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Sample records for adaptive short forms

  1. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Diabetes Empowerment Scale – Short Form

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Fernanda Figueredo; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Pagano, Adriana Silvina; Torres, Heloísa de Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To translate, cross-culturally adapt and validate the Diabetes Empowerment Scale – Short Form for assessment of psychosocial self-efficacy in diabetes care within the Brazilian cultural context. METHODS Assessment of the instrument’s conceptual equivalence, as well as its translation and cross-cultural adaptation were performed following international standards. The Expert Committee’s assessment of the translated version was conducted through a web questionnaire developed and applied via the web tool e-Surv. The cross-culturally adapted version was used for the pre-test, which was carried out via phone call in a group of eleven health care service users diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The pre-test results were examined by a group of experts, composed by health care consultants, applied linguists and statisticians, aiming at an adequate version of the instrument, which was subsequently used for test and retest in a sample of 100 users diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus via phone call, their answers being recorded by the web tool e-Surv. Internal consistency and reproducibility of analysis were carried out within the statistical programming environment R. RESULTS Face and content validity were attained and the Brazilian Portuguese version, entitled Escala de Autoeficácia em Diabetes – Versão Curta, was established. The scale had acceptable internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.634 (95%CI 0.494– 0.737), while the correlation of the total score in the two periods was considered moderate (0.47). The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.50. CONCLUSIONS The translated and cross-culturally adapted version of the instrument to spoken Brazilian Portuguese was considered valid and reliable to be used for assessment within the Brazilian population diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The use of a web tool (e-Surv) for recording the Expert Committee responses as well as the responses in the validation tests proved

  2. Spanish Adaptation and Validation of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory-Short Form.

    PubMed

    Castro, Manuel Cárdenas; Delgado, Jaime Barrientos; Alvarado, Emilio Ricci; Rovira, Darío Páez

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to adapt and validate the short form of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI-SF) in Spanish. The scale consists of 10 items distributed in 5 posttraumatic growth dimensions measured in the original instrument. The psychometric properties and dimensionality of the scale are examined in a sample of college students (N = 681). Results lend support to the validity and reliability (α = .83) of the PTGI-SF. The dimensions of PTGI-SF show correlations ranging between .29 and .52. In addition, the inventory correlates significantly with deliberate rumination (r = .39) and the search for meaning in life (r = .32). The factor loadings of the items in the confirmatory factor analysis varied between .52 and .87, showing good fit indexes (comparative fit index = .97, Tucker-Lewis index = .93, relative fit index = .90, incremental fit index = .97, normed fit index = .96, and root mean square error of approximation = .05). Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis supported invariance of the PTGI-SF across the 2 groups. Finally, significantly higher PTGI-SF scores were observed in subjects who were actively looking for meaning in life, or had found it after a seeking process, than in subjects who had not looked for meaning in life or had given up because they had not been successful.

  3. An 8-item short form of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire adapted for children (ChEDE-Q8).

    PubMed

    Kliem, Sören; Schmidt, Ricarda; Vogel, Mandy; Hiemisch, Andreas; Kiess, Wieland; Hilbert, Anja

    2017-01-25

    Eating disturbances are common in children placing a vulnerable group of them at risk for full-syndrome eating disorders and adverse health outcomes. To provide a valid self-report assessment of eating disorder psychopathology in children, a short form of the child version of the Eating Disorder Examination (ChEDE-Q) was psychometrically evaluated. Similar to the EDE-Q, the ChEDE-Q provides assessment of eating disorder psychopathology related to anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder; however, the ChEDE-Q does not assess symptoms of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, pica, or rumination disorder. In 1,836 participants ages 7 to 18 years, recruited from two independent population-based samples, the factor structure of the recently established 8-item short form EDE-Q8 for adults was examined, including measurement invariance analyses on age, gender, and weight status derived from objectively measured weight and height. For convergent validity, the ChEDE-Q global score, body esteem scale, strengths and difficulties questionnaire, and sociodemographic characteristics were used. Item characteristics and age- and gender-specific norms were calculated. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed good model fit for the 8-item ChEDE-Q. Measurement invariance analyses indicated strict invariance for all analyzed subgroups. Convergent validity was provided through associations with well-established questionnaires and age, gender, and weight status, in expected directions. The newly developed ChEDE-Q8 proved to be a psychometrically sound and economical self-report assessment tool of eating disorder psychopathology in children. Further validation studies are needed, particularly concerning discriminant and predictive validity.

  4. Letting the CAT out of the Bag: Comparing Computer Adaptive Tests and an Eleven-Item Short Form of the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Karon F.; Choi, Seung W.; Crane, Paul K.; Deyo, Richard A.; Johnson, Kurt L.; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    Study Design A post-hoc simulation of a computer adaptive administration of the items of a modified version of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of adaptive administration of back pain-related disability items compared to a fixed 11-item short form. Summary of Background Data Short form versions of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire have been developed. An alternative to paper-and -pencil short forms is to administer items adaptively so that items are presented based on a person’s responses to previous items. Theoretically, this allows precise estimation of back pain disability with administration of only a few items. Materials and Methods Data were gathered from two previously conducted studies of persons with back pain. An item response theory model was used to calibrate scores based on all items, items of a paper-and-pencil short form, and several computer adaptive tests (CATs). Results Correlations between each CAT condition and scores based on a 23-item version of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire ranged from 0.93 to 0.98. Compared to an 11-item short form, an 11-item CAT produced scores that were significantly more highly correlated with scores based on the 23-item scale. CATs with even fewer items also produced scores that were highly correlated with scores based on all items. For example, scores from a five-item CAT had a correlation of 0.93 with full scale scores. Seven- and nine-item CATs correlated at 0.95 and 0.97, respectively. A CAT with a standard-error-based stopping rule produced scores that correlated at 0.95 with full scale scores. Conclusions A CAT-based back pain-related disability measure may be a valuable tool for use in clinical and research contexts. Use of CAT for other common measures in back pain research, such as other functional scales or measures of psychological distress, may offer similar advantages. PMID:18496352

  5. Translation, adaptation, validation and performance of the American Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire Short Form (WEL-SF) to a Norwegian version: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, John R.; Nielsen, Hans J.; Natvig, Gerd K.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Researchers have emphasized a need to identify predictors that can explain the variability in weight management after bariatric surgery. Eating self-efficacy has demonstrated predictive impact on patients’ adherence to recommended eating habits following multidisciplinary treatment programs, but has to a limited extent been subject for research after bariatric surgery. Recently an American short form version (WEL-SF) of the commonly used Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire (WEL) was available for research and clinical purposes. Objectives. We intended to translate and culturally adapt the WEL-SF to Norwegian conditions, and to evaluate the new versions’ psychometrical properties in a Norwegian population of morbidly obese patients eligible for bariatric surgery. Design. Cross-sectional Methods. A total of 225 outpatients selected for Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) were recruited; 114 non-operated and 111 operated patients, respectively. The questionnaire was translated through forward and backward procedures. Structural properties were assessed performing principal component analysis (PCA), correlation and regression analysis were conducted to evaluate convergent validity and sensitivity, respectively. Data was assessed by mean, median, item response, missing values, floor- and ceiling effect, Cronbach’s alpha and alpha if item deleted. Results. The PCA resulted in one factor with eigenvalue > 1, explaining 63.0% of the variability. The WEL-SF sum scores were positively correlated with the Self-efficacy and quality of life instruments (p < 0.001). The WEL-SF was associated with body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.001) and changes in BMI (p = 0.026). A very high item response was obtained with only one missing value (0.4%). The ceiling effect was in average 0.9 and 17.1% in the non-operated and operated sample, respectively. Strong internal consistency (r = 0.92) was obtained, and Cronbach’s alpha remained high (0.86–0.92) if single items

  6. Short Form of the Developmental Behaviour Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.; Einfeld, Stewart L.; Dekker, Marielle C.; Koot, Hans M.; Emerson, Eric; Koskentausta, Terhi; Tonge, Bruce J.

    2007-01-01

    A 24-item short form of the 96-item Developmental Behaviour Checklist was developed to provide a brief measure of Total Behaviour Problem Score for research purposes. The short form Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC-P24) was chosen for low bias and high precision from among 100 randomly selected item sets. The DBC-P24 was developed from…

  7. A cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire-2: Chinese version in patients with chronic visceral pain

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiang-Lin; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Gao, Min; Zhang, Shengfa; Tian, Dong-Hua; Chen, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to develop a culturally appropriate and functional Standard Mandarin Chinese translation of the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire-2 (SF-MPQ-2) and to assess its reliability and validity for characterizing chronic visceral pain in Chinese patients. Background The SF-MPQ-2 has been widely used in studies of pain epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment, and even pathophysiologic mechanisms to assess the major symptoms of clinical pain. Previous reports have shown favorable reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the SF-MPQ-2 in diverse samples of patients with chronic and acute pain. However, a culturally appropriate, functional Chinese version of the scale has never been developed. Methods Beaton’s guidelines were used for the translation and back-translation procedures. Patients (n=145) with chronic visceral pain were recruited to complete the Standard Mandarin Chinese version of the SF-MPQ-2 (SF-MPQ-2-CN), of which 41 were asked to complete the SF-MPQ-2-CN a second time, 3 days after the initial visit. The test–retest reliability was quantified using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to assess internal consistency. Possible components were determined by exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation, and a value of 0.4 was considered requisite for the loading of each factor. Results The ICC for subscales ranged from 0.909 to 0.952, and that of the total scale was 0.927, suggesting excellent reliability and validity of the SF-MPQ-2-CN. Cronbach’s alpha for subscales ranged from 0.896 to 0.916, and that of the total scale was 0.836 and 0.831 for primary and secondary visits, respectively. The factor loading matrix of the SF-MPQ-2-CN ranged from 0.734 to 0.901 for each of the following subscales: continuous, intermittent, neuropathic, and affective, revealing four components similar to the original scale. Conclusion The reliability and validity of the SF-MPQ-2-CN scale

  8. A short-form measure of loneliness.

    PubMed

    Hays, R D; DiMatteo, M R

    1987-01-01

    The revised UCLA Loneliness Scale (ULS-20) and a four-item short form (ULS-4) are widely used in personality research (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1980). In an exploratory factor analysis of the ULS-20, we identified eight items that loaded substantially on the first factor. These items were combined to form an alternative short-form measure, the ULS-8. The results of this study indicate that the ULS-8 is reliable, valid, and a better substitute for the ULS-20 than is the ULS-4. Consistent with the previous research, the loneliness measures (ULS-20, ULS-8, ULS-4) were strongly related to socially undesirable personality characteristics, but loneliness was uncorrelated with the six different health-related behaviors (exercise, meal regularity, alcohol use, hard drug use, smoking, and hours of sleep) assessed in this study.

  9. Feminist Short Fiction: New Forms and Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Nancy

    This paper examines the stylistic changes that have occurred since 1850 in short fiction written by women. A shift is noted from the sentimental, romantic, "pretty" writing of the past to today's more realistic writing, with its characteristically vivid imagery. Discussion defines the term "feminist fiction" and shows how today's women writers are…

  10. Development of a Short Form: The Ball Aptitude Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, George A.; Bolin, Aaron U.; Briggs, Thomas E.

    2000-01-01

    High school seniors (n=474), high school freshmen (n=1,153), salespersons (n=374), sheet metal workers (n=148), sheet metal applicants (n=424), and carpenter applicants (n=279) were used to test the short-form Ball Aptitude Battery (BAB). The development of the short-form BAB indicates comparable results to the long-form BAB in terms of…

  11. 28 CFR 5.202 - Short form registration statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Short form registration statement. 5.202... AGENTS REGISTRATION ACT OF 1938, AS AMENDED § 5.202 Short form registration statement. (a) Except as..., employee, and agent of a registrant is required to file a registration statement under the Act. Unless...

  12. Short-Form Philadelphia Naming Test: Rationale and Empirical Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Grant M.; Schwartz, Myrna F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To create two matched short forms of the Philadelphia Naming Test (PNT; Roach, Schwartz, Martin, Grewal, & Brecher, 1996) that yield similar results to the PNT for measuring anomia. Method: In Study 1, archived naming data from 94 individuals with aphasia were used to identify which PNT items should be included in the short forms. The 2…

  13. Intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome: A case report.

    PubMed

    Palla, Viktoria-Varvara; Karaolanis, Georgios; Pentazos, Panagiotis; Ladopoulos, Alexios; Papageorgiou, Evaggelos

    2015-06-01

    Short bowel syndrome is a clinical entity that includes loss of energy, fluid, electrolytes or micronutrient balance because of inadequate functional intestinal length. This case report demonstrates the case of a woman who compensated for short bowel syndrome through intestinal adaptation, which is a complex process worthy of further investigation for the avoidance of dependence on total parenteral nutrition and of intestinal transplantation in such patients.

  14. Development of an IRT-based Short Form to Assess Applied Cognitive Function in Outpatient Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, Christine M.; Ni, Pengsheng; Coster, Wendy J.; Haley, Stephen M.; Jette, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Item response theory (IRT) and computerized adaptive testing (CAT) methods allow the development of a large calibrated item bank from which different subsets of questions can be selected for administration and scored on a common scale. Our objective was to develop an outpatient rehabilitation self-report short form for the Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care Applied Cognition item bank. Design Using data from a convenience sample of 235 rehabilitation outpatients, item content and IRT-based test information function parameters were employed in item selection. Internal consistency reliability, Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC), and percent at the lowest (floor) and highest (ceiling) scores were evaluated for the short form and full item bank. Results A 15-item short form was developed. The internal consistency of the short form was 0.86. The ICC3,1 for the short form and item bank was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.94, 0.98). No floor effects were noted, and ceiling effects were 27.66 % (short form) and 26.38% (full item bank). Conclusions The Applied Cognition outpatient short form demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties and provides a bridge to IRT-based measurement for settings where point of care computing is not available. PMID:26135369

  15. Optimal Short Forms of the Spanish WAIS (EIWA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demsky, Yvonne; Gass, Carlton; Edwards, William T.; Golden, Charles J.

    1998-01-01

    Investigated optimal two-, three-, four-, and five-test short forms of the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA), the Spanish form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (D. Wechsler, 1956). Results with 616 adults suggest that use of the EIWA should be limited to research and tracking cognitive changes over time. (SLD)

  16. NASA Safety and Health (Short Form). Final rule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This final rule adopts with changes the interim rule published in the Federal Register on April 5, 2001 (65 FR 18051-18053), which amended the NASA FAR Supplement to implement a Safety and Health (Short Form) clause to address safety and occupational health in all NASA contracts above the micro-purchase threshold where the existing Safety and Health clause did not apply, and amended other safety and health clauses to be consistent with the new NASA Safety and Health (Short Form) clause.

  17. Automatic loudness control in short-form content for broadcasting.

    PubMed

    Pires, Leandro da S; Vieira, Maurílio N; Yehia, Hani C

    2017-03-01

    During the early years of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) loudness calculation standard for sound broadcasting [ITU-R (2006), Rec. BS Series, 1770], the need for additional loudness descriptors to evaluate short-form content, such as commercials and live inserts, was identified. This work proposes a loudness control scheme to prevent loudness jumps, which can bother audiences. It employs short-form content audio detection and dynamic range processing methods for the maximum loudness level criteria. Detection is achieved by combining principal component analysis for dimensionality reduction and support vector machines for binary classification. Subsequent processing is based on short-term loudness integrators and Hilbert transformers. The performance was assessed using quality classification metrics and demonstrated through a loudness control example.

  18. Short-Term Neural Adaptation to Simultaneous Bifocal Images

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Aiswaryah; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Sawides, Lucie; Marcos, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous vision is an increasingly used solution for the correction of presbyopia (the age-related loss of ability to focus near images). Simultaneous Vision corrections, normally delivered in the form of contact or intraocular lenses, project on the patient's retina a focused image for near vision superimposed with a degraded image for far vision, or a focused image for far vision superimposed with the defocused image of the near scene. It is expected that patients with these corrections are able to adapt to the complex Simultaneous Vision retinal images, although the mechanisms or the extent to which this happens is not known. We studied the neural adaptation to simultaneous vision by studying changes in the Natural Perceived Focus and in the Perceptual Score of image quality in subjects after exposure to Simultaneous Vision. We show that Natural Perceived Focus shifts after a brief period of adaptation to a Simultaneous Vision blur, similar to adaptation to Pure Defocus. This shift strongly correlates with the magnitude and proportion of defocus in the adapting image. The magnitude of defocus affects perceived quality of Simultaneous Vision images, with 0.5 D defocus scored lowest and beyond 1.5 D scored “sharp”. Adaptation to Simultaneous Vision shifts the Perceptual Score of these images towards higher rankings. Larger improvements occurred when testing simultaneous images with the same magnitude of defocus as the adapting images, indicating that wearing a particular bifocal correction improves the perception of images provided by that correction. PMID:24664087

  19. Development of a short-form Learning Organization Survey: the LOS-27.

    PubMed

    Singer, Sara J; Moore, Scott C; Meterko, Mark; Williams, Sandra

    2012-08-01

    Despite urgent need for innovation, adaptation, and change in health care, few tools enable researchers or practitioners to assess the extent to which health care facilities perform as learning organizations or the effects of initiatives that require learning. This study's objective was to develop and test a short-form Learning Organization Survey to fill this gap. The authors applied exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis to data from Veterans Health Administration personnel to derive a short-form survey and then conducted further confirmatory factor analysis and factor invariance testing on additional Veterans Health Administration data to evaluate the short form. Results suggest that a 27-item, 7-factor survey (2 environmental factors, 1 on leadership, and 4 on concrete learning processes and practices) reliably measures key features of organizational learning, allowing researchers to evaluate theoretical propositions about organizational learning, its antecedents, and outcomes and enabling managers to assess and enhance organizations' learning capabilities and performance.

  20. Multicultural personality questionnaire: development of a short form.

    PubMed

    van der Zee, Karen; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Ponterotto, Joseph G; Fietzer, Alexander W

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on the development of the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire-Short Form among 511 participants. Using a split-sample scale validation design, Study 1 (N = 260) employed a principal component analysis and rigorous item selection criteria to extract a 40-item short form (MPQ-SF) from the original 91-item Multicultural Personality Questionnaire (MPQ; van der Zee & van Oudenhoven, 2000, 2001). In Study 2 (N = 251), the MPQ-SF was subjected to confirmatory factor analysis and resulted in a reasonably good fit to the data (comparative fit index = .94; root mean squared error of approximation = .066). Satisfactory coefficient alphas and high correlations with the original scales were found. Moreover, relationships with related scales were largely in the predicted direction. Specific directions for follow-up research are posited.

  1. Developing brief fatigue short forms calibrated to a common mathematical metric: is content-balancing important?

    PubMed

    Cook, Karon F; Choi, Seung W; Johnson, Kurt L; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2010-08-01

    There are clinical and research settings in which concerns about respondent burden make the use of longer self-report measures impractical. Though computer adaptive testing provides an efficient strategy for measuring patient reported outcomes, the requirement of a computer interface makes it impractical for some settings. This study evaluated how well brief short forms, constructed from a longer measure of patient reported fatigue, reproduced scores on the full measure. When the items of an item bank are calibrated using an item response theory model, it is assumed that the items are fungible units. Theoretically, there should be no advantage to balancing the content coverage of the items. We compared short forms developed using a random item selection process to short forms developed with consideration of the items relation to subdomains of fatigue (ie, physical and cognitive fatigue). Scores on short forms developed using content balancing more successfully predicted full item bank scores than did scores on short forms developed by random selection of items.

  2. Optimal short forms of the Spanish WAIS (EIWA).

    PubMed

    Demsky, Y; Gass, C; Edwards, W T; Golden, C J

    1998-12-01

    Although the Spanish version of the WAIS (Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos, EIWA) is widely used as a measure of intelligence in Spanish-speaking populations, little is known about the psychometric characteristics of the test beyond the information given in the test manual. Despite this, users have assumed that the test functions clinically and statistically as does the original WAIS. This assumption has been applied to the area of short test forms which are assumed to be as valid as those used with the WAIS. The present study is an attempt to determine the optimal two-, three-, four-, and five-test short forms for estimation of Full Scale IQ based on the EIWA standardization test data. In addition, the relative amount of common and specific variance in the EIWA subtests was determined, along with the degree of measurement error. The study emphasizes the limitations of using the EIWA arising from its out-of-date norms, use of a restricted Spanish-speaking population, and failure to make updates since its introduction. These cautions suggest that the EIWA (long and short forms) should not be used for determining IQs; instead its use should be limited to research and to tracking cognitive changes over time.

  3. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Taiwan Form: Psychometric Properties and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tien, Hsiu-Lan Shelley; Wang, Yu-Chen; Chu, Hui-Chuang; Huang, Tsu-Lun

    2012-01-01

    The present study tested the reliability and validity of the Career Adapt-Ability Scale--Taiwan Form (CAAS-Taiwan Form). The CAAS consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal…

  4. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--China Form: Construction and Initial Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Zhi-Jin; Leung, S. Alvin; Li, Xixi; Li, Xu; Xu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS)--China Form consists of four subscales, with six items each to measure Concern, Control, Curiosity, and Confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. This study investigated the construction and validation of its Chinese Form. Results…

  5. Use of Both the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Questionnaire and the Short Form-36 among Tibial Fracture Patients was Redundant

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and the Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary scores among patients undergoing operative management of tibial fractures. Study Design and Setting Between July 2000 and September 2005, we enrolled 1319 skeletally mature patients with open or closed fractures of the tibial shaft that were managed with intramedullary nailing. Patients were asked to complete the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment and Short Form-36 at discharge and 3, 6, and 12 months post surgical fixation. Results Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary scores were highly correlated at 3, 6, and 12 months post surgical fixation. The difference in mean standardized change scores for the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and the Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary, from 3 to 12 months post-surgical fixation, was not statistically significant. Both the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary scores were able to discriminate between healed and non-healed tibial fractures at 3, 6, and 12 months post surgery. Conclusion In patients with tibial shaft fractures, the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index offered no important advantages over the Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary score. These results, along with the usefulness of the Short Form-36 for comparing populations, recommends the Short Form-36 for assessing physical function in studies of patients with tibial fractures. PMID:19364637

  6. Validation of an Adapted French Form of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale in Four Francophone Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Claire S.; Broonen, Jean-Paul; Stauffer, Sarah D.; Hamtiaux, Armanda; Pouyaud, Jacques; Zecca, Gregory; Houssemand, Claude; Rossier, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the validation of a French version of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale in four Francophone countries. The aim was to re-analyze the item selection and then compare this newly developed French-language form with the international form 2.0. Exploratory factor analysis was used as a tool for item selection, and confirmatory factor…

  7. Validity of two selected-item short forms of the WAIS-III in an intellectually deficient sample.

    PubMed

    Alley, Pamala J; Allen, Ryan A; Leverett, J Patrick

    2007-12-01

    Various short forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997) have been investigated, but limited information is available regarding the usefulness of any WAIS-III abbreviation with intellectually deficient individuals. Our study compared the validities of two WAIS-III selected-item short forms in a sample of 59 individuals with full scale IQs (FSIQs) of 79 or lower. The performance of both short forms was adequate, but the results gave a consistent edge to an adapted version of the Satz-Mogel (1962) short form in comparison to the abbreviated form by J. H. Wymer, K. Rayls, and M. T. Wagner (2003). The correlation (r = .98) of Satz-Mogel estimates with WAIS-III FSIQ scores was slightly higher than the correlation (r = .97) for estimates from Wymer et al.'s abbreviated form, and Satz-Mogel estimates did not differ significantly from actual FSIQs. In comparison to individual classification (FSIQ > 70 versus FSIQ < or = 70) obtained with the full WAIS-III, the misclassification rate was somewhat lower for the Satz-Mogel short form. Although both short forms performed reasonably well, practitioners should be cautious when utilizing any short form to make decisions about individuals.

  8. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Korea Form: Psychometric Properties and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tak, Jinkook

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS)--Korea Form consists of four subscales, each with six items. The subscales measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from…

  9. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Icelandic Form: Psychometric Properties and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilhjalmsdottir, Guobjorg; Kjartansdottir, Guorun Birna; Smaradottir, Sigriour Briet; Einarsdottir, Sif

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric characteristics and construct validity of the Icelandic form of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS-Iceland). The CAAS consists of four scales that measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. The…

  10. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-USA Form: Psychometric Properties and Relation to Vocational Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porfeli, Erik J.; Savickas, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports construction and initial validation of the United States form of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS). The CAAS consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas.…

  11. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--South African Form: Psychometric Properties and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maree, Jacobus Gideon

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--South African Form (CAAS) consists of four scales, each with six items that measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from good to…

  12. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-Belgium Form: Psychometric Characteristics and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dries, Nicky; Van Esbroeck, Raoul; van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; De Cooman, Rein; Pepermans, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch version of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-Belgium Form (CAAS-Belgium) consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. A pilot survey was administered to 700 high school,…

  13. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Brazilian Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Marco Antonio Pereira; Bardagi, Marucia Patta; Lassance, Maria Celia Pacheco; Magalhaes, Mauro de Oliveira; Duarte, Maria Eduarda

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Brazilian Form (CAASBrazil) consists of four scales which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from good to excellent. The…

  14. Adaptive laser shock micro-forming for MEMS device applications.

    PubMed

    Zou, R; Wang, M; Wang, S L; Li, S; Zhang, C; Deng, L; Lu, Y F; Chen, K P

    2017-02-20

    Laser shock micro-forming is a non-thermal laser forming method that uses laser-induced shockwave to modify surface properties and to adjust shapes and geometry of work pieces. The magnitude and spatial distribution of the laser-induced shockwaves depend on the energy profiles of the laser beam focused on sample surfaces. In this paper, we present an adaptive optical technique to engineer spatial profiles of laser beams to control the shapes, sizes, and locations of the laser-induced shockwaves and the resulting forming features. Using a spatial light modulator, this adaptive laser beam forming tool was used to process free-standing MEMS structures in aluminum, which has led to highly uniform forming features. Shockwave simultaneously excited by multiple laser beams generated by the spatial light modulator and its effects on the micro-forming process were also studied. The results presented in this paper show that the adaptive optics laser beam forming is an effective and flexible method to generate shockwave with various shapes and sizes of wavefront and at multiple locations for laser processing at microscales.

  15. Adaptive optics for ultra short pulsed lasers in UHV environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deneuville, Francois; Ropert, Laurent; Sauvageot, Paul; Theis, Sébastien

    2015-02-01

    ISP SYSTEM has developed an electro-mechanical deformable mirror compatible with Ultra High Vacuum environment, suitable for ultra short pulsed lasers. The design of the MD-AME deformable mirror is based on force application on numerous locations. μ-AME actuators are driven by stepper motors, and their patented special design allows controlling the force with a very high accuracy. Materials and assembly method have been adapted to UHV constraints and the performances were evaluated on a first application for a beam with a diameter of 250mm. A Strehl ratio above 0.9 was reached for this application. Optical aberrations up to Zernike order 5 can be corrected with a very low residual error as for standard MD-AME mirror. Amplitude can reach up to several hundreds of μm for low order corrections. Hysteresis is lower than 0.1% and linearity better than 99%. Contrary to piezo-electric actuators, the μ-AME actuators avoid print-through effects and they permit to keep the mirror shape stable even unpowered, providing a high resistance to electro-magnetic pulses. The deformable mirror design allows changing easily an actuator or even the membrane if needed, in order to improve the facility availability. They are designed for circular, square or elliptical aperture from 30mm up to 500mm or more, with incidence angle from 0° to 45°. They can be equipped with passive or active cooling for high power lasers with high repetition rate.

  16. Computerized Adaptive Testing with Multiple-Form Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Ronald D.; Jones, Douglas H.; Koppel, Nicole B.; Pashley, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    A multiple-form structure (MFS) is an ordered collection or network of testlets (i.e., sets of items). An examinee's progression through the network of testlets is dictated by the correctness of an examinee's answers, thereby adapting the test to his or her trait level. The collection of paths through the network yields the set of all possible…

  17. The Turkish Adaptation of the Burnout Measure-Short Version (BMS) and Couple Burnout Measure-Short Version (CBMS) and the Relationship between Career and Couple Burnout Based on Psychoanalytic-Existential Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capri, Burhan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to carry out the Turkish adaptation, validity, and reliability studies of Burnout Measure-Short Form (BMS) and Couple Burnout Measure-Short Form (CBMS) and also to analyze the correlation between the careers and couple burnout scores of the participants from the psychoanalytic-existential perspective. This research…

  18. Classification Accuracy of Sequentially Administered WAIS-IV Short Forms.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Joseph J; Kreiner, David S; Gontkovsky, Samuel T; Glass Umfleet, Laura

    2015-01-01

    A Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) short form (SF) may be effective for ruling out subnormal intelligence. To create a useful SF, subtest administration should follow the order prescribed in the manual and, depending upon individual performance, be terminated after completion of 2, 3, 4, or 5 subtests. One hundred and twenty-two patients completed the WAIS-IV. In two analyses, Full-Scale IQs (FSIQs) ≤69 and ≤79 were classified as impairment. Classification accuracy statistics indicated that all SFs using both cutoff scores exceeded the base rate (i.e., 14% and 34%) of subnormal intelligence, with hit rates ranging from 84% to 95%. The FSIQ cutoff of ≤69 had poor sensitivity for detecting impaired intellectual functioning with the 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-subtest SFs; specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were excellent for each SF. With the FSIQ cutoff of ≤79, sensitivity was strong to excellent for the 3-, 4-, and 5-subtest SFs as were specificity, PPV, and NPV.

  19. Comparison of seven-subtest and Satz-Mogel short forms of the WAIS-III.

    PubMed

    Kulas, Joseph F; Axelrod, Bradley N

    2002-07-01

    Intellectual functioning remains an important domain of functioning to be measured. To reduce the lengthy administration time, numerous short forms of the WAIS-III have been devised. The present study aimed to compare two methods of applying short forms of the WAIS-III within a clinical population. The results revealed that both item-reduced and selected subtest short forms provide excellent predictions of full administration WAIS-III summary and index scores. The Satz-Mogel short form appeared to provide higher predictive power than the seven-subtest short forms and accounted for a higher number of cases within 6 points of the obtained scores from the full administration. However, the Satz-Mogel short form was inferior to the seven-subtest short forms in terms of the reliability of the index and summary IQ scores. As found in previous research, a trade-off occurs between the predictive power and the reliability of a short form.

  20. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. 874.1070 Section 874.1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. (a) Identification. A short increment sensitivity index...

  1. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. 874.1070 Section 874.1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. (a) Identification. A short increment sensitivity index...

  2. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. 874.1070 Section 874.1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. (a) Identification. A short increment sensitivity index...

  3. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. 874.1070 Section 874.1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. (a) Identification. A short increment sensitivity index...

  4. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. 874.1070 Section 874.1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. (a) Identification. A short increment sensitivity index...

  5. Adaptive laser beam forming for laser shock micro-forming for 3D MEMS devices fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ran; Wang, Shuliang; Wang, Mohan; Li, Shuo; Huang, Sheng; Lin, Yankun; Chen, Kevin P.

    2016-07-01

    Laser shock micro-forming is a non-thermal laser forming method that use laser-induced shockwave to modify surface properties and to adjust shapes and geometry of work pieces. In this paper, we present an adaptive optical technique to engineer spatial profiles of the laser beam to exert precision control on the laser shock forming process for free-standing MEMS structures. Using a spatial light modulator, on-target laser energy profiles are engineered to control shape, size, and deformation magnitude, which has led to significant improvement of the laser shock processing outcome at micrometer scales. The results presented in this paper show that the adaptive-optics laser beam forming is an effective method to improve both quality and throughput of the laser forming process at micrometer scales.

  6. Note on Selection of WISC-R Short Forms for Different Uses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, David S.

    1980-01-01

    Examined the validity coefficients of all possible WISC-R short forms of several subtests. Comparisons were made between coefficients given by McNemar's and Silverstein's formulas to determine "best" short forms for different uses. Results indicated only a slight difference between short forms selected by the two methods. (Author)

  7. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Portugal Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Employment Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, M. Eduarda; Soares, M. C.; Fraga, S.; Rafael, M.; Lima, M. R.; Paredes, I.; Agostinho, R.; Djalo, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Career-Adaptabilities Scale (CAAS)--Portugal Form consists of four scales, each with seven items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from good to…

  8. Viewpoint and pose in body-form adaptation.

    PubMed

    Sekunova, Alla; Black, Michael; Parkinson, Laura; Barton, Jason J S

    2013-01-01

    Faces and bodies are complex structures, perception of which can play important roles in person identification and inference of emotional state. Face representations have been explored using behavioural adaptation: in particular, studies have shown that face aftereffects show relatively broad tuning for viewpoint, consistent with origin in a high-level structural descriptor far removed from the retinal image. Our goals were to determine first, if body aftereffects also showed a degree of viewpoint invariance, and second if they also showed pose invariance, given that changes in pose create even more dramatic changes in the 2-D retinal image. We used a 3-D model of the human body to generate headless body images, whose parameters could be varied to generate different body forms, viewpoints, and poses. In the first experiment, subjects adapted to varying viewpoints of either slim or heavy bodies in a neutral stance, followed by test stimuli that were all front-facing. In the second experiment, we used the same front-facing bodies in neutral stance as test stimuli, but compared adaptation from bodies in the same neutral stance to adaptation with the same bodies in different poses. We found that body aftereffects were obtained over substantial viewpoint changes, with no significant decline in aftereffect magnitude with increasing viewpoint difference between adapting and test images. Aftereffects also showed transfer across one change in pose but not across another. We conclude that body representations may have more viewpoint invariance than faces, and demonstrate at least some transfer across pose, consistent with a high-level structural description.

  9. Short forms of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale.

    PubMed

    Fergus, Thomas A; Valentiner, David P; McGrath, Patrick B; Gier-Lonsway, Stephanie L; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Mattick and Clarke's (1998) Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and Social Phobia Scale (SPS) are commonly used self-report measures that assess 2 dimensions of social anxiety. Given the need for short, readable measures, this research proposes short forms of both scales. Item-level analyses of readability characteristics of the SIAS and SPS items led to the selection of 6 items from each scale for use in the short forms. The SIAS and SPS short forms had reading levels at approximately the 6th and 5th grade level, respectively. Results using nonclinical (Study 1: N = 469) and clinical (Study 2: N = 145) samples identified these short forms as being factorially sound, possessing adequate internal consistency, and having strong convergence with their full-length counterparts. Moreover, these short forms showed convergence with other measures of social anxiety, showed divergence from measures assessing related constructs, and predicted concurrent interpersonal functioning. Recommendations for the use of these short forms are discussed.

  10. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) Short Form.

    PubMed

    Nelemans, Stefanie A; Meeus, Wim H J; Branje, Susan J T; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Colpin, Hilde; Verschueren, Karine; Goossens, Luc

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined the longitudinal measurement invariance of a 12-item short version of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) in two 4-year longitudinal community samples ( Nsample 1 = 815, Mage T1 = 13.38 years; Nsample 2 = 551, Mage T1 = 14.82 years). Using confirmatory factor analyses, we found strict longitudinal measurement invariance for the three-factor structure of the SAS-A across adolescence, across samples, and across gender. Some developmental changes in social anxiety were found from early to mid-adolescence, as well as gender differences across adolescence. These findings suggest that the short version of the SAS-A is a developmentally appropriate instrument that can be used effectively to examine adolescent social anxiety development.

  11. Development and psychometric analysis of the student–teacher relationship scale – short form

    PubMed Central

    Settanni, Michele; Longobardi, Claudio; Sclavo, Erica; Fraire, Michela; Prino, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is the construction and validation of an Italian Short Form version of the Student–Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS; Fraire et al., 2013). The analyses were conducted on 1256 students and 210 teachers. The STRS is a self-report measure assessing teachers’ perception of the quality of their relationship with students ranging from preschool to third grade. The items were selected from the original Italian adaptation of the regular STRS (Pianta, 2001) through Rasch (1960/1980) analysis, which allowed us to identify a subset of items with proven psychometric properties. The STRS-SF consists of two subscales: Conflict (eight items) and Closeness (six items). Results indicate that the 14-item instrument shows good internal consistency (α>0.80), high correlations with the scales from the regular STRS (r > 0.90) and equivalence across gender. PMID:26167156

  12. Development and psychometric analysis of the student-teacher relationship scale - short form.

    PubMed

    Settanni, Michele; Longobardi, Claudio; Sclavo, Erica; Fraire, Michela; Prino, Laura E

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is the construction and validation of an Italian Short Form version of the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS; Fraire et al., 2013). The analyses were conducted on 1256 students and 210 teachers. The STRS is a self-report measure assessing teachers' perception of the quality of their relationship with students ranging from preschool to third grade. The items were selected from the original Italian adaptation of the regular STRS (Pianta, 2001) through Rasch (1960/1980) analysis, which allowed us to identify a subset of items with proven psychometric properties. The STRS-SF consists of two subscales: Conflict (eight items) and Closeness (six items). Results indicate that the 14-item instrument shows good internal consistency (α>0.80), high correlations with the scales from the regular STRS (r > 0.90) and equivalence across gender.

  13. Development of a short form of the driving anger expression inventory.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Amanda N; Sullman, Mark J M

    2014-11-01

    The present study developed a revised version of the driving anger expression inventory (25-items) and a short (15-item) version using data from 551 drivers. Split half factor analyses on both versions confirmed the original four factors; personal physical aggressive expression, use of a vehicle to express anger, verbal aggressive expression and adaptive/constructive expression. The two DAX versions were strongly correlated, demonstrating the suitability of both forms of the scale and the aggressive forms of expression were higher for drivers who reported initiating road rage interactions. Total aggressive expression was also higher for drivers who reported recent crash-related conditions, such as: loss of concentration, losing control of their vehicle, moving violations, near-misses and major crashes. The revised DAX and DAX-short provide shorter versions of the 49-item DAX that can more easily be combined with other questionnaires and require smaller sample sizes to analyse. Further research is required to validate these tools among different samples and populations.

  14. Validity of the Ward seven-subtest WAIS-III short form in a neuropsychological population.

    PubMed

    Pilgrim, B M; Meyers, J E; Bayless, J; Whetstone, M M

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of the Ward 7-subtest short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) in a neuropsychological clinic sample finds that the short form retains equivalent psychometric properties to those previously reported for the same short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R). The correlations found for the 7-subtest form of the WAIS-III were .95 for Performance IQ, .97 for Verbal IQ, and .98 for Full Scale IQ. The 7-subtest short form of the WAIS-III was also found to perform similarly to its WAIS-R counterpart on other markers of test accuracy. These results support the continued use of the Ward 7-subtest short form of the WAIS-III in a neuropsychological population.

  15. A Portuguese version of the student-teacher relationship scale - short form.

    PubMed

    Patrício, Joana Nunes; Barata, M Clara; Calheiros, M Manuela; Graça, João

    2015-05-20

    Research consistently demonstrates that positive student-teacher relationships are fundamental to the healthy development of all students. However, we lack a Portuguese-validated measure of student-teacher relationships. In this article we present the adaptation procedures and the psychometric properties of a Portuguese version of the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale - Short Form (Pianta, 1992). Five hundred and thirty five teachers from 127 schools completed the STRS-SF. The results demonstrate that this adapted version of the STRS-SF has good psychometric properties, namely high reliability (α = .84 to .87) and expected construct validity, which were tested through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (χ2/df = 1.65, CFI = .96, GFI = .93, RMSEA = 0.05). This study also showed that the correlations of student-teacher relationship with students' demographic variables are consistent with the evidence in the literature about this construct. Finally, the study indicated that female teachers reported more closeness, t(530) = 4.06, p < .001 and better overall student-teacher relationships, t(530) = 4.90, p < .001. In the discussion, we analyze the implications of these results.

  16. A Comparison of Six MMPI Short Forms: Code Type Correspondence and Indices of Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willcockson, James C.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared six Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) short forms with the full-length MMPI for ability to identify code-types and indices of psychopathology in renal dialysis patients (N=53) and paranoid schizophrenics (N=58). Results suggested that the accuracy of the short forms fluctuates for different patient populations and…

  17. Test-Retest Reproducibility of Two Short-Form Balance Measures Used in Individuals with Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaw, Lih-Jiun; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Chen, Hui-Mei; Lin, Jau-Hong; Lo, Sing-Kai

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the test-retest reproducibility of the seven-item Short-Form Berg Balance Scale (SFBBS) and the five-item Short-Form Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (SFPASS) in individuals with chronic stroke. Fifty-two chronic stroke patients from two rehabilitation departments were included in the study. Both…

  18. The School Short-Form Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory: Revised and Improved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Peter R.; Francis, Leslie J.; Jennings, Penelope

    2011-01-01

    The school short form of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory is a widely used measure of children's global self-esteem. Unlike the full-length scale, however, it has been generally understood that the short form does not allow differentiation between the major individual sources of self-esteem. The present study has examined the internal…

  19. Comparison of WAIS-III Short Forms for Measuring Index and Full-Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, Todd A.; Axelrod, Bradley N.; Wilkins, Leanne K.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation assessed the ability of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) short forms to estimate both index and IQ scores in a large, mixed clinical sample (N = 809). More specifically, a commonly used modification of Ward's seven-subtest short form (SF7-A), a recently proposed index-based SF7-C and eight-subtest…

  20. 48 CFR 1852.223-72 - Safety and Health (Short Form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Safety and Health (Short Form). 1852.223-72 Section 1852.223-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... following clause: Safety and Health (Short Form) (APR 2002) (a) Safety is the freedom from those...

  1. The Short Form Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery in Assessment of Dementia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCue, Michael; And Others

    This study sought to determine whether a short form of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery could discriminate between senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type and depression in a sample of elderly neuropsychiatric patients. The short form Luria-Nebraska includes 141 of the 269 items contained in the original version, with the Rhythm scale…

  2. Concurrent Validity of Three WAIS-R Short Forms in Psychiatric Inpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedict, Ralph H. B.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The concurrent validities of 3 short forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) were compared for their prediction of full-scale IQ for 145 male and 159 female psychiatric inpatients. Results support previous research showing better predictive accuracy for L. C. Ward's (1990) seven-subtest short form than the others. (SLD)

  3. Development and Validation of the Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised Short Form (DMQ-R SF)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Kuntsche, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    A short form of the Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised (DMQ-R; Cooper, 1994) was developed, using different item selection strategies based on a national representative sample of 5,617 12- to 18-year-old students in Switzerland. To confirm the concurrent validity of the short-form questionnaire, or DMQ-R SF, data from a second national sample…

  4. Item Selection for the Development of Short Forms of Scales Using an Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Walter L.; Huang, I-Chan; Marcoulides, George A.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the use of an ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm for the development of short forms of scales. An example 22-item short form is developed for the Diabetes-39 scale, a quality-of-life scale for diabetes patients, using a sample of 265 diabetes patients. A simulation study comparing the performance of the ACO algorithm and…

  5. Reappraisal of the Validity of WAIS, WISC, and WPPSI Short Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, A. B.

    1970-01-01

    Data from the WAIS, WISC, and WPPSI Standardization samples were used to reappraise validity of all short forms of two, three, four, and five subtests. Results were compared with those given by McNemar's formula. The corrected formula gave lower values and selected "best short forms that differed from McNemar's formula. (Author)

  6. Development of a Short Form of the Boston Naming Test for Individuals with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Toro, Christina M.; Bislick, Lauren P.; Comer, Matthew; Velozo, Craig; Romero, Sergio; Rothi, Leslie J. Gonzalez; Kendall, Diane L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a short form of the Boston Naming Test (BNT; Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 2001) for individuals with aphasia and compare it with 2 existing short forms originally analyzed with responses from people with dementia and neurologically healthy adults. Method: Development of the new BNT-Aphasia Short…

  7. An adaptive random search for short term generation scheduling with network constraints

    PubMed Central

    Velasco, Jonás; Selley, Héctor J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive random search approach to address a short term generation scheduling with network constraints, which determines the startup and shutdown schedules of thermal units over a given planning horizon. In this model, we consider the transmission network through capacity limits and line losses. The mathematical model is stated in the form of a Mixed Integer Non Linear Problem with binary variables. The proposed heuristic is a population-based method that generates a set of new potential solutions via a random search strategy. The random search is based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. The main key of the proposed method is that the noise level of the random search is adaptively controlled in order to exploring and exploiting the entire search space. In order to improve the solutions, we consider coupling a local search into random search process. Several test systems are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed heuristic. We use a commercial optimizer to compare the quality of the solutions provided by the proposed method. The solution of the proposed algorithm showed a significant reduction in computational effort with respect to the full-scale outer approximation commercial solver. Numerical results show the potential and robustness of our approach. PMID:28234954

  8. An adaptive random search for short term generation scheduling with network constraints.

    PubMed

    Marmolejo, J A; Velasco, Jonás; Selley, Héctor J

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive random search approach to address a short term generation scheduling with network constraints, which determines the startup and shutdown schedules of thermal units over a given planning horizon. In this model, we consider the transmission network through capacity limits and line losses. The mathematical model is stated in the form of a Mixed Integer Non Linear Problem with binary variables. The proposed heuristic is a population-based method that generates a set of new potential solutions via a random search strategy. The random search is based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. The main key of the proposed method is that the noise level of the random search is adaptively controlled in order to exploring and exploiting the entire search space. In order to improve the solutions, we consider coupling a local search into random search process. Several test systems are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed heuristic. We use a commercial optimizer to compare the quality of the solutions provided by the proposed method. The solution of the proposed algorithm showed a significant reduction in computational effort with respect to the full-scale outer approximation commercial solver. Numerical results show the potential and robustness of our approach.

  9. Short forms of the Texas Social Behavior Inventory /TSBI/, an objective measure of self-esteem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, R.; Stapp, J.

    1974-01-01

    Two short (16 item) forms of the Helmreich, Stapp, and Ervin (1974) Texas Social Behavior Inventory, a validated, objective measure of self-esteem or social competence are presented. Normative data and other statistics are described for males and females. Correlations between each short form and long (32-item) scale were .97. Factor analysis and part-whole correlations verified the similarity of the two forms. The utility of the scale in research is described.

  10. Development of a short form and scoring algorithm from the validated actionable bladder symptom screening tool

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The majority of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients develop some form of lower urinary tract dysfunction, usually as a result of neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO). Patients identify urinary incontinence as one of the worst aspects of this disease. Despite the high prevalence of NDO, urological evaluation and treatment are significantly under-accessed in this population. The objectives of this study were: 1) to adapt the previously validated Actionable Bladder Symptom Screening Tool (ABSST) to a short form for ease and brevity of application in a clinical setting that is clinically meaningful; and 2) to develop a scoring algorithm that would be interpretable in terms of referring/considering precise diagnosis and treatment. Methods A US-based, non-randomized, multi-center, stand-alone observational study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of the ABSST among patients who have MS with and without NDO. Mixed psychometric methods (e.g., classical statistics (Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill; 1994) and item response methods (Applying the Rasch Model: Fundamental Measurement in the Human Sciences. New Jersey: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates; 2001)) were used to evaluate the predictive and clinical validity of the shortened form. The latter included clinicians flagging clinically meaningful items and associated response options which would indicate the need for further evaluation or treatment. Results A total of 151 patients, all with MS and with and without NDO, were recruited by 28 clinicians in various US geographical locations. Approximately 41% of patients reported a history of or currently having urinary incontinence and/or urinary urgency. The prediction model across the entire range of classification thresholds was evaluated, plotting the true positive identification rate against the false positive rate (1-Specificity) for various cut scores. In this study, the cut-point or total score of greater than or equal to 6 had

  11. Measuring the phenomenology of autobiographical memory: A short form of the Memory Experiences Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Luchetti, Martina; Sutin, Angelina R

    2016-01-01

    The Memory Experiences Questionnaire (MEQ) is a theoretically driven and empirically validated 63-item self-report scale designed to measure 10 phenomenological qualities of autobiographical memories: Vividness, Coherence, Accessibility, Time Perspective, Sensory Details, Visual Perspective, Emotional Intensity, Sharing, Distancing and Valence. To develop a short form of the MEQ to use when time is limited, participants from two samples (N = 719; N = 352) retrieved autobiographical memories, rated the phenomenological experience of each memory and completed several scales measuring psychological distress. For each MEQ dimension, the number of items was reduced by one-half based on item content and item-total correlations. Each short-form scale had acceptable internal consistency (median alpha = .79), and, similar to the long-form version of the scales, the new short scales correlated with psychological distress in theoretically meaningful ways. The new short form of the MEQ has similar psychometric proprieties as the original long form and can be used when time is limited.

  12. Clinical validation of Canadian WAIS-III Index short forms in inpatient neuropsychiatry and forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Iverson, Grant L; Viljoen, Hendré; Brink, Johann

    2007-05-01

    Recent research has provided some support for the concurrent validity of two-subtest short forms for estimating Canadian WAIS-III Index scores in the standardization sample (Lange & Iverson, in press). The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of using various two-subtest short forms to estimate Canadian WAIS-III Index scores in a clinical population. Participants were 100 inpatients from two large psychiatric hospitals in British Columbia, Canada. Using all possible two-subtest combinations, estimated VCI, POI, and WMI scores were generated by prorating subtest scaled scores and using the Canadian normative data (Wechsler, 2001). The agreement rate between full form and short form index scores was very high for all subtest combinations (range = 90-98%). Two-subtest short forms were useful for estimating VCI, POI, and WMI scores in this population.

  13. Short-term adaptation of the VOR: non-retinal-slip error signals and saccade substitution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggers, Sscott D Z.; De Pennington, Nick; Walker, Mark F.; Shelhamer, Mark; Zee, David S.

    2003-01-01

    We studied short-term (30 min) adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in five normal humans using a "position error" stimulus without retinal image motion. Both before and after adaptation a velocity gain (peak slow-phase eye velocity/peak head velocity) and a position gain (total eye movement during chair rotation/amplitude of chair motion) were measured in darkness using search coils. The vestibular stimulus was a brief ( approximately 700 ms), 15 degrees chair rotation in darkness (peak velocity 43 degrees /s). To elicit adaptation, a straight-ahead fixation target disappeared during chair movement and when the chair stopped the target reappeared at a new location in front of the subject for gain-decrease (x0) adaptation, or 10 degrees opposite to chair motion for gain-increase (x1.67) adaptation. This position-error stimulus was effective at inducing VOR adaptation, though for gain-increase adaptation the primary strategy was to substitute augmenting saccades during rotation while for gain-decrease adaptation both corrective saccades and a decrease in slow-phase velocity occurred. Finally, the presence of the position-error signal alone, at the end of head rotation, without any attempt to fix upon it, was not sufficient to induce adaptation. Adaptation did occur, however, if the subject did make a saccade to the target after head rotation, or even if the subject paid attention to the new location of the target without actually looking at it.

  14. Assessment of Cataract Surgery Outcome Using the Modified Catquest Short-Form Instrument in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haisi; Chen, Chengwei; Gao, Rongrong; Bao, Fangjun; Zhang, Sifang; Wang, Qinmei; Pesudovs, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess cataract surgery outcome using the Rasch scaled Chinese version of the Catquest short-form. Methods The Chinese translated and culturally adapted version of the Catquest-9SF was interviewer-administered to patients, pre and post cataract surgery. Rasch analysis was performed on the baseline data to revise the Catquest. For the surgical outcome assessment, we stacked pre- and post-surgical Catquest data to demonstrate improvement in visual function scores and responsiveness of the instrument to cataract surgery. Results A total of 247 cataract patients (median age, 70 yrs; male 51.0%) completed the Catquest 9SF at baseline.The Catquest-9SF possessed adequate measurement precision of 2.15. No disordering of response categories were observed and all the items perfectly fit to the Rasch model except item 7 (outfit >1.5). A slight reduction in precision was observed after removing misfitting item 7 (Catquest-8SF-CN), but the precision value was well above the acceptable value of 2.00. Notably, the instrument was well targeted (mean person location 0.30), demonstrated no evidence of multidimensionality and DIF. At 12 months post-surgery, 74 (30%) patients came for follow-up and completed the Catquest. There was a significant improvement in the Catquest scores post cataract surgery with a considerably large effect size. Conclusion The Catquest-8SF-CN demonstrated promising Rasch based psychometric properties and was highly responsive to cataract surgery. PMID:27736889

  15. Psychometric characteristics of the Emotional Quotient Inventory, Youth Version, Short Form, in Hungarian high school students.

    PubMed

    Kun, Bernadette; Urbán, Róbert; Paksi, Borbála; Csóbor, Lujza Vargáné; Oláh, Attila; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2012-06-01

    Research on the psychometric characteristics, including factor structure, of measures assessing emotional intelligence improve our understanding of the manifest and latent dimensions of the construct. The factor structure of the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (Bar-On, 1997), despite the popularity of the measure, has been the subject of only a few studies, and there are no data available at all on its 30-item version. The aim of our study was the structural analysis of the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, Youth Version, Short Form (Bar-On & Parker, 2000). During the multiple-step statistical analysis, confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses and a combined method of these were executed on a sample of 2,380 adolescents (mean age: 17 years, 47.9 % male). The results confirmed the original 5-factor structure (Intrapersonal Emotional Quotient, Interpersonal Emotional Quotient, Stress Management, Adaptability, and Positive Impression). However, only 24 of the original 30 items could be considered as belonging to the scales. Elimination of 6 items resulted in a clearer and more coherent factorial structure, which makes the measure an adequate tool for the assessment of the emotional intelligence of adolescents and young adults in surveys of large-scale samples.

  16. The Cultural Adaptation Process during a Short-Term Study Abroad Experience in Swaziland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Nathan W.; Roberts, T. Grady

    2015-01-01

    Globalization continuously shapes our world and influences post-secondary education. This study explored the cultural adaptation process of participants during a short-term study abroad program. Participants experienced stages which included initial feelings, cultural uncertainty, cultural barriers, cultural negativity, academic and career growth,…

  17. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Netherlands Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Ability, Personality, and Regulatory Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; Klehe, Ute-Christine; Koen, Jessie; Dries, Nicky

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS)--Netherlands Form consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from…

  18. A New Method for Estimating the Variance Overlap between the Short and the Long Form of a Psychological Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Nils; Hagemann, Dirk; Backenstrass, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    In response to the low standards in short form development, Smith, McCarthy, and Anderson (2000) introduced a set of guidelines for the construction and evaluation of short forms of psychological tests. One of their recommendations requires researches to show that the variance overlap between the short form and its long form is adequate. This…

  19. Texas Christian University (TCU) Short Forms for Assessing Client Needs and Functioning in Addiction Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, D. Dwayne; Joe, George W.; Knight, Kevin; Rowan-Szal, Grace A.; Gray, Julie S.

    2012-01-01

    The TCU Short Forms contain a revised and expanded set of assessments for planning and managing addiction treatment services. They are formatted as brief (one-page) forms to measure client needs and functioning, including drug use severity and history (TCUDS II), criminal thinking and cognitive orientation (CTSForm), motivation and readiness for…

  20. The Utility of Two Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Short Forms with Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, W. M., III; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This study used 126 young adult black and white male inmates to test the comparability of the Pauker and Statz and Mogul short forms with the standard Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). The Pauker form was superior with this population. Findings should not be generalized to other ages, races, or to women. (Author/CP)

  1. The Development and Validation of an Italian Short Form of the Adolescent Friendship Attachment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baiocco, Roberto; Pallini, Susanna; Santamaria, Federica

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to validate a short form of the Adolescent Friendship Attachment Scale that evaluates best friend's attachment considering three styles: Secure, Anxious, and Avoidant. The scale demonstrated adequate internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the three-factor structure as found in the long form.

  2. Short-Form Versions of the Spanish MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson-Maldonodo, Donna; Marchman, Virginia A.; Fernald, Lia C. H.

    2013-01-01

    The Spanish-language MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (S-CDIs) are well-established parent report tools for assessing the language development of Spanish-speaking children under 3 years. Here, we introduce the short-form versions of the S-CDIs (SFI and SFII), offered as alternatives to the long forms for screening purposes or…

  3. Adaptive scallop height tool path generation for robot-based incremental sheet metal forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seim, Patrick; Möllensiep, Dennis; Störkle, Denis Daniel; Thyssen, Lars; Kuhlenkötter, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    Incremental sheet metal forming is an emerging process for the production of individualized products or prototypes in low batch sizes and with short times to market. In these processes, the desired shape is produced by the incremental inward motion of the workpiece-independent forming tool in depth direction and its movement along the contour in lateral direction. Based on this shape production, the tool path generation is a key factor on e.g. the resulting geometric accuracy, the resulting surface quality, and the working time. This paper presents an innovative tool path generation based on a commercial milling CAM package considering the surface quality and working time. This approach offers the ability to define a specific scallop height as an indicator of the surface quality for specific faces of a component. Moreover, it decreases the required working time for the production of the entire component compared to the use of a commercial software package without this adaptive approach. Different forming experiments have been performed to verify the newly developed tool path generation. Mainly, this approach serves to solve the existing conflict of combining the working time and the surface quality within the process of incremental sheet metal forming.

  4. Second Graders Learn Animal Adaptations through Form and Function Analogy Object Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.; Baldwin, Samantha; Schell, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the use of form and function analogy object boxes to teach second graders (n = 21) animal adaptations. The study used a pretest-posttest design to examine animal adaptation content learned through focused analogy activities as compared with reading and Internet searches for information about adaptations of animals followed by…

  5. Short-term adaptation to a simple motor task: a physiological process preserved in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mancini, L; Ciccarelli, O; Manfredonia, F; Thornton, J S; Agosta, F; Barkhof, F; Beckmann, C; De Stefano, N; Enzinger, C; Fazekas, F; Filippi, M; Gass, A; Hirsch, J G; Johansen-Berg, H; Kappos, L; Korteweg, T; Manson, S C; Marino, S; Matthews, P M; Montalban, X; Palace, J; Polman, C; Rocca, M; Ropele, S; Rovira, A; Wegner, C; Friston, K; Thompson, A; Yousry, T

    2009-04-01

    Short-term adaptation indicates the attenuation of the functional MRI (fMRI) response during repeated task execution. It is considered to be a physiological process, but it is unknown whether short-term adaptation changes significantly in patients with brain disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). In order to investigate short-term adaptation during a repeated right-hand tapping task in both controls and in patients with MS, we analyzed the fMRI data collected in a large cohort of controls and MS patients who were recruited into a multi-centre European fMRI study. Four fMRI runs were acquired for each of the 55 controls and 56 MS patients at baseline and 33 controls and 26 MS patients at 1-year follow-up. The externally cued (1 Hz) right hand tapping movement was limited to 3 cm amplitude by using at all sites (7 at baseline and 6 at follow-up) identically manufactured wooden frames. No significant differences in cerebral activation were found between sites. Furthermore, our results showed linear response adaptation (i.e. reduced activation) from run 1 to run 4 (over a 25 minute period) in the primary motor area (contralateral more than ipsilateral), in the supplementary motor area and in the primary sensory cortex, sensory-motor cortex and cerebellum, bilaterally. This linear activation decay was the same in both control and patient groups, did not change between baseline and 1-year follow-up and was not influenced by the modest disease progression observed over 1 year. These findings confirm that the short-term adaptation to a simple motor task is a physiological process which is preserved in MS.

  6. Comparing Two Short Forms of the Hewitt-Flett Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale.

    PubMed

    Stoeber, Joachim

    2016-07-22

    Hewitt and Flett's 45-item Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale is a widely used instrument to assess self-oriented, other-oriented, and socially prescribed perfectionism. With 45 items, it is not overly lengthy, but there are situations where a short form is useful. Analyzing data from four samples, this article compares two frequently used 15-item short forms of the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale-Cox et al.'s and Hewitt et al.'s-by examining to what degree their scores replicate the original version's correlations with various personality characteristics (e.g., traits, social goals, personal/interpersonal orientations). Regarding self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism, both short forms performed well. Regarding other-oriented perfectionism, however, Cox et al.'s short form (exclusively composed of negatively worded items) performed less well than Hewitt et al.'s (which contains no negatively worded items). It is recommended that researchers use Hewitt et al.'s short form to assess other-oriented perfectionism rather than Cox et al.'s.

  7. Validation of WAIS-III four-subtest short forms in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Reid-Arndt, Stephanie A; Allen, Brittany J; Schopp, Laura

    2011-10-01

    In an effort to identify four-subtest Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) short forms valid for estimating Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) among individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI), seven tetrad versions of the WAIS-III were evaluated in a convenience sample of patients referred for neuropsychological assessment (n = 176). Estimated FSIQ scores were compared to actual FSIQ scores via correlation analyses, repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs), and frequency analyses. All short form-estimated FSIQ scores correlated highly with actual scores (all rs > .91, ps < .001). Repeated-measures ANOVAs identified no significant differences between actual and short form-estimated FSIQ scores for two of the seven short forms. These same two short forms had the highest percentage of scores within ±5 points of actual FSIQ scores (75.6% and 71.6%). Thus, two tetrad versions were consistently superior to others in accuracy of estimating FSIQ; these may be helpful when time constraints or other issues necessitate use of an abbreviated battery for estimating FSIQ among individuals with TBI.

  8. Adaptive remeshing for ductile fracture prediction in metal forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borouchaki, Houman; Cherouat, Abdelhakim; Laug, Patrick; Saanouni, Khemais

    2002-10-01

    The analysis of mechanical structures using the Finite Element Method in the framework of large elastoplastic strain, needs frequent remeshing of the deformed domain during computation. Indeed, the remeshing is due to the large geometrical distortion of finite elements and the adaptation to the physical behavior of the solution. This paper gives the necessary steps to remesh a mechanical structure during large elastoplastic deformations with damage. An important part of this process is constituted by geometrical and physical error estimates. The proposed method is integrated in a computational environment using the ABAQUS/Explicit solver and the BL2D-V2 adaptive mesher. To cite this article: H. Borouchaki et al., C. R. Mecanique 330 (2002) 709-716.

  9. Two forms of adaptive immunity in vertebrates: similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Masanori; Sutoh, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Unlike jawed vertebrates that use T-cell and B-cell receptors for antigen recognition, jawless vertebrates represented by lampreys and hagfish use variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) as antigen receptors. VLRs generate diversity comparable to that of gnathostome antigen receptors by assembling variable leucine-rich repeat modules. The discovery of VLR has revolutionized our understanding of how adaptive immunity emerged and highlighted the differences between the adaptive immune systems (AISs) of jawed and jawless vertebrates. However, emerging evidence also indicates that their AISs have much in common. Particularly striking is the conservation of lymphocyte lineages. The basic architecture of the AIS including the dichotomy of lymphocytes appears to have been established in a common ancestor of jawed and jawless vertebrates. We review here the current knowledge on the AIS of jawless vertebrates, emphasizing both the similarities to and differences from the AIS of jawed vertebrates.

  10. Adaptive molecular resolution approach in Hamiltonian form: An asymptotic analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jinglong; Klein, Rupert; Delle Site, Luigi

    2016-10-01

    Adaptive molecular resolution approaches in molecular dynamics are becoming relevant tools for the analysis of molecular liquids characterized by the interplay of different physical scales. The essential difference among these methods is in the way the change of molecular resolution is made in a buffer (transition) region. In particular a central question concerns the possibility of the existence of a global Hamiltonian which, by describing the change of resolution, is at the same time physically consistent, mathematically well defined, and numerically accurate. In this paper we present an asymptotic analysis of the adaptive process complemented by numerical results and show that under certain mathematical conditions a Hamiltonian, which is physically consistent and numerically accurate, may exist. Such conditions show that molecular simulations in the current computational implementation require systems of large size, and thus a Hamiltonian approach such as the one proposed, at this stage, would not be practical from the numerical point of view. However, the Hamiltonian proposed provides the basis for a simplification and generalization of the numerical implementation of adaptive resolution algorithms to other molecular dynamics codes.

  11. The Utility of Seven-Subtest Short Forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Wai-Cheong Carl

    2004-01-01

    Along with ongoing research on the WAIS-R, short forms of the WAIS-III have attracted much attention. However, few studies of WAIS-III short forms are based on normal samples or on the validation of estimated indexes. This study examined the utility of two seven-subtest short forms in 81 healthy young adults in Taiwan with the administration of…

  12. Four Short-Form Linear Equation Estimates of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III IQs in an Elderly Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clara, Ian P.; Huynh, Cam-Loi

    2003-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-3rd Edition (WAIS-III) was released in 1997. Short forms developed for previous versions have not yet been investigated for the WAIS-III in special populations. A 4-subtest short form by A. B. Silverstein emerged as the most promising short form in an elderly sample. (Contains 49 references, 4 tables, and 2…

  13. Dyadic Short Forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV.

    PubMed

    Denney, David A; Ringe, Wendy K; Lacritz, Laura H

    2015-08-01

    Full Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) administration can be time-consuming and may not be necessary when intelligence quotient estimates will suffice. Estimated Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) and General Ability Index (GAI) scores were derived from nine dyadic short forms using individual regression equations based on data from a clinical sample (n = 113) that was then cross validated in a separate clinical sample (n = 50). Derived scores accounted for 70%-83% of the variance in FSIQ and 77%-88% of the variance in GAI. Predicted FSIQs were strongly associated with actual FSIQ (rs = .73-.88), as were predicted and actual GAIs (rs = .80-.93). Each of the nine dyadic short forms of the WAIS-IV was a good predictor of FSIQ and GAI in the validation sample. These data support the validity of WAIS-IV short forms when time is limited or lengthier batteries cannot be tolerated by patients.

  14. Construction and factorial validation of a short form of the Self-Compassion Scale.

    PubMed

    Raes, Filip; Pommier, Elizabeth; Neff, Kristin D; Van Gucht, Dinska

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to construct and validate a short-form version of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS). Two Dutch samples were used to construct and cross-validate the factorial structure of a 12-item Self-Compassion Scale-Short Form (SCS-SF). The SCS-SF was then validated in a third, English sample. The SCS-SF demonstrated adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha ≥ 0.86 in all samples) and a near-perfect correlation with the long form SCS (r ≥ 0.97 all samples). Confirmatory factor analysis on the SCS-SF supported the same six-factor structure as found in the long form, as well as a single higher-order factor of self-compassion. The SCS-SF thus represents a reliable and valid alternative to the long-form SCS, especially when looking at overall self-compassion scores.

  15. Psychological adaptation in children with idiopathic short stature treated with growth hormone or placebo.

    PubMed

    Ross, Judith L; Sandberg, David E; Rose, Susan R; Leschek, Ellen Werber; Baron, Jeffrey; Chipman, John J; Cassorla, Fernando G; Quigley, Charmian A; Crowe, Brenda J; Roberts, Kristen; Cutler, Gordon B

    2004-10-01

    The influence of short stature on psychological adaptation in childhood and adolescence is controversial. GH is currently used to treat children with idiopathic short stature (ISS, also known as non-GH-deficient short stature). This study represents the first double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the effects of GH on the psychological adaptation of children and adolescents with ISS, treated with GH until adult height was attained.Sixty-eight children (53 males, 15 females), 9-16 yr old, with marked ISS (measured height or predicted adult height -2.5 sd or less) received either GH 0.074 mg/kg or placebo sc three times per week until height velocity decreased to less than 1.5 cm/yr. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and children the Self-Perception Profile (SPP) and Silhouette Apperception Technique at baseline and annually thereafter. Baseline behavioral/emotional adjustment (CBCL) and self-concept (SPP) scores for children with ISS were within the normative range. The two study groups exhibited similar behavioral and self-concept profiles (CBCL) during the first 2 yr of the study. However, CBCL behavior problems (internalizing, externalizing, and total problems) appeared to decline, in yr 3 and 4, in the GH-treated group relative to the placebo-treated group. Group differences in CBCL competency domains and the SPP were not observed at any point during the study. Short stature among children with ISS enrolled in this long-term, placebo-controlled study was not associated with problems in psychological adaptation or self-concept with the psychological instruments employed. GH treatment was associated with a trend toward improvement in problem behaviors, as measured by questionnaires (CBCL) completed by study participants' parents. It remains to be determined whether GH treatment significantly impacts adaptation, psychosocial function, or quality of life in children with ISS.

  16. Adaptive superplastic forming using NIKE2D with ISLAND

    SciTech Connect

    Engelmann, B.E.; Whirley, R.G.; Raboin, P.J.

    1992-07-30

    Superplastic forming has emerged as an important manufacturing process for producing near-net-shape parts. The design of a superplastic forming process is more difficult than conventional manufacturing operations, and is less amenable to trial and error approaches. This paper describes a superplastic forming process design capability incorporating nonlinear finite element analysis. The material constraints to allow superplastic behavior are integrated into an external constraint equation which is solved concurrently with the nonlinear finite element equations. The implementation of this approach using the ISLAND solution control language with the nonlinear finite element code NIKE2D is discussed in detail. Superplastic forming process design problems with one and two control parameters are presented as examples.

  17. SWAT system performance predictions. Project report. [SWAT (Short-Wavelength Adaptive Techniques)

    SciTech Connect

    Parenti, R.R.; Sasiela, R.J.

    1993-03-10

    In the next phase of Lincoln Laboratory's SWAT (Short-Wavelength Adaptive Techniques) program, the performance of a 241-actuator adaptive-optics system will be measured using a variety of synthetic-beacon geometries. As an aid in this experimental investigation, a detailed set of theoretical predictions has also been assembled. The computational tools that have been applied in this study include a numerical approach in which Monte-Carlo ray-trace simulations of accumulated phase error are developed, and an analytical analysis of the expected system behavior. This report describes the basis of these two computational techniques and compares their estimates of overall system performance. Although their regions of applicability tend to be complementary rather than redundant, good agreement is usually obtained when both sets of results can be derived for the same engagement scenario.... Adaptive optics, Phase conjugation, Atmospheric turbulence Synthetic beacon, Laser guide star.

  18. A short form of the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ-12).

    PubMed

    Rogers, Rebecca G; Coates, Kimberly W; Kammerer-Doak, Dorothy; Khalsa, Satkirin; Qualls, Clifford

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop the short form of a condition-specific, reliable, validated and self-administered instrument to evaluate sexual function in women with pelvic organ prolapse and/or urinary incontinence. The Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire -12 (PISQ-12) was developed from the data of 99 of 182 women surveyed to create the long form (PISQ-31). An additional 46 patients were recruited for further validation. All subsets regression analysis identified 12 items likely to predict PISQ-31 scores. Short form scores underwent correlation analysis with long form, Incontinence Impact Questionnaire - 7 (IIQ-7), Sexual History Form -12 (SHF-12) and Symptom Questionnaire (SQ) scores. Test-retest reliability was checked with a subset of 20 patients. All subsets regression analysis with R>0.92 identified 12 items that predicted PISQ-31 scores. Short form scores were highly correlated with long form scores ( R=0.75-0.95). Correlations of the PISQ-12 with SHF-12 ( R=-0.66 and -0.68) and IIQ-7 ( R=-0.38 and -0.54) scores were similar to correlation of the PISQ-31 with these other measures. Reliability was moderate to high, with weighted kappa values from 0.56 to 0.93. PISQ-12 scores were lower in patients with low sexual function as measured on the SHF-12 ( P <0.001), and lower in women with depression as measured on the SQ ( P <0.001). The PISQ-12 is a validated and reliable short form that evaluates sexual function in women with urinary incontinence and/or pelvic organ prolapse and predicts PISQ-31 scores. It is able to distinguish women with poor sexual function as measured on the SHF-12.

  19. Closed-form expressions of some stochastic adapting equations for nonlinear adaptive activation function neurons.

    PubMed

    Fiori, Simone

    2003-12-01

    In recent work, we introduced nonlinear adaptive activation function (FAN) artificial neuron models, which learn their activation functions in an unsupervised way by information-theoretic adapting rules. We also applied networks of these neurons to some blind signal processing problems, such as independent component analysis and blind deconvolution. The aim of this letter is to study some fundamental aspects of FAN units' learning by investigating the properties of the associated learning differential equation systems.

  20. Validation of the Short Form of the Career Development Inventory with an Iranian High School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeghi, Ahmad; Baghban, Iran; Bahrami, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Ahmad; Creed, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A short 33-item form of the Career Development Inventory was validated on a sample of 310 Iranian high school students. Factor analysis indicated that attitude and cognitive subscale items loaded on their respective factors, and that internal reliability coefficients at all levels were satisfactory to good. Support for validity was demonstrated by…

  1. Factor Structure and Validity of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskett, Mary E.; Ahern, Lisa S.; Ward, Caryn S.; Allaire, Jason C.

    2006-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) were examined in a sample of 185 mothers and fathers. Factor analysis revealed 2 reasonably distinct factors involving parental distress and dysfunctional parent-child interactions. Both scales were internally consistent, and these scales were correlated with measures of…

  2. Validity of the Short Form of the Parenting Stress Index for Fathers of Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, Lorraine M.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Faldowski, Richard A.; Shears, Jeffrey; Ayoub, Catherine; Hart, Andrea D.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the psychometric properties of two scales of the parenting stress index-short form (PSI-SF) in a low-income sample of fathers of toddlers. The factor structure, reliability, and validity of the parental distress and parent-child dysfunctional interaction subscales were assessed for 696 fathers in a multi-site study of Early Head Start.…

  3. Validation of the Parenting Stress Index--Short Form with Minority Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang Jung; Gopalan, Geetha; Harrington, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: There has been little examination of the structural validity of the Parenting Stress Index--Short Form (PSI-SF) for minority populations in clinical contexts in the Unites States. This study aimed to test prespecified factor structures (one-factor, two-factor, and three-factor models) of the PSI-SF. Methods: This study used…

  4. Psychometric Characteristics of the Korean Mental Health Continuum-Short Form in an Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Young-Jin

    2014-01-01

    There have been few research studies to examine the positive mental health of Asian adolescents. The aim here is to examine the factorial structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent/discriminant validity of a Korean version of the Mental Health Continuum-short form (K-MHC-SF), a newly developed self-report scale for…

  5. The Short Form of the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory: Psychometric Equivalence of the Turkish Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eksi, Füsun

    2016-01-01

    This study intends to examine the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the short form of the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI-SF). The study group consists of a total of 526 university students (54% were female) whose ages range from 18 to 32. In the translational equivalence study made over a two-week interval, the FFNI-SF…

  6. Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form: A Rasch Analysis of the Portuguese Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miguel, Jose P.; Silva, Jose T.; Prieto, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyzes the psychometric properties of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (CDSE-SF) in a sample of Portuguese secondary education students using the Rasch model. The results indicate that the 25 items of the CDSE-SF are well fitted to a latent unidimensional structure, as required by Rasch modeling. The response…

  7. A Short Synthesis of Aphanamol I in Both Racemic and Enantiopure Forms

    PubMed Central

    Ferrara, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A short synthesis of the biologically active sesquiterpene natural product (+)‐aphanamol I in both racemic and enantiopure forms is reported. Key steps include: a catalytic enantioselective conjugate addition, an oxidative radical cyclization, and a ring‐expanding Claisen rearrangement. PMID:27389970

  8. Preliminary Evaluation of the Childhood Experiences of Violence Questionnaire Short Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Masako; Wekerle, Christine; Leung, Eman; Waechter, Randall; Gonzalez, Andrea; Jamieson, Ellen; MacMillan, Harriet L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite advances in child maltreatment research, accurate measurement of exposure remains a key issue. In this study, we evaluated a short form (CEVQ-SF) of the Childhood Experiences of Violence Questionnaire (CEVQ) in a sample of adolescents involved with child protection services in an urban city in Ontario, Canada. Focusing on the two most…

  9. Contrasting State-of-the-Art in the Machine Scoring of Short-Form Constructed Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermis, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared short-form constructed responses evaluated by both human raters and machine scoring algorithms. The context was a public competition on which both public competitors and commercial vendors vied to develop machine scoring algorithms that would match or exceed the performance of operational human raters in a summative high-stakes…

  10. Confirming the Structural Validity of the My Class Inventory -- Short Form Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariani, Melissa; Villares, Elizabeth; Sink, Christopher A.; Colvin, Kimberly; Kuba, Summer Perhay

    2015-01-01

    Researchers analyzed data collected from elementary school students (N = 893) to further establish the psychometric soundness of the My Class Inventory--Short Form Revised (MCI-SFR). A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted resulting in a good fit for a four-factor model, which corresponds to the instrument's four scales (Cohesion,…

  11. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Young Schema Questionnaire (Short Form) in Chinese Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Lixia; Lin, Wenwen; Oei, Tian P. S.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated cross-cultural differences in the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Young Schema Questionnaire (short form; YSQ-SF). The participants were 712 Chinese undergraduate students. The total sample was randomly divided into two sub-samples. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was conducted on questionnaire results…

  12. 48 CFR 952.227-11 - Patent rights-retention by the contractor (short form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...), insert the following clause: Patent Rights—Retention by the Contractor (Short Form) (MAR 1995) (a... Secretary of Commerce may review the Contractor's licensing program and decisions regarding small business applicants, and the Contractor will negotiate changes to its licensing policies, procedures, or...

  13. Multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Teacher My Class Inventory-Short Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villares, Elizabeth; Mariani, Melissa; Sink, Christopher A.; Colvin, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Researchers analyzed data from elementary teachers (N = 233) to further establish the psychometric soundness of the Teacher My Class Inventory-Short Form. Supporting previous psychometric research, confirmatory factor analyses findings supported the factorial validity of the hypothesized five-factor solution. Internal reliability estimates were…

  14. Validity of Verbal IQ as a Short Form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Robert W.; Wildman, Robert W., II

    1977-01-01

    The validity of the Verbal IQ as a short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) was investigated using the criteria proposed by Resnick and Entin. The WAIS was administered to 100 psychiatric patients. There was no significant difference between the means of the Verbal and Full Scale IQs. (Author)

  15. Novel method to form adaptive internal impedance profiles in walkers.

    PubMed

    Escudero Morland, Maximilano F; Althoefer, Kaspar; Nanayakkara, Thrishantha

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to improve walking in prosthetics, orthotics and robotics without closed loop controllers. The approach requires impedance profiles to be formed in a walker and uses state feedback to update the profiles in real-time via a simple policy. This approach is open loop and inherently copes with the challenge of uncertain environment. In application it could be used either online for a walker to adjust its impedance profiles in real-time to compensate for environmental changes, or offline to learn suitable profiles for specific environments. So far we have conducted simulations and experiments to investigate the transient and steady state gaits obtained using two simple update policies to form damping profiles in a passive dynamic walker known as the rimless wheel (RW). The damping profiles are formed in the motor that moves the RW vertically along a rail, analogous to a knee joint, and the two update equations were designed to a) control the angular velocity profile and b) minimise peak collision forces. Simulation results show that the velocity update equation works within limits and can cope with varying ground conditions. Experiment results show the angular velocity average reaching the target as well as the peak force update equation reducing peak collision forces in real-time.

  16. Development of a Short Form of the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory: the FFNI-SF.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Emily D; Miller, Joshua D; Few, Lauren R; Campbell, W Keith; Widiger, Thomas A; Crego, Cristina; Lynam, Donald R

    2015-09-01

    The Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI; Glover, Miller, Lynam, Crego, & Widiger, 2012) is a 148-item self-report inventory of 15 traits designed to assess the basic elements of narcissism from the perspective of a 5-factor model. The FFNI assesses both vulnerable (i.e., cynicism/distrust, need for admiration, reactive anger, and shame) and grandiose (i.e., acclaim seeking, arrogance, authoritativeness, entitlement, exhibitionism, exploitativeness, grandiose fantasies, indifference, lack of empathy, manipulativeness, and thrill seeking) variants of narcissism. The present study reports the development of a short-form version of the FFNI in 4 diverse samples (i.e., 2 undergraduate samples, a sample recruited from MTurk, and a clinical community sample) using item response theory. The validity of the resultant 60-item short form was compared against the validity of the full scale in the 4 samples at both the subscale level and the level of the grandiose and vulnerable composites. Results indicated that the 15 subscales remain relatively reliable, possess a factor structure identical to the structure of the long-form scales, and manifest correlational profiles highly similar to those of the long-form scales in relation to a variety of criterion measures, including basic personality dimensions, other measures of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, and indicators of externalizing and internalizing psychopathology. Grandiose and vulnerable composites also behave almost identically across the short- and long-form versions. It is concluded that the FFNI-Short Form (FFNI-SF) offers a well-articulated assessment of the basic traits comprising grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, particularly when assessment time is limited.

  17. Passenger thermal perceptions, thermal comfort requirements, and adaptations in short- and long-haul vehicles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Ping; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Huang, Kuo-Tsang; Sun, Chen-Yi; Huang, Ying-Che

    2010-05-01

    While thermal comfort in mass transportation vehicles is relevant to service quality and energy consumption, benchmarks for such comfort that reflect the thermal adaptations of passengers are currently lacking. This study reports a field experiment involving simultaneous physical measurements and a questionnaire survey, collecting data from 2,129 respondents, that evaluated thermal comfort in short- and long-haul buses and trains. Experimental results indicate that high air temperature, strong solar radiation, and low air movement explain why passengers feel thermally uncomfortable. The overall insulation of clothing worn by passengers and thermal adaptive behaviour in vehicles differ from those in their living and working spaces. Passengers in short-haul vehicles habitually adjust the air outlets to increase thermal comfort, while passengers in long-haul vehicles prefer to draw the drapes to reduce discomfort from extended exposure to solar radiation. The neutral temperatures for short- and long-haul vehicles are 26.2 degrees C and 27.4 degrees C, while the comfort zones are 22.4-28.9 degrees C and 22.4-30.1 degrees C, respectively. The results of this study provide a valuable reference for practitioners involved in determining the adequate control and management of in-vehicle thermal environments, as well as facilitating design of buses and trains, ultimately contributing to efforts to achieve a balance between the thermal comfort satisfaction of passengers and energy conserving measures for air-conditioning in mass transportation vehicles.

  18. Short-term saccadic adaptation in the macaque monkey: a binocular mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, K. P.

    2013-01-01

    Saccadic eye movements are rapid transfers of gaze between objects of interest. Their duration is too short for the visual system to be able to follow their progress in time. Adaptive mechanisms constantly recalibrate the saccadic responses by detecting how close the landings are to the selected targets. The double-step saccadic paradigm is a common method to simulate alterations in saccadic gain. While the subject is responding to a first target shift, a second shift is introduced in the middle of this movement, which masks it from visual detection. The error in landing introduced by the second shift is interpreted by the brain as an error in the programming of the initial response, with gradual gain changes aimed at compensating the apparent sensorimotor mismatch. A second shift applied dichoptically to only one eye introduces disconjugate landing errors between the two eyes. A monocular adaptive system would independently modify only the gain of the eye exposed to the second shift in order to reestablish binocular alignment. Our results support a binocular mechanism. A version-based saccadic adaptive process detects postsaccadic version errors and generates compensatory conjugate gain alterations. A vergence-based saccadic adaptive process detects postsaccadic disparity errors and generates corrective nonvisual disparity signals that are sent to the vergence system to regain binocularity. This results in striking dynamical similarities between visually driven combined saccade-vergence gaze transfers, where the disparity is given by the visual targets, and the double-step adaptive disconjugate responses, where an adaptive disparity signal is generated internally by the saccadic system. PMID:23076111

  19. Myocardial adaptation to short-term high-intensity exercise in highly trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Neilan, Tomas G; Ton-Nu, Thanh-Thao; Jassal, Davinder S; Popovic, Zoran B; Douglas, Pamela S; Halpern, Elkan F; Marshall, Jane E; Thomas, James D; Picard, Michael H; Yoerger, Danita M; Wood, Malissa J

    2006-10-01

    We aimed to clarify the myocardial adaptation to short-term high-intensity exercise among trained athletes. We screened 17 participants in the 2004 World Indoor Rowing Championships before and after a 2000-m sprint. Echocardiography included standard measurements and tissue Doppler-derived strain (epsilon), strain rate, and 2-dimensionally derived speckle-tracking imaging for left ventricular (LV) torsion. LV volumes and ejection fraction were unchanged after exercise. There was a reduction in early and an increase in late diastolic filling velocities and a decrease in the flow propagation velocity. Annular systolic velocities, slope of the systolic acceleration, septal and lateral epsilon, and speckle tracking-derived torsion were increased. The increased LV torsion was a result of increased basal and apical rotation. Right ventricular apical epsilon decreased. In conclusion, maximal intensity short-duration exercise was associated with attenuation of LV diastolic function, augmentation of LV systolic function, and a reduction in apical right ventricular contractility.

  20. Net digestive absorption and adaptive hyperphagia in adult short bowel patients

    PubMed Central

    Crenn, P; Morin, M C; Joly, F; Penven, S; Thuillier, F; Messing, B

    2004-01-01

    Background and aims: Intestinal adaptation after small bowel resection in humans is debated. We have quantified in adult short bowel (remnant small bowel length <2 m) patients oral intake and net digestive absorption and their evolution over time. Patients and methods: Oral intake and faecal output were studied over three days in 90 patients (39 and 51 without or with parenteral nutrition, respectively) and in 14 patients in early (<6 months) and late (>6 months) periods after digestive continuity. Nitrogen and fat output were measured using chemiluminescence and Van de Kamer techniques, respectively. Results: In the whole group, 81% of patients had hyperphagia (spontaneous oral intake >1.5×resting energy expenditure), independently and negatively related to fat absorption (p<0.01) and body mass index (p<0.001) but not braked by the presence of parenteral nutrition. Protein and fat absorption were related to small bowel length. We observed, in the late in comparison with the early period after digestive continuity: an increase in oral intake (1.6 v 2.3 resting energy expenditure), decrease in stool weight/oral intake ratio, no reduction in per cent fat absorption, and protein absorption improvement associated with a significant increase in the amount of protein absorbed (40 v 64 g/day; p<0.05), both being correlated with remnant small bowel length (p<0.01). Conclusions: This study confirms an adaptive hyperphagia in adult short bowel patients. Over time, hyperphagia and amount of protein absorbed increased, the latter being related to remnant small bowel length, indicating a behavioural adaptation that allows expression of intestinal absorptive adaptation. PMID:15306586

  1. Vivid Motor Imagery as an Adaptation Method for Head Turns on a Short-Arm Centrifuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newby, N. J.; Mast, F. W.; Natapoff, A.; Paloski, W. H.

    2006-01-01

    Artificial gravity (AG) has been proposed as a potential countermeasure to the debilitating physiological effects of long duration space flight. The most economical means of implementing AG may be through the use of a short-radius (2m or less) centrifuge. For such a device to produce gravitational forces comparable to those on earth requires rotation rates in excess of 20 revolutions per minute (rpm). Head turns made out of the plane of rotation at these rates, as may be necessary if exercise is combined with AG, result in cross-coupled stimuli (CCS) that cause adverse side effects including motion sickness, illusory sensations of motion, and inappropriate eye movements. Recent studies indicate that people can adapt to CCS and reduce these side effects by making multiple head turns during centrifuge sessions conducted over consecutive days. However, about 25% of the volunteers for these studies have difficulty tolerating the CCS adaptation paradigm and often drop out due to motion sickness symptoms. The goal of this investigation was to determine whether vivid motor imagery could be used as a pseudostimulus for adapting subjects to this unique environment. Twenty four healthy human subjects (14 males, 10 females), ranging in age from 21 to 48 years (mean 33, sd 7 years) took part in this study. The experimental stimuli were produced using the NASA JSC short-arm centrifuge (SAC). Subjects were oriented supinely on this device with the nose pointed toward the ceiling and head centered on the axis of rotation. Thus, centrifuge rotation was in the body roll plane. After ramp-up the SAC rotated clockwise at a constant rate of 23 rpm, producing a centrifugal force of approximately 1 g at the feet. Semicircular canal CCS were produced by having subjects make yaw head turns from the nose up (NU) position to the right ear down (RED) position and from RED to NU. Each head turn was completed in about one second, and a 30 second recovery period separated consecutive head

  2. Exploratory and Confirmatory Studies of the Structure of the Bem Sex Role Inventory Short Form with Two Divergent Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Namok; Fuqua, Dale R.; Newman, Jody L.

    2009-01-01

    The short form of the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) contains half as many items as the long form and yet has often demonstrated better reliability and validity. This study uses exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic methods to examine the structure of the short form of the BSRI. A structure noted elsewhere also emerged here, consisting of…

  3. Validity of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form in a sample of Spanish fathers.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Herrero, Angela; López-Pina, José Antonio; Pérez-López, Julio; Brito de la Nuez, Alfredo G; Martínez-Fuentes, María Teresa

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form in a sample of 115 fathers of infants aged between ten and thirty-nine months old. The exploratory factor analysis revealed three reasonably distinct factors, as in the original version of the instrument. The three extracted factors: Parental Distress, Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction and Difficult Child accounted for 47.48 % of the variance. The internal consistency coefficients were high in each factor or subscale. These results provided empirical evidence in favour of the reliability and validity of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form in Spanish fathers, and can be useful to elucidate the mechanisms through which stress impacts parenting and permitting to develop more targeted interventions for infants and their families.

  4. Constructing a Short Form of the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire With Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Mark G.; McCarthy, Denis M.; MacPherson, Laura; Brown, Sandra A.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the present studies was to construct and validate a short form of the 50-item Smoking Consequences Questionnaire (SCQ; T. H. Brandon & T. B. Baker, 1991), a measure of smoking outcome expectancies. In Study 1, a 21-item short form (S-SCQ) was derived from a sample of 107 young adults previously treated for substance abuse. In Study 2, the measure was cross-validated on 125 adolescents in treatment for substance abuse. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed good model fit and factorial invariance for the 4 S-SCQ subscales across both samples. Validation analyses on each sample found that subscale scores generally correlated significantly with smoking-related variables. The present studies provide initial evidence for the utility of the S-SCQ when used with young adults and adolescents. PMID:12847776

  5. Validity and Reliability of International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form in Chinese Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chao; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The psychometric profiles of the widely used International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF) in Chinese youth have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the IPAQ-SF using a sample of Chinese youth. Method: One thousand and twenty-one youth (M[subscript age] = 14.26 ±…

  6. The Behaviour Problems Inventory-Short Form: Reliability and Factorial Validity in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascitelli, Andréa N.; Rojahn, Johannes; Nicolaides, Vias C.; Moore, Linda; Hastings, Richard P.; Christian-Jones, Ceri

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Behaviour Problems Inventory-Short Form (BPI-S) is a spin-off of the BPI-01 that was empirically developed from a large BPI-01 data set. In this study, the reliability and factorial validity of the BPI-S was investigated for the first time on newly collected data from adults with intellectual disabilities. Methods: The sample…

  7. The nociceptive withdrawal reflex does not adapt to joint position change and short-term motor practice.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Nathan; Riley, Zachary A

    2013-01-01

    The nociceptive withdrawal reflex is a protective mechanism to mediate interactions within a potentially dangerous environment. The reflex is formed by action-based sensory encoding during the early post-natal developmental period, and it is unknown if the protective motor function of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex in the human upper-limb is adaptable based on the configuration of the arm or if it can be modified by short-term practice of a similar or opposing motor action. In the present study, nociceptive withdrawal reflexes were evoked by a brief train of electrical stimuli applied to digit II, 1) in five different static arm positions and, 2) before and after motor practice that was opposite (EXT) or similar (FLEX) to the stereotyped withdrawal response, in 10 individuals. Withdrawal responses were quantified by the electromyography (EMG) reflex response in several upper limb muscles, and by the forces and moments recorded at the wrist. EMG onset latencies and response amplitudes were not significantly different across the arm positions or between the EXT and FLEX practice conditions, and the general direction of the withdrawal response was similar across arm positions. In addition, the force vectors were not different after practice in either the practice condition or between EXT and FLEX conditions. We conclude the withdrawal response is insensitive to changes in elbow or shoulder joint angles as well as remaining resistant to short-term adaptations from the practice of motor actions, resulting in a generalized limb withdrawal in each case. It is further hypothesized that the multisensory feedback is weighted differently in each arm position, but integrated to achieve a similar withdrawal response to safeguard against erroneous motor responses that could cause further harm. The results remain consistent with the concept that nociceptive withdrawal reflexes are shaped through long-term and not short-term action based sensory encoding.

  8. Comparison of WAIS-III short forms for measuring index and full-scale scores.

    PubMed

    Girard, Todd A; Axelrod, Bradley N; Wilkins, Leanne K

    2010-09-01

    This investigation assessed the ability of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) short forms to estimate both index and IQ scores in a large, mixed clinical sample (N = 809). More specifically, a commonly used modification of Ward's seven-subtest short form (SF7-A), a recently proposed index-based SF7-C and eight-subtest short form (SF8) were evaluated. All three SFs proved adequate for estimating verbal comprehension, perceptual organization, and full-scale intelligence within considerably less time relative to an SF11 that provides full measurement of WAIS index scores. The SF7-A provided the best combination overall in terms of psychometric performance and estimated time savings. However, SF8 best represents all four factors and allows measurement of processing speed. The SF7-C was most hampered by inclusion of the Block Design subtest in the current assessment, but may prove advantageous in future extensions to the WAIS-IV.

  9. Short form of the WAIS-III for use with patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Blyler, C R; Gold, J M; Iannone, V N; Buchanan, R W

    2000-12-15

    The recent publication of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III), the most widely used standard test of intelligence, requires the development of a new short form for use with patients with schizophrenia for many clinical and research purposes. We used regression analyses of complete WAIS-III data on 41 outpatients with schizophrenia and 41 education-, and age-matched healthy subjects to determine the best combination of subtests to use as a short form. Excluding three subtests that are time-consuming to administer, and requiring that the solution includes one subtest from each of the four WAIS index scores, the combination that most fully accounted for the variance in full-scale IQ (FSIQ) for both participants with schizophrenia (R(2)=0.90) and healthy controls (R(2)=0.86) included the information, block design, arithmetic, and digit symbol subtests. When the restrictions regarding which subtests could enter were relaxed, the best four-subtest solution included information, block design, comprehension, and similarities. Although the latter explained 95% of the variance in FSIQ for schizophrenia participants and 90% of the variance for healthy controls, it consistently overestimated FSIQ for the schizophrenia group. We recommend the four-factor short form for use in future research and clinical practice in which a quick, accurate IQ estimate is desired.

  10. An Overview on Short and Long Time Relaxations in Glass-forming Supercooled Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Smarajit

    2016-10-01

    Density fluctuations in supercooled liquids near the glass transition relax in multiple steps. The short time relaxation is known as β-relaxation and the final long time relaxation is called α-relaxation. It is believed that the long time α-relaxation is a cooperative phenomena associated with a growing length scales, whereas the short-time β-relaxation is often attributed to spatially local processes involving the rattling motion of a particle in the transient cage formed by its neighbors. Using molecular dynamics simulations of few model glass-forming liquids, we show that the β-relaxation is also cooperative in nature and the length scale extracted from the detailed finite-size scaling analysis of β-relaxation is found to be the same as that of the length scale that describes the spatial heterogeneity of local dynamics in the long-time α-relaxation regime. These results provide a clear connection between short-time dynamics and long-time structural relaxation in glass-forming liquids.

  11. [The late results of short-term chemotherapy in benign forms of tuberculosis in children].

    PubMed

    Anastasatu, C; Anastasatu, O; Murgoci, G; Dobre, M; Bîscă, N; Calciu, M; Popescu, E; Tifescu, R; Didilescu, C; Burdujan, M

    1991-01-01

    The study included 359 cases of primary tuberculosis (benign forms) in children aged 0-14 years, out of which 181 non-complicated and 178 complicated forms. The therapeutical regimens were: 3HEZ2/3HE2 (study subgroup) and 6HE2/3H2 (control) for non-complicated forms, and 3HRZ2/3HR2 (study subgroup) and 3HES2/3HE2/3H2 (control) for complicated ones. Late results (5 years after treatment end) were very good (from clinical, radiological, bacteriological points of view) in 100% of cases. Thus, short-course regimens are preferable to longer ones (over 6 months) in the chemotherapy of the benign forms of pulmonary tuberculosis in children.

  12. Short-term adaptation of the ruminal epithelium involves abrupt changes in sodium and short-chain fatty acid transport.

    PubMed

    Schurmann, Brittney L; Walpole, Matthew E; Górka, Pawel; Ching, John C H; Loewen, Matthew E; Penner, Gregory B

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of an increase in diet fermentability on 1) the rate and extent to which short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption pathways adapt relative to changes in Na(+) transport, 2) the epithelial surface area (SA), and 3) the barrier function of the bovine ruminal epithelium. Twenty-five Holstein steer calves were assigned to either the control diet (CON; 91.5% hay and 8.5% supplement) or a moderately fermentable diet (50% hay; 41.5% barley grain (G), and 8.5% supplement) fed for 3 (G3), 7 (G7), 14 (G14), or 21 days (G21). All calves were fed at 2.25% body weight at 0800. Calves were killed (at 1000), and ruminal tissue was collected to determine the rate and pathway of SCFA transport, Na(+) transport and barrier function in Ussing chambers. Tissue was also collected for SA measurement and gene expression. Mean reticular pH decreased from 6.90 for CON to 6.59 for G7 and then increased (quadratic P < 0.001). While effective SA of the ruminal epithelium was not affected (P > 0.10) by dietary treatment, the net Na(+) flux increased by 125% within 7 days (quadratic P = 0.016). Total acetate and butyrate flux increased from CON to G21, where passive diffusion was the primary SCFA absorption pathway affected. Increased mannitol flux, tissue conductance, and tendencies for increased expression of IL-1β and TLR2 indicated reduced rumen epithelium barrier function. This study indicates that an increase in diet fermentability acutely increases Na(+) and SCFA absorption in the absence of increased SA, but reduces barrier function.

  13. Constraints on the Source of Short-Term Motion Adaptation in Macaque Area MT. I. The Role of Input and Intrinsic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    PRIEBE, NICHOLAS J.; CHURCHLAND, MARK M.; LISBERGER, STEPHEN G.

    2008-01-01

    Neurons in area MT, a motion-sensitive area of extrastriate cortex, respond to a step of target velocity with a transient-sustained firing pattern. The transition from a high initial firing rate to a lower sustained rate occurs over a time course of 20–80 ms and is considered a form of short-term adaptation. The present paper asks whether adaptation is due to input-specific mechanisms such as short-term synaptic depression or if it results from intrinsic cellular mechanisms such as spike-rate adaptation. We assessed the contribution of input-specific mechanisms by using a condition/test paradigm to measure the spatial scale of adaptation. Conditioning and test stimuli were placed within MT receptive fields but were spatially segregated so that the two stimuli would activate different populations of inputs from the primary visual cortex (V1). Conditioning motion at one visual location caused a reduction of the transient firing to subsequent test motion at a second location. The adaptation field, estimated as the region of visual space where conditioning motion caused adaptation, was always larger than the MT receptive field. Use of the same stimulus configuration while recording from direction-selective neurons in V1 failed to demonstrate either adaptation or the transient-sustained response pattern that is the signature of short-term adaptation in MT. We conclude that the shift from transient to sustained firing in MT cells does not result from an input-specific mechanism applied to inputs from V1 because it operates over a wider range of the visual field than is covered by receptive fields of V1 neurons. We used a direct analysis of MT neuron spike trains for many repetitions of the same motion stimulus to assess the contribution to adaptation of intrinsic cellular mechanisms related to spiking. On a trial-by-trial basis, there was no correlation between number of spikes in the transient interval and the interval immediately after the transient period. This is

  14. Development of a short form of the Treatment Evaluation Inventory for acceptability of psychological interventions.

    PubMed

    Newton, J T; Sturmey, P

    2004-04-01

    The Treatment Evaluation Inventory of Kazdin, French, and Sherick is a 19-item measure of the perceived acceptability of behavioural treatments. Development of two brief forms was based on data from two sources. For Study 1, data from 218 completed questionnaires were used to develop internally consistent brief scales. In Study 2 internal consistency and the validity of the brief forms were estimated for a set of 131 questionnaires. Item reduction was achieved by analysis of item-total minus item correlations. Brief forms with 3, 6, 9, and 12 items were proposed. Their internal consistency (Cronbach alpha) and construct validity were based on correlations of scores on each short form with the full scale scores and on comparing means of different forms. Discriminant validity was based on the difference between two groups (estimated effect size 0.7). Scores for all forms showed high internal consistency and correlated highly with total scale scores. Only the 12-item brief scale yielded mean scores similar to the full scale. The 3-item form could be used as a quick screen, and the 12-item form for more intensive purposes as it is most similar to the full-scale.

  15. Adaptations of the vestibular system to short and long-term exposures to altered gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, L. L.

    2003-10-01

    Long-term space flight creates unique environmental conditions to which the vestibular system must adapt for optimal survival of a given organism. The development and maintenance of vestibular connections are controlled by environmental gravitational stimulation as well as genetically controlled molecular interactions. This paper describes the effects of hypergravity on axonal growth and dendritic morphology, respectively. Two aspects of this vestibular adaptation are examined: (1) How does long-term exposure to hypergravity affect the development of vestibular axons? (2) How does short-term exposure to extremely rapid changes in gravity, such as those that occur during shuttle launch and landing, affect dendrites of the vestibulocerebellar system? To study the effects of longterm exposures to altered gravity, embryonic rats that developed in hypergravity were compared to microgravity-exposed and control rats. Examination of the vestibular projections from epithelia devoted to linear and angular acceleration revealed that the terminal fields segregate differently in rat embryos that gestated in each of the gravitational environments.To study the effects of short-term exposures to altered gravity, mice were exposed briefly to strong vestibular stimuli and the vestibulocerebellum was examined for any resulting morphological changes. My data show that these stimuli cause intense vestibular excitation of cerebellar Purkinje cells, which induce up-regulation of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and other morphological changes that are comparable to those seen in long-term depression. This system provides a basis for studying how the vestibular environment can modify cerebellar function, allowing animals to adapt to new environments.

  16. Adaptive Data-based Predictive Control for Short Take-off and Landing (STOL) Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, Jonathan Spencer; Acosta, Diana Michelle; Phan, Minh Q.

    2010-01-01

    Data-based Predictive Control is an emerging control method that stems from Model Predictive Control (MPC). MPC computes current control action based on a prediction of the system output a number of time steps into the future and is generally derived from a known model of the system. Data-based predictive control has the advantage of deriving predictive models and controller gains from input-output data. Thus, a controller can be designed from the outputs of complex simulation code or a physical system where no explicit model exists. If the output data happens to be corrupted by periodic disturbances, the designed controller will also have the built-in ability to reject these disturbances without the need to know them. When data-based predictive control is implemented online, it becomes a version of adaptive control. The characteristics of adaptive data-based predictive control are particularly appropriate for the control of nonlinear and time-varying systems, such as Short Take-off and Landing (STOL) aircraft. STOL is a capability of interest to NASA because conceptual Cruise Efficient Short Take-off and Landing (CESTOL) transport aircraft offer the ability to reduce congestion in the terminal area by utilizing existing shorter runways at airports, as well as to lower community noise by flying steep approach and climb-out patterns that reduce the noise footprint of the aircraft. In this study, adaptive data-based predictive control is implemented as an integrated flight-propulsion controller for the outer-loop control of a CESTOL-type aircraft. Results show that the controller successfully tracks velocity while attempting to maintain a constant flight path angle, using longitudinal command, thrust and flap setting as the control inputs.

  17. An overview of short bowel syndrome management: adherence, adaptation, and practical recommendations.

    PubMed

    Wall, Elizabeth A

    2013-09-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) refers to the clinical consequences resulting from loss of small bowel absorptive surface area due to surgical resection or bypass. The syndrome is characterized by maldigestion, malabsorption, and malnutrition. Survival of patients with SBS is dependent on adaptation in the remaining bowel and a combination of pharmacologic and nutrition therapies. Individual plans of care are developed based on the length and sites of remaining bowel, the degree of intestinal adaptation, and the patient's ability to adhere to the medication and dietary regimens. Antisecretory and antidiarrheal medications are prescribed to slow intestinal transit times and optimize fluid and nutrient absorption. Based on postsurgical anatomy, enteral feedings, parenteral infusions, complex diet plans, and vitamin and mineral supplementation are used in various combinations to nourish patients with SBS. In the acute care setting, registered dietitians (RDs) assist with infusion therapy, diet education, and discharge planning. Long-term, as the small intestine adapts, RDs revise the nutrition care plan and monitor for nutrient deficiencies, metabolic bone disease, and anemia. The frequent monitoring and revision of care plans, plus the appreciable benefits from proper medical nutrition therapy, make this patient population extremely challenging and rewarding for RDs to manage. This article provides a brief, case study-based overview of the medical and nutrition management of SBS.

  18. Passive adaptation to stress in adulthood after short-term social instability stress during adolescence in mice.

    PubMed

    Lima, A P N de; Salles Gomes, C O Massoco

    2017-04-02

    This study reports that short-term social instability stress in adolescence increases passive-coping in adulthood in male mice. Short-term SIS decreased the latency of immobility and increased the frequency and time of immobility in tail suspension test. These findings support the hypothesis that adolescent stress can induce a passive adaptation to stress in adulthood, even if it is a short period of stress.

  19. Classification of short-lived objects using an interactive adaptable assistance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bekri, Nadia; Angele, Susanne; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth

    2015-05-01

    "Although we know that it is not a familiar object, after a while we can say what it resembles". The core task of an aerial image analyst is to recognize different object types based on certain clearly classified characteristics from aerial or satellite images. An interactive recognition assistance system compares selected features with a fixed set of reference objects (core data set). Therefore it is mainly designed to evaluate durable single objects like a specific type of ship or vehicle. Aerial image analysts on missions realized a changed warfare over the time. The task was not anymore to classify and thereby recognize a single durable object. The problem was that they had to classify strong variable objects and the reference set did not match anymore. In order to approach this new scope we introduce a concept to a further development of the interactive assistance system to be able to handle also short-lived, not clearly classifiable and strong variable objects like for example dhows. Dhows are the type of ships that are often used during pirate attacks at the coast of West Africa. Often these ships were build or extended by the pirates themselves. They follow no particular pattern as the standard construction of a merchant ship. In this work we differ between short-lived and durable objects. The interactive adaptable assistance system is supposed to assist image analysts with the classification of objects, which are new and not listed in the reference set of objects yet. The human interaction and perception is an important factor in order to realize this task and achieve the goal of recognition. Therefore we had to model the possibility to classify short-lived objects with appropriate procedures taking into consideration all aspects of short-lived objects. In this paper we will outline suitable measures and the possibilities to categorize short-lived objects via simple basic shapes as well as a temporary data storage concept for shortlived objects. The

  20. [A short form of the positions on nursing diagnosis scale: development and psychometric testing].

    PubMed

    Romero-Sánchez, José Manuel; Paloma-Castro, Olga; Paramio-Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Pastor-Montero, Sonia María; O'Ferrall-González, Cristina; Gabaldón-Bravo, Eva Maria; González-Domínguez, Maria Eugenia; Castro-Yuste, Cristina; Frandsen, Anna J; Martínez-Sabater, Antonio

    2013-06-01

    The Positions on Nursing Diagnosis (PND) is a scale that uses the semantic differential technique to measure nurses' attitudes towards the nursing diagnosis concept. The aim of this study was to develop a shortened form of the Spanish version of this scale and evaluate its psychometric properties and efficiency. A double theoretical-empirical approach was used to obtain a short form of the PND, the PND-7-SV, which would be equivalent to the original. Using a cross-sectional survey design, the reliability (internal consistency and test-retest reliability), construct (exploratory factor analysis, known-groups technique and discriminant validity) and criterion-related validity (concurrent validity), sensitivity to change and efficiency of the PND-7-SV were assessed in a sample of 476 Spanish nursing students. The results endorsed the utility of the PND-7-SV to measure attitudes toward nursing diagnosis in an equivalent manner to the complete form of the scale and in a shorter time.

  1. Electron transfer quenching in light adapted and mutant forms of the AppA BLUF domain.

    PubMed

    Laptenok, Sergey P; Lukacs, Andras; Brust, Richard; Haigney, Allison; Gil, Agnieszka; Towrie, Michael; Greetham, Gregory M; Tonge, Peter J; Meech, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    The Blue Light Using Flavin (BLUF) domain proteins are an important family of photoreceptors controlling a range of responses in a wide variety of organisms. The details of the primary photochemical mechanism, by which light absorption in the isoalloxazine ring of the flavin is converted into a structure change to form the signalling state of the protein, is unresolved. In this work we apply ultrafast time resolved infra-red (TRIR) spectroscopy to investigate the primary photophysics of the BLUF domain of the protein AppA (AppABLUF) a light activated antirepressor. Here a number of mutations at Y21 and W104 in AppABLUF are investigated. The Y21 mutants are known to be photoinactive, while W104 mutants show the characteristic spectral red-shift associated with BLUF domain activity. Using TRIR we observed separately the decay of the excited state and the recovery of the ground state. In both cases the kinetics are found to be non-single exponential for all the proteins studied, suggesting a range of ground state structures. In the Y21 mutants an intermediate state was also observed, assigned to formation of the radical of the isoalloxazine (flavin) ring. The electron donor is the W104 residue. In contrast, no radical intermediates were detected in the studies of the photoactive dark adapted proteins, dAppABLUF and the dW104 mutants, suggesting a structure change in the Y21 mutants which favours W104 to isoalloxazine electron transfer. In contrast, in the light adapted form of the proteins (lAppABLUF, lW104) a radical intermediate was detected and the kinetics were greatly accelerated. In this case the electron donor was Y21 and major structural changes are associated with the enhanced quenching. In AppABLUF and the seven mutants studied radical intermediates are readily observed by TRIR spectroscopy, but there is no correlation with photoactivity. This suggests that if a charge separated state has a role in the BLUF photocycle it is only as a very short lived

  2. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-France Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Anxiety and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouyaud, Jacques; Vignoli, Emmanuelle; Dosnon, Odile; Lallemand, Noelle

    2012-01-01

    The CAAS-France Form consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from moderate to good. The factor structure was…

  3. Stress Recovery Based h-Adaptive Finite Element Simulation of Sheet Forming Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Mohd.; Singh, Devinder

    2016-07-01

    In the present work, stress recovery techniques based adaptive finite element analysis of sheet forming operations is presented. An adaptive two dimensional finite element computer code allows the analysis of sheet forming operations and results in distribution of adaptively refined mesh, effective strain, and punch load, stress and strain rate tensor in the domain that has been developed. The recovery scheme for determining more accurate stress field is based on the least squares fitting of the computed stresses in an element patch surrounding and including a particular node. The solution error is estimated on the basis of an energy norm. It is shown with the help of an illustrative example of axi-symmetric stretching of a metal blank by a hemispherical punch that the adaptive analysis may be usefully employed to predict accurately deformation process, the seats of large deformations and locations of possible instability.

  4. The Turkish Version of the Family Sense of Coherence Scale-Short Form (FSOC-S): Initial Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecen, Ayse Rezan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate validity and reliability of Short Form of The Family Sense of Coherence Scale's which was developed originally 26 items by Antonovsky and Sourani (1988) and 12 items short form by Sagy (1998). The scale measures individuals' perception of Family Sense of Coherence and it can be applied to adolescents and…

  5. Construction of a Danish CDI Short Form for Language Screening at the Age of 36 Months: Methodological Considerations and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vach, Werner; Bleses, Dorthe; Jorgensen, Rune

    2010-01-01

    Several research groups have previously constructed short forms of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) for different languages. We consider the specific aim of constructing such a short form to be used for language screening in a specific age group. We present a novel strategy for the construction, which is applicable…

  6. Overcoming language barriers in the informed consent process: regulatory and compliance issues with the use of the "short form".

    PubMed

    Lad, Pramod M; Dahl, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Language barriers in the informed consent process can be a significant impediment when recruiting non-English speaking subjects into clinical research studies. Regulatory guidelines indicate that the short form procedure be utilized in such circumstances. In this paper, we examine some of the ambiguities in the regulatory framework, the resulting need for institutional policy guidelines, and compliance issues with the short form process.

  7. Comparing short forms of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale.

    PubMed

    Carleton, R Nicholas; Thibodeau, Michel A; Weeks, Justin W; Teale Sapach, Michelle J N; McEvoy, Peter M; Horswill, Samantha C; Heimberg, Richard G

    2014-12-01

    The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS; Mattick & Clarke, 1998) are companion scales developed to measure anxiety in social interaction and performance situations, respectively. The measures have strong discriminant and convergent validity; however, their factor structures remain debated, and furthermore, the combined administration length (i.e., 39 items) can be prohibitive for some settings. There have been 4 attempts to assess the factor structures of the scales and reduce the item content: the 14-item Social Interaction Phobia Scale (SIPS; Carleton et al., 2009), the 12-item SIAS-6/SPS-6 (Peters, Sunderland, Andrews, Rapee, & Mattick, 2012), the 21-item abbreviated SIAS/SPS (ASIAS/ASPS; Kupper & Denollet, 2012), and the 12-item Readability SIAS and SPS (RSIAS/RSPS; Fergus, Valentiner, McGrath, Gier-Lonsway, & Kim, 2012). The current study compared the short forms on (a) factor structure, (b) ability to distinguish between clinical and non-clinical populations, (c) sensitivity to change following therapy, and (d) convergent validity with related measures. Participants included 3,607 undergraduate students (55% women) and 283 patients with social anxiety disorder (43% women). Results of confirmatory factor analyses, sensitivity analyses, and correlation analyses support the robust utility of items in the SIPS and the SPS-6 and SIAS-6 relative to the other short forms; furthermore, the SIPS and the SPS-6 and SIAS-6 were also supported by convergent validity analyses within the undergraduate sample. The RSIAS/RSPS and the ASIAS/ASPS were least supported, based on the current results and the principle of parsimony. Accordingly, researchers and clinicians should consider carefully which of the short forms will best suit their needs.

  8. Factor structure and validity of the parenting stress index-short form.

    PubMed

    Haskett, Mary E; Ahern, Lisa S; Ward, Caryn S; Allaire, Jason C

    2006-06-01

    The psychometric properties of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) were examined in a sample of 185 mothers and fathers. Factor analysis revealed 2 reasonably distinct factors involving parental distress and dysfunctional parent-child interactions. Both scales were internally consistent, and these scales were correlated with measures of parent psychopathology, parental perceptions of child adjustment, and observed parent and child behavior. PSI-SF scores were related to parent reports of child behavior 1 year later, and the Childrearing Stress subscale was a significant predictor of a parental history of abuse.

  9. Measurement Quality of the Caregiver Strain Questionnaire-Short Form 7 (CGSQ-SF7).

    PubMed

    Brannan, Ana María; Athay, Mary Michele; de Andrade, Ana Regina Vides

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the measurement quality of an abbreviated version of the Caregiver Strain Questionnaire. The CGSQ-Short Form 7 (CGSQ-SF7) is practical for routine assessment of objective and subjective internalized caregiver strain. The subjective externalized subscale is not included in the CGSQ-SF7. Findings indicate that the reliability and validity of the shortened objective and subjective internalized subscales are comparable to the original. Examination of construct validity suggested that caregiver, youth, and clinician ratings of child clinical severity were related to objective caregiver strain. However, youth and clinician ratings of child clinical severity were not related to subjective internalized caregiver strain.

  10. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Italian Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Breadth of Interests, Quality of Life, and Perceived Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soresi, Salvatore; Nota, Laura; Ferrari, Lea

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS)-Italian Form consists of four 6-item scales, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. The 24-item CAAS-Italian Form is identical to the International Form 2.0. The factor structure was…

  11. Validation of a short adaptation of the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ) in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ashleigh; Yung, Alison R; Wigman, Johanna T W; Killackey, Eoin; Baksheev, Gennady; Wardenaar, Klaas J

    2014-03-30

    The Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ) was developed to measure the symptom-dimensions of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression. A 30-item short adaptation of the MASQ (MASQ-D30) was previously developed and validated in adult psychiatric outpatients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the MASQ-D30 in a sample of adolescents and young adults. Help-seeking adolescents from Australia (N=147; mean age: 17.7 years; 58.8% female) completed the original, 90-item MASQ. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to evaluate the construct validity (a 3-factor structure) of the original MASQ and the MASQ-D30. Internal consistencies and correlations with other instruments were calculated and compared between versions. CFA showed that the intended 3-factor structure fit adequately to the MASQ-D30 data (CFI=0.95; RMSEA=0.08). Internal consistencies ranged from 0.85 to 0.92 across the scales and patterns of correlations with the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) indicated adequate convergent/divergent properties. Importantly, the observed psychometric characteristics were comparable with the original MASQ and alternative short-forms. Results indicated that the MASQ-D30 is a valid and reliable instrument in young people, allowing for quick assessment of the tripartite dimensions of depression and anxiety.

  12. Psychometric properties of the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale and two short-form measures of loneliness in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D; Cutts, J; Lees, I; Mapungwana, S; Maunganidze, L

    1992-08-01

    The cross-cultural reliability in Zimbabwe of the Revised University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale and two short forms of the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale were investigated. Subjects comprised a sample of 1,354 adolescents and another sample of 754 adults. The reliability of the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale was acceptable. The internal consistency of an eight-item short form of the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale was adequate, but the reliability of a four-item short form was low. Factor analysis of the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale, which yielded two factors similar to those reported in North America by Zakahi and Duran (1982) supported the construct validity of the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale in Zimbabwe. The Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale and the eight-item short form were highly correlated, but this association was spuriously elevated by the fact the eight-item short form is part of the full scale. Factor analysis of the eight-item short form suggested that this scale does not consistently reflect the factor structure of the full scale. We concluded that the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale possesses acceptable reliability and factorial validity in Zimbabwe and that the eight-item version is superior to the four-item form of the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale as a short loneliness measure. However, additional refinements may be needed to further improve the eight-item short version.

  13. Adaptations in Muscle Activity to Induced, Short-Term Hindlimb Lameness in Trotting Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Stefanie; Nolte, Ingo; Schilling, Nadja

    2013-01-01

    Muscle tissue has a great intrinsic adaptability to changing functional demands. Triggering more gradual responses such as tissue growth, the immediate responses to altered loading conditions involve changes in the activity. Because the reduction in a limb’s function is associated with marked deviations in the gait pattern, understanding the muscular responses in laming animals will provide further insight into their compensatory mechanisms as well as help to improve treatment options to prevent musculoskeletal sequelae in chronic patients. Therefore, this study evaluated the changes in muscle activity in adaptation to a moderate, short-term, weight-bearing hindlimb lameness in two leg and one back muscle using surface electromyography (SEMG). In eight sound adult dogs that trotted on an instrumented treadmill, bilateral, bipolar recordings of the m. triceps brachii, the m. vastus lateralis and the m. longissimus dorsi were obtained before and after lameness was induced. Consistent with the unchanged vertical forces as well as temporal parameters, neither the timing nor the level of activity changed significantly in the m. triceps brachii. In the ipsilateral m. vastus lateralis, peak activity and integrated SEMG area were decreased, while they were significantly increased in the contralateral hindlimb. In both sides, the duration of the muscle activity was significantly longer due to a delayed offset. These observations are in accordance with previously described kinetic and kinematic changes as well as changes in muscle mass. Adaptations in the activity of the m. longissimus dorsi concerned primarily the unilateral activity and are discussed regarding known alterations in trunk and limb motions. PMID:24236207

  14. Muscular adaptations to short-term low-frequency downhill walking training.

    PubMed

    Maeo, S; Yamamoto, M; Kanehisa, H

    2015-02-01

    This study examined muscular adaptations of knee extensors following short-term low-frequency downhill walking training. 22 young males (training group: TG, n=12; control group: CG, n=10) participated. TG conducted 40-min downhill treadmill walking (load: 10% of body mass, gradient: 28%, velocity: 5 km/h) 1 session/week for 4 weeks. Before and after the intervention, muscle thickness of knee extensors and maximal knee extension torques in eccentric (- 120, - 60, - 30°/s), isometric (0°/s), and concentric (30, 60, 120, 240°/s) conditions were measured. For TG, muscle damage markers were also measured before and up to 72 h following each session. After the intervention, CG did not show any changes in all variables. TG had significant increases in maximal knee extension torques at all angular velocities, with higher relative gains in eccentric torques (+ 24% on average) than isometric (+ 13%) and concentric (+ 12% on average) torques. No changes were found in the muscle thickness. Although considerable muscle damage was observed after the first training session in TG, the magnitudes of changes in all markers following the second to fourth sessions were minimal. These results indicate that even with relatively short-term and low-frequency, downhill walking training can increase the strength capacity of knee extensors, especially in eccentric strength.

  15. Administration time estimates for Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV subtests, composites, and short forms.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Joseph J; Glass, Laura A; Brown, Cassandra N

    2007-04-01

    The administration times for Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV) subtests, indexes, and the Full Scale IQ were recorded for 57 school children. Also determined were administration times for eight short forms and the General Ability Index (GAI). All eight short forms reduced testing time by >50%, but the GAI required approximately 56 minutes. The time to administer the 10 core subtests that yield the Full Scale IQ and index scores averaged 72 minutes (range = 42 to 100), but 31% of the administrations required 80 minutes or longer. These results indicate that administration times are quite variable and that D. Wechsler's (2003) guideline of 65 to 80 minutes can be misleading for certain settings and for specific examinees. The present research found administration time to be positively correlated with examinee age, grade placement, and Full Scale IQ. In addition, the extent of examiner experience is known to be positively related to administration speed. In the present research, as in many settings, the examiners were competent, but not highly experienced.

  16. Construct distinctiveness and variance composition of multi-dimensional instruments: Three short-form masculinity measures.

    PubMed

    Levant, Ronald F; Hall, Rosalie J; Weigold, Ingrid K; McCurdy, Eric R

    2015-07-01

    Focusing on a set of 3 multidimensional measures of conceptually related but different aspects of masculinity, we use factor analytic techniques to address 2 issues: (a) whether psychological constructs that are theoretically distinct but require fairly subtle discriminations by survey respondents can be accurately captured by self-report measures, and (b) how to better understand sources of variance in subscale and total scores developed from such measures. The specific measures investigated were the: (a) Male Role Norms Inventory-Short Form (MRNI-SF); (b) Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory-46 (CMNI-46); and (c) Gender Role Conflict Scale-Short Form (GRCS-SF). Data (N = 444) were from community-dwelling and college men who responded to an online survey. EFA results demonstrated the discriminant validity of the 20 subscales comprising the 3 instruments, thus indicating that relatively subtle distinctions between norms, conformity, and conflict can be captured with self-report measures. CFA was used to compare 2 different methods of modeling a broad/general factor for each of the 3 instruments. For the CMNI-46 and MRNI-SF, a bifactor model fit the data significantly better than did a hierarchical factor model. In contrast, the hierarchical model fit better for the GRCS-SF. The discussion addresses implications of these specific findings for use of the measures in research studies, as well as broader implications for measurement development and assessment in other research domains of counseling psychology which also rely on multidimensional self-report instruments.

  17. Adaptations of the vestibular system to short and long-term exposures to altered gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, L.

    Long-term space flight creates unique environmental conditions to which the vestibular system must adapt for optimal survival. We are studying two aspects of this vestibular adaptation: (1) How does long-term exposure to microgravity and hypergravity affect the development of vestibular afferents? (2) How does short- term exposure to extremely rapid changes in gravity, such as those that occur during launch and landing, affect the vestibular system. During space flight the gravistatic receptors in the otolith organs are effectively unloaded. In hypergravity conditions they are overloaded. However, the angular acceleration receptors of the semicircular canals receive relatively normal stimulation in both micro- and hypergravity.Rat embryos exposed to microgravity from gestation day 10 (prior to vestibular function) until gestation day 20 (vestibular system is somewhat functional) showed that afferents from the posterior vertical canal projecting to the medial vestibular nucleus developed similarly in microgravity, hypergravity, and in controls . However, afferents from the saccule showed delayed development in microgravity as compared to development in hypergravity and in controls. Cerebellar plasticity is crucial for modification of sensory-motor control and learning. Thus we explored the possibility that strong vestibular stimuli would modify cerebellar motor control (i.e., eye movement, postural control, gut motility) by altering the morphology of cerebellar Purkinje cells. To study the effects of short-term exposures to strong vestibular stimuli we focused on structural changes in the vestibulo-cerebellum that are caused by strong vestibular stimuli. Adult mice were exposed to various combinations of constant and/or rapidly changing angular and linear accelerations for 8.5 min (the time length of shuttle launch). Our data shows that these stimuli cause intense excitation of cerebellar Purkinje cells, inducing up-regulation of clathrin-mediated endocytosis

  18. Adaptive Filtering for Large Space Structures: A Closed-Form Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauch, H. E.; Schaechter, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    In a previous paper Schaechter proposes using an extended Kalman filter to estimate adaptively the (slowly varying) frequencies and damping ratios of a large space structure. The time varying gains for estimating the frequencies and damping ratios can be determined in closed form so it is not necessary to integrate the matrix Riccati equations. After certain approximations, the time varying adaptive gain can be written as the product of a constant matrix times a matrix derived from the components of the estimated state vector. This is an important savings of computer resources and allows the adaptive filter to be implemented with approximately the same effort as the nonadaptive filter. The success of this new approach for adaptive filtering was demonstrated using synthetic data from a two mode system.

  19. The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS): a comparison of two short-form versions.

    PubMed

    Fergus, Thomas A; Valentiner, David P; Kim, Hyun-Soo; McGrath, Patrick B

    2014-12-01

    The widespread use of Mattick and Clarke's (1998) Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and Social Phobia Scale (SPS) led 2 independent groups of researchers to develop short forms of these measures (Fergus, Valentiner, McGrath, Gier-Lonsway, & Kim, 2012; Peters, Sunderland, Andrews, Rapee, & Mattick, 2012). This 3-part study examined the psychometric properties of Fergus et al.'s and Peters et al.'s short forms of the SIAS and SPS using an American nonclinical adolescent sample in Study 1 (N = 98), American patient sample with an anxiety disorder in Study 2 (N = 117), and both a South Korean college student sample (N = 341) and an American college student sample (N = 550) in Study 3. Scores on both sets of short forms evidenced adequate internal consistency, interitem correlations, and measurement invariance. Scores on Fergus et al.'s short forms, particularly their SIAS short form, tended to capture more unique variance in scores of criterion measures than did scores on Peters et al.'s short forms. Implications for the use of these 2 sets of short forms are discussed.

  20. Adaptive Fuzzy Tracking Control for a Class of MIMO Nonlinear Systems in Nonstrict-Feedback Form.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing; Lin, Chong; Liu, Xiaoping; Liu, Kefu

    2015-12-01

    This paper focuses on the problem of fuzzy adaptive control for a class of multiinput and multioutput (MIMO) nonlinear systems in nonstrict-feedback form, which contains the strict-feedback form as a special case. By the condition of variable partition, a new fuzzy adaptive backstepping is proposed for such a class of nonlinear MIMO systems. The suggested fuzzy adaptive controller guarantees that the proposed control scheme can guarantee that all the signals in the closed-loop system are semi-globally uniformly ultimately bounded and the tracking errors eventually converge to a small neighborhood around the origin. The main advantage of this paper is that a control approach is systematically derived for nonlinear systems with strong interconnected terms which are the functions of all states of the whole system. Simulation results further illustrate the effectiveness of the suggested approach.

  1. Localization of type II collagen, long form alpha 1(IX) collagen, and short form alpha 1(IX) collagen transcripts in the developing chick notochord and axial skeleton.

    PubMed

    Swiderski, R E; Solursh, M

    1992-06-01

    In this study we compare, by in situ hybridization, the spatial and temporal expression patterns of transcripts of avian type II collagen and the long and short forms of the (alpha 1) chain of type IX collagen during the development of the notochord and axial skeleton. We observed type II collagen and short form type IX collagen transcripts in the developing (stage 25-28) nonchondrogenic notochord. Conversely, long form type IX transcripts were not detectable in the notochord or perinotochordal sheath. Interestingly, all three transcripts colocalized in the developing chondrogenic vertebrae of the axial skeleton as well as in the chondrocranium and Meckel's cartilage. The expression of the short form of type IX collagen in these regions was more restricted than that of the long form. This report provides additional support for a complex regulatory pathway of cartilage marker gene expression in chondrogenic vs. nonchondrogenic tissues during avian embryogenesis.

  2. Accuracy of WISC-III and WAIS-IV short forms in patients with neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    van Ool, Jans S; Hurks, Petra P M; Snoeijen-Schouwenaars, Francesca M; Tan, In Y; Schelhaas, Helenius J; Klinkenberg, Sylvia; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Hendriksen, Jos G M

    2017-02-02

    The assessment of intellectual abilities is intensive, time-consuming, and might be considered burdensome for patients. We examined psychometric qualities of short forms (SFs) of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC-third edition) and for adults (WAIS-fourth edition), in children (n = 986; Mage = 10.9) and adults (n = 324; Mage = 40.9) with neurological disorders. SF estimates were compared with Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), obtained by a complete administration, for the entire sample and for the subgroups FSIQ < 80 and FSIQ ≥ 80. The FSIQ was correctly identified within ± 7 points in 86% of children and 87% of adults. There were, however, some differences regarding the optimal SF subtest combination between subgroups. Although clinical inferences should not be made, SFs may be useful in research settings to obtain a global estimate of intelligence, and in clinical settings to screen periodically for possible intellectual deterioration.

  3. The short-form revised Eysenck personality questionnaire: A Hindi edition (EPQRS-H)

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Trayambak; Singh, Anju L.; Singh, Indramani L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is a growing consensus about the validity of human personality traits as important dispositions toward feelings and behaviors (Matthews, Deary, & Whiteman, 2003). Materials and Methods: Here we examine the reliability of the Hindi translation of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Form (EPQR-S; Eysenck, Eysenck, & Barrett, 1985), which consists of 48 items that assess neuroticism, extraversion, psychoticism, and lying. The questionnaire was first translated into Hindi and then back translated. Subsequently, it was administered to 202 students (78 men and 124 women) from Banaras Hindu University. The internal consistency of the scale was evaluated. Results: The findings provide satisfactory psychometric properties of the extraversion, neuroticism and lie scales. The psychoticism scale, however, was found to be less satisfactory. Conclusion: It can be proposed that due to satisfactory internal consistency scores, the EPQRS-H is a reliable scale for the measurement of various personality traits. PMID:21234158

  4. Incremental Validity of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF).

    PubMed

    Siegling, A B; Vesely, Ashley K; Petrides, K V; Saklofske, Donald H

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the incremental validity of the adult short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue-SF) in predicting 7 construct-relevant criteria beyond the variance explained by the Five-factor model and coping strategies. Additionally, the relative contributions of the questionnaire's 4 subscales were assessed. Two samples of Canadian university students completed the TEIQue-SF, along with measures of the Big Five, coping strategies (Sample 1 only), and emotion-laden criteria. The TEIQue-SF showed consistent incremental effects beyond the Big Five or the Big Five and coping strategies, predicting all 7 criteria examined across the 2 samples. Furthermore, 2 of the 4 TEIQue-SF subscales accounted for the measure's incremental validity. Although the findings provide good support for the validity and utility of the TEIQue-SF, directions for further research are emphasized.

  5. Validation of the Parenting Stress Index–Short Form With Minority Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Jung; Gopalan, Geetha; Harrington, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Objectives There has been little examination of the structural validity of the Parenting Stress Index–Short Form (PSI-SF) for minority populations in clinical contexts in the Unites States. This study aimed to test prespecified factor structures (one-factor, two-factor, and three-factor models) of the PSI-SF. Methods This study used confirmatory factor analysis in a sample of 240 predominantly Black and Latino caregivers of children with behavioral difficulties. Results The three-factor model fit was reasonable, and the criterion validity for the subscale and total scores was good supporting continued cautious use of the PSI-SF for clinical minority populations. Conclusions The PSI-SF could be integrated as part of screening and intake assessment procedures, which could allow social work practitioners to make more informed decisions about treatment planning, as well as facilitate conversations with caregivers around identifying sources of stress and developing healthy coping strategies. PMID:27616868

  6. Social and Emotional Competencies Evaluation Questionnaire-Teacher's Version: Validation of a Short Form.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Vitor A; Sousa, Vanda; Marchante, Marta

    2016-08-01

    The Social and Emotional Competencies Evaluation Questionnaire-Teacher's version, Short Form (QACSE-P-SF) allows teachers to assess their students' social and emotional competencies, having been designed for program evaluation. Thirty-nine teachers completed the QACSE-P-SF, regarding 657 students (fourth to ninth grades). Factor analyses supported a six-factor structure with acceptable internal consistency. Sex differences were found with teachers reporting girls as having higher scores on Self-Control, Social Awareness, Relationship Skills, and Responsible Decision Making. Developmental differences were also found with fourth-grade students presenting higher levels of Social Awareness and Relationship Skills than older students. The final version of the QACSE-P-SF is composed by 30 items, organized into six scales and less time consuming than the previous version for teachers who need to assess full classes.

  7. Short-term training for explosive strength causes neural and mechanical adaptations.

    PubMed

    Tillin, Neale A; Pain, Matthew T G; Folland, Jonathan P

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated the neural and peripheral adaptations to short-term training for explosive force production. Ten men trained the knee extensors with unilateral explosive isometric contractions (1 s 'fast and hard') for 4 weeks. Before and after training, force was recorded at 50-ms intervals from force onset (F(50), F(100) and F(150)) during both voluntary and involuntary (supramaximal evoked octet; eight pulses at 300 Hz) explosive isometric contractions. Neural drive during the explosive voluntary contractions was measured with the ratio of voluntary/octet force, and average EMG normalized to the peak-to-peak M-wave of the three superficial quadriceps. Maximal voluntary force (MVF) was also measured, and ultrasonic images of the vastus lateralis were recorded during ramped contractions to assess muscle-tendon unit stiffness between 50 and 90% MVF. There was an increase in voluntary F(50) (+54%), F(100) (+15%) and F(150) (+14%) and in octet F(50) (+7%) and F(100) (+10%). Voluntary F(100) and F(150), and octet F(50) and F(100) increased proportionally with MVF (+11%). However, the increase in voluntary F(50) was +37% even after normalization to MVF, and coincided with a 42% increase in both voluntary/octet force and agonist-normalized EMG over the first 50 ms. Muscle-tendon unit stiffness between 50 and 90% MVF also increased. In conclusion, enhanced agonist neural drive and MVF accounted for improved explosive voluntary force production in the early and late phases of the contraction, respectively. The increases in explosive octet force and muscle-tendon unit stiffness provide novel evidence of peripheral adaptations within merely 4 weeks of training for explosive force production.

  8. Secondary structure and zinc ligation of human recombinant short-form stromelysin by multidimensional heteronuclear NMR.

    PubMed

    Gooley, P R; Johnson, B A; Marcy, A I; Cuca, G C; Salowe, S P; Hagmann, W K; Esser, C K; Springer, J P

    1993-12-07

    Stromelysin-1, a member of the matrix metalloendoprotease family, is a zinc protease involved in the degradation of connective tissue in the extracellular matrix. As a step toward determining the structure of this protein, multidimensional heteronuclear NMR experiments have been applied to an inhibited truncated form of human stromelysin-1. Extensive 1H, 13C, and 15N sequential assignments have been obtained with a combination of three- and four-dimensional experiments. On the basis of sequential and short-range NOEs and 13C alpha chemical shifts, two helices have been delineated, spanning residues Asp-111 to Val-127 and Leu-195 to Ser-206. A third helix spanning residues Asp-238 to Gly-247 is characterized by sequential NOEs and 13C alpha chemical shifts, but not short-range NOEs. The lack of the latter NOEs suggests that this helix is either distorted or mobile. Similarly, sequential and interstrand NOEs and 13C alpha chemical shifts characterize a four-stranded beta-sheet with three parallel strands (Arg-100 to Ile-101, Ile-142 to Ala-147, Asp-177 to Asp-181) and one antiparallel strand (Ala-165 to Tyr-168). Two zinc sites have been identified in stromelysin [Salowe et al. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 4535-4540]. The NMR spectral properties, including chemical shift, pH dependence, and proton coupling of the imidazole nitrogens of six histidine residues (151, 166, 179, 201, 205, and 211), invariant in the matrix metalloendoprotease family, suggest that these residues are zinc ligands. NOE data indicate that these histidines form two clusters: one ligates the catalytic zinc (His-201, -205, and -211), and the other ligates a structural zinc (His-151, -166, and -179). Heteronuclear multiple quantum correlated spectra and specific labeling experiments indicate His-151, -179, -201, -205, and -211 are in the N delta 1H tautomer and His-166 is in the N epsilon 2H tautomer.

  9. Extensive Intestinal Resection Triggers Behavioral Adaptation, Intestinal Remodeling and Microbiota Transition in Short Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mayeur, Camille; Gillard, Laura; Le Beyec, Johanne; Bado, André; Joly, Francisca; Thomas, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    Extensive resection of small bowel often leads to short bowel syndrome (SBS). SBS patients develop clinical mal-absorption and dehydration relative to the reduction of absorptive area, acceleration of gastrointestinal transit time and modifications of the gastrointestinal intra-luminal environment. As a consequence of severe mal-absorption, patients require parenteral nutrition (PN). In adults, the overall adaptation following intestinal resection includes spontaneous and complex compensatory processes such as hyperphagia, mucosal remodeling of the remaining part of the intestine and major modifications of the microbiota. SBS patients, with colon in continuity, harbor a specific fecal microbiota that we called “lactobiota” because it is enriched in the Lactobacillus/Leuconostoc group and depleted in anaerobic micro-organisms (especially Clostridium and Bacteroides). In some patients, the lactobiota-driven fermentative activities lead to an accumulation of fecal d/l-lactates and an increased risk of d-encephalopathy. Better knowledge of clinical parameters and lactobiota characteristics has made it possible to stratify patients and define group at risk for d-encephalopathy crises. PMID:27681910

  10. The Cultural Adaptation Process of Agricultural and Life Sciences Students on Short-Term Study Abroad Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Nathan William

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how undergraduate students in a college of agricultural and life sciences experienced cultural adaptation during short-term study abroad programs. The specific objectives of this study were to describe how undergraduate students in the college of agricultural and life sciences experienced culture throughout…

  11. Temporal stability of the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity short-form: test-retest data over one week.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Christopher Alan; Cruise, Sharon Mary; McGuckin, Conor

    2005-04-01

    This study evaluated the test-retest reliability of the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity short-form. 39 Northern Irish undergraduate students completed the measure on two occasions separated by one week. Stability across the two administrations was high, r = .92, and there was no significant change between Time 1(M = 25.2, SD = 5.4) and Time 2 (M = 25.7, SD = 6.2). These data support the short-term test-retest reliability of the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity short-form.

  12. Effects of process variation in short cycle stretch forming in beverage can production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Matthias; Liewald, Mathias

    2016-10-01

    Short Cycle Stretch Forming (SCS) is an innovative stretch forming technology developed at the Institute for Metal Forming Technology (IFU) at the University of Stuttgart. The SCS technology combines plane pre-stretching and deep drawing operations within the same stroke of press ram. Material is yielding from the inner to the outer part of the sheet. The sheet thickness is reduced and denting resistance and yield stress are increased due to hardening effects. SCS-Technology is enhanced due to rotational-symmetrical bodies by applying this technology to a cupping process in tinplate can production. A process simulation for SCS-Cupping processes was conducted. Based on these results a tool was manufactured and commissioned. Experimental results showed that material yields from the middle of the blank to the outer area of the cup wall. Due to the volume of material, the initial diameter can be reduced and material costs can be saved. In this paper different process settings and their effect on the amount of material, which yielded from the middle of the blank to its outside, are observed in a number of experimental series. A blank holder is added to the process in order to avoid wrinkling. The influence of this additional blank holder is therefore investigated in a first experimental set-up by varying blank holder force. In a further investigation the effects of two materials with different thicknesses is observed. Finally, an experimental series is conducted to observe the effect of blank diameter on the SCS-Cupping process. The results of this paper show that SCS-Cupping offers a promising potential for material savings and outline main effects for this technology.

  13. Monkeys have a limited form of short-term memory in audition.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer; Yin, Pingbo

    2012-07-24

    A stimulus trace may be temporarily retained either actively [i.e., in working memory (WM)] or by the weaker mnemonic process we will call passive short-term memory, in which a given stimulus trace is highly susceptible to "overwriting" by a subsequent stimulus. It has been suggested that WM is the more robust process because it exploits long-term memory (i.e., a current stimulus activates a stored representation of that stimulus, which can then be actively maintained). Recent studies have suggested that monkeys may be unable to store acoustic signals in long-term memory, raising the possibility that they may therefore also lack auditory WM. To explore this possibility, we tested rhesus monkeys on a serial delayed match-to-sample (DMS) task using a small set of sounds presented with ~1-s interstimulus delays. Performance was accurate whenever a match or a nonmatch stimulus followed the sample directly, but it fell precipitously if a single nonmatch stimulus intervened between sample and match. The steep drop in accuracy was found to be due not to passive decay of the sample's trace, but to retroactive interference from the intervening nonmatch stimulus. This "overwriting" effect was far greater than that observed previously in serial DMS with visual stimuli. The results, which accord with the notion that WM relies on long-term memory, indicate that monkeys perform serial DMS in audition remarkably poorly and that whatever success they had on this task depended largely, if not entirely, on the retention of stimulus traces in the passive form of short-term memory.

  14. The Short-Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey and its use in pharmacoeconomic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Brazier, J

    1995-05-01

    The Short-Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey is a brief self-administered questionnaire that generates scores across 8 dimensions of health. It has been found to be reliable, and valid in terms of criteria such as agreement with clinical diagnosis and disease severity, but its underlying values have not been tested against patient preferences. The SF-36 was not devised for use in economic evaluation. The SF-36 may be used in cost-minimisation analyses, where the dimension scores can be shown to reflect people's values for health at an ordinal level, but it cannot be used in either cost-effectiveness or cost-utility analyses. The dimensions scores of zero to 100 do not provide a common currency and, where there is conflict between the dimension scores, there is no basis for establishing an overall health benefit. Furthermore, in clinical trials, the usual comparison is between mean or median scores, which assumes risk neutrality and does not take adequate account of the relationship between the value of health and time. Although they are under pressure to assess the cost effectiveness of healthcare interventions, researchers and policy analysts must resist short-cut methods of deriving a single index from the SF-36 that are based on arbitrary aggregation schemes, because these ignore people's preferences and the crucial quantity/quality trade-off, and therefore cannot be used in economic evaluations. However, the rich descriptive material and multidimensionality of the SF-36 may have potential for use in economic evaluation. Multi-attribute utility theory provides a way of deriving a single index based on elicited values, but it requires a major restructuring of the scales of the SF-36. Alternatively, SF-36 responses may provide material for constructing health scenarios that could then be valued on a holistic basis.

  15. The Effects of Short-Lasting Anti-Saccade Training in Homonymous Hemianopia with and without Saccadic Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Lévy-Bencheton, Delphine; Pélisson, Denis; Prost, Myriam; Jacquin-Courtois, Sophie; Salemme, Roméo; Pisella, Laure; Tilikete, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Homonymous Visual Field Defects (HVFD) are common following stroke and can be highly debilitating for visual perception and higher level cognitive functions such as exploring visual scene or reading a text. Rehabilitation using oculomotor compensatory methods with automatic training over a short duration (~15 days) have been shown as efficient as longer voluntary training methods (>1 month). Here, we propose to evaluate and compare the effect of an original HVFD rehabilitation method based on a single 15 min voluntary anti-saccades task (AS) toward the blind hemifield, with automatic sensorimotor adaptation to increase AS amplitude. In order to distinguish between adaptation and training effect, 14 left- or right-HVFD patients were exposed, 1 month apart, to three trainings, two isolated AS task (Delayed-shift and No-shift paradigm), and one combined with AS adaptation (Adaptation paradigm). A quality of life questionnaire (NEI-VFQ 25) and functional measurements (reading speed, visual exploration time in pop-out and serial tasks) as well as oculomotor measurements were assessed before and after each training. We could not demonstrate significant adaptation at the group level, but we identified a group of nine adapted patients. While AS training itself proved to demonstrate significant functional improvements in the overall patient group, we could also demonstrate in the sub-group of adapted patients and specifically following the adaptation training, an increase of saccade amplitude during the reading task (left-HVFD patients) and the Serial exploration task, and improvement of the visual quality of life. We conclude that short-lasting AS training combined with adaptation could be implemented in rehabilitation methods of cognitive dysfunctions following HVFD. Indeed, both voluntary and automatic processes have shown interesting effects on the control of visually guided saccades in different cognitive tasks. PMID:26778986

  16. Short-Term Adaptation of Joint Position Sense Occurs during and after Sustained Vibration of Antagonistic Muscle Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Tomas I.; Goble, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Proprioception is critical for the control of many goal-directed activities of daily living. While contributions from skin and joint receptors exist, the muscle spindle is thought to play an important role in allowing accurate judgments of limb position and movement to occur. The discharges elicited from muscle spindles can be degraded by simultaneous agonist-antagonist tendon vibration, causing proprioception to be distorted. Despite this, changes in limb perception that may result from sensory adaptation to this stimulus remain misunderstood. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to investigate short-term proprioceptive adaptation resulting from vibration of antagonistic muscle pairs. We measured elbow joint position sense in 21 healthy young adults while 80 Hz vibration was applied simultaneously to the distal tendons of the elbow flexor and extensor muscles. Matching errors were then analyzed during early and late adaptation phases to assess short-term adaptation to the vibration stimuli. Participants committed significant undershoot errors during the early adaptation phase, but were comparable to baseline measurements during the late adaptation phase. When we removed the vibration stimuli and conducted a second joint position matching task, matching variability increased significantly, and participants committed overshoot errors. These results bring into question the efficacy of simultaneous agonist-antagonist tendon vibration to degrade proprioceptive acuity. PMID:25414661

  17. The intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of the Short Form Berg Balance Scale in institutionalized elderly people.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Kim, Myoung-Kwon

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of the Short Form Berg Balance Scale in institutionalized elderly people. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 30 elderly people in a nursing facility in Y city, South Korea, participated in this study. Two examiners administered the Short Form Berg Balance Scale to one subject to investigate inter-rater reliability. After a week, the same examiners administered the Short Form Berg Balance Scale once more to investigate intra-rater reliability. [Results] The intra-rater reliability was 0.83. The inter-rater reliability was 0.79. Both reliabilities were high (more than 0.7). [Conclusion] The Short Form Berg Balance Scale is a version of the Berg Balance Scale shortened by reducing the number of items, but its reliabilities were not lower than those of the Berg Balance Scale. The Short Form Berg Balance Scale can be useful clinically due to its short measurement time.

  18. Life Satisfaction Index: Italian version and validation of a short form.

    PubMed

    Franchignoni, F; Tesio, L; Ottonello, M; Benevolo, E

    1999-01-01

    The Life Satisfaction Index-version A (LSIA) is a 20-item questionnaire providing a cumulative score acknowledged as a valid index of quality of life. In the present study, an Italian version was produced through validated procedures of repeated back-translations. The final Italian version (LSIA.it) was administered to 90 healthy subjects (55 women; aged 40-65 yr, median 51). Cronbach alpha was 0.74, in agreement with previous studies on English, Greek, and Spanish versions, suggesting satisfactory internal consistency of the scale. Also in agreement with previous studies, factor analysis identified three factors (mood tone, zest for life, and congruence between desired and achieved goals), with eigenvalues of 2.80, 1.72, and 1.34, respectively. Nine of the original 20 items were dropped because of inconsistency with the overall scale and/or because of ambiguous loading onto the extracted factors. The resulting 11-item short form (LSI-11) had alpha = 0.69 and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sample adequacy = 0.65. In our sample, the mean score of LSIA.it was almost the same as that previously reported in the literature for LSIA, and the correlation between LSIA and LSI-11 was very high (r = 0.91). In a test-retest trial, the cumulative score of LSI-11 showed a percentage of agreement ranging from 73.9 to 100 and Cohen's k statistic for reliability ranging from 0.51 to 1. The individual items of the LSI-11 presented substantial (k > 0.6) to excellent (k > 0.8) levels of agreement. The responsiveness of LSIA and LSI-11 during a hospital stay for 30 consecutive inpatients for medical rehabilitation programs, as measured by effect size, was 0.57 and 0.63, respectively. The results suggest that (1) the LSIA it has cultural equivalence with the English LSIA and that (2) the 11-item short form of LSIA is not only simpler but also more valid from a psychometric standpoint.

  19. Hamstring Architectural and Functional Adaptations Following Long vs. Short Muscle Length Eccentric Training.

    PubMed

    Guex, Kenny; Degache, Francis; Morisod, Cynthia; Sailly, Matthieu; Millet, Gregoire P

    2016-01-01

    Most common preventive eccentric-based exercises, such as Nordic hamstring do not include any hip flexion. So, the elongation stress reached is lower than during the late swing phase of sprinting. The aim of this study was to assess the evolution of hamstring architectural (fascicle length and pennation angle) and functional (concentric and eccentric optimum angles and concentric and eccentric peak torques) parameters following a 3-week eccentric resistance program performed at long (LML) vs. short muscle length (SML). Both groups performed eight sessions of 3-5 × 8 slow maximal eccentric knee extensions on an isokinetic dynamometer: the SML group at 0° and the LML group at 80° of hip flexion. Architectural parameters were measured using ultrasound imaging and functional parameters using the isokinetic dynamometer. The fascicle length increased by 4.9% (p < 0.01, medium effect size) in the SML and by 9.3% (p < 0.001, large effect size) in the LML group. The pennation angle did not change (p = 0.83) in the SML and tended to decrease by 0.7° (p = 0.09, small effect size) in the LML group. The concentric optimum angle tended to decrease by 8.8° (p = 0.09, medium effect size) in the SML and by 17.3° (p < 0.01, large effect size) in the LML group. The eccentric optimum angle did not change (p = 0.19, small effect size) in the SML and tended to decrease by 10.7° (p = 0.06, medium effect size) in the LML group. The concentric peak torque did not change in the SML (p = 0.37) and the LML (p = 0.23) groups, whereas eccentric peak torque increased by 12.9% (p < 0.01, small effect size) and 17.9% (p < 0.001, small effect size) in the SML and the LML group, respectively. No group-by-time interaction was found for any parameters. A correlation was found between the training-induced change in fascicle length and the change in concentric optimum angle (r = -0.57, p < 0.01). These results suggest that performing eccentric exercises lead to several architectural and

  20. Hamstring Architectural and Functional Adaptations Following Long vs. Short Muscle Length Eccentric Training

    PubMed Central

    Guex, Kenny; Degache, Francis; Morisod, Cynthia; Sailly, Matthieu; Millet, Gregoire P.

    2016-01-01

    Most common preventive eccentric-based exercises, such as Nordic hamstring do not include any hip flexion. So, the elongation stress reached is lower than during the late swing phase of sprinting. The aim of this study was to assess the evolution of hamstring architectural (fascicle length and pennation angle) and functional (concentric and eccentric optimum angles and concentric and eccentric peak torques) parameters following a 3-week eccentric resistance program performed at long (LML) vs. short muscle length (SML). Both groups performed eight sessions of 3–5 × 8 slow maximal eccentric knee extensions on an isokinetic dynamometer: the SML group at 0° and the LML group at 80° of hip flexion. Architectural parameters were measured using ultrasound imaging and functional parameters using the isokinetic dynamometer. The fascicle length increased by 4.9% (p < 0.01, medium effect size) in the SML and by 9.3% (p < 0.001, large effect size) in the LML group. The pennation angle did not change (p = 0.83) in the SML and tended to decrease by 0.7° (p = 0.09, small effect size) in the LML group. The concentric optimum angle tended to decrease by 8.8° (p = 0.09, medium effect size) in the SML and by 17.3° (p < 0.01, large effect size) in the LML group. The eccentric optimum angle did not change (p = 0.19, small effect size) in the SML and tended to decrease by 10.7° (p = 0.06, medium effect size) in the LML group. The concentric peak torque did not change in the SML (p = 0.37) and the LML (p = 0.23) groups, whereas eccentric peak torque increased by 12.9% (p < 0.01, small effect size) and 17.9% (p < 0.001, small effect size) in the SML and the LML group, respectively. No group-by-time interaction was found for any parameters. A correlation was found between the training-induced change in fascicle length and the change in concentric optimum angle (r = −0.57, p < 0.01). These results suggest that performing eccentric exercises lead to several architectural and

  1. Intracellular membrane association of the Aplysia cAMP phosphodiesterase long and short forms via different targeting mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kun-Hyung; Jun, Yong-Woo; Park, Yongsoo; Lee, Jin-A; Suh, Byung-Chang; Lim, Chae-Seok; Lee, Yong-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun; Jang, Deok-Jin

    2014-09-12

    Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) play key roles in cAMP compartmentalization, which is required for intracellular signaling processes, through specific subcellular targeting. Previously, we showed that the long and short forms of Aplysia PDE4 (ApPDE4), which are localized to the membranes of distinct subcellular organelles, play key roles in 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced synaptic facilitation in Aplysia sensory and motor synapses. However, the molecular mechanism of the isoform-specific distinct membrane targeting was not clear. In this study, we further investigated the molecular mechanism of the membrane targeting of the ApPDE4 long and short forms. We found that the membrane targeting of the long form was mediated by hydrophobic interactions, mainly via 16 amino acids at the N-terminal region, whereas the short form was targeted solely to the plasma membrane, mainly by nonspecific electrostatic interactions between their N termini and the negatively charged lipids such as the phosphatidylinositol polyphosphates PI4P and PI(4,5)P2, which are embedded in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. Moreover, oligomerization of the long or short form by interaction of their respective upstream conserved region domains, UCR1 and UCR2, enhanced their plasma membrane targeting. These results suggest that the long and short forms of ApPDE4 are distinctly targeted to intracellular membranes through their direct association with the membranes via hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions, respectively.

  2. Two- and Four-Subtest Short Forms of the WAIS-R: A Closer Look at Validity and Reliability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, A. B.

    1985-01-01

    Reports the validities and reliabilities of two short forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (Revised) (Vocabulary and Block Design, and Arithmetic and Picture Arrangement) for each of nine age groups, together with standard errors of estimate and measurement. Results support the use of these forms for their intended purpose. (BH)

  3. Metabolic and respiratory adaptations during intense exercise following long-sprint training of short duration.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Claire; Bernard, Olivier; Enea, Carina; Jalab, Chadi; Hanon, Christine

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to determine metabolic and respiratory adaptations during intense exercise and improvement of long-sprint performance following six sessions of long-sprint training. Nine subjects performed before and after training (1) a 300-m test, (2) an incremental exercise up to exhaustion to determine the velocity associated with maximal oxygen uptake (v-VO(2max)), (3) a 70-s constant exercise at intensity halfway between the v-VO(2max) and the velocity performed during the 300-m test, followed by a 60-min passive recovery to determine an individual blood lactate recovery curve fitted to the bi-exponential time function: [Formula: see text], and blood metabolic and gas exchange responses. The training program consisted of 3-6 repetitions of 150-250 m interspersed with rest periods with a duration ratio superior or equal to 1:10, 3 days a week, for 2 weeks. After sprint training, reduced metabolic disturbances, characterized by a lower peak expired ventilation and carbon dioxide output, in addition to a reduced peak lactate (P < 0.05), was observed. Training also induced significant decrease in the net amount of lactate released at the beginning of recovery (P < 0.05), and significant decrease in the net lactate release rate (NLRR) (P < 0.05). Lastly, a significant improvement of the 300-m performance was observed after training. These results suggest that long-sprint training of short durations was effective to rapidly prevent metabolic disturbances, with alterations in lactate accumulation and gas exchange, and improvement of the NLRR. Furthermore, only six long-sprint training sessions allow long-sprint performance improvement in active subjects.

  4. Changes in Jump-Down Performance After Space Flight: Short- and Long-Term Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofman, I. S.; Reschke, M. F.; Cerisano, J. M.; Fisher, E. A.; Lawrence, E. L.; Peters, B. T.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Successful jump performance requires functional coordination of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems, which are affected by prolonged exposure to microgravity. Astronauts returning from space flight exhibit impaired ability to coordinate effective landing strategies when jumping from a platform to the ground. This study compares the jump strategies used by astronauts before and after flight, the changes to those strategies within a test session, and the recoveries in jump-down performance parameters across several postflight test sessions. These data were obtained as part of an ongoing interdisciplinary study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. METHODS Six astronauts from short-duration (Shuttle) and three from long-duration (International Space Station) flights performed 3 two-footed jumps from a platform 30 cm high. A force plate measured the ground reaction forces and center-of-pressure displacement from the landings. Muscle activation data were collected from the medial gastrocnemius and anterior tibialis of both legs using surface electromyography electrodes. Two load cells in the platform measured the load exerted by each foot during the takeoff phase of the jump. Data were collected in 2 preflight sessions, on landing day (Shuttle only), and 1, 6, and 30 days after flight. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION Many of the astronauts tested were unable to maintain balance on their first postflight jump landing but recovered by the third jump, showing a learning progression in which the performance improvement could be attributed to adjustments of strategy on takeoff, landing, or both. Takeoff strategy changes were evident in air time (time between takeoff and landing), which was significantly reduced after flight, and also in increased asymmetry in foot latencies on takeoff. Landing modifications were seen in changes in ground reaction force curves. The

  5. Adaptation to short photoperiods augments circadian food anticipatory activity in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Sean P; Prendergast, Brian J

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". Both the light-dark cycle and the timing of food intake can entrain circadian rhythms. Entrainment to food is mediated by a food entrainable circadian oscillator (FEO) that is formally and mechanistically separable from the hypothalamic light-entrainable oscillator. This experiment examined whether seasonal changes in day length affect the function of the FEO in male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Hamsters housed in long (LD; 15 h light/day) or short (SD; 9h light/day) photoperiods were subjected to a timed-feeding schedule for 10 days, during which food was available only during a 5h interval of the light phase. Running wheel activity occurring within a 3h window immediately prior to actual or anticipated food delivery was operationally-defined as food anticipatory activity (FAA). After the timed-feeding interval, hamsters were fed ad libitum, and FAA was assessed 2 and 7 days later via probe trials of total food deprivation. During timed-feeding, all hamsters exhibited increases FAA, but FAA emerged more rapidly in SD; in probe trials, FAA was greater in magnitude and persistence in SD. Gonadectomy in LD did not induce the SD-like FAA phenotype, indicating that withdrawal of gonadal hormones is not sufficient to mediate the effects of photoperiod on FAA. Entrainment of the circadian system to light markedly affects the functional output of the FEO via gonadal hormone-independent mechanisms. Rapid emergence and persistent expression of FAA in SD may reflect a seasonal adaptation that directs behavior toward sources of nutrition with high temporal precision at times of year when food is scarce.

  6. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Patient Version of the Working Alliance Inventory--Short Form Revised.

    PubMed

    Falkenström, Fredrik; Hatcher, Robert L; Holmqvist, Rolf

    2015-10-01

    The working alliance concerns the quality of collaboration between patient and therapist in psychotherapy. One of the most widely used scales for measuring the working alliance is the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI). For the patient-rated version, the short form developed by Hatcher and Gillaspy (WAI-SR) has shown the best psychometric properties. In two confirmatory factor analyses of the WAI-SR, approximate fit indices were within commonly accepted norms, but the likelihood ratio chi-square test showed significant ill-fit. The present study used Bayesian structural equations modeling with zero mean and small variance priors to test the factor structure of the WAI-SR in three different samples (one American and two Swedish; N = 235, 634, and 234). Results indicated that maximum likelihood confirmatory factor analysis showed poor model fit because of the assumption of exactly zero residual correlations. When residual correlations were estimated using small variance priors, model fit was excellent. A two-factor model had the best psychometric properties. Strong measurement invariance was shown between the two Swedish samples and weak factorial invariance between the Swedish and American samples. The most important limitation concerns the limited knowledge on when the assumption of residual correlations being small enough to be considered trivial is violated.

  7. Reliability of short form-36 in an Internet- and a pen-and-paper version.

    PubMed

    Basnov, Maja; Kongsved, Sissel Marie; Bech, Per; Hjollund, Niels Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Use of Internet versions of questionnaires may have several advantages in clinical and epidemiological research, but we know little about if Internet versions differ with respect to validity and reliability. We aimed to compare Internet- and pen-and-paper versions of short form-36 (SF-36) with respect to test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Women referred to mammography (n = 782) were randomised to receive either a paper version with a prepaid return envelope or a guideline on how to fill in the Internet version. A subgroup was asked to answer the questionnaire once again in the alternative version. Test-retest reliability was assessed by the intra-class correlation coefficient. Internal consistency was calculated as Cronbach's alpha. The between-version test-retest reliability for the eight subscales were between 0.63 and 0.92. Cronbach's alpha for the two versions were all between 0.75 and 0.93 with minor differences between the Internet- and the pen-and-paper version. We found little or no evidence of a difference in test-retest reliability and internal consistency when we compared an Internet- and a pen-and-paper version of SF-36.

  8. Measurement Development and Validation of the Family Supportive Supervisor Behavior Short-Form (FSSB-SF)

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Bodner, Todd; Crain, Tori

    2013-01-01

    Recently, scholars have demonstrated the importance of Family Supportive Supervisor Behaviors (FSSB), defined as behaviors exhibited by supervisors that are supportive of employees’ family roles, in relation to health, well-being, and organizational outcomes. FSSB was originally conceptualized as a multidimensional, superordinate construct with four subordinate dimensions assessed with 14 items: emotional support, instrumental support, role modeling behaviors, and creative work-family management. Retaining one item from each dimension, two studies were conducted to support the development and use of a new FSSB-Short Form (FSSB-SF). Study 1 draws on the original data from the FSSB validation study of retail employees to determine if the results using the 14-item measure replicate with the shorter 4-item measure. Using data from a sample of 823 information technology professionals and their 219 supervisors, Study 2 extends the validation of the FSSB-SF to a new sample of professional workers and new outcome variables. Results from multilevel confirmatory factor analyses and multilevel regression analyses provide evidence of construct and criterion-related validity of the FSSB-SF, as it was significantly related to work-family conflict, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, control over work hours, obligation to work when sick, perceived stress, and reports of family time adequacy. We argue that it is important to develop parsimonious measures of work-family specific support to ensure supervisor support for work and family is mainstreamed into organizational research and practice. PMID:23730803

  9. News "Speed Dating" for Scientists and Journalists: Conveying geoscience news in haiku-short form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybas, C. L.

    2006-12-01

    As Rachel Carson wrote in her 1956 book, The Sense of Wonder, it's important for everyone to develop an appreciation of "land, sea and sky." One of the best ways of getting the word out to the public about these realms is through the media. How do scientists capture the interest of the press in a society with a seemingly shorter and shorter attention span? Studies show that as the amount of scientific jargon and number of complex concepts in a news story increase, "filter-feeding" by the public of that news declines. When scientific jargon/complex concepts are few, the public "consumes" much more news. These results also apply to news story headlines: shorter headlines get the most interest. Based on these findings, one organization has started an experiment in "scientific speed dating": giving presenters three minutes to discuss results. They may have discovered something: news coverage of the research has been excellent. In today's world, conveying news about the geosciences in haiku-short form may be the best way of relating the wonders of land, sea and sky.

  10. A Validated Seven-Subtest Short Form for the WAIS-IV.

    PubMed

    Meyers, John E; Zellinger, Margaret M; Kockler, Tim; Wagner, Mark; Miller, Ronald Mellado

    2013-03-26

    This study presents a short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008 ) using the subtests (Block Design, Similarities, Digit Span, Arithmetic, Information, Coding, and Picture Completion) suggested by Ward ( 1990 ). These seven subtests were used to predict the full WAIS-IV Full-Scale IQ, as well as the Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed Index scores. Two different data sets were used: the first consisted of 70 subjects and the second consisted of 32 subjects. The first data set was used to create a linear regression and the second data set was used to validate the results and compare to the prorated score method from the WAIS-IV manual. The prorated estimated scores correlated significantly with their counterparts and proved to be a better method of estimating the Full-Scale IQ and most of the index scores, but the regression equation was better at predicting the Processing Speed Index. The current study is consistent with the Ward ( 1990 ) and Pilgrim, Meyers, Bayless, & Whetstone ( 1999 ) studies and represents a reliable and valid way of assessing intellectual functioning in an abbreviated format.

  11. Measurement development and validation of the Family Supportive Supervisor Behavior Short-Form (FSSB-SF).

    PubMed

    Hammer, Leslie B; Ernst Kossek, Ellen; Bodner, Todd; Crain, Tori

    2013-07-01

    Recently, scholars have demonstrated the importance of Family Supportive Supervisor Behaviors (FSSB), defined as behaviors exhibited by supervisors that are supportive of employees' family roles, in relation to health, well-being, and organizational outcomes. FSSB was originally conceptualized as a multidimensional, superordinate construct with four subordinate dimensions assessed with 14 items: emotional support, instrumental support, role modeling behaviors, and creative work-family management. Retaining one item from each dimension, two studies were conducted to support the development and use of a new FSSB-Short Form (FSSB-SF). Study 1 draws on the original data from the FSSB validation study of retail employees to determine whether the results using the 14-item measure replicate with the shorter 4-item measure. Using data from a sample of 823 information technology professionals and their 219 supervisors, Study 2 extends the validation of the FSSB-SF to a new sample of professional workers and new outcome variables. Results from multilevel confirmatory factor analyses and multilevel regression analyses provide evidence of construct and criterion-related validity of the FSSB-SF, as it was significantly related to work-family conflict, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, control over work hours, obligation to work when sick, perceived stress, and reports of family time adequacy. We argue that it is important to develop parsimonious measures of work-family specific support to ensure supervisor support for work and family is mainstreamed into organizational research and practice.

  12. Short-form Ron is a novel determinant of ovarian cancer initiation and progression

    PubMed Central

    Moxley, Katherine M.; Wang, Luyao; Welm, Alana L.; Bieniasz, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Short-form Ron (sfRon) is an understudied, alternative isoform of the full-length Ron receptor tyrosine kinase. In contrast to Ron, which has been shown to be an important player in many cancers, little is known about the role of sfRon in cancer pathogenesis. Here we report the striking discovery that sfRon expression is required for development of carcinogen-induced malignant ovarian tumors in mice. We also show that sfRon is expressed in several subtypes of human ovarian cancer including high-grade serous carcinomas, which is in contrast to no detectable expression in healthy ovaries. In addition, we report that introduction of sfRon into OVCAR3 cells resulted in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, activation of the PI3K and PDK1 pathway, and inhibition of the MAPK pathway. We demonstrated that sfRon confers an aggressive cancer phenotype in vitro characterized by increased proliferation and migration, and decreased adhesion of ovarian cancer cells. Moreover, the in vivo studies show that OVCAR3 tumors expressing sfRon exhibit significantly more robust growth and spreading to the abdominal cavity when compared with the parental sfRon negative OVCAR3 cells. These data suggest that sfRon plays a significant role in ovarian cancer initiation and progression, and may represent a promising therapeutic target for ovarian cancer treatment. PMID:27551332

  13. Short form of the Changes in Outlook Questionnaire: Translation and validation of the Chinese version

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Changes in Outlook Questionnaire (CiOQ) is a self-report instrument designed to measure both positive and negative changes following the experience of severely stressful events. Previous research has focused on the Western context. The aim of this study is to translate the short form of the measure (CiOQ-S) into simplified Chinese and examine its validity and reliability in a sample of Chinese earthquake survivors. Method The English language version of the 10-item CiOQ was translated into simplified Chinese and completed along with other measures in a sample of earthquake survivors (n = 120). Statistical analyses were performed to explore the structure of the simplified Chinese version of CiOQ-S (CiOQ-SCS), its reliability and validity. Results Principal components analysis (PCA) was conducted to test the structure of the CiOQ-SCS. The reliability and convergent validity were also assessed. The CiOQ-SCS demonstrated a similar factor structure to the English version, high internal consistency and convergent validity with measures of posttraumatic stress symptoms, anxiety and depression, coping and social support. Conclusion The data are comparable to those reported for the original version of the instrument indicating that the CiOQ-SCS is a reliable and valid measure assessing positive and negative changes in the aftermath of adversity. However, the sampling method cannot permit us to know how representative our samples were of the earthquake survivor population. PMID:22530984

  14. Validation of the short form of the Chinese Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory in Mainland China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ling-Ling; Ip, Wan-Yim; Sun, Ke

    2011-02-01

    Self-efficacy increasingly has been reported as an important outcome measure in childbirth care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometrics of the short form of the Chinese Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory (CBSEI-C32) in mainland China. A convenience sample of 297 pregnant Chinese women who were attending the out-patient clinic of the study hospital in Guangzhou participated in the study. The participants were asked to complete the CBSEI-C32, the Chinese Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (CSAS), the Chinese Self-Efficacy Scale (CSE) and the socio-demographic questionnaire. A subgroup of 75 pregnant women was selected randomly from the total sample using a table of random numbers for test-retest reliability assessment. The findings demonstrate high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .96) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = .88) for the CBSEI-C32. Confirmatory factor analysis showed some support for a two-factor structure of the CBSEI-C32, and construct validity was further supported by a significant relationship with CSAS. The CBSEI-C32 has the potential to be used as a clinical and research instrument for measuring childbirth self-efficacy in women in mainland China.

  15. Collateral Report of Psychopathy: Convergent and Divergent Validity of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Short Form

    PubMed Central

    Iyican, Susan; Sommer, Johannah M.; Kini, Sheetal; Babcock, Julia C.

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathy is a personality syndrome comprised of interpersonal, affective, and behavioral features that has emerged as a correlate of intimate partner violence perpetration. One commonly used self-report measure of psychopathy is the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Short Form. The current study employed a multi-trait, multi-method approach to test convergent and discriminant validity of the measure in partner-violent couples by comparing males’ self-report of psychopathy to the informant report of their female partner (N = 114). It was hypothesized that the female partner-report of the male’s psychopathy would be highly correlated with the male report of his own psychopathy, thus providing evidence for the construct validity and interrater reliability of the PPI-SF. Analyses found that male and female reports were correlated significantly on the two major factors of the PPI-SF. Furthermore, the female-report explained a significant amount of variance over and above men’s self-report on PAI scales designed to indicate antisocial personality traits. PMID:26213500

  16. Motor competence assessment in children: convergent and discriminant validity between the BOT-2 Short Form and KTK testing batteries.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Job; D'Hondt, Eva; Bourgois, Jan; Vaeyens, Roel; Philippaerts, Renaat M; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated convergent and discriminant validity between two motor competence assessment instruments in 2485 Flemish children: the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2 Short Form (BOT-2 Short Form) and the KörperKoördinationsTest für Kinder (KTK). A Pearson correlation assessed the relationship between BOT-2 Short Form total, gross and fine motor composite scores and KTK Motor Quotient in three age cohorts (6-7, 8-9, 10-11 years). Crosstabs were used to measure agreement in classification in children scoring below percentile 5 and 15 and above percentile 85 and 95. Moderately strong positive (r=0.44-0.64) associations between BOT-2 total and gross motor composite scores and KTK Motor Quotient and weak positive correlations between BOT-2 Short Form fine motor composite and KTK Motor Quotient scores (r=0.25-0.37) were found. Levels of agreement were fair to moderate. Therefore, some proof of convergent and discriminant validity between BOT-2 Short Form and KTK was established in this study, underlining the notion that the evaluation of motor competence should not be based upon a single assessment instrument.

  17. Genetic deletion of melanin-concentrating hormone neurons impairs hippocampal short-term synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent forms of short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Le Barillier, Léa; Léger, Lucienne; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Fort, Patrice; Malleret, Gaël; Salin, Paul-Antoine

    2015-11-01

    The cognitive role of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons, a neuronal population located in the mammalian postero-lateral hypothalamus sending projections to all cortical areas, remains poorly understood. Mainly activated during paradoxical sleep (PS), MCH neurons have been implicated in sleep regulation. The genetic deletion of the only known MCH receptor in rodent leads to an impairment of hippocampal dependent forms of memory and to an alteration of hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity. By using MCH/ataxin3 mice, a genetic model characterized by a selective deletion of MCH neurons in the adult, we investigated the role of MCH neurons in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent forms of memory. MCH/ataxin3 mice exhibited a deficit in the early part of both long-term potentiation and depression in the CA1 area of the hippocampus. Post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) was diminished while synaptic depression induced by repetitive stimulation was enhanced suggesting an alteration of pre-synaptic forms of short-term plasticity in these mice. Behaviorally, MCH/ataxin3 mice spent more time and showed a higher level of hesitation as compared to their controls in performing a short-term memory T-maze task, displayed retardation in acquiring a reference memory task in a Morris water maze, and showed a habituation deficit in an open field task. Deletion of MCH neurons could thus alter spatial short-term memory by impairing short-term plasticity in the hippocampus. Altogether, these findings could provide a cellular mechanism by which PS may facilitate memory encoding. Via MCH neuron activation, PS could prepare the day's learning by increasing and modulating short-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus.

  18. Adaptive value of a predatory mouth-form in a dimorphic nematode

    PubMed Central

    Serobyan, Vahan; Ragsdale, Erik J.; Sommer, Ralf J.

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenisms can be adaptations to environments that are heterogeneous in space and time, but to persist they require conditional-specific advantages. The nematode Pristionchus pacificus is a facultative predator that displays an evolutionarily conserved polyphenism of its mouthparts. During development, P. pacificus irreversibly executes either a eurystomatous (Eu) or stenostomatous (St) mouth-form, which differ in the shape and number of movable teeth. The Eu form, which has an additional tooth, is more complex than the St form and is thus more highly derived relative to species lacking teeth. Here, we investigate a putative fitness trade-off for the alternative feeding-structures of P. pacificus. We show that the complex Eu form confers a greater ability to kill prey. When adults were provided with a prey diet, Eu nematodes exhibited greater fitness than St nematodes by several measures, including longevity, offspring survival and fecundity when followed by bacterial feeding. However, the two mouth-forms had similar fecundity when fed ad libitum on bacteria, a condition that would confer benefit on the more rapidly developing St form. Thus, the two forms show conditional fitness advantages in different environments. This study provides, to our knowledge, the first functional context for dimorphism in a model for the genetics of plasticity. PMID:25080344

  19. Anaerobic fitness in children with asthma: adaptation to maximal intermittent short exercise.

    PubMed

    Counil, F P; Karila, C; Varray, A; Guillaumont, S; Voisin, M; Préfaut, C

    2001-03-01

    Nineteen asthmatic boys (aged 13.4 years, 25-75 percentile: 11.5-15.1 years) performed short bouts of maximal exercise (force-velocity test) to test their anaerobic fitness and tolerance of maximal anaerobic exercise. Fourteen healthy boys (aged 13.9 years, 25-75 percentile: 11.6-15.7 years) matched for anthropometric characteristics including lean body mass (LBM), pubertal stage, and weekly physical activity formed a control group. The maximal anaerobic power (W(ana)) was measured during the force-velocity test. The maximal oxygen uptake (V'(O2max)) was assessed during a standard graded exercise test. Pre- and post-exercise pulmonary function was measured by body plethysmography. The asthmatic children exhibited lower W(ana) than the control group (8.2 watt.kg(-1) LBM, 25-75 percentile: 7.55-10.6 vs. 11.3 watt.kg(-1) LBM, 25-75 percentile: 9.46-14.1; P = 0.01). V'(O2max) was also diminished in the asthmatic group (P = 0.01). Multiple stepwise regression models revealed that Tanner's score (P < 0.001) and the diagnosis of asthma (P < 0.01) were the best predictors of W(ana). In conclusion, a diminished anaerobic fitness could contribute to the overall exercise limitation in asthmatic children.

  20. Concurrent validity of WAIS-III short forms in a geriatric sample with suspected dementia: verbal, performance and full scale IQ scores.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Brian L; Weaver, Linda E

    2005-12-01

    Evaluation of intellectual abilities using the WAIS-III is a common component of neuropsychological assessments. However, clinicians might be interested in administering reliable and valid short forms due to practical and clinical reasons. The present study examined the concurrent validity of eight short forms of the WAIS-III with full form IQ scores in a sample (n=43) of geriatric outpatients referred for assessment of suspected dementia. There were no significant differences between the short and full form VIQ scores at P<.01, while half of the short form PIQ and FSIQ scores were significantly different from their respective full form scores at P<.01. Correlations between short and full form IQ scores ranged from .89 to .99. Seven-subtest short forms were able to accurately estimate over 80% of scores within +/-2 S.E.M.s. This study supports limited use of WAIS-III short forms when conducting evaluations of older adults with suspected dementia.

  1. Forming "Connections" and Awakening "Visions": Using Short Story Collections in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesesne, Teri S.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses how some recent short story collections written for young adults can make studying the genre exciting and interesting for students. Describes how teachers can awaken new vision within students by using the short story in the literature classroom. Focuses on stories written especially for adolescents. (HB)

  2. Portuguese Validation of the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short-Form.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Halley M; Griffiths, Mark D

    2016-04-01

    In the latest (fifth) edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) was included as a tentative disorder worthy of future research. Since then, several psychometric instruments to assess IGD have emerged in the literature, including the nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short-Form (IGDS9-SF), the most brief tool available to date. Research on the effects of IGD in Portugal has been minimal and may be due to the lack of a psychometrically validated tool to assess this construct within this particular cultural background. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop and examine the psychometric properties of the Portuguese IGDS9-SF. A total of 509 adolescents were recruited to the present study. Construct validity of the IGDS9-SF was assessed in two ways. First, confirmatory factor analysis was performed to investigate the factorial structure of the IGDS9-SF in the sample, and the unidimensional structure of the IGDS9-SF fitted the data well. Second, nomological validation of the IGDS9-SF was carried out and the nomological network analyzed was replicated as expected, further supporting the construct validity of the IGDS9-SF. Criterion validity of the IGDS9-SF was also established using key criterion variables. Finally, the IGDS9-SF also showed satisfactory levels of reliability using several indicators of internal consistency. Based on the results found, the IGDS9-SF appears to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess IGD among Portuguese adolescents and further research on IGD in Portugal is warranted.

  3. Minimally Important Difference for the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite Short Form

    PubMed Central

    Skolarus, Ted A.; Dunn, Rodney L.; Sanda, Martin G.; Chang, Peter; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Litwin, Mark S.; Wei, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish a score threshold that constitutes a clinically relevant change for each domain of the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite - Short Form (EPIC-26). While its use in clinical practice and clinical trials has increased worldwide, the clinical interpretation of this 26-item disease-specific patient-reported quality of life questionnaire for men with localized prostate cancer would be facilitated by characterization of score thresholds for clinically relevant change (the minimally important differences, or MID). Methods We used distribution- and anchor-based approaches to establish the MID range for each EPIC-26 domain (urinary, sexual, bowel, hormonal) based on a prospective, multi-institutional cohort of 1,201 men treated for prostate cancer between 2003 and 2006 and followed for 3 years after treatment. For the anchor-based approach, we compared within/between subject score changes for each domain to an external “anchor” measure of overall cancer treatment satisfaction. Results We found the bowel and vitality/hormonal domains to have the lowest MID range (a 4–6 point change should be considered clinically relevant), while the sexual domain had the greatest MID values (10–12). Urinary incontinence appeared to have a greater MID range (6–9) compared with the urinary irritation/obstruction domain (5–7). Conclusions Using two independent approaches, we established the minimally important differences for each EPIC-26 domain. Definition of these MID values is essential for the researcher or clinician to understand when changes in symptom burden among prostate cancer survivors are clinically relevant. PMID:25530370

  4. Analysis of the short form-36 (SF-36): the beta-binomial distribution approach.

    PubMed

    Arostegui, Inmaculada; Núñez-Antón, Vicente; Quintana, José M

    2007-03-15

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important indicator of health status and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) is a generic instrument to measure it. Multiple linear regression (MLR) is often used to study the relationship of HRQoL with patients' characteristics, though HRQoL outcomes tend to be not normally distributed, skewed and bounded (e.g. between 0 and 100). A sample of 193 patients with eating disorders has been analysed to assess the performance of the MLR under non-normality conditions. Normal distribution was rejected for seven out of the eight domains. A beta-binomial distribution is suggested to fit the SF-36 scores. The beta-binomial distribution is not rejected for five out of the eight domains. Thus, a beta-binomial regression (BBR) is suggested to analyse the SF-36 scores. Results using MLR and BBR have been compared for real and simulated data. Performance of the BBR is shown to be better than MLR in the HRQoL domains with few ordered categories and very similar to MLR in the more continuous domains. Moreover, the interpretation of the estimates obtained with BBR is clinically more meaningful. A common technique of statistical analysis is preferable for all the HRQoL dimensions. Therefore, the BBR approach is recommended not only to detect significant predictors of HRQoL when SF-36 is used, but also to analyse and interpret the effect of several explanatory variables on HRQoL. Further work is required to test the better performance of BBR against standard methods for other HRQoL outcomes, populations or interventions.

  5. Adult zebrafish intestine resection: a novel model of short bowel syndrome, adaptation, and intestinal stem cell regeneration.

    PubMed

    Schall, K A; Holoyda, K A; Grant, C N; Levin, D E; Torres, E R; Maxwell, A; Pollack, H A; Moats, R A; Frey, M R; Darehzereshki, A; Al Alam, D; Lien, C; Grikscheit, T C

    2015-08-01

    Loss of significant intestinal length from congenital anomaly or disease may lead to short bowel syndrome (SBS); intestinal failure may be partially offset by a gain in epithelial surface area, termed adaptation. Current in vivo models of SBS are costly and technically challenging. Operative times and survival rates have slowed extension to transgenic models. We created a new reproducible in vivo model of SBS in zebrafish, a tractable vertebrate model, to facilitate investigation of the mechanisms of intestinal adaptation. Proximal intestinal diversion at segment 1 (S1, equivalent to jejunum) was performed in adult male zebrafish. SBS fish emptied distal intestinal contents via stoma as in the human disease. After 2 wk, S1 was dilated compared with controls and villus ridges had increased complexity, contributing to greater villus epithelial perimeter. The number of intervillus pockets, the intestinal stem cell zone of the zebrafish increased and contained a higher number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled cells after 2 wk of SBS. Egf receptor and a subset of its ligands, also drivers of adaptation, were upregulated in SBS fish. Igf has been reported as a driver of intestinal adaptation in other animal models, and SBS fish exposed to a pharmacological inhibitor of the Igf receptor failed to demonstrate signs of intestinal adaptation, such as increased inner epithelial perimeter and BrdU incorporation. We describe a technically feasible model of human SBS in the zebrafish, a faster and less expensive tool to investigate intestinal stem cell plasticity as well as the mechanisms that drive intestinal adaptation.

  6. The Psychological Well-Being and Sociocultural Adaptation of Short-Term International Students in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Aileen; Ryan, Dermot; Hickey, Tina

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an empirical study of the psychosocial adaptation of international students in Ireland. Using measures of social support, loneliness, stress, psychological well-being, and sociocultural adaptation, data were obtained from international students and a comparison sample of Irish students. The study found that, although…

  7. Anomalous signed passive fathometer impulse response when using adaptive beam forming (L).

    PubMed

    Harrison, Chris H

    2009-06-01

    The impulse response of the seabed can be extracted from sea surface ambient noise by cross-correlating the time series from an upward and a downward steered beam. When the steering for each beam is standard minimum variance adaptive beam forming it has been found that the impulse response for significant echoes appears to have the same amplitude but opposite sign. A mathematical explanation is offered for this strange phenomenon. Crucial contributing factors are that the cross-spectral density matrix for the vertical array typically consists of the sum of a Toeplitz matrix and a much weaker Hankel matrix and that it is ill-conditioned.

  8. Why Be a Shrub? A Basic Model and Hypotheses for the Adaptive Values of a Common Growth Form.

    PubMed

    Götmark, Frank; Götmark, Elin; Jensen, Anna M

    2016-01-01

    Shrubs are multi-stemmed short woody plants, more widespread than trees, important in many ecosystems, neglected in ecology compared to herbs and trees, but currently in focus due to their global expansion. We present a novel model based on scaling relationships and four hypotheses to explain the adaptive significance of shrubs, including a review of the literature with a test of one hypothesis. Our model describes advantages for a small shrub compared to a small tree with the same above-ground woody volume, based on larger cross-sectional stem area, larger area of photosynthetic tissue in bark and stem, larger vascular cambium area, larger epidermis (bark) area, and larger area for sprouting, and faster production of twigs and canopy. These components form our Hypothesis 1 that predicts higher growth rate for a small shrub than a small tree. This prediction was supported by available relevant empirical studies (14 publications). Further, a shrub will produce seeds faster than a tree (Hypothesis 2), multiple stems in shrubs insure future survival and growth if one or more stems die (Hypothesis 3), and three structural traits of short shrub stems improve survival compared to tall tree stems (Hypothesis 4)-all hypotheses have some empirical support. Multi-stemmed trees may be distinguished from shrubs by more upright stems, reducing bending moment. Improved understanding of shrubs can clarify their recent expansion on savannas, grasslands, and alpine heaths. More experiments and other empirical studies, followed by more elaborate models, are needed to understand why the shrub growth form is successful in many habitats.

  9. Why Be a Shrub? A Basic Model and Hypotheses for the Adaptive Values of a Common Growth Form

    PubMed Central

    Götmark, Frank; Götmark, Elin; Jensen, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    Shrubs are multi-stemmed short woody plants, more widespread than trees, important in many ecosystems, neglected in ecology compared to herbs and trees, but currently in focus due to their global expansion. We present a novel model based on scaling relationships and four hypotheses to explain the adaptive significance of shrubs, including a review of the literature with a test of one hypothesis. Our model describes advantages for a small shrub compared to a small tree with the same above-ground woody volume, based on larger cross-sectional stem area, larger area of photosynthetic tissue in bark and stem, larger vascular cambium area, larger epidermis (bark) area, and larger area for sprouting, and faster production of twigs and canopy. These components form our Hypothesis 1 that predicts higher growth rate for a small shrub than a small tree. This prediction was supported by available relevant empirical studies (14 publications). Further, a shrub will produce seeds faster than a tree (Hypothesis 2), multiple stems in shrubs insure future survival and growth if one or more stems die (Hypothesis 3), and three structural traits of short shrub stems improve survival compared to tall tree stems (Hypothesis 4)—all hypotheses have some empirical support. Multi-stemmed trees may be distinguished from shrubs by more upright stems, reducing bending moment. Improved understanding of shrubs can clarify their recent expansion on savannas, grasslands, and alpine heaths. More experiments and other empirical studies, followed by more elaborate models, are needed to understand why the shrub growth form is successful in many habitats. PMID:27507981

  10. Psychometric Properties of Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) Original and Short Forms in an African American Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Merz, Erin L.; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Roesch, Scott C.; Ko, Celine M.; Emerson, Marc; Roma, Vincenzo G.; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2014-01-01

    Background The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) has been widely used as a self-report measure of affect in community and clinical contexts. However, evaluations of the psychometric properties of PANAS scores have been limited in diverse ethnic groups. Several short forms of the PANAS have also been proposed, but very little is known about the psychometric properties of these versions. Methods The present study investigated the psychometric properties, including the factor structure of the original PANAS and two short forms in an African American community sample (N = 239). Descriptive, internal consistency reliability, factorial validity, and measurement invariance analyses were conducted. Results All PANAS subscales from the original and short forms had adequate internal consistency. For the original PANAS, the model specifying three correlated factors (Positive Affect, Afraid, Upset) with correlated uniquenesses from redundant items provided the best fit to the data. However, the two-factor model (Positive Affect, Negative Affect) with correlated uniquenesses was also supported. For both short forms, the two-factor model with correlated uniquenesses fit the data best. Factors from all forms were generally invariant across age and gender, although there was some minor invariance at the item level. Limitations Participants were from a limited geographic area and one ethnic group. Indicators of anxiety, depression, and cultural characteristics were not measured. Conclusion The factor structure was replicated, suggesting no immediate concerns regarding the valid interpretation of PANAS scores. The results support the reliability and validity of the PANAS and its short forms for use among African Americans. PMID:24051099

  11. Psychometric Evaluation of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire-Very Short Form in Preschool Children Using Parent and Teacher Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Nicholas P.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Wilson, Shauna B.

    2013-01-01

    Temperament is a developmentally important construct, hierarchically comprised of several lower-order dimensions subsumed under effortful control, negative affectivity, and surgency. The Children's Behavior Questionnaire-Very Short Form (CBQ-VSF) was developed as a brief measure of the higher-order factors of temperament to aid researchers in…

  12. Infant Communicative Development Assessed with the European Portuguese MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories Short Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frota, Sónia; Butler, Joseph; Correia, Susana; Severino, Cátia; Vicente, Selene; Vigário, Marina

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the European Portuguese MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories short forms, the first published instruments for the assessment of language development in EP-learning infants and toddlers. Normative data from the EP population are presented, focusing on developmental trends for vocabulary learning, production…

  13. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form in Chinese High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Nan Zhang

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the reliability and validity of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (CDSES-SF) in Chinese high school students. One hundred and eighty-three high school students from a city in northeastern China participated in the study. The results indicate that scores on the CDSES-SF are reliable (internal consistency…

  14. Testing for the Structure of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form among Chinese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Nan Zhang

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the factor structure of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (CDSES-SF) among Chinese college students. Two samples of college students from China were used. The original 25-item CDSES-SF was not supported by the data derived from a sample of 256 Chinese college students (Sample 1). However, a modified 13-item,…

  15. A Confirmatory Test of the Factor Structure of the Short Form of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Matthew J.; Roy, Kerrin Sendrowitz; Brown, Steven D.; Thomas, James; McDaniel, Cyndi

    2009-01-01

    The present study tested a number of theoretically and empirically derived measurement models of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (CDSES-SF) using confirmatory factor analysis. Betz's five-factor model of the CDSES-SF, along with a number of alternative models, demonstrated adequate model fit in two independent samples. Based on…

  16. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form among French University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudron, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the reliability and the factor structure of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (CDSES-SF) among French university students. Based on a sample of 650 respondents, the alpha coefficients indicated high reliability for total scores but not for the subscale scores with values of 0.70 and…

  17. The Dimensionality of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form among Chinese Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Leili; Ye, Shengquan; Watkins, David

    2012-01-01

    The factorial structure of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (CDSES-SF) was examined in a sample of 796 Chinese graduate students recruited from five universities in Beijing. A single-factor model is recommended on the basis of two of this study's findings. First, confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the parsimonious…

  18. An Examination of the Structure of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale (Short Form) among Italian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presti, Alessandro Lo; Pace, Francesco; Mondo, Marina; Nota, Laura; Casarubia, Provvidenza; Ferrari, Lea; Betz, Nancy E.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the factor structure of Career Decision Self-Efficacy scale-short form in a sample of Italian high school adolescents. confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the degree to which a one-factor structure and a five-factor structure provided the best fit. In view of available research the five-factor structure…

  19. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition Short Form for Index and IQ Scores in a Psychiatric Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Bruce K.; Girard, Todd A.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2007-01-01

    An eight-subtest short form (SF8) of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition (WAIS-III), maintaining equal representation of each index factor, was developed for use with psychiatric populations. Data were collected from a mixed inpatient/outpatient sample (99 men and 101 women) referred for neuropsychological assessment. Psychometric…

  20. Balancing the Need for Reliability and Time Efficiency: Short Forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeyakumar, Sharon L. E.; Warriner, Erin M.; Raval, Vaishali V.; Ahmad, Saadia A.

    2004-01-01

    Tables permitting the conversion of short-form composite scores to full-scale IQ estimates have been published for previous editions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). Equivalent tables are now needed for selected subtests of the WAIS-III. This article used Tellegen and Briggs's formulae to convert the sum of scaled scores for four…

  1. [Development of a short form of the Japanese big-five scale, and a test of its reliability and validity].

    PubMed

    Namikawa, Tsutomu; Tani, Iori; Wakita, Takafumi; Kumagai, Ryuichi; Nakane, Ai; Noguchi, Hiroyuki

    2012-06-01

    Personality scales based on the five-factor model, especially the big-five scale of personality trait adjectives (Wada, 1996), are commonly used in Japan. In this study a short form of the Big-Five Scale was constructed. To avoid changes in the capacity dimension caused by the decrease in the number of items, item selection was conducted after item response theory (IRT) scales were constructed for all the items. In study 1 data was collected from 2099 participants. A generalized partial credit model was applied to the IRT model, and items were selected using the slope and location parameters for each item. Cronbach's alpha showed that the short form, as well as the five sub-scales, had sufficient reliability as a personality test. In study 2, we determined correlations with the NEO-FFI and tested the concurrent validity of the short form. The results indicate that the short form of big-five scale demonstrates sufficient reliability and validity despite the reduced number of items.

  2. Efficacy of the Satz-Mogel Short Form WAIS-R for Tumor Patients with Lateralized Lesions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattis, Paul J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The predictive power of the short-form Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale of P. Satz and S. Mogel to provide equivalent information about IQ scores and age-corrected scale scores was not differentially affected by the side of the lesion for 63 patients with brain tumors. (SLD)

  3. The Short-Form Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ-SF): A Validation Study with Federal Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Pamela M.; Magaletta, Philip R.

    2006-01-01

    The 12-item short form of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ-SF) was originally developed by Bryant and Smith (2001) and modified and confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis with mentally ill offenders by Diamond, Wang, and Buffington-Vollum (2005). In the current study, construct validity of the BPAQ-SF was assessed with a sample…

  4. Assessing the Validity of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire--Short Form in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas; Zhang, Huabin F.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed the psychometric properties of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-QSF) in adults with ADHD. Method: One hundred fifty ADHD and 134 non-ADHD adults from a case-control study and 173 adults randomized to placebo or methylphenidate were assessed with the Q-LES-QSF and the…

  5. Toward a Brief Multidimensional Assessment of Emotional Intelligence: Psychometric Properties of the Emotional Quotient Inventory-Short Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, James D. A.; Keefer, Kateryna V.; Wood, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Although several brief instruments are available for the emotional intelligence (EI) construct, their conceptual coverage tends to be quite limited. One notable exception is the short form of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i:S), which measures multiple EI dimensions in addition to a global EI index. Despite the unique advantage offered by…

  6. A Comparison of the Psychometric Properties of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory Full-Length and Short-Form Versions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastner, Rebecca M.; Sellbom, Martin; Lilienfeld, Scott O.

    2012-01-01

    The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) has shown promising construct validity as a measure of psychopathy. Because of its relative efficiency, a short-form version of the PPI (PPI-SF) was developed and has proven useful in many psychopathy studies. The validity of the PPI-SF, however, has not been thoroughly examined, and no studies have…

  7. Examining Concurrent Validity and Predictive Utility for the Addiction Severity Index and Texas Christian University (TCU) Short Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankow, Jennifer; Simpson, D. Dwayne; Joe, George W.; Rowan-Szal, Grace A.; Knight, Kevin; Meason, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Treatment providers need tools that are designed to identify risk, treatment needs, and monitor client engagement. These are essential components in substance abuse treatment for offender populations. In this study, the authors evaluated a flexible set of one-page modular assessments known as the Texas Christian University (TCU) Short Forms and…

  8. A Validation Study of the Dutch Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form: Factor Structure, Reliability, and Known-Groups Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thombs, Brett D.; Bernstein, David P.; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The 28-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) has been translated into at least 10 different languages. The validity of translated versions of the CTQ-SF, however, has generally not been examined. The objective of this study was to investigate the factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and known-groups…

  9. Accelerated gradient-based free form deformable registration for online adaptive radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Gang; Liang, Yueqiang; Yang, Guanyu; Shu, Huazhong; Li, Baosheng; Yin, Yong; Li, Dengwang

    2015-04-01

    The registration of planning fan-beam computed tomography (FBCT) and daily cone-beam CT (CBCT) is a crucial step in adaptive radiation therapy. The current intensity-based registration algorithms, such as Demons, may fail when they are used to register FBCT and CBCT, because the CT numbers in CBCT cannot exactly correspond to the electron densities. In this paper, we investigated the effects of CBCT intensity inaccuracy on the registration accuracy and developed an accurate gradient-based free form deformation algorithm (GFFD). GFFD distinguishes itself from other free form deformable registration algorithms by (a) measuring the similarity using the 3D gradient vector fields to avoid the effect of inconsistent intensities between the two modalities; (b) accommodating image sampling anisotropy using the local polynomial approximation-intersection of confidence intervals (LPA-ICI) algorithm to ensure a smooth and continuous displacement field; and (c) introducing a ‘bi-directional’ force along with an adaptive force strength adjustment to accelerate the convergence process. It is expected that such a strategy can decrease the effect of the inconsistent intensities between the two modalities, thus improving the registration accuracy and robustness. Moreover, for clinical application, the algorithm was implemented by graphics processing units (GPU) through OpenCL framework. The registration time of the GFFD algorithm for each set of CT data ranges from 8 to 13 s. The applications of on-line adaptive image-guided radiation therapy, including auto-propagation of contours, aperture-optimization and dose volume histogram (DVH) in the course of radiation therapy were also studied by in-house-developed software.

  10. Tooth form and function: insights into adaptation through the analysis of dental microwear.

    PubMed

    Ungar, Peter S

    2009-01-01

    Mammalian molar form is clearly adapted to fracture foods with specific material properties. Studies of dental functional morphology can therefore offer important clues about the diets of fossil taxa. That said, analyses of tooth form provide insights into ability to fracture resistant foods rather than the food preferences of individuals. Recent work suggests that specialized occlusal morphology can relate to either preferred foods, or to occasionally eaten fallback items critical for survival. This paper reviews dental microwear texture analysis, a new approach that can be used to infer fracture properties of foods eaten in life. High-resolution 3D point clouds of microwear surfaces are collected and analyzed using scale-sensitive fractal analyses. Resulting data are free from operator measurement error, and allow the characterization and comparison of within-species variation in microwear texture attributes. Examples given here include four extant primate species (two folivores and two hard object fallback feeders), and two fossil hominin taxa. All groups show at least some individuals with simple microwear surfaces that suggest a lack of consumption of hard and brittle abrasive foods during the last few meals. On the other hand, some hard object fallback specimens have very complex surfaces consistent with consumption of hard, brittle foods. The latter pattern is also found in one hominin species. These results suggest that dental microwear texture analysis can help us determine whether craniodental specializations in fossil species are adaptations to preferred foods, or to less often but still critical fallback items.

  11. Enhancing Collaborative Learning through Dynamic Forms of Support: The Impact of an Adaptive Domain-Specific Support Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakostas, A.; Demetriadis, S.

    2011-01-01

    Research on computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) has strongly emphasized the value of providing student support of either fixed (e.g. collaboration scripts) or dynamic form (e.g. adaptive supportive interventions). Currently, however, there is not sufficient evidence corroborating the potential of adaptive support methods to improve…

  12. Development and Validation of a Short Form of the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgar, Frank J.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Dadds, Mark R.; Sigvaldason, Nadine

    2007-01-01

    Brief assessments of parenting practices can provide important information about the development of disruptive behavior disorders in children. We examined the factor structure of a widely used assessment of parenting practices, the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire, and produced a 9-item short scale around its three supported factors: Positive…

  13. Aging reduces the high-frequency and short-term adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex in mice.

    PubMed

    Khan, Serajul I; Hübner, Patrick P; Brichta, Alan M; Smith, Doug W; Migliaccio, Americo A

    2017-03-01

    Prevailing evidence indicates a relatively late life decline in human vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) function. Although mice are commonly used in mechanistic studies of vestibular function, it remains unclear whether aging produces a corresponding decline in VOR function in mice. We sought to determine how the baseline VOR and its short-term adaptation were affected by aging. We tested 8 young (3-month old) and 8 aged (30-month old-equivalent to a ∼80-year old human) C57BL/6 mice. We measured their VOR response to whole-body static tilts and during 0.1-10 Hz whole-body sinusoidal and transient rotations before and after VOR adaptation training. Our data revealed minimal differences in static counter-tilt response between young and aged mice, but a significant deficit in baseline VOR gain in aged mice during transient rotations. Moreover, aged mice had a significant decrease in short-term VOR adaptation, particularly for training that sought to decrease the VOR response.

  14. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of two short forms of the social interaction anxiety scale and the social phobia scale.

    PubMed

    Le Blanc, Allura L; Bruce, Laura C; Heimberg, Richard G; Hope, Debra A; Blanco, Carlos; Schneier, Franklin R; Liebowitz, Michael R

    2014-06-01

    The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Social Phobia Scale are widely used measures of social anxiety. Using data from individuals with social anxiety disorder (n = 435) and nonanxious controls (n = 86), we assessed the psychometric properties of two independently developed short forms of these scales. Indices of convergent and discriminant validity, diagnostic specificity, sensitivity to treatment, and readability were examined. Comparisons of the two sets of short forms to each other and the original long forms were conducted. Both sets of scales demonstrated adequate internal consistency in the patient sample, showed expected patterns of correlation with measures of related and unrelated constructs, adequately discriminated individuals with social anxiety disorder from those without, and showed decreases in scores over the course of cognitive-behavioral therapy and/or pharmacotherapy. However, some significant differences in scale performance were noted. Implications for the clinical assessment of social anxiety are discussed.

  15. Adult zebrafish intestine resection: a novel model of short bowel syndrome, adaptation, and intestinal stem cell regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Schall, K. A.; Holoyda, K. A.; Grant, C. N.; Levin, D. E.; Torres, E. R.; Maxwell, A.; Pollack, H. A.; Moats, R. A.; Frey, M. R.; Darehzereshki, A.; Al Alam, D.; Lien, C.

    2015-01-01

    Loss of significant intestinal length from congenital anomaly or disease may lead to short bowel syndrome (SBS); intestinal failure may be partially offset by a gain in epithelial surface area, termed adaptation. Current in vivo models of SBS are costly and technically challenging. Operative times and survival rates have slowed extension to transgenic models. We created a new reproducible in vivo model of SBS in zebrafish, a tractable vertebrate model, to facilitate investigation of the mechanisms of intestinal adaptation. Proximal intestinal diversion at segment 1 (S1, equivalent to jejunum) was performed in adult male zebrafish. SBS fish emptied distal intestinal contents via stoma as in the human disease. After 2 wk, S1 was dilated compared with controls and villus ridges had increased complexity, contributing to greater villus epithelial perimeter. The number of intervillus pockets, the intestinal stem cell zone of the zebrafish increased and contained a higher number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled cells after 2 wk of SBS. Egf receptor and a subset of its ligands, also drivers of adaptation, were upregulated in SBS fish. Igf has been reported as a driver of intestinal adaptation in other animal models, and SBS fish exposed to a pharmacological inhibitor of the Igf receptor failed to demonstrate signs of intestinal adaptation, such as increased inner epithelial perimeter and BrdU incorporation. We describe a technically feasible model of human SBS in the zebrafish, a faster and less expensive tool to investigate intestinal stem cell plasticity as well as the mechanisms that drive intestinal adaptation. PMID:26089336

  16. Simulation of metal forming processes with a 3D adaptive remeshing procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeramdini, Bessam; Robert, Camille; Germain, Guenael; Pottier, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a fully adaptive 3D numerical methodology based on a tetrahedral element was proposed in order to improve the finite element simulation of any metal forming process. This automatic methodology was implemented in a computational platform which integrates a finite element solver, 3D mesh generation and a field transfer algorithm. The proposed remeshing method was developed in order to solve problems associated with the severe distortion of elements subject to large deformations, to concentrate the elements where the error is large and to coarsen the mesh where the error is small. This leads to a significant reduction in the computation times while maintaining simulation accuracy. In addition, in order to enhance the contact conditions, this method has been coupled with a specific operator to maintain the initial contact between the workpiece nodes and the rigid tool after each remeshing step. In this paper special attention is paid to the data transfer methods and the necessary adaptive remeshing steps are given. Finally, a numerical example is detailed to demonstrate the efficiency of the approach and to compare the results for the different field transfer strategies.

  17. Ventricular structure, function, and mechanics at high altitude: chronic remodeling in Sherpa vs. short-term lowlander adaptation.

    PubMed

    Stembridge, Mike; Ainslie, Philip N; Hughes, Michael G; Stöhr, Eric J; Cotter, James D; Nio, Amanda Q X; Shave, Rob

    2014-08-01

    Short-term, high-altitude (HA) exposure raises pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) and decreases left-ventricular (LV) volumes. However, relatively little is known of the long-term cardiac consequences of prolonged exposure in Sherpa, a highly adapted HA population. To investigate short-term adaptation and potential long-term cardiac remodeling, we studied ventricular structure and function in Sherpa at 5,050 m (n = 11; 31 ± 13 yr; mass 68 ± 10 kg; height 169 ± 6 cm) and lowlanders at sea level (SL) and following 10 ± 3 days at 5,050 m (n = 9; 34 ± 7 yr; mass 82 ± 10 kg; height 177 ± 6 cm) using conventional and speckle-tracking echocardiography. At HA, PASP was higher in Sherpa and lowlanders compared with lowlanders at SL (both P < 0.05). Sherpa had smaller right-ventricular (RV) and LV stroke volumes than lowlanders at SL with lower RV systolic strain (P < 0.05) but similar LV systolic mechanics. In contrast to LV systolic mechanics, LV diastolic, untwisting velocity was significantly lower in Sherpa compared with lowlanders at both SL and HA. After partial acclimatization, lowlanders demonstrated no change in the RV end-diastolic area; however, both RV strain and LV end-diastolic volume were reduced. In conclusion, short-term hypoxia induced a reduction in RV systolic function that was also evident in Sherpa following chronic exposure. We propose that this was consequent to a persistently higher PASP. In contrast to the RV, remodeling of LV volumes and normalization of systolic mechanics indicate structural and functional adaptation to HA. However, altered LV diastolic relaxation after chronic hypoxic exposure may reflect differential remodeling of systolic and diastolic LV function.

  18. Mutual Information Item Selection Method in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing with Short Test Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT) purports to combine the strengths of both CAT and cognitive diagnosis. Cognitive diagnosis models aim at classifying examinees into the correct mastery profile group so as to pinpoint the strengths and weakness of each examinee whereas CAT algorithms choose items to determine those…

  19. Early Intestinal Rehabilitation Therapy Ameliorates Intestinal Adaptation in Children with Short Bowel Syndrome: The Long-Term Outcome.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mingxiao; Lu, Chunlei; Li, Yousheng

    2016-12-01

    In the management of short bowel syndrome (SBS), the benefits of treatment with growth hormone (GH), glutamine, and enteral nutrition (EN) on intestinal adaptation among children patients is still controversial. The aim of present study is to determine whether GH, glutamine, and EN have positive effect on intestinal adaptation in children with SBS. Sixteen children with SBS (small bowel remnant length, 56.75 ± 8.09 cm; mean ± SE) were treated with GH (0.05 mg/kg/d), glutamine (0.45 mg/kg/d), plus EN-enriched fiber diet for four weeks. After four weeks of treatment, patients were discharged home; GH was discontinued, but the EN with glutamine was continued. Repeated treatment was performed if there were lose weight, dysplasia, or severe diarrhea. All patients completed the treatment. Body weight, intestinal absorptive capacity, and plasma levels of proteins were significantly improved after complete treatment, without any major adverse effects. On follow-up, no death was reported. Treatment with GH, glutamine, and EN in early stage significantly improved intestinal adaptation in pediatric patients with SBS. Furthermore, the positive effect of the treatment does not seem to be sustained once GH discontinued until the residual intestinal adaptation reaches its maximum.

  20. The African American Acculturation Scale II: Cross-Validation and Short Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landrine, Hope; Klonoff, Elizabeth A.

    1995-01-01

    Studied African American culture, using a new, shortened, 33-item African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS-33) to assess the scale's validity and reliability. Comparisons between the original form and AAAS-33 reveal high correlations, however, the longer form may be sensitive to some beliefs, practices, and attitudes not assessed by the short…

  1. Nichtrigide Bildregistrierung für die adaptive Strahlentherapie mittels Free Form Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurst, Gernot; Bendl, Rolf

    Im Rahmen der Adaptiven Strahlentherapie müssen zum Behandlungszeitpunkt Abweichungen der aktuellen Patientengeometrie von den Planungsdaten bekannt sein, damit eine Anpassung des Bestrahlungsplans vorgenommen werden kann. State of the Art ist in diesem Zusammenhang die rigide Registrierung von Planungs- und Kontrolldaten. Hierbei werden jedoch komplexere, nichtrigide Deformationen nicht angemessen berücksichtigt. Daher wurde ein Verfahren entwickelt, das diese komplexen Deformationen durch ein Free Form-Deformationsmodell beschreibt. Die dafür vorzugebenden Translationsvektoren wurden durch Template Matching bestimmt. Es zeigte sich, dass die vorhandenen Deformationen weitgehend erkannt werden. Weiterhin ist das Verfahren aufgrund seines günstigen Laufzeitverhaltens prädestiniert für die Adaptive Strahlentherapie.

  2. Measuring psychological trauma after spinal cord injury: Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Psychological Trauma item bank and short form

    PubMed Central

    Kisala, Pamela A.; Victorson, David; Pace, Natalie; Heinemann, Allen W.; Choi, Seung W.; Tulsky, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the development and psychometric properties of the SCI-QOL Psychological Trauma item bank and short form. Design Using a mixed-methods design, we developed and tested a Psychological Trauma item bank with patient and provider focus groups, cognitive interviews, and item response theory based analytic approaches, including tests of model fit, differential item functioning (DIF) and precision. Setting We tested a 31-item pool at several medical institutions across the United States, including the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital and the James J. Peters/Bronx Veterans Administration hospital. Participants A total of 716 individuals with SCI completed the trauma items Results The 31 items fit a unidimensional model (CFI=0.952; RMSEA=0.061) and demonstrated good precision (theta range between 0.6 and 2.5). Nine items demonstrated negligible DIF with little impact on score estimates. The final calibrated item bank contains 19 items Conclusion The SCI-QOL Psychological Trauma item bank is a psychometrically robust measurement tool from which a short form and a computer adaptive test (CAT) version are available. PMID:26010967

  3. Measuring resilience after spinal cord injury: Development, validation and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Resilience item bank and short form

    PubMed Central

    Victorson, David; Tulsky, David S.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Kalpakjian, Claire Z.; Weiland, Brian; Choi, Seung W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the development and psychometric properties of the Spinal Cord Injury - Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Resilience item bank and short form. Design Using a mixed-methods design, we developed and tested a resilience item bank through the use of focus groups with individuals with SCI and clinicians with expertise in SCI, cognitive interviews, and item-response theory based analytic approaches, including tests of model fit and differential item functioning (DIF). Setting We tested a 32-item pool at several medical institutions across the United States, including the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation, the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital and the James J. Peters/Bronx Department of Veterans Affairs medical center. Participants A total of 717 individuals with SCI completed the Resilience items. Results A unidimensional model was observed (CFI = 0.968; RMSEA = 0.074) and measurement precision was good (theta range between −3.1 and 0.9). Ten items were flagged for DIF, however, after examination of effect sizes we found this to be negligible with little practical impact on score estimates. The final calibrated item bank resulted in 21 retained items. Conclusion This study indicates that the SCI-QOL Resilience item bank represents a psychometrically robust measurement tool. Short form items are also suggested and computer adaptive tests are available. PMID:26010971

  4. Improvements in Social and Adaptive Functioning Following Short-Duration PRT Program: A Clinical Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventola, Pamela; Friedman, Hannah E.; Anderson, Laura C.; Wolf, Julie M.; Oosting, Devon; Foss-Feig, Jennifer; McDonald, Nicole; Volkmar, Fred; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2014-01-01

    Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) is an empirically validated behavioral treatment for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The purpose of the current study was to assess the efficacy of PRT for ten cognitively-able preschool-aged children with ASD in the context of a short-duration (4-month) treatment model. Most research on PRT used…

  5. Development of a Brazilian Portuguese adapted version of the Gap-Kalamazoo communication skills assessment form

    PubMed Central

    Rider, Elizabeth A.; Lajolo, Paula P.; Tone, Luiz G.; Pinto, Rogerio M. C.; Lajolo, Marisa P.; Calhoun, Aaron W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to translate, adapt and validate the items of the Gap-Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment Form for use in the Brazilian cultural setting. Methods The Gap-Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment Form was translated into Portuguese by two independent bilingual Brazilian translators and was reconciled by a third bilingual healthcare professional. The translated text was then assessed for content using a modified Delphi technique and adjusted as needed to assure content validity. A total of nine phrases in the completed tool were adjusted. The final tool was then used to assess videotaped simulations as a means of validation.  Response process was assessed using exploratory factor analysis and internal structure was assessed via Cronbach’s Alpha (internal consistency) and Intraclass Correlation (test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability). Results One hundred and four (104) videotaped communication skills simulations were assessed by 38 subjects (6 staff physicians, 4 faculty physicians, 8 resident physicians, 4 professional actors with experience in simulation, and 16 other allied healthcare professionals). Measures of Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.818) and test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.942) were high.  Exploratory factor analysis confirmed the uni-dimensionality of the instrument. Conclusions Our results support the validity and reliability of the Brazilian Gap-Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment Form when used among Brazilian medical residents.  The Brazilian version of Gap-Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment Form was found to be adequate both in the linguistic and technical aspects.  The use of this instrument in Brazilian medical education can enhance the assessment of physician-patient-team relationships on an ongoing basis. PMID:27941183

  6. Proposal of a short-form version of the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Leonardo Pozza; Lindemann, Ivana Loraine; Motta, Janaína Vieira dos Santos; Mintem, Gicele; Bender, Eliana; Gigante, Denise Petrucci

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To propose a short version of the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. METHODS Two samples were used to test the results obtained in the analyses in two distinct scenarios. One of the studies was composed of 230 low income families from Pelotas, RS, Southern Brazil, and the other was composed of 15,575 women, whose data were obtained from the 2006 National Survey on Demography and Health. Two models were tested, the first containing seven questions, and the second, the five questions that were considered the most relevant ones in the concordance analysis. The models were compared to the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale, and the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy parameters were calculated, as well as the kappa agreement test. RESULTS Comparing the prevalence of food insecurity between the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale and the two models, the differences were around 2 percentage points. In the sensitivity analysis, the short version of seven questions obtained 97.8% and 99.5% in the Pelotas sample and in the National Survey on Demography and Health sample, respectively, while specificity was 100% in both studies. The five-question model showed similar results (sensitivity of 95.7% and 99.5% in the Pelotas sample and in the National Survey on Demography and Health sample, respectively). In the Pelotas sample, the kappa test of the seven-question version totaled 97.0% and that of the five-question version, 95.0%. In the National Survey on Demography and Health sample, the two models presented a 99.0% kappa. CONCLUSIONS We suggest that the model with five questions should be used as the short version of the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale, as its results were similar to the original scale with a lower number of questions. This version needs to be administered to other populations in Brazil in order to allow for the adequate assessment of the validity parameters. PMID:25372169

  7. Isothermic and fixed intensity heat acclimation methods induce similar heat adaptation following short and long-term timescales.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Oliver R; Mee, Jessica A; Tuttle, James A; Taylor, Lee; Watt, Peter W; Maxwell, Neil S

    2015-01-01

    Heat acclimation requires the interaction between hot environments and exercise to elicit thermoregulatory adaptations. Optimal synergism between these parameters is unknown. Common practise involves utilising a fixed workload model where exercise prescription is controlled and core temperature is uncontrolled, or an isothermic model where core temperature is controlled and work rate is manipulated to control core temperature. Following a baseline heat stress test; 24 males performed a between groups experimental design performing short term heat acclimation (STHA; five 90 min sessions) and long term heat acclimation (LTHA; STHA plus further five 90 min sessions) utilising either fixed intensity (50% VO2peak), continuous isothermic (target rectal temperature 38.5 °C for STHA and LTHA), or progressive isothermic heat acclimation (target rectal temperature 38.5 °C for STHA, and 39.0 °C for LTHA). Identical heat stress tests followed STHA and LTHA to determine the magnitude of adaptation. All methods induced equal adaptation from baseline however isothermic methods induced adaptation and reduced exercise durations (STHA = -66% and LTHA = -72%) and mean session intensity (STHA = -13% VO2peak and LTHA = -9% VO2peak) in comparison to fixed (p < 0.05). STHA decreased exercising heart rate (-10 b min(-1)), core (-0.2 °C) and skin temperature (-0.51 °C), with sweat losses increasing (+0.36 Lh(-1)) (p<0.05). No difference between heat acclimation methods, and no further benefit of LTHA was observed (p > 0.05). Only thermal sensation improved from baseline to STHA (-0.2), and then between STHA and LTHA (-0.5) (p<0.05). Both the continuous and progressive isothermic methods elicited exercise duration, mean session intensity, and mean T(rec) analogous to more efficient administration for maximising adaptation. Short term isothermic methods are therefore optimal for individuals aiming to achieve heat adaptation most economically, i.e. when integrating heat acclimation into

  8. Short form of Spanish version of the WISC-IV for intelligence assessment in elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Dasi, Carmen; Soler, Maria J; Bellver, Vicente; Ruiz, Juan C

    2014-12-01

    In educational settings, quick assessments of intelligence are often required to screen children with potential special needs. The WISC-IV is administered individually and takes between one and two hours to complete. Given its widespread use in Spain, a short-form of the Spanish version is likely to be of use to professionals. The goal of this research was to develop a short form of the WISC-IV that can be performed in approximately half an hour. Data obtained in 100 elementary school children were analyzed following the criteria of Resnick and Entin (1971) . The results showed that the most accurate estimation of intelligence was achieved with a combination of the Vocabulary, Block Design, Letter-Number Sequencing, and Coding subtests.

  9. Adaptive solution of the biharmonic problem with shortly supported cubic spline-wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Černá, Dana; Finěk, Václav

    2012-09-01

    In our contribution, we design a cubic spline-wavelet basis on the interval. The basis functions have small support and wavelets have vanishing moments. We show that stiffness matrices arising from discretization of the two-dimensional biharmonic problem using a constructed wavelet basis have uniformly bounded condition numbers and these condition numbers are very small. We compare quantitative behavior of adaptive wavelet method with a constructed basis and other cubic spline-wavelet bases, and show the superiority of our construction.

  10. Relations of eye color to scores on Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency--Short Form.

    PubMed

    Beer, J; Fleming, P

    1989-06-01

    The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency--Short Form (8 subtests and 15 motor skill activities) was administered individually to 28 students. Multivariate analysis of variance showed no association with differences in eye color. There were two significant sex differences on univariate F tests; boys scored better at standing broad jump than girls, while girls scored better at standing on one leg and drawing a straight line than boys.

  11. Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales-Revised: Short Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Tsai, Wen-Che

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales-Revised: Short Forms (CPRS-R:S-C and CTRS-R:S-C) in a representative sample of 2,584 first to ninth graders in Taipei and 479 clinical participants (274 with ADHD). Method: The instruments include the CPRS-R:S-C,…

  12. A comparison of the psychometric properties of the psychopathic personality inventory full-length and short-form versions.

    PubMed

    Kastner, Rebecca M; Sellbom, Martin; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2012-03-01

    The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) has shown promising construct validity as a measure of psychopathy. Because of its relative efficiency, a short-form version of the PPI (PPI-SF) was developed and has proven useful in many psychopathy studies. The validity of the PPI-SF, however, has not been thoroughly examined, and no studies have directly compared the validity of the short form with that of the full-length version. The current study was designed to compare the psychometric properties of both PPI versions, with an emphasis on convergent and discriminant validity in predicting external criteria conceptually relevant to psychopathy. We used both prison (n = 558) and college samples (n = 322) for this investigation. PPI scale scores were more reliable and more strongly correlated with the conceptually relevant criterion measures compared with the PPI-SF, particularly in the prison sample. There were no differences in relative discriminant validity. Thus, overall, the PPI full-length version showed more evidence of construct validity than did the short form, and the consequences of this psychometric difference should be considered when evaluating the clinical utility of each measure.

  13. Short loop length and high thermal stability determine genomic instability induced by G-quadruplex-forming minisatellites

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Aurèle; Adrian, Michael; Samazan, Frédéric; Heddi, Brahim; Hamon, Florian; Serero, Alexandre; Lopes, Judith; Teulade-Fichou, Marie-Paule; Phan, Anh Tuân; Nicolas, Alain

    2015-01-01

    G-quadruplexes (G4) are polymorphic four-stranded structures formed by certain G-rich nucleic acids, with various biological roles. However, structural features dictating their formation and/or functionin vivo are unknown. InS. cerevisiae, the pathological persistency of G4 within the CEB1 minisatellite induces its rearrangement during leading-strand replication. We now show that several other G4-forming sequences remain stable. Extensive mutagenesis of the CEB25 minisatellite motif reveals that only variants with very short (≤ 4 nt) G4 loops preferentially containing pyrimidine bases trigger genomic instability. Parallel biophysical analyses demonstrate that shortening loop length does not change the monomorphic G4 structure of CEB25 variants but drastically increases its thermal stability, in correlation with thein vivo instability. Finally, bioinformatics analyses reveal that the threat for genomic stability posed by G4 bearing short pyrimidine loops is conserved inC. elegans and humans. This work provides a framework explanation for the heterogeneous instability behavior of G4-forming sequencesin vivo, highlights the importance of structure thermal stability, and questions the prevailing assumption that G4 structures with short or longer loops are as likely to formin vivo. PMID:25956747

  14. An Adaptive Resonance Theory account of the implicit learning of orthographic word forms.

    PubMed

    Glotin, H; Warnier, P; Dandurand, F; Dufau, S; Lété, B; Touzet, C; Ziegler, J C; Grainger, J

    2010-01-01

    An Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) network was trained to identify unique orthographic word forms. Each word input to the model was represented as an unordered set of ordered letter pairs (open bigrams) that implement a flexible prelexical orthographic code. The network learned to map this prelexical orthographic code onto unique word representations (orthographic word forms). The network was trained on a realistic corpus of reading textbooks used in French primary schools. The amount of training was strictly identical to children's exposure to reading material from grade 1 to grade 5. Network performance was examined at each grade level. Adjustment of the learning and vigilance parameters of the network allowed us to reproduce the developmental growth of word identification performance seen in children. The network exhibited a word frequency effect and was found to be sensitive to the order of presentation of word inputs, particularly with low frequency words. These words were better learned with a randomized presentation order compared with the order of presentation in the school books. These results open up interesting perspectives for the application of ART networks in the study of the dynamics of learning to read.

  15. An Investigation of the Validity and Reliability of the Adapted Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale-Short Version (MARS-SV) among Turkish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baloglu, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    This study adapted the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale-Short Version (MARS-SV) into Turkish and investigated the validity and reliability of the adapted instrument. Twenty-five bilingual experts agreed on the language validity, and 49 Turkish language experts agreed on the conformity and understandability of the scale's items. Thirty-two subject…

  16. The Adaptation of the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale-Elementary Form into Turkish, Language Validity, and Preliminary Psychometric Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baloglu, Mustafa; Balgalmis, Esra

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to adapt the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale- Elementary Form (MARS-E, Suinn, 1988) into Turkish by first doing the translation of its items and then the preliminary psychometric investigation of the Turkish form. The study included four different samples: 30 bilingual language experts, 50 Turkish language…

  17. Effects of Short-Term Exercise Training With and Without Milk Intake on Cardiometabolic and Inflammatory Adaptations in Obese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Maple; Gillis, Linda J; Persadie, Nicholas R; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Phillips, Stuart M; Timmons, Brian W

    2015-11-01

    There is some evidence that a combination of factors can reduce inflammation and associated metabolic risk factors. We studied the early cardiometabolic and inflammatory adaptations to a short-term exercise intervention with and without milk in obese adolescents. Fifty-four adolescents were randomized to consume milk post exercise (MILK) or a carbohydrate beverage (CONT) during one-week of daily exercise. Insulin levels were not different between the groups post training. Glucose was reduced over time in both groups (-9 ± 13 mg/ dl MILK and -6 ± 14 mg/dl CONT, p < .05) but not different between groups. There was a greater decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the MILK group (-3 ± 6 mmHg MILK vs. 2 ± 7 mmHg CONT, p < .04). Milk provided postexercise did not affect C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) or interleukin-6 (IL-6). The exercise intervention led to an increase in TNF-α in both groups (0.27 ± 0.7 pg/ml MILK and 0.48 ± 0.6 pg/ml CONT, p < .001). The early adaptations to a short-term exercise intervention in obese adolescents include a reduction in MAP and an increase in some inflammatory markers.

  18. Forms of aggression and peer victimization during early childhood: a short-term longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Ostrov, Jamie M

    2008-04-01

    A multi-informant and multi-measure short-term longitudinal study of the association between subtypes of aggression and peer victimization was conducted in an early childhood sample (M = 44.36 months; SD = 11.07; N = 120). Observational and teacher report measures demonstrated appropriate reliability and validity as well as stability across an academic year. Concurrent associations revealed that observed relational aggression was uniquely associated with teacher reported relational victimization and observed physical aggression was uniquely associated with teacher reported physical victimization. Prospective findings indicated that observed relational aggression predicted increases in teacher reported relational victimization for girls only, controlling for the variance associated with physical aggression, prosocial behavior, physical victimization, and gender. Peer rejection partially mediated the association between observed relational aggression at time 1 and teacher reported relational victimization at time 2. Ways in which these and other prospective findings extend the extant literature are discussed.

  19. Reduced short term adaptation to robot generated dynamic environment in children affected by Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is known that healthy adults can quickly adapt to a novel dynamic environment, generated by a robotic manipulandum as a structured disturbing force field. We suggest that it may be of clinical interest to evaluate to which extent this kind of motor learning capability is impaired in children affected by cerebal palsy. Methods We adapted the protocol already used with adults, which employs a velocity dependant viscous field, and compared the performance of a group of subjects affected by Cerebral Palsy (CP group, 7 subjects) with a Control group of unimpaired age-matched children. The protocol included a familiarization phase (FA), during which no force was applied, a force field adaptation phase (CF), and a wash-out phase (WO) in which the field was removed. During the CF phase the field was shut down in a number of randomly selected "catch" trials, which were used in order to evaluate the "learning index" for each single subject and the two groups. Lateral deviation, speed and acceleration peaks and average speed were evaluated for each trajectory; a directional analysis was performed in order to inspect the role of the limb's inertial anisotropy in the different experimental phases. Results During the FA phase the movements of the CP subjects were more curved, displaying greater and variable directional error; over the course of the CF phase both groups showed a decreasing trend in the lateral error and an after-effect at the beginning of the wash-out, but the CP group had a non significant adaptation rate and a lower learning index, suggesting that CP subjects have reduced ability to learn to compensate external force. Moreover, a directional analysis of trajectories confirms that the control group is able to better predict the force field by tuning the kinematic features of the movements along different directions in order to account for the inertial anisotropy of arm. Conclusions Spatial abnormalities in children affected by cerebral palsy may be

  20. 77 FR 38061 - Mobility Fund Phase I Auction Supplemental Short-Form Instructions and Other Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... Phase I Auction for completing FCC Form 180, announce the availability of certain updated files and..., please provide the appropriate FCC document number, for example, DA 12-947. The Supplemental Filing... site: http://wireless.fcc.gov/auctions/901/ or by using the search function for AU Docket No. 12-25...

  1. 48 CFR 1852.227-11 - Patent Rights-Retention by the Contractor (Short Form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Both the electronic and paper versions of NASA Form 1679 may be accessed at the electronic New Technology Reporting Web site http://invention.nasa.gov. (End of addition) (f)(5) The Contractor shall... subparagraph (c)(1). NASA prefers that the contractor use either the electronic or paper version of NASA...

  2. 48 CFR 1852.227-11 - Patent Rights-Retention by the Contractor (Short Form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Both the electronic and paper versions of NASA Form 1679 may be accessed at the electronic New Technology Reporting Web site http://invention.nasa.gov. (End of addition) (f)(5) The Contractor shall... subparagraph (c)(1). NASA prefers that the contractor use either the electronic or paper version of NASA...

  3. Fast response and high sensitivity to microsaccades in a cascading-adaptation neural network with short-term synaptic depression.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wu-Jie; Zhou, Jian-Fang; Zhou, Changsong

    2016-04-01

    Microsaccades are very small eye movements during fixation. Experimentally, they have been found to play an important role in visual information processing. However, neural responses induced by microsaccades are not yet well understood and are rarely studied theoretically. Here we propose a network model with a cascading adaptation including both retinal adaptation and short-term depression (STD) at thalamocortical synapses. In the neural network model, we compare the microsaccade-induced neural responses in the presence of STD and those without STD. It is found that the cascading with STD can give rise to faster and sharper responses to microsaccades. Moreover, STD can enhance response effectiveness and sensitivity to microsaccadic spatiotemporal changes, suggesting improved detection of small eye movements (or moving visual objects). We also explore the mechanism of the response properties in the model. Our studies strongly indicate that STD plays an important role in neural responses to microsaccades. Our model considers simultaneously retinal adaptation and STD at thalamocortical synapses in the study of microsaccade-induced neural activity, and may be useful for further investigation of the functional roles of microsaccades in visual information processing.

  4. Administration of a DPP-IV Inhibitor Enhances the Intestinal Adaptation in a Mouse Model of Short Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Okawada, Manabu; Holst, Jens J.; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Glucagon-like peptide-2(GLP-2) induces small intestine mucosal epithelial cell (EC) proliferation; and may have benefit for patients suffering from short bowel syndrome (SBS). However, GLP-2 is rapidly inactivated in vivo by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV). Therefore, we hypothesized that selectively inhibiting DPPIV would prolong the circulating life of GLP-2 and lead to increased intestinal adaptation after development of SBS. Methods 8-week old C57BL/6J mice underwent a 50% proximal small bowel resection and were treated with either sitagliptin, a DPPIV-inhibitor (DPPIV-I), starting 1 day before surgery versus placebo. DPPIV-I efficacy was assessed 3 days after resection, including intestinal morphology, EC apoptosis and EC proliferation. Adaptive mechanisms were assessed with quantitative real-time PCR, and plasma bioactive GLP-2 was measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULT Body weight loss and peripheral blood glucose levels did not change compared to SBS controls. DPPIV-I treatment led to significant increases in villus height and crypt depth. DPPIV-I treatment did not significantly change EC apoptosis rates, but significantly increased crypt EC proliferation versus placebo-SBS controls. DPPIV-I treatment markedly increased mRNA expression of β-catenin and c-myc in ileal mucosa. Plasma GLP-2 levels significantly increased(~40.9%) in DPPIV-I-SBS mice. Conclusions DPPIV- I treatment increased SBS adaptation, and may potentially be useful for SBS patients. PMID:21719060

  5. Induced mutations in circadian clock regulator Mat-a facilitated short-season adaptation and range extension in cultivated barley.

    PubMed

    Zakhrabekova, Shakhira; Gough, Simon P; Braumann, Ilka; Müller, André H; Lundqvist, Joakim; Ahmann, Katharina; Dockter, Christoph; Matyszczak, Izabela; Kurowska, Marzena; Druka, Arnis; Waugh, Robbie; Graner, Andreas; Stein, Nils; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Lundqvist, Udda; Hansson, Mats

    2012-03-13

    Time to flowering has an important impact on yield and has been a key trait in the domestication of crop plants and the spread of agriculture. In 1961, the cultivar Mari (mat-a.8) was the very first induced early barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) mutant to be released into commercial production. Mari extended the range of two-row spring barley cultivation as a result of its photoperiod insensitivity. Since its release, Mari or its derivatives have been used extensively across the world to facilitate short-season adaptation and further geographic range extension. By exploiting an extended historical collection of early-flowering mutants of barley, we identified Praematurum-a (Mat-a), the gene responsible for this key adaptive phenotype, as a homolog of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock regulator Early Flowering 3 (Elf3). We characterized 87 induced mat-a mutant lines and identified >20 different mat-a alleles that had clear mutations leading to a defective putative ELF3 protein. Expression analysis of HvElf3 and Gigantea in mutant and wild-type plants demonstrated that mat-a mutations disturb the flowering pathway, leading to the early phenotype. Alleles of Mat-a therefore have important and demonstrated breeding value in barley but probably also in many other day-length-sensitive crop plants, where they may tune adaptation to different geographic regions and climatic conditions, a critical issue in times of global warming.

  6. Acute effects of the glucagon-like peptide 2 analogue, teduglutide, on intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thymann, Thomas; Stoll, Barbara; Mecklenburg, Lars; Burrin, Douglas G; Vegge, Andreas; Qvist, Niels; Eriksen, Thomas; Jeppesen, Palle B; Sangild, Per T

    2014-06-01

    Neonatal short bowel syndrome following massive gut resection is associated with malabsorption of nutrients. The intestinotrophic factor glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) improves gut function in adult patients with short bowel syndrome, but its effect in pediatric patients remains unknown. Our objective was to test the efficacy of the long-acting synthetic human GLP-2 analogue, teduglutide (ALX-0600), in a neonatal piglet jejunostomy model. Two-day-old pigs were subjected to resection of 50% of the small intestine (distal part), and the remnant intestine was exteriorized on the abdominal wall as a jejunostomy. All pigs were given total parenteral nutrition for 7 days and a single daily injection of the following doses of teduglutide: 0.01 (n = 6), 0.02 (n = 6), 0.1 (n = 5), or 0.2 mg · kg · day (n = 6), and compared with placebo (n = 9). Body weight increment was similar for all 4 teduglutide groups but higher than placebo (P < 0.05). There was a dose-dependent increase in weight per length of the remnant intestine (P < 0.01) and fractional protein synthesis rate in the intestine was increased in the 0.2 mg · kg · day group versus placebo (P < 0.001); however, functional and structural endpoints including activity of digestive enzymes, absorption of enteral nutrients, and immunohistochemistry (Ki67, villin, FABP2, ChgA, and GLP-2R) were not affected by the treatment. Teduglutide induces trophicity on the remnant intestine but has limited acute effects on functional endpoints. Significant effects of teduglutide on gut function may require a longer adaptation period and/or a more frequent administration of the peptide. In perspective, GLP-2 or its analogues may be relevant to improve intestinal adaptation in pediatric patients with short bowel syndrome.

  7. Short-Term Memory Trace in Rapidly Adapting Synapses of Inferior Temporal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Sugase-Miyamoto, Yasuko; Liu, Zheng; Wiener, Matthew C.; Optican, Lance M.; Richmond, Barry J.

    2008-01-01

    Visual short-term memory tasks depend upon both the inferior temporal cortex (ITC) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Activity in some neurons persists after the first (sample) stimulus is shown. This delay-period activity has been proposed as an important mechanism for working memory. In ITC neurons, intervening (nonmatching) stimuli wipe out the delay-period activity; hence, the role of ITC in memory must depend upon a different mechanism. Here, we look for a possible mechanism by contrasting memory effects in two architectonically different parts of ITC: area TE and the perirhinal cortex. We found that a large proportion (80%) of stimulus-selective neurons in area TE of macaque ITCs exhibit a memory effect during the stimulus interval. During a sequential delayed matching-to-sample task (DMS), the noise in the neuronal response to the test image was correlated with the noise in the neuronal response to the sample image. Neurons in perirhinal cortex did not show this correlation. These results led us to hypothesize that area TE contributes to short-term memory by acting as a matched filter. When the sample image appears, each TE neuron captures a static copy of its inputs by rapidly adjusting its synaptic weights to match the strength of their individual inputs. Input signals from subsequent images are multiplied by those synaptic weights, thereby computing a measure of the correlation between the past and present inputs. The total activity in area TE is sufficient to quantify the similarity between the two images. This matched filter theory provides an explanation of what is remembered, where the trace is stored, and how comparison is done across time, all without requiring delay period activity. Simulations of a matched filter model match the experimental results, suggesting that area TE neurons store a synaptic memory trace during short-term visual memory. PMID:18464917

  8. Mutation at the circadian clock gene EARLY MATURITY 8 adapts domesticated barley (Hordeum vulgare) to short growing seasons.

    PubMed

    Faure, Sebastien; Turner, Adrian S; Gruszka, Damian; Christodoulou, Vangelis; Davis, Seth J; von Korff, Maria; Laurie, David A

    2012-05-22

    The circadian clock is an autonomous oscillator that produces endogenous biological rhythms with a period of about 24 h. This clock allows organisms to coordinate their metabolism and development with predicted daily and seasonal changes of the environment. In plants, circadian rhythms contribute to both evolutionary fitness and agricultural productivity. Nevertheless, we show that commercial barley varieties bred for short growing seasons by use of early maturity 8 (eam8) mutations, also termed mat-a, are severely compromised in clock gene expression and clock outputs. We identified EAM8 as a barley ortholog of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock regulator EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3) and demonstrate that eam8 accelerates the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth and inflorescence development. We propose that eam8 was selected as barley cultivation moved to high-latitude short-season environments in Europe because it allowed rapid flowering in genetic backgrounds that contained a previously selected late-flowering mutation of the photoperiod response gene Ppd-H1. We show that eam8 mutants have increased expression of the floral activator HvFT1, which is independent of allelic variation at Ppd-H1. The selection of independent eam8 mutations shows that this strategy facilitates short growth-season adaptation and expansion of the geographic range of barley, despite the pronounced clock defect.

  9. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Short and Standard-Length Consent Forms for a Genetic Cohort Study: Is Longer Better?

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Kenji; Lie, Reidar K.; Turin, Tanvir C.; Kita, Yoshikuni

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the amount of detail in informed consent documents has increased over time and the documents have therefore become very long, there is little research on whether longer informed consent documents actually result in (1) better informed research subjects or (2) higher consent rates. We therefore conducted an add-on randomized controlled trial to the Takashima Study, a prospective Japanese population-based genetic cohort study, to test the hypothesis that a shorter informed consent form would satisfy both of the above goals. Methods Standard (10 459 words, 11 pages) and short (3602 words, 5 pages) consent forms in Japanese were developed and distributed using cluster-randomization to 293 potential cohort subjects living in 9 medico-social units and 288 subjects in 8 medico-social units, respectively. Results Few differences were found between the 2 groups with regard to outcome measures, including participants’ self-perceived understanding, recall of information, concerns, voluntariness, trust, satisfaction, sense of duty, and consent rates. Conclusions A short informed consent form was no less valid than a standard form with regard to fulfilling ethical requirements and securing the scientific validity of research. PMID:22447213

  10. An 8-Item Short Form of the Inventory of Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood (IDEA) Among Young Swiss Men.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Stéphanie; Iglesias, Katia; Studer, Joseph; Gmel, Gerhard

    2015-06-01

    Emerging adulthood is a period of life transition, in which youths are no longer adolescents but have not yet reached full adulthood. Measuring emerging adulthood is crucial because of its association with psychopathology and risky behaviors such as substance use. Unfortunately, the only validated scale for such measurement has a long format (Inventory of Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood [IDEA]-31 items). This study aimed to test whether a shorter form yields satisfactory results without substantial loss of information among a sample of young Swiss men. Data from the longitudinal Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors were used (N = 5,049). IDEA, adulthood markers (e.g., parenthood or financial independence), and risk factors (i.e., substance use and mental health issues) were assessed. The results showed that an 8-item, short-form scale (IDEA-8) with four factors (experimentation, negativity, identity exploration, and feeling in between) returned satisfactory results, including good psychometric properties, high convergence with the initial scale, and strong empirical validity. This study was a step toward downsizing a measure of emerging adulthood. Indeed, this 8-item short form is a good alternative to the 31-item long form and could be more convenient for surveys with constraints on questionnaire length. Moreover, it should help health care practitioners in identifying at-risk populations to prevent and treat risky behaviors.

  11. [Short form of the WAIS-III for use with patients with schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Fuentes Durá, Inmaculada; Romero Peris, María; Dasí Vivó, Carmen; Ruiz Ruiz, Juan Carlos

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study is to obtain a sufficiently guaranteed, abridged, Spanish version of the WAIS-III and thereby reduce the time needed to administer the complete scale. Although the samples used were based both on normal individuals (41 participants with no known history of mental illness) as well as individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia (41 participants), the real focus of the study was the clinical group because this is where the greatest advantages can be obtained by shortening the time to administer the scale. The data demonstrates that the best combination of tests was: Similarities, Picture Completion, Digit Span and Digit Symbol-coding because, with this reduced form, it was possible to obtain a linear correlation between the IQ of the complete scale and that of the abridged form of .91 in the clinical and .86 in the control group. For both groups, the differences between the real IQ averages and the estimated ones were nonsignificant.

  12. Intricate interactions between the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa and foreign genetic elements, revealed by diversified clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) signatures.

    PubMed

    Kuno, Sotaro; Yoshida, Takashi; Kaneko, Takakazu; Sako, Yoshihiko

    2012-08-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) confer sequence-dependent, adaptive resistance in prokaryotes against viruses and plasmids via incorporation of short sequences, called spacers, derived from foreign genetic elements. CRISPR loci are thus considered to provide records of past infections. To describe the host-parasite (i.e., cyanophages and plasmids) interactions involving the bloom-forming freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, we investigated CRISPR in four M. aeruginosa strains and in two previously sequenced genomes. The number of spacers in each locus was larger than the average among prokaryotes. All spacers were strain specific, except for a string of 11 spacers shared in two closely related strains, suggesting diversification of the loci. Using CRISPR repeat-based PCR, 24 CRISPR genotypes were identified in a natural cyanobacterial community. Among 995 unique spacers obtained, only 10 sequences showed similarity to M. aeruginosa phage Ma-LMM01. Of these, six spacers showed only silent or conservative nucleotide mutations compared to Ma-LMM01 sequences, suggesting a strategy by the cyanophage to avert CRISPR immunity dependent on nucleotide identity. These results imply that host-phage interactions can be divided into M. aeruginosa-cyanophage combinations rather than pandemics of population-wide infectious cyanophages. Spacer similarity also showed frequent exposure of M. aeruginosa to small cryptic plasmids that were observed only in a few strains. Thus, the diversification of CRISPR implies that M. aeruginosa has been challenged by diverse communities (almost entirely uncharacterized) of cyanophages and plasmids.

  13. Adaptive Communication: Languages with More Non-Native Speakers Tend to Have Fewer Word Forms

    PubMed Central

    Bentz, Christian; Verkerk, Annemarie; Kiela, Douwe; Hill, Felix; Buttery, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Explaining the diversity of languages across the world is one of the central aims of typological, historical, and evolutionary linguistics. We consider the effect of language contact-the number of non-native speakers a language has-on the way languages change and evolve. By analysing hundreds of languages within and across language families, regions, and text types, we show that languages with greater levels of contact typically employ fewer word forms to encode the same information content (a property we refer to as lexical diversity). Based on three types of statistical analyses, we demonstrate that this variance can in part be explained by the impact of non-native speakers on information encoding strategies. Finally, we argue that languages are information encoding systems shaped by the varying needs of their speakers. Language evolution and change should be modeled as the co-evolution of multiple intertwined adaptive systems: On one hand, the structure of human societies and human learning capabilities, and on the other, the structure of language. PMID:26083380

  14. Muscle Adaptations Following Short-Duration Bed Rest with Integrated Resistance, Interval, and Aerobic Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackney, Kyle J.; Scott, Jessica M.; Buxton, Roxanne; Redd-Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, J. Brent; Everett, Meghan E.; Wickwire, Jason; Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2011-01-01

    Unloading of the musculoskeletal system during space flight results in deconditioning that may impair mission-related task performance in astronauts. Exercise countermeasures have been frequently tested during bed rest (BR) and limb suspension; however, high-intensity, short-duration exercise prescriptions have not been fully explored. PURPOSE: To determine if a high intensity resistance, interval, and aerobic exercise program could protect against muscle atrophy and dysfunction when performed during short duration BR. METHODS: Nine subjects (1 female, 8 male) performed a combination of supine exercises during 2 weeks of horizontal BR. Resistance exercise (3 d / wk) consisted of squat, leg press, hamstring curl, and heel raise exercises (3 sets, 12 repetitions). Aerobic (6 d / wk) sessions alternated continuous (75% VO2 peak) and interval exercise (30 s, 2 min, and 4 min) and were completed on a supine cycle ergometer and vertical treadmill, respectively. Muscle volumes of the upper leg were calculated pre, mid, and post-BR using magnetic resonance imaging. Maximal isometric force (MIF), rate of force development (RFD), and peak power of the lower body extensors were measured twice before BR (averaged to represent pre) and once post BR. ANOVA with repeated measures and a priori planned contrasts were used to test for differences. RESULTS: There were no changes to quadriceps, hamstring, and adductor muscle volumes at mid and post BR time points compared to pre BR (Table 1). Peak power increased significantly from 1614 +/- 372 W to 1739 +/- 359 W post BR (+7.7%, p = 0.035). Neither MIF (pre: 1676 +/- 320 N vs. post: 1711 +/- 250 N, +2.1%, p = 0.333) nor RFD (pre: 7534 +/- 1265 N/ms vs. post: 6951 +/- 1241 N/ms, -7.7%, p = 0.136) were significantly impaired post BR.

  15. Adapting to the Destitute Situations: Poverty Cues Lead to Short-Term Choice

    PubMed Central

    Suo, Tao; Lee, Kang; Li, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Background Why do some people live for the present, whereas others save for the future? The evolutionary framework of life history theory predicts that preference for delay of gratification should be influenced by social economic status (SES). However, here we propose that the decision to choose alternatives in immediate and delayed gratification in poverty environments may have a psychological dimension. Specifically, the perception of environmental poverty cues may induce people alike to favor choices with short-term, likely smaller benefit than choices with long-term, greater benefit. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study was conducted to explore how poverty and affluence cues affected individuals' intertemporal choices. In our first two experiments, individuals exposed explicitly (Experiment 1) and implicitly (Experiment 2) to poverty pictures (the poverty cue) were induced to prefer immediate gratification compared with those exposed to affluence pictures (the affluence cue). Furthermore, by the manipulation of temporary perceptions of poverty and affluence status using a lucky draw game; individuals in the poverty state were more impulsive in a manner, which made them pursue immediate gratification in intertemporal choices (Experiment 3). Thus, poverty cues can lead to short-term choices. Conclusions/Significance Decision makers chose more frequently the sooner-smaller reward over the later-larger reward as they were exposed to the poverty cue. This indicates that it is that just the feeling of poverty influences intertemporal choice – the actual reality of poverty (restricted resources, etc.) is not necessary to get the effect. Furthermore, our findings emphasize that it is a change of the poverty-affluence status, not a trait change, can influence individual preference in intertemporal choice. PMID:22529902

  16. Item Response Theory Analysis and Differential Item Functioning across Age, Gender and Country of a Short Form of the Advanced Progressive Matrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiesi, Francesca; Ciancaleoni, Matteo; Galli, Silvia; Morsanyi, Kinga; Primi, Caterina

    2012-01-01

    Item Response Theory (IRT) models were applied to investigate the psychometric properties of the Arthur and Day's Advanced Progressive Matrices-Short Form (APM-SF; 1994) [Arthur and Day (1994). "Development of a short form for the Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices test." "Educational and Psychological Measurement, 54," 395-403] in order to test…

  17. Short-term adaptive changes in the human vestibulo-ocular reflex arc.

    PubMed

    Gonshor, A; Jones, G M

    1976-04-01

    1. Two sets of experiments have examined the vestibulo-ocular response (VOR) to repeated sinusoidal rotation (A) in the dark and (B) after attempting visual tracking of a mirror-reversed image of the visual surround.2. In both A and B a horizontal sinusoidal rotational stimulus of 1/6 Hz and 60 degrees /sec angular velocity amplitude was employed, specifically chosen to lie within the presumed range of natural stimulation of the semicircular canals.3. In A each of seven subjects underwent ten 2-min runs of the standard stimulus in the dark on each of three consecutive days, with 3-min rest periods between runs. Using d.c. electro-oculography (EOG) the VOR gain was measured throughout as eye velocity/head velocity. Mental arousal was maintained by competitive mental arithmetic. Constancy of EOG gain was assured by 50 min dark adaptation before experimentation.4. The results of A showed no consistent change of VOR gain over the three times scales of a run, a day and the 3-day experiment.5. In B the same subjects underwent a similar pattern of vestibular stimulation, but during eight of the 2-min daily runs they attempted the reversed visual tracking task. VOR gain was measured during the 1st, 6th and last runs which were conducted in the dark for this purpose. Constancy of EOG gain was maintained by using red light throughout.6. The results of B showed a substantial (approx. 25%) and highly significant (P < 0.001) reduction of VOR gain attributable solely to the 16 min of reversed visual tracking attempted during the 50 min daily experiment. In addition the pre-test control gain was lower on day 3 than on day 1 (approx. 10% attenuation, P < 0.01) indicating a small cumulative effect from beginning to end of the 3-day experiment.7. It is concluded (A) that the repeated vestibular stimulus did not itself cause significant attenuation of VOR gain, but (B) that superposition of a reversed visual tracking task did induce retained VOR attenuation which was solely due to

  18. Kinematic, strength, and stiffness adaptations after a short-term sled towing training in athletes.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, P E; Elvira, J L L; Palao, J M

    2014-04-01

    One of the most frequently used methods for training the sprint-specific strength is the sled towing. To date, no studies have been conducted to explore the effects of this method after a training period in well-trained athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 4 weeks of resisted sprint training with sled towing. Twenty-two trained athletes experienced in the use of weighted sled (WS) participated in the study. They conducted the same 3-week training to level their initial condition. After that they were distributed in two groups, unresisted (UR) and WS training. They carried out the same 4-week, 2 days/week sprint-specific training, only differing in that the experimental group performed sprints with a (WS) which caused a reduction of 7.5% of their maximum velocity. Pre- and posttest were conducted which included the measurement of sprint kinematics, muscular strength (including isoinertial, isokinetic, and jump measurements), and sprinting stiffness (leg and vertical). Results show different adaptations in the groups although no interaction effect was found. The WS group improved the velocity in the transition phase, while the UR group improved the velocity in the maximum velocity phase. No improvements in the height of the jump tests were found.

  19. ADP ribosylation adapts an ER chaperone response to short-term fluctuations in unfolded protein load

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Kseniya; Tomba, Giulia; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression programs that regulate the abundance of the chaperone BiP adapt the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to unfolded protein load. However, such programs are slow compared with physiological fluctuations in secreted protein synthesis. While searching for mechanisms that fill this temporal gap in coping with ER stress, we found elevated levels of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)–ribosylated BiP in the inactive pancreas of fasted mice and a rapid decline in this modification in the active fed state. ADP ribosylation mapped to Arg470 and Arg492 in the substrate-binding domain of hamster BiP. Mutations that mimic the negative charge of ADP-ribose destabilized substrate binding and interfered with interdomain allosteric coupling, marking ADP ribosylation as a rapid posttranslational mechanism for reversible inactivation of BiP. A kinetic model showed that buffering fluctuations in unfolded protein load with a recruitable pool of inactive chaperone is an efficient strategy to minimize both aggregation and costly degradation of unfolded proteins. PMID:22869598

  20. Intestinal adaptation in patients with short bowel syndrome. Measurement by calcium absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Gouttebel, M.C.; Saint Aubert, B.; Colette, C.; Astre, C.; Monnier, L.H.; Joyeux, H. )

    1989-05-01

    Functional adaptation of remaining intestine was evaluated in 30 patients with extensive small bowel resection. Calcium and xylose absorption tests were compared. Calcium absorption was measured by a double-radiotracer technique. Serum xylosemia was measured 2 hr after D-xylose ingestion. Patients were divided into two groups according to the time interval between surgery and evaluation: less (group I) or more (group II) than two years. A statistically significant correlation was found between xylosemia and remaining small bowel length (r = 0.71; P less than 0.001) and between calcium absorption and remaining small bowel length (r = 0.75; P less than 0.001) in group I. A significant correlation was also observed between calcium absorption and time after surgery (r = 0.65; P = 0.001) but not for xylose absorption. Calcium absorption value was significantly increased in group II patients compared with group I patients matched for remaining small bowel length (36.2 +/- 12.5% vs 14.5 +/- 9.1%; P less than 0.001) while no difference was observed between the two groups concerning xylose absorption. These data indicate that intestinal calcium absorption continues to increase for more than two years after a major bowel resection in man. The intestine does not seem to recover all its functions at the same time.

  1. [Factor structure and internal consistency of the Spanish version of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Herrero, Angela; Brito de la Nuez, Alfredo G; López Pina, José Antonio; Pérez-López, Julio; Martínez-Fuentes, María Teresa

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. After translating the instrument from English into Spanish using the forward-backward translation method, it was administered to a sample of 129 mothers of children aged between 10 and 39 months olds. The exploratory factor analysis identified two factors: Childrearing Stress and Personal Distress, which accounted for 48.77% of the variance. The internal consistency of these factors was high (Childrearing Stress: .90 and Personal Distress: .87). Implications of these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  2. Spectral indices of cardiovascular adaptations to short-term simulated microgravity exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patwardhan, A. R.; Evans, J. M.; Berk, M.; Grande, K. J.; Charles, J. B.; Knapp, C. F.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the effects of exposure to microgravity on the baseline autonomic balance in cardiovascular regulation using spectral analysis of cardiovascular variables measured during supine rest. Heart rate, arterial pressure, radial flow, thoracic fluid impedance and central venous pressure were recorded from nine volunteers before and after simulated microgravity, produced by 20 hours of 6 degrees head down bedrest plus furosemide. Spectral powers increased after simulated microgravity in the low frequency region (centered at about 0.03 Hz) in arterial pressure, heart rate and radial flow, and decreased in the respiratory frequency region (centered at about 0.25 Hz) in heart rate. Reduced heart rate power in the respiratory frequency region indicates reduced parasympathetic influence on the heart. A concurrent increase in the low frequency power in arterial pressure, heart rate, and radial flow indicates increased sympathetic influence. These results suggest that the baseline autonomic balance in cardiovascular regulation is shifted towards increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic influence after exposure to short-term simulated microgravity.

  3. HD 140283: A STAR IN THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD THAT FORMED SHORTLY AFTER THE BIG BANG

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Howard E.; Nelan, Edmund P.; VandenBerg, Don A.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Harmer, Dianne E-mail: nelan@stsci.edu E-mail: schaefer@chara-array.org

    2013-03-01

    HD 140283 is an extremely metal-deficient and high-velocity subgiant in the solar neighborhood, having a location in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram where absolute magnitude is most sensitive to stellar age. Because it is bright, nearby, unreddened, and has a well-determined chemical composition, this star avoids most of the issues involved in age determinations for globular clusters. Using the Fine Guidance Sensors on the Hubble Space Telescope, we have measured a trigonometric parallax of 17.15 {+-} 0.14 mas for HD 140283, with an error one-fifth of that determined by the Hipparcos mission. Employing modern theoretical isochrones, which include effects of helium diffusion, revised nuclear reaction rates, and enhanced oxygen abundance, we use the precise distance to infer an age of 14.46 {+-} 0.31 Gyr. The quoted error includes only the uncertainty in the parallax, and is for adopted surface oxygen and iron abundances of [O/H] = -1.67 and [Fe/H] = -2.40. Uncertainties in the stellar parameters and chemical composition, especially the oxygen content, now contribute more to the error budget for the age of HD 140283 than does its distance, increasing the total uncertainty to about {+-}0.8 Gyr. Within the errors, the age of HD 140283 does not conflict with the age of the Universe, 13.77 {+-} 0.06 Gyr, based on the microwave background and Hubble constant, but it must have formed soon after the big bang.

  4. Neuromuscular adaptations to short-term high-intensity interval training in female ice hockey players.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Juho-Ville; Piitulainen, Harri; Piirainen, Jarmo M

    2017-03-08

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) related neuromuscular adaptations, changes in force production and on-ice performance were investigated in female ice-hockey players during pre-season. Fourteen Finnish championship level ice hockey players (average age 22 ± 3 years) participated in 2½-week HIIT. Both spinal (H-reflex) and supraspinal (V-wave) neuromuscular responses of the soleus muscle were recorded before and after the training period. Static jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) heights, plantar flexor maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and rate of force development (RFD) were measured. In addition, soleus and tibialis anterior muscles activations (electromyography; EMG) were measured during MVC and RFD tests. During on-ice training, skating speed and acceleration tests were performed. Subjects significantly improved their plantarflexion MVC force (11.6 ± 11.2%, p < 0.001), RFD (15.2 ± 15.9%, p < 0.01) and SJ (4.8 ± 7.6%, p < 0.05). Voluntary motor drive to the soleus muscle (V-wave amplitude) increased by 16.0 ± 15.4% (p < 0.01) and co-activation of tibialis anterior muscle during the plantar flexion RFD test was reduced by -18.9 ± 22.2% (p < 0.05). No change was observed in spinal α-motoneuron excitability (H-reflex) during MVC or in on-ice performance. These results indicate that HIIT can be used to improve athletes' capability to produce maximal and explosive forces, likely through enhanced voluntary activation of their muscles and reduced antagonist co-activation. Therefore, HIIT can be recommended in pre-season training to improve neuromuscular performance. However, a longer than 2½-week HIIT period is needed to improve on-ice performance in female ice-hockey players.

  5. Adaptation of healthy adult cats to select dietary fibers in vivo affects gas and short-chain fatty acid production from fiber fermentation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Barry, K A; Wojcicki, B J; Bauer, L L; Middelbos, I S; Vester Boler, B M; Swanson, K S; Fahey, G C

    2011-10-01

    Nine young adult (1.73 ± 0.03 yr) male cats were used to determine the effects of microbial adaptation to select dietary fiber sources on changes in pH in vitro and on total and hydrogen gas, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), and branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA) production. Cats were adapted to diets containing 4% cellulose, fructooligosaccharides (FOS), or pectin for 30 d before fecal sampling. Each cat was used as a single donor, and fecal inoculum was reacted with each of the aforementioned fiber substrates. Adaptation to dietary FOS resulted in a greater change in pH when exposed to FOS than pectin (adaptation × substrate, P < 0.001). When exposed to the FOS substrate, adaptation to dietary FOS or pectin increased hydrogen gas production (adaptation × substrate, P = 0.021). Adaptation to dietary FOS increased acetate and total SCFA production when exposed to FOS substrate in vitro (adaptation × substrate, P = 0.001). When exposed to the FOS substrate, propionate production tended to increase with adaptation to dietary cellulose (adaptation × substrate, P = 0.060). The BCFA + valerate tended to decrease with adaptation to dietary FOS when exposed to FOS substrate in vitro (adaptation × substrate, P = 0.092). Fructooligosaccharides resulted in the greatest change in pH and production of total gas (P < 0.001), hydrogen gas (P < 0.001), acetate (P < 0.001), propionate (P < 0.001), butyrate (P < 0.001), total SCFA (P < 0.001), and total BCFA + valerate production (P < 0.001). Adaptation to the FOS or pectin diet increased production of hydrogen gas with FOS and pectin substrates. Adaptation to pectin increased (P = 0.033) total gas production with FOS and pectin substrates. Overall, adaptation to either FOS or pectin led to greater SCFA and gas production, but adaptation to FOS resulted in the greatest effect overall.

  6. Proteus virulence: involvement of the pore forming alpha-hemolysin (a short review).

    PubMed

    Tóth, V; Emódy, L

    2000-01-01

    The genus Proteus belongs to the tribe of Proteae in the family of Enterobacteriaceae, and consists of five species: P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris, P. morganii, P. penneri and P. myxofaciens. They are distinguished from the rest of Enterobacteriaceae by their ability to deaminate phenylalanine and tryptophane. They hydrolyze urea and gelatin and fail to ferment lactose, mannose, dulcitol and malonate; and do not form lysine and arginine decarboxylase or beta-galactosidase [1]. Colonies produce distinct "burned chocolate" odor and frequently show the characteristics of swarming motility on solid media. P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris and P. morganii are widely recognized human pathogens. They have been isolated from urinary tract infections, wounds, ear, and nosocomial bacteremic infections, often in immuncompromised patients [2-6]. P. myxofaciens has no clinical interest to this time. P. penneri as species nova was nominated by the recommendation of Hickman and co-workers [7]. Formerly it was recognized as P. vulgaris biogroup 1 or indole negative P. vulgaris [8, 9]. Although it has been less commonly isolated from clinical samples than the other three human pathogenic Proteus species, it has nevertheless been connected with infections of the urinary tract, wounds and has been isolated from the feces of both healthy and diarrheic individuals [10-12]. Potential virulence factors responsible for virulence of Proteae are: IgA protease, urease, type3 fimbriae associated with MR/K haemagglutinins of at least two antigenic types, endotoxin, swarming motility and HlyA and/or HpmA type hemolysins [for review see ref. 13]. In the followings we give a survey of accumulated concepts about the position and characteristics of HlyA type alpha-hemolysins both in general and with emphasis on virulence functions in the tribe of Proteae.

  7. Development and validation of a 30-item short adaptation of the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ).

    PubMed

    Wardenaar, Klaas J; van Veen, Tineke; Giltay, Erik J; de Beurs, Edwin; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Zitman, Frans G

    2010-08-30

    The original Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ) is a 90-item self-report, designed to measure the dimensions of Clark and Watson's tripartite model. We developed and validated a 30-item short adaptation of the MASQ: the MASQ-D30, which is more suitable for large-scale psychopathology research and has a clearer factor structure. The MASQ-D30 was developed through a process of item reduction and grouping of the appropriate subscales in a sample of 489 psychiatric outpatients, using a validated Dutch translation, based on the original English MASQ, as a starting point. Validation was done in two other large samples of 1461 and 2471 subjects, respectively, with an anxiety, somatoform and/or depression diagnosis or no psychiatric diagnosis. Psychometric properties were investigated and compared between the MASQ-D30 and the full (adapted) MASQ. A three-dimensional model (negative affect, positive affect and somatic arousal) was found to represent the data well, indicating good construct validity. The scales of the MASQ-D30 showed good internal consistency (all alphas>0.87) in patient samples. Correlations of the subscales with other instruments indicated acceptable convergent validity. Psychometric properties were similar for the MASQ-D30 and the full questionnaire. In conclusion, the MASQ-D30 is a valid instrument to assess dimensional aspects of depression and anxiety and can easily be implemented in psychopathology studies.

  8. Effect of parenteral nutrition supplemented with short-chain fatty acids on adaptation to massive small bowel resection.

    PubMed

    Koruda, M J; Rolandelli, R H; Settle, R G; Zimmaro, D M; Rombeau, J L

    1988-09-01

    After massive small bowel resection, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is prescribed to maintain nutritional status. However, TPN reduces the mass of the remaining intestinal mucosa, whereas adaptation to small bowel resection is associated with increased mucosal mass. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been shown to stimulate mucosal cell mitotic activity. This study determined whether the addition of SCFAs to TPN following small bowel resection would prevent intestinal mucosal atrophy produced by TPN. Adult rats underwent an 80% small bowel resection and then received either standard TPN or TPN supplemented with SCFAs (sodium acetate, propionate, and butyrate). After 1 wk, jejunal and ileal mucosal weights, deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, and protein contents were measured and compared with the parameters obtained at the time of resection. Animals receiving TPN showed significant loss of jejunal mucosal weight, deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, and protein and ileal mucosal weight and deoxyribonucleic acid after small bowel resection, whereas animals receiving SCFA-supplemented TPN showed no significant change in the jejunal mucosal parameters and a significant increase in ileal mucosal protein. These data demonstrate that SCFA-supplemented TPN reduces the mucosal atrophy associated with TPN after massive bowel resection and thys may facilitate adaptation to small bowel resection.

  9. Behavioural adaptation of laying hens to dilution of diets under mash and pellet form.

    PubMed

    Vilariño, M; Picard, M L; Melcion, J P; Faure, J M

    1996-12-01

    1. Two laying diets, control (A) and a low-energy (B) diet diluted by adding 450 g/kg wheat bran, were fed to semi-heavy hens in three different forms: mash, small pellets and large pellets. The behavioural adaptations and the production characteristics for these six regimens were studied on 72 individually caged hens, between 19 and 29 weeks of age, subjected to a lighting pattern of 14 h light/24 h. 2. Diet B, as mash, showed a lower apparent physical density than the others. The hardness and durability of the pelleted diets were similar. 3. Hens fed the mash diet B could not completely adjust their food intake to compensate for the dilution and showed reduced egg output and body weight gain compared to the other groups. 4. Video observation of each hen for 14 consecutive hours showed that mash-fed hens ate for longer periods than pellet-fed hens during the first 11 h (proportion of time spent eating: 41.3% mash B, 32.5% mash A and 20% to 25% for all the pelleted diets). These differences were less pronounced during the last 3 h of the photoperiod. 5. Trough-oriented stereotypies were noted in 14 out of 22 mash-fed hens and in 12 out of 47 pellet-fed hens. Dilution of the diet did not appear to exacerbate stereotyped behaviours under the conditions of the study. 6. This experiment demonstrates that the feeding behaviour of laying hens is affected by the physical characteristics of the diet and that this may lower their productivity. 7. Low-energy pelleted diets might be used to feed hens efficiently in tropical countries where cereal by-products are abundant.

  10. Differential co-expression of long and short form type IX collagen transcripts during avian limb chondrogenesis in ovo.

    PubMed

    Swiderski, R E; Solursh, M

    1992-05-01

    Using RNA blot analysis of developmentally staged avian limb buds, we demonstrate that transcripts of several cartilage marker genes appear in limb tissue prior to overt chondrogenesis. Type II collagen mRNA, cartilage proteoglycan core protein mRNA, alpha 2(IX) collagen mRNA, and transcripts of the short form alpha 1(IX) collagen chain derived from the downstream promoter are co-expressed in limb tissue approximately 24-36 hours before the appearance of the respective polypeptides in differentiating cartilagenous tissue. Transcripts of the long form alpha 1(IX) collagen chain derived from the upstream promoter appear somewhat later in development; nearly coincident with the immunolocalization of type IX collagen in the cartilage elements of the limb. The spatial distribution of type II and type IX collagen transcripts was analyzed by in situ hybridization. Type II collagen and the long form alpha 1(IX) collagen transcripts co-localized in the chondrogenic elements of the developing forelimb. In contrast, short form alpha 1(IX) collagen transcripts which lack the 5' region encoding the NC4 globular amino-terminal domain were distributed throughout the non-chondrogenic, non-myogenic mesenchymal regions of the limb and were not detectable above background levels in the limb chondrogenic elements. The precocious appearance of several cartilage marker gene transcripts prior to chondrogenesis suggests that multiple levels of gene regulation including alternative promoter use, alternative RNA splicing, alternative polyadenylation, and other post-transcriptional as well as translational mechanisms are active prior to, and during avian limb chondrogenesis.

  11. Exploring issues of personality measurement and structure through the development of a short form of the Eysenck Personality Profiler .

    PubMed

    Petrides, K V; Jackson, Chris J; Furnham, Adrian; Levine, Stephen Z

    2003-12-01

    In this article, we develop a revised short form of the original Eysenck Personality Profiler (EPP; H. J. Eysenck & Wilson, 1991). In addition, we address topics of broad theoretical importance such as the recurrent empirical finding of correlations between conceptually orthogonal personality dimensions and the possibility that gender differences in these dimensions are partly spurious. In Study 1 (N = 227), we demonstrate that the existing short form of the EPP (EPP-SF; H. J. Eysenck, Wilson, & Jackson, 1996) provides a poor fit to the data and we develop a revised well-fitting version. In Study 2, we retest this version on an independent new sample (N = 3,374) where it is again found to fit the data well. We show that most of the structural and measurement parameters of the revised EPP-SF are invariant across genders. Structured means analysis indicated a significant gender difference in Psychoticism, with men scoring higher than women, but no differences in Extraversion or Neuroticism. Our discussion focuses on issues concerning personality measurement and structure, including an examination of the role of confirmatory factor analysis in personality research.

  12. The psychometric development and initial validation of the DCI-A short form for adolescent therapeutic community treatment process.

    PubMed

    Stucky, Brian D; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Vaughan, Christine A; Tucker, Joan S; Butler, Jennifer

    2014-04-01

    The 5-factor client-report Dimensions of Change in Therapeutic Communities Treatment Instrument-Adolescent (DCI-A) was developed to assess adolescent substance abuse treatment process in the therapeutic community (TC). The goal of this study was to use bifactor modeling to derive a unidimensional DCI-A short-form (DCI-A-SF) that would represent content from the original DCI-A factors. Data are from 442 adolescents receiving treatment at one of seven residential TC programs. Bifactor analyses suggested selection of seven DCI-A items to comprise the short form. Three items are from the treatment motivation factor, and one item was selected from each of the remaining four factors. Confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the 7-item DCI-A-SF is strongly unidimensional, and unidimensional IRT analysis of the items indicated good internal consistency. A structural equation model that demonstrates the mediating relationship of DCI-A-SF with other measures, including demographic and pre-treatment characteristics, and subsequent treatment completion, provides preliminary evidence of internal validity.

  13. Psychometric validation of the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in the United States.

    PubMed

    Naegeli, A N; Tomaszewski, E L; Al Sawah, S

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF) in patients with moderate-to-severe systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patients ≥18 years old who self-reported a physician diagnosis of SLE (confirmed by medical record review) and active SLE (Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire (SLAQ) score of ≥11) were included. The BPI-SF and Short Form Health Survey version 2 (SF-36v2) were administered electronically at baseline, week 2 and week 12. Psychometric properties of the BPI-SF were evaluated. Cronbach alphas were >0.9 for all BPI-SF items, domains and total score. Test-retest reliability correlations for responses between baseline and week 2 of the BPI-SF had intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) ≥0.5. The BPI-SF domains and total score were moderately positively correlated to the SLAQ score (r ≥ 0.4), but negatively correlated to the SF-36v2 bodily pain domain (r ≤ -0.6). The BPI-SF domains and total score were moderately negatively correlated to the SF-36v2 physical functioning domain and physical component summary (r ≤ -0.4), with low correlations between the BPI-SF severity domain and SF-36v2 mental component summary (r = -0.16). Assessment of pain, as measured by the BPI-SF, demonstrated validity and reliability in a sample of patients with moderate-to-severe SLE.

  14. Limits on radioactive powered emission associated with a short-hard GRB 070724A in a star-forming galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocevski, Daniel; Thöne, Christina C.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Bloom, Joshua S.; Granot, Jonathan; Butler, Nathaniel R.; Perley, Daniel A.; Modjaz, Maryam; Lee, William H.; Cobb, Bethany E.; Levan, Andrew J.; Tanvir, Nial; Covino, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    We present results of an extensive observing campaign of the short-duration, hard spectrum gamma-ray burst (GRB) 070724A, aimed at detecting the radioactively powered emission that might follow from a binary merger or collapse involving compact objects. Our multiband observations span the range in time over which this so-called Li-Paczyński mini-supernova (mini-SN) could be active, beginning within 3 h of the GRB trigger and represent some of the deepest and most comprehensive searches for such emission. We find no evidence for such activity and place limits on the abundances and the lifetimes of the possible radioactive nuclides that could form in the rapid decompression of nuclear density matter. Furthermore, our limits are significantly fainter than the peak magnitude of any previously detected broad-lined Type Ic SN associated with other GRBs, effectively ruling out a long GRB-like SN for this event. Given the unambiguous redshift of the host galaxy (z = 0.456), GRB 070724A represents one of a small, but growing, number of short-hard GRBs for which firm physical/rest-frame quantities currently exist. The host of GRB 070724A is a moderately star-forming galaxy with an older stellar population component and a relatively high metallicity of 12 + log(O/H)KD02 = 9.1. We find no significant evidence for large amounts of extinction along the line of sight that could mask the presence of an SN explosion and estimate a small probability for chance alignment with the putative host. We discuss how our derived constraints fit into the evolving picture of short-hard GRBs, their potential progenitors and the host environments in which they are thought to be produced.

  15. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  16. Spatiotemporal characteristics of form analysis in the human visual cortex revealed by rapid event-related fMRI adaptation.

    PubMed

    Kourtzi, Zoe; Huberle, Elisabeth

    2005-11-01

    The integration of local elements to coherent forms is at the core of understanding visual perception. Accumulating evidence suggests that both early retinotopic and higher occipitotemporal areas contribute to the integration of local elements to global forms. However, the spatiotemporal characteristics of form analysis in the human visual cortex remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate form analysis at different spatial (global vs. local structure) and temporal (different stimulus presentation rates) scales across stages of visual analysis (from V1 to the lateral occipital complex-LOC) in the human brain. We used closed contours rendered by Gabor elements and manipulated either the global contour structure or the orientation of the local Gabor elements. Our rapid event-related fMRI adaptation studies suggest that contour integration and form processing in early visual areas is transient and limited within the local neighborhood of their cells' receptive field. In contrast, higher visual areas appear to process the perceived global form in a more sustained manner. Finally, we demonstrate that these spatiotemporal properties of form processing in the visual cortex are modulated by attention. Attention to the global form maintains sustained processing in occipitotemporal areas, whereas attention to local elements enhances their integration in early visual areas. These findings provide novel neuroimaging evidence for form analysis at different spatiotemporal scales across human visual areas and validate the use of rapid event-related fMRI adaptation for investigating processing across stages of visual analysis in the human brain.

  17. Structural transformation between long and short-chain form of liquid sulfur from ab initio molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Plašienka, Dušan Martoňák, Roman; Cifra, Peter

    2015-04-21

    We present results of ab initio molecular dynamics study of the structural transformation occurring in hot liquid sulfur under high pressure, which corresponds to the recently observed chain-breakage phenomenon and to the electronic transition reported earlier. The transformation is temperature-induced and separates two distinct polymeric forms of liquid sulfur: high-temperature form composed of short chain-like fragments with open endings and low-temperature form with very long chains. We offer a structural description of the two liquid forms in terms of chain lengths, cross-linking, and chain geometry and investigate several physical properties. We conclude that the transformation is accompanied by changes in energy (but not density) as well as in diffusion coefficient and electronic properties—semiconductor-metal transition. We also describe the analogy of the investigated process to similar phenomena that take place in two other chalcogens selenium and tellurium. Finally, we remark that the behavior of heated liquid sulfur at ambient pressure might indicate a possible existence of a critical point in the low-pressure region of sulfur phase diagram.

  18. Short, Synthetic Cationic Peptides Have Antibacterial Activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis by Forming Pores in Membrane and Synergizing with Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kajal; Singh, Sameer; van Hoek, Monique L.

    2015-01-01

    Multicellular organisms are constantly exposed to a multitude of pathogenic microbes. Infection is inhibited in vivo by the innate and adaptive immune system. Mycobacterium species have emerged that are resistant to most antibiotics. We identified several naturally occurring cationic antimicrobial peptides that were active at low micromolar concentrations against Mycobacterium smegmatis. Human-derived cathelicidin LL-37 is well characterized and studied against M. smegmatis; we compared LL-37 with Chinese cobra-derived cathelicidin NA-CATH and mouse cathelicidin (mCRAMP). Two synthetic 11-residue peptides (ATRA-1A and ATRA-2) containing variations of a repeated motif within NA-CATH were tested for their activity against M. smegmatis along with a short synthetic peptide derivative from the human beta-defensin hBD3 (hBD3-Pep4). We hypothesized that these smaller synthetic peptides may demonstrate antimicrobial effectiveness with shorter length (and at less cost), making them strong potential candidates for development into broad-spectrum antimicrobial compounds or use in combination with antibiotics. These peptides have antimicrobial activity with EC50 ranging from 0.05 to 1.88 μg/mL against Mycobacterium smegmatis. The ATRA-1A short peptide was found to be the most effective antimicrobial peptide (AMP) (EC50 = 0.05 μg/mL). High bactericidal activity correlated with bacterial membrane depolarization and permeabilization activities. The efficacy of the peptides was further analyzed through Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) assays. The MICs were determined by the microdilution method. The peptide mCRAMP showed the best MIC activity at 15.6 μg/mL. Neither of the effective short synthetic peptides demonstrated synergy with the antibiotic rifampicin, although both demonstrated synergy with the cyclic peptide antibiotic polymyxin B. The peptides LL-37 and mCRAMP displayed synergism with rifampicin in MIC assays, whereas antibiotic polymyxin B displayed synergism

  19. Assessing the external correlates of alternative factor models of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-short form across three samples.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shannon Toney; Edens, John F; Vaughn, Michael G

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated various theoretically relevant correlates of a short form of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996) using archival data from large undergraduate, foster care, and juvenile offender samples. External correlates of the 2 primary scales (PPI-I and PPI-II) and the Coldheartedness subscale were for the most part consistent with prior findings. Analyses for an alternate factor model in which the Fearlessness subscale loaded onto PPI-II (rather than PPI-I) resulted in relatively few substantial changes to the pattern of correlations with criterion measures, but a third factor that included the Coldheartedness and Carefree Nonplanfulness subscales functioned differently than Coldheartedness alone in these data.

  20. Initial validation of the Spanish childhood trauma questionnaire-short form: factor structure, reliability and association with parenting.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Ana; Gallardo-Pujol, David; Pereda, Noemí; Arntz, Arnoud; Bernstein, David P; Gaviria, Ana M; Labad, Antonio; Valero, Joaquín; Gutiérrez-Zotes, Jose Alfonso

    2013-05-01

    The present study examines the internal consistency and factor structure of the Spanish version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) and the association between the CTQ-SF subscales and parenting style. Cronbach's α and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were performed in a female clinical sample (n = 185). Kendall's ι correlations were calculated between the maltreatment and parenting scales in a subsample of 109 patients. The Spanish CTQ-SF showed adequate psychometric properties and a good fit of the 5-factor structure. The neglect and abuse scales were negatively associated with parental care and positively associated with overprotection scales. The results of this study provide initial support for the reliability and validity of the Spanish CTQ-SF.

  1. A psychometric analysis of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF) using item response theory.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Andrew; Petrides, K V

    2010-09-01

    Trait emotional intelligence refers to a constellation of emotional self-perceptions located at the lower levels of personality hierarchies. In 2 studies, we sought to examine the psychometric properties of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF; Petrides, 2009) using item response theory (IRT). Study 1 (N= 1,119, 455 men) showed that most items had good discrimination and threshold parameters and high item information values. At the global level, the TEIQue-SF showed very good precision across most of the latent trait range. Study 2 (N= 866, 432 men) used similar IRT techniques in a new sample based on the latest version of the TEIQue-SF (version 1.50). Results replicated Study 1, with the instrument showing good psychometric properties at the item and global level. Overall, the 2 studies suggest the TEIQue-SF can be recommended when a rapid assessment of trait emotional intelligence is required.

  2. Translation and validation of the Hong Kong Chinese version of the breastfeeding self-efficacy scale-short form.

    PubMed

    Ip, Wan-Yim; Yeung, Lai-Shan; Choi, Kai-Chow; Chair, Sek-Ying; Dennis, Cindy-Lee

    2012-10-01

    Healthcare providers do not have a validated instrument to measure breastfeeding self-efficacy among Hong Kong Chinese. In this study, we sought to translate the breastfeeding self-efficacy scale-short form (BSES-SF) into Hong Kong Chinese and to examine the psychometric properties in a sample of 185 breastfeeding mothers. The construct validity of the translated scale was supported by confirmatory factor analysis and known group analysis. The receiver operating characteristics analysis indicated that the total score of the translated scale at 48-72  hours after delivery could be a useful diagnostic tool for identifying mothers likely to discontinue breastfeeding prematurely, before 6 months postpartum. Further research to cross-validate the suggested cut-off value of the scale is recommended.

  3. Multi criteria anisotropic adaptive remeshing for sheet metal forming in FORGE®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perchat, Etienne; François, Guillaume; Coupez, Thierry

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present an innovative automatic adaptive anisotropic remeshing technique that has been introduced in the commercial FEM software FORGE®. It enables the full 3D simulation of industrial applications of parts with a high aspect ratio such as sheets. An anisotropic mesh is generated in order to adapt to the part and tools geometries, and in order to minimize interpolation error on the velocity field and/or on any other user defined function (eg. temperature, strain …). By minimizing the estimated error, the anisotropic adapted meshes provide a highly accurate solution, often better than those obtained on globally-refined isotropic meshes and at a much lower cost due to the small total number of nodes..

  4. Detrended fluctuation analysis and adaptive fractal analysis of stride time data in Parkinson's disease: stitching together short gait trials.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Marietta; Schubert, Patric; Liebherr, Magnus; Haas, Christian T

    2014-01-01

    Variability indicates motor control disturbances and is suitable to identify gait pathologies. It can be quantified by linear parameters (amplitude estimators) and more sophisticated nonlinear methods (structural information). Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) is one method to measure structural information, e.g., from stride time series. Recently, an improved method, Adaptive Fractal Analysis (AFA), has been proposed. This method has not been applied to gait data before. Fractal scaling methods (FS) require long stride-to-stride data to obtain valid results. However, in clinical studies, it is not usual to measure a large number of strides (e.g., [Formula: see text][Formula: see text] strides). Amongst others, clinical gait analysis is limited due to short walkways, thus, FS seem to be inapplicable. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate FS under clinical conditions. Stride time data of five self-paced walking trials ([Formula: see text] strides each) of subjects with PD and a healthy control group (CG) was measured. To generate longer time series, stride time sequences were stitched together. The coefficient of variation (CV), fractal scaling exponents [Formula: see text] (DFA) and [Formula: see text] (AFA) were calculated. Two surrogate tests were performed: A) the whole time series was randomly shuffled; B) the single trials were randomly shuffled separately and afterwards stitched together. CV did not discriminate between PD and CG. However, significant differences between PD and CG were found concerning [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Surrogate version B yielded a higher mean squared error and empirical quantiles than version A. Hence, we conclude that the stitching procedure creates an artificial structure resulting in an overestimation of true [Formula: see text]. The method of stitching together sections of gait seems to be appropriate in order to distinguish between PD and CG with FS. It provides an approach to integrate FS as

  5. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis and Adaptive Fractal Analysis of Stride Time Data in Parkinson's Disease: Stitching Together Short Gait Trials

    PubMed Central

    Liebherr, Magnus; Haas, Christian T.

    2014-01-01

    Variability indicates motor control disturbances and is suitable to identify gait pathologies. It can be quantified by linear parameters (amplitude estimators) and more sophisticated nonlinear methods (structural information). Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) is one method to measure structural information, e.g., from stride time series. Recently, an improved method, Adaptive Fractal Analysis (AFA), has been proposed. This method has not been applied to gait data before. Fractal scaling methods (FS) require long stride-to-stride data to obtain valid results. However, in clinical studies, it is not usual to measure a large number of strides (e.g., strides). Amongst others, clinical gait analysis is limited due to short walkways, thus, FS seem to be inapplicable. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate FS under clinical conditions. Stride time data of five self-paced walking trials ( strides each) of subjects with PD and a healthy control group (CG) was measured. To generate longer time series, stride time sequences were stitched together. The coefficient of variation (CV), fractal scaling exponents (DFA) and (AFA) were calculated. Two surrogate tests were performed: A) the whole time series was randomly shuffled; B) the single trials were randomly shuffled separately and afterwards stitched together. CV did not discriminate between PD and CG. However, significant differences between PD and CG were found concerning and . Surrogate version B yielded a higher mean squared error and empirical quantiles than version A. Hence, we conclude that the stitching procedure creates an artificial structure resulting in an overestimation of true . The method of stitching together sections of gait seems to be appropriate in order to distinguish between PD and CG with FS. It provides an approach to integrate FS as standard in clinical gait analysis and to overcome limitations such as short walkways. PMID:24465708

  6. Short Amplexus Duration in a Territorial Anuran: A Possible Adaptation in Response to Male-Male Competition

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Ming-Feng; Bee, Mark A.; Kam, Yeong-Choy

    2013-01-01

    Mating duration is a reproductive behaviour that can impact fertilization efficiency and offspring number. Previous studies of factors influencing the evolution of mating duration have focused on the potential role of internal sperm competition as an underlying source of selection; most of these studies have been on invertebrates. For vertebrates with external fertilization, such as fishes and frogs, the sources of selection acting on mating duration remain largely unknown due, in part, to the difficulty of observing complete mating behaviours in natural conditions. In this field study, we monitored breeding activity in a population of the territorial olive frog, Rana adenopleura, to identify factors that affect the duration of amplexus. Compared with most other frogs, amplexus was short, lasting less than 11 min on average, which included about 8 min of pre-oviposition activity followed by 3 min of oviposition. We evaluated the relationship between amplexus duration and seven variables: male body size, male condition, operational sex ratio (OSR), population size, clutch size, territory size, and the coverage of submerged vegetation in a male’s territory. We also investigated the influence of these same variables, along with amplexus duration, on fertilization rate. Amplexus duration was positively related with clutch size and the degree of male-bias in the nightly OSR. Fertilization rate was directly related to male body size and inversely related to amplexus duration. Agonistic interactions between males in amplexus and intruding, unpaired males were frequent. These interactions often resulted in mating failure, prolonged amplexus duration, and reduced fertilization rates. Together, the pattern of our findings indicates short amplexus duration in this species may be an adaptive reproductive strategy whereby males attempt to reduce the risks of mating and fertilization failures and territory loss resulting from male-male competition. PMID:24340089

  7. Measuring grief and loss after spinal cord injury: Development, validation and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Grief and Loss item bank and short form

    PubMed Central

    Kalpakjian, Claire Z.; Tulsky, David S.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Bombardier, Charles H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop an item response theory (IRT) calibrated Grief and Loss item bank as part of the Spinal Cord Injury – Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) measurement system. Design A literature review guided framework development of grief/loss. New items were created from focus groups. Items were revised based on expert review and patient feedback and were then field tested. Analyses included confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), graded response IRT modeling and evaluation of differential item functioning (DIF). Setting We tested a 20-item pool at several rehabilitation centers across the United States, including the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital and the James J. Peters/Bronx Department of Veterans Affairs hospital. Participants A total of 717 individuals with SCI answered the grief and loss questions. Results The final calibrated item bank resulted in 17 retained items. A unidimensional model was observed (CFI = 0.976; RMSEA = 0.078) and measurement precision was good (theta range between −1.48 to 2.48). Ten items were flagged for DIF, however, after examination of effect sizes found this to be negligible with little practical impact on score estimates. Conclusions This study indicates that the SCI-QOL Grief and Loss item bank represents a psychometrically robust measurement tool. Short form items are also suggested and computer adaptive tests are available. PMID:26010969

  8. Measuring self-esteem after spinal cord injury: Development, validation and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Self-esteem item bank and short form

    PubMed Central

    Kalpakjian, Claire Z.; Tate, Denise G.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Tulsky, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the development and psychometric properties of the Spinal Cord Injury-Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Self-esteem item bank. Design Using a mixed-methods design, we developed and tested a self-esteem item bank through the use of focus groups with individuals with SCI and clinicians with expertise in SCI, cognitive interviews, and item-response theory- (IRT) based analytic approaches, including tests of model fit, differential item functioning (DIF) and precision. Setting We tested a pool of 30 items at several medical institutions across the United States, including the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation, the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital, and the James J. Peters/Bronx Department of Veterans Affairs hospital. Participants A total of 717 individuals with SCI completed the self-esteem items. Results A unidimensional model was observed (CFI = 0.946; RMSEA = 0.087) and measurement precision was good (theta range between −2.7 and 0.7). Eleven items were flagged for DIF; however, effect sizes were negligible with little practical impact on score estimates. The final calibrated item bank resulted in 23 retained items. Conclusion This study indicates that the SCI-QOL Self-esteem item bank represents a psychometrically robust measurement tool. Short form items are also suggested and computer adaptive tests are available. PMID:26010972

  9. Effectively Coping With Task Stress: A Study of the Validity of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF).

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Peter; Nguyen, Jessica; Anglim, Jeromy

    2016-10-03

    In this study, we investigated the validity of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF; Petrides, 2009) in the context of task-induced stress. We used a total sample of 225 volunteers to investigate (a) the incremental validity of the TEIQue-SF over other predictors of coping with task-induced stress, and (b) the construct validity of the TEIQue-SF by examining the mechanisms via which scores from the TEIQue-SF predict coping outcomes. Results demonstrated that the TEIQue-SF possessed incremental validity over the Big Five personality traits in the prediction of emotion-focused coping. Results also provided support for the construct validity of the TEIQue-SF by demonstrating that this measure predicted adaptive coping via emotion-focused channels. Specifically, results showed that, following a task stressor, the TEIQue-SF predicted low negative affect and high task performance via high levels of emotion-focused coping. Consistent with the purported theoretical nature of the trait emotional intelligence (EI) construct, trait EI as assessed by the TEIQue-SF primarily enhances affect and performance in stressful situations by regulating negative emotions.

  10. Measuring stigma after spinal cord injury: Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Stigma item bank and short form

    PubMed Central

    Kisala, Pamela A.; Tulsky, David S.; Pace, Natalie; Victorson, David; Choi, Seung W.; Heinemann, Allen W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a calibrated item bank and computer adaptive test (CAT) to assess the effects of stigma on health-related quality of life in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Grounded-theory based qualitative item development methods, large-scale item calibration field testing, confirmatory factor analysis, and item response theory (IRT)-based psychometric analyses. Setting Five SCI Model System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center in the United States. Participants Adults with traumatic SCI. Main Outcome Measures SCI-QOL Stigma Item Bank Results A sample of 611 individuals with traumatic SCI completed 30 items assessing SCI-related stigma. After 7 items were iteratively removed, factor analyses confirmed a unidimensional pool of items. Graded Response Model IRT analyses were used to estimate slopes and thresholds for the final 23 items. Conclusions The SCI-QOL Stigma item bank is unique not only in the assessment of SCI-related stigma but also in the inclusion of individuals with SCI in all phases of its development. Use of confirmatory factor analytic and IRT methods provide flexibility and precision of measurement. The item bank may be administered as a CAT or as a 10-item fixed-length short form and can be used for research and clinical applications. PMID:26010973

  11. Comparisons of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and viromes in human saliva reveal bacterial adaptations to salivary viruses.

    PubMed

    Pride, David T; Salzman, Julia; Relman, David A

    2012-09-01

    Explorations of human microbiota have provided substantial insight into microbial community composition; however, little is known about interactions between various microbial components in human ecosystems. In response to the powerful impact of viral predation, bacteria have acquired potent defences, including an adaptive immune response based on the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs)/Cas system. To improve our understanding of the interactions between bacteria and their viruses in humans, we analysed 13 977 streptococcal CRISPR sequences and compared them with 2 588 172 virome reads in the saliva of four human subjects over 17 months. We found a diverse array of viruses and CRISPR spacers, many of which were specific to each subject and time point. There were numerous viral sequences matching CRISPR spacers; these matches were highly specific for salivary viruses. We determined that spacers and viruses coexist at the same time, which suggests that streptococcal CRISPR/Cas systems are under constant pressure from salivary viruses. CRISPRs in some subjects were just as likely to match viral sequences from other subjects as they were to match viruses from the same subject. Because interactions between bacteria and viruses help to determine the structure of bacterial communities, CRISPR-virus analyses are likely to provide insight into the forces shaping the human microbiome.

  12. Commuters' Eye Contact with Strangers in City and Suburban Train Stations: Evidence of Short-Term Adaptation to Interpersonal Overload in the City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley, Clark; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Experimenters attempted to make eye contact with commuters as they approached an express train linking city and suburb. Results support the hypothesis that reduced eye contact with strangers in the city is a short-term adaptation to interpersonal overload. (Author)

  13. Genomic signatures of adaptation to wine biological ageing conditions in biofilm-forming flor yeasts.

    PubMed

    Coi, A L; Bigey, F; Mallet, S; Marsit, S; Zara, G; Gladieux, P; Galeote, V; Budroni, M; Dequin, S; Legras, J L

    2017-02-13

    The molecular and evolutionary processes underlying fungal domestication remain largely unknown despite the importance of fungi to bioindustry and for comparative adaptation genomics in eukaryotes. Wine fermentation and biological ageing are performed by strains of S. cerevisiae with, respectively, pelagic fermentative growth on glucose and biofilm aerobic growth utilizing ethanol. Here, we use environmental samples of wine and flor yeasts to investigate the genomic basis of yeast adaptation to contrasted anthropogenic environments. Phylogenetic inference and population structure analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms revealed a group of flor yeasts separated from wine yeasts. A combination of methods revealed several highly differentiated regions between wine and flor yeasts, and analyses using codon-substitution models for detecting molecular adaptation identified sites under positive selection in the high-affinity transporter gene ZRT1. The cross-population composite likelihood ratio revealed selective sweeps at three regions, including in the hexose transporter gene HXT7, the yapsin gene YPS6 and the membrane protein coding gene MTS27. Our analyses also revealed that the biological ageing environment has led to the accumulation of numerous mutations in proteins from several networks, including Flo11 regulation and divalent metal transport. Together, our findings suggest that the tuning of FLO11 expression and zinc transport networks are a distinctive feature of the genetic changes underlying the domestication of flor yeasts. Our study highlights the multiplicity of genomic changes underlying yeast adaptation to man-made habitats and reveals that flor/wine yeast lineage can serve as a useful model for studying the genomics of adaptive divergence.

  14. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  15. Development and initial validation of a scale for detecting inconsistent responding on the personality assessment inventory-short form.

    PubMed

    Siefert, Caleb J; Stein, Michelle; Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Antonius, Daniel; Shiva, Andrew; Blais, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was the development of an inconsistency scale (ICN-SF) for the personality assessment inventory-short form (PAI-SF). In Study 1, 503 inpatient profiles were randomly assigned to a derivation or cross-validation sample. Ten correlated item pairs were identified using the derivation sample and placed on the ICN-SF. Psychometric properties of the ICN-SF total scores were comparable in the derivation and cross-validation samples. Total ICN-SF scores in both samples were significantly lower than scores obtained from computer-generated random samples. Diagnostic efficiency statistics are reported using multiple cut-off scores at various base rate estimates. ICN-SF scores greater than 8 reasonably balanced sensitivity and specificity rates. This cutoff correctly classified 92% of the random protocols and inaccurately classified 9% of the patient protocols in study 1. In study 2, PAI-SF scores from 627 forensic and civil inpatients produced similar results, effectively identifying cases with elevated scores on the full-form inconsistency scale. Overall the results of both studies suggest that the ICN-SF can aid examiners in assessing for inconsistent responding.

  16. Development of short-form and screening cutoff point of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI-SF).

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Pan, Yuan-Chien; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan; Chen, Sue-Huei

    2016-09-23

    Smartphone addiction is considered a form of technological addiction that has attracted increasing attention. The present study developed and validated the short-form Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI-SF) and established cutoff point for screening smartphone addiction based on diagnostic criteria established by psychiatric interview. A total of 268 participants completed an online survey that collected demographic data, smartphone use behaviours, and responses to the 26-item SPAI. Each participant also completed a psychiatric interview. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed that the 10-item SPAI-SF replicated the structure of original 26-item SPAI accurately, yielding a four-factor model consisting of compulsive behaviour, functional impairment, withdrawal, and tolerance. For maximal diagnostic accuracy, a cutoff point of 24/25 best discriminated cases of smartphone addiction from diagnostic negatives. The present findings suggest that both the 26-item SPAI and SPAI-SF manifest the four constructs of behavioural addiction and the characteristics of smartphone addiction. The cutoff point determined by psychiatrists' diagnostic interview will be useful for clinical screening and epidemiologic research.

  17. Constructing a short form of the hierarchical personality inventory for children (HiPIC): the HiPIC-30.

    PubMed

    Vollrath, Margarete E; Hampson, Sarah E; Torgersen, Svenn

    2016-05-01

    Children's personality traits are invaluable predictors of concurrent and later mental and physical health. Several validated longer inventories for assessing the widely recognized Five-Factor Model of personality in children are available, but short forms are scarce. This study aimed at constructing a 30-item form of the 144-item Hierarchical Personality Inventory for Children (HiPIC) (Mervielde & De Fruyt, ). Participants were 1543 children aged 6-12 years (sample 1) and 3895 children aged 8 years (sample 2). Sample 1 completed the full HiPIC, from which we constructed the HiPIC-30, and the Child Behaviour Checklist (Achenbach, ). Sample 2 completed the HiPIC-30. The HiPIC-30 personality domains correlated over r = .90 with the full HiPIC domains, had good Cronbach's alphas and correlated similarly with CBCL behaviour problems and gender as the full HiPIC. The factor structures of the HiPIC-30 were convergent across samples, but the imagination factor was not clear-cut. We conclude that the HiPIC-30 is a reliable and valid questionnaire for the Five-Factor personality traits in children. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Adaptive fuzzy decentralised control for stochastic nonlinear large-scale systems in pure-feedback form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Shaocheng; Xu, Yinyin; Li, Yongming

    2015-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of adaptive fuzzy decentralised output-feedback control for a class of uncertain stochastic nonlinear pure-feedback large-scale systems with completely unknown functions, the mismatched interconnections and without requiring the states being available for controller design. With the help of fuzzy logic systems approximating the unknown nonlinear functions, a fuzzy state observer is designed estimating the unmeasured states. Therefore, the nonlinear filtered signals are incorporated into the backstepping recursive design, and an adaptive fuzzy decentralised output-feedback control scheme is developed. It is proved that the filter system converges to a small neighbourhood of the origin based on appropriate choice of the design parameters. Simulation studies are included illustrating the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  19. Gravity and the Adaptation of Form and Function in Lower Vertebrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillywhite, Harvey B.

    1994-01-01

    Comparative data emphasizing lower vertebrates will be used to justify the following generalized conclusions or expectations: 1) Gravitational stress produces adaptive increases in arterial pressure. 2) Gravitational stress produces adaptive reorganization of anatomy. 3) Natural selection favors small body size in high G-stress environments. 4) Gravitational stress produces low-compliant perivascular tissues (morphological antigravity suit). 5) Gradients or regional zonation of vascular characters evolve along the length of elongate vertebrates living in high G-stress environments. Presentation of information will include new data gathered by the author and Dr. Alan Hargens while the author was a NRC Senior Research Associate at NASA Ames Research Center. While there is no published abstract provided at the meeting, a symposium manuscript will be published in a special volume of Journal of Experimental Zoology.

  20. Optimization of Prime-Boost Vaccination Strategies Against Mouse-Adapted Ebolavirus in a Short-Term Protection Study.

    PubMed

    Aviles, Jenna; Bello, Alexander; Wong, Gary; Fausther-Bovendo, Hugues; Qiu, Xiangguo; Kobinger, Gary

    2015-10-01

    In nonhuman primates, complete protection against an Ebola virus (EBOV) challenge has previously been achieved after a single injection with several vaccine platforms. However, long-term protection against EBOV after a single immunization has not been demonstrated to this date. Interestingly, prime-boost regimens have demonstrated longer protection against EBOV challenge, compared with single immunizations. Since prime-boost regimens have the potential to achieve long-term protection, determining optimal vector combinations is crucial. However, testing prime-boost efficiency in long-term protection studies is time consuming and resource demanding. Here, we investigated the optimal prime-boost combination, using DNA, porcine-derived adeno-associated virus serotype 6 (AAV-po6), and human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vector, in a short-term protection study in the mouse model of EBOV infection. In addition, we also investigated which immune parameters were indicative of a strong boost. Each vaccine platform was titrated in mice to identify which dose (single immunization) induced approximately 20% protection after challenge with a mouse-adapted EBOV. These doses were then used to determine the protection efficacy of various prime-boost combinations, using the same mouse model. In addition, humoral and cellular immune responses against EBOV glycoprotein were analyzed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, a neutralizing antibody assay, and an interferon γ-specific enzyme-linked immunospot assay. When DNA was used as a prime, Ad5 boost induced the best protection, which correlated with a higher cellular response. In contrast, when AAV-po6 or Ad5 were injected first, better protection was achieved after DNA boost, and this correlated with a higher total glycoprotein-specific immunoglobulin G titer. Prime-boost regimens using independent vaccine platforms may provide a useful strategy to induce long-term immune protection against filoviruses.

  1. Psychometric Evaluation and Cultural Correlates of the Mate Retention Inventory-Short Form (MRI-SF) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Atari, Mohammad; Barbaro, Nicole; Shackelford, Todd K; Chegeni, Razieh

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the psychometric properties of the Persian translation of the Mate Retention Inventory-Short Form (MRI-SF) in Iran. We also investigated sex differences in the use of mate retention tactics and investigated the relationships between mate retention behaviors and a number of related cultural constructs. Participants ( N = 308) ranged in age from 18 to 57 years. All participants were in a committed romantic relationship, with mean relationship length of 63.5 months ( SD = 73.8). Participants completed the Persian translation of the MRI-SF and measures of religiosity, relationship satisfaction, self-esteem, and socioeconomic status. Cultural measures specific to Iran were also included, such as Mahr (for married individuals), self-perceived Qeiratiness (for men), and self-perceived jealousy (for women). Mahr is a mandatory amount of money or possessions paid or promised to be paid by the groom to the bride at the time of the marriage contract. Qeirati is a male-specific adjective in Persian meaning protective against unwanted attention toward a man's romantic partner. Female jealousy is usually regarded the counterpart of male Qeiratiness in Iranian culture. The 19 mate retention tactics formed a two-component structure, consistent with previous research. Results demonstrate adequate internal consistency of 2-item assessments of mate retention tactics. Observed sex differences accorded with previous mate retention research and are discussed in reference to evolutionary perspectives on human mating. Several significant associations emerged between mate retention tactics and Iranian culture-specific variables and are discussed from a cross-cultural perspective.

  2. SHORT-LIVED STAR-FORMING GIANT CLUMPS IN COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS OF z Almost-Equal-To 2 DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Genel, Shy; Genzel, Reinhard; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Naab, Thorsten; Oser, Ludwig; Sternberg, Amiel; Johansson, Peter H.; Dave, Romeel; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Burkert, Andreas E-mail: genzel@mpe.mpg.de E-mail: amiel@wise.tau.ac.il E-mail: oser@usm.lmu.de E-mail: phjohans@astro.helsinki.fi E-mail: oppenheimer@strw.leidenuniv.nl

    2012-01-20

    Many observed massive star-forming z Almost-Equal-To 2 galaxies are large disks that exhibit irregular morphologies, with Almost-Equal-To 1 kpc, Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10}M{sub o-dot} clumps. We present the largest sample to date of high-resolution cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations that zoom-in on the formation of individual M{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 10.5}M{sub o-dot} galaxies in Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 12}M{sub o-dot} halos at z Almost-Equal-To 2. Our code includes strong stellar feedback parameterized as momentum-driven galactic winds. This model reproduces many characteristic features of this observed class of galaxies, such as their clumpy morphologies, smooth and monotonic velocity gradients, high gas fractions (f{sub g} Almost-Equal-To 50%), and high specific star formation rates ({approx}>1 Gyr{sup -1}). In accord with recent models, giant clumps (M{sub clump} Almost-Equal-To (5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8}-10{sup 9})M{sub o-dot}) form in situ via gravitational instabilities. However, the galactic winds are critical for their subsequent evolution. The giant clumps we obtain are short-lived and are disrupted by wind-driven mass loss. They do not virialize or migrate to the galaxy centers as suggested in recent work neglecting strong winds. By phenomenologically implementing the winds that are observed from high-redshift galaxies and in particular from individual clumps, our simulations reproduce well new observational constraints on clump kinematics and clump ages. In particular, the observation that older clumps appear closer to their galaxy centers is reproduced in our simulations, as a result of inside-out formation of the disks rather than inward clump migration.

  3. Genetic dissection of adaptive form and function in rapidly-speciating cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Henning, Frederico; Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Baumgarten, Lukas; Meyer, Axel

    2017-02-17

    Genes of major phenotypic effects and strong genetic correlations can facilitate adaptation, direct selective responses and potentially lead to phenotypic convergence. However, the preponderance of this type of genetic architecture in repeatedly-evolved adaptations remains unknown. Using hybrids between Haplochromis chilotes (thick-lipped) and H. nyererei (thin-lipped) we investigated the genetics underlying hypertrophied lips and elongated heads, traits that evolved repeatedly in cichlids. At least 25 loci of small-to-moderate and mainly additive effects were detected. Phenotypic variation in lip and head morphology was largely independent. Although several QTL overlapped for lip and head morphology traits, they were often of opposite effects. The distribution of effect signs suggests strong selection on lips. The fitness implications of several detected loci were demonstrated using a laboratory assay testing for the association between genotype and variation in foraging performance. The persistence of low fitness alleles in head morphology appears to be maintained through antagonistic pleiotropy/close linkage with positive-effect lip morphology alleles. Rather than being based on few major loci with strong positive genetic correlations, our results indicate that the evolution of the Lake Victoria thick-lipped ecomorph is the result of selection on numerous loci distributed throughout the genome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Adaptive Memory: Evaluating Alternative Forms of Fitness-Relevant Processing in the Survival Processing Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Sandry, Joshua; Trafimow, David; Marks, Michael J.; Rice, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Memory may have evolved to preserve information processed in terms of its fitness-relevance. Based on the assumption that the human mind comprises different fitness-relevant adaptive mechanisms contributing to survival and reproductive success, we compared alternative fitness-relevant processing scenarios with survival processing. Participants rated words for relevancy to fitness-relevant and control conditions followed by a delay and surprise recall test (Experiment 1a). Participants recalled more words processed for their relevance to a survival situation. We replicated these findings in an online study (Experiment 2) and a study using revised fitness-relevant scenarios (Experiment 3). Across all experiments, we did not find a mnemonic benefit for alternative fitness-relevant processing scenarios, questioning assumptions associated with an evolutionary account of remembering. Based on these results, fitness-relevance seems to be too wide-ranging of a construct to account for the memory findings associated with survival processing. We propose that memory may be hierarchically sensitive to fitness-relevant processing instructions. We encourage future researchers to investigate the underlying mechanisms responsible for survival processing effects and work toward developing a taxonomy of adaptive memory. PMID:23585858

  5. Gravity, blood circulation, and the adaptation of form and function in lower vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Lillywhite, H B

    Gravitational force influences musculoskeletal systems, fluid distribution, and hydrodynamics of the circulation, especially in larger terrestrial vertebrates. The disturbance to hydrodynamics and distribution of body fluids relates largely to the effects of hydrostatic pressure gradients acting in vertical blood columns. These, in turn, are linked to the evolution of adaptive countermeasures involving modifications of structure and function. Comparative studies of snakes suggest there are four generalizations concerning adaptive countermeasures to gravity stress that seem relevant to lower vertebrates generally. First, increasing levels of regulated arterial blood pressure are expected to evolve with some relation to gravitational stresses incurred by the effects of height and posture on vertical blood columns above the heart. Second, aspects of gross anatomical organization are expected to evolve in relation to gravitational influence incurred by habitat and behavior. Third, natural selection coupled to gravitational stresses has favored morphological features that reduce the compliance of perivascular tissues and provide an anatomical "antigravity suit." Fourth, natural selection has produced gradients or regional differences of vascular characteristics in tall or elongated vertebrates that are active in high gravity stress environments. Consideration or awareness of these principles should be incorporated into interpretations of structure and function in lower vertebrates.

  6. The Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) in the Argentinean Context: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Measurement Invariance.

    PubMed

    Lupano Perugini, María Laura; de la Iglesia, Guadalupe; Castro Solano, Alejandro; Keyes, Corey Lee M

    2017-03-01

    The present research aimed at studying the psychometric properties of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF; Keyes, 2005) in a sample of 1,300 Argentinean adults (50% males; 50% females). Their mean age was 40.28 years old (SD = 13.59). The MHC-SF is a 14 item test that assesses three components (i.e., emotional, social, and psychological) of well-being. Convergent and divergent evidence of construct validity was assessed by conducting confirmatory factor analysis, cross-validation, factorial invariance, and correlations with external criteria. Internal consistency was studied using Cronbach's alphas. Results indicated an adequate fit of a three-dimensional model. This structure was also confirmed, and was invariant throughout sex and age. The emotional well-being scores converged with life satisfaction and positive affect measures; the psychological well-being scale had a positive association with the presence of meaning in life; and the social well-being scores showed a positive and strong correlation with an external measure of well-being. Also, all scores were negatively associated with negative affect, search of meaning in life, and presence of depression symptoms. Internal consistency was .89 for the MHC-SF. Furthermore, the findings supported the two - continua model of mental health.

  7. Validation of the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale - Short-Form (IGDS9-SF) in an Italian-speaking sample.

    PubMed

    Monacis, Lucia; Palo, Valeria de; Griffiths, Mark D; Sinatra, Maria

    2016-12-01

    Background and aims The inclusion of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in Section III of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders has increased the interest of researchers in the development of new standardized psychometric tools for the assessment of such a disorder. To date, the nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale - Short-Form (IGDS9-SF) has only been validated in English, Portuguese, and Slovenian languages. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to examine the psychometric properties of the IGDS9-SF in an Italian-speaking sample. Methods A total of 757 participants were recruited to the present study. Confirmatory factor analysis and multi-group analyses were applied to assess the construct validity. Reliability analyses comprised the average variance extracted, the standard error of measurement, and the factor determinacy coefficient. Convergent and criterion validities were established through the associations with other related constructs. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine an empirical cut-off point. Results Findings confirmed the single-factor structure of the instrument, its measurement invariance at the configural level, and the convergent and criterion validities. Satisfactory levels of reliability and a cut-off point of 21 were obtained. Discussion and conclusions The present study provides validity evidence for the use of the Italian version of the IGDS9-SF and may foster research into gaming addiction in the Italian context.

  8. A critical evaluation of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) in a head start population.

    PubMed

    Reitman, David; Currier, Rebecca O; Stickle, Timothy R

    2002-09-01

    Examines psychometric characteristics of the 36-item Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) in a low-income, predominantly minority population. Relations between the PSI-SF, demographic, and psychosocial factors associated with parenting stress were examined. Internal consistencies for the PSI-SF were very good to excellent. However, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that a 3-factor model comprised of Parental Distress, Difficult Child, and Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction subscales was only marginally superior to a single-factor model. A series of multiple regression analyses examining the relation of psychosocial and demographic measures to PSI-SF subscales were more supportive of the 3-factor model proposed by Abidin (1995). As anticipated, the PSI-SF Difficult Child subscale was most strongly associated with a measure of child oppositionality, and the Parental Distress subscale was most highly associated with self-reported psychological symptoms and low income. Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction was associated with parent reports of psychological symptoms as well as low income and education. The results appear to support the use of the PSI-SF with lower socioeconomic, primarily African American mothers. Additionally, the data provide indirect support for the generalizability of a 3-factor model of parenting stress.

  9. Factor analysis of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form with parents of young children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Mirenda, Pat; Zumbo, Bruno D; Georgiades, Stelios; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Roberts, Wendy; Smith, Isabel; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Duku, Eric; Thompson, Ann

    2011-10-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the underlying factor structure of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) in a large cohort of parents of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A secondary goal was to examine relationships between PSI-SF factors and autism severity, child behavior problems, and parental mental health variables that have been shown to be related to parental stress in previous research. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine the three-factor structure described in the PSI-SF manual [Abidin, 1995]: parental distress, parent-child dysfunctional interaction, and difficult child. Results of the CFA indicated that the three-factor structure was unacceptable when applied to the study sample. Thus, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted and suggested a six-factor model as the best alternative for the PSI-SF index. Spearman's correlations revealed significant positive correlations with moderate to large effect sizes between the revised PSI-SF factors and autism severity, externalizing and internalizing child behaviors, and an index of parent mental health. The revised factors represent more narrowly defined aspects of the three original subscales of the PSI-SF and might prove to be advantageous in both research and clinical applications. Autism Res 2011,4:336-346. © 2011 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Toward a brief multidimensional assessment of emotional intelligence: psychometric properties of the Emotional Quotient Inventory-Short Form.

    PubMed

    Parker, James D A; Keefer, Kateryna V; Wood, Laura M

    2011-09-01

    Although several brief instruments are available for the emotional intelligence (EI) construct, their conceptual coverage tends to be quite limited. One notable exception is the short form of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i:S), which measures multiple EI dimensions in addition to a global EI index. Despite the unique advantage offered by the inventory, psychometric properties of the EQ-i:S scores have not yet been systematically evaluated. Such an evaluation was the main goal of the present investigation. Using data from 2,508 undergraduates, the authors conducted 2 studies involving factor structure, internal reliability, 6-month temporal stability, and construct validity of the EQ-i:S responses, both for the total EQ scale and for each constituent dimension. The results supported the multidimensional measurement structure of the EQ-i:S, with each dimension producing internally consistent, temporally stable, and theoretically meaningful responses. Scores on the EQ-i:S were associated more strongly with performance on an ability test of EI and with a conceptually similar construct of alexithymia than with the broader dimensions of basic personality and explained nontrivial amounts of incremental variance in the criterion symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Moreover, scores on each EQ-i:S dimension exhibited unique patterns of associations with the validation variables. The discussion highlights the advantages of the multidimensional approach in the assessment and study of EI.

  11. Factor structure and item level psychometrics of the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised: Short Form in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Chih-Ying; Waid-Ebbs, Julia; Velozo, Craig A; Heaton, Shelley C

    2016-01-01

    Social problem-solving deficits characterise individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI), and poor social problem solving interferes with daily functioning and productive lifestyles. Therefore, it is of vital importance to use the appropriate instrument to identify deficits in social problem solving for individuals with TBI. This study investigates factor structure and item-level psychometrics of the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised: Short Form (SPSI-R:S), for adults with moderate and severe TBI. Secondary analysis of 90 adults with moderate and severe TBI who completed the SPSI-R:S was performed. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA), principal components analysis (PCA) and Rasch analysis examined the factor structure and item-level psychometrics of the SPSI-R:S. The EFA showed three dominant factors, with positively worded items represented as the most definite factor. The other two factors are negative problem-solving orientation and skills; and negative problem-solving emotion. Rasch analyses confirmed the three factors are each unidimensional constructs. It was concluded that the total score interpretability of the SPSI-R:S may be challenging due to the multidimensional structure of the total measure. Instead, we propose using three separate SPSI-R:S subscores to measure social problem solving for the TBI population.

  12. Validity and reliability of the Very Short form of the Physical Self-Inventory among Turkish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Aşçi, F Hülya; Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Çağlar, Emine; Bilgili, Naile

    2016-11-25

    The study aimed to test the validity and reliability of the Very Short form of the Physical Self-Inventory (PSI-VS) among a sample of 635 Turkish adolescents. These adolescents have completed the 12 original items of the PSI-VS, plus a positively worded reformulation of the single reverse-keyed item of the physical attractiveness subscale. A series of confirmatory factor analyses was used to examine the psychometric properties of the original and modified versions of the PSI-VS. Findings revealed superior psychometric properties with the modified version than with the original set of items. The modified version was thus subsequently used to examine its factor structure invariance across sexes, age groups and sport practice involvement. Results not only report that this version was fully invariant across, but also that latent means were significantly different across sexes and sport practice involvement. In sum, the Turkish modified version of the PSI-VS presents acceptable psychometric properties and may be used to repeatedly and/or intensively assess participants' physical self-perceptions in the context of sport and exercise interventions.

  13. Validation of the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale – Short-Form (IGDS9-SF) in an Italian-speaking sample

    PubMed Central

    Monacis, Lucia; de Palo, Valeria; Griffiths, Mark D.; Sinatra, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims The inclusion of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in Section III of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders has increased the interest of researchers in the development of new standardized psychometric tools for the assessment of such a disorder. To date, the nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale – Short-Form (IGDS9-SF) has only been validated in English, Portuguese, and Slovenian languages. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to examine the psychometric properties of the IGDS9-SF in an Italian-speaking sample. Methods A total of 757 participants were recruited to the present study. Confirmatory factor analysis and multi-group analyses were applied to assess the construct validity. Reliability analyses comprised the average variance extracted, the standard error of measurement, and the factor determinacy coefficient. Convergent and criterion validities were established through the associations with other related constructs. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine an empirical cut-off point. Results Findings confirmed the single-factor structure of the instrument, its measurement invariance at the configural level, and the convergent and criterion validities. Satisfactory levels of reliability and a cut-off point of 21 were obtained. Discussion and conclusions The present study provides validity evidence for the use of the Italian version of the IGDS9-SF and may foster research into gaming addiction in the Italian context. PMID:27876422

  14. The Mental Health Continuum–Short Form (MHC–SF) in the Argentinean Context: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Measurement Invariance

    PubMed Central

    Lupano Perugini, María Laura; de la Iglesia, Guadalupe; Castro Solano, Alejandro; Keyes, Corey Lee M.

    2017-01-01

    The present research aimed at studying the psychometric properties of the Mental Health Continuum–Short Form (MHC–SF; Keyes, 2005) in a sample of 1,300 Argentinean adults (50% males; 50% females). Their mean age was 40.28 years old (SD = 13.59). The MHC–SF is a 14 item test that assesses three components (i.e., emotional, social, and psychological) of well-being. Convergent and divergent evidence of construct validity was assessed by conducting confirmatory factor analysis, cross-validation, factorial invariance, and correlations with external criteria. Internal consistency was studied using Cronbach’s alphas. Results indicated an adequate fit of a three-dimensional model. This structure was also confirmed, and was invariant throughout sex and age. The emotional well-being scores converged with life satisfaction and positive affect measures; the psychological well-being scale had a positive association with the presence of meaning in life; and the social well-being scores showed a positive and strong correlation with an external measure of well-being. Also, all scores were negatively associated with negative affect, search of meaning in life, and presence of depression symptoms. Internal consistency was .89 for the MHC–SF. Furthermore, the findings supported the two - continua model of mental health. PMID:28344677

  15. The Internal Structure of Responses to the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form: An Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Perera, Harsha N

    2015-01-01

    Notwithstanding the wide use of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF) as a brief assessment of trait emotional intelligence (TEI), the psychometric properties of this measure have not been systematically examined. This article reports on research conducted to evaluate the latent structure underlying TEIQue-SF item data and test the gender invariance of scores as critical initial steps in determining the psychometric robustness of the inventory. In doing so, the article demonstrates an application of exploratory structural equation modeling as an alternative to the more restrictive independent clusters model of confirmatory factor analysis for examining factorially complex personality data. On the basis of 476 responses to the TEIQue-SF, evidence was obtained for the multidimensionality of the inventory reflected in a retained correlated traits solution. Tests of gender invariance revealed equivalence of item factor loadings, intercepts, uniquenesses, correlated uniquenesses, and the factor variance-covariance matrix, but not latent means. Men were found to be moderately higher on self-control and sociability than women, whereas women scored marginally higher on emotionality than men. No significant gender differences were found on mean levels of well-being. The benefits of the multidimensionality of the TEIQue-SF, limitations of the study, and directions for future research are discussed.

  16. Psychometric properties of the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised Short-Form in a South African population.

    PubMed

    Sorsdahl, Katherine; Stein, Dan J; Myers, Bronwyn

    2017-04-01

    The Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised Short-Form (SPSI-R:SF) has been used in several countries to identify problem-solving deficits among clinical and general populations in order to guide cognitive-behavioural interventions. Yet, very few studies have evaluated its psychometric properties. Three language versions of the questionnaire were administered to a general population sample comprising 1000 participants (771 English-, 178 Afrikaans- and 101 Xhosa-speakers). Of these participants, 210 were randomly selected to establish test-retest reliability (70 in each language). Principal component analysis was performed to examine the applicability of the factor structure of the original questionnaire to the South African data. Supplementary psychometric analyses were performed, including internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Collectively, results provide initial evidence of the reliability and validity of the SPSI-R:SF for the assessment of problem solving deficits in South Africa. Further studies that explore how the Afrikaans language version of the SPSI-R:SF can be improved and that establish the predictive validity of scores on the SPSI-R:SF are needed.

  17. Psychometrics Properties of Early Trauma Inventory Self Report – Short Form (ETISR-SR) for the Brazilian Context

    PubMed Central

    Osório, Flávia L.; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Donadon, Mariana Fortunata; Forni-dos-Santos, Larissa; Loureiro, Sonia Regina; Crippa, José Alexandre S.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to translate and validate Early Trauma Inventory Self Report -Short Form (ETISR-SF) to Brazilian Portuguese. 253 adult subjects answered the ETISR-SF, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST). The instrument showed good internal consistency (0.83). Correlations with the PHQ-9 and BAI were moderate (r=0.26-0.47) and showed the expected associations with psychiatric constructs. No associations were found for FTND and FAST. Confirmatory Factor Analysis revealed that a correlated four-factor model as well as a second order model subsuming four lower order components presented the best model fit. Test-retest reliability was also excellent (ICC=0.78-0.90). ETISR-SF is suitable for assessing traumatic experiences in a Brazilian community sample. Given the importance of trauma as a public health problem, tools such as ETISR-SF may help clinicians/ researchers to better evaluate and measure such events and further advance clinical care of trauma victims. PMID:24098478

  18. Development of a Short-Form Measure of Science and Technology Self-efficacy Using Rasch Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Richard L.; Vallett, David; Annetta, Leonard

    2014-10-01

    Despite an increased focus on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in U.S. schools, today's students often struggle to maintain adequate performance in these fields compared with students in other countries (Cheek in Thinking constructively about science, technology, and society education. State University of New York, Albany, 1992; Enyedy and Goldberg 2004; Mandinach and Lewis 2006). In addition, despite considerable pressure to promote the placement of students into STEM career fields, U.S. placement is relatively low (Sadler et al. in Sci Educ 96(3):411-427, 2012; Subotnik et al. in Identifying and developing talent in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM): an agenda for research, policy and practice. International handbook, part XII, pp 1313-1326, 2009). One explanation for the decline of STEM career placement in the U.S. rests with low student affect concerning STEM concepts and related content, especially in terms of self-efficacy. Researchers define self-efficacy as the internal belief that a student can succeed in learning, and that understanding student success lies in students' externalized actions or behaviors (Bandura in Psychol Rev 84(2):191-215, 1977). Evidence suggests that high self-efficacy in STEM can result in student selection of STEM in later educational endeavors, culminating in STEM career selection (Zeldin et al. in J Res Sci Teach 45(9):1036-1058, 2007). However, other factors such as proficiency play a role as well. The lack of appropriate measures of self-efficacy can greatly affect STEM career selection due to inadequate targeting of this affective trait and loss of opportunity for early intervention by educators. Lack of early intervention decreases selection of STEM courses and careers (Valla and Williams in J Women Minor Sci Eng 18(1), 2012; Lent et al. in J Couns Psychol 38(4), 1991). Therefore, this study developed a short-form measure of self-efficacy to help identify students in need of

  19. The construct validity of the Short Form-36 Health Survey for patients with nonspecific chronic neck pain.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Grietje E; Jorritsma, Wim; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Geertzen, Jan H B; Reneman, Michiel F

    2015-06-01

    Self-reported disability related to neck pain can be measured using general health questionnaires. The validity of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) in patients with nonspecific chronic neck pain (CNP) in a tertiary outpatient rehabilitation setting is unknown. This study investigates construct validity of the SF-36 in these patients using 16 a-priori formulated hypotheses. Ninety-one patients admitted for rehabilitation completed the SF-36 before the rehabilitation program. SF-36 domain scores of patients with CNP were compared with general population reference values and standardized differences were calculated. For both the SF-36 physical and the mental component summary (PCS and MCS), differences between primary and tertiary care setting, men and women, age groups, litigants and nonlitigants, patients with and without compensation, and with ≥3 versus≤2 concomitant complaints were analyzed using independent t-tests. Differences between PCS and MCS scores were analyzed using a paired t-test. Twelve hypotheses were not rejected and four were rejected. All SF-36 domain scores were significantly lower than the general population references values. The domain scores 'role physical', 'bodily pain', 'vitality', 'social functioning,' and 'role emotional' were relevantly (≥1 SD) lower. SF-36-PCS and SF-36-MCS scores were significantly lower in tertiary care. The SF-36-PCS score was significantly lower for patients with workers compensation and patients with at least three concomitant complaints. The SF-36-MCS score was significantly lower for the age group of at least 39 years. The SF-36 has good construct validity and can be used to measure self-reported general health in patients with nonspecific CNP in outpatient tertiary rehabilitation.

  20. Age and education corrected older adult normative data for a short form version of the Financial Capacity Instrument.

    PubMed

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Eakin, Amanda; Triebel, Kristen; Martin, Roy; Swenson-Dravis, Dana; Petersen, Ronald C; Marson, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Financial capacity is an instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) that comprises multiple abilities and is critical to independence and autonomy in older adults. Because of its cognitive complexity, financial capacity is often the first IADL to show decline in prodromal and clinical Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. Despite its importance, few standardized assessment measures of financial capacity exist and there is little, if any, normative data available to evaluate financial skills in the elderly. The Financial Capacity Instrument-Short Form (FCI-SF) is a brief measure of financial skills designed to evaluate financial skills in older adults with cognitive impairment. In the current study, we present age- and education-adjusted normative data for FCI-SF variables in a sample of 1344 cognitively normal, community-dwelling older adults participating in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging (MCSA) in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Individual FCI-SF raw scores were first converted to age-corrected scaled scores based on position within a cumulative frequency distribution and then grouped within 4 empirically supported and overlapping age ranges. These age-corrected scaled scores were then converted to age- and education-corrected scaled scores using the same methodology. This study has the potential to substantially enhance financial capacity evaluations of older adults through the introduction of age- and education-corrected normative data for the FCI-SF by allowing clinicians to: (a) compare an individual's performance to that of a sample of similar age and education peers, (b) interpret various aspects of financial capacity relative to a normative sample, and (c) make comparisons between these aspects. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Application of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, Short Form (WHOQOL-BREF) to patients with cataract

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Cataract is a prevalent disease in the elderly, and negatively influences patients’ quality of life. This study was conducted to study the application of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, Short Form (WHOQOL-BREF) to patients with cataract. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 300 patients with cataract were studied in Neyshabur, Iran from July to October 2014. The Iranian version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was used to measure their quality of life. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, the paired t-test, the independent t-test, and a linear regression model were used to analyze the data in SPSS version 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 68.11±11.98 years, and most were female (53%). The overall observed Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the WHOQOL-BREF was 0.889, ranging from 0.714 to 0.810 in its four domains. The total mean score of the respondents on the WHOQOL-BREF was 13.19. The highest and lowest mean scores were observed in the social relationship domain (14.11) and the physical health domain (12.29), respectively. A backward multiple linear regression model found that duration of disease and marital status were associated with total WHOQOL scores, while age, duration of disease, marital status, and income level were associated with domains one through four, respectively (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The reliability analysis conducted in this study indicated that the WHOQOL-BREF scale exhibited an acceptable degree of internal consistency in the measurement of the quality of life of patients with cataract. It was also found that the patients with cataract who were surveyed reported a relatively moderate quality of life. PMID:26883738

  2. Development of the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Affirmative Counseling Self-Efficacy Inventory – Short Form (LGB-CSI-SF)

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Frank R.; Alessi, Edward J.; Craig, Shelley; Eber-sole, Ryan C.; Kumar, Snehal M.; Spadola, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Affirmative Counseling Self-Efficacy Inventory – Short Form (LGB-CSI-SF) was developed to facilitate LGB-affirmative counseling training, as well as process and outcome research, by offering a brief psychometrically supported version of the original LGB-CSI measure to researchers and clinicians. Five hundred seventy-five participants (435 licensed mental health professionals and 140 graduate students/trainees) constituted the sample. Confirmatory factor analyses of the 32 items from the original LGB-CSI yielded a new 15-item version of the measure composed of 5 factors (consisting of 3 items each) that assess counselor self-efficacy to perform lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) affirmative counseling behaviors (Application of Knowledge, Advocacy Skills, Self-Awareness, Relationship, and Assessment). The LGB-CSI-SF evidenced high internal consistency and adequate test–retest stability. Convergent validity was supported by correlations between LGB-CSI-SF total scores and Application of Knowledge, Advocacy Skills, Relationship, and Assessment subscales and instruction in LGB issues, as well as personal/professional relations with LGB individuals. More affirmative attitudes toward LGB persons positively related with total scores and Advocacy Skills, Self-Awareness, and Relationship subscales. Discriminant validity was evidenced by an absence of relations between LGB-CSI-SF subscales and a measure of impression management. We found no associations between Advocacy Skills, Assessment, and Relationship subscales and a measure of Self-Deception. Recommendations for implementing the LGB-CSI-SF in future LGB-affirmative counseling self-efficacy based research and training interventions are discussed. PMID:25992391

  3. Validity and reliability of the Short Form 36 Health Surveys (SF-36) among patients with spondyloarthritis in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Yu Heng; Fong, Warren Weng Seng; Lui, Nai Lee; Yong, Si Ting; Cheung, Yin Bun; Malhotra, Rahul; Østbye, Truls; Thumboo, Julian

    2016-12-01

    The Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) is a popular health-related quality of life (HrQoL) tool. However, few studies have assessed its psychometric properties in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA). We therefore aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the SF-36 in patients with SpA in Singapore. Cross-sectional data from a registry of 196 SpA patients recruited from a dedicated tertiary referral clinic in Singapore from 2011 to 2014 was used. Analyses were guided by the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments framework. Internal consistency reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Construct validity was assessed through 33 a priori hypotheses by correlations of the eight subscales and two summary scores of SF-36 with other health outcomes. Known-group construct validity was assessed by comparison of the means of the subscales and summary scores of the SF-36 of SpA patients and the general population of Singapore using student's t tests. Among 196 patients (155 males (79.0 %), median (range) age: 36 (17-70), 166 Chinese (84.6 %)), SF-36 scales showed high internal consistency ranging from 0.88 to 0.90. Convergent construct validity was supported as shown by fulfillment of all hypotheses. Divergent construct validity was supported, as SF-36 MCS was not associated with PGA, pain and HAQ. Known-group construct validity showed SpA patients had lower scores of 3.8-12.5 when compared to the general population at p < 0.001. This study supports the SF-36 as a valid and reliable measure of HrQoL for use in patients with SpA at a single time point.

  4. Screening for depressive symptoms in adolescents at school: New validity evidences on the short form of the Reynolds Depression Scale

    PubMed Central

    Aritio-Solana, Rebeca; Inchausti, Félix; Chocarro de Luis, Edurne; Lucas Molina, Beatriz; Pérez de Albéniz, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to assess the depressive symptomatology and to gather new validity evidences of the Reynolds Depression Scale-Short form (RADS-SF) in a representative sample of youths. The sample consisted of 2914 adolescents with a mean age of 15.85 years (SD = 1.68). We calculated the descriptive statistics and internal consistency of the RADS-SF scores. Also, confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) at the item level and successive multigroup CFAs to test measurement invariance, were conducted. Latent mean differences across gender and educational level groups were estimated, and finally, we studied the sources of validity evidences with other external variables. The level of internal consistency of the RADS-SF Total score by means of Ordinal alpha was .89. Results from CFAs showed that the one-dimensional model displayed appropriate goodness of-fit indices with CFI value over .95, and RMSEA value under .08. In addition, the results support the strong measurement invariance of the RADS-SF scores across gender and age. When latent means were compared, statistically significant differences were found by gender and age. Females scored 0.347 over than males in Depression latent variable, whereas older adolescents scored 0.111 higher than the younger group. In addition, the RADS-SF score was associated with the RADS scores. The results suggest that the RADS-SF could be used as an efficient screening test to assess self-reported depressive symptoms in adolescents from the general population. PMID:28222193

  5. Effect of stereochemistry, chain length and sequence pattern on antimicrobial properties of short synthetic β-sheet forming peptide amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Ong, Zhan Yuin; Cheng, Junchi; Huang, Yuan; Xu, Kaijin; Ji, Zhongkang; Fan, Weimin; Yang, Yi Yan

    2014-01-01

    In the face of mounting global antibiotics resistance, the identification and development of membrane-active antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as an alternative class of antimicrobial agent have gained significant attention. The physical perturbation and disruption of microbial membranes by the AMPs have been proposed to be an effective means to overcome conventional mechanisms of drug resistance. Recently, we have reported the design of a series of short synthetic β-sheet folding peptide amphiphiles comprised of recurring (X1Y1X2Y2)n-NH2 sequences where X: hydrophobic amino acids, Y: cationic amino acids and n: number of repeat units. In efforts to investigate the effects of key parameters including stereochemistry, chain length and sequence pattern on antimicrobial effects, systematic d-amino acid substitutions of the lead peptides (IRIK)2-NH2 (IK8-all L) and (IRVK)3-NH2 (IK12-all L) were performed. It was found that the corresponding D-enantiomers exhibited stronger antimicrobial activities with minimal or no change in hemolytic activities, hence translating very high selectivity indices of 407.0 and >9.8 for IK8-all D and IK12-all D respectively. IK8-all D was also demonstrated to be stable to degradation by broad spectrum proteases trypsin and proteinase K. The membrane disrupting bactericidal properties of IK8-all D effectively prevented drug resistance development and inhibited the growth of various clinically isolated MRSA, VRE, Acinetobacter baumanni, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Cryptococcus. neoformans and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Significant reduction in intracellular bacteria counts was also observed following treatment with IK8-all D in the Staphylococcus. aureus infected mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the d-amino acids substituted β-sheet forming peptide IK8-all D with its enhanced antimicrobial activities and improved protease stability, is a promising therapeutic candidate with potential to combat

  6. Age and Education Corrected Older Adult Normative Data for a Short Form Version of the Financial Capacity Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Eakin, Amanda; Triebel, Kristen; Martin, Roy; Swenson-Dravis, Dana; Petersen, Ronald C.; Marson, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Financial capacity is an instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) that comprises multiple abilities and is critical to independence and autonomy in older adults. Due to its cognitive complexity, financial capacity is often the first IADL to show decline in prodromal and clinical Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders. Despite its importance, few standardized assessment measures of financial capacity exist and there is little, if any, normative data available to evaluate financial skills in the elderly. The Financial Capacity Instrument – Short Form (FCI-SF) is a brief measure of financial skills designed to evaluate financial skills in older adults with cognitive impairment. In the current study, we present age- and education-adjusted normative data for FCI-SF variables in a sample of 1344 cognitively normal, community-dwelling older adults participating in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging (MCSA) in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Individual FCI-SF raw scores were first converted to age-corrected scaled scores based on position within a cumulative frequency distribution and then grouped within four empirically supported and overlapping age ranges. These age-corrected scaled scores were then converted to age- and education-corrected scaled scores using the same methodology. This study has the potential to substantially enhance financial capacity evaluations of older adults through the introduction of age- and education-corrected normative data for the FCI-SF by allowing clinicians to: 1) compare an individual’s performance to that of a sample of similar age and education peers, 2) interpret various aspects of financial capacity relative to a normative sample, and 3) make comparisons between these aspects. PMID:26168311

  7. Psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF).

    PubMed

    Gerdner, Arne; Allgulander, Christer

    2009-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment is delicate to assess both in clinical work and in research. There is a need for assessment tools that can be easily administered in an ethical and non-intrusive way that meets requirements of conceptual validity for various types of maltreatment and is sensitive to levels of severity. This study explores the psychometric properties of the Swedish translation of one such tool-the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF; Bernstein and Fink, 1998). The CTQ-SF was administered to seven samples (total n=659)-five clinical samples and two non-clinical student samples. The factor structure supports the construct validity of the global maltreatment scale, four of the five maltreatment subscales (emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse and emotional neglect) and the minimization/denial (MD) scale, but not the physical neglect (PN) subscale. All items are highly correlated with their respective subscale. The discriminant validity is satisfactory. Highly significant correlation with social desirability gives further support for the MD-scale and to the recommendation of how to apply it. Internal consistency of PN is acceptable and for all other scales satisfactory. Swedish norm groups tend to score lower than similar American norm groups on abuse scales but higher on the neglect scales. Percentiles for seven gender-specific norm groups are presented. The weaknesses of the PN-scale are discussed and new constructs are proposed. The Swedish version of the CTQ-SF has the same construct validity and internal consistency as the original, including less homogeneity of the PN scale.

  8. Effects of mechanical forces on maintenance and adaptation of form in trabecular bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huiskes, Rik; Ruimerman, Ronald; van Lenthe, G. Harry; Janssen, Jan D.

    2000-06-01

    The architecture of trabecular bone, the porous bone found in the spine and at articulating joints, provides the requirements for optimal load transfer, by pairing suitable strength and stiffness to minimal weight according to rules of mathematical design. But, as it is unlikely that the architecture is fully pre-programmed in the genes, how are the bone cells informed about these rules, which so obviously dictate architecture? A relationship exists between bone architecture and mechanical usage-while strenuous exercise increases bone mass, disuse, as in microgravity and inactivity, reduces it. Bone resorption cells (osteoclasts) and bone formation cells (osteoblasts) normally balance bone mass in a coupled homeostatic process of remodelling, which renews some 25% of trabecular bone volume per year. Here we present a computational model of the metabolic process in bone that confirms that cell coupling is governed by feedback from mechanical load transfer.This model can explain the emergence and maintenance of trabecular architecture as an optimal mechanical structure, as well as its adaptation to alternative external loads.

  9. Tankyrase-1 Ankyrin Repeats Form an Adaptable Binding Platform for Targets of ADP-Ribose Modification.

    PubMed

    Eisemann, Travis; McCauley, Michael; Langelier, Marie-France; Gupta, Kushol; Roy, Swati; Van Duyne, Gregory D; Pascal, John M

    2016-10-04

    The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase enzyme Tankyrase-1 (TNKS) regulates multiple cellular processes and interacts with diverse proteins using five ankyrin repeat clusters (ARCs). There are limited structural insights into functional roles of the multiple ARCs of TNKS. Here we present the ARC1-3 crystal structure and employ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to investigate solution conformations of the complete ankyrin repeat domain. Mutagenesis and binding studies using the bivalent TNKS binding domain of Axin1 demonstrate that only certain ARC combinations function together. The physical basis for these restrictions is explained by both rigid and flexible ankyrin repeat elements determined in our structural analysis. SAXS analysis is consistent with a dynamic ensemble of TNKS ankyrin repeat conformations modulated by Axin1 interaction. TNKS ankyrin repeat domain is thus an adaptable binding platform with structural features that can explain selectivity toward diverse proteins, and has implications for TNKS positioning of bound targets for poly(ADP-ribose) modification.

  10. Separate channels for processing form, texture, and color: evidence from FMRI adaptation and visual object agnosia.

    PubMed

    Cavina-Pratesi, C; Kentridge, R W; Heywood, C A; Milner, A D

    2010-10-01

    Previous neuroimaging research suggests that although object shape is analyzed in the lateral occipital cortex, surface properties of objects, such as color and texture, are dealt with in more medial areas, close to the collateral sulcus (CoS). The present study sought to determine whether there is a single medial region concerned with surface properties in general or whether instead there are multiple foci independently extracting different surface properties. We used stimuli varying in their shape, texture, or color, and tested healthy participants and 2 object-agnosic patients, in both a discrimination task and a functional MR adaptation paradigm. We found a double dissociation between medial and lateral occipitotemporal cortices in processing surface (texture or color) versus geometric (shape) properties, respectively. In Experiment 2, we found that the medial occipitotemporal cortex houses separate foci for color (within anterior CoS and lingual gyrus) and texture (caudally within posterior CoS). In addition, we found that areas selective for shape, texture, and color individually were quite distinct from those that respond to all of these features together (shape and texture and color). These latter areas appear to correspond to those associated with the perception of complex stimuli such as faces and places.

  11. [Linguistic adaptation of the Russian version of the Short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire-2].

    PubMed

    Bakhtadze, M A; Bolotov, D A; Kuz'minov, K O; Padun, M P; Zakharova, O B

    Цель исследования. Лингвистическая адаптация русскоязычной версии Второй сокращенной формы Мак-Гилловского болевого опросника (The McGill Pain Questionnaire) (SF-MPQ-2), концептуально эквивалентной оригиналу. Материал и методы. Адаптацию русской версии SF-MPQ-2 проводили по установленным правилам в несколько этапов двумя независимыми переводчиками с выработкой общей предварительной русскоязычной версии и ее обратным переводом двумя независимыми переводчиками и выработкой общей английской версии. В итоге была выработана окончательная русскоязычная версия опросника. Результаты и заключение. Получена русскоязычная версия Второй сокращенной формы Мак-Гилловского болевого опросника — SF-MPQ-2-RU. Работа выполнена по установленным правилам, представленная русская версия официально зарегистрирована правообладателем — Институтом Mapi Research Trust и рекомендована для применения в научных исследованиях на территории Российской Федерации.

  12. Adaptation of short-term plasticity parameters via error-driven learning may explain the correlation between activity-dependent synaptic properties, connectivity motifs and target specificity

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Umberto; Giugliano, Michele; Vasilaki, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical connectivity among neurons has been experimentally found to be largely non-random across brain areas. This means that certain connectivity motifs occur at a higher frequency than would be expected by chance. Of particular interest, short-term synaptic plasticity properties were found to colocalize with specific motifs: an over-expression of bidirectional motifs has been found in neuronal pairs where short-term facilitation dominates synaptic transmission among the neurons, whereas an over-expression of unidirectional motifs has been observed in neuronal pairs where short-term depression dominates. In previous work we found that, given a network with fixed short-term properties, the interaction between short- and long-term plasticity of synaptic transmission is sufficient for the emergence of specific motifs. Here, we introduce an error-driven learning mechanism for short-term plasticity that may explain how such observed correspondences develop from randomly initialized dynamic synapses. By allowing synapses to change their properties, neurons are able to adapt their own activity depending on an error signal. This results in more rich dynamics and also, provided that the learning mechanism is target-specific, leads to specialized groups of synapses projecting onto functionally different targets, qualitatively replicating the experimental results of Wang and collaborators. PMID:25688203

  13. [Possibilities of the pharmacological correction of adaptive reactions of human organism in short-term moving from middle to high altitude].

    PubMed

    Kundashev, U K; Zurdinov, A Z; Barchukov, V G

    2014-01-01

    It was assessed the efficacy of drugs belonging to the class of actoprotectors and antihypoxants, which are prescribed for short-term adaptation of the human organism moving from middle altitude (1670 m) to high altitude (3750 m). Volunteers stayed at the middle altitude for 15 days before moving to the high altitude. Prior to climbing, upon arrival at high altitude, and on the 3rd day, the state of the CNS, cardiovascular system, red and white blood growth, and some indices of the energy exchange metabolism were assessed. Drugs or placebo were administered in tablets after the first testing (one hour before moving to high altitude), upon arrival at altitude (next day, after breakfast), and on the third day (one hour before last testing). It is established that a combination of metaprote and ladasten (in doses of 0.125 and 0.1 g, respectively) favors acceleration of the short-term adaptation, which is manifested by the improved tolerance of physical activity at high altitude and the acceleration of white and red blood growth. In case of the combined administration of both actoprotectors, the adaptive reactions of tolerance and blood system were more pronounced in comparison to the administration of hypoxen (0.5 g) alone. A distinguishing feature of the reaction of the human organism upon taking the combination of actoprotectors was that adaptation of the energy supply system (judging from metabolites studied) already took place in the first hours of staying at high altitudes, while the adaptation upon taking 0.5 g hypoxen was observed on the 3rd day and the adaptive reactions in placebo group were still developing on the 3rd day.

  14. Development of an eight-subtest short form of the WISC-IV and evaluation of its clinical utility in children with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Donders, Jacobus; Elzinga, Brianne; Kuipers, David; Helder, Emily; Crawford, John R

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the degree to which an 8-subtest short form of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition would yield acceptable estimates of the long-form Full-Scale IQ index while clarifying the underlying factor structure in a sample of 100 children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury. The short-form Full-Scale IQ had sufficient (i.e., at least two thirds) nonerror covariance with its full-length counterpart. In addition, a sufficient proportion (i.e., > 80%) of these short-form estimates fell within the 90% confidence interval of the respective full-length scores. Importantly, the elimination of 2 subtests, and in particular the Picture Concepts subtest, resulted in a factor structure where each remaining subtest was fairly specifically associated with its intended scale. It is concluded that this short form can be used clinically in children with traumatic brain injury without sacrificing reliability and with more straightforward interpretability at the level of the factor index scores.

  15. Validation of the Spanish versions of the long (26 items) and short (12 items) forms of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-compassion is a key psychological construct for assessing clinical outcomes in mindfulness-based interventions. The aim of this study was to validate the Spanish versions of the long (26 item) and short (12 item) forms of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS). Methods The translated Spanish versions of both subscales were administered to two independent samples: Sample 1 was comprised of university students (n = 268) who were recruited to validate the long form, and Sample 2 was comprised of Aragon Health Service workers (n = 271) who were recruited to validate the short form. In addition to SCS, the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory–Trait (STAI-T), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) were administered. Construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and convergent validity were tested. Results The Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) of the long and short forms of the SCS confirmed the original six-factor model in both scales, showing goodness of fit. Cronbach’s α for the 26 item SCS was 0.87 (95% CI = 0.85-0.90) and ranged between 0.72 and 0.79 for the 6 subscales. Cronbach’s α for the 12-item SCS was 0.85 (95% CI = 0.81-0.88) and ranged between 0.71 and 0.77 for the 6 subscales. The long (26-item) form of the SCS showed a test-retest coefficient of 0.92 (95% CI = 0.89–0.94). The Intraclass Correlation (ICC) for the 6 subscales ranged from 0.84 to 0.93. The short (12-item) form of the SCS showed a test-retest coefficient of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.87-0.93). The ICC for the 6 subscales ranged from 0.79 to 0.91. The long and short forms of the SCS exhibited a significant negative correlation with the BDI, the STAI and the PSQ, and a significant positive correlation with the MAAS. The correlation between the total score of the long and short SCS form was r = 0.92. Conclusion The Spanish versions of the long (26-item) and short

  16. Acute effects of the glucagon-like peptide 2 analogue, teduglutide, on intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neonatal short bowel syndrome following massive gut resection is associated with malabsorption of nutrients. The intestinotrophic factor glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) improves gut function in adult patients with short bowel syndrome, but its effect in pediatric patients remains unknown. Our object...

  17. Correlation between Karnofsky Performance Status Scale and Short-Form Health Survey in patients on maintenance hemodialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Arogundade, Fatiu A.; Zayed, Bahaa; Daba, Maryam; Barsoum, Rashad S.

    2004-01-01

    Karnofsky performance status scale and the short-form (SF36) health survey in this Egyptian population. Age, serum creatinine and hemoglobin significantly influence quality of life in this HD patient population. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:15622699

  18. Use of the short form 36 in a primary care based disease management program for patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Sidorov, Jaan; Shull, Robert D; Girolami, Sabrina; Mensch, Debra

    2003-01-01

    While disease management has been described as an important strategy for the care of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) in the managed care setting, little is known about the impact of this approach on overall health-related quality of life. In this study the Short Form 36 (SF-36) was administered to all patients entering CHF disease management at the time of program entry and at 1 year following entry. Scores on the eight subscales and the two composite scales were calculated and compared before and after. Patients were enrolled from a mixed-model health maintenance organization (HMO) with 34,740 Medicare + Choice enrollees residing in 38 counties in central and northeastern Pennsylvania. Two hundred sixty-eight continuously enrolled patients in an HMO-sponsored CHF disease state management program with completed baseline and follow-up SF-36 surveys were sampled. All patients entered into disease management received primary care based, nurse-directed education about CHF self-management including instruction on etiology of CHF, the importance of medication compliance, home care services if indicated, monitoring weight gain, increased understanding of the warning signs of worsening CHF, and coaching on strategies to contact a physician in a timely manner when CHF worsens. Nurses also facilitated for CHF guidelines among primary care physicians, including the need to obtain a baseline assessment of cardiac function, prescribe angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and beta blockers when appropriate, and initiated appropriate specialist referral. Compared with enrollees who did not complete a pair of SF-36 surveys, the 268 respondents were younger and had a significantly higher rate of cardiac imaging as well as use of ACE inhibitors and beta blocker medications. Analysis of the SF-36 data revealed that three of the eight (Role Physical, General Health Perceptions, and Role Emotional) subscales increased in a statistically significant manner, as

  19. Closed form expressions for crack mouth displacements and stress intensity factors for chevron notched short bar and short rod specimens based on experimental compliance measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubsey, R. T.; Orange, T. W.; Pierce, W. S.; Shannon, J. L., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A set of equations are presented describing certain fracture mechanics parameters for chevron notch bar and rod specimens. They are developed by fitting compliance calibration data reported earlier. The equations present the various parameters in their most useful forms. The data encompass the entire range of the specimen geometries most commonly used. Their use will facilitate the testing and analysis of brittle metals, ceramics, and glasses.

  20. Translation, Adaptation and Initial Validation of Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire: Child form in Greek.

    PubMed

    Morou, Zoe; Lyrakos, Georgios N; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Douladiris, Nikolaos; Tatsioni, Athina; Dimoliatis, Ioannis D K

    2016-06-23

    The aim of the study is to determine the reliability and validity of the Greek version of the Food Allergy Quality of life Questionnaire-Child Form (FAQLQ-CF). After linguistic validation, the Greek FAQLQ-CF, Food Allergy Independent Measure (FAIM) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™) were used by a physician to interview children diagnosed with food allergy and aged 8-12 via telephone. Cronbach's alpha was used to evaluate reliability, and factor analysis to assess construct validity. The correlation between FAQLQ-CF and FAIM was moderate (rho=0.509, P<0.001) and internal consistency was strong (Cronbach's alpha 0.905). FAQLQ-CF discriminated well each question's contribution to children's quality of life deterioration (32-80%), each child's quality of life (17-89%), children differing in doing things with others (total score 3.55 vs 2.57, difference =0.98 > minimal clinical importance difference = 0.5; P<0.001), but not children differing in reporting anaphylaxis. The total FAQLQ-CF score correlated with the total PedsQL™ score and with the score of one of PedsQL™ subscales, demonstrating convergent validity. Factor analysis uncovered an underlying structure of four factors, explaining 50% of the variance. We can conclude that Greek FAQLQ-CF is a reliable, valid, discriminant tool for interviewing food allergic children aged 8-12, detecting those in need for immediate care.

  1. Cross-Cultural Equivalence of the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form: An Australian and South African Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Peter A.; Patton, Wendy; Watson, Mark B.

    2002-01-01

    The Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form was completed by 416 South African and 563 Australian high school students. Analysis found three factors in each sample, but the factors differed between samples and from those of a U.S. sample, suggesting cultural differences in self-efficacy and lack of cultural equivalence for the…

  2. Examination of Measurement Invariance across Culture and Gender on the RCMAS-2 Short Form among Singapore and U.S. Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Patricia A.; Ang, Rebecca P.

    2016-01-01

    Tests of measurement invariance were conducted across culture and gender on the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale-Second Edition (RCMAS-2) Short Form in a sample of 1,003 Singapore and U.S. adolescents. The results of multi-group confirmatory factor analyses across culture and gender supported at least partial measurement invariance. ANOVA…

  3. Measuring Teacher-Child Relationships in the Greek Kindergarten Setting: A Validity Study of the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale-Short Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Gregoriadis, Athanasios

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study was designed to examine the factorial validity of the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale-Short Form (STRS-SF; R. C. Pianta, 2001) and its invariance across gender in the Greek educational context. The STRS-SF comprises 15 items that measure 2 dimensions of teacher-child relationships: Closeness and Conflict.…

  4. An Item Response Theory Analysis of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form with Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Mirenda, Pat; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Wellington, Stephen; Dua, Vikram; Kalynchuk, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) is one of the most widely used instruments for measuring parenting stress in families of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, no research to date has examined the psychometric properties of the PSI-SF in a sample of parents of young children with ASD. In this regard,…

  5. Assessing the Discriminant Ability, Reliability, and Comparability of Multiple Short Forms of the Boston Naming Test in an Alzheimer’s Disease Center Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Katsumata, Yuriko; Mathews, Melissa; Abner, Erin L.; Jicha, Gregory A.; Caban-Holt, Allison; Smith, Charles D.; Nelson, Peter T.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Schmitt, Frederick A.; Fardo, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Boston Naming Test (BNT) is a commonly used neuropsychological test of confrontation naming that aids in determining the presence and severity of dysnomia. Many short versions of the original 60-item test have been developed and are routinely administered in clinical/research settings. Because of the common need to translate similar measures within and across studies, it is important to evaluate the operating characteristics and agreement of different BNT versions. Methods We analyzed longitudinal data of research volunteers (n = 681) from the University of Kentucky Alzheimer’s Disease Center longitudinal cohort. Conclusions With the notable exception of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD) 15-item BNT, short forms were internally consistent and highly correlated with the full version; these measures varied by diagnosis and generally improved from normal to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia. All short forms retained the ability to discriminate between normal subjects and those with dementia. The ability to discriminate between normal and MCI subjects was less strong for the short forms than the full BNT, but they exhibited similar patterns. These results have important implications for researchers designing longitudinal studies, who must consider that the statistical properties of even closely related test forms may be quite different. PMID:25613081

  6. Assessment of Physical Self-Concept in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability: Content and Factor Validity of the Very Short Form of the Physical Self-Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiano, Christophe; Begarie, Jerome; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Ninot, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the factor validity and reliability of the Very Short Form of the Physical Self-Inventory- (PSI-VSF) within a sample of adolescents with mild to moderate Intellectual Disability (ID). A total of 362 ID adolescents were involved in two studies. In Study 1, the content and format scale response of the PSI-VSF…

  7. Male Role Norms Inventory--Short Form (MRNI-SF): Development, Confirmatory Factor Analytic Investigation of Structure, and Measurement Invariance across Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levant, Ronald F.; Hall, Rosalie J.; Rankin, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The current study reports the development from the Male Role Norms Inventory-Revised (MRNI-R; Levant, Rankin, Williams, Hasan, & Smalley, 2010) of the 21-item MRNI-Short Form (MRNI-SF). Confirmatory factor analysis of MRNI-SF responses from a sample of 1,017 undergraduate participants (549 men, 468 women) indicated that the best fitting "bifactor"…

  8. A Long-Term Predictive Validity Study: Can the CDI Short Form be Used to Predict Language and Early Literacy Skills Four Years Later?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Can, Dilara Deniz; Ginsburg-Block, Marika; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the predictive validity of the MacArthur Communicative Developmental Inventories-Short Form (CDI-SF), a parent report questionnaire about children's language development (Fenson, Pethick, Renda, Cox, Dale & Reznick, 2000). Data were first gathered from parents on the CDI-SF vocabulary scores for seventy-six…

  9. The Psychometric Properties and Factor Structure of a Welsh Translation of the School Short Form of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Peter R.; Francis, Leslie J.; Thomas, Enlli

    2007-01-01

    The psychometric properties and factor structure of a Welsh translation of the school short form of the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory (SEI-SSF), which is widely used as a measure of children's global self-esteem, was investigated among a sample of 681 pupils attending Welsh-medium primary schools in Wales. It has generally been assumed that…

  10. Translation, Adaptation and Initial Validation of Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire: Child form in Greek

    PubMed Central

    Morou, Zoe; Lyrakos, Georgios N.; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.; Douladiris, Nikolaos; Tatsioni, Athina; Dimoliatis, Ioannis D.K.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the reliability and validity of the Greek version of the Food Allergy Quality of life Questionnaire-Child Form (FAQLQ-CF). After linguistic validation, the Greek FAQLQ-CF, Food Allergy Independent Measure (FAIM) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™) were used by a physician to interview children diagnosed with food allergy and aged 8-12 via telephone. Cronbach’s alpha was used to evaluate reliability, and factor analysis to assess construct validity. The correlation between FAQLQ-CF and FAIM was moderate (rho=0.509, P<0.001) and internal consistency was strong (Cronbach’s alpha 0.905). FAQLQ-CF discriminated well each question’s contribution to children’s quality of life deterioration (32-80%), each child’s quality of life (17-89%), children differing in doing things with others (total score 3.55 vs 2.57, difference =0.98 > minimal clinical importance difference = 0.5; P<0.001), but not children differing in reporting anaphylaxis. The total FAQLQ-CF score correlated with the total PedsQL™ score and with the score of one of PedsQL™ subscales, demonstrating convergent validity. Factor analysis uncovered an underlying structure of four factors, explaining 50% of the variance. We can conclude that Greek FAQLQ-CF is a reliable, valid, discriminant tool for interviewing food allergic children aged 8-12, detecting those in need for immediate care. PMID:27403459

  11. A Comparison of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT) with the Stanford-Binet, a Two-Subtest Short Form, and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (K-TEA) Brief Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewett, Peter N.; McCaffery, Lucy K.

    1993-01-01

    Examined relationship between Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT), Stanford-Binet, two-subtests short form, and Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (K-TEA) with population of 75 academically referred students. K-BIT correlated significantly with Stanford-Binet and K-TEA Math, Reading, and Spelling scores. Results support use of K-BIT as…

  12. The Comparison of M-B CDI-K Short Form and K-ASQ as Screening Test for Language Development

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the usefulness of the communication domain in the Korean version of Ages and Stages Questionnaire (K-ASQ), and short form of the Korean version of MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (M-B CDI-K), as screening tests for language developmental delay. Methods Data was collected between April 2010 and December 2013, from children who visited either the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation or the Developmental Delay Clinic, presenting with language development delay as their chief complaint. All the children took the short form of M-B CDI-K and K-ASQ as screening tests, and received diagnostic language assessments including Sequenced Language Scale for Infants (SELSI) or Preschool Receptive-Expressive Language Scale (PRES). Results A total of 206 children, mean age 29.7 months, were enrolled. The final diagnoses were developmental language disorder, global developmental delay, autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, etc. The M-B CDI-K short form and the communication domain of the K-ASQ had 95.9% and 76.7% sensitivity, and 82.4% and 85.3% specificity, with regards to diagnostic language assessments. The M-B CDI-K short form showed higher negative predictive value and better accuracy than the communication domain of the K-ASQ. Conclusion The screening ability of K-ASQ was not sufficient for children with language development delay, and the M-B CDI-K short form should be implemented for additional screening. PMID:28119842

  13. Farsi Version of Social Skills Rating System-Secondary Student Form: Cultural Adaptation, Reliability and Construct Validity

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Amidi Mazaheri, Maryam; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Abbasi, Mohamad Hadi; Noroozi, Ensieh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Assessment of social skills is a necessary requirement to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive and behavioral interventions. This paper reports the cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Farsi version of the social skills rating system-secondary students form (SSRS-SS) questionnaire (Gresham and Elliot, 1990), in a normative sample of secondary school students. Methods: A two-phase design was used that phase 1 consisted of the linguistic adaptation and in phase 2, using cross-sectional sample survey data, the construct validity and reliability of the Farsi version of the SSRS-SS were examined in a sample of 724 adolescents aged from 13 to 19 years. Results: Content validity index was excellent, and the floor/ceiling effects were low. After deleting five of the original SSRS-SS items, the findings gave support for the item convergent and divergent validity. Factor analysis revealed four subscales. Results showed good internal consistency (0.89) and temporal stability (0.91) for the total scale score. Conclusion: Findings demonstrated support for the use of the 27-item Farsi version in the school setting. Directions for future research regarding the applicability of the scale in other settings and populations of adolescents are discussed. PMID:25053964

  14. Translation to Portuguese and cultural adaptation of Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire - Parent Form (FAQLQ-PF).

    PubMed

    Couto, M; Silva, D; Piedade, S; Borrego, Lm; Flokstra-de Blok, B; Dunn Galvin, A; Morais-Almeida, M

    2016-05-01

    Food allergy is a health problem with significant negative impact in Quality of Life (QoL). We aimed to translate into Portuguese and culturally adapt to our population the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire - Parent Form (FAQLQ-PF). Cross-cultural translation was performed according to guidelines. Linguistic validation consisted in 3 steps: forward translation, backward translation and comprehensibility testing. A consensual version was obtained and tested in parents of food allergic children by cognitive debriefing. Twelve questionnaires were fulfilled, all completed in ≤ 15 min. No comments, doubts or suggestions were posed, except for 2 parents regarding a question about the number of food their children had to avoid. Two gave special positive feedback about the utility of FAQLQ-PF. Changes have been included after this pre-test in accordance to doubts and suggestions of participants, and the Portuguese version is now able to be used in clinics and research.

  15. The validity and relative precision of MOS short- and long-form health status scales and Dartmouth COOP charts. Results from the Medical Outcomes Study.

    PubMed

    McHorney, C A; Ware, J E; Rogers, W; Raczek, A E; Lu, J F

    1992-05-01

    This study estimated the validity and relative precision (RP) of four methods (MOS long- and short-form scales, global items, and COOP Poster Charts) in measuring six general health concepts. The authors also tested whether and how precisely each method discriminated relatively well adult patients (N = 638) from those with only severe chronic medical (N = 168) and only psychiatric conditions (N = 163), as clinically defined. For comparisons between the well group and both medical and psychiatric groups, RP estimates favored long-form over short-form, multi-item scales, and favored multi-item scales over single-item global measures and poster charts. In relation to long forms, short-form multi-item scales achieved a median RP of .93; RP estimates for global items and poster charts were .81 and .67, respectively. Variations in RP across methods and concepts were linked to differences in the coarseness of measurement scales, reliability, and content (including the effects of chart illustrations). These variations in RP have implications for the interpretation of scores, the statistical power of comparisons between clinical groups, and the size of confidence intervals around individual patient scores.

  16. Development and Validation of a Short Form of the Index of Race-Related Stress (IRRS)--Brief Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utsey, Shawn O.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of a short version of the Index of Race-Related Stress - Brief Version (IRSS-B). The IRRS-B is a 22-item, multidimensional measure of the race-related stress experienced by African Americans as a result of their encounters with racism. (Author/MKA)

  17. Psychometric Evaluation of the Symptoms and Functioning Severity Scale (SFSS) Short Forms with Out-of-Home Care Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas J.; Duppong Hurley, Kristin; Lambert, Matthew C.; Epstein, Michael H.; Stevens, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a need for brief progress monitoring measures of behavioral and emotional symptoms for youth in out-of-home care. The Symptoms and Functioning Severity Scale (SFSS; Bickman et al. in Manual of the peabody treatment progress battery. Vanderbilt University, Nashville, 2010) is one measure that has clinician and youth short forms…

  18. Automatic Short Essay Scoring Using Natural Language Processing to Extract Semantic Information in the Form of Propositions. CRESST Report 831

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Deirdre; Mousavi, Hamid; Iseli, Markus R.

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core assessments emphasize short essay constructed-response items over multiple-choice items because they are more precise measures of understanding. However, such items are too costly and time consuming to be used in national assessments unless a way to score them automatically can be found. Current automatic essay-scoring techniques…

  19. Assessing Positive and Negative Changes in the Aftermath of Adversity: A Short Form of the Changes in Outlook Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Stephen; Linley, P. Alex; Shevlin, Mark; Goodfellow, Barbara; Butler, Lisa D.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was the preliminary development of a short 10-item version of the CiOQ. First, 10 items were selected on the basis of their high factor loadings in previously published work. Two studies are then reported. In Study 1, the 10 items were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis using data from a sample of college students…

  20. A Short Version of SIS (Support Intensity Scale): The Utility of the Application of Artificial Adaptive Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomiero, Tiziano; Croce, Luigi; Grossi, Enzo; Luc, De Vreese; Buscema, Massimo; Mantesso, Ulrico; De Bastiani, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a shortened version of the SIS (support intensity scale) obtained by the application of mathematical models and instruments, adopting special algorithms based on the most recent developments in artificial adaptive systems. All the variables of SIS applied to 1,052 subjects with ID (intellectual disabilities)…

  1. A short form of the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE-6): Development, psychometric properties and validity in an intercultural non-clinical sample and a sample of patients at risk for heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Romppel, Matthias; Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph; Wachter, Rolf; Edelmann, Frank; Düngen, Hans-Dirk; Pieske, Burkert; Grande, Gesine

    2013-01-01

    Objective: General self-efficacy has been found to be an influential variable related to the adaptation to stress and chronic illness, with the General Self-Efficacy (GSE) Scale by Jerusalem and Schwarzer being a reliable and valid instrument to assess this disposition. The aim of this study was to construct and test a short form of this scale to allow for a more economical assessment of the construct. Methods: The item characteristics of the original scale were assessed using an intercultural non-clinical sample (n=19,719). Six items with the highest coefficient of variation and good discrimination along the range of the trait were selected to build a short form of the instrument (GSE-6). Subsequently, the psychometric properties and the concurrent and predictive validity of the GSE-6 were tested in a longitudinal design with three measurements using a sample of patients with risk factors for heart failure (n=1,460). Results: Cronbach’s alpha for the GSE-6 was between .79 and .88. We found negative associations with symptoms of depression (–.35 and –.45), anxiety (–.35), and vital exhaustion (–.38) and positive associations with social support (.30), and mental health (.36). In addition, the GSE-6 score was positively associated with active problem-focused coping (.26) and distraction/self-encouragement (.25) and negatively associated with depressive coping (–.34). The baseline GSE-6 score predicted mental health and physical health after 28 months, even after controlling for the respective baseline score. The relative stability over twelve and 28 months was r=.50 and r=.60, respectively, while the mean self-efficacy score did not change over time. Conclusions: The six item short form of the GSE scale is a reliable and valid instrument that is useful for the economical assessment of general self-efficacy in large multivariate studies and for screening purposes. PMID:23429426

  2. An international quality of life instrument to assess wellbeing in adults who are HIV-positive: a short form of the WHOQOL-HIV (31 items).

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Kathryn Ann; Skevington, Suzanne M

    2012-02-01

    Few cross-cultural measures are available to assess quality of life (QoL) in HIV/AIDS. A short form of the WHOQOL-HIV-the WHOQOL-HIV BREF-was developed and tested. Survey data from 1,923 HIV-positive adults (selected for age, gender and disease stage) were collected in 8 culturally diverse centres. The 'best' HIV-specific item was extracted from five HIV facets of the WHOQOL-HIV long form using information about item correlations with QoL, health and domains, item discriminant validity and centre problems. The five identified items were then integrated with the WHOQOL-BREF to complete the 31 item WHOQOL-HIV BREF. This short form shows good internal consistency reliability and discriminant validity for 'known' disease stages. Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed an overall good fit for a six domains model (Comparative Fit Index = 0.97), supporting scoring. Quality of life in different cultures is reported. A value of the WHOQOL-HIV short form is in monitoring QoL in multi-national clinical trials, and in clinical practice.

  3. Effects of a chronic reduction of short-wavelength light input on melatonin and sleep patterns in humans: evidence for adaptation.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Marina C; Beersma, Domien G M; Bollen, Pauline; van der Linden, Matthijs L; Gordijn, Marijke C M

    2014-06-01

    Light is an important environmental stimulus for the entrainment of the circadian clock and for increasing alertness. The intrinsically photosensitive ganglion cells in the retina play an important role in transferring this light information to the circadian system and they are elicited in particular by short-wavelength light. Exposure to short wavelengths is reduced, for instance, in elderly people due to yellowing of the ocular lenses. This reduction may be involved in the disrupted circadian rhythms observed in aged subjects. Here, we tested the effects of reduced blue light exposure in young healthy subjects (n = 15) by using soft orange contact lenses (SOCL). We showed (as expected) that a reduction in the melatonin suppressing effect of light is observed when subjects wear the SOCL. However, after chronic exposure to reduced (short wavelength) light for two consecutive weeks we observed an increase in sensitivity of the melatonin suppression response. The response normalized as if it took place under a polychromatic light pulse. No differences were found in the dim light melatonin onset or in the amplitude of the melatonin rhythms after chronic reduced blue light exposure. The effects on sleep parameters were limited. Our results demonstrate that the non-visual light system of healthy young subjects is capable of adapting to changes in the spectral composition of environmental light exposure. The present results emphasize the importance of considering not only the short-term effects of changes in environmental light characteristics.

  4. Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis for the Teacher Form, Ages 5 to 21, of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aricak, O. Tolga; Oakland, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities has promulgated various models of adaptive behavior, including its 1992 model that highlighted 10 adaptive skills and its 2002 model that highlighted three conceptual domains. The Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II (ABAS-II) was designed to be consistent with these models.…

  5. Effect of chronic stress on short and long-term plasticity in dentate gyrus; study of recovery and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Radahmadi, M; Hosseini, N; Nasimi, A

    2014-11-07

    Stress dramatically affects synaptic plasticity of the hippocampus, disrupts paired-pulse facilitation and impairs long-term potentiation (LTP). This study was performed to find the effects of chronic restraint stress and recovery period on excitability, paired-pulse response, LTP and to find probable adaptation to very long stress in the dentate gyrus. Thirty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of Control, Rest-Stress (21 days stress), Stress-Rest (recovery) and Stress-Stress (42 days stress: adaptation). Chronic restraint stress was applied 6-h/day. Input-output functions, paired-pulse responses and LTP were recorded from the dentate gyrus while stimulating the perforant pathway. We found that chronic stress attenuated the responsiveness, paired-pulse response and LTP in the dentate gyrus. A 21-day recovery period, after the stress, improved all the three responses toward normal, indicating reversibility of these stress-related hippocampal changes. There was no significant adaptation to very long stress, probably due to severity of stress.

  6. Universal-diverse orientation in Asian international students: confirmatory factor analysis of the Miville-Guzman universality-diversity scale, short form.

    PubMed

    Kegel, Karen; DeBlaere, Cirleen

    2014-07-01

    Despite apparent relevance to Asian international students, universal-diverse orientation (UDO) has not been psychometrically validated with this population. The current study investigated the most researched UDO measure, the Miville-Guzman Universality-Diversity Scale, Short Form (M-GUDS-S; Fuertes, Miville, Mohr, Sedlacek, & Gretchen, 2000), with 333 Asian international college students. The M-GUDS-S evidenced good reliability and convergent validity, and analyses confirmed a three-factor structure, supporting expanded use of the scale.

  7. Short-term effects on substance use of the keepin' it REAL pilot prevention program: Linguistically adapted for youth in Jalisco, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Booth, Jaime M.; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Nuño-Gutierrez, Bertha L.; Kulis, Stephen; Hoffman, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the short-term effects of a pilot study of keepin' it REAL(Manténte REAL) conducted in central Mexico by a bi-national team of investigators. This middle school-based model program for preventing substance use was adapted for Mexico linguistically but not culturally. Two Guadalajara public middle schools were recruited and randomly assigned to either implement the prevention program or serve as a control site. The program was implemented in the treatment site by the students' regular teachers, who were trained by the research team. Seventh graders in ten classrooms in the treatment and control schools (N = 432) completed a pretest and post-test survey in Spanish similar to the survey utilized in the original efficacy trial of keepin' it REAL in the US. T-tests and OLS regressions were conducted to determine the effects of the intervention on substance use outcomes. Differences between treatment and control groups in frequency of use of alcohol and tobacco, the two substances of choice in this sample, were significant and in the desired direction. Differences in amount of use were also in the preferred direction but were not significant for alcohol and only marginally significant for tobacco. When the sample was split by gender, statistically significant treatment effects remained for females but were not observed among males. Effects of the linguistically adapted version of keepin' it REAL appears to be driven by the change in female use, however the difference in male and female outcomes was not statistically significant. Implications for cultural adaptation and prevention in Mexico are discussed from a communication competency perspective. The promising results of the pilot study suggest that the linguistic adaptation was effective but that a comprehensive cultural adaptation of keepin' it REAL in partnership with Mexican investigators and communities may be warranted. PMID:23877541

  8. Assessing the accuracy of the WISC-IV seven-subtest short form and the child and adolescent intellectual disability screening questionnaire in identifying intellectual disability in children.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Karen; Murray, Aja L; Murray, Kara R; Murray, George C

    2014-01-01

    Little research has been conducted into the accuracy of abbreviated assessments in identifying children and young people with an intellectual disability (ID). The present study compared two such methods in a clinical population of individuals with (n = 106) and without (n = 170) ID: a 7-subtest short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales for Children--fourth edition (WISC-IV) proposed by Crawford and colleagues and the Child and Adolescent Intellectual Disability Screening Questionnaire (CAIDS-Q). Both the CAIDS-Q and the WISC-IV short form had high and comparable levels of predicting group classification (88% and 91% correct classification, respectively). Both methods would appear to offer clinicians and researchers an efficient and accurate means of identifying those who are likely to have ID. The WISC-IV short form was slightly more accurate, but the CAIDS-Q may offer the advantages of being shorter to administer and having no requirement for the user to have a particular qualification or training.

  9. Effects of Short-Interval and Long-Interval Swimming Protocols on Performance, Aerobic Adaptations, and Technical Parameters: A Training Study.

    PubMed

    Dalamitros, Athanasios A; Zafeiridis, Andreas S; Toubekis, Argyris G; Tsalis, George A; Pelarigo, Jailton G; Manou, Vasiliki; Kellis, Spiridon

    2016-10-01

    Dalamitros, AA, Zafeiridis, AS, Toubekis, AG, Tsalis, GA, Pelarigo, JG, Manou, V, and Kellis, S. Effects of short-interval and long-interval swimming protocols on performance, aerobic adaptations, and technical parameters: A training study. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2871-2879, 2016-This study compared 2-interval swimming training programs of different work interval durations, matched for total distance and exercise intensity, on swimming performance, aerobic adaptations, and technical parameters. Twenty-four former swimmers were equally divided to short-interval training group (INT50, 12-16 × 50 m with 15 seconds rest), long-interval training group (INT100, 6-8 × 100 m with 30 seconds rest), and a control group (CON). The 2 experimental groups followed the specified swimming training program for 8 weeks. Before and after training, swimming performance, technical parameters, and indices of aerobic adaptations were assessed. ΙΝΤ50 and ΙΝΤ100 improved swimming performance in 100 and 400-m tests and the maximal aerobic speed (p ≤ 0.05); the performance in the 50-m swim did not change. Posttraining V[Combining Dot Above]O2max values were higher compared with pretraining values in both training groups (p ≤ 0.05), whereas peak aerobic power output increased only in INT100 (p ≤ 0.05). The 1-minute heart rate and blood lactate recovery values decreased after training in both groups (p < 0.01). Stroke length increased in 100 and 400-m swimming tests after training in both groups (p ≤ 0.05); no changes were observed in stroke rate after training. Comparisons between groups on posttraining mean values, after adjusting for pretraining values, revealed no significant differences between ΙΝΤ50 and ΙΝΤ100 for all variables; however, all measures were improved vs. the respective values in the CON (p < 0.001-0.05). In conclusion, when matched for distance and exercise intensity, the short-interval (50 m) and long-interval (100 m) protocols confer analogous

  10. Circuit motifs for contrast-adaptive differentiation in early sensory systems: the role of presynaptic inhibition and short-term plasticity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Danke; Wu, Si; Rasch, Malte J

    2015-01-01

    In natural signals, such as the luminance value across of a visual scene, abrupt changes in intensity value are often more relevant to an organism than intensity values at other positions and times. Thus to reduce redundancy, sensory systems are specialized to detect the times and amplitudes of informative abrupt changes in the input stream rather than coding the intensity values at all times. In theory, a system that responds transiently to fast changes is called a differentiator. In principle, several different neural circuit mechanisms exist that are capable of responding transiently to abrupt input changes. However, it is unclear which circuit would be best suited for early sensory systems, where the dynamic range of the natural input signals can be very wide. We here compare the properties of different simple neural circuit motifs for implementing signal differentiation. We found that a circuit motif based on presynaptic inhibition (PI) is unique in a sense that the vesicle resources in the presynaptic site can be stably maintained over a wide range of stimulus intensities, making PI a biophysically plausible mechanism to implement a differentiator with a very wide dynamical range. Moreover, by additionally considering short-term plasticity (STP), differentiation becomes contrast adaptive in the PI-circuit but not in other potential neural circuit motifs. Numerical simulations show that the behavior of the adaptive PI-circuit is consistent with experimental observations suggesting that adaptive presynaptic inhibition might be a good candidate neural mechanism to achieve differentiation in early sensory systems.

  11. Circuit Motifs for Contrast-Adaptive Differentiation in Early Sensory Systems: The Role of Presynaptic Inhibition and Short-Term Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Danke; Wu, Si; Rasch, Malte J.

    2015-01-01

    In natural signals, such as the luminance value across of a visual scene, abrupt changes in intensity value are often more relevant to an organism than intensity values at other positions and times. Thus to reduce redundancy, sensory systems are specialized to detect the times and amplitudes of informative abrupt changes in the input stream rather than coding the intensity values at all times. In theory, a system that responds transiently to fast changes is called a differentiator. In principle, several different neural circuit mechanisms exist that are capable of responding transiently to abrupt input changes. However, it is unclear which circuit would be best suited for early sensory systems, where the dynamic range of the natural input signals can be very wide. We here compare the properties of different simple neural circuit motifs for implementing signal differentiation. We found that a circuit motif based on presynaptic inhibition (PI) is unique in a sense that the vesicle resources in the presynaptic site can be stably maintained over a wide range of stimulus intensities, making PI a biophysically plausible mechanism to implement a differentiator with a very wide dynamical range. Moreover, by additionally considering short-term plasticity (STP), differentiation becomes contrast adaptive in the PI-circuit but not in other potential neural circuit motifs. Numerical simulations show that the behavior of the adaptive PI-circuit is consistent with experimental observations suggesting that adaptive presynaptic inhibition might be a good candidate neural mechanism to achieve differentiation in early sensory systems. PMID:25723493

  12. Measuring Global Perceptions of the Research Training Environment Using a Short Form of the RTES-R.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Jeffrey H.; Miller, Steven A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the development and cross validation of a brief measure of the Research Training Environment Scale-Revised (RTES-R) in counseling graduate programs. Results indicate that the new RTES-R-S total scores correlate strongly with the original form and show good internal consistency. Recommends this new instrument when efficient measurement is…

  13. Development and Psychometric Validation of the EDE-QS, a 12 Item Short Form of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q)

    PubMed Central

    Gideon, Nicole; Hawkes, Nick; Mond, Jonathan; Saunders, Rob; Tchanturia, Kate; Serpell, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to develop and validate a short form of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) for routine, including session by session, outcome assessment. Method The current, 28-item version (6.0) of the EDE-Q was completed by 489 individuals aged 18–72 with various eating disorders recruited from three UK specialist eating disorder services. Rasch analysis was carried out on factors identified by means of principal component analysis, which in combination with expert ratings informed the development of an EDE-Q short form. The shortened questionnaire’s reliability, validity and sensitivity was assessed based on online data collected from students of a UK university and volunteers with a history of eating disorders recruited from a national eating disorders charity aged 18–74 (N = 559). Results A 12-item short form, the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire Short (EDE-QS) was derived. The new measure showed high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = .913) and temporal stability (ICC = .93; p < .001). It was highly correlated with the original EDE-Q (r = .91 for people without ED; r = .82 for people with ED) and other measures of eating disorder and comorbid psychopathology. It was sufficiently sensitive to distinguish between people with and without eating disorders. Discussion The EDE-QS is a brief, reliable and valid measure of eating disorder symptom severity that performs similarly to the EDE-Q and that lends itself for the use of sessional outcome monitoring in treatment and research. PMID:27138364

  14. The role of glutamine, short-chain fatty acids, and nucleotides in intestinal adaptation to gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    LeLeiko, N S; Walsh, M J

    1996-04-01

    Important first steps have been taken towards establishing how some nutrients interact with genes and affect intestinal adaptation. These mechanisms may be typical of how other nutrients influence cell function and turnover and help to maintain intestinal integrity. The dietary effects of nucleotides on intestinal cell mucosa act at the gene transcription level. The dietary effects of nucleotides on immune suppression also may act through similar mechanisms. The effects of the other trophic agents may interact at this level or at other levels. Scientific interest in how the various tropic factors work to maintain and repair the gastrointestinal tract is manifested by a growing body of research that demonstrates potential mechanisms for nutrient-gene interaction and how much interactions affect intestinal development and turnover. It seems clear that intestinal gene transcription and the activity of transcription factors are at least sometimes directly related to nutrition. The techniques of molecular biology now permit the exploration and explanation of how dietary factors, such as glutamine, SCFAs, and nucleotides, affect normal and pathologic intestinal mucosal development, function, adaptation, and repair.

  15. Stable Short-Term Frequency Support Using Adaptive Gains for a DFIG-Based Wind Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jinsik; Jang, Gilsoo; Muljadi, Eduard; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Cheol Kang, Yong

    2016-09-01

    For the fixed-gain inertial control of wind power plants (WPPs), a large gain setting provides a large contribution to supporting system frequency control, but it may cause over-deceleration for a wind turbine generator that has a small amount of kinetic energy (KE). Further, if the wind speed decreases during inertial control, even a small gain may cause over-deceleration. This paper proposes a stable inertial control scheme using adaptive gains for a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based WPP. The scheme aims to improve the frequency nadir (FN) while ensuring stable operation of all DFIGs, particularly when the wind speed decreases during inertial control. In this scheme, adaptive gains are set to be proportional to the KE stored in DFIGs, which is spatially and temporally dependent. To improve the FN, upon detecting an event, large gains are set to be proportional to the KE of DFIGs; to ensure stable operation, the gains decrease with the declining KE. The simulation results demonstrate that the scheme improves the FN while ensuring stable operation of all DFIGs in various wind and system conditions. Further, it prevents over-deceleration even when the wind speed decreases during inertial control.

  16. TAC-Cell inputs to human hand and lip induce short-term adaptation of the primary somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Lalit; Barlow, Steven; Popescu, Mihai; Popescu, Anda; Auer, Edward T

    2010-08-12

    A new pneumatic tactile stimulator, called the TAC-Cell, was developed in our laboratory to non-invasively deliver patterned cutaneous stimulation to the face and hand in order to study the neuromagnetic response adaptation patterns within the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in young adult humans. Individual TAC-Cells were positioned on the glabrous surface of the right hand, and midline of the upper and lower lip vermilion. A 151-channel magnetoencephalography (MEG) scanner was used to record the cortical response to a novel tactile stimulus which consisted of a repeating 6-pulse train delivered at three different frequencies through the active membrane surface of the TAC-Cell. The evoked activity in S1 (contralateral for hand stimulation, and bilateral for lip stimulation) was characterized from the best-fit dipoles of the earliest prominent response component. The S1 responses manifested significant modulation and adaptation as a function of the frequency of the punctate pneumatic stimulus trains and stimulus site (glabrous lip versus glabrous hand).

  17. Short-range ordered photonic structures of lamellae-forming diblock copolymers for excitation-regulated fluorescence enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Se Hee; Kim, Ki-Se; Char, Kookheon; Yoo, Seong Il; Sohn, Byeong-Hyeok

    2016-05-01

    Photonic crystals can be represented by periodic nanostructures with alternating refractive indices, which create artificial stop bands with the appearance of colors. In this regard, nanodomains of block copolymers and the corresponding structural colors have been intensively studied in the past. However, the practical application of photonic crystals of block copolymers has been limited to a large degree because of the presence of large defects and grain boundaries in the nanodomains of block copolymers. The present study focuses on the alternative opportunity of short-range ordered nanodomains of block copolymers for fluorescence enhancement, which also has a direct relevance to the development of fluorescence sensors or detectors. The enhancement mechanism was found to be interconnected with the excitation process rather than the alternation of the decay kinetics. In particular, we demonstrate that randomly oriented, but regular grains of lamellae of polystyrene-block-polyisoprene, PS-b-PI, diblock copolymers and their blend with PS homopolymers can behave as Bragg mirrors to induce multiple reflections of the excitation source inside the photonic structures. This process in turn significantly increases the effective absorption of the given fluorophores inside the polymeric photonic structures to amplify the fluorescence signal.Photonic crystals can be represented by periodic nanostructures with alternating refractive indices, which create artificial stop bands with the appearance of colors. In this regard, nanodomains of block copolymers and the corresponding structural colors have been intensively studied in the past. However, the practical application of photonic crystals of block copolymers has been limited to a large degree because of the presence of large defects and grain boundaries in the nanodomains of block copolymers. The present study focuses on the alternative opportunity of short-range ordered nanodomains of block copolymers for fluorescence

  18. Colonic GLP-2 is not Sufficient to Promote Jejunal Adaptation in a PN-Dependent Rat Model of Human Short Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Koopmann, Matthew C.; Liu, Xiaowen; Boehler, Christopher J.; Murali, Sangita G.; Holst, Jens J.; Ney, Denise M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bowel resection may lead to short bowel syndrome (SBS), which often requires parenteral nutrition (PN) due to inadequate intestinal adaptation. The objective of this study was to determine the time course of adaptation and proglucagon system responses after bowel resection in a PN-dependent rat model of SBS. Methods Rats underwent jugular catheter placement and a 60% jejunoileal resection + cecectomy with jejunoileal anastomosis or transection control surgery. Rats were maintained exclusively with PN and killed at 4 hours to 12 days. A nonsurgical group served as baseline. Bowel growth and digestive capacity were assessed by mucosal mass, protein, DNA, histology, and sucrase activity. Plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and bioactive glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results Jejunum cellularity changed significantly over time with resection but not transection, peaking at days 3–4 and declining by day 12. Jejunum sucrase-specific activity decreased significantly with time after resection and transection. Colon crypt depth increased over time with resection but not transection, peaking at days 7–12. Plasma bioactive GLP-2 and colon proglucagon levels peaked from days 4–7 after resection and then approached baseline. Plasma IGF-I increased with resection through day 12. Jejunum and colon GLP-2 receptor RNAs peaked by day 1 and then declined below baseline. Conclusions After bowel resection resulting in SBS in the rat, peak proglucagon, plasma GLP-2, and GLP-2 receptor levels are insufficient to promote jejunal adaptation. The colon adapts with resection, expresses proglucagon, and should be preserved when possible in massive intestinal resection. PMID:19644131

  19. Effects of Loading Duration and Short Rest Insertion on Cancellous and Cortical Bone Adaptation in the Mouse Tibia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haisheng; Embry, Rachel E.; Main, Russell P.

    2017-01-01

    The skeleton’s osteogenic response to mechanical loading can be affected by loading duration and rest insertion during a series of loading events. Prior animal loading studies have shown that the cortical bone response saturates quickly and short rest insertions between load cycles can enhance cortical bone formation. However, it remains unknown how loading duration and short rest insertion affect load-induced osteogenesis in the mouse tibial compressive loading model, and particularly in cancellous bone. To address this issue, we applied cyclic loading (-9 N peak load; 4 Hz) to the tibiae of three groups of 16 week-old female C57BL/6 mice for two weeks, with a different number of continuous load cycles applied daily to each group (36, 216 and 1200). A fourth group was loaded under 216 daily load cycles with a 10 s rest insertion after every fourth cycle. We found that as few as 36 load cycles per day were able to induce osteogenic responses in both cancellous and cortical bone. Furthermore, while cortical bone area and thickness continued to increase through 1200 cycles, the incremental increase in the osteogenic response decreased as load number increased, indicating a reduced benefit of the increasing number of load cycles. In the proximal metaphyseal cancellous bone, trabecular thickness increased with load up to 216 cycles. We also found that insertion of a 10 s rest between load cycles did not improve the osteogenic response of the cortical or cancellous tissues compared to continuous loading in this model given the age and sex of the mice and the loading parameters used here. These results suggest that relatively few load cycles (e.g. 36) are sufficient to induce osteogenic responses in both cortical and cancellous bone in the mouse tibial loading model. Mechanistic studies using the mouse tibial loading model to examine bone formation and skeletal mechanobiology could be accomplished with relatively few load cycles. PMID:28076363

  20. Dual silencing of long and short Amblyomma americanum acidic chitinase forms weakens the tick cement cone stability

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae K.; Curran, Janet; Mulenga, Albert

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates that Amblyomma americanum (Aam) constitutively and ubiquitously expresses the long (L) and short (S) putative acidic chitinases (Ach) that are distinguished by a 210 base pair (bp) deletion in AamAch-S. Full-length AamAch-L and AamAch-S cDNA are 1959 and 1718 bp long, containing 1332 and 1104 bp open reading frames that code for 443 and 367 amino acid residues proteins with the former predicted to be extracellular and the latter intracellular. Both AamAch-L and AamAch-S mRNA are expressed in multiple organs as revealed by qualitative RT-PCR analysis. Furthermore, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that AamAch-L mRNA was downregulated in the mid-gut, but was unchanged in the salivary gland and in other organs in response to feeding. Of significant interest, AamAch-L and/or AamAch-S functions are probably associated with formation and/or maintenance of stability of A. americanum tick cement cone. Dual RNA interference silencing of AamAch-L and/or AamAch-S mRNA caused ticks to loosely attach onto host skin as suggested by bleeding around tick mouthparts and ticks detaching off host skin with a light touch. AamAch-L may apparently encode an inactive chitinase as indicated by Pichia pastoris-expressed recombinant AamAch-L failing to hydrolyse chitinase substrates. Unpublished related work in our laboratory, and published work by others that found AamAch-L in tick saliva, suggest that native AamAch-L is a non-specific immunoglobulin binding tick saliva protein in that rAamAch-L non-specifically bound rabbit, bovine and chicken non-immune sera. We discuss findings in this study with reference to advancing knowledge on tick feeding physiology. PMID:25189365

  1. Development and Validation of a Short Form of the Valued Life Activities Disability Questionnaire for Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Patricia P.; Radvanski, Diane C.; Allen, Diane; Buyske, Steven; Schiff, Samuel; Nadkarni, Anagha; Rosenblatt, Lisa; Maclean, Ross; Hassett, Afton L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Develop and validate a shortened version of the Valued Life Activities disability and accommodations scale (VLA) for individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods To shorten the existing VLA measure, item response theory analyses were conducted using data from 449 patients with RA. Next, the resulting 14-item shortened version of the VLA scale (S-VLA) was evaluated by structured interviews among 20 RA patients. Lastly, the S-VLA was administered to 150 RA patients along with other measures including the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and SF-36. A random sample of 50 patients completed the S-VLA two weeks later to assess reliability. Item statistics were calculated to evaluate correlations between individual items and S-VLA total score. Correlations between the S-VLA and other measures were used to evaluate validity. Results Test–retest reliability was 0.91, while Cronbach’s alpha for the S-VLA was 0.95. None of the 14 items were associated with improved alpha coefficients when omitted. All items were strongly correlated with the S-VLA total score. S-VLA scores were highly positively correlated with HAQ (r=0.81; p≤0.001), patient-reported disease activity (r=0.71; p≤0.001), satisfaction with abilities (r=0.82; p≤0.001), and number of days with activity limitations (r=0.65; p≤0.001). In addition, as hypothesized, the S-VLA was inversely correlated with SF-36 Physical Component Summary score (r=−0.78; p≤0.001) and subscales: Physical Functioning (r=−0.80; p≤0.001), Role Physical (r=−0.67; p≤0.001) and Social Functioning (r=−0.72; p≤0.001). Conclusions The S-VLA is a short, valid, and reliable instrument that may prove useful for monitoring disability among individuals with RA. PMID:21905253

  2. Generation of short gamma-ray pulses on electron bunches formed in intense interfering laser beams with tilted fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Korobkin, V V; Romanovskiy, M Yu; Trofimov, V A; Shiryaev, O B

    2014-05-30

    It is shown that in the interference of multiple laser pulses with a relativistic intensity, phase and amplitude fronts of which are tilted at an angle with respect to their wave vector, effective traps of charged particles, which are moving at the velocity of light, are formed. Such traps are capable of capturing and accelerating the electrons produced in the ionisation of low-density gas by means of laser radiation. The accelerated electrons in the traps form a bunch, whose dimensions in all directions are much smaller than the laser radiation wavelength. Calculations show that the energy of accelerated electrons may amount to several hundred GeV at experimentally accessible relativistic laser intensities. As a result of the inverse Compton scattering, gamma-quanta with a high energy and narrow radiation pattern are emitted when these electrons interact with a laser pulse propagating from the opposite direction. The duration of emitted gamma-ray pulses constitutes a few attoseconds. The simulation is performed by solving the relativistic equation of motion for an electron with a relevant Lorentz force. (interaction of radiation with matter)

  3. Vitrified sheep isolated secondary follicles are able to grow and form antrum after a short period of in vitro culture.

    PubMed

    Lunardi, Franciele Osmarini; Chaves, Roberta Nogueira; de Lima, Laritza Ferreira; Araújo, Valdevane Rocha; Brito, Ivina Rocha; Souza, Carlos Eduardo Azevedo; Donato, Mariana Aragão Matos; Peixoto, Christina Alves; Dinnyes, Andras; Campello, Cláudio Cabral; de Figueiredo, José Ricardo; Rodrigues, Ana Paula Ribeiro

    2015-10-01

    The risk of reintroducing malignant cells after ovarian graft into patients following post-cancer treatment is an obstacle for clinical applications (autotransplantation). In this context, in vitro follicle culture would be an alternative to transplantation in order to minimize such risks. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the development of secondary follicles after vitrification in isolated form (without stroma) with vitrification in in situ form (within fragments of ovarian tissue). Follicles were first isolated from ovarian fragments from mixed-breed ewes and then vitrified; these comprised the Follicle-Vitrification group (Follicle-Vit), or fragments of ovarian tissue were first vitrified, followed by isolation of the follicles, resulting in the Tissue-Vitrification group (Tissue-Vit). Control and vitrified groups were submitted to in vitro culture (6 days) and follicular morphology, viability, antrum formation, follicle and oocyte diameter, growth rate, ultrastructural characteristics and cell proliferation were evaluated. The percentages of morphologically normal follicles and antrum formation were similar among groups. Follicular viability and oocyte diameter were similar between Follicle-Vit and Tissue-Vit. The follicular diameter and growth rate of Follicle-Vit were similar to the Control, while those of Tissue-Vit were significantly lower compared to the Control. Both vitrified groups had an augmented rate of granulosa cellular proliferation compared to Control. Secondary follicles can be successfully vitrified before or after isolation from the ovarian tissue without impairing their ability to survive and grow during in vitro culture.

  4. Physical enviroment of 2-D animal cell aggregates formed in a short pathlength ultrasound standing wave trap.

    PubMed

    Bazou, Despina; Kuznetsova, Larisa A; Coakley, W Terence

    2005-03-01

    2-D mammalian cell aggregates can be formed and levitated in a 1.5 MHz single half wavelength ultrasound standing wave trap. The physical environment of cells in such a trap has been examined. Attention was paid to parameters such as temperature, acoustic streaming, cavitation and intercellular forces. The extent to which these factors might be intrusive to a neural cell aggregate levitated in the trap was evaluated. Neural cells were exposed to ultrasound at a pressure amplitude of 0.54 MPa for 30 s; a small aggregate had been formed at the center of the trap. The pressure amplitude was then decreased to 0.27 MPa for 2 min, at which level the aggregation process continued at a slower rate. The pressure amplitude was then decreased to 0.06 MPa for 1 h. Temperature measurements that were conducted in situ with a 200 microm thermocouple over a 30 min period showed that the maximum temperature rise was less than 0.5 K. Acoustic streaming was measured by the particle image velocimetry method (PIV). It was shown that the hydrodynamic stress imposed on cells by acoustic streaming is less than that imposed by gentle preparative centrifugation procedures. Acoustic spectrum analysis showed that cavitation activity does not occur in the cell suspensions sonicated at the above pressures. White noise was detected only at a pressure amplitude of 1.96 MPa. Finally, it was shown that the attractive acoustic force between ultrasonically agglomerated cells is small compared with the normal attractive van der Waals force that operates at close cell surface separations. It is concluded that the standing wave trap operates only to concentrate cells locally, as in tissue, and does not modify the in vitro expression of surface receptor interactions.

  5. Murine hematopoietic stem cell dormancy controlled by induction of a novel short form of PSF1 by histone deacetylase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Yinglu; Gong, Zhi-Yuan; Takakura, Nobuyuki

    2015-06-10

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can survive long-term in a state of dormancy. Little is known about how histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) affect HSC kinetics. Here, we use trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, to enforce histone acetylation and show that this suppresses cell cycle entry by dormant HSCs. Previously, we found that haploinsufficiency of PSF1, a DNA replication factor, led to attenuation of the bone marrow (BM) HSC pool size and lack of acute proliferation after 5-FU ablation. Because PSF1 protein is present in CD34{sup +} transiently amplifying HSCs but not in CD34{sup −} long-term reconstituting-HSCs which are resting in a dormant state, we analyzed the relationship between dormancy and PSF1 expression, and how a histone deacetylase inhibitor affects this. We found that CD34{sup +} HSCs produce long functional PSF1 (PSF1a) but CD34{sup −} HSCs produce a shorter possibly non-functional PSF1 (PSF1b, c, dominantly PSF1c). Using PSF1a-overexpressing NIH-3T3 cells in which the endogenous PSF1 promoter is suppressed, we found that TSA treatment promotes production of the shorter form of PSF1 possibly by inducing recruitment of E2F family factors upstream of the PSF1 transcription start site. Our data document one mechanism by which histone deacetylase inhibitors affect the dormancy of HSCs by regulating the DNA replication factor PSF1. - Highlights: • Hematopoetic stem cell dormancy is controlled by histone deacetylation inhibitors. • Dormancy of HSCs is associated with a shorter form of non-functional PSF1. • Histone deacetylase inhibitors suppress PSF1 promoter activity.

  6. The role of falling leptin levels in the neuroendocrine and metabolic adaptation to short-term starvation in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jean L; Heist, Kathleen; DePaoli, Alex M; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2003-05-01

    To elucidate the role of leptin in regulating neuroendocrine and metabolic function during an acute fast, six to eight healthy, lean men were studied under four separate conditions: a baseline fed state and three 72-hour fasting studies with administration of either placebo, low-dose recombinant-methionyl human leptin (r-metHuLeptin), or replacement-dose r-metHuLeptin designed to maintain serum leptin at levels similar to those in the fed state. Replacement-dose r-metHuLeptin administered during fasting prevents the starvation-induced changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and, in part, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and IGF-1 binding capacity in serum. Thus, in normal men, the fall in leptin with fasting may be both necessary and sufficient for the physiologic adaptations of these axes, which require leptin levels above a certain threshold for activation. In contrast to findings in mice, fasting-induced changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, renin-aldosterone, and growth hormone-IGF-1 axes as well as fuel utilization may be independent of leptin in humans. The role of leptin in normalizing several starvation-induced neuroendocrine changes may have important implications for the pathophysiology and treatment of eating disorders and obesity.

  7. Metabolic Analysis of Adaptation to Short-Term Changes in Culture Conditions of the Marine Diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana

    PubMed Central

    Bromke, Mariusz A.; Giavalisco, Patrick; Willmitzer, Lothar; Hesse, Holger

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the metabolic and lipidomic profiling of 97 low-molecular weight compounds from the primary metabolism and 124 lipid compounds of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. The metabolic profiles were created for diatoms perturbed for 24 hours with four different treatments: (I) removal of nitrogen, (II) lower iron concentration, (III) addition of sea salt, (IV) addition of carbonate to their growth media. Our results show that as early as 24 hours after nitrogen depletion significant qualitative and quantitative change in lipid composition as well as in the primary metabolism of Thalassiosira pseudonana occurs. So we can observe the accumulation of several storage lipids, namely triacylglycerides, and TCA cycle intermediates, of which citric acid increases more than 10-fold. These changes are positively correlated with expression of TCA enzymes genes. Next to the TCA cycle intermediates and storage lipid changes, we have observed decrease in N-containing lipids and primary metabolites such as amino acids. As a measure of counteracting nitrogen starvation, we have observed elevated expression levels of nitrogen uptake and amino acid biosynthetic genes. This indicates that diatoms can fast and efficiently adapt to changing environment by altering the metabolic fluxes and metabolite abundances. Especially, the accumulation of proline and the decrease of dimethylsulfoniopropionate suggest that the proline is the main osmoprotectant for the diatom in nitrogen rich conditions. PMID:23799147

  8. Metabolic adaptations to short-term every-other-day feeding in long-living Ames dwarf mice.

    PubMed

    Brown-Borg, Holly M; Rakoczy, Sharlene

    2013-09-01

    Restrictive dietary interventions exert significant beneficial physiological effects in terms of aging and age-related disease in many species. Every other day feeding (EOD) has been utilized in aging research and shown to mimic many of the positive outcomes consequent with dietary restriction. This study employed long living Ames dwarf mice subjected to EOD feeding to examine the adaptations of the oxidative phosphorylation and antioxidative defense systems to this feeding regimen. Every other day feeding lowered liver glutathione (GSH) concentrations in dwarf and wild type (WT) mice but altered GSH biosynthesis and degradation in WT mice only. The activities of liver OXPHOS enzymes and corresponding proteins declined in WT mice fed EOD while in dwarf animals, the levels were maintained or increased with this feeding regimen. Antioxidative enzymes were differentially affected depending on the tissue, whether proliferative or post-mitotic. Gene expression of components of liver methionine metabolism remained elevated in dwarf mice when compared to WT mice as previously reported however, enzymes responsible for recycling homocysteine to methionine were elevated in both genotypes in response to EOD feeding. The data suggest that the differences in anabolic hormone levels likely affect the sensitivity of long living and control mice to this dietary regimen, with dwarf mice exhibiting fewer responses in comparison to WT mice. These results provide further evidence that dwarf mice may be better protected against metabolic and environmental perturbations which may in turn, contribute to their extended longevity.

  9. Metabolic adaptations to short-term every-other-day feeding in long-living Ames dwarf mice

    PubMed Central

    Brown-Borg, Holly M.; Rakoczy, Sharlene

    2013-01-01

    Restrictive dietary interventions exert significant beneficial physiological effects in terms of aging and age-related disease in many species. Every other day feeding (EOD) has been utilized in aging research and shown to mimic many of the positive outcomes consequent with dietary restriction. This study employed long living Ames dwarf mice subjected to EOD feeding to examine the adaptations of the oxidative phosphorylation and antioxidative defense systems to this feeding regimen. Every other day feeding lowered liver glutathione (GSH) concentrations in dwarf and wild type (WT) mice but altered GSH biosynthesis and degradation in WT mice only. The activities of liver OXPHOS enzymes and corresponding proteins declined in WT mice fed EOD while in dwarf animals, the levels were maintained or increased with this feeding regimen. Antioxidative enzymes were differentially affected depending on the tissue, whether proliferative or post-mitotic. Gene expression of components of liver methionine metabolism remained elevated in dwarf mice when compared to WT mice as previously reported however, enzymes responsible for recycling homocysteine to methionine were elevated in both genotypes in response to EOD feeding. The data suggest that the differences in anabolic hormone levels likely affect the sensitivity of long living and control mice to this dietary regimen, with dwarf mice exhibiting fewer responses in comparison to WT mice. These results provide further evidence that dwarf mice may be better protected against metabolic and environmental perturbations which may in turn, contribute to their extended longevity. PMID:23832075

  10. Short Palate, Lung, and Nasal Epithelial Clone–1 Is a Tightly Regulated Airway Sensor in Innate and Adaptive Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Britto, Clemente J.; Liu, Qing; Curran, David R.; Patham, Bhargavi; Dela Cruz, Charles S.

    2013-01-01

    Short palate, lung, and nasal epithelial clone–1 (SPLUNC1) is a protein abundantly expressed by the respiratory epithelium of the proximal lower respiratory tract, a site of great environmental exposure. Previous studies showed that SPLUNC1 exerts antimicrobial effects, regulates airway surface liquid and mucociliary clearance, and suppresses allergic airway inflammation. We studied SPLUNC1 to gain insights into its role in host defense. In the lower respiratory tract, concentrations of SPLUNC1 are high under basal conditions. In models of pneumonia caused by common respiratory pathogens, and in Th1-induced and Th2-induced airway inflammation, SPLUNC1 secretion is markedly reduced. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns and IFN-γ act directly on airway epithelial cells to inhibit SPLUNC1 mRNA expression. Thus, SPLUNC1 is quickly suppressed during infection, in response to an insult on the epithelial surface. These experiments highlight the finely tuned fluctuations of SPLUNC1 in response to exposures in the respiratory tract, and suggest that the loss of SPLUNC1 is a crucial feature of host defense across air-breathing animal species. PMID:23470624

  11. Designing of an artificial light energy converter in the form of short-chain dyad when combined with core-shell gold/silver nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Dutta Pal, Gopa; Paul, Somnath; Bardhan, Munmun; De, Asish; Ganguly, Tapan

    2017-06-05

    UV-vis absorption, steady state and time resolved fluorescence and absorption spectroscopic investigations demonstrate that the short chain dyad MNTMA when combined with gold-silver core-shell (Au@Ag) nanocomposite , forms elongated conformers in the excited state whereas for the dyad - Ag (spherical) system the majority of dyads remains in a folded conformation. In the dyad-core-shell nanocomposite system, energy wasting charge recombination rate slows down primarily due to elongated conformation and thus it may be anticipated that this hybrid nanocomposite system may serve as a better light energy conversion device.

  12. Relationship of Non-Structural Forms of Social Interaction with Problems of Social and Psychological Adaptation of Students Prone to Chemical Addictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilemkhanova, Elvira N.

    2016-01-01

    The changes in contemporary social and cultural environment determine the necessity to increase the efficiency of adaptive mechanisms, especially for those categories of people who are subject to social risks. One of those categories is students prone to chemical addictions. To study the relationship of forms of social interaction with problems of…

  13. Body mass loss during adaptation to short winter-like days increases food foraging, but not food hoarding.

    PubMed

    Teubner, Brett J W; Bartness, Timothy J

    2009-04-20

    Siberian hamsters markedly reduce their body/lipid mass ( approximately 20-45%) in short 'winter-like' days (SD). Decreases in body/lipid mass associated with food deprivation or lipectomy result in increases in foraging and food hoarding. When at their SD-induced body/lipid mass nadir, food hoarding is not increased despite their decreases in body/lipid mass, but hoarding was not tested during the dynamic period of body/lipid mass loss (first 5-6 weeks of SDs). Therefore, we tested for changes in foraging/hoarding during this initial period in Siberian hamsters housed in a simulated burrow with a wheel running-based foraging system and exposed to either long 'summer-like' days (LD) or SDs. Two foraging effort conditions were used: 10 Revolutions/Pellet (pellet delivered after running 10 revolutions) and a Free Wheel/Free Food condition (wheel available, food pellets non-contingently available). Regardless of the foraging condition, body mass was significantly reduced across 8 weeks of SDs ( approximately 15%). Foraging increased after 7 weeks in SDs, but food hoarding did not increase compared to LDs. Instead food hoarding significantly decreased in SDs at Weeks 2-5 compared with Week 0 values, with the 10 Revolutions/Pellet foraging group returning to LD levels thereafter and the Free Wheel/Free Food group remaining reduced from Weeks 2-7. Collectively, we found that SDs decreased body mass, increased foraging after 7 weeks, and increased food hoarding, but only after an initial decrease and not above that seen in LDs. These data suggest that SD-induced body/lipid mass losses do not engender similar behavioral responses as seen with food deprivation or lipectomy.

  14. Detecting short spatial scale local adaptation and epistatic selection in climate-related candidate genes in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) populations.

    PubMed

    Csilléry, Katalin; Lalagüe, Hadrien; Vendramin, Giovanni G; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Fady, Bruno; Oddou-Muratorio, Sylvie

    2014-10-01

    Detecting signatures of selection in tree populations threatened by climate change is currently a major research priority. Here, we investigated the signature of local adaptation over a short spatial scale using 96 European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) individuals originating from two pairs of populations on the northern and southern slopes of Mont Ventoux (south-eastern France). We performed both single and multilocus analysis of selection based on 53 climate-related candidate genes containing 546 SNPs. FST outlier methods at the SNP level revealed a weak signal of selection, with three marginally significant outliers in the northern populations. At the gene level, considering haplotypes as alleles, two additional marginally significant outliers were detected, one on each slope. To account for the uncertainty of haplotype inference, we averaged the Bayes factors over many possible phase reconstructions. Epistatic selection offers a realistic multilocus model of selection in natural populations. Here, we used a test suggested by Ohta based on the decomposition of the variance of linkage disequilibrium. Overall populations, 0.23% of the SNP pairs (haplotypes) showed evidence of epistatic selection, with nearly 80% of them being within genes. One of the between gene epistatic selection signals arose between an FST outlier and a nonsynonymous mutation in a drought response gene. Additionally, we identified haplotypes containing selectively advantageous allele combinations which were unique to high or low elevations and northern or southern populations. Several haplotypes contained nonsynonymous mutations situated in genes with known functional importance for adaptation to climatic factors.

  15. Cognition and Adaptive Skills in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1: A Study of 55 Individuals with Congenital and Childhood Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekstrom, Anne-Berit; Hakenas-Plate, Louise; Tulinius, Mar; Wentz, Elisabet

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To investigate cognitive abilities and adaptive skills in children and adolescents with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and correlate the findings to the cytosine-thymine-guanine (CTG) repeat expansion size. Method: Cognitive level was assessed in 55 children and adolescents with DM1 (31 males, 24 females; mean age 12y 1mo, SD 5y 1mo; range…

  16. Cross-linguistic validity of the French and Dutch versions of the Very Short form of the Physical Self-Inventory among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Probst, Michel

    2015-09-01

    The study tested the cross-linguistic validity of the Very Short form of the Physical Self-Inventory (PSI-VS) among 1115 Flemish (Dutch version) adolescents, and a comparison sample of 1103 French adolescents (French version; from Morin & Maïano, 2011a). Flemish adolescents also completed a positively worded reformulation of the reverse-keyed item of the physical attractiveness (PA) subscale. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) supported the factor validity and reliability (except for the Dutch PA subscale) of the PSI-VS, and its partial measurement invariance across samples. CFA conducted on the modified version of the Dutch PSI-VS (11 original items plus the positively worded replacement), presented satisfactory reliability (ω=.67-.89), and was fully invariant across sexes, age groups, and body mass index categories. Additionally, results revealed latent mean differences across sexes and body mass index categories. Therefore, the modified Dutch PSI-VS can be used whenever there is a need for a very short physical self-concept questionnaire.

  17. Short-term oral administration of several manganese compounds in mice: Physiological and behavioral alterations caused by different forms of manganese

    SciTech Connect

    Komura, Junko; Sakamoto, Michiko )

    1991-06-01

    In Kanazawa, Japan, air pollution from a Mn treatment factory was found to affect local junior high school students, who showed reduced respiratory function relative to their exposure to Mn. The use of Mn as an antiknock ingredient in automobile fuels has recently been introduced, placing the general population at risk of chronic low-level exposure. There are few animal studies on the effects of compounds other than manganese chloride (MnCl{sub 2}). In the case of environmental pollution by Mn, the differing physiological effects of the various chemical forms of Mn must be considered. The present study therefore examined the differences in the effects of several Mn compounds on the physiology and behavior of mice by short-term oral administration.

  18. Short and Long Term Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on Hormones, Metabolites, Antioxidant System, Glycogen Concentration, and Aerobic Performance Adaptations in Rats

    PubMed Central

    de Araujo, Gustavo G.; Papoti, Marcelo; dos Reis, Ivan Gustavo Masselli; de Mello, Maria A. R.; Gobatto, Claudio A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of short and long term High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) on anaerobic and aerobic performance, creatinine, uric acid, urea, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, testosterone, corticosterone, and glycogen concentration (liver, soleus, and gastrocnemius). The Wistar rats were separated in two groups: HIIT and sedentary/control (CT). The lactate minimum (LM) was used to evaluate the aerobic and anaerobic performance (AP) (baseline, 6, and 12 weeks). The lactate peak determination consisted of two swim bouts at 13% of body weight (bw): (1) 30 s of effort; (2) 30 s of passive recovery; (3) exercise until exhaustion (AP). Tethered loads equivalent to 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, and 6.5% bw were performed in incremental phase. The aerobic capacity in HIIT group increased after 12 weeks (5.2 ± 0.2% bw) in relation to baseline (4.4 ± 0.2% bw), but not after 6 weeks (4.5 ± 0.3% bw). The exhaustion time in HIIT group showed higher values than CT after 6 (HIIT = 58 ± 5 s; CT = 40 ± 7 s) and 12 weeks (HIIT = 62 ± 7 s; CT = 49 ± 3 s). Glycogen (mg/100 mg) increased in gastrocnemius for HIIT group after 6 weeks (0.757 ± 0.076) and 12 weeks (1.014 ± 0.157) in comparison to baseline (0.358 ± 0.024). In soleus, the HIIT increased glycogen after 6 weeks (0.738 ± 0.057) and 12 weeks (0.709 ± 0.085) in comparison to baseline (0.417 ± 0.035). The glycogen in liver increased after HIIT 12 weeks (4.079 ± 0.319) in relation to baseline (2.400 ± 0.416). The corticosterone (ng/mL) in HIIT increased after 6 weeks (529.0 ± 30.5) and reduced after 12 weeks (153.6 ± 14.5) in comparison to baseline (370.0 ± 18.3). In conclusion, long term HIIT enhanced the aerobic capacity, but short term was not enough to cause aerobic adaptations. The anaerobic performance increased in HIIT short and long term compared with CT, without differences between HIIT short and long term. Furthermore, the

  19. Short and Long Term Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on Hormones, Metabolites, Antioxidant System, Glycogen Concentration, and Aerobic Performance Adaptations in Rats.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Gustavo G; Papoti, Marcelo; Dos Reis, Ivan Gustavo Masselli; de Mello, Maria A R; Gobatto, Claudio A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of short and long term High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) on anaerobic and aerobic performance, creatinine, uric acid, urea, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, testosterone, corticosterone, and glycogen concentration (liver, soleus, and gastrocnemius). The Wistar rats were separated in two groups: HIIT and sedentary/control (CT). The lactate minimum (LM) was used to evaluate the aerobic and anaerobic performance (AP) (baseline, 6, and 12 weeks). The lactate peak determination consisted of two swim bouts at 13% of body weight (bw): (1) 30 s of effort; (2) 30 s of passive recovery; (3) exercise until exhaustion (AP). Tethered loads equivalent to 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, and 6.5% bw were performed in incremental phase. The aerobic capacity in HIIT group increased after 12 weeks (5.2 ± 0.2% bw) in relation to baseline (4.4 ± 0.2% bw), but not after 6 weeks (4.5 ± 0.3% bw). The exhaustion time in HIIT group showed higher values than CT after 6 (HIIT = 58 ± 5 s; CT = 40 ± 7 s) and 12 weeks (HIIT = 62 ± 7 s; CT = 49 ± 3 s). Glycogen (mg/100 mg) increased in gastrocnemius for HIIT group after 6 weeks (0.757 ± 0.076) and 12 weeks (1.014 ± 0.157) in comparison to baseline (0.358 ± 0.024). In soleus, the HIIT increased glycogen after 6 weeks (0.738 ± 0.057) and 12 weeks (0.709 ± 0.085) in comparison to baseline (0.417 ± 0.035). The glycogen in liver increased after HIIT 12 weeks (4.079 ± 0.319) in relation to baseline (2.400 ± 0.416). The corticosterone (ng/mL) in HIIT increased after 6 weeks (529.0 ± 30.5) and reduced after 12 weeks (153.6 ± 14.5) in comparison to baseline (370.0 ± 18.3). In conclusion, long term HIIT enhanced the aerobic capacity, but short term was not enough to cause aerobic adaptations. The anaerobic performance increased in HIIT short and long term compared with CT, without differences between HIIT short and long term. Furthermore, the

  20. Short version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale adapted to Spanish and French: Towards a cross-cultural research in problematic mobile phone use.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz

    2017-01-01

    Research into smartphone addiction has followed the scientific literature on problematic mobile phone use developed during the last decade, with valid screening scales being developed to identify maladaptive behaviour associated with this technology, usually in adolescent populations. This study adapts the short version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale [SAS-SV] into Spanish and into French. The aim of the study was to (i) examine the scale's psychometric properties in both languages, (ii) estimate the prevalence of potential excessive smartphone use among Spanish and Belgian adults, and (iii) compare the addictive symptomatology measured by the SAS-SV between potentially excessive users from both countries. Data were collected via online surveys administered to 281 and 144 voluntary participants from both countries respectively, aged over 18years and recruited from academic environments. Results indicated that the reliability was excellent (i.e., Cronbach alphas: Spain: .88 and Belgium: .90), and the validity was very good (e.g., unifactoriality with a 49% and 54% of variance explained through explorative factor analysis, respectively). Findings showed that the prevalence of potential excessive smartphone use 12.5% for Spanish and 21.5% for francophone Belgians. The scale showed that at least 60% of excessive users endorsed withdrawal and tolerance symptoms in both countries, although the proposed addictive symptomatology did not cover the entire group of estimated excessive users and cultural differences appeared. This first cross-cultural study discusses the smartphone excessive use construct from its addictive pathway.

  1. The Satz-Mogel short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--revised: effects of global mental status and age on test-retest reliability.

    PubMed

    McPherson, S; Buckwalter, G J; Tingus, K; Betz, B; Back, C

    2000-10-01

    Abbreviated versions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) have been developed as time saving devices that provide accurate estimates of overall level of general intellectual functioning while decreasing test administration time. The Satz-Mogel short form of the WAIS-R has received substantial attention in the literature as an accurate measure of intellectual functions when compared with the Full WAIS-R. However, most studies comparing the Satz-Mogel version to the Full WAIS-R have only provided correlational analyses. Our study was an attempt to apply a more rigorous statistical methodology in determining if the Full WAIS-R and abbreviated versions are equivalent. We explored the impact of level of global mental status and age on the Satz-Mogel version. Although the two forms of the test correlated highly, repeated measures design indicated significant differences between Satz-Mogel and Full WAIS-R when participants were divided into groups based on level of global impairment and age. Our results suggest that the Satz-Mogel version of the test may not be equivalent to the full WAIS-R and is likely to misrepresent a patient's level of intellectual functioning, particularly for patients with progressive degenerative conditions. The implications of applying Satz-Mogel scoring to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) are discussed.

  2. Distinguishing Dispositional and Cultivated Forms of Mindfulness: Item-Level Factor Analysis of Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and Construction of Short Inventory of Mindfulness Capability

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Wenjie; Li, Jinxia

    2016-01-01

    The widely used Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) mixes the dispositional and cultivated forms of mindfulness, thereby resulting in factor issues in previous studies. The present study distinguished the two forms of mindfulness and developed a Short Inventory of Mindfulness Capability at the item level of FFMQ. Three facets of mindfulness, namely, Describing, Acting with Awareness, and Non-judging of Experience, were assessed using community (n = 433) and student (n = 347) samples. Both meditators and non-meditators participated. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed a three-factor model of mindfulness with 12 items (four items per subscale). Psychometric evaluation demonstrated the solid factor structure of the measurement with high factor loadings, good internal consistency, and convergent validities. Longitudinal analysis indicated that the Acting with Awareness facet was a significant predictor of depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later. Discussions focused on the roles of mindfulness capability on mental health as well as the relationship between them. A higher-order factor of mindfulness should be used to examine the efficacy of intervention or monitor the changes. Researchers who need to study the specific role or efficacy of each facet should calculate the scores of different facets. PMID:27667978

  3. GRB 060505: A Possible Short-Duration Gamma-Ray Burst in a Star Forming Region at Redshift of 0.09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ofek, E. O.; Cenko, S. B.; Gal-Yam, A.; Fox, D. B.; Nakar, E.; Rau, A.; Frail, D. A.; Kullkarni, S. R.; Price, P. A.; Schmidt, B. P.; Soderberg, A. M.; Peterson, B.; Berger, E.; Sharon, K.; Shemmer, O.; Penprase, B. E.; Chevalier, R. A.; Brown, P. J.; Burrows, D. N.; Gehrels, N.; Harrison, F.; Holland, S. T.

    2007-01-01

    On May 5, 2006 a four-second duration, low-energy, approximately 10(exp 59) erg, Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) was observed, spatially associated with a z=0.0894 galaxy. Here, we report the discovery of the GRB optical afterglow and observations of its environment using gemini-south, Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Chandra, Swift and the Very Large Array. The optical afterglow of this GRB is spatially associated with a prominent star forming region in the Sc-type galaxy 2dFGRS S173Z112. Its proximity to a star forming region suggests that the progenitor delay time, from birth to explosion, is smaller than about 10 Myr. Our HST deep imaging rules out the presence of a supernova brighter than an absolute magnitude of about -11 (or -126 in case of 'maximal' extinction) at about two weeks after the burst, and limits the ejected mass of radioactive Nickel 56 to be less than about 2x10(exp -4) solar mass (assuming no extinction). Although it was suggested that GRB 060505 may belong to a new class of long-duration GRBs with no supernova, we argue that the simplest interpretation is that the physical mechanism for this burst is the same as for short-duration GRBs.

  4. A dearth of short-period massive binaries in the young massive star forming region M 17. Evidence for a large orbital separation at birth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, H.; Ramírez-Tannus, M. C.; de Koter, A.; Kaper, L.; Tramper, F.; Bik, A.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: The formation of massive stars remains poorly understood and little is known about their birth multiplicity properties. Here, we aim to quantitatively investigate the strikingly low radial-velocity dispersion measured for a sample of 11 massive pre- and near-main-sequence stars (σ1D= 5.6 ± 0.2 km s-1) in the very young massive star forming region M 17, in order to obtain first constraints on the multiplicity properties of young massive stellar objects. Methods: We compute the radial-velocity dispersion of synthetic populations of massive stars for various multiplicity properties and we compare the obtained σ1D distributions to the observed value. We specifically investigate two scenarios: a low binary fraction and a dearth of short-period binary systems. Results: Simulated populations with low binary fractions () or with truncated period distributions (Pcutoff > 9 months) are able to reproduce the low σ1D observed within their 68%-confidence intervals. Furthermore, parent populations with fbin > 0.42 or Pcutoff < 47 d can be rejected at the 5%-significance level. Both constraints are in stark contrast with the high binary fraction and plethora of short-period systems in few Myr-old, well characterized OB-type populations. To explain the difference in the context of the first scenario would require a variation of the outcome of the massive star formation process. In the context of the second scenario, compact binaries must form later on, and the cut-off period may be related to physical length-scales representative of the bloated pre-main-sequence stellar radii or of their accretion disks. Conclusions: If the obtained constraints for the M 17's massive-star population are representative of the multiplicity properties of massive young stellar objects, our results may provide support to a massive star formation process in which binaries are initially formed at larger separations, then harden or migrate to produce the typical (untruncated) power-law period

  5. The adaptive radiation of lichen-forming Teloschistaceae is associated with sunscreening pigments and a bark-to-rock substrate shift.

    PubMed

    Gaya, Ester; Fernández-Brime, Samantha; Vargas, Reinaldo; Lachlan, Robert F; Gueidan, Cécile; Ramírez-Mejía, Martín; Lutzoni, François

    2015-09-15

    Adaptive radiations play key roles in the generation of biodiversity and biological novelty, and therefore understanding the factors that drive them remains one of the most important challenges of evolutionary biology. Although both intrinsic innovations and extrinsic ecological opportunities contribute to diversification bursts, few studies have looked at the synergistic effect of such factors. Here we investigate the Teloschistales (Ascomycota), a group of >1,000 lichenized species with variation in species richness and phenotypic traits that hinted at a potential adaptive radiation. We found evidence for a dramatic increase in diversification rate for one of four families within this order--Teloschistaceae--which occurred ∼ 100 Mya (Late Cretaceous) and was associated with a switch from bark to rock and from shady to sun-exposed habitats. This adaptation to sunny habitats is likely to have been enabled by a contemporaneous key novel phenotypic innovation: the production in both vegetative structure (thallus) and fruiting body (apothecia) of anthraquinones, secondary metabolites known to protect against UV light. We found that the two ecological factors (sun exposure and rock substrate) and the phenotypic innovation (anthraquinones in the thallus) were all significant when testing for state-dependent shifts in diversification rates, and together they seem likely to be responsible for the success of the Teloschistaceae, one of the largest lichen-forming fungal lineages. Our results support the idea that adaptive radiations are driven not by a single factor or key innovation, but require a serendipitous combination of both intrinsic biotic and extrinsic abiotic and ecological factors.

  6. The psychometric properties of the Socio-Moral Reflection Measure--Short Form and the Moral Theme Inventory for men with and without intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Peter E; Murphy, Glynis H; Clare, Isabel C H; Palmer, Emma J

    2010-01-01

    Drawing conclusions from the literature regarding the moral development of people with intellectual disabilities (IDs) is difficult because of the use of unstandardised and idiosyncratic measures. In order to address this short-coming, a moral reasoning production measure (the Socio-Moral Reflection Measure--Short Form; SRM-SF) and a recognition measure (the Moral Theme Inventory; MTI) were presented to men with and without IDs who had no known history of engaging in illegal behaviour. The instruments were completed on two occasions, separated by a two-week interval, in order to investigate their basic psychometric properties. The results indicated that there was a strong relationship between the MTI and the SRM-SF, suggesting that the MTI has convergent validity. The internal consistency of the MTI and the SRM-SF ranged from moderate to substantial for both men with and without IDs. However, the test-retest reliability of the MTI was poor for men with IDs, while it was good for men without IDs. The test-retest reliability of the SRM-SF was good for both men with and without IDs. Comparison of the moral reasoning abilities of men with and without IDs suggested that many of the differences between the two groups could be accounted for by general intellectual functioning. The exception was overall score on the SRM-SF and moral reasoning in relation to the law, where men with IDs scored at stage 2(1), when intelligence was controlled. The results were interpreted by suggesting that the relationship between moral reasoning and illegal behaviour may take an inverted U curve shape, moderated by intelligence.

  7. Comparison of the Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Assessment Questionnaire and the Short-Form International Physical Activity Questionnaire: An Analysis of Health Survey for England Data

    PubMed Central

    Scholes, Shaun; Bridges, Sally; Ng Fat, Linda; Mindell, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Assessment Questionnaire (PASBAQ), used within the Health Survey for England (HSE) at 5-yearly intervals, is not included annually due to funding and interview-length constraints. Policy-makers and data-users are keen to consider shorter instruments such as the Short-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) for the annual survey. Both questionnaires were administered in HSE 2012, enabling comparative assessment in a random sample of 1252 adults. Methods Relative agreement using prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa (PABAK) statistics was estimated for: sufficient aerobic activity (moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA] ≥150minutes/week); inactivity (MVPA<30minutes/week); and excessive sitting (≥540minutes/weekday). Cross-sectional associations with health outcomes were compared across tertiles of MVPA and tertiles of sitting time using logistic regression with tests for linear trend. Results Compared with PASBAQ data, IPAQ-assessed estimates of sufficient aerobic activity and inactivity were higher and lower, respectively; estimates of excessive sitting were higher. Demographic patterns in prevalence were similar. Agreement using PABAK statistics was fair-to-moderate for sufficient aerobic activity (0.32–0.49), moderate-to-substantial for inactivity (0.42–0.74), and moderate-to-substantial for excessive sitting (0.49–0.75). As with the PASBAQ, IPAQ-assessed MVPA and sitting each showed graded associations with mental well-being (women: P for trend = 0.003 and 0.004, respectively) and obesity (women: P for trend = 0.007 and 0.014, respectively). Conclusions Capturing habitual physical activity and sedentary behaviour through brief questionnaires is complex. Differences in prevalence estimates can reflect differences in questionnaire structure and content rather than differences in reported behaviour. Treating all IPAQ-assessed walking as moderate-intensity contributed to the

  8. Adaptive changes of pancreatic protease secretion to a short-term vegan diet: influence of reduced intake and modification of protein.

    PubMed

    Walkowiak, Jaroslaw; Mądry, Edyta; Lisowska, Aleksandra; Szaflarska-Popławska, Anna; Grzymisławski, Marian; Stankowiak-Kulpa, Hanna; Przysławski, Juliusz

    2012-01-01

    In our previous study, we demonstrated that abstaining from meat, for 1 month, by healthy omnivores (lacto-ovovegetarian model) resulted in a statistical decrease in pancreatic secretion as measured by faecal elastase-1 output. However, no correlation between relative and non-relative changes of energy and nutrient consumption and pancreatic secretion was documented. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to assess the changes of exocrine pancreatic secretion with a more restrictive dietetic modification, by applying a vegan diet. A total of twenty-one healthy omnivores (sixteen females and five males) participated in the prospective study lasting for 6 weeks. The nutrient intake and faecal output of pancreatic enzymes (elastase-1, chymotrypsin and lipase) were assessed twice during the study. Each assessment period lasted for 7 d: the first before the transition to the vegan diet (omnivore diet) and the second during the last week of the study (vegan diet). The dietary modification resulted in a significant decrease in faecal elastase-1 (P < 0·05) and chymotrypsin output (P < 0·04). The lipase excretion remained unchanged. The decrease in proteolytic enzymes was documented to be positively correlated with a decreased protein intake (P < 0·05). In addition, elastase-1 and chymotrypsin outputs were also related to the changes of protein type, plant v. animal (P < 0·04 and P < 0·03, respectively). It was concluded that significant reduction and modification of protein intake due to a short-term vegan diet resulted in an adaptation of pancreatic protease secretion in healthy volunteers.

  9. Validation of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form 36 (KDQOL-36™) US Spanish and English Versions in a Cohort of Hispanics with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ricardo, Ana C.; Hacker, Eileen; Lora, Claudia M.; Ackerson, Lynn; DeSalvo, Karen B.; Go, Alan; Kusek, John W.; Nessel, Lisa; Ojo, Akinlolu; Townsend, Raymond R.; Xie, Dawei; Ferrans, Carol E.; Lash, James P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the reliability and validity of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form 36 (KDQOL-36™) in Hispanics with mild-to-moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD). Design Cross-sectional Setting Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study Participants 420 Hispanic (150 English- and 270 Spanish-speakers), and 409 non-Hispanic White individuals, matched by age (mean 57 years), sex (60% male), kidney function (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate 36ml/min/1.73m2), and diabetes (70%). Methods To measure construct validity, we selected instruments, comorbidities, and laboratory tests related to at least one KDQOL-36™ subscale. Reliability was determined by calculating Cronbach’s alpha. Results Reliability of each KDQOL-36™ subscale [SF-12 Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS), Symptoms/Problems, Burden of Kidney Disease and Effects of Kidney Disease] was very good (Cronbach’s alpha >0.8). Construct validity was supported by expected negative correlation between MCS scores and the Beck Depression Inventory in all three subgroups (r= −0.56 to −0.61, P<.0001). There was inverse correlation between the Symptoms/Problems subscale and the Patient Symptom Form (r= −0.70 to −0.77, P<.0001). We also found significant, positive correlation between the PCS score and a physical activity survey (r= +0.29 to +0.38, P≤.003); and between the PCS and MCS scores and the Kansas City Questionnaire (r= +0.31 to +0.64, P<.0001). Reliability and validity were similar across all racial/ethnic groups analyzed separately. Conclusion Our findings support the use of the KDQOL-36™ as a measure of HRQOL in this cohort of US Hispanics with CKD. PMID:23530302

  10. Physical and mental impact of psoriasis severity as measured by the compact Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12) quality of life tool.

    PubMed

    Grozdev, Ivan; Kast, Douglas; Cao, Lauren; Carlson, Diana; Pujari, Prasad; Schmotzer, Brian; Babineau, Denise; Kern, Elizabeth; McCormick, Thomas; Cooper, Kevin D; Korman, Neil J

    2012-04-01

    The Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12) is used to assess the patient's quality of life (QoL) using the physical component score (PCS) and the mental component score (MCS). The purpose of this study was to determine whether the SF-12 PCS and MCS are associated with psoriasis severity and to compare QoL between Murdough Family Center for Psoriasis (MFCP) patients and patients with other major chronic diseases included in the National Survey of Functional Health Status data. We used data from 429 adult patients enrolled in MFCP. Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) was used to assess psoriasis severity at the time of completion of the SF-12 questionnaire. Other variables included age, sex, body mass index, psoriatic arthritis, psychiatric disorders, and comorbidities. Linear regression models were used to estimate effect sizes ± 95% confidence intervals. For every 10-point increase in PASI, there was a 1.1 ± 1.3 unit decrease in MCS (P=0.100) and a 2.4 ± 1.3 unit decrease in PCS (P<0.001). Psoriasis severity was associated with PCS and MCS after adjusting for variables, although the strength of the relationship was attenuated in some models. Psoriasis severity is associated with decreased QoL. SF-12 may be a useful tool for assessing QoL among psoriasis patients.

  11. Psychometric properties of the French version of the short form of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory among adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Potard, Catherine; Amoura, Camille; Kubiszewski, Violaine; Le Samedy, Mathieu; Moltrecht, Brigitte; Courtois, Robert

    2015-06-01

    We examined the psychometric qualities of the Short Form of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SF-CSEI) in a large sample of French adolescents and young adults. A 25-item French version was administered to 1,362 participants (561 aged below 16 years and 801 aged 16-25 years). Participants also completed other scales to measure construct validity (e.g., Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and General Health Questionnaire). Factorial analysis yielded evidence for a structure with three first-order factors for the SF-CSEI: personal, social, and family-derived self-esteem. The internal consistency of the questionnaire's different dimensions was satisfactory (Cronbach's α = .68-.77). Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that the SF-CSEI had moderate to high correlations with convergent measures (r = .19-.73) and constructs related to self-esteem (r = -.23-.65). Psychiatric patients (n = 67) scored significantly lower than a control group. Test-retest reliability was good for some of the factors, especially at 5 weeks and 1 year (r = .29-.79). The French version of the SF-CSEI appears to be a useful instrument, with a cross-culturally stable factorial structure.

  12. Establishing the Measurement Invariance of the Very Short Form of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire Revised for Mothers Who Vary on Race and Poverty Status.

    PubMed

    Leerkes, Esther M; Su, Jinni; Reboussin, Beth A; Daniel, Stephanie S; Payne, Chris C; Grzywacz, Joseph G

    2017-01-01

    We examined the measurement invariance of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire Revised-Very Short Form (IBQR-VSF; Putnam, Helbig, Gartstein, Rothbart, & Leerkes, 2014 ) in a sample of 470 racially (185 White, 285 African American) and socioeconomically diverse mothers (158 below federal poverty threshold, 296 above federal poverty threshold) of infants. Using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, we demonstrated configural, full metric, and full scalar invariance demonstrating that the 3-factor structure (negative emotionality, positive affectivity/surgency, orienting/regulatory capacity), pattern of item loadings, and item means were comparable for White and African American mothers, and for poor and not poor mothers. In addition, we demonstrated full error invariance across racial groups and partial error variance invariance across poverty status, demonstrating that item reliability was comparable for White and African American mothers, and both those above and below the poverty line (with the exception of a subset of items). Thus, the IBQR-VSF appears appropriate for use in racially and socioeconomically diverse samples.

  13. Are autistic traits measured equivalently in individuals with and without an autism spectrum disorder? An invariance analysis of the Autism Spectrum Quotient Short Form.

    PubMed

    Murray, Aja L; Booth, Tom; McKenzie, Karen; Kuenssberg, Renate; O'Donnell, Michael

    2014-01-01

    It is common to administer measures of autistic traits to those without autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) with, for example, the aim of understanding autistic personality characteristics in non-autistic individuals. Little research has examined the extent to which measures of autistic traits actually measure the same traits in the same way across those with and without an ASD. We addressed this question using a multi-group confirmatory factor invariance analysis of the Autism Quotient Short Form (AQ-S: Hoekstra et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 41(5):589-596, 2011) across those with (n = 148) and without (n = 168) ASD. Metric variance (equality of factor loadings), but not scalar invariance (equality of thresholds), held suggesting that the AQ-S measures the same latent traits in both groups, but with a bias in the manner in which trait levels are estimated. We, therefore, argue that the AQ-S can be used to investigate possible causes and consequences of autistic traits in both groups separately, but caution is due when combining or comparing levels of autistic traits across the two groups.

  14. Psychometric Properties of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) in a High-Risk Sample of Mothers and their Infants

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Nicole E.; Hungerford, Gabriela M.; Garcia, Dainelys; Graziano, Paulo A.; Bagner, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the English and Spanish versions of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) with mothers of 12- to 15-month-old infants with elevated levels of behavior problems and from predominately Hispanic, low-income backgrounds. Mothers of 58 infants were assessed as part of a larger study examining a brief home-based intervention for infants with elevated behavior problems. Internal consistency was good for all three subscales (i.e., Parental Distress, Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction, and Difficult Child) and the Total Stress scale. Convergent validity of subscales was supported by correlations with measures of theoretically related constructs, including maternal depressive symptoms, maternal parenting practices, and infant behavior. Furthermore, examination of the optimal clinical cutoff by examining sensitivity and specificity suggested that for this high-risk sample lower percentile scores (73rd – 77th), relative to the published 85th percentile cutoff, were sufficient for identifying mothers with clinically elevated depressive symptoms and infants with clinically elevated behavioral and emotional difficulties. The current results provide psychometric support for the PSI-SF as an effective and appropriate measure for use with high-risk families that have been underrepresented in previous research, including mothers of very young children with behavior problems, Hispanic and Spanish-speaking populations, and low-income families. PMID:26595220

  15. Psychometric properties of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) in a high-risk sample of mothers and their infants.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Nicole E; Hungerford, Gabriela M; Garcia, Dainelys; Graziano, Paulo A; Bagner, Daniel M

    2016-10-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the English and Spanish versions of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) with mothers of 12- to 15-month-old infants with elevated levels of behavior problems and from predominately Hispanic, low-income backgrounds. Mothers of 58 infants were assessed as part of a larger study examining a brief home-based intervention for infants with elevated behavior problems. Internal consistency was good for all 3 subscales (i.e., Parental Distress, Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction, and Difficult Child) and the Total Stress scale. Convergent validity of subscales was supported by correlations with measures of theoretically related constructs, including maternal depressive symptoms, maternal parenting practices, and infant behavior. Furthermore, examination of the optimal clinical cutoff by examining sensitivity and specificity suggested that for this high-risk sample lower percentile scores (73rd-77th), relative to the published 85th percentile cutoff, were sufficient for identifying mothers with clinically elevated depressive symptoms and infants with clinically elevated behavioral and emotional difficulties. The current results provide psychometric support for the PSI-SF as an effective and appropriate measure for use with high-risk families that have been underrepresented in previous research, including mothers of very young children with behavior problems, Hispanic and Spanish-speaking populations, and low-income families. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Preliminary investigation of the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the brief cognitive assessment tool-short form for Korean American nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Mansbach, William E; Mace, Ryan A; Clark, Kristen M

    2015-01-01

    The authors of the current article developed and investigated the psychometric properties of a Korean version of the Brief Cognitive Assessment Tool-Short Form (BCAT-SF-K) to better understand cognitive functioning of Korean American nursing home residents. In Step I, normative values were established for the BCAT-SF-K based on a sample of Korean American community-dwelling older adults (n = 34). In Step II, the authors confirmed construct validity for the BCAT-SF-K in a sample of Korean American nursing home residents (n = 26), described cognitive levels, and reported key demographics. In the nursing home sample, 84.6% of individuals had severe cognitive impairment, 7.7% had mild impairment, and 7.7% had normal cognition. The BCAT-SF-K appears to be a reliable cognitive screening measure for Korean American nursing home residents. Based on the current study's findings, Korean American nursing home residents are both older and more cognitively impaired than their American-born nursing home counterparts. Study findings are discussed in relation to improving care for these vulnerable nursing home residents.

  17. The RNase P RNA from cyanobacteria: short tandemly repeated repetitive (STRR) sequences are present within the RNase P RNA gene in heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Vioque, A

    1997-01-01

    The RNase P RNA gene (rnpB) from 10 cyanobacteria has been characterized. These new RNAs, together with the previously available ones, provide a comprehensive data set of RNase P RNA from diverse cyanobacterial lineages. All heterocystous cyanobacteria, but none of the non-heterocystous strains analyzed, contain short tandemly repeated repetitive (STRR) sequences that increase the length of helix P12. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments indicate that the STRR sequences are not required for catalytic activity in vitro. STRR sequences seem to have recently and independently invaded the RNase P RNA genes in heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria because closely related strains contain unrelated STRR sequences. Most cyanobacteria RNase P RNAs lack the sequence GGU in the loop connecting helices P15 and P16 that has been established to interact with the 3'-end CCA in precursor tRNA substrates in other bacteria. This character is shared with plastid RNase P RNA. Helix P6 is longer than usual in most cyanobacteria as well as in plastid RNase P RNA. PMID:9254706

  18. Validity of a short form of the Achievement-Motive Grid (AMG-S): evidence for the three-factor structure emphasizing active and passive forms of fear of failure.

    PubMed

    Schmalt, Heinz-Dieter

    2005-04-01

    My primary objective in this research was to examine diverse validity aspects of a short form of the Achievement-Motive Grid (AMG-S; Schmalt, 1999). The AMG is a picture-based measure that combines features of the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Murray, 1943) with features of self-report questionnaires. Similar to the TAT, the motive gets aroused by presenting a set of pictured achievement situations. Similar to a questionnaire, the motive is measured with a set of statements representing characteristic components of the achievement motive. Quite in line with the original version, factor analyses of the AMG-S all recommend the adoption of a 3-factor solution in which 1 hope-of-success (HS) and 2 fear-of-failure (FF) concepts are differentiated. The HS and passive FF factor (FFp) are based on positive and negative efficacy evaluations, respectively. The active FF factor (FFa) describes anticipations of impending failure. FFp is clearly a "withdrawal" factor, whereas FFa is clearly an "invigoration" factor. In the construct validity section of this research, I focus on classical and recent elaborations of approach and avoidance motivation in which I show that HS, FFp, and FFa play a substantial role in a motive-goals-outcomes framework of achievement motivation.

  19. Operator versus computer control of adaptive automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilburn, Brian; Molloy, Robert; Wong, Dick; Parasuraman, Raja

    1993-01-01

    Adaptive automation refers to real-time allocation of functions between the human operator and automated subsystems. The article reports the results of a series of experiments whose aim is to examine the effects of adaptive automation on operator performance during multi-task flight simulation, and to provide an empirical basis for evaluations of different forms of adaptive logic. The combined results of these studies suggest several things. First, it appears that either excessively long, or excessively short, adaptation cycles can limit the effectiveness of adaptive automation in enhancing operator performance of both primary flight and monitoring tasks. Second, occasional brief reversions to manual control can counter some of the monitoring inefficiency typically associated with long cycle automation, and further, that benefits of such reversions can be sustained for some time after return to automated control. Third, no evidence was found that the benefits of such reversions depend on the adaptive logic by which long-cycle adaptive switches are triggered.

  20. The adaptive radiation of lichen-forming Teloschistaceae is associated with sunscreening pigments and a bark-to-rock substrate shift

    PubMed Central

    Gaya, Ester; Fernández-Brime, Samantha; Vargas, Reinaldo; Lachlan, Robert F.; Gueidan, Cécile; Ramírez-Mejía, Martín; Lutzoni, François

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive radiations play key roles in the generation of biodiversity and biological novelty, and therefore understanding the factors that drive them remains one of the most important challenges of evolutionary biology. Although both intrinsic innovations and extrinsic ecological opportunities contribute to diversification bursts, few studies have looked at the synergistic effect of such factors. Here we investigate the Teloschistales (Ascomycota), a group of >1,000 lichenized species with variation in species richness and phenotypic traits that hinted at a potential adaptive radiation. We found evidence for a dramatic increase in diversification rate for one of four families within this order—Teloschistaceae—which occurred ∼100 Mya (Late Cretaceous) and was associated with a switch from bark to rock and from shady to sun-exposed habitats. This adaptation to sunny habitats is likely to have been enabled by a contemporaneous key novel phenotypic innovation: the production in both vegetative structure (thallus) and fruiting body (apothecia) of anthraquinones, secondary metabolites known to protect against UV light. We found that the two ecological factors (sun exposure and rock substrate) and the phenotypic innovation (anthraquinones in the thallus) were all significant when testing for state-dependent shifts in diversification rates, and together they seem likely to be responsible for the success of the Teloschistaceae, one of the largest lichen-forming fungal lineages. Our results support the idea that adaptive radiations are driven not by a single factor or key innovation, but require a serendipitous combination of both intrinsic biotic and extrinsic abiotic and ecological factors. PMID:26324894

  1. Assessing children's empathy through a Spanish adaptation of the Basic Empathy Scale: parent's and child's report forms.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Noelia; Fuentes, Luis J; Jolliffe, Darrick; González-Salinas, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current research was to study cognitive and affective empathy in children aged 6-12 years old, and their associations with children's family environment and social adjustment. For this purpose, we developed the Spanish version of the Basic Empathy Scale (BES), self- and parent-report forms. Factorial analyses confirmed a two-component model of empathy in both self- and parent-report forms. Concordance between parent-child measures of empathy was low for cognitive and affective factors. Analyses of variance on the cognitive and affective components brought a significant effect of age for self-reported cognitive empathy, with older children scoring higher than younger ones. Gender brought out a significant principal effect for self-reported affective empathy, with girls scoring higher than boys. No other main effects were found for age and gender for the rest of the factors analyzed. Children's empathy was associated with socioeconomic status and other family socialization processes, as well as children' social behaviors. Overall the new measures provided a coherent view of empathy in middle childhood and early adolescence when measured through self and parent reports, and illustrate the similarity of the validity of the BES in a European-Spanish culture.

  2. Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Bladder Management Difficulties and Bowel Management Difficulties item banks and short forms and the SCI-QOL Bladder Complications scale

    PubMed Central

    Tulsky, David S.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Tate, Denise G.; Spungen, Ann M.; Kirshblum, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the development and psychometric properties of the Spinal Cord Injury – Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Bladder Management Difficulties and Bowel Management Difficulties item banks and Bladder Complications scale. Design Using a mixed-methods design, a pool of items assessing bladder and bowel-related concerns were developed using focus groups with individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and SCI clinicians, cognitive interviews, and item response theory (IRT) analytic approaches, including tests of model fit and differential item functioning. Setting Thirty-eight bladder items and 52 bowel items were tested at the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation Research Center, the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital, and the James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY. Participants Seven hundred fifty-seven adults with traumatic SCI. Results The final item banks demonstrated unidimensionality (Bladder Management Difficulties CFI = 0.965; RMSEA = 0.093; Bowel Management Difficulties CFI = 0.955; RMSEA = 0.078) and acceptable fit to a graded response IRT model. The final calibrated Bladder Management Difficulties bank includes 15 items, and the final Bowel Management Difficulties item bank consists of 26 items. Additionally, 5 items related to urinary tract infections (UTI) did not fit with the larger Bladder Management Difficulties item bank but performed relatively well independently (CFI = 0.992, RMSEA = 0.050) and were thus retained as a separate scale. Conclusion The SCI-QOL Bladder Management Difficulties and Bowel Management Difficulties item banks are psychometrically robust and are available as computer adaptive tests or short forms. The SCI-QOL Bladder Complications scale is a brief, fixed-length outcomes instrument for individuals with a UTI. PMID:26010964

  3. Construct validity evidence for the Male Role Norms Inventory-Short Form: A structural equation modeling approach using the bifactor model.

    PubMed

    Levant, Ronald F; Hall, Rosalie J; Weigold, Ingrid K; McCurdy, Eric R

    2016-10-01

    The construct validity of the Male Role Norms Inventory-Short Form (MRNI-SF) was assessed using a latent variable approach implemented with structural equation modeling (SEM). The MRNI-SF was specified as having a bifactor structure, and validation scales were also specified as latent variables. The latent variable approach had the advantages of separating effects of general and specific factors and controlling for some sources of measurement error. Data (N = 484) were from a diverse sample (38.8% men of color, 22.3% men of diverse sexualities) of community-dwelling and college men who responded to an online survey. The construct validity of the MRNI-SF General Traditional Masculinity Ideology factor was supported for all 4 of the proposed latent correlations with: (a) Male Role Attitudes Scale; (b) general factor of Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory-46; (c) higher-order factor of Gender Role Conflict Scale; and (d) Personal Attributes Questionnaire-Masculinity Scale. Significant correlations with relevant other latent factors provided concurrent validity evidence for the MRNI-SF specific factors of Negativity toward Sexual Minorities, Importance of Sex, Restrictive Emotionality, and Toughness, with all 8 of the hypothesized relationships supported. However, 3 relationships concerning Dominance were not supported. (The construct validity of the remaining 2 MRNI-SF specific factors-Avoidance of Femininity and Self-Reliance through Mechanical Skills was not assessed.) Comparisons were made, and meaningful differences noted, between the latent correlations emphasized in this study and their raw variable counterparts. Results are discussed in terms of the advantages of an SEM approach and the unique characteristics of the bifactor model. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. A Community-Based Validation Study of the Short-Form 36 Version 2 Philippines (Tagalog) in Two Cities in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Carandang, Nina T.; Sison, Olivia T.; Grefal, Mary Lenore; Sy, Rody G.; Alix, Oliver C.; Llanes, Elmer Jasper B.; Reganit, Paul Ferdinand M.; Gumatay, Allan Wilbert G.; Punzalan, Felix Eduardo R.; Velandria, Felicidad V.; Tai, E. Shyong; Wee, Hwee-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the validity and reliability of the Philippines (Tagalog) Short Form 36 Health Survey version 2 (SF-36v2®) standard questionnaire among Filipinos residing in two cities. Study Design and Setting The official Philippines (Tagalog) SF-36v2 standard (4-week recall) version was pretested on 30 participants followed by formal and informal cognitive debriefing. To obtain the feedback on translation by bilingual respondents, each SF-36v2 question was stated first in English followed by Tagalog. No revisions to the original questionnaire were needed except that participants thought it was appropriate to incorporate "po" in the instructions to make it more polite. Face-to-face interviews of 562 participants aged 20-50 years living in two barangays (villages) in the highly urbanized city of Makati City (Metro Manila) and in urban and rural barangays in Tanauan City (province of Batangas) were subsequently conducted. Content validity, item level validity, reliability and factor structure of the SF-36v2 (Tagalog) were examined. Results Content validity of the SF-36v2 was assessed to be adequate for assessing health status among Filipinos. Item means of Philippines (Tagalog) SF-36v2 were similar with comparable scales in the US English, Singapore (English and Chinese) and Thai SF-36 version 1. Item-scale correlation exceeded 0.4 for all items except the bathing item in PF (correlation: 0.31). In exploratory factor analysis, the US two-component model was supported. However, in confirmatory factor analysis, the Japanese three-component model fit the Tagalog data better than the US two-component model. Conclusions The Philippines (Tagalog) SF-36v2 is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring health status among residents of Makati City (Metro Manila) and Tanauan City (Province of Batangas). PMID:24386281

  5. Initial construct cross-cultural validation of the Short Form 36 for quality of life assessment of systemic lupus erythematosus patients in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Thumboo, J; Fong, K Y; Ng, T P; Leong, K H; Feng, P H; Boey, M L

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the Short Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey Questionnaire measures differences in quality of life between lupus patients and healthy controls in Singapore. A cross-sectional pilot study was conducted on consecutive English-speaking, female Chinese lupus patients seen at a Rheumatology unit. Healthy volunteers were recruited as controls during the same time period. All subjects completed the United Kingdom version of the SF-36. Lupus disease activity was assessed using the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) index and converted to a global score. Lupus-related damage was measured using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index (SLICC/ACRDI). The main outcomes measured were the mean SF-36 scale scores for lupus patients and healthy controls. Thirty-six lupus patients and 76 controls were included in the study. All subjects were English-speaking, Chinese female between 21 and 53 years of age. The mean age of patients and controls was 31.9 and 29.0 years respectively. Lupus patients had lower mean scale scores than controls for physical functioning (73.0 versus 89.7, P < 0.0027), bodily pain (71.0 versus 81.4, P < 0.027), physical role functioning (55.7 versus 89.5, P < 0.0001) and general health (47.4 versus 51.8, P < 0.05). Mean scale scores for vitality, social and emotional role function and mental health were similar in both groups. Ten patients had active disease (BILAG global scores of 3 to 14) and 13 patients had lupus-related damage (Damage Index scores of 1 to 7). These preliminary data suggest that the SF-36 Health Survey may be able to measure differences in quality of life between lupus patients and healthy controls in Singapore.

  6. Psychometric properties of the problematic online gaming questionnaire short-form and prevalence of problematic online gaming in a national sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pápay, Orsolya; Urbán, Róbert; Griffiths, Mark D; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Farkas, Judit; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Felvinczi, Katalin; Oláh, Attila; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2013-05-01

    The rise and growing popularity of online games has led to the appearance of excessive gaming that in some cases can lead to physical and psychological problems. Several measures have been developed to explore the nature and the scale of the phenomenon. However, few measures have been validated psychometrically. The aim of the present study was to test the psychometric properties of the 12-item Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire Short-Form (POGQ-SF) and to assess the prevalence of problematic online gaming. Data collection was carried out to assess the prevalence of problematic online gaming in a national representative adolescent sample by using an offline (pen and pencil) method. A total of 5,045 secondary school students were assessed (51% male, mean age 16.4 years, SD=0.9 years) of which 2,804 were gamers (65.4% male, mean age 16.4 years, SD=0.9 years). Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to test the measurement model of problematic online gaming, and latent profile analysis was used to identify the proportion of gamers whose online game use can be considered problematic. Results showed that the original six-factor model yielded appropriate fit to the data, and thus the POGQ-SF has appropriate psychometric properties. Latent profile analysis revealed that 4.6% of the adolescents belong to a high risk group and an additional 13.3% to a low risk group. Due to its satisfactory psychometric characteristics, the 12-item POGQ-SF appears to be an adequate tool for the assessment of problematic online gaming.

  7. Low level postnatal methylmercury exposure in vivo alters developmental forms of short-term synaptic plasticity in the visual cortex of rat

    SciTech Connect

    Dasari, Sameera; Yuan, Yukun

    2009-11-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) has been previously shown to affect neurotransmitter release. Short-term synaptic plasticity (STP) is primarily related to changes in the probability of neurotransmitter release. To determine if MeHg affects STP development, we examined STP forms in the visual cortex of rat following in vivo MeHg exposure. Neonatal rats received 0 (0.9% NaCl), 0.75 or 1.5 mg/kg/day MeHg subcutaneously for 15 or 30 days beginning on postnatal day 5, after which visual cortical slices were prepared for field potential recordings. In slices prepared from rats treated with vehicle, field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) evoked by paired-pulse stimulation at 20-200 ms inter-stimulus intervals showed a depression (PPD) of the second fEPSP (fEPSP2). PPD was also seen in slices prepared from rats after 15 day treatment with 0.75 or 1.5 mg/kg/day MeHg. However, longer duration treatment (30 days) with either dose of MeHg resulted in paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) of fEPSP2 in the majority of slices examined. PPF remained observable in slices prepared from animals in which MeHg exposure had been terminated for 30 days after completion of the initial 30 day MeHg treatment, whereas slices from control animals still showed PPD. MeHg did not cause any frequency- or region-preferential effect on STP. Manipulations of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub e} or application of the GABA{sub A} receptor antagonist bicuculline could alter the strength and polarity of MeHg-induced changes in STP. Thus, these data suggest that low level postnatal MeHg exposure interferes with the developmental transformation of STP in the visual cortex, which is a long-lasting effect.

  8. Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation Improves the Quality of Life Measured with a Short Form-36 Questionnaire in Atrial Fibrillation Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jong-Il; Kim, Young-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background The main purpose of performing radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients is to improve the quality of life (QoL) and alleviate AF-related symptoms. We aimed to determine the qualitative and quantitative effects of RFCA on the QoL in AF patients. Methods We performed a systemic review and meta-analysis using a random effects model. We searched for the studies that reported the physical component summary score (PCS) and mental component summary score (MCS) of the short form-36, a validated system to assess and quantify the QoL, before and after RFCA in AF patients. PCS and MCS are T-scores with a mean of 50 and standard deviation of 10. Results Of the 470 studies identified through systematic search, we included 13 studies for pre-RFCA vs. the post-RFCA analysis and 5 studies for treatment success vs. AF recurrence analyses. In the pre-RFCA vs. post-RFCA analysis, RFCA was associated with a significant increase in both the PCS (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 6.33 [4.81–7.84]; p < 0.001) and MCS (WMD = 7.80 [6.15–9.44]; p < 0.001). The ΔPCS (post-RFCA PCS–pre-RFCA PCS) and ΔMCS values were used for the treatment success vs. AF recurrence analysis. Patients with successful ablation had a higher ΔPCS (WMD = 7.46 [4.44–10.49]; p < 0.001) and ΔMCS (WMD = 7.59 [4.94–10.24]; p < 0.001). Conclusions RFCA is associated with a significant increase in the PCS and MCS in AF patients. Patients without AF recurrence after RFCA had a better improvement in the PCS and MCS than patients who had AF recurrence. PMID:27681507

  9. Commuters' Eye-Contact With Strangers in City and Suburban Train Stations: Evidence of Short-Term Adaptation to Interpersonal Overload in the City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley, Clark; And Others

    A previous study (McCauley and Newman) found that there was less eye contact with strangers in the city than in the suburbs. The interpretation offered was that decreased eye contact in the city is an adaptation to overload of strangers. It is known from laboratory experiments that adaptation to interpersonal overload is relatively fast. Baum and…

  10. Implementing Process-Oriented, Guided-Inquiry Learning for the First Time: Adaptations and Short-Term Impacts on Students' Attitude and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Anthony; Pakhira, Deblina; Stains, Marilyne

    2013-01-01

    Innovative, research-based instructional practices are critical to transforming the conventional undergraduate instructional landscape into a student-centered learning environment. Research on dissemination of innovation indicates that instructors often adapt rather than adopt these practices. These adaptations can lead to the loss of critical…

  11. The Development of the Alpha-Omega Completed Sentence Form (AOCSF): An Instrument to Aid in the Measurement, Identification, and Assessment of an Individual's "Adaptational Approach(es)" to the Stressful Event of Death and Related Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Ronald; And Others

    The Alpha Omega Completed Sentence Form (AOCSF) was developed to identify and measure a person's adaptational approaches to information concerning their own death or the possible death of a significant other. In contrast to the Kubler-Ross stage theory, the adaptational approach recognizes a person's capacity to assimilate new information which…

  12. The effects of nitrogen form on root morphological and physiological adaptations of maize, white lupin and faba bean under phosphorus deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haitao; Tang, Caixian; Li, Chunjian

    2016-01-01

    Root morphological/physiological modifications are important for phosphorus (P) acquisition of plants under P deficiency, but strategies differ among plant species. Detailed studies on the response of maize roots to P deficiency are limited. Nitrogen (N) form influences root morphology/physiology, and thus may influence root responses to P deficiency. This work investigated adaptive mechanisms of maize roots to low P by comparison with white lupin and faba bean supplied with two N forms. Plants were grown for 7–16 days in hydroponics with sufficient (250 µmol L−1) and deficient P supply (1 µmol L−1) under supply of NH4NO3 or Ca(NO3)2. Plant growth and P uptake were measured, and release of protons and organic acid anions, and acid phosphatase activity in the root were monitored. The results showed that P deficiency significantly decreased shoot growth while increased root growth and total root length of maize and faba bean, but not white lupin. It enhanced the release of protons and organic acid anions, and acid phosphatase activity, from the roots of both legumes but not maize. Compared with Ca(NO3)2, NH4NO3 dramatically increased proton release by roots but did not alter root morphology or physiology of the three species in response to low P. It is concluded that the N form did not fundamentally change root morphological/physiological responses of the three species to P deficiency. Morphological variation in maize and morpho-physiological modifications in white lupin and faba bean were the main adaptive strategies to P deficiency. PMID:27519912

  13. Population-specific short-form mini nutritional assessment with body mass index or calf circumference can predict risk of malnutrition in community-living or institutionalized elderly people in taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Alan C; Chang, Tsui-Lan; Wang, Yi-Chen; Liao, Chiu-Ying

    2010-09-01

    A simple, reliable, noninvasive, and easy-to-use instrument is important for successful monitoring of emerging nutrition problems in elderly people. The objectives of this study were to determine whether adoption of population-specific body mass index (BMI) cutpoints would improve the predictive ability of the short-form Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and whether calf circumference could be an acceptable alternative to BMI in the short-form MNA without compromising its predictive ability. Using convenience sampling, the study recruited 301 community-living, 109 care center-living, and 68 nursing home-living elderly people, 65 years or older, as subjects. Subjects were evaluated with the short-form MNA in three versions: (a) the original, (b) Taiwan version 1 (T1), that adopted population-specific BMI cutpoints, and (c) Taiwan version 2 (T2), which substituted calf circumference for BMI, and with the long-form MNA-T2 as a reference. The ability of the short forms to predict the long-form MNA-T2 was evaluated with binary classification and analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves. Results were analyzed with an SPSS for Windows 12.0 software package (version 12.0.1C, 2000, SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). Results showed that adoption of population-specific anthropometric BMI cutpoints improved the predictive ability of the short-form MNA, whereas replacement of BMI with calf circumference further improved the predictive ability of the scale (kappa values of the binary classification tests were 0.596, 0.742, and 0.843 for community-living; 0.560, 0.683, and 0.839 for care center-living; and 0.346, 0.454, and 0.522 for nursing home-living elderly for the original, T1, and T2 MNA short-form versions, respectively). These results suggest that modification of a measurement tool according to cultural or anthropometric features of the target population is necessary. The study also shows that calf circumference can be an acceptable alternative to BMI in the short-form

  14. The mammalian efferent vestibular system plays a crucial role in the high-frequency response and short-term adaptation of the vestibuloocular reflex

    PubMed Central

    Hübner, Patrick P.; Khan, Serajul I.

    2015-01-01

    Although anatomically well described, the functional role of the mammalian efferent vestibular system (EVS) remains unclear. Unlike in fish and reptiles, the mammalian EVS does not seem to play a role in modulation of primary afferent activity in anticipation of active head movements. However, it could play a role in modulating long-term mechanisms requiring plasticity such as vestibular adaptation. We measured the efficacy of vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) adaptation in α9-knockout mice. These mice carry a missense mutation of the gene encoding the α9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit. The α9 nAChR subunit is expressed in the vestibular and auditory periphery, and its loss of function could compromise peripheral input from the predominantly cholinergic EVS. We measured the VOR gain (eye velocity/head velocity) in 26 α9-knockout mice and 27 cba129 control mice. Mice were randomly assigned to one of three groups: gain-increase adaptation (1.5×), gain-decrease adaptation (0.5×), or no adaptation (baseline, 1×). After adaptation training (horizontal rotations at 0.5 Hz with peak velocity 20°/s), we measured the sinusoidal (0.2–10 Hz, 20–100°/s) and transient (1,500–6,000°/s2) VOR in complete darkness. α9-Knockout mice had significantly lower baseline gains compared with control mice. This difference increased with stimulus frequency (∼5% <1 Hz to ∼25% >1 Hz). Moreover, vestibular adaptation (difference in VOR gain of gain-increase and gain-decrease adaptation groups as % of gain increase) was significantly reduced in α9-knockout mice (17%) compared with control mice (53%), a reduction of ∼70%. Our results show that the loss of α9 nAChRs moderately affects the VOR but severely affects VOR adaptation, suggesting that the EVS plays a crucial role in vestibular plasticity. PMID:26424577

  15. Measuring health-related quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: properties of the EQ-5D-5L and PROMIS-43 short form

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System 43-item short form (PROMIS-43) and the five-level EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L) are recently developed measures of health-related quality of life (HRQL) that have potentially broad application in evaluating treatments and capturing burden of respiratory-related diseases. The aims of this study were: (1) to examine their psychometric properties in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and (2) to identify dimensions of HRQL that differ and do not differ by lung function. Methods We conducted a multi-center, cross-sectional study (“COPD Outcomes-based Network for Clinical Effectiveness & Research Translation” [CONCERT]). We analyzed patients who met spirometric criteria for COPD, and completed EQ-5D-5L and PROMIS questionnaires. Disease severity was graded based on the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification. Pulmonary function test, PROMIS-43, EQ-5D (index score and EQ-Visual Analog Scale [EQ-VAS]), six minute walk test (6MWT), and three dyspnea scales (mMRC, Borg, FACIT-Dyspnea) were administered. Validity and reliability of EQ-5D-5L and PROMIS-43 were examined, and differences in HRQL by GOLD grade were assessed. Results Data from 670 patients with COPD were analyzed (mean age 68.5 years; 58% male). More severe COPD was associated with more problems with mobility, self-care and usual activities (all p-values <0.01) according to EQ-5D-5L. Related domains on EQ-5D-5L, PROMIS and clinical measures were moderately (r = 0.30-0.49) to strongly (r ≥ 0.50) correlated. A statistically significant trend of decreasing HRQL with more severe lung functions was observed for EQ-5D-5L index scores, EQ-VAS scores, and PROMIS physical function and social roles. Conclusions Results supported the validity of EQ-5D-5L and PROMIS-43 in COPD patients, and indicate that physical function and social activities decrease with level of lung function by GOLD

  16. Development of a brief measure of intimate partner violence experiences: the Composite Abuse Scale (Revised)—Short Form (CASR-SF)

    PubMed Central

    Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Wathen, C Nadine; Varcoe, Colleen; MacMillan, Harriet L; Scott-Storey, Kelly; Mantler, Tara; Hegarty, Kelsey; Perrin, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Approaches to measuring intimate partner violence (IPV) in populations often privilege physical violence, with poor assessment of other experiences. This has led to underestimating the scope and impact of IPV. The aim of this study was to develop a brief, reliable and valid self-report measure of IPV that adequately captures its complexity. Design Mixed-methods instrument development and psychometric testing to evolve a brief version of the Composite Abuse Scale (CAS) using secondary data analysis and expert feedback. Setting Data from 5 Canadian IPV studies; feedback from international IPV experts. Participants 31 international IPV experts including academic researchers, service providers and policy actors rated CAS items via an online survey. Pooled data from 6278 adult Canadian women were used for scale development. Primary/secondary outcome measures Scale reliability and validity; robustness of subscales assessing different IPV experiences. Results A 15-item version of the CAS has been developed (Composite Abuse Scale (Revised)—Short Form, CASR-SF), including 12 items developed from the original CAS and 3 items suggested through expert consultation and the evolving literature. Items cover 3 abuse domains: physical, sexual and psychological, with questions asked to assess lifetime, recent and current exposure, and abuse frequency. Factor loadings for the final 3-factor solution ranged from 0.81 to 0.91 for the 6 psychological abuse items, 0.63 to 0.92 for the 4 physical abuse items, and 0.85 and 0.93 for the 2 sexual abuse items. Moderate correlations were observed between the CASR-SF and measures of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and coercive control. Internal consistency of the CASR-SF was 0.942. These reliability and validity estimates were comparable to those obtained for the original 30-item CAS. Conclusions The CASR-SF is brief self-report measure of IPV experiences among women that has demonstrated initial reliability and validity

  17. An Exemplar-Familiarity Model Predicts Short-Term and Long-Term Probe Recognition across Diverse Forms of Memory Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nosofsky, Robert M.; Cox, Gregory E.; Cao, Rui; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to test a modern exemplar-familiarity model on its ability to account for both short-term and long-term probe recognition within the same memory-search paradigm. Also, making connections to the literature on attention and visual search, the model was used to interpret differences in probe-recognition performance across…

  18. Variation in the coding and 3’ untranslated regions of the porcine prolactin receptor short form modifies protein expression and function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The actions of prolactin (PRL) are mediated by both long (LF) and short isoforms (SF) of the PRL receptor (PRLR). Here, we report on a genetic and functional analysis of the porcine PRLR (pPRLR) SF. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within exon 11 of the pPRLR-SF give rise to four amino a...

  19. Testing for Near and Far Transfer Effects with a Short, Face-to-Face Adaptive Working Memory Training Intervention in Typical Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Lucy A.; Messer, David J.; Nash, Gilly

    2014-01-01

    A relatively quick, face-to-face, adaptive working memory training intervention was assessed in 5-to 8-year-old typically developing children, randomly allocated to a 6-week intervention condition, or an active control condition. All children received 18 sessions of 10?minutes, three times/week for 6?weeks. Assessments of six working memory…

  20. Short time dynamics determine glass forming ability in a glass transition two-level model: A stochastic approach using Kramers' escape formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo-Marín, J. Quetzalcóatl; Naumis, Gerardo G.

    2017-03-01

    The relationship between short and long time relaxation dynamics is obtained for a simple solvable two-level energy landscape model of a glass. This is done through means of the Kramers' transition theory, which arises in a very natural manner to calculate transition rates between wells. Then the corresponding stochastic master equation is analytically solved to find the population of metastable states. A relation between the cooling rate, the characteristic relaxation time, and the population of metastable states is found from the solution of such equation. From this, a relationship between the relaxation times and the frequency of oscillation at the metastable states, i.e., the short time dynamics, is obtained. Since the model is able to capture either a glass transition or a crystallization depending on the cooling rate, this gives a conceptual framework in which to discuss some aspects of rigidity theory, for example.

  1. Relationships between salinity and short-term soil carbon accumulation rates form marsh types across a landscape in the Mississippi River Delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baustian, Melissa M.; Stagg, Camille L.; Perry, Carey L; Moss, Leland C; Carruthers, Tim J.B.; Allison, Mead

    2017-01-01

    Salinity alterations will likely change the plant and environmental characteristics in coastal marshes thereby influencing soil carbon accumulation rates. Coastal Louisiana marshes have been historically classified as fresh, intermediate, brackish, or saline based on resident plant community and position along a salinity gradient. Short-term total carbon accumulation rates were assessed by collecting 10-cm deep soil cores at 24 sites located in marshes spanning the salinity gradient. Bulk density, total carbon content, and the short-term accretion rates obtained with feldspar horizon markers were measured to determine total carbon accumulation rates. Despite some significant differences in soil properties among marsh types, the mean total carbon accumulation rates among marsh types were not significantly different (mean ± std. err. of 190 ± 27 g TC m−2 year−1). However, regression analysis indicated that mean annual surface salinity had a significant negative relationship with total carbon accumulation rates. Based on both analyses, the coastal Louisiana total marsh area (1,433,700 ha) accumulates about 2.7 to 3.3 Tg C year−1. Changing salinities due to increasing relative sea level or resulting from restoration activities may alter carbon accumulation rates in the short term and significantly influence the global carbon cycle.

  2. Short-term adaptation improves the fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of acetic acid at low pH.

    PubMed

    Sànchez i Nogué, Violeta; Narayanan, Venkatachalam; Gorwa-Grauslund, Marie F

    2013-08-01

    The release of acetic acid due to deacetylation of the hemicellulose fraction during the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass contributes to the inhibitory character of the generated hydrolysates. In the present study, we identified a strain-independent adaptation protocol consisting of pre-cultivating the strain at pH 5.0 in the presence of at least 4 g L⁻¹ acetic acid that enabled aerobic growth and improved fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells at low pH (3.7) and in the presence of inhibitory levels of acetic acid (6 g L⁻¹). During anaerobic cultivation with adapted cells of strain TMB3500, the specific ethanol production rate was increased, reducing the fermentation time to 48 %.

  3. Time Course Analysis Reveals Gene-Specific Transcript and Protein Kinetics of Adaptation to Short-Term Aerobic Exercise Training in Human Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Brendan; O’Connor, Paul L.; Zierath, Juleen R.; O’Gorman, Donal J.

    2013-01-01

    Repeated bouts of episodic myofibrillar contraction associated with exercise training are potent stimuli for physiological adaptation. However, the time course of adaptation and the continuity between alterations in mRNA expression and protein content are not well described in human skeletal muscle. Eight healthy, sedentary males cycled for 60 min at 80% of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) each day for fourteen consecutive days, resulting in an increase in VO2peak of 17.5±3.8%. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken at baseline, and on the morning following (+16 h after exercise) the first, third, seventh, tenth and fourteenth training sessions. Markers of mitochondrial adaptation (Cyt c and COXIV expression, and citrate synthase activity) were increased within the first week of training, but the mtDNA/nDNA ratio was unchanged by two weeks of training. Accumulation of PGC-1α and ERRα protein during training suggests a regulatory role for these factors in adaptations of mitochondrial and metabolic gene expression. A subset of genes were transiently increased after one training session, but returned to baseline levels thereafter, which is supportive of the concept of transcriptional capacity being particularly sensitive to the onset of a new level of contractile activity. Thus, gene-specific temporal patterns of induction of mRNA expression and protein content are described. Our results illustrate the phenomenology of skeletal muscle plasticity and support the notion that transcript level adjustments, coupled to accumulation of encoded protein, underlie the modulation of skeletal muscle metabolism and phenotype by regular exercise. PMID:24069271

  4. Assessing public speaking fear with the short form of the Personal Report of Confidence as a Speaker scale: confirmatory factor analyses among a French-speaking community sample

    PubMed Central

    Heeren, Alexandre; Ceschi, Grazia; Valentiner, David P; Dethier, Vincent; Philippot, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Background: The main aim of this study was to assess the reliability and structural validity of the French version of the 12-item version of the Personal Report of Confidence as Speaker (PRCS), one of the most promising measurements of public speaking fear. Methods: A total of 611 French-speaking volunteers were administered the French versions of the short PRCS, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale, as well as the Trait version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II, which assess the level of anxious and depressive symptoms, respectively. Results: Regarding its structural validity, confirmatory factor analyses indicated a single-factor solution, as implied by the original version. Good scale reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.86) was observed. The item discrimination analysis suggested that all the items contribute to the overall scale score reliability. The French version of the short PRCS showed significant correlations with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (r = 0.522), the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (r = 0.414), the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = 0.516), and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (r = 0.361). Conclusion: The French version of the short PRCS is a reliable and valid measure for the evaluation of the fear of public speaking among a French-speaking sample. These findings have critical consequences for the measurement of psychological and pharmacological treatment effectiveness in public speaking fear among a French-speaking sample. PMID:23662060

  5. Numerical simulation on the adaptation of forms in trabecular bone to mechanical disuse and basic multi-cellular unit activation threshold at menopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, He; Fan, Yubo; Zhang, Ming

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the effects of mechanical disuse and basic multi-cellular unit (BMU) activation threshold on the form of trabecular bone during menopause. A bone adaptation model with mechanical- biological factors at BMU level was integrated with finite element analysis to simulate the changes of trabecular bone structure during menopause. Mechanical disuse and changes in the BMU activation threshold were applied to the model for the period from 4 years before to 4 years after menopause. The changes in bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness and fractal dimension of the trabecular structures were used to quantify the changes of trabecular bone in three different cases associated with mechanical disuse and BMU activation threshold. It was found that the changes in the simulated bone volume fraction were highly correlated and consistent with clinical data, and that the trabecular thickness reduced significantly during menopause and was highly linearly correlated with the bone volume fraction, and that the change trend of fractal dimension of the simulated trabecular structure was in correspondence with clinical observations. The numerical simulation in this paper may help to better understand the relationship between the bone morphology and the mechanical, as well as biological environment; and can provide a quantitative computational model and methodology for the numerical simulation of the bone structural morphological changes caused by the mechanical environment, and/or the biological environment.

  6. Short stature

    MedlinePlus

    Idiopathic short stature; Non-growth hormone deficient short stature ... syndrome Turner syndrome Williams syndrome Other reasons include: Growth hormone deficiency Infections of the developing baby before birth ...

  7. Flow velocity profiling using acoustic time of flight flow metering based on wide band signals and adaptive beam-forming techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgan, I.; Candel, I.; Ioana, C.; Digulescu, A.; Bunea, F.; Ciocan, G. D.; Anghel, A.; Vasile, G.

    2016-11-01

    velocities are possible to be computed. Analytically defined emitted wide band signals makes possible the identification of signals coming from each transducer. Using the adaptive beam-forming algorithm the receiving transducers can record different signals from the receiver, equivalent to different propagation paths. Therefore, different measurements of time of flight are possible, leading to additional flow velocity measurements. Results carried out in an experiment facility belonging to ICPE-CA, Bucharest - Romania allowed to the validation of the flow velocities computed using this new technique, in symmetric, asymmetric and uneven flow conditions. The acoustic derived values were referenced with those provided from a Pitot tube probe installed in the test channel and the results obtained by the method proposed in this paper are relatively close to this reference.

  8. Short-Term Local Adaptation of Historical Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Varieties and Implications for In Situ Management of Bean Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Klaedtke, Stephanie M.; Caproni, Leonardo; Klauck, Julia; de la Grandville, Paul; Dutartre, Martin; Stassart, Pierre M.; Chable, Véronique; Negri, Valeria; Raggi, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    Recognizing both the stakes of traditional European common bean diversity and the role farmers’ and gardeners’ networks play in maintaining this diversity, the present study examines the role that local adaptation plays for the management of common bean diversity in situ. To the purpose, four historical bean varieties and one modern control were multiplied on two organic farms for three growing seasons. The fifteen resulting populations, the initial ones and two populations of each variety obtained after the three years of multiplication, were then grown in a common garden. Twenty-two Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers and 13 phenotypic traits were assessed. In total, 68.2% of tested markers were polymorphic and a total of 66 different alleles were identified. FST analysis showed that the genetic composition of two varieties multiplied in different environments changed. At the phenotypic level, differences were observed in flowering date and leaf length. Results indicate that three years of multiplication suffice for local adaptation to occur. The spatial dynamics of genetic and phenotypic bean diversity imply that the maintenance of diversity should be considered at the scale of the network, rather than individual farms and gardens. The microevolution of bean populations within networks of gardens and farms emerges as a research perspective. PMID:28264476

  9. Short-Term Local Adaptation of Historical Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Varieties and Implications for In Situ Management of Bean Diversity.

    PubMed

    Klaedtke, Stephanie M; Caproni, Leonardo; Klauck, Julia; de la Grandville, Paul; Dutartre, Martin; Stassart, Pierre M; Chable, Véronique; Negri, Valeria; Raggi, Lorenzo

    2017-02-28

    Recognizing both the stakes of traditional European common bean diversity and the role farmers' and gardeners' networks play in maintaining this diversity, the present study examines the role that local adaptation plays for the management of common bean diversity in situ. To the purpose, four historical bean varieties and one modern control were multiplied on two organic farms for three growing seasons. The fifteen resulting populations, the initial ones and two populations of each variety obtained after the three years of multiplication, were then grown in a common garden. Twenty-two Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers and 13 phenotypic traits were assessed. In total, 68.2% of tested markers were polymorphic and a total of 66 different alleles were identified. FST analysis showed that the genetic composition of two varieties multiplied in different environments changed. At the phenotypic level, differences were observed in flowering date and leaf length. Results indicate that three years of multiplication suffice for local adaptation to occur. The spatial dynamics of genetic and phenotypic bean diversity imply that the maintenance of diversity should be considered at the scale of the network, rather than individual farms and gardens. The microevolution of bean populations within networks of gardens and farms emerges as a research perspective.

  10. Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II Parent/Primary Caregiver Form: Ages 0-5--Its Factor Structure and Other Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas; Algina, James

    2011-01-01

    A child's acquisition of adaptive behavior and skills may constitute his or her most important goal during infancy and early childhood. In addition, adaptive behavior data often are required when making decisions under Part C of the 2004 Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act. This study reports the results of a factor analysis of…

  11. ATP and magnesium promote cotton short-form ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activase hexamer formation at low micromolar concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kuriata, Agnieszka M; Chakraborty, Manas; Henderson, J Nathan; Hazra, Suratna; Serban, Andrew J; Pham, Tuong V T; Levitus, Marcia; Wachter, Rebekka M

    2014-11-25

    We report a fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) study of the assembly pathway of the AAA+ protein ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activase (Rca), a ring-forming ATPase responsible for activation of inhibited Rubisco complexes for biological carbon fixation. A thermodynamic characterization of simultaneously populated oligomeric states appears critical in understanding Rca structure and function. Using cotton β-Rca, we demonstrate that apparent diffusion coefficients vary as a function of concentration, nucleotide, and cation. Using manual fitting procedures, we provide estimates for the equilibrium constants for the stepwise assembly and find that in the presence of ATPγS, the Kd for hexamerization is 10-fold lower than with ADP (∼0.1 vs ∼1 μM). Hexamer fractions peak at 30 μM and dominate at 8-70 μM Rca, where they comprise 60-80% of subunits with ATPγS, compared with just 30-40% with ADP. Dimer fractions peak at 1-4 μM Rca, where they comprise 15-18% with ATPγS and 26-28% with ADP. At 30 μM Rca, large aggregates begin to form that comprise ∼10% of total protein with ATPγS and ∼25% with ADP. FCS data collected on the catalytically impaired WalkerB-D173N variant in the presence of ATP provided strong support for these results. Titration with free magnesium ions lead to the disaggregation of larger complexes in favor of hexameric forms, suggesting that a second magnesium binding site with a Kd value of 1-3 mM mediates critical subunit contacts. We propose that closed-ring toroidal hexameric forms are stabilized by binding of Mg·ATP plus Mg2+, whereas Mg·ADP promotes continuous assembly to supramolecular aggregates such as spirals.

  12. APPLICATIONS OF LASERS AND OTHER TOPICS IN LASER PHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY: Adaptive focusing of high-intensity light beams over short paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanev, Fedor Yu; Chesnokov, S. S.

    1987-10-01

    Numerical experiments were used to analyze the efficiency of adaptive control of the wavefronts of light beams traveling under conditions of steady-state wind refraction over paths amounting to 0.1 of the diffraction length. The equations describing the propagation of the light waves emitted and scattered by an object were solved in a lens system of coordinates, which made it possible to increase considerably the reliability of numerical prediction. The results were used to propose wavefront control by an algorithm for modified phase conjugation based on storage of a phase profile ensuring the best compensation of nonlinear distortions in all the preceding iterations. This algorithm was found to increase the concentration of the field on an object by 40-45% compared with nonadaptive focusing.

  13. The association of ranitidine and sucralfate in the short-term treatment of duodenal ulcers, as compared to other forms of treatment.

    PubMed

    Magnanelli, M; Belvisi, A; Toninelli, A; Matergi, M; Camarri, E

    1984-01-01

    Results of the treatment of duodenal ulcer with ranitidine (150 mg X 2/die) and sucralfate (1 gr X 2/die) have been compared with other common schemes of therapy. Administration of the drugs was carried out for 8 weeks, and the evolution of the ulcer lesion was followed with endoscopic controls at the beginning and end of the treatment. Ulcer healing occurred in 92% of 25 patients, as compared with 83,3% of 30 cases treated with ranitidine only; 80% of 30 cases with cimetidine 1 g/day; 80% of 20 cases with cimetidine 800 mg/b.i.d.; 75% of 20 cases with sucralfate 3 g/day; 73,3% of 30 patients with pirenzepine 150 mg/day; 60% of 20 cases with sulglycotide 0.5-1 g/day; and 50% of 40 ulcerous patients treated with placebo. From these results it is concluded that the association of sucralfate with an H2-antagonist improves the possibility of short-term healing of duodenal ulcer.

  14. Modification of water, aqueous solutions, and dielectric films in diffuse discharge formed by fast electron preionization at the short front of a voltage pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlovskii, V. M.; Panarin, V. A.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Formation of a diffuse discharge at a short front of voltage pulse (less than 1 ns), as well as when placing water, water solutions, and dielectric film inside the discharge, is studied. A volumetric discharge was observed in water on the anode when placing dielectric film (polyethylene, vinyl chloride-methyl methacrylate (VCMMA), etc.), water, or aqueous solutions of 3% hydrogen dioxide or 18% KMgO4 inside the discharge. The change in the absorption spectrum of substance was found after multiple discharge switching on. Fourier analysis of the infrared absorption spectra showed the difference between the spectra of exposed and unexposed polyethylene film. The changes in the absorption spectra of water, 3% hydrogen dioxide and 18% KMgO4 aqueous solutions are related with expansion of the band of valence oscillations of OH-groups without clearly expressed maxima (for the studied liquids). Therefore, volumetric diffuse discharge in molecular and atomic gases can be used in modifying dielectrics, water and aqueous solutions.

  15. Current density and catalyst-coated membrane resistance distribution of hydro-formed metallic bipolar plate fuel cell short stack with 250 cm2 active area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, S.; Moser, M.; Hirschfeld, J. A.; Jozwiak, K.

    2016-01-01

    An automotive fuel cell with an active area of 250 cm2 is investigated in a 4-cell short stack with a current and temperature distribution device next to the bipolar plate with 560 current and 140 temperature segments. The electrical conductivities of the bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer assembly are determined ex-situ with this current scan shunt module. The applied fuel cell consists of bipolar plates constructed of 75-μm-thick, welded stainless-steel foils and a graphitic coating. The electrical conductivities of the bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer assembly are determined ex-situ with this module with a 6% deviation in in-plane conductivity. The current density distribution is evaluated up to 2.4 A cm-2. The entire cell's investigated volumetric power density is 4.7 kW l-1, and its gravimetric power density is 4.3 kW kg-1 at an average cell voltage of 0.5 V. The current density distribution is determined without influencing the operating cell. In addition, the current density distribution in the catalyst-coated membrane and its effective resistivity distribution with a finite volume discretisation of Ohm's law are evaluated. The deviation between the current density distributions in the catalyst-coated membrane and the bipolar plate is determined.

  16. Understanding the meaning of short-term, yiyeqing relationships and how they are formed: Implications for condom use in Liuzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Abler, Laurie; Bao, Yu; Pan, Suiming

    2014-01-01

    Yiyeqing (“one night love”, i.e., having sex only once with a non-commercial partner) has increased in China, concomitant with the increase in heterosexual transmission of STI/HIV. Our study explored how participants who had experienced yiyeqing (YYQ) understood these relationships and characterized YYQ’s links to sexual risk behaviors. We conducted in-depth interviews with 45 adults in Liuzhou, a city in southwest China, who had YYQ experience. We analyzed the findings using social construction to interpret the participants’ understandings of YYQ. Participants reported that they tend to select YYQ partners whom they trust, which is built through introductions from social connections and within entertainment venues, resulting in the belief that their partners are free of STI/HIV and do not require protected sex. As YYQ relationships become more common, understanding the nature of these relationships is critical for developing public health messages that convey the risks associated with sex in short-term relationships and the need for condoms. PMID:23632897

  17. Assessing Appearance-Related Disturbances in HIV-Infected Men Who have Sex with Men (MSM): Psychometrics of the Body Change and Distress Questionnaire—Short Form (ABCD-SF)

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Johannes M.; Baker, Joshua S.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Safren, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Appearance-related disturbances are common among HIV-infected MSM; however, to date, there have been limited options in the valid assessment of this construct. The aim of the current study was to assess the structural, internal, and convergent validity of the assessment of body change distress questionnaire (ABCD) and its short version. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated that both versions fit the data well. Four sub-factors were revealed measuring the following body disturbance constructs: (1) negative affect about appearance, (2) HIV health-related outcomes and stigma, (3) eating and exercise confusion, and (4) ART non-adherence. The subfactors and total scores revealed bivariate associations with salient health outcomes, including depressive symptoms, HIV sexual transmission risk behaviors, and ART non-adherence. The ABCD and its short form, offer valid means to assess varied aspects of body image disturbance among HIV-infected MSM, and require modest participant burden. PMID:24057934

  18. Psychometric Properties of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire Short-Form (PIUQ-SF-6) in a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Demetrovics, Zsolt; Király, Orsolya; Koronczai, Beatrix; Griffiths, Mark D; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Tamás, Domokos; Kun, Bernadette; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Urbán, Róbert

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large number of measurement tools developed to assess problematic Internet use, numerous studies use measures with only modest investigation into their psychometric properties. The goal of the present study was to validate the short (6-item) version of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ) on a nationally representative adolescent sample (n = 5,005; mean age 16.4 years, SD = 0.87) and to determine a statistically established cut-off value. Data were collected within the framework of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs project. Results showed an acceptable fit of the original three-factor structure to the data. In addition, a MIMIC model was carried out to justify the need for three distinct factors. The sample was divided into users at-risk of problematic Internet use and those with no-risk using a latent profile analysis. Two latent classes were obtained with 14.4% of adolescents belonging to the at-risk group. Concurrent and convergent validity were tested by comparing the two groups across a number of variables (i.e., time spent online, academic achievement, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and preferred online activities). Using the at-risk latent profile analysis class as the gold standard, a cut-off value of 15 (out of 30) was suggested based on sensitivity and specificity analyses. In conclusion, the brief version of the (6-item) PIUQ also appears to be an appropriate measure to differentiate between Internet users at risk of developing problematic Internet use and those not at risk. Furthermore, due to its brevity, the shortened PIUQ is advantageous to utilize within large-scale surveys assessing many different behaviors and/or constructs by reducing the overall number of survey questions, and as a consequence, likely increasing completion rates.

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire Short-Form (PIUQ-SF-6) in a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Demetrovics, Zsolt; Király, Orsolya; Koronczai, Beatrix; Griffiths, Mark D.; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Tamás, Domokos; Kun, Bernadette; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Urbán, Róbert

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large number of measurement tools developed to assess problematic Internet use, numerous studies use measures with only modest investigation into their psychometric properties. The goal of the present study was to validate the short (6-item) version of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ) on a nationally representative adolescent sample (n = 5,005; mean age 16.4 years, SD = 0.87) and to determine a statistically established cut-off value. Data were collected within the framework of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs project. Results showed an acceptable fit of the original three-factor structure to the data. In addition, a MIMIC model was carried out to justify the need for three distinct factors. The sample was divided into users at-risk of problematic Internet use and those with no-risk using a latent profile analysis. Two latent classes were obtained with 14.4% of adolescents belonging to the at-risk group. Concurrent and convergent validity were tested by comparing the two groups across a number of variables (i.e., time spent online, academic achievement, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and preferred online activities). Using the at-risk latent profile analysis class as the gold standard, a cut-off value of 15 (out of 30) was suggested based on sensitivity and specificity analyses. In conclusion, the brief version of the (6-item) PIUQ also appears to be an appropriate measure to differentiate between Internet users at risk of developing problematic Internet use and those not at risk. Furthermore, due to its brevity, the shortened PIUQ is advantageous to utilize within large-scale surveys assessing many different behaviors and/or constructs by reducing the overall number of survey questions, and as a consequence, likely increasing completion rates. PMID:27504915

  20. A short splice form of Xin-actin binding repeat containing 2 (XIRP2) lacking the Xin repeats is required for maintenance of stereocilia morphology and hearing function.

    PubMed

    Francis, Shimon P; Krey, Jocelyn F; Krystofiak, Evan S; Cui, Runjia; Nanda, Sonali; Xu, Wenhao; Kachar, Bechara; Barr-Gillespie, Peter G; Shin, Jung-Bum

    2015-02-04

    Approximately one-third of known deafness genes encode proteins located in the hair bundle, the sensory hair cell's mechanoreceptive organelle. In previous studies, we used mass spectrometry to characterize the hair bundle's proteome, resulting in the discovery of novel bundle proteins. One such protein is Xin-actin binding repeat containing 2 (XIRP2), an actin-cross-linking protein previously reported to be specifically expressed in striated muscle. Because mutations in other actin-cross-linkers result in hearing loss, we investigated the role of XIRP2 in hearing function. In the inner ear, XIRP2 is specifically expressed in hair cells, colocalizing with actin-rich structures in bundles, the underlying cuticular plate, and the circumferential actin belt. Analysis using peptide mass spectrometry revealed that the bundle harbors a previously uncharacterized XIRP2 splice variant, suggesting XIRP2's role in the hair cell differs significantly from that reported in myocytes. To determine the role of XIRP2 in hearing, we applied clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9-mediated genome-editing technology to induce targeted mutations into the mouse Xirp2 gene, resulting in the elimination of XIRP2 protein expression in the inner ear. Functional analysis of hearing in the resulting Xirp2-null mice revealed high-frequency hearing loss, and ultrastructural scanning electron microscopy analyses of hair cells demonstrated stereocilia degeneration in these mice. We thus conclude that XIRP2 is required for long-term maintenance of hair cell stereocilia, and that its dysfunction causes hearing loss in the mouse.

  1. Short- and long-lasting behavioral and neurochemical adaptations: relationship with patterns of cocaine administration and expectation of drug effects in rats.

    PubMed

    Puig, S; Noble, F; Benturquia, N

    2012-10-23

    Cocaine dependence is a significant public health problem, characterized by periods of abstinence. Chronic exposure to drugs of abuse induces important modifications on neuronal systems, including the dopaminergic system. The pattern of administration is an important factor that should be taken into consideration to study the neuroadaptations. We compared the effects of intermittent (once daily) and binge (three times a day) cocaine treatments for 1 (WD1) and 14 (WD14) days after the last cocaine injection on spontaneous locomotor activity and dopamine (DA) levels in the nucleus accumbens (Nac). The intermittent treatment led to a spontaneous increase in DA (WD1/WD14), and in locomotor activity (WD1) at the exact hour which rats were habituated to receive a cocaine injection. These results underline that taking into consideration the hours of the day at which the experiments are performed is crucial. We also investigated these behavioral and neurochemical adaptations in response to an acute cocaine challenge on WD1 and WD14. We observed that only the binge treatment led to sensitization of locomotor effects of cocaine, associated to a DA release sensitization in the Nac, whereas the intermittent treatment did not. We demonstrate that two different patterns of administration induced distinct behavioral and neurochemical consequences. We unambiguously demonstrated that the intermittent treatment induced drug expectation associated with higher basal DA level in the Nac when measured at the time of chronic cocaine injection and that the binge treatment led to behavioral and sensitization effects of cocaine.

  2. History of adaptation determines short-term shifts in performance and community structure of hydrogen-producing microbial communities degrading wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Valdez-Vazquez, Idania; Morales, Ana L; Escalante, Ana E

    2017-03-14

    This study addresses the question of ecological interest for the determination of structure and diversity of microbial communities that degrade lignocellulosic biomasses to produce biofuels. Two microbial consortia with different history, native of wheat straw (NWS) and from a methanogenic digester (MD) fed with cow manure, were contrasted in terms of hydrogen performance, substrate disintegration and microbial diversity. NWS outperformed the hydrogen production rate of MD. Microscopic images revealed that NWS acted on the cuticle and epidermis, generating cellulose strands with high crystallinity, while MD degraded deeper layers, equally affecting all polysaccharides. The bacterial composition markedly differed according to the inocula origin. NWS almost solely comprised hydrogen producers of the phyla Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, with 38% members of Enterococcus. After hydrogen fermentation, NWS comprised 8% Syntrophococcus, an acetogen that cleaves aryl ethers of constituent groups on the aromatic components of lignin. Conversely, MD comprised thirteen phyla, primarily including Firmicutes with H2 -producing members, and Bacteroidetes with non-H2 -producing members, which reduced the hydrogen performance. Overall, the results of this study provide clear evidence that the history of adaptation of NWS enhanced the hydrogen performance from untreated wheat straw. Further, native wheat straw communities have the potential to refine cellulose fibers and produce biofuels simultaneously.

  3. A novel mechanism of cone photoreceptor adaptation.

    PubMed

    Howlett, Marcus H C; Smith, Robert G; Kamermans, Maarten

    2017-04-01

    An animal's ability to survive depends on its sensory systems being able to adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions, by maximizing the information extracted and reducing the noise transmitted. The visual system does this by adapting to luminance and contrast. While luminance adaptation can begin at the retinal photoreceptors, contrast adaptation has been shown to start at later stages in the retina. Photoreceptors adapt to changes in luminance over multiple time scales ranging from tens of milliseconds to minutes, with the adaptive changes arising from processes within the phototransduction cascade. Here we show a new form of adaptation in cones that is independent of the phototransduction process. Rather, it is mediated by voltage-gated ion channels in the cone membrane and acts by changing the frequency response of cones such that their responses speed up as the membrane potential modulation depth increases and slow down as the membrane potential modulation depth decreases. This mechanism is effectively activated by high-contrast stimuli dominated by low frequencies such as natural stimuli. However, the more generally used Gaussian white noise stimuli were not effective since they did not modulate the cone membrane potential to the same extent. This new adaptive process had a time constant of less than a second. A critical component of the underlying mechanism is the hyperpolarization-activated current, Ih, as pharmacologically blocking it prevented the long- and mid- wavelength sensitive cone photoreceptors (L- and M-cones) from adapting. Consistent with this, short- wavelength sensitive cone photoreceptors (S-cones) did not show the adaptive response, and we found they also lacked a prominent Ih. The adaptive filtering mechanism identified here improves the information flow by removing higher-frequency noise during lower signal-to-noise ratio conditions, as occurs when contrast levels are low. Although this new adaptive mechanism can be driven by

  4. Development of a short form Social Interaction Anxiety (SIAS) and Social Phobia Scale (SPS) using nonparametric item response theory: the SIAS-6 and the SPS-6.

    PubMed

    Peters, Lorna; Sunderland, Matthew; Andrews, Gavin; Rapee, Ronald M; Mattick, Richard P

    2012-03-01

    Shortened forms of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) were developed using nonparametric item response theory methods. Using data from socially phobic participants enrolled in 5 treatment trials (N = 456), 2 six-item scales (the SIAS-6 and the SPS-6) were developed. The validity of the scores on the SIAS-6 and the SPS-6 was then tested using traditional methods for their convergent validity in an independent clinical sample and a student sample, as well as for their sensitivity to change and diagnostic sensitivity in the clinical sample. The scores on the SIAS-6 and the SPS-6 correlated as well as the scores on the original SIAS and SPS, with scores on measures of related constructs, discriminated well between those with and without a diagnosis of social phobia, providing cutoffs for diagnosis and were as sensitive to measuring change associated with treatment as were the SIAS and SPS. Together, the SIAS-6 and the SPS-6 appear to be an efficient method of measuring symptoms of social phobia and provide a brief screening tool.

  5. Influence of short-term drought conditions and subsequent re-watering on the physiology and proteome of Lolium multiflorum/Festuca arundinacea introgression forms, with contrasting levels of tolerance to long-term drought.

    PubMed

    Perlikowski, D; Kosmala, A; Rapacz, M; Kościelniak, J; Pawłowicz, I; Zwierzykowski, Z

    2014-03-01

    Festuca arundinacea is a drought tolerant species. Lolium multiflorum has better forage quality but lower tolerance to abiotic stresses. Their hybrids offer an opportunity to perform research on the molecular basis of tolerance to drought. The aim of this work was to recognise the mechanisms of response to short-term drought (11 days) in a glasshouse in two L. multiflorum/F. arundinacea introgression forms with distinct levels of tolerance to long-term drought (14 weeks) in the field. Measurements of physiological parameters, analyses of protein accumulation profiles using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry identification of proteins, which were accumulated differentially between the selected genotypes during short-term drought, were performed. Genotype 7/6, with lower yield potential during 14 weeks of drought, and lower ability to re-grow after watering, had a higher capacity for photosynthesis during 11 days of drought. Genotype 4/10, more tolerant to long-term drought, was able to repair damaged cell membranes after watering and was also characterised by lower transpiration during short-term drought. A total of 455 proteins were analysed, and the 17 that were differentially accumulated between the two genotypes were identified. The results of physiological and proteomic research led to a hypothesis that the higher photosynthetic capacity of genotype 7/6 could be due to a more efficient Calvin cycle, supported by higher accumulation of crucial proteins involving chloroplast aldolase.

  6. Habituation of visual adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xue; Gao, Yi; Lv, Lili; Bao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Our sensory system adjusts its function driven by both shorter-term (e.g. adaptation) and longer-term (e.g. learning) experiences. Most past adaptation literature focuses on short-term adaptation. Only recently researchers have begun to investigate how adaptation changes over a span of days. This question is important, since in real life many environmental changes stretch over multiple days or longer. However, the answer to the question remains largely unclear. Here we addressed this issue by tracking perceptual bias (also known as aftereffect) induced by motion or contrast adaptation across multiple daily adaptation sessions. Aftereffects were measured every day after adaptation, which corresponded to the degree of adaptation on each day. For passively viewed adapters, repeated adaptation attenuated aftereffects. Once adapters were presented with an attentional task, aftereffects could either reduce for easy tasks, or initially show an increase followed by a later decrease for demanding tasks. Quantitative analysis of the decay rates in contrast adaptation showed that repeated exposure of the adapter appeared to be equivalent to adaptation to a weaker stimulus. These results suggest that both attention and a non-attentional habituation-like mechanism jointly determine how adaptation develops across multiple daily sessions. PMID:26739917

  7. Effects of Diclofenac, L-NAME, L-Arginine, and Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on Gastrointestinal, Liver, and Brain Lesions, Failed Anastomosis, and Intestinal Adaptation Deterioration in 24 Hour-Short-Bowel Rats.

    PubMed

    Lojo, Nermin; Rasic, Zarko; Zenko Sever, Anita; Kolenc, Danijela; Vukusic, Darko; Drmic, Domagoj; Zoricic, Ivan; Sever, Marko; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 was previously used to ameliorate wound healing following major surgery and counteract diclofenac toxicity. To resolve the increasing early risks following major massive small bowel resectioning surgery, diclofenac combined with nitric oxide (NO) system blockade was used, suggesting therapy with BPC 157 and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS substrate) L-arginine, is efficacious. Immediately after anastomosis creation, short-bowel rats were untreated or administered intraperitoneal diclofenac (12 mg/kg), BPC 157 (10 μg/kg or 10 ng/kg), L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 5 mg/kg), L-arginine (100 mg/kg) alone or combined, and assessed 24 h later. Short-bowel rats exhibited poor anastomosis healing, failed intestine adaptation, and gastrointestinal, liver, and brain lesions, which worsened with diclofenac. This was gradually ameliorated by immediate therapy with BPC 157 and L-arginine. Contrastingly, NOS-blocker L-NAME induced further aggravation and lesions gradually worsened. Specifically, rats with surgery alone exhibited mild stomach/duodenum lesions, considerable liver lesions, and severe cerebral/hippocampal lesions while those also administered diclofenac showed widespread severe lesions in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, cerebellar nuclear/Purkinje cells, and cerebrum/hippocampus. Rats subjected to surgery, diclofenac, and L-NAME exhibited the mentioned lesions, worsening anastomosis, and macro/microscopical necrosis. Thus, rats subjected to surgery alone showed evidence of deterioration. Furtheremore, rats subjected to surgery and administered diclofenac showed worse symptoms, than the rats subjected to surgery alone did. Rats subjected to surgery combined with diclofenac and L-NAME showed the worst deterioration. Rats subjected to surgery exhibited habitual adaptation of the remaining small intestine, which was markedly reversed in rats subjected to surgery and diclofenac, and those with surgery, diclofenac, and

  8. Effects of Diclofenac, L-NAME, L-Arginine, and Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on Gastrointestinal, Liver, and Brain Lesions, Failed Anastomosis, and Intestinal Adaptation Deterioration in 24 Hour-Short-Bowel Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lojo, Nermin; Rasic, Zarko; Zenko Sever, Anita; Kolenc, Danijela; Vukusic, Darko; Drmic, Domagoj; Zoricic, Ivan; Sever, Marko; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 was previously used to ameliorate wound healing following major surgery and counteract diclofenac toxicity. To resolve the increasing early risks following major massive small bowel resectioning surgery, diclofenac combined with nitric oxide (NO) system blockade was used, suggesting therapy with BPC 157 and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS substrate) L-arginine, is efficacious. Immediately after anastomosis creation, short-bowel rats were untreated or administered intraperitoneal diclofenac (12 mg/kg), BPC 157 (10 μg/kg or 10 ng/kg), L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 5 mg/kg), L-arginine (100 mg/kg) alone or combined, and assessed 24 h later. Short-bowel rats exhibited poor anastomosis healing, failed intestine adaptation, and gastrointestinal, liver, and brain lesions, which worsened with diclofenac. This was gradually ameliorated by immediate therapy with BPC 157 and L-arginine. Contrastingly, NOS-blocker L-NAME induced further aggravation and lesions gradually worsened. Specifically, rats with surgery alone exhibited mild stomach/duodenum lesions, considerable liver lesions, and severe cerebral/hippocampal lesions while those also administered diclofenac showed widespread severe lesions in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, cerebellar nuclear/Purkinje cells, and cerebrum/hippocampus. Rats subjected to surgery, diclofenac, and L-NAME exhibited the mentioned lesions, worsening anastomosis, and macro/microscopical necrosis. Thus, rats subjected to surgery alone showed evidence of deterioration. Furtheremore, rats subjected to surgery and administered diclofenac showed worse symptoms, than the rats subjected to surgery alone did. Rats subjected to surgery combined with diclofenac and L-NAME showed the worst deterioration. Rats subjected to surgery exhibited habitual adaptation of the remaining small intestine, which was markedly reversed in rats subjected to surgery and diclofenac, and those with surgery, diclofenac, and

  9. Perceptual learning reconfigures the effects of visual adaptation.

    PubMed

    McGovern, David P; Roach, Neil W; Webb, Ben S

    2012-09-26

    Our sensory experiences over a range of different timescales shape our perception of the environment. Two particularly striking short-term forms of plasticity with manifestly different time courses and perceptual consequences are those caused by visual adaptation and perceptual learning. Although conventionally treated as distinct forms of experience-dependent plasticity, their neural mechanisms and perceptual consequences have become increasingly blurred, raising the possibility that they might interact. To optimize our chances of finding a functionally meaningful interaction between learning and adaptation, we examined in humans the perceptual consequences of learning a fine discrimination task while adapting the neurons that carry most information for performing this task. Learning improved discriminative accuracy to a level that ultimately surpassed that in an unadapted state. This remarkable improvement came at a price: adapting directions that before learning had little effect elevated discrimination thresholds afterward. The improvements in discriminative accuracy grew quickly and surpassed unadapted levels within the first few training sessions, whereas the deterioration in discriminative accuracy had a different time course. This learned reconfiguration of adapted discriminative accuracy occurred without a concomitant change to the characteristic perceptual biases induced by adaptation, suggesting that the system was still in an adapted state. Our results point to a functionally meaningful push-pull interaction between learning and adaptation in which a gain in sensitivity in one adapted state is balanced by a loss of sensitivity in other adapted states.

  10. Emittance of short-pulsed high-current ion beams formed from the plasma of the electron cyclotron resonance discharge sustained by high-power millimeter-wave gyrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razin, S.; Zorin, V.; Izotov, I.; Sidorov, A.; Skalyga, V.

    2014-02-01

    We present experimental results on measuring the emittance of short-pulsed (≤100 μs) high-current (80-100 mA) ion beams of heavy gases (Nitrogen, Argon) formed from a dense plasma of an ECR source of multiply charged ions (MCI) with quasi-gas-dynamic mode of plasma confinement in a magnetic trap of simple mirror configuration. The discharge was created by a high-power (90 kW) pulsed radiation of a 37.5-GHz gyrotron. The normalized emittance of generated ion beams of 100 mA current was (1.2-1.3) π mm mrad (70% of ions in the beams). Comparing these results with those obtained using a cusp magnetic trap, it was concluded that the structure of the trap magnetic field lines does not exert a decisive influence on the emittance of ion beams in the gas-dynamic ECR source of MCI.

  11. Comparison of the Effect of Dry Cupping Therapy and Acupressure at BL23 Point on Intensity of Postpartum Perineal Pain Based on the Short Form of McGill Pain Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzade, Marzieh; Ghaemmaghami, Mehrnoush; Yazdanpanahi, Zahra; Zare, Najaf; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Azizi, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perineal pain is a major morbidity in the first few days after delivery. This study aimed to investigate the effect of dry cupping therapy and acupressure at BL23 point on the intensity of postpartum perineal pain based on the short-form of McGill pain questionnaire (SMPQ). Methods: The present clinical trial was conducted on 150 subjects in 3 groups of 50 cases. After at least 4–8 hr of delivery, cupping therapy was performed for 15–20 min up to 3 times a week (once a day) and acupressure was performed for 15–20 min based on clockwise model. The short-form of McGill pain questionnaire was completed both before and after the intervention. The SPSS statistical software was used to analyze the data using repeated measures ANOVA. Besides, p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: In the cupping therapy group, mean of the perineal pain intensity reduced from 37.5±6.8 before the intervention to 11.1±6.1, 6.9±4.7, and 3.8±3.6 immediately, 24 hr, and 2 weeks after the intervention, respectively. The results of study showed that the differences between the intervention and control groups were statistically significant (p<0.01). Mean difference of the perineal pain intensity in the acupressure group reached from 35.6±8.1 before the intervention to 10.4±5.5 two weeks after the intervention, so the variation between intervention and control groups was statistically significant. Conclusion: The study findings showed that cupping therapy and acupressure reduced perineal pain. Therefore, they may be considered as effective treatments for reducing pain intensity of allowing delivery. PMID:26962482

  12. Short philtrum

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by: Chromosome 18q deletion syndrome Cohen syndrome DiGeorge syndrome Oral-facial-digital syndrome (OFD) Home Care ... short philtrum, you may want to note that diagnosis in your personal medical record. Images The face ...

  13. The Balthazar Scales of Adaptive Behavior. Measures of Program Development for the Severely and Profoundly Mentally Retarded. Section 1. Skills of Functional Independence. Part Three: Program Scoring Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balthazar, Earl E.

    The scoring form for functional independence skills for the mentally retarded includes a section for recording subjects' demographic characteristics as well as tests used, date administered, and raw score. Other sections provide for a brief description of the program being used, an item scoring sheet for the Eating Scales (dependent feeding,…

  14. Adaptive equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, S. U. H.

    1985-09-01

    Theoretical work which has been effective in improving data transmission by telephone and radio links using adaptive equalization (AE) techniques is reviewed. AE has been applied to reducing the temporal dispersion effects, such as intersymbol interference, caused by the channel accessed. Attention is given to the Nyquist telegraph transmission theory, least mean square error adaptive filtering and the theory and structure of linear receive and transmit filters for reducing error. Optimum nonlinear receiver structures are discussed in terms of optimality criteria as a function of error probability. A suboptimum receiver structure is explored in the form of a decision-feedback equalizer. Consideration is also given to quadrature amplitude modulation and transversal equalization for receivers.

  15. Connector adapter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacker, Scott C. (Inventor); Dean, Richard J. (Inventor); Burge, Scott W. (Inventor); Dartez, Toby W. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An adapter for installing a connector to a terminal post, wherein the connector is attached to a cable, is presented. In an embodiment, the adapter is comprised of an elongated collet member having a longitudinal axis comprised of a first collet member end, a second collet member end, an outer collet member surface, and an inner collet member surface. The inner collet member surface at the first collet member end is used to engage the connector. The outer collet member surface at the first collet member end is tapered for a predetermined first length at a predetermined taper angle. The collet includes a longitudinal slot that extends along the longitudinal axis initiating at the first collet member end for a predetermined second length. The first collet member end is formed of a predetermined number of sections segregated by a predetermined number of channels and the longitudinal slot.

  16. A star-forming shock front in radio galaxy 4C+41.17 resolved with laser-assisted adaptive optics spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Steinbring, Eric

    2014-07-01

    Near-infrared integral-field spectroscopy of redshifted [O III], Hβ, and optical continuum emission from the z = 3.8 radio galaxy 4C+41.17 is presented, obtained with the laser-guide-star adaptive optics facility on the Gemini North telescope. Employing a specialized dithering technique, a spatial resolution of 0.''10, or 0.7 kpc, is achieved in each spectral element, with a velocity resolution of ∼70 km s{sup –1}. Spectra similar to local starbursts are found for bright knots coincident in archival Hubble Space Telescope ( HST) rest-frame ultraviolet images, which also allows a key line diagnostic to be mapped together with new kinematic information. There emerges a clearer picture of the nebular emission associated with the jet in 8.3 GHz and 15 GHz Very Large Array maps, closely tied to a Lyα-bright shell-shaped structure seen with HST. This supports a previous interpretation of that arc tracing a bow shock, inducing ∼10{sup 10–11} M {sub ☉} star formation regions that comprise the clumpy broadband optical/ultraviolet morphology near the core.

  17. Discs large 1 (Dlg1) scaffolding protein participates with clathrin and adaptator protein complex 1 (AP-1) in forming Weibel-Palade bodies of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Monique; Léger, Thibaut; Desvaux, Raphaëlle; Walch, Laurence

    2013-05-03

    Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) are specific cigar-shaped granules that store von Willebrand factor (VWF) for its regulated secretion by endothelial cells. The first steps of the formation of these granules at the trans-Golgi network specifically require VWF aggregation and an external scaffolding complex that contains the adaptator protein complex 1 (AP-1) and clathrin. Discs large 1 (Dlg1) is generally considered to be a modular scaffolding protein implicated in the control of cell polarity in a large variety of cells by specific recruiting of receptors, channels, or signaling proteins to specialized zones of the plasma membrane. We propose here that in endothelial cells, Dlg1, in a complex with AP-1 and clathrin, participates in the biogenesis of WPBs. Supporting data show that Dlg1 colocalizes with microtubules, intermediate filaments, and Golgi markers. Tandem mass spectrometry experiments led to the identification of clathrin as an Dlg1-interacting partner. Interaction was confirmed by in situ proximity ligation assays. Furthermore, AP-1 and VWF immunoprecipitate and colocalize with Dlg1 in the juxtanuclear zone. Finally, Dlg1 depletion by siRNA duplexes disrupts trans-Golgi network morphology and WPB formation. Our results provide the first evidence for an unexpected role of Dlg1 in controlling the formation of specific secretory granules involved in VWF exocytosis in endothelial cells.

  18. The short form of the fear survey schedule for children-revised (FSSC-R-SF): an efficient, reliable, and valid scale for measuring fear in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Muris, Peter; Ollendick, Thomas H; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Austin, Kristin

    2014-12-01

    The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Short Form of the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (FSSC-R-SF) in non-clinical and clinically referred children and adolescents from the Netherlands and the United States. Exploratory as well as confirmatory factor analyses of the FSSC-R-SF yielded support for the hypothesized five-factor structure representing fears in the domains of (1) failure and criticism, (2) the unknown, (3) animals, (4) danger and death, and (5) medical affairs. The FSSC-R-SF showed satisfactory reliability and was capable of assessing gender and age differences in youths' fears and fearfulness that have been documented in previous research. Further, the convergent validity of the scale was good as shown by substantial and meaningful correlations with the full-length FSSC-R and alternative childhood anxiety measures. Finally, support was found for the discriminant validity of the scale. That is, clinically referred children and adolescents exhibited higher scores on the FSSC-R-SF total scale and most subscales as compared to their non-clinical counterparts. Moreover, within the clinical sample, children and adolescents with a major anxiety disorder generally displayed higher FSSC-R-SF scores than youths without such a diagnosis. Altogether, these findings indicate that the FSSC-R-SF is a brief, reliable, and valid scale for assessing fear sensitivities in children and adolescents.

  19. Differential treatment response of subtypes of patients with borderline personality organization, as assessed with theory-driven profiles of the Dutch short form of the MMPI: a naturalistic follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Eurelings-Bontekoe, Elisabeth H M; Peen, Jaap; Noteboom, Annemieke; Alkema, Marieke; Dekker, Jack

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the validity of different subtypes of borderline personality organization (BPO) as assessed by theory-driven profiles of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Disorder (MMPI; Hathaway & McKinley, 1943 ) Dutch Short Form (DSFM; Eurelings-Bontekoe, Onnink, Williams, & Snellen, 2008 ) in a naturalistic follow-up study among 2,062 psychiatric outpatients who received 6 months of ambulatory treatment. Patients were assessed at intake (T1) and 6 months later (T2). At T2, both patients and therapists rated the level of improvement, using the Global Assessment of Improvement. Patients with the high-level BPO profile showed the largest increase in well-being and the largest decrease in severity of symptomatology, whereas severity of symptomatology and well-being of patients with psychotic BPO profiles did not change over time. Agreement between patients and therapists about improvement was good for the internalizing immature BPO and high-level BPO patients, but poor for the externalizing low-level BPO and narcissistic patients.

  20. Assessing children’s empathy through a Spanish adaptation of the Basic Empathy Scale: parent’s and child’s report forms

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Pérez, Noelia; Fuentes, Luis J.; Jolliffe, Darrick; González-Salinas, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current research was to study cognitive and affective empathy in children aged 6–12 years old, and their associations with children’s family environment and social adjustment. For this purpose, we developed the Spanish version of the Basic Empathy Scale (BES), self- and parent-report forms. Factorial analyses confirmed a two-component model of empathy in both self- and parent-report forms. Concordance between parent–child measures of empathy was low for cognitive and affective factors. Analyses of variance on the cognitive and affective components brought a significant effect of age for self-reported cognitive empathy, with older children scoring higher than younger ones. Gender brought out a significant principal effect for self-reported affective empathy, with girls scoring higher than boys. No other main effects were found for age and gender for the rest of the factors analyzed. Children’s empathy was associated with socioeconomic status and other family socialization processes, as well as children’ social behaviors. Overall the new measures provided a coherent view of empathy in middle childhood and early adolescence when measured through self and parent reports, and illustrate the similarity of the validity of the BES in a European-Spanish culture. PMID:25566121