deviations can be optimized by appropriate tuning of gains (i.e. sensitivity to spike-timing mismatches) of the STDP mechanism. However, as we demonstrate, such deviations can not be made arbitrarily small neither by mere tuning of STDP gains nor by adjusting synaptic weights. Thus if accurate phase-locking in the system is required then an additional tuning mechanism is generally needed. We found that adding a very simple adaptation dynamics in the form of slow fluctuations of the base line in the STDP mechanism enables accurate phase tuning in the system with arbitrary high precision. Adaptation operating at a slow time scale may be associated with extracellular matter such as matrix and glia. Thus the findings may suggest a possible role of the latter in regulating synaptic transmission in neuronal circuits. PMID:22412830

  3. Solar selective absorber coating for high service temperatures, produced by plasma sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanxner, Michael; Elgat, Zvi

    1990-08-01

    Spectrally selective absorber coatings, deposited on engineering material substrates such as stainless steel, have been developed for service as efficient solar photothermal energy converters. The selective solar absorber is based on a multilayer of thin films, produced by sputtering. The main solar absorber is a metal/ceramic (cermet) composite, such as, Mo/Al2th or Mo/Si02, with a graded metal concentration. Such a cermet layer, strongly absorbs radiation over most of the range of the solar spectrum but is transparent to longer wavelength radiation. The cermet layer is deposited on a highly reflecting infrared metal layer. Two more layers were added: An AhO diffusion barrier layer which is deposited first on the substrate and an AI2O or a Si02 antireflection layer which is deposited on the top of the cermet film. In order to better understand the spectral reflectivity of the multilayered selective coating, a procedure for the calculation of the optical properties was developed. After the R&D development phase was successfully completed, a full scale production coating machine was constructed. The production machine is a linear in line coater. The selective coating is deposited on stainless steel tubes, translating in the coating machine while rotating about their axes, along their axial direction. Measurements of reflectance, solar absorptivity, a, thermal emissivity, C, and high temperature durability, are all parts of the quality control routine. The results show values of a in the range 0.96 - 0.98. The thermal emissivity at 350CC is in the range 0.16 - 0.18. Thermal durability tests, show no degradation of the coating when subjected to up to 65O in vacuum for one month and when passed through a temperature cycling test which includes 1200 cycles between temperatures of 150CC and 450CCfor a period of two months.

  4. Improving Naive Bayes with Online Feature Selection for Quick Adaptation to Evolving Feature Usefulness

    SciTech Connect

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J

    2007-09-19

    The definition of what makes an article interesting varies from user to user and continually evolves even for a single user. As a result, for news recommendation systems, useless document features can not be determined a priori and all features are usually considered for interestingness classification. Consequently, the presence of currently useless features degrades classification performance [1], particularly over the initial set of news articles being classified. The initial set of document is critical for a user when considering which particular news recommendation system to adopt. To address these problems, we introduce an improved version of the naive Bayes classifier with online feature selection. We use correlation to determine the utility of each feature and take advantage of the conditional independence assumption used by naive Bayes for online feature selection and classification. The augmented naive Bayes classifier performs 28% better than the traditional naive Bayes classifier in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! RSS feeds.

  5. Complex dynamics of selection and cellular memory in adaptation to a changing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kussell, Edo; Lin, Wei-Hsiang

    We study a synthetic evolutionary system in bacteria in which an antibiotic resistance gene is controlled by a stochastic on/off switching promoter. At the population level, this system displays all the basic ingredients for evolutionary selection, including diversity, fitness differences, and heritability. At the single cell level, physiological processes can modulate the ability of selection to act. We expose the stochastic switching strains to pulses of antibiotics of different durations in periodically changing environments using microfluidics. Small populations are tracked over a large number of periods at single cell resolution, allowing the visualization and quantification of selective sweeps and counter-sweeps at the population level, as well as detailed single cell analysis. A simple model is introduced to predict long-term population growth rates from single cell measurements, and reveals unexpected aspects of population dynamics, including cellular memory that acts on a fast timescale to modulate growth rates. This work is supported by NIH Grant No. R01-GM097356.

  6. CPAC: Energy-Efficient Data Collection through Adaptive Selection of Compression Algorithms for Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, HyungJune; Kim, HyunSeok; Chang, Ik Joon

    2014-01-01

    We propose a technique to optimize the energy efficiency of data collection in sensor networks by exploiting a selective data compression. To achieve such an aim, we need to make optimal decisions regarding two aspects: (1) which sensor nodes should execute compression; and (2) which compression algorithm should be used by the selected sensor nodes. We formulate this problem into binary integer programs, which provide an energy-optimal solution under the given latency constraint. Our simulation results show that the optimization algorithm significantly reduces the overall network-wide energy consumption for data collection. In the environment having a stationary sink from stationary sensor nodes, the optimized data collection shows 47% energy savings compared to the state-of-the-art collection protocol (CTP). More importantly, we demonstrate that our optimized data collection provides the best performance in an intermittent network under high interference. In such networks, we found that the selective compression for frequent packet retransmissions saves up to 55% energy compared to the best known protocol. PMID:24721763

  7. Horseshoe bats make adaptive prey-selection decisions, informed by echo cues

    PubMed Central

    Koselj, Klemen; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich; Siemers, Björn M.

    2011-01-01

    Foragers base their prey-selection decisions on the information acquired by the sensory systems. In bats that use echolocation to find prey in darkness, it is not clear whether the specialized diet, as sometimes found by faecal analysis, is a result of active decision-making or rather of biased sensory information. Here, we tested whether greater horseshoe bats decide economically when to attack a particular prey item and when not. This species is known to recognize different insects based on their wing-beat pattern imprinted in the echoes. We built a simulation of the natural foraging process in the laboratory, where the bats scanned for prey from a perch and, upon reaching the decision to attack, intercepted the prey in flight. To fully control echo information available to the bats and assure its unambiguity, we implemented computer-controlled propellers that produced echoes resembling those from natural insects of differing profitability. The bats monitored prey arrivals to sample the supply of prey categories in the environment and to inform foraging decisions. The bats adjusted selectivity for the more profitable prey to its inter-arrival intervals as predicted by foraging theory (an economic strategy known to benefit fitness). Moreover, unlike in previously studied vertebrates, foraging performance of horseshoe bats was not limited by costly rejections of the profitable prey. This calls for further research into the evolutionary selection pressures that sharpened the species's decision-making capacity. PMID:21367788

  8. Assessing incentives for service-level selection in private health insurance exchanges.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Thomas G; Newhouse, Joseph P; Normand, Sharon-Lise; Shi, Julie; Zuvekas, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    Even with open enrollment and mandated purchase, incentives created by adverse selection may undermine the efficiency of service offerings by plans in the new health insurance Exchanges created by the Affordable Care Act. Using data on persons likely to participate in Exchanges drawn from five waves of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, we measure plan incentives in two ways. First, we construct predictive ratios, improving on current methods by taking into account the role of premiums in financing plans. Second, relying on an explicit model of plan profit maximization, we measure incentives based on the predictability and predictiveness of various medical diagnoses. Among the chronic diseases studied, plans have the greatest incentive to skimp on care for cancer, and mental health and substance abuse. PMID:24603443

  9. Assessing Incentives for Service-Level Selection In Private Health Insurance Exchanges

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Thomas G.; Newhouse, Joseph P.; Normand, Sharon-Lise; Shi, Julie; Zuvekas, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Even with open enrollment and mandated purchase, incentives created by adverse selection may undermine the efficiency of service offerings by plans in the new health insurance Exchanges created by the Affordable Care Act. Using data on persons likely to participate in Exchanges drawn from five waves of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, we measure plan incentives in two ways. First, we construct predictive ratios, improving on current methods by taking into account the role of premiums in financing plans. Second, relying on an explicit model of plan profit maximization, we measure incentives based on the predictability and predictiveness of various medical diagnoses. Among the chronic diseases studied, plans have the greatest incentive to skimp on care for cancer, and mental health and substance abuse. PMID:24603443

  10. Selection of library services by post-registration nursing, midwifery and health visiting students.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, J; Morrissey, C

    1996-06-01

    This paper describes a small-scale survey undertaken with 300 nurses, midwives and health visitors on post-registration courses and registered for the ENB Higher Award. The aim was threefold: first to examine reasons for electing to use particular libraries; second, the relationship between workplace, home, teaching site and choice of library services; and third, the use of library enquiry services. There was a 56% response rate to the postal questionnaire and results indicated that the key factor in selecting a library was availability of resources rather than convenience to home or workplace. The third largest group of respondents worked in community organizations with little or no on-site access to resources and were dependent on access to other libraries. Most who used the library for literature searching needed to seek help in spite of preliminary user education sessions. Similar levels of assistance were needed to locate journals and use the computerized book catalogue. The paper recommends explicit information on strategic entry points, necessity of a broad central collection, integration of information retrieval into post-registration courses, use of self-study packs, better trust/university liaison and recognition of the need for resource transfer from teaching to learning. PMID:10164307

  11. Pharmaceutical services in Rio de Janeiro Municipality, Brazil: development regarding selected aspects from 2008 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rondineli Mendes da; Pereira, Nathalia Cano; Mendes, Luiz Villarinho Pereira; Luiza, Vera Lucia

    2016-05-01

    This article aims to analyze the development of pharmaceutical services in the context of the primary health care (PHC) in the period 2008- 2014, focusing on selection, procurement and financing of medicines. A retrospective study was undertaken, using as data sources administrative documents of Rio de Janeiro Municipality Health Secretariat (SMS-RJ) as well as secondary database. We found a growth of numbers medicines offered for PHC of 57 items in 2008 to 222 in 2014. Actual spending on drugs paid by the city has grown 38% in the period, with a reversal from 2010, of the proportion of PHC related to tertiary care drugs, reaching 2.4 times in 2014, the year that public spending on medicines per capita of PHC was 9% greater than the value agreed between the three federal levels. It can be concluded that there have been important changes in pharmaceutical services in Rio de Janeiro Municipality in the period following the reform of PHC held in this territory, with increasing the conditions for therapeutic coverage and increased drug funding. The growth of per capita public spending on medicines above the agreed value raises the need to strengthen the rationalization of management measures. PMID:27166892

  12. Adaptive steered molecular dynamics: Validation of the selection criterion and benchmarking energetics in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozer, Gungor; Quirk, Stephen; Hernandez, Rigoberto

    2012-06-01

    The potential of mean force (PMF) for stretching decaalanine in vacuum was determined earlier by Park and Schulten [J. Chem. Phys. 120, 5946 (2004)] in a landmark article demonstrating the efficacy of combining steered molecular dynamics and Jarzynski's nonequilibrium relation. In this study, the recently developed adaptive steered molecular dynamics (ASMD) algorithm [G. Ozer, E. Valeev, S. Quirk, and R. Hernandez, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 6, 3026 (2010)] is used to reproduce the PMF of the unraveling of decaalanine in vacuum by averaging over fewer nonequilibrium trajectories. The efficiency and accuracy of the method are demonstrated through the agreement with the earlier work by Park and Schulten, a series of convergence checks compared to alternate SMD pulling strategies, and an analytical proof. The nonequilibrium trajectories obtained through ASMD have also been used to analyze the intrapeptide hydrogen bonds along the stretching coordinate. As the decaalanine helix is stretched, the initially stabilized i → i + 4 contacts (α-helix) is replaced by i → i + 3 contacts (310-helix). No significant formation of i → i + 5 hydrogen bonds (π-helix) is observed.

  13. An adaptive framework for selecting environmental monitoring protocols to support ocean renewable energy development.

    PubMed

    Shumchenia, Emily J; Smith, Sarah L; McCann, Jennifer; Carnevale, Michelle; Fugate, Grover; Kenney, Robert D; King, John W; Paton, Peter; Schwartz, Malia; Spaulding, Malcolm; Winiarski, Kristopher J

    2012-01-01

    Offshore renewable energy developments (OREDs) are projected to become common in the United States over the next two decades. There are both a need and an opportunity to guide efforts to identify and track impacts to the marine ecosystem resulting from these installations. A monitoring framework and standardized protocols that can be applied to multiple types of ORED would streamline scientific study, management, and permitting at these sites. We propose an adaptive and reactive framework based on indicators of the likely changes to the marine ecosystem due to ORED. We developed decision trees to identify suites of impacts at two scales (demonstration and commercial) depending on energy (wind, tidal, and wave), structure (e.g., turbine), and foundation type (e.g., monopile). Impacts were categorized by ecosystem component (benthic habitat and resources, fish and fisheries, avian species, marine mammals, and sea turtles) and monitoring objectives were developed for each. We present a case study at a commercial-scale wind farm and develop a monitoring plan for this development that addresses both local and national environmental concerns. In addition, framework has provided a starting point for identifying global research needs and objectives for understanding of the potential effects of ORED on the marine environment. PMID:23319884

  14. An Adaptive Framework for Selecting Environmental Monitoring Protocols to Support Ocean Renewable Energy Development

    PubMed Central

    Shumchenia, Emily J.; Smith, Sarah L.; McCann, Jennifer; Carnevale, Michelle; Fugate, Grover; Kenney, Robert D.; King, John W.; Paton, Peter; Schwartz, Malia; Spaulding, Malcolm; Winiarski, Kristopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Offshore renewable energy developments (OREDs) are projected to become common in the United States over the next two decades. There are both a need and an opportunity to guide efforts to identify and track impacts to the marine ecosystem resulting from these installations. A monitoring framework and standardized protocols that can be applied to multiple types of ORED would streamline scientific study, management, and permitting at these sites. We propose an adaptive and reactive framework based on indicators of the likely changes to the marine ecosystem due to ORED. We developed decision trees to identify suites of impacts at two scales (demonstration and commercial) depending on energy (wind, tidal, and wave), structure (e.g., turbine), and foundation type (e.g., monopile). Impacts were categorized by ecosystem component (benthic habitat and resources, fish and fisheries, avian species, marine mammals, and sea turtles) and monitoring objectives were developed for each. We present a case study at a commercial-scale wind farm and develop a monitoring plan for this development that addresses both local and national environmental concerns. In addition, framework has provided a starting point for identifying global research needs and objectives for understanding of the potential effects of ORED on the marine environment. PMID:23319884

  15. Adaptive temporal integration of motion in direction-selective neurons in macaque visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Bair, Wyeth; Movshon, J Anthony

    2004-08-18

    Direction-selective neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) and the extrastriate motion area MT/V5 constitute a critical channel that links early cortical mechanisms of spatiotemporal integration to downstream signals that underlie motion perception. We studied how temporal integration in direction-selective cells depends on speed, spatial frequency (SF), and contrast using randomly moving sinusoidal gratings and spike-triggered average (STA) analysis. The window of temporal integration revealed by the STAs varied substantially with stimulus parameters, extending farther back in time for slow motion, high SF, and low contrast. At low speeds and high SF, STA peaks were larger, indicating that a single spike often conveyed more information about the stimulus under conditions in which the mean firing rate was very low. The observed trends were similar in V1 and MT and offer a physiological correlate for a large body of psychophysical data on temporal integration. We applied the same visual stimuli to a model of motion detection based on oriented linear filters (a motion energy model) that incorporated an integrate-and-fire mechanism and found that it did not account for the neuronal data. Our results show that cortical motion processing in V1 and in MT is highly nonlinear and stimulus dependent. They cast considerable doubt on the ability of simple oriented filter models to account for the output of direction-selective neurons in a general manner. Finally, they suggest that spike rate tuning functions may miss important aspects of the neural coding of motion for stimulus conditions that evoke low firing rates. PMID:15317857

  16. Butyrate-rich colonic microenvironment is a relevant selection factor for metabolically adapted tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Serpa, Jacinta; Caiado, Francisco; Carvalho, Tânia; Torre, Cheila; Gonçalves, Luís G; Casalou, Cristina; Lamosa, Pedro; Rodrigues, Margarida; Zhu, Zhenping; Lam, Eric W F; Dias, Sérgio

    2010-12-10

    The short chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate is a product of colonic fermentation of dietary fibers. It is the main source of energy for normal colonocytes, but cannot be metabolized by most tumor cells. Butyrate also functions as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor to control cell proliferation and apoptosis. In consequence, butyrate and its derived drugs are used in cancer therapy. Here we show that aggressive tumor cells that retain the capacity of metabolizing butyrate are positively selected in their microenvironment. In the mouse xenograft model, butyrate-preselected human colon cancer cells gave rise to subcutaneous tumors that grew faster and were more angiogenic than those derived from untreated cells. Similarly, butyrate-preselected cells demonstrated a significant increase in rates of homing to the lung after intravenous injection. Our data showed that butyrate regulates the expression of VEGF and its receptor KDR at the transcriptional level potentially through FoxM1, resulting in the generation of a functional VEGF:KDR autocrine growth loop. Cells selected by chronic exposure to butyrate express higher levels of MMP2, MMP9, α2 and α3 integrins, and lower levels of E-cadherin, a marker for epithelial to mesenchymal transition. The orthotopic model of colon cancer showed that cells preselected by butyrate are able to colonize the animals locally and at distant organs, whereas control cells can only generate a local tumor in the cecum. Together our data shows that a butyrate-rich microenvironment may select for tumor cells that are able to metabolize butyrate, which are also phenotypically more aggressive. PMID:20926374

  17. On the definition of adapted audio/video profiles for high-quality video calling services over LTE/4G

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndiaye, Maty; Quinquis, Catherine; Larabi, Mohamed Chaker; Le Lay, Gwenael; Saadane, Hakim; Perrine, Clency

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, the important advances and widespread availability of mobile technology (operating systems, GPUs, terminal resolution and so on) have encouraged a fast development of voice and video services like video-calling. While multimedia services have largely grown on mobile devices, the generated increase of data consumption is leading to the saturation of mobile networks. In order to provide data with high bit-rates and maintain performance as close as possible to traditional networks, the 3GPP (The 3rd Generation Partnership Project) worked on a high performance standard for mobile called Long Term Evolution (LTE). In this paper, we aim at expressing recommendations related to audio and video media profiles (selection of audio and video codecs, bit-rates, frame-rates, audio and video formats) for a typical video-calling services held over LTE/4G mobile networks. These profiles are defined according to targeted devices (smartphones, tablets), so as to ensure the best possible quality of experience (QoE). Obtained results indicate that for a CIF format (352 x 288 pixels) which is usually used for smartphones, the VP8 codec provides a better image quality than the H.264 codec for low bitrates (from 128 to 384 kbps). However sequences with high motion, H.264 in slow mode is preferred. Regarding audio, better results are globally achieved using wideband codecs offering good quality except for opus codec (at 12.2 kbps).

  18. Evidence that selected amplification of a bacterial lac frameshift allele stimulates Lac(+) reversion (adaptive mutation) with or without general hypermutability.

    PubMed Central

    Slechta, E Susan; Liu, Jing; Andersson, Dan I; Roth, John R

    2002-01-01

    In the genetic system of Cairns and Foster, a nongrowing population of an E. coli lac frameshift mutant appears to specifically accumulate Lac(+) revertants when starved on medium including lactose (adaptive mutation). This behavior has been attributed to stress-induced general mutagenesis in a subpopulation of starved cells (the hypermutable state model). We have suggested that, on the contrary, stress has no direct effect on mutability but favors only growth of cells that amplify their leaky mutant lac region (the amplification mutagenesis model). Selection enhances reversion primarily by increasing the mutant lac copy number within each developing clone on the selection plate. The observed general mutagenesis is attributed to a side effect of growth with an amplification-induction of SOS by DNA fragments released from a tandem array of lac copies. Here we show that the S. enterica version of the Cairns system shows SOS-dependent general mutagenesis and behaves in every way like the original E. coli system. In both systems, lac revertants are mutagenized during selection. Eliminating the 35-fold increase in mutation rate reduces revertant number only 2- to 4-fold. This discrepancy is due to continued growth of amplification cells until some clones manage to revert without mutagenesis solely by increasing their lac copy number. Reversion in the absence of mutagenesis is still dependent on RecA function, as expected if it depends on lac amplification (a recombination-dependent process). These observations support the amplification mutagenesis model. PMID:12136002

  19. Using Natural Selection to Explore the Adaptive Potential of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Price, Dana C.; Levitan, Orly; Boyd, Jeffrey; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2014-01-01

    Improving feedstock is critical to facilitate the commercial utilization of algae, in particular in open pond systems where, due to the presence of competitors and pests, high algal growth rates and stress tolerance are beneficial. Here we raised laboratory cultures of the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under serial dilution to explore the potential of crop improvement using natural selection. The alga was evolved for 1,880 generations in liquid medium under continuous light (EL population). At the end of the experiment, EL cells had a growth rate that was 35% greater than the progenitor population (PL). The removal of acetate from the medium demonstrated that EL growth enhancement largely relied on efficient usage of this organic carbon source. Genome re-sequencing uncovered 1,937 polymorphic DNA regions in the EL population with 149 single nucleotide polymorphisms resulting in amino acid substitutions. Transcriptome analysis showed, in the EL population, significant up regulation of genes involved in protein synthesis, the cell cycle and cellular respiration, whereas the DNA repair pathway and photosynthesis were down regulated. Like other algae, EL cells accumulated neutral lipids under nitrogen depletion. Our work demonstrates transcriptome and genome-wide impacts of natural selection on algal cells and points to a useful strategy for strain improvement. PMID:24658261

  20. Aging-associated inflammation promotes selection for adaptive oncogenic events in B cell progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Curtis J.; Casás-Selves, Matias; Kim, Jihye; Zaberezhnyy, Vadym; Aghili, Leila; Daniel, Ashley E.; Jimenez, Linda; Azam, Tania; McNamee, Eoin N.; Clambey, Eric T.; Klawitter, Jelena; Serkova, Natalie J.; Tan, Aik Choon; Dinarello, Charles A.; DeGregori, James

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of cancer is higher in the elderly; however, many of the underlying mechanisms for this association remain unexplored. Here, we have shown that B cell progenitors in old mice exhibit marked signaling, gene expression, and metabolic defects. Moreover, B cell progenitors that developed from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) transferred from young mice into aged animals exhibited similar fitness defects. We further demonstrated that ectopic expression of the oncogenes BCR-ABL, NRASV12, or Myc restored B cell progenitor fitness, leading to selection for oncogenically initiated cells and leukemogenesis specifically in the context of an aged hematopoietic system. Aging was associated with increased inflammation in the BM microenvironment, and induction of inflammation in young mice phenocopied aging-associated B lymphopoiesis. Conversely, a reduction of inflammation in aged mice via transgenic expression of α-1-antitrypsin or IL-37 preserved the function of B cell progenitors and prevented NRASV12-mediated oncogenesis. We conclude that chronic inflammatory microenvironments in old age lead to reductions in the fitness of B cell progenitor populations. This reduced progenitor pool fitness engenders selection for cells harboring oncogenic mutations, in part due to their ability to correct aging-associated functional defects. Thus, modulation of inflammation — a common feature of aging — has the potential to limit aging-associated oncogenesis. PMID:26551682

  1. The attractiveness fragment—AFLP analysis of local adaptation and sexual selection in a caeliferan grasshopper, Chorthippus biguttulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klappert, Kirsten; Butlin, Roger K.; Reinhold, Klaus

    2007-08-01

    Genetic variability among males is a necessary precondition for the evolution of female choice based on indirect genetic benefits. In addition to mutations and host parasite cycles, migration of locally adapted individuals offers an explanation for the maintenance of genetic variability. In a previous study, conducting a reciprocal transplant experiment on a grasshopper, Chorthippus biguttulus, we found that environmental conditions significantly influenced not only body condition but also an important trait of male calling song, the amplitude of song. Although not significant, all other analysed physical and courtship song traits and attractiveness were superior in native than in transferred males. Thus, we concluded that local adaptation has a slight but consistent influence on a range of traits in our study populations, including male acoustic attractiveness. In our present study, we scanned male grasshoppers from the same two populations for amplification fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) loci connected with acoustic attractiveness to conspecific females. We found greater differences in allele frequencies between the two populations, for some loci, than are expected from a balance between drift and gene flow. These loci are potentially connected with locally adapted traits. We examined whether these alleles show the proposed genotype environment interaction by having different associations with attractiveness in the two populations. One locus was significantly related to sexual attractiveness; however, this was independent of the males’ population affiliation. Future research on the evolution of female choice will benefit from knowledge of the underlying genetic architecture of male traits under intraspecific sexual selection, and the ‘population genomics’ approach can be a powerful tool for revealing this structure.

  2. Selective transport systems mediate sequestration of plant glucosides in leaf beetles: A molecular basis for adaptation and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Jürgen; Pettersson, Eva M.; Feld, Birte K.; Burse, Antje; Termonia, Arnaud; Pasteels, Jacques M.; Boland, Wilhelm

    2004-01-01

    Chrysomeline larvae respond to disturbance and attack by everting dorsal glandular reservoirs, which release defensive secretions. The ancestral defense is based on the de novo synthesis of monoterpene iridoids. The catabolization of the host-plant O-glucoside salicin into salicylaldehyde is a character state that evolved later in two distinct lineages, which specialized on Salicaceae. By using two species producing monoterpenes (Hydrothassa marginella and Phratora laticollis) and two sequestering species (Chrysomela populi and Phratora vitellinae), we studied the molecular basis of sequestration by feeding the larvae structurally different thioglucosides resembling natural O-glucosides. Their accumulation in the defensive systems demonstrated that the larvae possess transport systems, which are evolutionarily adapted to the glycosides of their host plants. Minor structural modifications in the aglycon result in drastically reduced transport rates of the test compounds. Moreover, the ancestral iridoid-producing leaf beetles already possess a fully functional import system for an early precursor of the iridoid defenses. Our data confirm an evolutionary scenario in which, after a host-plant change, the transport system of the leaf beetles may play a pivotal role in the adaptation on new hosts by selecting plant-derived glucosides that can be channeled to the defensive system. PMID:15365181

  3. [The effect of prolonged starvation on changes in the activity of selected adaptive enzymes in rat liver].

    PubMed

    Toropila, M; Ahlers, I; Ahlersová, E; Ondrasovic, M; Benová, K

    1996-02-01

    Male rats of Wistar SPF stain (Velaz Prague) were used to investigate the influence of prolonged starvation on changes in the activity of selected adaptive enzymes in the liver and corticosterone in serum. Analyses were carried out on days 1,2,3,5 and 7 of starvation. The activity of tyrosine aminotransferase significantly increased in the period between days 2 and 5 of starvation, after which a decrease to the level of satiated animals was observed in the terminal period. Activities of tryptophane-2-3-dioxygenase and alanine aminotransferase increased in two phases reaching maximum values on days 2 and 7 of starvation. The activity of aspartate aminotransferase showed a progressive significant increase in dependence on the length of starvation. A more than threefold increase in corticosterone concentration was observed in the serum of starved animals in comparison with satiated rats. PMID:8629317

  4. Viewpoint: adapting to new international tuberculosis treatment standards with medication monitors and DOT given selectively.

    PubMed

    Moulding, Thomas S

    2007-11-01

    New international standards no longer require directly observed therapy for all tuberculosis (TB) patients, but state that practitioners must be capable of assessing adherence and addressing poor adherence. Mass-produced electronic medication monitors, which record removal of medication from a container, could help overcome the problem of assessing treatment adherence accurately even in poor countries. Both health facilities and community workers could dispense drugs for self-administered treatment in medication monitors and retrieve the adherence record with inexpensive built-in displays. These devices could keep the adherence record from the beginning of therapy for managing patients who move. Pharmacists using medication monitors could provide surveillance of self-administered treatment prescribed by private physicians with less adherent patients referred to the health departments. Less adherent patients could be managed with focused counselling, directly observed therapy when necessary, and extensions in treatment duration. Removal of the directly observed therapy burden would encourage patients to seek free high-quality supervised pubic care and help expand effective TB treatment services. If resources saved by giving less directly observed therapy were focused on poorly adherent patients, medication monitor-based programmes could create less acquired drug resistance than overwhelmed treatment programmes that attempt but fail to give uninterrupted directly observed therapy to all patients. PMID:17949402

  5. Speech Recognition as a Support Service for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students: Adaptation and Evaluation. Final Report to Spencer Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Michael; Elliot, Lisa; McKee, Barbara; Coyne, Gina

    This report discusses a project that adapted new automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology to provide real-time speech-to-text transcription as a support service for students who are deaf and hard of hearing (D/HH). In this system, as the teacher speaks, a hearing intermediary, or captionist, dictates into the speech recognition system in a…

  6. Micro- and Macro-Geographic Scale Effect on the Molecular Imprint of Selection and Adaptation in Norway Spruce

    PubMed Central

    Scalfi, Marta; Mosca, Elena; Di Pierro, Erica Adele; Troggio, Michela; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe; Sperisen, Christoph; La Porta, Nicola; Neale, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Forest tree species of temperate and boreal regions have undergone a long history of demographic changes and evolutionary adaptations. The main objective of this study was to detect signals of selection in Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst), at different sampling-scales and to investigate, accounting for population structure, the effect of environment on species genetic diversity. A total of 384 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) representing 290 genes were genotyped at two geographic scales: across 12 populations distributed along two altitudinal-transects in the Alps (micro-geographic scale), and across 27 populations belonging to the range of Norway spruce in central and south-east Europe (macro-geographic scale). At the macrogeographic scale, principal component analysis combined with Bayesian clustering revealed three major clusters, corresponding to the main areas of southern spruce occurrence, i.e. the Alps, Carpathians, and Hercynia. The populations along the altitudinal transects were not differentiated. To assess the role of selection in structuring genetic variation, we applied a Bayesian and coalescent-based FST-outlier method and tested for correlations between allele frequencies and climatic variables using regression analyses. At the macro-geographic scale, the FST-outlier methods detected together 11 FST-outliers. Six outliers were detected when the same analyses were carried out taking into account the genetic structure. Regression analyses with population structure correction resulted in the identification of two (micro-geographic scale) and 38 SNPs (macro-geographic scale) significantly correlated with temperature and/or precipitation. Six of these loci overlapped with FST-outliers, among them two loci encoding an enzyme involved in riboflavin biosynthesis and a sucrose synthase. The results of this study indicate a strong relationship between genetic and environmental variation at both geographic scales. It also suggests that an

  7. Selection on a Variant Associated with Improved Viral Clearance Drives Local, Adaptive Pseudogenization of Interferon Lambda 4 (IFNL4)

    PubMed Central

    Key, Felix M.; Peter, Benjamin; Dennis, Megan Y.; Huerta-Sánchez, Emilia; Tang, Wei; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Nielsen, Rasmus; Andrés, Aida M.

    2014-01-01

    Interferon lambda 4 gene (IFNL4) encodes IFN-λ4, a new member of the IFN-λ family with antiviral activity. In humans IFNL4 open reading frame is truncated by a polymorphic frame-shift insertion that eliminates IFN-λ4 and turns IFNL4 into a polymorphic pseudogene. Functional IFN-λ4 has antiviral activity but the elimination of IFN-λ4 through pseudogenization is strongly associated with improved clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We show that functional IFN-λ4 is conserved and evolutionarily constrained in mammals and thus functionally relevant. However, the pseudogene has reached moderately high frequency in Africa, America, and Europe, and near fixation in East Asia. In fact, the pseudogenizing variant is among the 0.8% most differentiated SNPs between Africa and East Asia genome-wide. Its raise in frequency is associated with additional evidence of positive selection, which is strongest in East Asia, where this variant falls in the 0.5% tail of SNPs with strongest signatures of recent positive selection genome-wide. Using a new Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) approach we infer that the pseudogenizing allele appeared just before the out-of-Africa migration and was immediately targeted by moderate positive selection; selection subsequently strengthened in European and Asian populations resulting in the high frequency observed today. This provides evidence for a changing adaptive process that, by favoring IFN-λ4 inactivation, has shaped present-day phenotypic diversity and susceptibility to disease. PMID:25329461

  8. Description of the attitude control, guidance and navigation space replaceable units for automated space servicing of selected NASA missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chobotov, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    Control elements such as sensors, momentum exchange devices, and thrusters are described which can be used to define space replaceable units (SRU), in accordance with attitude control, guidance, and navigation performance requirements selected for NASA space serviceable mission spacecraft. A number of SRU's are developed, and their reliability block diagrams are presented. An SRU assignment is given in order to define a set of feasible space serviceable spacecraft for the missions of interest.

  9. Conformational selection and dynamic adaptation upon linker histone binding to the nucleosome.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Mehmet Ali; Pachov, Georgi V; Wade, Rebecca C; Cojocaru, Vlad

    2016-08-19

    Linker histones are essential for DNA compaction in chromatin. They bind to nucleosomes in a 1:1 ratio forming chromatosomes. Alternative configurations have been proposed in which the globular domain of the linker histone H5 (gH5) is positioned either on- or off-dyad between the nucleosomal and linker DNAs. However, the dynamic pathways of chromatosome assembly remain elusive. Here, we studied the conformational plasticity of gH5 in unbound and off-dyad nucleosome-bound forms with classical and accelerated molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the unbound gH5 converts between open and closed conformations, preferring the closed form. However, the open gH5 contributes to a more rigid chromatosome and restricts the motion of the nearby linker DNA through hydrophobic interactions with thymidines. Moreover, the closed gH5 opens and reorients in accelerated simulations of the chromatosome. Brownian dynamics simulations of chromatosome assembly, accounting for a range of amplitudes of nucleosome opening and different nucleosome DNA sequences, support the existence of both on- and off-dyad binding modes of gH5 and reveal alternative, sequence and conformation-dependent chromatosome configurations. Taken together, these findings suggest that the conformational dynamics of linker histones and nucleosomes facilitate alternative chromatosome configurations through an interplay between induced fit and conformational selection. PMID:27270081

  10. Complementary substrate-selectivity of metabolic adaptive convergence in the lignocellulolytic performance by Dichomitus squalens

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Jin Seop

    2014-01-01

    The lignocellulolytic platform of the wood-decaying organism Dichomitus squalens is important for production of biodegradable elements; however, the system has not yet been fully characterized. In this study, using statistical target optimization, we analysed substrate selectivity based on a variety of D. squalens metabolic pathways using combined omics tools. As compared with the alkali-lignin (AL) programme, the rice straw (RS) programme has the advantage of multilayered signalling to regulate cellulolytic-related genes or to connect their pathways. The spontaneous instability of the AL programme was accelerated by harsh starvation as compared with that of the RS programme. Therefore, the AL programme converged on cellular maintenance much easier and more rapidly. However, regardless of external substrate/concentration type, the compensatory pattern of the major targets (especially peroxidases and growth regulators) was similar, functioning to maintain cellular homeostasis. Interestingly, ligninolytic-mediated targets under non-kaleidoscopic conditions were induced by a substrate-input-control, and especially this mechanism had an important effect on the early stages of the biodegradation process. This optimized target analysis could be used to understand lignocellulolytic network and to improve downstream efficiency. PMID:24894915

  11. Resveratrol Attenuates Exercise-Induced Adaptive Responses in Rats Selectively Bred for Low Running Performance

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Nikolett; Sarga, Linda; Csende, Zsolt; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Davies, Kelvin J.A.; Radak, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    Low capacity runner (LCR) rats have been developed by divergent artificial selection for treadmill endurance capacity to explore an aerobic biology-disease connection. The beneficial effects of resveratrol supplementation have been demonstrated in endurance running. In this study it was examined whether 12 weeks of treadmill exercise training and/or resveratrol can retrieve the low running performance of the LCR and impact mitochondrial biogenesis and quality control. Resveratrol regressed running performance in trained LCR (p<0.05). Surprisingly, exercise and resveratrol treatments significantly decreased pAMPK/AMPK, SIRT1, SIRT4, forkhead transcription factor 1 (FOXO1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) levels in these animals (p<0.05). Mitochondrial fusion protein, HSP78 and polynucleotide phosphorylase were significantly induced in LCR-trained, LCR-resveratrol treated, LCR-trained and resveratol treated groups compared to LCR-controls. The data indicate that the AMPK-SIRT1-NAMPT-FOXO1 axis could be important to the limited aerobic endurance capacity of low running capacity rats. Resveratrol supplementation was not beneficial in terms of aerobic endurance performance, mitochondrial biogenesis, or quality control. PMID:24659933

  12. Adaptive choice-based conjoint analysis: a new patient-centered approach to the assessment of health service preferences.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Charles E; Deal, Ken; Chen, Yvonne

    2010-12-01

    Conjoint analysis (CA) has emerged as an important approach to the assessment of health service preferences. This article examines Adaptive Choice-Based Conjoint Analysis (ACBC) and reviews available evidence comparing ACBC with conventional approaches to CA. ACBC surveys more closely approximate the decision-making processes that influence real-world choices. Informants begin ACBC surveys by completing a build-your-own (BYO) task identifying the level of each attribute that they prefer. The ACBC software composes a series of attribute combinations clustering around each participant's BYO choices. During the Screener section, informants decide whether each of these concepts is a possibility or not. Probe questions determine whether attribute levels consistently included in or excluded from each informant's Screener section choices reflect 'Unacceptable' or 'Must Have' simplifying heuristics. Finally, concepts identified as possibilities during the Screener section are carried forward to a Choice Tournament. The winning concept in each Choice Tournament set advances to the next choice set until a winner is determined.A review of randomized trials and cross-over studies suggests that, although ACBC surveys require more time than conventional approaches to CA, informants find ACBC surveys more engaging. In most studies, ACBC surveys yield lower standard errors, improved prediction of hold-out task choices, and better estimates of real-world product decisions than conventional choice-based CA surveys. PMID:22273433

  13. Selected Factors Related to Selective Service Rejection and Rejection Rate in Delaware (1967): A Study of the Characteristics of Young Men Failing to Meet Mental Qualifications for Military Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Jay R.

    This study sought information about selective service rejection in Delaware, specifically rejectee characteristics, reasons for rejection, and the high rejection rate in Delaware. The basic design was a modified case study method in which a sample of individual records were examined. Differences between this sample and national samples were tested…

  14. Selective Dissemination of Information and Retrospective Searches. Computer Based Information Services from RIT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluchowicz, Zofia

    The purpose of this guide is to give an up-to-date presentation of the information service offered by the documentation center at the Royal Institute of Technology (RIT) and to facilitate the utilization of the service. The guide gives a general account of the multidisciplinary computerized current awareness service (SDI) and a detailed…

  15. 76 FR 14284 - Domestic Shipping Services Product Launch of Parcel Select Regional Ground

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    .... When either the Intelligent Mail package barcode or a Confirmation Services barcode is used, Parcel... part of a concatenated Intelligent Mail package barcode (IMpb) or a Confirmation Services GS-128... barcode included as part of a concatenated Intelligent Mail package barcode. 2. A Confirmation Services...

  16. A Survey of the Community Service Function in Selected Junior Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Adrien P.

    Returns from 53 of 88 junior colleges surveyed concerning their community service programs showed the following: (1) community service functions are typically the responsibility of an executive officer who reports to the president or other college administrator; (2) categories of community service programs are instructional (adult education,…

  17. Performance analysis of an adaptive multiple access scheme for the message service of a land mobile satellite experiment (MSAT-X)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, T.-Y.; Li, V. O. K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes an Adaptive Mobile Access Protocol (AMAP) for the message service of MSAT-X., a proposed experimental mobile satellite communication network. Message lengths generated by the mobiles are assumed to be uniformly distributed. The mobiles are dispersed over a wide geographical area and the channel data rate is limited. AMAP is a reservation based multiple access scheme. The available bandwidth is divided into subchannels, which are divided into reservation and message channels. The ALOHA multiple access scheme is employed in the reservation channels, while the message channels are demand assigned. AMAP adaptively reallocates the reservation and message channels to optimize the total average message delay.

  18. Data Driven Identification and Selection Algorithms for At-Risk Students Likely to Benefit from High School Academic Support Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacefield, Warren E.; Applegate, E. Brooks; Zeller, Pamela J.; Van Kannel-Ray, Nancy; Carpenter, Shelly

    2011-01-01

    This study describes a well-defined data-driven diagnostic identification and selection procedure for choosing students at-risk of academic failure for appropriate academic support services. This algorithmic procedure has been validated both by historical quantitative studies of student precedents and outcomes as well as by current qualitative…

  19. 15 CFR 801.10 - Rules and regulations for the BE-120, Benchmark Survey of Transactions in Selected Services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rules and regulations for the BE-120, Benchmark Survey of Transactions in Selected Services and Intangible Assets with Foreign Persons. 801.10 Section 801.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS,...

  20. 76 FR 73521 - Statutory Bar to Appointment of Persons Who Fail To Register Under Selective Service Law

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ...; ] OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 300 RIN 3206-AM06 Statutory Bar to Appointment of Persons Who Fail To Register Under Selective Service Law AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Proposed rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: The U.S. Office of Personnel Management is...

  1. Rapid birth-and-death evolution of the xenobiotic metabolizing NAT gene family in vertebrates with evidence of adaptive selection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are a unique family of enzymes widely distributed in nature that play a crucial role in the detoxification of aromatic amine xenobiotics. Considering the temporal changes in the levels and toxicity of environmentally available chemicals, the metabolic function of NATs is likely to be under adaptive evolution to broaden or change substrate specificity over time, making NATs a promising subject for evolutionary analyses. In this study, we trace the molecular evolutionary history of the NAT gene family during the last ~450 million years of vertebrate evolution and define the likely role of gene duplication, gene conversion and positive selection in the evolutionary dynamics of this family. Results A phylogenetic analysis of 77 NAT sequences from 38 vertebrate species retrieved from public genomic databases shows that NATs are phylogenetically unstable genes, characterized by frequent gene duplications and losses even among closely related species, and that concerted evolution only played a minor role in the patterns of sequence divergence. Local signals of positive selection are detected in several lineages, probably reflecting response to changes in xenobiotic exposure. We then put a special emphasis on the study of the last ~85 million years of primate NAT evolution by determining the NAT homologous sequences in 13 additional primate species. Our phylogenetic analysis supports the view that the three human NAT genes emerged from a first duplication event in the common ancestor of Simiiformes, yielding NAT1 and an ancestral NAT gene which in turn, duplicated in the common ancestor of Catarrhini, giving rise to NAT2 and the NATP pseudogene. Our analysis suggests a main role of purifying selection in NAT1 protein evolution, whereas NAT2 was predicted to mostly evolve under positive selection to change its amino acid sequence over time. These findings are consistent with a differential role of the two human isoenzymes

  2. Footprint of Positive Selection in Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum Genome Sequences Suggests Adaptive Microevolution of the Syphilis Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Centurion-Lara, Arturo; Jeffrey, Brendan M.; Le, Hoavan T.; Molini, Barbara J.; Lukehart, Sheila A.; Sokurenko, Evgeni V.; Rockey, Daniel D.

    2012-01-01

    In the rabbit model of syphilis, infection phenotypes associated with the Nichols and Chicago strains of Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum), though similar, are not identical. Between these strains, significant differences are found in expression of, and antibody responses to some candidate virulence factors, suggesting the existence of functional genetic differences between isolates. The Chicago strain genome was therefore sequenced and compared to the Nichols genome, available since 1998. Initial comparative analysis suggested the presence of 44 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 103 small (≤3 nucleotides) indels, and 1 large (1204 bp) insertion in the Chicago genome with respect to the Nichols genome. To confirm the above findings, Sanger sequencing was performed on most loci carrying differences using DNA from Chicago and the Nichols strain used in the original T. pallidum genome project. A majority of the previously identified differences were found to be due to errors in the published Nichols genome, while the accuracy of the Chicago genome was confirmed. However, 20 SNPs were confirmed between the two genomes, and 16 (80.0%) were found in coding regions, with all being of non-synonymous nature, strongly indicating action of positive selection. Sequencing of 16 genomic loci harboring SNPs in 12 additional T. pallidum strains, (SS14, Bal 3, Bal 7, Bal 9, Sea 81-3, Sea 81-8, Sea 86-1, Sea 87-1, Mexico A, UW231B, UW236B, and UW249C), was used to identify “Chicago-“ or “Nichols -specific” differences. All but one of the 16 SNPs were “Nichols-specific”, with Chicago having identical sequences at these positions to almost all of the additional strains examined. These mutations could reflect differential adaptation of the Nichols strain to the rabbit host or pathoadaptive mutations acquired during human infection. Our findings indicate that SNPs among T. pallidum strains emerge under positive selection and, therefore, are likely to be functional in

  3. Footprint of positive selection in Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum genome sequences suggests adaptive microevolution of the syphilis pathogen.

    PubMed

    Giacani, Lorenzo; Chattopadhyay, Sujay; Centurion-Lara, Arturo; Jeffrey, Brendan M; Le, Hoavan T; Molini, Barbara J; Lukehart, Sheila A; Sokurenko, Evgeni V; Rockey, Daniel D

    2012-01-01

    In the rabbit model of syphilis, infection phenotypes associated with the Nichols and Chicago strains of Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum), though similar, are not identical. Between these strains, significant differences are found in expression of, and antibody responses to some candidate virulence factors, suggesting the existence of functional genetic differences between isolates. The Chicago strain genome was therefore sequenced and compared to the Nichols genome, available since 1998. Initial comparative analysis suggested the presence of 44 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 103 small (≤3 nucleotides) indels, and 1 large (1204 bp) insertion in the Chicago genome with respect to the Nichols genome. To confirm the above findings, Sanger sequencing was performed on most loci carrying differences using DNA from Chicago and the Nichols strain used in the original T. pallidum genome project. A majority of the previously identified differences were found to be due to errors in the published Nichols genome, while the accuracy of the Chicago genome was confirmed. However, 20 SNPs were confirmed between the two genomes, and 16 (80.0%) were found in coding regions, with all being of non-synonymous nature, strongly indicating action of positive selection. Sequencing of 16 genomic loci harboring SNPs in 12 additional T. pallidum strains, (SS14, Bal 3, Bal 7, Bal 9, Sea 81-3, Sea 81-8, Sea 86-1, Sea 87-1, Mexico A, UW231B, UW236B, and UW249C), was used to identify "Chicago-" or "Nichols -specific" differences. All but one of the 16 SNPs were "Nichols-specific", with Chicago having identical sequences at these positions to almost all of the additional strains examined. These mutations could reflect differential adaptation of the Nichols strain to the rabbit host or pathoadaptive mutations acquired during human infection. Our findings indicate that SNPs among T. pallidum strains emerge under positive selection and, therefore, are likely to be functional in nature. PMID

  4. Oroxin B selectively induces tumor-suppressive ER stress and concurrently inhibits tumor-adaptive ER stress in B-lymphoma cells for effective anti-lymphoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ping; Fu, Shilong; Cao, Zhifei; Liao, Huaidong; Huo, Zihe; Pan, Yanyan; Zhang, Gaochuan; Gao, Aidi; Zhou, Quansheng

    2015-10-15

    Cancer cells have both tumor-adaptive and -suppressive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress machineries that determine cell fate. In malignant tumors including lymphoma, constant activation of tumor-adaptive ER stress and concurrent reduction of tumor-suppressive ER stress favors cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. Current ER stress-based anti-tumor drugs typically activate both tumor-adaptive and -suppressive ER stresses, resulting in low anti-cancer efficacy; hence, selective induction of tumor-suppressive ER stress and inhibition of tumor-adaptive ER stress are new strategies for novel anti-cancer drug discovery. Thus far, specific tumor-suppressive ER stress therapeutics have remained absent in clinical settings. In this study, we explored unique tumor-suppressive ER stress agents from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Oroxylum indicum, and found that a small molecule oroxin B selectively induced tumor-suppressive ER stress in malignant lymphoma cells, but not in normal cells, effectively inhibited lymphoma growth in vivo, and significantly prolonged overall survival of lymphoma-xenografted mice without obvious toxicity. Mechanistic studies have revealed that the expression of key tumor-adaptive ER-stress gene GRP78 was notably suppressed by oroxin B via down-regulation of up-stream key signaling protein ATF6, while tumor-suppressive ER stress master gene DDIT3 was strikingly activated through activating the MKK3-p38 signaling pathway, correcting the imbalance between tumor-suppressive DDIT3 and tumor-adaptive GRP78 in lymphoma. Together, selective induction of unique tumor-suppressive ER stress and concurrent inhibition of tumor-adaptive ER stress in malignant lymphoma are new and feasible approaches for novel anti-lymphoma drug discovery and anti-lymphoma therapy. PMID:26253462

  5. High-Spatial-Resolution Imaging Combining High-Order Adaptive Optics, Frame Selection, and Speckle Masking Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, Carsten; Mascarinas, Dulce; Xu, Yan; Cao, Wenda; Yang, Guo; Wang, Haimin; Goode, Philip R.; Rimmele, Thomas

    2005-04-01

    We present, for the first time, high-spatial-resolution observations combining high-order adaptive optics (AO), frame selection, and post-facto image correction via speckle masking. The data analysis is based on observations of solar active region NOAA 10486 taken with the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST) at the Sacramento Peak Observatory (SPO) of the National Solar Observatory (NSO) on 29 October 2003. The high Strehl ratio encountered in AO corrected short-exposure images provides highly improved signal-to-noise ratios leading to a superior recovery of the object’s Fourier phases. This allows reliable detection of small-scale solar features near the diffraction limit of the telescope. Speckle masking imaging provides access to high-order wavefront aberrations, which predominantly originate at high atmospheric layers and are only partially corrected by the AO system. In addition, the observations provided qualitative measures of the image correction away from the lock point of the AO system. We further present a brief inspection of the underlying imaging theory discussing the limitations and prospects of this multi-faceted image reconstruction approach in terms of the recovery of spatial information, photometric accuracy, and spectroscopic applications.

  6. A semi-automatic 2D-to-3D video conversion with adaptive key-frame selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Kuanyu; Xiong, Hongkai

    2014-11-01

    To compensate the deficit of 3D content, 2D to 3D video conversion (2D-to-3D) has recently attracted more attention from both industrial and academic communities. The semi-automatic 2D-to-3D conversion which estimates corresponding depth of non-key-frames through key-frames is more desirable owing to its advantage of balancing labor cost and 3D effects. The location of key-frames plays a role on quality of depth propagation. This paper proposes a semi-automatic 2D-to-3D scheme with adaptive key-frame selection to keep temporal continuity more reliable and reduce the depth propagation errors caused by occlusion. The potential key-frames would be localized in terms of clustered color variation and motion intensity. The distance of key-frame interval is also taken into account to keep the accumulated propagation errors under control and guarantee minimal user interaction. Once their depth maps are aligned with user interaction, the non-key-frames depth maps would be automatically propagated by shifted bilateral filtering. Considering that depth of objects may change due to the objects motion or camera zoom in/out effect, a bi-directional depth propagation scheme is adopted where a non-key frame is interpolated from two adjacent key frames. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme has better performance than existing 2D-to-3D scheme with fixed key-frame interval.

  7. Fuzzy logic and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for characterization of contaminant exposure through selected biomarkers in African catfish.

    PubMed

    Karami, Ali; Keiter, Steffen; Hollert, Henner; Courtenay, Simon C

    2013-03-01

    This study represents a first attempt at applying a fuzzy inference system (FIS) and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to the field of aquatic biomonitoring for classification of the dosage and time of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) injection through selected biomarkers in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were injected either intramuscularly (i.m.) or intraperitoneally (i.p.) with BaP. Hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, relative visceral fat weights (LSI), and four biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) concentrations were used as the inputs in the modeling study. Contradictory rules in FIS and ANFIS models appeared after conversion of bioassay results into human language (rule-based system). A "data trimming" approach was proposed to eliminate the conflicts prior to fuzzification. However, the model produced was relevant only to relatively low exposures to BaP, especially through the i.m. route of exposure. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis was unable to raise the classification rate to an acceptable level. In conclusion, FIS and ANFIS models have limited applications in the field of fish biomarker studies. PMID:22752811

  8. A Comparison of Item Selection Procedures Using Different Ability Estimation Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing Based on the Generalized Partial Credit Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Tsung-Han

    2010-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) provides a highly efficient alternative to the paper-and-pencil test. By selecting items that match examinees' ability levels, CAT not only can shorten test length and administration time but it can also increase measurement precision and reduce measurement error. In CAT, maximum information (MI) is the most…

  9. International Perspectives on Adapted Physical Activity. Selected Papers Presented at the International Symposium on Adapted Physical Activity (5th, Toronto, Canada, October 1-4, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berridge, Mavis E., Ed.; Ward, Graham R., Ed.

    The 36 papers in this book were presented at the Fifth International Symposium on Adapted Physical Activity. Presentations document some of the research findings and new ideas in physical education and recreation programs designed to improve the quality of life for special populations. The collection represents the breadth of the field, from the…

  10. Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive Equipment Certificate of Eligibility for Veterans or Members of the Armed Forces With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Connected to Military Service. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-01-13

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) published an Interim Final Rule on February 25, 2015, to amend its adjudication regulations to provide a certificate of eligibility for financial assistance in the purchase of an automobile or other conveyance and adaptive equipment for all veterans with service-connected amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and servicemembers serving on active duty with ALS. The amendment authorized automatic issuance of a certificate of eligibility for financial assistance in the purchase of an automobile or other conveyance and adaptive equipment to all veterans with service-connected ALS and members of the Armed Forces serving on active duty with ALS. The intent of this final rule is to confirm the amendment made by the interim final rule without change. PMID:26761955

  11. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Counseling Services at a Selected Suburban High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gianuzzi, Irma C.

    In this study the counseling services of a suburban high school were evaluated. Counseling services were viewed as those normally available at a high school, namely, direction, advice, and guidance for academic, career, and personal matters. Specific research questions were guided by the individual questions on the two surveys that were…

  12. Guidelines for Case Selection and Prioritizing Pupils for Participation in Speech/Language Programs/Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginn, Mary E.; And Others

    The monograph presents information designed to help speech/language pathologists in South Carolina improve the quality of services for children with communication disorders while still complying with mandates of P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. A discussion is presented regarding a continuum of appropriate services,…

  13. A STUDY OF THE EXPENSE OF STUDENT PERSONNEL SERVICES IN SELECTED CALIFORNIA PUBLIC JUNIOR COLLEGES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHEIDT, OMAR HENRY

    THIS STUDY OF THREE CALIFORNIA PUBLIC JUNIOR COLLEGES, WITH 1,500 TO 4,500 STUDENTS, IDENTIFIED THE PER STUDENT COST OF EACH OF 86 STUDENT PERSONNEL SERVICES, DETERMINED THE TOTAL COST OF SUCH SERVICES, AND DEVELOPED A PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING THE COSTS. GATHERED BY INTERVIEWS AND STUDY OF RECORDS, DATA WERE COMPILED AND ANALYZED BY FOUR 1620…

  14. Health and Human Services. Occupational Analyses. Worker Task Lists and Supplementary Information for Selected Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum and Resource Center.

    This publication contains worker task lists and supplementary information for eight occupations in the health and human services cluster: (1) criminal justice; (2) protective services; (3) dental assistant; (4) dental hygienist; (5) diagnostic medical sonographer; (6) medical office assistant; (7) fire medic; and (8) parks and recreation manager.…

  15. Organizational Commitment Patterns in Higher Education: A Study of Selected Midlevel Student Services Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Tate, Ixchel M.

    2010-01-01

    The student services profession was designed to create a commitment to the "whole student" and as such, the professionals who serve in this profession recognize the importance of this complex relationship. A review of the literature revealed that student services professionals are unsung professionals who generally feel a sense of calling to their…

  16. Evaluating the contribution of Sustainable Land Management to climate change adaptation and mitigation, and its impacts on Mediterranean ecosystem services.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vente, Joris; Zagaria, Cecilia; Pérez-Cutillas, Pedro; Almagro, Maria; Martínez-Mena, Maria; Baartman, Jantiene; Boix-Fayos, Carolina

    2015-04-01

    Changing climate and land management have strong implications for soil and water resources and for many essential ecosystem services (ES), such as provision of drinking and irrigation water, soil erosion control, and carbon sequestration. Large impacts of climate change are expected in the Mediterranean, characterized by a high dependence on scarce soil and water resources. On the other hand, well designed Sustainable Land Management (SLM) strategies can reduce the risks associated with climate change, but their design requires knowledge of their multiple effects on ecosystem services under present and future climate scenarios and of possible tradeoffs. Moreover, strategies are only viable if suited to local environmental, socio-economic and cultural conditions, so stakeholder engagement is crucial during their selection, evaluation and implementation. We present preliminary results of a catchment wide assessment of the expected impacts of climate change on water availability in the Segura basin (18800 km2) southeastern Spain. Furthermore, we evaluated the impacts of past land use changes and the benefits of catchment wide implementation of SLM practices to protect soil and water resources, prevent sedimentation of reservoirs and increase carbon sequestration in soil and vegetation. We used the InVEST modeling framework to simulate the water availability and sediment export under different climate, land use and land management scenarios, and quantified carbon stocks in soil and vegetation. Realistic scenarios of implementation of SLM practices were prepared based on an extensive process of stakeholder engagement and using latest climate change predictions from Regional Climate Models for different emission scenarios. Results indicate a strong decrease in water availability in the Segura catchment under expected climate change, with average reductions of upto 60% and large spatial variability. Land use changes (1990 - 2006) resulted in a slight increase in water

  17. Weak Polygenic Selection Drives the Rapid Adaptation of the Chemosensory System: Lessons from the Upstream Regions of the Major Gene Families

    PubMed Central

    Librado, Pablo; Rozas, Julio

    2016-01-01

    The animal chemosensory system is involved in essential biological processes, most of them mediated by proteins encoded in multigene families. These multigene families have been fundamental for the adaptation to new environments, significantly contributing to phenotypic variation. This adaptive potential contrasts, however, with the lack of studies at their upstream regions, especially taking into account the evidence linking their transcriptional changes to certain phenotypic effects. Here, we explicitly characterize the contribution of the upstream sequences of the major chemosensory gene families to rapid adaptive processes. For that, we analyze the genome sequences of 158 lines from a population of Drosophila melanogaster that recently colonized North America, and integrate functional and transcriptional data available for this species. We find that both, strong negative and strong positive selection, shape transcriptional evolution at the genome-wide level. The chemosensory upstream regions, however, exhibit a distinctive adaptive landscape, including multiple mutations of small beneficial effect and a reduced number of cis-regulatory elements. Together, our results suggest that the promiscuous and partially redundant transcription and function of the chemosensory genes provide evolutionarily opportunities for rapid adaptive episodes through weak polygenic selection. PMID:27503297

  18. Patients’ Expectations and Perceptions of Service Quality in the Selected Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Nadi, Aliasghar; Shojaee, Jalil; Abedi, Ghassem; Siamian, Hasan; Abedini, Ehsan; Rostami, Farideh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hospital’s success depends on patients’ expectations, perceptions, and judgment on the quality of services provided by hospitals. This study was conducted to assess the patients’ perceptions and expectations from the quality of inpatient health care in Vali-Asr hospital, Ghaemshahr, and Imam Khomeini and Shafa Hospitals, Sari. Materials and Methods: This study is applied regarding the objective of the study. Considering the research methodology, it is a descriptive – analytical study. The sample of this study consists of 600 patients with at least 24 hours of being hospitalized in internal, surgery, women, and children sectors of Vali-Asr, Ghaemshahr, Imam Khomeini, and Shafa Hospitals. Using random sampling method, the classifications relevant to the size of each class were selected. The data required was collected through the standard SERVQUAL questionnaire and then it was analyzed using the SPSS software. Results: The overall mean value and standard deviation of expectations were equal to 10.4 and 28, respectively. The mean value for the field of perception was 69.2 and the relevant standard deviation was 26. In terms of patients and hospital visits in concrete cases, the highest priority is related to empathy. The second priority is related to physical appearance, the third priority is related to responsiveness, the fourth priority is related to assurance, and the lowest priority is related to the reliability of the SERVQUAL approach. Examining the gap between patients’ perceptions and expectations, the widest gap was observed in the Vali-Asr Hospital with the mean and SD (-92.0±39.0) and the lowest gap was observed in Shafa Hospital with the mean value of (-39.9±44.0). According to The Kruskal–Wallis test, the difference observed in these three hospitals were significant. Conclusion: The results showed that patients’ expectations had not been met in any of the examined dimensions and their consent has not been achieved. It seemed

  19. Assessment of the commercial viability of selected options for on-orbit servicing (OOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Andrew Robert; Kingston, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the commercial viability of on-orbit servicing of communications satellites in geostationary orbit. Previous studies have shown the technical feasibility of servicing as well as the financial viability of some missions, in particular refuelling, therefore this paper analyses these repair missions and life extension missions. A simple parametric model for simulating communications satellite revenue streams is developed and the results are used to determine the maximum possible revenue for a servicing satellite operator. From this, the maximum cost of the servicing satellite as a proportion of the cost of the communications satellite is determined under three profit scenarios representing zero profit, acceptable profit to an operator in a mature industry and acceptable profit to an operator in an emerging industry. The results show that while servicing is financially viable (zero profit scenario), those missions which result in an increase in Comsat life which is a multiple of the mission duration are more likely to be commercially viable. Refuelling is therefore viable in all cases but life extension in most cases is only marginally viable. Repair missions to satellites which are partially operable are also unlikely to deliver sufficient value to justify carrying out servicing. Also the timing of a servicing mission in relation to the expected remaining life expectancy is a major factor in determining the mission's viability.

  20. Identifying targets of selection in mosaic genomes with machine learning: applications in Anopheles gambiae for detecting sites within locally adapted chromosomal inversions.

    PubMed

    He, Qixin; Knowles, L Lacey

    2016-05-01

    Chromosomal inversions are important structural changes that may facilitate divergent selection when they capture co-adaptive loci in the face of gene flow. However, identifying selection targets within inversions can be challenging. The high degrees of differentiation between heterokaryotypes, as well as the differences in demographic histories of collinear regions compared with inverted ones, reduce the power of traditional outlier analyses for detecting selected loci. Here, we develop a new approach that uses discriminant functions informed from inversion-specific expectations to classify loci that are under selection (or drift). Analysis of RAD sequencing data we collected in a classic dipteran species with polymorphic inversion clines-Anopheles gambiae, a malaria vector species from sub-Saharan Africa-demonstrates the benefits of the approach compared with traditional outlier analyses. We focus specifically on two polymorphic inversions, the 2La and 2Rb arrangements that predominate in dry habitats and the 2L+(a) and 2R+(b) arrangements in wet habitats, which contrast with the minimal geographic structure of SNPs from collinear regions. With our approach, we identify two strongly selected regions within 2La associated with dry habitat. Moreover, we also show that the prevalence of selection is greater in the arrangement 2L+(a) that is associated with wet habitat (unlike presumed importance of selective divergence associated with the shift of the mosquitoes into dry habitats). We discuss the implications of these results with respect to studies of rapid adaptation in these malaria vectors, and in particular, the insights our newly developed approach offers for identifying not only potential targets of selection, but also the population that has undergone adaptive change. PMID:26994406

  1. Adapting the Quebecois method for assessing implementation to the French National Alzheimer Plan 2008–2012: lessons for gerontological services integration

    PubMed Central

    Somme, Dominique; Trouvé, Hélène; Perisset, Catherine; Corvol, Aline; Ankri, Joël; Saint-Jean, Olivier; de Stampa, Matthieu

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Many countries face ageing-related demographic and epidemiological challenges, notably neurodegenerative disorders, due to the multiple care services they require, thereby pleading for a more integrated system of care. The integrated Quebecois method issued from the Programme of Research to Integrate Services for the Maintenance of Autonomy inspired a French pilot experiment and the National Alzheimer Plan 2008–2012. Programme of Research to Integrate Services for the Maintenance of Autonomy method implementation was rated with an evaluation grid adapted to assess its successive degrees of completion. Discussion The approaching end of the president's term led to the method's institutionalization (2011–2012), before the implementation study ended. When the government changed, the study was interrupted. The results extracted from that ‘lost’ study (presented herein) have, nonetheless, ‘found’ some key lessons. Key lessons/conclusion It was possible to implement a Quebecois integrated-care method in France. We describe the lessons and pitfalls encountered in adapting this evaluation tool. This process is necessarily multidisciplinary and requires a test phase. A simple tool for quantitative assessment of integration was obtained. The first assessment of the tool was unsatisfactory but requires further studies. In the meantime, we recommend using mixed methodologies to assess the services integration level. PMID:24959112

  2. Adaptability and selectivity of human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) pan agonists revealed from crystal structures

    SciTech Connect

    Oyama, Takuji; Toyota, Kenji; Waku, Tsuyoshi; Hirakawa, Yuko; Nagasawa, Naoko; Kasuga, Jun-ichi; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Miyachi, Hiroyuki; Morikawa, Kosuke

    2009-08-01

    The structures of the ligand-binding domains (LBDs) of human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARα, PPARγ and PPARδ) in complexes with a pan agonist, an α/δ dual agonist and a PPARδ-specific agonist were determined. The results explain how each ligand is recognized by the PPAR LBDs at an atomic level. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the nuclear hormone receptor family, which is defined as transcriptional factors that are activated by the binding of ligands to their ligand-binding domains (LBDs). Although the three PPAR subtypes display different tissue distribution patterns and distinct pharmacological profiles, they all are essentially related to fatty-acid and glucose metabolism. Since the PPARs share similar three-dimensional structures within the LBDs, synthetic ligands which simultaneously activate two or all of the PPARs could be potent candidates in terms of drugs for the treatment of abnormal metabolic homeostasis. The structures of several PPAR LBDs were determined in complex with synthetic ligands, derivatives of 3-(4-alkoxyphenyl)propanoic acid, which exhibit unique agonistic activities. The PPARα and PPARγ LBDs were complexed with the same pan agonist, TIPP-703, which activates all three PPARs and their crystal structures were determined. The two LBD–ligand complex structures revealed how the pan agonist is adapted to the similar, but significantly different, ligand-binding pockets of the PPARs. The structures of the PPARδ LBD in complex with an α/δ-selective ligand, TIPP-401, and with a related δ-specific ligand, TIPP-204, were also determined. The comparison between the two PPARδ complexes revealed how each ligand exhibits either a ‘dual selective’ or ‘single specific’ binding mode.

  3. A methodology for the valuation and selection of adaptable technology portfolios and its application to small and medium airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinon, Olivia J.

    The increase in the types of airspace users (large aircraft, small and regional jets, very light jets, unmanned aerial vehicles, etc.), as well as the very limited number of future new airport development projects are some of the factors that will characterize the next decades in air transportation. These factors, associated with a persistent growth in air traffic will worsen the current gridlock situation experienced at some major airports. As airports are becoming the major capacity bottleneck to continued growth in air traffic, it is therefore primordial to make the most efficient use of the current, and very often, underutilized airport infrastructure. This research thus proposes to address the increase in air traffic demand and resulting capacity issues by considering the implementation of operational concepts and technologies at underutilized airports. However, there are many challenges associated with sustaining the development of this type of airports. First, the need to synchronize evolving technologies with airports’ needs and investment capabilities is paramount. Additionally, it was observed that the evolution of secondary airports, and their needs, is tightly linked to the environment in which they operate. In particular, sensitivity of airports to changes in the dynamics of their environment is important, therefore requiring that the factors that drive the need for technology acquisition be identified and characterized. Finally, the difficulty to evaluate risk and make financially viable decisions, particularly when investing in new technologies, cannot be ignored. This research provides a methodology that addresses these challenges and ensures the sustainability of airport capacity-enhancement investments in a continuously changing environment. In particular, it is articulated around the need to provide decision makers with the capability to valuate and select adaptable technology portfolios to ensure airport financial viability. Hence, the four

  4. Selection pressure, cropping system and rhizosphere proximity affect atrazine degrader populations and activity in s-triazine adapted soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atrazine degrader populations and activity in s-triazine adapted soils are likely affected by interactions among and (or) between s-triazine application frequency, crop production system, and proximity to the rhizosphere. A field study was conducted on an s-triazine adapted soil to determine the ef...

  5. Reputation Revision Method for Selecting Cloud Services Based on Prior Knowledge and a Market Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qingtao; Zhang, Xulong; Zhang, Mingchuan; Lou, Ying; Zheng, Ruijuan; Wei, Wangyang

    2014-01-01

    The trust levels of cloud services should be evaluated to ensure their reliability. The effectiveness of these evaluations has major effects on user satisfaction, which is increasingly important. However, it is difficult to provide objective evaluations in open and dynamic environments because of the possibilities of malicious evaluations, individual preferences, and intentional praise. In this study, we propose a novel unfair rating filtering method for a reputation revision system. This method uses prior knowledge as the basis of similarity when calculating the average rating, which facilitates the recognition and filtering of unfair ratings. In addition, the overall performance is increased by a market mechanism that allows users and service providers to adjust their choice of services and service configuration in a timely manner. The experimental results showed that this method filtered unfair ratings in an effective manner, which greatly improved the precision of the reputation revision system. PMID:24696650

  6. 77 FR 65855 - Cancellation of Indianapolis Grain Inspection & Weighing Service, Inc. Designation; Selection of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Cancellation of Indianapolis Grain Inspection... Indianapolis, IN Area AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Indianapolis Grain Inspection & Weighing Service, Inc. (Indianapolis) is designated to...

  7. The Role of Bridging Organizations in Enhancing Ecosystem Services and Facilitating Adaptive Management of Social-Ecological Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach for monitoring the response of ecological systems to different policies and practices and attempts to reduce the inherent uncertainty in ecological systems via system monitoring and iterative decision making and experimentation (Holling 1978). M...

  8. Site Selection and Deployment Scenarios for Servicing of Deep-Space Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willenberg, Harvey J.; Fruhwirth, Michael A.; Potter, Seth D.; Leete, Stephen J.; Moe, Rud V.

    2001-01-01

    The deep-space environment and relative transportation accessibility of the Weak Stability Boundary (WSB) region connecting the Earth-Moon and Sun-Earth libration points makes the Sun-Earth L2 an attractive operating location for future observatories. A summary is presented of key characteristics of future observatories designed to operate in this region. The ability to service observatories that operate within the region around the Lagrange points may greatly enhance their reliability, lifetime, and scientific return. The range of servicing missions might begin with initial deployment, assembly, test, and checkout. Post-assembly servicing missions might also include maintenance and repair, critical fluids resupply, and instrument upgrades. We define the range of servicing missions that can be performed with extravehicular activity, with teleoperated robots, and with autonomous robots. We then describe deployment scenarios that affect payload design. A trade study is summarized of the benefits and risks of alternative servicing sites, including at the International Space Station, at other low-Earth-orbit locations, at the Earth-Moon L1 location, and on-site at the Sun-Earth L2 location. Required technology trades and development issues for observatory servicing at each site, and with each level of autonomy, are summarized.

  9. Selection at the amino acid level can influence synonymous codon usage: implications for the study of codon adaptation in plastid genes.

    PubMed Central

    Morton, B R

    2001-01-01

    A previously employed method that uses the composition of noncoding DNA as the basis of a test for selection between synonymous codons in plastid genes is reevaluated. The test requires the assumption that in the absence of selective differences between synonymous codons the composition of silent sites in coding sequences will match the composition of noncoding sites. It is demonstrated here that this assumption is not necessarily true and, more generally, that using compositional properties to draw inferences about selection on silent changes in coding sequences is much more problematic than commonly assumed. This is so because selection on nonsynonymous changes can influence the composition of synonymous sites (i.e., codon usage) in a complex manner, meaning that the composition biases of different silent sites, including neutral noncoding DNA, are not comparable. These findings also draw into question the commonly utilized method of investigating how selection to increase translation accuracy influences codon usage. The work then focuses on implications for studies that assess codon adaptation, which is selection on codon usage to enhance translation rate, in plastid genes. A new test that does not require the use of noncoding DNA is proposed and applied. The results of this test suggest that far fewer plastid genes display codon adaptation than previously thought. PMID:11560910

  10. Estimating the costs of the vaccine supply chain and service delivery for selected districts in Kenya and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mvundura, Mercy; Lorenson, Kristina; Chweya, Amos; Kigadye, Rosemary; Bartholomew, Kathryn; Makame, Mohammed; Lennon, T Patrick; Mwangi, Steven; Kirika, Lydia; Kamau, Peter; Otieno, Abner; Murunga, Peninah; Omurwa, Tom; Dafrossa, Lyimo; Kristensen, Debra

    2015-05-28

    Having data on the costs of the immunization system can provide decision-makers with information to benchmark the costs when evaluating the impact of new technologies or programmatic innovations. This paper estimated the supply chain and immunization service delivery costs and cost per dose in selected districts in Kenya and Tanzania. We also present operational data describing the supply chain and service delivery points (SDPs). To estimate the supply chain costs, we collected resource-use data for the cold chain, distribution system, and health worker time and per diems paid. We also estimated the service delivery costs, which included the time cost of health workers to provide immunization services, and per diems and transport costs for outreach sessions. Data on the annual quantities of vaccines distributed to each facility, and the occurrence and duration of stockouts were collected from stock registers. These data were collected from the national store, 2 regional and 4 district stores, and 12 SDPs in each country for 2012. Cost per dose for the supply chain and immunization service delivery were estimated. The average annual costs per dose at the SDPs were $0.34 (standard deviation (s.d.) $0.18) for Kenya when including only the vaccine supply chain costs, and $1.33 (s.d. $0.82) when including immunization service delivery costs. In Tanzania, these costs were $0.67 (s.d. $0.35) and $2.82 (s.d. $1.64), respectively. Both countries experienced vaccine stockouts in 2012, bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine being more likely to be stocked out in Kenya, and oral poliovirus vaccine in Tanzania. When stockouts happened, they usually lasted for at least one month. Tanzania made investments in 2011 in preparation for planned vaccine introductions, and their supply chain cost per dose is expected to decline with the new vaccine introductions. Immunization service delivery costs are a significant portion of the total costs at the SDPs. PMID:25865467

  11. 14 CFR 272.9 - Selection of a carrier to provide essential air service and payment of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE TO... provide the proposed essential air service; (4) The impact of the proposed service on service provided...

  12. Comparison of Different Strategies for Selection/Adaptation of Mixed Microbial Cultures Able to Ferment Crude Glycerol Derived from Second-Generation Biodiesel

    PubMed Central

    Varrone, C.; Heggeset, T. M. B.; Le, S. B.; Haugen, T.; Markussen, S.; Skiadas, I. V.; Gavala, H. N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective of this study was the selection and adaptation of mixed microbial cultures (MMCs), able to ferment crude glycerol generated from animal fat-based biodiesel and produce building-blocks and green chemicals. Various adaptation strategies have been investigated for the enrichment of suitable and stable MMC, trying to overcome inhibition problems and enhance substrate degradation efficiency, as well as generation of soluble fermentation products. Repeated transfers in small batches and fed-batch conditions have been applied, comparing the use of different inoculum, growth media, and Kinetic Control. The adaptation of activated sludge inoculum was performed successfully and continued unhindered for several months. The best results showed a substrate degradation efficiency of almost 100% (about 10 g/L glycerol in 21 h) and different dominant metabolic products were obtained, depending on the selection strategy (mainly 1,3-propanediol, ethanol, or butyrate). On the other hand, anaerobic sludge exhibited inactivation after a few transfers. To circumvent this problem, fed-batch mode was used as an alternative adaptation strategy, which led to effective substrate degradation and high 1,3-propanediol and butyrate production. Changes in microbial composition were monitored by means of Next Generation Sequencing, revealing a dominance of glycerol consuming species, such as Clostridium, Klebsiella, and Escherichia. PMID:26509171

  13. Confidentiality Protection of User Data and Adaptive Resource Allocation for Managing Multiple Workflow Performance in Service-Based Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Ho

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, two interrelated problems of service-based systems (SBS) are addressed: protecting users' data confidentiality from service providers, and managing performance of multiple workflows in SBS. Current SBSs pose serious limitations to protecting users' data confidentiality. Since users' sensitive data is sent in…

  14. Formative Reflections of University Recreation Science Students in South Africa as Catalyst for an Adapted Service-Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goslin, Anneliese; van der Klashorst, Engela; Kluka, Darlene A.; van Wyk, Johannes G. U.

    2016-01-01

    Community-university partnerships through service-learning have progressively developed as part of institutions of higher education's mission statements. This paper explores the qualitative reflections of 410 undergraduate students enrolled in an academic recreation science course on a first time service-learning experience in South Africa. The…

  15. Adapted Physical Education Service Approaches and the Effects on the Perceived Efficacy Beliefs of General Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umhoefer, Donna L.; Vargas, Tiffanye M.; Beyer, Robbi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what effect the type of APE service approach had on GPE teachers' efficacy when working with students with disabilities. The three approaches of APE service delivery chosen for the study were (a) consultation, (b) itinerant, and (c) collaborative. Results indicate significant differences between levels of…

  16. Selected Bibliographic Survey of Resources for Community Services and Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Univ., College Park. Univ. Coll.

    A bibliography of 114 books and 32 professional journals and periodicals found most useful to community services and continuing education (CS/CE) professionals working in higher education institutions in Maryland is presented. Books are listed alphabetically, and the subject category in which the contributor found the reference most useful is…

  17. GABE: A Cloud Brokerage System for Service Selection, Accountability and Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundareswaran, Smitha

    2014-01-01

    Much like its meteorological counterpart, "Cloud Computing" is an amorphous agglomeration of entities. It is amorphous in that the exact layout of the servers, the load balancers and their functions are neither known nor fixed. Its an agglomerate in that multiple service providers and vendors often coordinate to form a multitenant system…

  18. 77 FR 66578 - Cancellation of Indianapolis Grain Inspection & Weighing Service, Inc. Designation; Selection of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ....Jabs@usda.gov . Correction In the Federal Register of October 31, 2012, in FR Doc. 2012-26824, on page...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Cancellation of Indianapolis Grain Inspection & Weighing Service, Inc. Designation...: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY:...

  19. Case Studies of Social Services in the Schools of Selected Cities. Final Report. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, William J.

    This study examines the delivery of social services in urban education in the light of the history of their origination, implementation, and significance. Explored are the educational reform movements in urban centers between 1840 and 1920, especially the period separating the depression of 1893 and the Palmer Raids of World War I. Attention…

  20. Longitudinal Study of Effects of Selected Employment and Training Services on Migrants and Other Seasonal Farmworkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Dale

    1979-01-01

    Post-program labor force experiences of farmworkers receiving nonagricultural employment and training services from the CETA Title III farmworker program in 1975 were studied. Available from Farmworker Data Network, 7905 W. 44th, Wheat Ridge, Colorado 80033 ($12.00). (SB)

  1. A Review of Selected Ecosystem Services Supplied by Coastal Wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant ecosystem services derive from the coastal wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes even though they have undergone substantial declines since European settlement. Basin-wide, two-thirds of the original coastal wetlands have been lost, and the remaining 126,000 ha of US...

  2. Problem Solving Strategies of Selected Pre-Service Secondary School Mathematics Teachers in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yew, Wun Theam; Zamri, Sharifah Norul Akmar Syed

    2016-01-01

    Problem solving strategies of eight pre-service secondary school mathematics teachers (PSSMTs) were examined in this study. A case study research design was employed and clinical interview technique was used to collect the data. Materials collected for analysis consisted of audiotapes and videotapes of clinical interviews, subjects' notes and…

  3. Cost of maternal health services in selected primary care centres in Ghana: a step down allocation approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of knowledge on the cost of health care services in Ghana. This poses a challenge in the economic evaluation of programmes and inhibits policy makers in making decisions about allocation of resources to improve health care. This study analysed the overall cost of providing health services in selected primary health centres and how much of the cost is attributed to the provision of antenatal and delivery services. Methods The study has a cross-sectional design and quantitative data was collected between July and December 2010. Twelve government run primary health centres in the Kassena-Nankana and Builsa districts of Ghana were randomly selected for the study. All health-care related costs for the year 2010 were collected from a public service provider’s perspective. The step-down allocation approach recommended by World Health Organization was used for the analysis. Results The average annual cost of operating a health centre was $136,014 US. The mean costs attributable to ANC and delivery services were $23,063 US and $11,543 US respectively. Personnel accounted for the largest proportion of cost (45%). Overall, ANC (17%) and delivery (8%) were responsible for less than a quarter of the total cost of operating the health centres. By disaggregating the costs, the average recurrent cost was estimated at $127,475 US, representing 93.7% of the total cost. Even though maternal health services are free, utilization of these services at the health centres were low, particularly for delivery (49%), leading to high unit costs. The mean unit costs were $18 US for an ANC visit and $63 US for spontaneous delivery. Conclusion The high unit costs reflect underutilization of the existing capacities of health centres and indicate the need to encourage patients to use health centres .The study provides useful information that could be used for cost effectiveness analyses of maternal and neonatal care interventions, as well as for policy makers to

  4. Adapting prehospital care to a large rural geographic area: a review of the Emergency Health Services Nova Scotia implementation.

    PubMed

    Howlett, Michael K

    2003-01-01

    Nova Scotia is building a system of prehospital care based on four principles: "Fail Safe" government ownership; "Full Service" advanced life support capable; "High Performance" resource efficiency; and "Fiscally Responsible" performance goals, incentives and penalties. Emergency Health Services Nova Scotia exercises funding and regulatory control through service provided by a private contractor. Benefits include improved fleet and equipment management, information systems, 911 dispatch and performance tracking, medical control and paramedic care, and public accountability. Problems include rural dispatch, budget costs, labour issues and stakeholder communication. PMID:14981841

  5. The Feasibility of Adapting Open University Materials for Use in Polytechnics and Similar Institutions. A CNAA Development Services Project Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Barry; Bibby, John

    This report presents conclusions of a study of the feasibility of adapting Open University materials for use in student-centered learning in other institutions, especially polytechnics. It discusses the development of open learning in the polytechnics, drawing attention to the need for collaborative production of materials. Chapter 1 is an…

  6. Selection and Compensation of Architectural Services for School Facility Construction: Guidelines for School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Marilou; Coughlin, Twyla G.

    These guidelines highlight some important administrative and legal aspects of school construction projects (particularly under Alaskan law) and propose ways to address these issues during the process of selecting and contracting with school architects. The document first emphasizes the role of the architect, then reviews activities that should…

  7. SALARIES FOR SELECTED OCCUPATIONS IN SERVICES FOR THE BLIND, JANUARY 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KANNINEN, TOIVO P.

    OF 803 GOVERNMENT AND NONGOVERNMENT AGENCIES CONTACTED BY QUESTIONNAIRE, 620 REPORTED SALARY INFORMATION FOR FULL-TIME EMPLOYEES WHO SPEND 50 PERCENT OR MORE OF THEIR TIME IN WORK FOR THE BLIND IN ANY OF THE 26 PROFESSIONAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE OCCUPATIONS SELECTED FOR THE STUDY. GOVERNMENT AGENCIES EMPLOYED 7,000 AND NONGOVERNMENT AGENCIES 4,000 OF…

  8. Selected Sources, Resources and Services at the New York University Bobst Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Roger A.

    Intended for students and researchers at the Elmer Holmes Bobst Library at New York University, this document is comprised of a group of nine short research guides which present selected library resources on specific research areas or for specific student groups. Included are library resources for journalism students, a research guide on…

  9. Adaptation of the chlorophycean Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides to stressful acidic, mine metal-rich waters as result of pre-selective mutations.

    PubMed

    López-Rodas, Victoria; Marvá, Fernando; Rouco, Mónica; Costas, Eduardo; Flores-Moya, Antonio

    2008-06-01

    Several species of microalgae, closely related to mesophilic lineages, inhabit the extreme environment (pH 2.5, high levels of metals) of the Spain's Aguas Agrias Stream water (AASW). Consequently, AASW constitutes an interesting natural laboratory for analysis of adaptation by microalgae to extremely stressful conditions. To distinguish between the pre-selective or post-selective origin of adaptation processes allowing the existence of microalgae in AASW, a Luria-Delbrück fluctuation analysis was performed with the chlorophycean Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides isolated from non-acidic waters. In the analysis, AASW was used as selective factor. Preselective, resistant D. chlorelloides cells appeared with a frequency of 1.1 x 10(-6) per cell per generation. AASW-resistant mutants, with a diminished Malthusian fitness, are maintained in non-extreme waters as the result of a balance between new AASW-resistant cells arising by mutation and AASW-resistant mutants eliminated by natural selection (equilibrium at c. 12 AASW-resistants per 10(7) wild-type cells). We propose that the microalgae inhabiting this stressful environment could be the descendents of chance mutants that arrived in the past or are even arriving at the present. PMID:18495202

  10. Adaptive mobile access protocol (AMAP) for the message service of a land mobile satellite experiment (MSAT-X)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, V. O. K.; Yan, T.-Y.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a feasibility study of the adaptive mobile access protocol (AMAP) for MSATA-X, a proposed experimental mobile satellite communication network. The mobiles are dispersed over a wide geographical area and the channel data rate is limited due to the size and cost limitations of mobile antennas. AMAP is a reservation based multiple-access scheme. The available bandwidth is divided into subchannels, which are divided into reservation and message channels. The ALOHA multiple-access scheme is employed in the reservation channels, while the message channels are demand assigned. AMAP adaptively reallocates the reservation and message channels to optimize system performance. It has been shown that if messages are generated at a rate of one message per hour, AMAP can support approximately 2000 active users per 2400 bit/s channel with an average delay of 1.4 s.

  11. The Gemini Frontier Field: Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics Ks-band imaging of selected HST Frontier Field galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivo, Gaetano; Carrasco, Rodrigo; Schirmer, Mischa; Pessev, Peter; Winge, Claudia; Garrel, Vincent; Neichel, Benoit; Vidal, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    We use the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS) and the Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI) at the Gemini South telescope to image three of the six Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Frontier Field targets. These observations cover the gap between the HST observations beyond 1.7 microns and the 3.6 micron provided by Spitzer. GeMS is the first multi-conjugate adaptive optics system in use at an 8meter telescope. It delivers and uniform, close to diffraction-limited near-infrared images over a 2‧ field of view. In this presentation we describe the release of 100'' x 100'' high resolution wide-field images obtained for the galaxy clusters MACS J0416.1-2403 and Abell 2744 in Ks-band. The angular resolution achieved is between 70 to 110 mas, twice as high as HST/WFC3, using a single natural guide star only. This is a demonstration that even for fields at high galactic latitude, where natural guide stars are scarce, current multi-conjugated adaptive optics technology at 8m-telescopes has opened a new window on the distant Universe.

  12. Adaptive Driving Equipment: Selection and Major Considerations [and] Battery Powered Scooters and 3-Wheelers. Information Support Packets #1 and #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, John H.

    Two brief guides offer suggestions for persons with physical disabilities who are considering the purchase of adaptive driving equipment, battery-powered scooters, or three wheelers. The first guide offers guidelines for individuals considering purchase of special hand controls or other modifications or a van lift to enhance their independence in…

  13. Seasonal adaptations to day length in ecotypes of Diorhabda spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) inform selection of agents against saltcedars (Tamarix spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Seasonal adaptations to day length often limit the effective range of biocontrol insects. The leaf beetle Diorhabda carinulata was introduced into North America from Fukang, China (latitude 44°N) for the biocontrol of saltcedars (Tamarix spp.), but failed to establish below 38° latitude because o...

  14. Executive Functioning in Three Groups of Pupils in D-KEFSs: Selected Issues in Adapting the Test Battery for Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferjencík, Ján; Slavkovská, Miriam; Kresila, Juraj

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports on the adaptation of a D-KEFS test battery for Slovakia. Drawing on concrete examples, it describes and illustrates the key issues relating to the transfer of test items from one socio-cultural environment to another. The standardisation sample of the population of Slovak pupils in the fourth year of primary school included 250…

  15. Item Selection in Computerized Adaptive Testing: Improving the a-Stratified Design with the Sympson-Hetter Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Chi-Keung; Chang, Hua-Hua; Hau, Kit-Tai

    2002-01-01

    Item exposure control, test-overlap minimization, and the efficient use of item pool are some of the important issues in computerized adaptive testing (CAT) designs. The overexposure of some items and high test-overlap rate may cause both item and test security problems. Previously these problems associated with the maximum information (Max-I)…

  16. Can Conservation Contracts Co-exist with Change? Payment for Ecosystem Services in the Context of Adaptive Decision-Making and Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Tanya; Murtinho, Felipe; Cárdenas Camacho, Luis Mario; Crespo, Patricio; McHugh, Sarah; Salmerón, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the ability of payment for ecosystem services (PES) programs to operate in the context of dynamic and complex social-ecological systems. Drawing on the experiences of two different PES programs in Latin America, we examine how PES institutions fit with the tenets of adaptive decision-making for sustainable resource management. We identify how the program goals and the connection to the market influence the incentive structure, information gathering, learning and feedback processes, and the structure of decision-making rights, specifically the ability to make and modify resource-use rules. Although limited in their generalizability, findings from the two case studies suggest a tension between the contractual model of PES and adaptive decision-making in natural resource systems. PES programs are not inherently decentralized, flexible management tools, as PES contracts tend to restrict decision-making rights and offer minimal flexibility mechanisms to change resource-use practices over the duration of the contract period. Furthermore, PES design and flexibility is heavily dependent on the goals and mission of the buyer and the respective market. If PES is to facilitate sustainable resource management, greater attention is needed to assess how the institutional design of the PES contracts influence the motivation and capacity of participants and program officers alike to adaptively manage the respective resource systems.

  17. An Elementary Overview of the Selection of Materials for Service in Oxygen-Enriched Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Samuel Eddie

    2012-01-01

    The process for selecting materials for use in oxygen or oxygen-enriched environments is one that continues to be investigated by many industries due to the importance to those industries of oxygen systems. There are several excellent resources available to assist oxygen systems design engineers and end-users, with the most comprehensive being ASTM MNL-36, Safe Use of Oxygen and Oxygen Systems: Handbook for Design, Operation and Maintenance, 2nd Edition. ASTM also makes available several standards for oxygen systems. However, the ASTM publications are extremely detailed, and typically designed for professionals who already possess a working knowledge of oxygen systems. No notable resource exists, whether an ASTM or other organizational publication, which can be used to educate engineers or technicians who have no prior knowledge of the nuances of oxygen system design and safety. This paper will fill the void for information needed by organizations that design or operate oxygen systems. The information in this paper is not new information, but is a concise and easily understood summary of selecting materials for oxygen systems. This paper will serve well as an employee s first introduction to oxygen system materials selection, and probably the employee s first introduction to ASTM.

  18. Status of the Residential Conservation Service Program in selected states as of December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Frogge, L.M.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.; Morris, L.E.

    1982-09-01

    The primary objective of the study reported was to collect information concerning Residential Conservation Service (RCS) and similar residential audit programs to determine the implementation status of the RCS programs in various parts of the country as of December 1, 1981. Common experiences, problems, and treatment of RCS and other residential audit programs are briefly overviewed, and then the interview findings are discussed on a state-by-state basis for each of the eleven states contacted. The program structure and status are described for each state, including the nonregulated utility programs, unique features, and problems and impacts. The 11 states are: California, Connecticut, Delaware, Iowa, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, and Texas. Appended are an interview guide and a table of program coverage. (LEW)

  19. ["Hereditary and racial welfare" in public health services: support and selection].

    PubMed

    Donhauser, J

    2013-11-01

    The long-term aim for the German public health service during National Socialism was a hereditary and racial welfare. Several following legal regulations contributed to the implementation of a specific national socialist population policy on the basis of racial hygiene and gave immense power to health officers. Especially with the Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Sick Offspring, compulsory sterilisation was legalised and caused about 400,000 victims up to 1945. The central force in this new system was the public health office. The work of two health officers in neighbouring offices in upper Bavaria is compared. Results show that health officers had a large flexibility in their individual estimation. The restrictive interpretation of their duties did not necessarily cause any sanctions by the superior authority. PMID:24142372

  20. A Profile of the Student Support Services Program. 1997-98 and 1998-99, with Select Data from 1999-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Nancy; Cahalan, Margaret W.; Cunningham, Kusuma; Agufa, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes data submitted by Student Support Services (SSS) projects for program years 1997-98 and 1998-99, with selected data from 1999-2000. In 1997-98, aggregate data on project participants and services were submitted by 98 percent of projects; individual participant records were submitted by 86 percent of projects in 1997-98 and…