Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)
Zhang, Ming; Tang, Liang; Zhou, Jie; Rong, Gang
Skin is a widely used cue for porn image classification. Most conventional methods are off-line training schemes. They usually use a fixed boundary to segment skin regions in the images and are effective only in restricted conditions: e.g. good lightness and unique human race. This paper presents an adaptive online training scheme for skin detection which can handle these tough cases. In our approach, skin detection is considered as a classification problem on Gaussian mixture model. For each image, human face is detected and the face color is used to establish a primary estimation of skin color distribution. Then an adaptive online training algorithm is used to find the real boundary between skin color and background color in current image. Experimental results on 450 images showed that the proposed method is more robust in general situations than the conventional ones.
Johnson, Donald D.
Describes a corrective method of color adaptation designed to allow most, if not all, individuals to participate in the learning process as well as social and work-related environments. Provides a concise summation of facts and theories concerning color deficiency. Includes anatomical drawings, graphs, and statistical data. (MJP)
Hadi, Ali; Elbuluk, Nada
The skin of color population is rapidly growing in the United States. This population has numerous unique and more commonly occurring dermatologic conditions. Additionally, certain cutaneous conditions can present differently in darker versus lighter skin types. This paper provides an up-to-date overview of common conditions that occur in skin of color, including their clinical presentations, pathogenesis, differential diagnoses, and treatments.
Gaines, Rosslyn; Powell, Gloria J.
Developmental color perception of 278 four- and eight-year-old Black and White children in three societies was examined in relation to the theories that proximity to the equator and that fundus pigmentation (as measured by skin color) reduce shortwave (blue-green) in comparison to long-wave perception. (Author/MP)
Baumann, Leslie; Rodriguez, David; Taylor, Susan C; Wu, Jessica
Changing US demographics indicate that dermatologists will treat an increasing number of individuals of color. Early research on cutaneous anatomy and physiology was performed mostly in white populations. However, new research is elucidating similarities and differences in skin of color and white skin with regard to skin barrier, pigmentation, and sensitivity. Two of the most important issues are skin lightening and brightening. Products for use on skin of color typically should be gentle because of the proclivity of more deeply pigmented skin to develop pigmentary abnormalities in response to skin irritation or trauma. Increasing patient interest in natural remedies has been matched by research on the use of natural ingredients in dermatology. The relative gentleness of many of these products, coupled with excellent efficacy, makes natural ingredients such as soy and licorice excellent choices in the treatment of disorders such as postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) and melasma. For daily skin care, ingredients such as oatmeal and feverfew are good choices for gentle cleansing and moisturizing of dry, sensitive, or ashy skin. Sun protection is an increasing concern due to rising rates of melanoma. Several botanical products are useful in augmenting photoprotection with conventional sunscreens.
Del Grosso, A. E.; Basso, P.
The concept of adaptive and morphing structures has gained considerable attention in the recent years in many fields of engineering. In civil engineering very few practical applications are reported to date however. Non-conventional structural concepts like deployable, inflatable and morphing structures may indeed provide innovative solutions to some of the problems that the construction industry is being called to face. To give some examples, searches for low-energy consumption or even energy-harvesting green buildings are amongst such problems. This paper first presents a review of the above problems and technologies, which shows how the solution to these problems requires a multidisciplinary approach, involving the integration of architectural and engineering disciplines. The discussion continues with the presentation of a possible application of two adaptive and dynamically morphing structures which are proposed for the realization of an acoustic envelope. The core of the two applications is the use of a novel optimization process which leads the search for optimal solutions by means of an evolutionary technique while the compatibility of the resulting configurations of the adaptive envelope is ensured by the virtual force density method.
Song, Jaeil; Yang, Seungji; Kim, Cheonseog; Nam, Jaeho; Hong, Jin-Woo; Ro, Yong Man
As color is more widely used to carry visual information in the multimedia content, ability to perceive color plays a crucial role in getting visual information. Regardless of color vision variations, one should have visual information equally. This paper proposes the adaptation technique for color vision variations in the MPEG-21 Digital Item Adaptation (DIA). DIA is performed respectively for severe color vision deficiency (dichromats) and for mild color vision deficiency (anomalous trichromats), according to the description of user characteristics about color vision variations. Adapted images are tested by simulation program for color vision variations so as to recognize the appearance of the adapted images in the color deficient vision. Experimental result shows that proposed adaptation technique works well in the MPEG-21 framework.
Zhang, Jianqin; Liu, Fuzhu; Cao, Junting; Liu, Xiaolin
Nutritional and medicinal benefits have been attributed to the consumption of tissues from the black-boned chickens in oriental countries. Lueyang black-boned chicken is one of the native chicken breeds. However, some birds may instead have white or lighter skin, which directly causes economic losses every year. Previous studies of pigmentation have focused on a number of genes that may play important roles in coat color regulation. Illumina2000 sequencing technology was used to catalog the global gene expression profiles in the skin of the Lueyang chicken with white versus black skin. A total of 18,608 unigenes were assembled from the reads obtained from the skin of the white and black chickens. A total of 649 known genes were differentially expressed in the black versus white chickens, with 314 genes that were up regulated and 335 genes that were down-regulated, and a total of 162 novel genes were differentially expressed in the black versus white chickens, consisting of 73 genes that were up-regulated (including 4 highly expressed genes that were expressed exclusively in the skin of the black chickens) and 89 genes that were down-regulated. There were also a total of 8 known coat-color genes expressed in previous studies (ASIP, TYR, KIT, TYRP1, OCA2, KITLG, MITF and MC1R). In this study, 4 of which showed greater expression in the black chickens, and several were up-regulated, such as KIT, ASIP, TYR and OCA2. To our surprise, KITLG, MITF and MC1R showed no significant difference in expression between the black- and white-skinned chickens, and the expression of TYRP1 was not detected in either skin color. The expression of ASIP, TYR, KIT, TYRP1, OCA2, KITLG, MITF and MC1R was validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and the results of the qPCR were consistent with the RNA-seq. This study provides several candidate genes that may be associated with the development of black versus white skin. More importantly, the fact that the MC1R
Kotera, Hiroaki; Morimoto, Tetsuro; Yasue, Nobuyuki; Saito, Ryoichi
An adaptive color management strategy depending on the image contents is proposed. Pictorial color image is classified into different object areas with clustered color distribution. Euclidian or Mahalanobis color distance measures, and maximum likelihood method based on Bayesian decision rule, are introduced to the classification. After the classification process, each clustered pixels are projected onto principal component space by Hotelling transform and the color corrections are performed for the principal components to be matched each other in between the individual clustered color areas of original and printed images.
Kim, Yun-Tae; Kim, Kyuhong; Park, Sung-Chan; Kang, Jooyoung; Kim, Jung-Ho
This paper proposes realistic fetus skin color processing using a 2D color map and a tone mapping function (TMF) for ultrasound volume rendering. The contributions of this paper are a 2D color map generated through a gamut model of skin color and a TMF that depends on the lighting position. First, the gamut model of fetus skin color is calculated by color distribution of baby images. The 2D color map is created using a gamut model for tone mapping of ray casting. For the translucent effect, a 2D color map in which lightness is inverted is generated. Second, to enhance the contrast of rendered images, the luminance, color, and tone curve TMF parameters are changed using 2D Gaussian function that depends on the lighting position. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves better realistic skin color reproduction than the conventional method.
Nozile, Wallace; Adgerson, Cheri N; Cohen, George F
Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus (CLE) is a common manifestation in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. In a significant population of patients, CLE is the predominant feature and, in some cases, patients suffer from cutaneous disease alone. Chronic Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus (CCLE) is a scarring subtype, more prevalent in blacks. Patients with skin of color may pose a challenge to physicians due to exaggerated cutaneous findings and increased risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation and hypertrophic scarring. With the demographics of the United States rapidly shifting towards a greater population of non-Caucasian racial and ethnic groups, it is imperative that we expand on the limited research into molecular variation, clinical presentation, and therapeutic efficacy in CLE. The purpose of this review is to bring attention to the unique and severe aspects of CLE in persons of color, which calls for early and aggressive treatment.
Tanaka, Satomi; Kakinuma, Akihiro; Kamijo, Naohiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tsumura, Norimichi
Human has the visual system called "color constancy" that maintains the perceptive colors of same object across various light sources. The effective method of color constancy algorithm was proposed to use the human facial color in a digital color image, however, this method has wrong estimation results by the difference of individual facial colors. In this paper, we present the novel color constancy algorithm based on skin color analysis. The skin color analysis is the method to separate the skin color into the components of melanin, hemoglobin and shading. We use the stationary property of Japanese facial color, and this property is calculated from the components of melanin and hemoglobin. As a result, we achieve to propose the method to use subject's facial color in image and not depend on the individual difference among Japanese facial color.
Zheng, Liling; Huang, Ping; Zhong, Xiao; Li, Tianfeng; Mo, Lei
Recent theories propose that language comprehension can influence perception at the low level of perceptual system. Here, we used an adaptation paradigm to test whether processing language caused color adaptation in the visual system. After prolonged exposure to a color linguistic context, which depicted red, green, or non-specific color scenes, participants immediately performed a color detection task, indicating whether they saw a green color square in the middle of a white screen or not. We found that participants were more likely to perceive the green color square after listening to discourses denoting red compared to discourses denoting green or conveying non-specific color information, revealing that language comprehension caused an adaptation aftereffect at the perceptual level. Therefore, semantic representation of color may have a common neural substrate with color perception. These results are in line with the simulation view of embodied language comprehension theory, which predicts that processing language reactivates the sensorimotor systems that are engaged during real experience. PMID:28358807
Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier
Colors of skin, green plant, and blue sky of digital photographic images were studied for modeling and detection of these three important memory color regions. The color modeling of these three regions in CIELAB and CAM02-UCS was presented, and the properties of these three color groups were investigated.
Rees, Jonathan L
Differences in skin and hair color are principally genetically determined and are due to variation in the amount, type, and packaging of melanin polymers produced by melanocytes secreted into keratinocytes. Pigmentary phenotype is genetically complex and at a physiological level complicated. Genes determining a number of rare Mendelian disorders of pigmentation such as albinism have been identified, but only one gene, the melanocortin 1 receptor (MCR1), has so far been identified to explain variation in the normal population such as that leading to red hair, freckling, and sun-sensitivity. Genotype-phenotype relations of the MC1R are reviewed, as well as methods to improve the phenotypic assessment of human pigmentary status. It is argued that given advances in model systems, increases in technical facility, and the lower cost of genotype assessment, the lack of standardized phenotype assessment is now a major limit on advance.
Bae, Youngwoo; Lee, Youn-Heum; Jung, Byungjo
In dermatology, various digital imaging modalities have been used as an important tool to quantitatively evaluate the treatment effect of skin lesions. Cross-polarization color image was used to evaluate skin chromophores (melanin and hemoglobin) information and parallel-polarization image to evaluate skin texture information. In addition, UV-A induced fluorescent image has been widely used to evaluate various skin conditions such as sebum, keratosis, sun damages, and vitiligo. In order to maximize the evaluation efficacy of various skin lesions, it is necessary to integrate various imaging modalities into an imaging system. In this study, we propose a multimodal digital color imaging system, which provides four different digital color images of standard color image, parallel and cross-polarization color image, and UV-A induced fluorescent color image. Herein, we describe the imaging system and present the examples of image analysis. By analyzing the color information and morphological features of facial skin lesions, we are able to comparably and simultaneously evaluate various skin lesions. In conclusion, we are sure that the multimodal color imaging system can be utilized as an important assistant tool in dermatology.
Tanner, Paul; Leachman, Sancy; Boucher, Kenneth; Ozçelik, Tunçer Burak
Purpose The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that regardless of human skin phototype, areas of depigmented skin, as seen in vitiligo, are optically indistinguishable among skin phototypes. The average of the depigmented skin measurements can be used to develop the base color of realistic prostheses. Methods and Materials Data from 20 of 32 recruited vitiligo study participants. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements were made from depigmented skin and adjacent pigmented skin, then compared to 66 pigmented polydimethylsiloxane phantoms to determine pigment concentrations in turbid media for making realistic facial prostheses. Results The Area Under spectral intensity Curve (AUC) was calculated for average spectroscopy measurements of pigmented sites in relation to skin phototype (p=0.0505) and depigmented skin in relation to skin phototype (p=0.59). No significant relationship exists between skin phototypes and depigmented skin spectroscopy measurements. The average of the depigmented skin measurements (AUC 19,129) was the closest match to phantom 6.4 (AUC 19,162) Conclusions Areas of depigmented skin are visibly indistinguishable per skin phototype, yet spectrometry shows that depigmented skin measurements varied and were unrelated to skin phototype. Possible sources of optical variation of depigmented skin include age, body site, blood flow, quantity/quality of collagen, and other chromophores. The average of all depigmented skin measurements can be used to derive the pigment composition and concentration for realistic facial prostheses. PMID:23750920
Featherston, Elena, Ed.
This anthology contains 48 selections about being a woman of color in the United States. The first section, "The Paradox of Color: Living in an 'Unsane' World," considers the emotional amputations as well as the spiritual powers that are derived from the woman's struggle to "be" in her skin. The second section, "On Becoming 'AdNormal': Finding,…
Perreira, Krista M; Telles, Edward E
Latin America is one of the most ethnoracially heterogeneous regions of the world. Despite this, health disparities research in Latin America tends to focus on gender, class and regional health differences while downplaying ethnoracial differences. Few scholars have conducted studies of ethnoracial identification and health disparities in Latin America. Research that examines multiple measures of ethnoracial identification is rarer still. Official data on race/ethnicity in Latin America are based on self-identification which can differ from interviewer-ascribed or phenotypic classification based on skin color. We use data from Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru to examine associations of interviewer-ascribed skin color, interviewer-ascribed race/ethnicity, and self-reported race/ethnicity with self-rated health among Latin American adults (ages 18-65). We also examine associations of observer-ascribed skin color with three additional correlates of health - skin color discrimination, class discrimination, and socio-economic status. We find a significant gradient in self-rated health by skin color. Those with darker skin colors report poorer health. Darker skin color influences self-rated health primarily by increasing exposure to class discrimination and low socio-economic status.
Perreira, Krista M.; Telles, Edward E.
Latin America is one of the most ethnoracially heterogeneous regions of the world. Despite this, health disparities research in Latin America tends to focus on gender, class and regional health differences while downplaying ethnoracial differences. Few scholars have conducted studies of ethnoracial identification and health disparities in Latin America. Research that examines multiple measures of ethnoracial identification is rarer still. Official data on race/ethnicity in Latin America are based on self-identification which can differ from interviewer-ascribed or phenotypic classification based on skin color. We use data from Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru to examine associations of interviewer-ascribed skin color, interviewer-ascribed race/ethnicity, and self-reported race/ethnicity with self-rated health among Latin American adults (ages 18-65). We also examine associations of observer-ascribed skin color with three additional correlates of health – skin color discrimination, class discrimination, and socio-economic status. We find a significant gradient in self-rated health by skin color. Those with darker skin colors report poorer health. Darker skin color influences self-rated health primarily by increasing exposure to class discrimination and low socio-economic status. PMID:24957692
McNamara, Maria E; Orr, Patrick J; Kearns, Stuart L; Alcalá, Luis; Anadón, Pere; Peñalver, Enrique
Evidence of original coloration in fossils provides insights into the visual communication strategies used by ancient animals and the functional evolution of coloration over time [1-7]. Hitherto, all reconstructions of the colors of reptile integument and the plumage of fossil birds and feathered dinosaurs have been of melanin-based coloration [1-6]. Extant animals also use other mechanisms for producing color , but these have not been identified in fossils. Here we report the first examples of carotenoid-based coloration in the fossil record, and of structural coloration in fossil integument. The fossil skin, from a 10 million-year-old colubrid snake from the Late Miocene Libros Lagerstätte (Teruel, Spain) [9, 10], preserves dermal pigment cells (chromatophores)-xanthophores, iridophores, and melanophores-in calcium phosphate. Comparison with chromatophore abundance and position in extant reptiles [11-15] indicates that the fossil snake was pale-colored in ventral regions; dorsal and lateral regions were green with brown-black and yellow-green transverse blotches. Such coloration most likely functioned in substrate matching and intraspecific signaling. Skin replicated in authigenic minerals is not uncommon in exceptionally preserved fossils [16, 17], and dermal pigment cells generate coloration in numerous reptile, amphibian, and fish taxa today . Our discovery thus represents a new means by which to reconstruct the original coloration of exceptionally preserved fossil vertebrates.
Dijk, Judith; den Hollander, Richard J. M.; Schavemaker, John G. M.; Schutte, Klamer
A camera or display usually has a smaller dynamic range than the human eye. For this reason, objects that can be detected by the naked eye may not be visible in recorded images. Lighting is here an important factor; improper local lighting impairs visibility of details or even entire objects. When a human is observing a scene with different kinds of lighting, such as shadows, he will need to see details in both the dark and light parts of the scene. For grey value images such as IR imagery, algorithms have been developed in which the local contrast of the image is enhanced using local adaptive techniques. In this paper, we present how such algorithms can be adapted so that details in color images are enhanced while color information is retained. We propose to apply the contrast enhancement on color images by applying a grey value contrast enhancement algorithm to the luminance channel of the color signal. The color coordinates of the signal will remain the same. Care is taken that the saturation change is not too high. Gamut mapping is performed so that the output can be displayed on a monitor. The proposed technique can for instance be used by operators monitoring movements of people in order to detect suspicious behavior. To do this effectively, specific individuals should both be easy to recognize and track. This requires optimal local contrast, and is sometimes much helped by color when tracking a person with colored clothes. In such applications, enhanced local contrast in color images leads to more effective monitoring.
Everett, Janine S.; Budescu, Mia; Sommers, Marilyn S.
The background of this article is that assessment and quantification of skin color is important to health care; color is one indicator of overall health and is linked to oxygenation, tissue perfusion, nutritional status, and injury. The purpose is to describe how skin color varies across racial/ethnic groups so that the information can be applied to clinical practice. The method used is cross-sectional, descriptive design (n = 257). We recorded self-defined race/ethnicity and used a spectrophotometer to measure skin color at two anatomic sites. Skin color variables included L* (light/dark), a* (red/green), and b* (yellow/blue). As regards results, we found significant differences in L*, a*, and b* values by site and race/ethnicity in White, Asian, and Biracial participants. L*: F(3, 233) = 139.04, p < .01 and F(3, 233) = 118.47, p < .01. Black participants had significantly lower mean L* values and wider ranges of L*, a*, and b* as compared with other groups. In regard to application, these findings suggest that clinicians and researchers should plan and provide care based on skin color, rather than race/ethnicity. PMID:22645403
Tiosano, Dov; Audi, Laura; Climer, Sharlee; Zhang, Weixiong; Templeton, Alan R.; Fernández-Cancio, Monica; Gershoni-Baruch, Ruth; Sánchez-Muro, José Miguel; El Kholy, Mohamed; Hochberg, Zèev
The well-documented latitudinal clines of genes affecting human skin color presumably arise from the need for protection from intense ultraviolet radiation (UVR) vs. the need to use UVR for vitamin D synthesis. Sampling 751 subjects from a broad range of latitudes and skin colors, we investigated possible multilocus correlated adaptation of skin color genes with the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR), using a vector correlation metric and network method called BlocBuster. We discovered two multilocus networks involving VDR promoter and skin color genes that display strong latitudinal clines as multilocus networks, even though many of their single gene components do not. Considered one by one, the VDR components of these networks show diverse patterns: no cline, a weak declining latitudinal cline outside of Africa, and a strong in- vs. out-of-Africa frequency pattern. We confirmed these results with independent data from HapMap. Standard linkage disequilibrium analyses did not detect these networks. We applied BlocBuster across the entire genome, showing that our networks are significant outliers for interchromosomal disequilibrium that overlap with environmental variation relevant to the genes’ functions. These results suggest that these multilocus correlations most likely arose from a combination of parallel selective responses to a common environmental variable and coadaptation, given the known Mendelian epistasis among VDR and the skin color genes. PMID:26921301
Mitsui, Masanori; Murakami, Yuri; Obi, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki
Multispectral imaging is receiving attention in medical color imaging, as high-fidelity color information can be acquired by the multispectral image capturing. On the other hand, as color enhancement in medical color image is effective for distinguishing lesion from normal part, we apply a new technique for color enhancement using multispectral image to enhance the features contained in a certain spectral band, without changing the average color distribution of original image. In this method, to keep the average color distribution, KL transform is applied to spectral data, and only high-order KL coefficients are amplified in the enhancement. Multispectral images of human skin of bruised arm are captured by 16-band multispectral camera, and the proposed color enhancement is applied. The resultant images are compared with the color images reproduced assuming CIE D65 illuminant (obtained by natural color reproduction technique). As a result, the proposed technique successfully visualizes unclear bruised lesions, which are almost invisible in natural color images. The proposed technique will provide support tool for the diagnosis in dermatology, visual examination in internal medicine, nursing care for preventing bedsore, and so on.
Xie, Jun; Ann Heng, Pheng
In this paper, we propose an approach to diffuse color images based on the bilateral filter. Real image data has a level of uncertainty that is manifested in the variability of measures assigned to pixels. This uncertainty is usually interpreted as noise and considered an undesirable component of the image data. Image diffusion can smooth away small-scale structures and noise while retaining important features, thus improving the performances for many image processing algorithms such as image compression, segmentation and recognition. The bilateral filter is noniterative, simple and fast. It has been shown to give similar and possibly better filtering results than iterative approaches. However, the performance of this filter is greatly affected by the choose of the parameters of filtering kernels. In order to remove noise and maintain the significant features on images, we extend the bilateral filter by introducing an adaptive domain spread into the nonlinear diffusion scheme. For color images, we employ the CIE-Lab color system to describe input images and the filtering process is operated using three channels together. Our analysis shows that the proposed method is more suitable for preserving strong edges on noisy images than the original bilateral filter. Empirical results on both nature images and color medical images confirm the novel method's advantages, and show it can diffuse various kinds of color images correctly and efficiently.
Ang, Khai C.; Ngu, Mee S.; Reid, Katherine P.; Teh, Mei S.; Aida, Zamzuraida S.; Koh, Danny XR.; Berg, Arthur; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Salleh, Hood; Clyde, Mahani M.; Md-Zain, Badrul M.; Canfield, Victor A.; Cheng, Keith C.
Pigmentation is a readily scorable and quantitative human phenotype, making it an excellent model for studying multifactorial traits and diseases. Convergent human evolution from the ancestral state, darker skin, towards lighter skin colors involved divergent genetic mechanisms in people of European vs. East Asian ancestry. It is striking that the European mechanisms result in a 10–20-fold increase in skin cancer susceptibility while the East Asian mechanisms do not. Towards the mapping of genes that contribute to East Asian pigmentation there is need for one or more populations that are admixed for ancestral and East Asian ancestry, but with minimal European contribution. This requirement is fulfilled by the Senoi, one of three indigenous tribes of Peninsular Malaysia collectively known as the Orang Asli. The Senoi are thought to be an admixture of the Negrito, an ancestral dark-skinned population representing the second of three Orang Asli tribes, and regional Mongoloid populations of Indo-China such as the Proto-Malay, the third Orang Asli tribe. We have calculated skin reflectance-based melanin indices in 492 Orang Asli, which ranged from 28 (lightest) to 75 (darkest); both extremes were represented in the Senoi. Population averages were 56 for Negrito, 42 for Proto-Malay, and 46 for Senoi. The derived allele frequencies for SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 in the Senoi were 0.04 and 0.02, respectively, consistent with greater South Asian than European admixture. Females and individuals with the A111T mutation had significantly lighter skin (p = 0.001 and 0.0039, respectively). Individuals with these derived alleles were found across the spectrum of skin color, indicating an overriding effect of strong skin lightening alleles of East Asian origin. These results suggest that the Senoi are suitable for mapping East Asian skin color genes. PMID:22912732
Skin color is controlled by pigmentary genes that regulate constitutive skin pigmentation and by environmental factors, the most obvious of them being solar U.V. At this time, more than 130 distinct pigmentary genes are known. They affect embryogenesis and survival of the melanocyte system, mélanosome biogenesis, melanogenesis, mélanosome transport and transfer, eumelanins/pheomelanins ratio and epidermal mélanosome turn-over and elimination. The pigmentary disorders of the skin are common and represent an important part of dermatologist activity. They concern at the same time the general dermatology and the aesthetic dermatology.
Yu, Cunjiang; Li, Yuhang; Zhang, Xun; Huang, Xian; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Wang, Shuodao; Shi, Yan; Gao, Li; Su, Yewang; Zhang, Yihui; Xu, Hangxun; Hanlon, Roger T; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A
Octopus, squid, cuttlefish, and other cephalopods exhibit exceptional capabilities for visually adapting to or differentiating from the coloration and texture of their surroundings, for the purpose of concealment, communication, predation, and reproduction. Long-standing interest in and emerging understanding of the underlying ultrastructure, physiological control, and photonic interactions has recently led to efforts in the construction of artificial systems that have key attributes found in the skins of these organisms. Despite several promising options in active materials for mimicking biological color tuning, existing routes to integrated systems do not include critical capabilities in distributed sensing and actuation. Research described here represents progress in this direction, demonstrated through the construction, experimental study, and computational modeling of materials, device elements, and integration schemes for cephalopod-inspired flexible sheets that can autonomously sense and adapt to the coloration of their surroundings. These systems combine high-performance, multiplexed arrays of actuators and photodetectors in laminated, multilayer configurations on flexible substrates, with overlaid arrangements of pixelated, color-changing elements. The concepts provide realistic routes to thin sheets that can be conformally wrapped onto solid objects to modulate their visual appearance, with potential relevance to consumer, industrial, and military applications.
Yu, Cunjiang; Li, Yuhang; Zhang, Xun; Huang, Xian; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Wang, Shuodao; Shi, Yan; Gao, Li; Su, Yewang; Zhang, Yihui; Xu, Hangxun; Hanlon, Roger T.; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.
Octopus, squid, cuttlefish, and other cephalopods exhibit exceptional capabilities for visually adapting to or differentiating from the coloration and texture of their surroundings, for the purpose of concealment, communication, predation, and reproduction. Long-standing interest in and emerging understanding of the underlying ultrastructure, physiological control, and photonic interactions has recently led to efforts in the construction of artificial systems that have key attributes found in the skins of these organisms. Despite several promising options in active materials for mimicking biological color tuning, existing routes to integrated systems do not include critical capabilities in distributed sensing and actuation. Research described here represents progress in this direction, demonstrated through the construction, experimental study, and computational modeling of materials, device elements, and integration schemes for cephalopod-inspired flexible sheets that can autonomously sense and adapt to the coloration of their surroundings. These systems combine high-performance, multiplexed arrays of actuators and photodetectors in laminated, multilayer configurations on flexible substrates, with overlaid arrangements of pixelated, color-changing elements. The concepts provide realistic routes to thin sheets that can be conformally wrapped onto solid objects to modulate their visual appearance, with potential relevance to consumer, industrial, and military applications. PMID:25136094
Rushton, J. Philippe; Templer, Donald I.
National differences in murder, rape, and serious assault were examined in 113 countries in relation to national IQ, income, skin color, birth rate, life expectancy, infant mortality, and HIV/AIDS. Data were collated from the 1993-1996 International Crime Statistics published by INTERPOL. Violent crime was found to be lower in countries with…
Hochschild, Jennifer L.; Weaver, Vesla
Dark-skinned blacks in the United States have lower socioeconomic status, more punitive relationships with the criminal justice system, diminished prestige, and less likelihood of holding elective office compared with their lighter counterparts. This phenomenon of "colorism" both occurs within the African American community and is…
Fullilove, Mindy Thompson; Reynolds, Tyrone
The role of skin color in the development of identity has been studied by a variety of paradigms. This paper applies the biopsychosocial model to this problem, with the hope that systems hierarchies offer a way to understand how many variables have an impact on a single point. This model postulates that complex social interactions are the life setting for the individual whose development also reflects biological endowment, including the contributions of heredity and nurturance. The final personal integration of an adult understanding of skin color requires an active assertion by the individual. This model is explored through the writings of Jessie Fauset, a leading participant in the literary movement known as the Harlem Renaissance. PMID:6748102
Swiatoniowski, Anna K; Quillen, Ellen E; Shriver, Mark D; Jablonski, Nina G
Prior to the introduction of reflectance spectrophotometry into anthropological field research during the 1950s, human skin color was most commonly classified by visual skin color matching using the von Luschan tiles, a set of 36 standardized, opaque glass tiles arranged in a chromatic scale. Our goal was to establish a conversion formula between the tile-based color matching method and modern reflectance spectrophotometry to make historical and contemporary data comparable. Skin pigmentation measurements were taken on the forehead, inner upper arms, and backs of the hands using both the tiles and a spectrophotometer on 246 participants showing a broad range of skin pigmentation. From these data, a second-order polynomial conversion formula was derived by jackknife analysis to estimate melanin index (M-index) based on tile values. This conversion formula provides a means for comparing modern data to von Luschan tile measurements recorded in historical reports. This is particularly important for populations now extinct, extirpated, or admixed for which tile-based measures of skin pigmentation are the only data available.
Hillis, James M.; Brainard, David H.
Are effects of background contrast on color appearance and sensitivity controlled by the same mechanism of adaptation? We examined the effects of background color contrast on color appearance and on color-difference sensitivity under well-matched conditions. We linked the data using Fechner's hypothesis that the rate of apparent stimulus change is proportional to sensitivity and examined a family of parametric models of adaptation. Our results show that both appearance and discrimination are consistent with the same mechanism of adaptation.
Hillis, James M; Brainard, David H
Are effects of background contrast on color appearance and sensitivity controlled by the same mechanism of adaptation? We examined the effects of background color contrast on color appearance and on color-difference sensitivity under well-matched conditions. We linked the data using Fechner's hypothesis that the rate of apparent stimulus change is proportional to sensitivity and examined a family of parametric models of adaptation. Our results show that both appearance and discrimination are consistent with the same mechanism of adaptation.
Employing the pioneering work of Charles Parrish as a basis of comparison, this study serves as a follow-up to “Color Names and Color Notions” by deconstructing the contemporary language and attitudes surrounding skin color. Nine focus groups with 58 black women between the ages of 18 and 25 reveal that the color names and color notions offered were consistent with many of the terms and stereotypes that Parrish found, thereby indicating that there has been no change in colorist ideology among African Americans. Participants discussed 40 color names regularly employed to describe light, medium, and dark skin tones. The terms and attitudes associated with light skin tones were generally negative; conversely, the terms and attitudes associated with dark skin tones were derogatory. The language and beliefs connected to medium skin tones indicate that colorism operates as a three-tiered structure rather than the traditionally situated binary paradigm.
Grimes, Pearl E
Melasma is a chronic, relapsing disorder that can be disfiguring and can have adverse effects on quality of life. Recently, a unique hydroquinone-free topical product addressing multiple pathways involved in pigmentation was shown to have similar efficacy and equally well tolerated as 4% hydroquinone in females with facial hyperpigmentation. The goal herein was to further assess the efficacy and tolerability of this new multimodality product for the control of moderate melasma in skin of color. Six female subjects with Fitzpatrick skin types IV-V in good general health between the ages of 46 and 63 years with moderate epidermal facial melasma are presented herein. Subjects applied the skin brightener twice daily, morning and evening, and returned to the clinic at weeks 4, 8, and 12. By week 12, Investigator Overall Hyperpigmentation scores and MASI scores improved by an average of 22% and 38% from baseline, respectively. Additionally, 100% of subjects showed at least a 25% increase in Global Improvement at week 12. The skin brightener was well tolerated with no reports of erythema, edema, scaling, burning/stinging, or itching. Results from these case studies suggest that this multimodality skin brightener may provide an alternative treatment to hydroquinone for moderate melasma in skin of color. However additional clinical studies would be needed.
Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia; McFall-Roberts, Ebuni; Flowers, Claudia; Garrett, Michael T.
Many individuals face discrimination because of their skin color; however, skin color of African American young adults has not been studied in detail. This study examines relationships between skin color and perceptions among African American college women. The study yielded a positive correlation between personal values and self-rated skin color …
Wade, T. Joel; Bielitz, Sara
Skin color in relation to perceived attractiveness, personality ratings, and perceived life success of African Americans was investigated in a 2 (sex of participant) 2 (skin color of stimulus person) 2 (sex of stimulus person) design. Based on prior research, Skin Color Sex of Stimulus Person and Sex of Participant Skin Color interactions were…
Rodríguez-Pardo, Carlos E.; Sharma, Gaurav
We propose a user-centric methodology for displaying digital color documents, that optimizes color representations in an observer specific and adaptive fashion. We apply our framework to situations involving viewers with common dichromatic color vision deficiencies, who face challenges in perceiving information presented in color images and graphics designed for color normal individuals. For situations involving qualitative data visualization, we present a computationally efficient solution that combines a customized observer-specific hierarchical palette with "display time" selection of the number of colors to generate renderings with colors that are easily discriminated by the intended viewer. The palette design is accomplished via a clustering algorithm, that arranges colors in a hierarchical tree based on their perceived differences for the intended viewer. A desired number of highly discriminable colors are readily obtained from the hierarchical palette via a simple truncation. As an illustration, we demonstrate the application of the methodology to Ishihara style images.
Contents of this book include: Part I: "The Nursery School and Its Racial Integration"--introduction, establishing physical and psychological integration; staff meetings; observing and working through; Part II: "Theory and Practice"--skin color anxiety: the skin and its importance in personality development; skin color anxiety, the visual impact,…
Kvitle, Anne Kristin; Green, Phil; Nussbaum, Peter
A map is an information design object for which canonical colors for the most common elements are well established. For a CVD observer, it may be difficult to discriminate between such elements - for example, it may be hard to distinguish a red road from a green landscape on the basis of color alone. We address this problem through an adaptive color schema in which the conspicuity of elements in a map to the individual user is maximized. This paper outlines a method to perform adaptive color rendering of map information for users with color vision deficiencies. The palette selection method is based on a pseudo-color palette generation technique which constrains colors to those which lie on the boundary of a reference object color gamut. A user performs a color vision discrimination task, and based on the results of the test, a palette of colors is selected using the pseudo-color palette generation method. This ensures that the perceived difference between palette elements is high but which retains the canonical color of well-known elements as far as possible. We show examples of color palettes computed for a selection of normal and CVD observers, together with maps rendered using these palettes.
de Cerqueira, Caio Cesar Silva; Hünemeier, Tábita; Gomez-Valdés, Jorge; Ramallo, Virgínia; Volasko-Krause, Carla Daiana; Barbosa, Ana Angélica Leal; Vargas-Pinilla, Pedro; Dornelles, Rodrigo Ciconet; Longo, Danaê; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; González-José, Rolando; Salzano, Francisco Mauro; Callegari-Jacques, Sídia Maria; Schuler-Faccini, Lavínia; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Cátira Bortolini, Maria
The understanding of the complex genotype-phenotype architecture of human pigmentation has clear implications for the evolutionary history of humans, as well as for medical and forensic practices. Although dozens of genes have previously been associated with human skin color, knowledge about this trait remains incomplete. In particular, studies focusing on populations outside the European-North American axis are rare, and, until now, admixed populations have seldom been considered. The present study was designed to help fill this gap. Our objective was to evaluate possible associations of 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), located within nine genes, and one pseudogene with the Melanin Index (MI) in two admixed Brazilian populations (Gaucho, N = 352; Baiano, N = 148) with different histories of geographic and ethnic colonization. Of the total sample, four markers were found to be significantly associated with skin color, but only two (SLC24A5 rs1426654, and SLC45A2 rs16891982) were consistently associated with MI in both samples (Gaucho and Baiano). Therefore, only these 2 SNPs should be preliminarily considered to have forensic significance because they consistently showed the association independently of the admixture level of the populations studied. We do not discard that the other two markers (HERC2 rs1129038 and TYR rs1126809) might be also relevant to admixed samples, but additional studies are necessary to confirm the real importance of these markers for skin pigmentation. Finally, our study shows associations of some SNPs with MI in a modern Brazilian admixed sample, with possible applications in forensic genetics. Some classical genetic markers in Euro-North American populations are not associated with MI in our sample. Our results point out the relevance of considering population differences in selecting an appropriate set of SNPs as phenotype predictors in forensic practice. PMID:24809478
Cerqueira, Caio Cesar Silva de; Hünemeier, Tábita; Gomez-Valdés, Jorge; Ramallo, Virgínia; Volasko-Krause, Carla Daiana; Barbosa, Ana Angélica Leal; Vargas-Pinilla, Pedro; Dornelles, Rodrigo Ciconet; Longo, Danaê; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; González-José, Rolando; Salzano, Francisco Mauro; Callegari-Jacques, Sídia Maria; Schuler-Faccini, Lavínia; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Cátira Bortolini, Maria
The understanding of the complex genotype-phenotype architecture of human pigmentation has clear implications for the evolutionary history of humans, as well as for medical and forensic practices. Although dozens of genes have previously been associated with human skin color, knowledge about this trait remains incomplete. In particular, studies focusing on populations outside the European-North American axis are rare, and, until now, admixed populations have seldom been considered. The present study was designed to help fill this gap. Our objective was to evaluate possible associations of 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), located within nine genes, and one pseudogene with the Melanin Index (MI) in two admixed Brazilian populations (Gaucho, N = 352; Baiano, N = 148) with different histories of geographic and ethnic colonization. Of the total sample, four markers were found to be significantly associated with skin color, but only two (SLC24A5 rs1426654, and SLC45A2 rs16891982) were consistently associated with MI in both samples (Gaucho and Baiano). Therefore, only these 2 SNPs should be preliminarily considered to have forensic significance because they consistently showed the association independently of the admixture level of the populations studied. We do not discard that the other two markers (HERC2 rs1129038 and TYR rs1126809) might be also relevant to admixed samples, but additional studies are necessary to confirm the real importance of these markers for skin pigmentation. Finally, our study shows associations of some SNPs with MI in a modern Brazilian admixed sample, with possible applications in forensic genetics. Some classical genetic markers in Euro-North American populations are not associated with MI in our sample. Our results point out the relevance of considering population differences in selecting an appropriate set of SNPs as phenotype predictors in forensic practice.
Ojima, Nobutoshi; Fujiwara, Izumi; Inoue, Yayoi; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Iwata, Kayoko
Uneven distribution of skin color is one of the biggest concerns about facial skin appearance. Recently several techniques to analyze skin color have been introduced by separating skin color information into chromophore components, such as melanin and hemoglobin. However, there are not many reports on quantitative analysis of unevenness of skin color by considering type of chromophore, clusters of different sizes and concentration of the each chromophore. We propose a new image analysis and simulation method based on chromophore analysis and spatial frequency analysis. This method is mainly composed of three techniques: independent component analysis (ICA) to extract hemoglobin and melanin chromophores from a single skin color image, an image pyramid technique which decomposes each chromophore into multi-resolution images, which can be used for identifying different sizes of clusters or spatial frequencies, and analysis of the histogram obtained from each multi-resolution image to extract unevenness parameters. As the application of the method, we also introduce an image processing technique to change unevenness of melanin component. As the result, the method showed high capabilities to analyze unevenness of each skin chromophore: 1) Vague unevenness on skin could be discriminated from noticeable pigmentation such as freckles or acne. 2) By analyzing the unevenness parameters obtained from each multi-resolution image for Japanese ladies, agerelated changes were observed in the parameters of middle spatial frequency. 3) An image processing system modulating the parameters was proposed to change unevenness of skin images along the axis of the obtained age-related change in real time.
Frisby, Cynthia M
The purpose of this research project was to investigate the relationship between skin color and level of perceived physical attractiveness. Previous research suggested that skin color plays an important role in how we perceive an individual's physical attractiveness. The current study was conducted to determine how influential the role of race is on perceptions of physical attractiveness. In this study, 79 subjects were asked to evaluate images of potential endorsers to be used in an upcoming advertising campaign. The images were those of females of varying skin tones. Data were then collected and analyzed to determine whether skin tone and level of skin color can in fact influence the physical attractiveness stereotype.
Martini, Matteo; Perez-Marcos, D; Sanchez-Vives, M V
It has been demonstrated that visual inputs can modulate pain. However, the influence of skin color on pain perception is unknown. Red skin is associated to inflamed, hot and more sensitive skin, while blue is associated to cyanotic, cold skin. We aimed to test whether the color of the skin would alter the heat pain threshold. To this end, we used an immersive virtual environment where we induced embodiment of a virtual arm that was co-located with the real one and seen from a first-person perspective. Virtual reality allowed us to dynamically modify the color of the skin of the virtual arm. In order to test pain threshold, increasing ramps of heat stimulation applied on the participants' arm were delivered concomitantly with the gradual intensification of different colors on the embodied avatar's arm. We found that a reddened arm significantly decreased the pain threshold compared with normal and bluish skin. This effect was specific when red was seen on the arm, while seeing red in a spot outside the arm did not decrease pain threshold. These results demonstrate an influence of skin color on pain perception. This top-down modulation of pain through visual input suggests a potential use of embodied virtual bodies for pain therapy.
Martini, Matteo; Perez-Marcos, D.; Sanchez-Vives, M. V.
It has been demonstrated that visual inputs can modulate pain. However, the influence of skin color on pain perception is unknown. Red skin is associated to inflamed, hot and more sensitive skin, while blue is associated to cyanotic, cold skin. We aimed to test whether the color of the skin would alter the heat pain threshold. To this end, we used an immersive virtual environment where we induced embodiment of a virtual arm that was co-located with the real one and seen from a first-person perspective. Virtual reality allowed us to dynamically modify the color of the skin of the virtual arm. In order to test pain threshold, increasing ramps of heat stimulation applied on the participants’ arm were delivered concomitantly with the gradual intensification of different colors on the embodied avatar’s arm. We found that a reddened arm significantly decreased the pain threshold compared with normal and bluish skin. This effect was specific when red was seen on the arm, while seeing red in a spot outside the arm did not decrease pain threshold. These results demonstrate an influence of skin color on pain perception. This top-down modulation of pain through visual input suggests a potential use of embodied virtual bodies for pain therapy. PMID:23914172
Dawson, Beverly Araujo; Williams, David R.
We examined 22 articles to compare Black Latinos/as’ with White Latinos/as’ health and highlight findings and limitations in the literature. We searched 1153 abstracts, from the earliest on record to those available in 2016. We organized the articles into domains grounded on a framework that incorporates the effects of race on Latinos/as’ health and well-being: health and well-being, immigration, psychosocial factors, and contextual factors. Most studies in this area are limited by self-reported measures of health status, inconsistent use of race and skin color measures, and omission of a wider range of immigration-related and contextual factors. We give recommendations for future research to explain the complexity in the Latino/a population regarding race, and we provide insight into Black Latinos/as experiences. PMID:27736206
Hadley, Mac E.; Younggren, Newell A.
Presented is a short discussion of factors causing color changes in animals. Also described is an activity which may be used to demonstrate the response of amphibian skin to a melanophore stimulating hormone in high school or college biology classes. (PEB)
Pteruk, Vail; Mokanyuk, Olexander; Kvaternuk, Olena; Yakenina, Lesya; Kotyra, Andrzej; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Dussembayeva, Shynar
Change of color coordinates of normal and pathological biological tissues is based on calculated spectral diffuse reflection. The proposed color coordinates of normal and pathological biological tissues of skin provided using standard light sources, allowing accurately diagnose skin damage due to mechanical trauma with a blunt object for forensic problems.
This case explores the genetics and evolution of skin color, using a short story by Kate Chopin called "Desiree's Baby" as a starting point. Students read the story and discuss a series of questions probing the genetics of the family in the tale. Students then read an article about the evolution of skin color and write an essay analyzing the…
Whitehead, Ross D; Ozakinci, Gözde; Perrett, David I
In this paper we review the mechanisms through which carotenoid coloration could provide a sexually selected cue to condition in species with elaborate color vision. Skin carotenoid pigmentation induced by fruit and vegetable consumption may provide a similar cue to health in humans (particularly light-skinned Asians and Caucasians). Evidence demonstrates that carotenoid-based skin coloration enhances apparent health, and that dietary change can perceptibly impact skin color within weeks. We find that the skin coloration associated with increased fruit and vegetable consumption benefits apparent health to a greater extent than melanin pigmentation. We argue that the benefits to appearance may motivate individuals to improve their diet and that this line of appearance research reveals a potentially powerful strategy for motivating a healthy lifestyle.
Tan, Kok Wei; Graf, Brigitte A; Mitra, Soma R; Stephen, Ian D
Consumption of dietary carotenoids or carotenoid supplements can alter the color (yellowness) of human skin through increased carotenoid deposition in the skin. As fruit and vegetables are the main dietary sources of carotenoids, skin yellowness may be a function of regular fruit and vegetable consumption. However, most previous studies have used tablets or capsules to supplement carotenoid intake, and less is known of the impact of increased fruit and vegetable consumption on skin color. Here, we examined skin color changes in an Asian population (Malaysian Chinese ethnicity) over a six week dietary intervention with a carotenoid-rich fruit smoothie. Eighty one university students (34 males, 47 females; mean age 20.48) were assigned randomly to consuming either a fruit smoothie (intervention group) or mineral water (control group) daily for six weeks. Participants' skin yellowness (CIELab b*), redness (a*) and luminance (L*) were measured at baseline, twice during the intervention period and at a two-week follow-up, using a handheld reflectance spectrophotometer. Results showed a large increment in skin yellowness (p<0.001) and slight increment in skin redness (p<0.001) after 4 weeks of intervention for participants in the intervention group. Skin yellowness and skin redness remained elevated at the two week follow up measurement. In conclusion, intervention with a carotenoid-rich fruit smoothie is associated with increased skin redness and yellowness in an Asian population. Changes in the reflectance spectrum of the skin suggest that this color change was caused by carotenoid deposition in the skin.
Khaled, Shah Mostafa; Saiful Islam, Md.; Rabbani, Md. Golam; Tabassum, Mirza Rehenuma; Gias, Alim Ul; Kamal, Md. Mostafa; Muctadir, Hossain Muhammad; Shakir, Asif Khan; Imran, Asif; Islam, Saiful
Among different color models HSV, HLS, YIQ, YCbCr, YUV, etc. have been most popular for skin detection. Most of the research done in the field of skin detection has been trained and tested on human images of African, Mongolian and Anglo-Saxon ethnic origins, skin colors of Indian sub-continentals have not been focused separately. Combinatorial algorithms, without affecting asymptotic complexity can be developed using the skin detection concepts of these color models for boosting detection performance. In this paper a comparative study of different combinatorial skin detection algorithms have been made. For training and testing 200 images (skin and non skin) containing pictures of sub-continental male and females have been used to measure the performance of the combinatorial approaches, and considerable development in success rate with True Positive of 99.5% and True Negative of 93.3% have been observed.
Although racial inequality is frequently studied in education, skin tone stratification has received less attention from educational researchers. Inequality by skin tone, also known as "colorism", contributes to larger patterns of racial inequality for African Americans and Latina/os. Discrimination by skin tone affects many dimensions…
Pessoa, Daniel Marques Almeida; Maia, Rafael; de Albuquerque Ajuz, Rafael Cavalcanti; De Moraes, Pedro Zurvaino Palmeira Melo Rosa; Spyrides, Maria Helena Constantino; Pessoa, Valdir Filgueiras
The complex evolution of primate color vision has puzzled biologists for decades. Primates are the only eutherian mammals that evolved an enhanced capacity for discriminating colors in the green-red part of the spectrum (trichromatism). However, while Old World primates present three types of cone pigments and are routinely trichromatic, most New World primates exhibit a color vision polymorphism, characterized by the occurrence of trichromatic and dichromatic females and obligatory dichromatic males. Even though this has stimulated a prolific line of inquiry, the selective forces and relative benefits influencing color vision evolution in primates are still under debate, with current explanations focusing almost exclusively at the advantages in finding food and detecting socio-sexual signals. Here, we evaluate a previously untested possibility, the adaptive value of primate color vision for predator detection. By combining color vision modeling data on New World and Old World primates, as well as behavioral information from human subjects, we demonstrate that primates exhibiting better color discrimination (trichromats) excel those displaying poorer color visions (dichromats) at detecting carnivoran predators against the green foliage background. The distribution of color vision found in extant anthropoid primates agrees with our results, and may be explained by the advantages of trichromats and dichromats in detecting predators and insects, respectively.
Jayaram, S; Schmugge, S; Shin, M C; Tsap, L V
Skin detection is an important preliminary process in human motion analysis. It is commonly performed in three steps: transforming the pixel color to a non-RGB colorspace, dropping the illumination component of skin color, and classifying by modeling the skin color distribution. In this paper, we evaluate the effect of these three steps on the skin detection performance. The importance of this study is a new comprehensive colorspace and color modeling testing methodology that would allow for making the best choices for skin detection. Combinations of nine colorspaces, the presence of the absence of the illuminance component, and the two color modeling approaches are compared. The performance is measured by using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve on a large dataset of 805 images with manual ground truth. The results reveal that (1) the absence of the illuminance component decreases performance, (2) skin color modeling has a greater impact than colorspace transformation, and (3) colorspace transformations can improve performance in certain instances. We found that the best performance was obtained by transforming the pixel color to the SCT, HSI, or CIELAB colorspaces, keeping the illuminance component, and modeling the color with the histogram approach.
Kaliraj, Kalirajan; Manimaran, Sudha
Robust skin color-based moving object detection for video surveillance is proposed. The objective of the proposed algorithm is to detect and track the target under complex situations. The proposed framework comprises four stages, which include preprocessing, skin color-based feature detection, feature classification, and target localization and tracking. In the preprocessing stage, the input image frame is smoothed using averaging filter and transformed into YCrCb color space. In skin color detection, skin color regions are detected using Otsu's method of global thresholding. In the feature classification, histograms of both skin and nonskin regions are constructed and the features are classified into foregrounds and backgrounds based on Bayesian skin color classifier. The foreground skin regions are localized by a connected component labeling process. Finally, the localized foreground skin regions are confirmed as a target by verifying the region properties, and nontarget regions are rejected using the Euler method. At last, the target is tracked by enclosing the bounding box around the target region in all video frames. The experiment was conducted on various publicly available data sets and the performance was evaluated with baseline methods. It evidently shows that the proposed algorithm works well against slowly varying illumination, target rotations, scaling, fast, and abrupt motion changes.
Pattamadilok, Bensachee; Devpura, Suneetha; Syed, Zain U; Agbai, Oma N; Vemulapalli, Pranita; Henderson, Marsha; Rehse, Steven J; Mahmoud, Bassel H; Lim, Henry W; Naik, Ratna; Hamzavi, Iltefat H
Tristimulus colorimetry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) are white-light skin reflectance techniques used to measure the intensity of skin pigmentation. The tristimulus colorimeter is an instrument that measures a perceived color and the DRS instrument measures biological chromophores of the skin, including oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin, melanin and scattering. Data gathered from these tools can be used to understand morphological changes induced in skin chromophores due to conditions of the skin or their treatments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of these two instruments in color measurements of acanthosis nigricans (AN) lesions. Eight patients with hyperinsulinemia and clinically diagnosable AN were seen monthly. Skin pigmentation was measured at three sites: the inner forearm, the medial aspect of the posterior neck, and anterior neck unaffected by AN. Of the three, measured tristimulus L*a*b* color parameters, the luminosity parameter L* was found to most reliably distinguish lesion from normally pigmented skin. The DRS instrument was able to characterize a lesion on the basis of the calculated melanin concentration, though melanin is a weak indicator of skin change and not a reliable measure to be used independently. Calculated oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations were not found to be reliable indicators of AN. Tristimulus colorimetry may provide reliable methods for respectively quantifying and characterizing the objective color change in AN, while DRS may be useful in characterizing changes in skin melanin content associated with this skin condition.
Kehoe, David M; Gutu, Andrian
The acclimation of photosynthetic organisms to changes in light color is ubiquitous and may be best illustrated by the colorful process of complementary chromatic adaptation (CCA). During CCA, cyanobacterial cells change from brick red to bright blue green, depending on their light color environment. The apparent simplicity of this spectacular, photoreversible event belies the complexity of the cellular response to changes in light color. Recent results have shown that the regulation of CCA is also complex and involves at least three pathways. One is controlled by a phytochrome-class photoreceptor that is responsive to green and red light and a complex two-component signal transduction pathway, whereas another is based on sensing redox state. Studies of CCA are uncovering the strategies used by photosynthetic organisms during light acclimation and the means by which they regulate these responses.
Veeraganta, Sumanth K.; Savadi, Ravindra C.; Baroudi, Kusai; Nassani, Mohammad Z.
Purpose of the Study: The purpose was to investigate the differences in tooth shade value according to age, gender and skin color among a sample of the local population in Bengaluru, India. Methodology: The study comprised 100 subjects belonging to both gender between the age groups of 16 years to 55 years. Tooth shade values of permanent maxillary left or right central incisors were recorded using the Vitapan 3D-Master shade guide. Skin color was matched using the Radiance compact makeup shades as a guide. Results: Chi-square statistical test demonstrated that younger subjects have lighter tooth shade values. No statistically significant differences were recorded in tooth shade value according to gender or skin color. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the current study, it can be concluded that tooth shade value is significantly influenced by age. Gender and skin color appear not to have a significant relation to tooth shade value. PMID:26929500
van Oort, R.P.; Vermey, J.; Ten Bosch, J.J.
A radiotherapy treatment (/sup 60/Co) of cancer in the head and neck region causes side effects in the skin that postpone the facial prosthetic treatment. The increasing and fading erythema and pigmentation of the skin was investigated with the use of a subtractive colorimeter. This method was verified with photographs scored according to the Oxford scoring system. Fourteen patients were investigated during a period of 24 weeks. The mean colorimetric skin response showed a peak 6 weeks after the onset of irradiation. Six to 7 weeks later, there was no significant difference between the skin color before and after irradiation. At this time the dry desquamation of the skin is healed. From this viewpoint, the color matching procedure for a facial prosthesis may start not earlier than 15 weeks from the onset of irradiation. If a nonirradiated control field in the facial region is present, a color match for the facial prosthesis can be started just after the irradiation period.
Face and Gesture Recognition , pp. 379–384, 1996.  R. Kjeldsen and J. Kender. Finding skin in color images. Proc. International Conf. on Automatic...Face and Gesture Recognition , pp. 312–317, 1996.  M. Storring, H.J. Andersen, and E. Granum. Skin colour detection under changing lighting...Object oriented face detection using range and color information. Proc. International Conf. on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition , pp. 76–81, 1998
Caisey, L; Grangeat, F; Lemasson, A; Talabot, J; Voirin, A
The development of a world-wide makeup foundation range requires a thorough understanding of skin color features of women around the world. To understand the cosmetic needs of women from different ethnic groups, we measured skin color in five different groups (French and American Caucasian, Japanese, African-American, and Hispanic-American) and compared the data obtained with women's self-perception of skin color, before or after applying their usual foundation product. Skin color was measured using a spectro-radiometer and a spheric lighting device with CCD camera ensuring a highly reliable imaging and data acquisition. The diversity of skin types involved in the study lead to define a large, continuous color space where color spectra from various ethnic groups overlap. Three types of complexion - dark, medium, or light - were distinguished in each group. Only Japanese women did not identify with this lightness scale and considered it makes more sense to classify their skin according to a pink-ocher-beige color scale. The approach however revealed the great variety of skin colors within each ethnic group and the extent of unevenness. A fairly good agreement appeared between women's self-perception and data from color measurements but in Hispanic-American group. Data recorded, after foundation was applied, showed overall consistency with makeup strategy as described by volunteers except for the latter group whose approach looked more uncertain and variable. The findings of the study demonstrate the advantage of combining qualitative and quantitative approach for assessing the cosmetic needs and expectations of women from different ethnic origin and cultural background.
Tan, Kok Wei; Graf, Brigitte A.; Mitra, Soma R.; Stephen, Ian D.
Consumption of dietary carotenoids or carotenoid supplements can alter the color (yellowness) of human skin through increased carotenoid deposition in the skin. As fruit and vegetables are the main dietary sources of carotenoids, skin yellowness may be a function of regular fruit and vegetable consumption. However, most previous studies have used tablets or capsules to supplement carotenoid intake, and less is known of the impact of increased fruit and vegetable consumption on skin color. Here, we examined skin color changes in an Asian population (Malaysian Chinese ethnicity) over a six week dietary intervention with a carotenoid-rich fruit smoothie. Eighty one university students (34 males, 47 females; mean age 20.48) were assigned randomly to consuming either a fruit smoothie (intervention group) or mineral water (control group) daily for six weeks. Participants’ skin yellowness (CIELab b*), redness (a*) and luminance (L*) were measured at baseline, twice during the intervention period and at a two-week follow-up, using a handheld reflectance spectrophotometer. Results showed a large increment in skin yellowness (p<0.001) and slight increment in skin redness (p<0.001) after 4 weeks of intervention for participants in the intervention group. Skin yellowness and skin redness remained elevated at the two week follow up measurement. In conclusion, intervention with a carotenoid-rich fruit smoothie is associated with increased skin redness and yellowness in an Asian population. Changes in the reflectance spectrum of the skin suggest that this color change was caused by carotenoid deposition in the skin. PMID:26186449
Branigan, Amelia R; Freese, Jeremy; Patir, Assaf; McDade, Thomas W; Liu, Kiang; Kiefe, Catarina I
We assess the relationship between skin color and educational attainment for native-born non-Hispanic Black and White men and women, using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. CARDIA is a medical cohort study with twenty years of social background data and a continuous measure of skin color, recorded as the percent of light reflected off skin. For Black men and women, we find a one-standard-deviation increase in skin lightness to be associated with a quarter-year increase in educational attainment. For White women, we find an association approximately equal in magnitude to that found for Black respondents, and the pattern of significance across educational transitions suggests that skin color for White women is not simply a proxy for family background. For White men, any relationship between skin color and attainment is not robust and, analyses suggest, might primarily reflect differences in family background. Findings suggest that discrimination on the basis of skin color may be less specific to race than previously thought.
Tanaka, Satomi; Kakinuma, Akihiro; Kamijo, Naohiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tsumura, Norimichi
The human visual system maintains the perception of colors of an object across various light sources. Similarly, current digital cameras feature an auto white balance function, which estimates the illuminant color and corrects the color of a photograph as if the photograph was taken under a certain light source. The main subject in a photograph is often a person's face, which could be used to estimate the illuminant color. However, such estimation is adversely affected by differences in facial colors among individuals. The present paper proposes an auto white balance algorithm based on a pigmentation separation method that separates the human skin color image into the components of melanin, hemoglobin and shading. Pigment densities have a uniform property within the same race that can be calculated from the components of melanin and hemoglobin in the face. We, thus, propose a method that uses the subject's facial color in an image and is unaffected by individual differences in facial color among Japanese people.
Tanaka, Satomi; Kakinuma, Akihiro; Kamijo, Naohiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tsumura, Norimichi
The human visual system maintains the perception of colors of an object across various light sources. Similarly, current digital cameras feature an auto white balance function, which estimates the illuminant color and corrects the color of a photograph as if the photograph was taken under a certain light source. The main subject in a photograph is often a person's face, which could be used to estimate the illuminant color. However, such estimation is adversely affected by differences in facial colors among individuals. The present paper proposes an auto white balance algorithm based on a pigmentation separation method that separates the human skin color image into the components of melanin, hemoglobin and shading. Pigment densities have a uniform property within the same race that can be calculated from the components of melanin and hemoglobin in the face. We, thus, propose a method that uses the subject's facial color in an image and is unaffected by individual differences in facial color among Japanese people.
Sato, Tomoharu; Nagai, Takehiro; Kuriki, Ichiro; Nakauchi, Shigeki
We compared the color-discrimination thresholds and supra-threshold color differences (STCDs) obtained in complete chromatic adaptation (gray) and incomplete chromatic adaptation (red). The color-difference profiles were examined by evaluating the perceptual distances between various color pairs using maximum likelihood difference scaling. In the gray condition, the chromaticities corresponding with the smallest threshold and the largest color difference were almost identical. In contrast, in the red condition, they were dissociated. The peaks of the sensitivity functions derived from the color-discrimination thresholds and STCDs along the L-M axis were systematically different between the adaptation conditions. These results suggest that the color signals involved in color discrimination and STCD tasks are controlled by separate mechanisms with different characteristic properties.
Parrott, Roxanne; Monahan, Jennifer; Ainsworth, Stuart; Steiner, Carol
States health campaign messages designed to encourage behavior adaptation have greater likelihood of success than campaigns promoting avoidance of at-risk behaviors that cannot be avoided. Tests a model of health risk behavior using four different behaviors in a communication campaign aimed at reducing farmers' risk for skin cancer--questions…
Yang, Bin; Lesicko, John; Moy, Austin J.; Reichenberg, Jason; Tunnell, James W.
Skin diseases are typically associated with underlying biochemical and structural changes compared with normal tissues, which alter the optical properties of the skin lesions, such as tissue absorption and scattering. Although widely used in dermatology clinics, conventional dermatoscopes don't have the ability to selectively image tissue absorption and scattering, which may limit its diagnostic power. Here we report a novel clinical skin imaging technique called color spatial frequency domain imaging (cSFDI) which enhances contrast by rendering color spatial frequency domain (SFD) image at high spatial frequency. Moreover, by tuning spatial frequency, we can obtain both absorption weighted and scattering weighted images. We developed a handheld imaging system specifically for clinical skin imaging. The flexible configuration of the system allows for better access to skin lesions in hard-to-reach regions. A total of 48 lesions from 31 patients were imaged under 470nm, 530nm and 655nm illumination at a spatial frequency of 0.6mm^(-1). The SFD reflectance images at 470nm, 530nm and 655nm were assigned to blue (B), green (G) and red (R) channels to render a color SFD image. Our results indicated that color SFD images at f=0.6mm-1 revealed properties that were not seen in standard color images. Structural features were enhanced and absorption features were reduced, which helped to identify the sources of the contrast. This imaging technique provides additional insights into skin lesions and may better assist clinical diagnosis.
Sommers, Marilyn; Beacham, Barbara; Baker, Rachel; Fargo, Jamison
Background We determined the intra- and inter-rater reliability of data from digital image color analysis between an expert and novice analyst. Methods Following training, the expert and novice independently analyzed 210 randomly ordered images. Both analysts used Adobe® Photoshop lasso or color sampler tools based on the type of image file. After color correction with Pictocolor® in camera software, they recorded L*a*b* (L*=light/dark; a*=red/green; b*=yellow/blue) color values for all skin sites. We computed intra-rater and inter-rater agreement within anatomical region, color value (L*, a*, b*), and technique (lasso, color sampler) using a series of one-way intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Results Results of ICCs for intra-rater agreement showed high levels of internal consistency reliability within each rater for the lasso technique (ICC ≥ 0.99) and somewhat lower, yet acceptable, level of agreement for the color sampler technique (ICC = 0.91 for expert, ICC = 0.81 for novice). Skin L*, skin b*, and labia L* values reached the highest level of agreement (ICC ≥ 0.92) and skin a*, labia b*, and vaginal wall b* were the lowest (ICC ≥ 0.64). Conclusion Data from novice analysts can achieve high levels of agreement with data from expert analysts with training and the use of a detailed, standard protocol. PMID:23551208
Xue, Rong Kun; He, Wei; Li, Yufeng
Based on the scene characteristics of frequency distribution in the degraded color images, the MSRCR method and wavelet transform in the paper are introduced respectively to enhance color images and the advantages and disadvantages of them are analyzed combining with the experiment, then the combination of improved MSRCR method and wavelet transform are proposed to enhance color images, it uses wavelet to decompose color images in order to increase the coefficient of low-level details and reduce top-level details to highlight the scene information, meanwhile, the method of improved MSRCR is used to enhance the low-frequency components of degraded images processed by wavelet, then the adaptive equalization is carried on to further enhance images, finally, the enhanced color images are acquired with the reconstruction of all the coefficients brought by the wavelet transform. Through the evaluation of the experimental results and data analysis, it shows that the method proposed in the paper is better than the separate use of wavelet transform and MSRCR method.
Han, Jiali; Kraft, Peter; Nan, Hongmei; Guo, Qun; Chen, Constance; Qureshi, Abrar; Hankinson, Susan E; Hu, Frank B; Duffy, David L; Zhao, Zhen Zhen; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Hayward, Nicholas K; Thomas, Gilles; Hoover, Robert N; Chanock, Stephen; Hunter, David J
We conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study of natural hair color in more than 10,000 men and women of European ancestry from the United States and Australia. An initial analysis of 528,173 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped on 2,287 women identified IRF4 and SLC24A4 as loci highly associated with hair color, along with three other regions encompassing known pigmentation genes. We confirmed these associations in 7,028 individuals from three additional studies. Across these four studies, SLC24A4 rs12896399 and IRF4 rs12203592 showed strong associations with hair color, with p = 6.0x10(-62) and p = 7.46x10(-127), respectively. The IRF4 SNP was also associated with skin color (p = 6.2x10(-14)), eye color (p = 6.1x10(-13)), and skin tanning response to sunlight (p = 3.9x10(-89)). A multivariable analysis pooling data from the initial GWAS and an additional 1,440 individuals suggested that the association between rs12203592 and hair color was independent of rs1540771, a SNP between the IRF4 and EXOC2 genes previously found to be associated with hair color. After adjustment for rs12203592, the association between rs1540771 and hair color was not significant (p = 0.52). One variant in the MATP gene was associated with hair color. A variant in the HERC2 gene upstream of the OCA2 gene showed the strongest and independent association with hair color compared with other SNPs in this region, including three previously reported SNPs. The signals detected in a region around the MC1R gene were explained by MC1R red hair color alleles. Our results suggest that the IRF4 and SLC24A4 loci are associated with human hair color and skin pigmentation.
Ebanks, Jody P.; Wickett, R. Randall; Boissy, Raymond E.
Skin pigmentary abnormalities are seen as aesthetically unfavorable and have led to the development of cosmetic and therapeutic treatment modalities of varying efficacy. Hence, several putative depigmenting agents aimed at modulating skin pigmentation are currently being researched or sold in commercially available products. In this review we will discuss the regulation of processes that control skin complexion coloration. This includes direct inhibition of tyrosinase and related melanogenic enzymes, regulation of melanocyte homeostasis, alteration of constitutive and facultative pigmentation and down-regulation of melanosome transfer to the keratinocytes. These various processes, in the complex mechanism of skin pigmentation, can be regulated individually or concomitantly to alter complexion coloration and thus ameliorate skin complexion diseases. PMID:19865532
Gravlee, Clarence C.; Dressler, William W.; Bernard, H. Russell
Objectives. We tested competing hypotheses for the skin color–blood pressure relationship by analyzing the association between blood pressure and 2 skin color variables: skin pigmentation and social classification. Methods. We measured skin pigmentation by reflectance spectrophotometry and social classification by linking respondents to ethnographic data on the cultural model of “color” in southeastern Puerto Rico. We used multiple regression analysis to test the associations between these variables and blood pressure in a community-based sample of Puerto Rican adults aged 25–55 years (n=100). Regression models included age, gender, body mass index (BMI), self-reported use of antihypertensive medication, and socioeconomic status (SES). Results. Social classification, but not skin pigmentation, is associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure through a statistical interaction with SES, independent of age, gender, BMI, self-reported use of antihypertensive medication, and skin reflectance. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that sociocultural processes mediate the relationship between skin color and blood pressure. They also help to clarify the meaning and measurement of skin color and “race” as social variables in health research. PMID:16257938
Color is one of the most prominent features of an image and used in many skin and face detection applications. Color space transformation is widely used by researchers to improve face and skin detection performance. Despite the substantial research efforts in this area, choosing a proper color space in terms of skin and face classification performance which can address issues like illumination variations, various camera characteristics and diversity in skin color tones has remained an open issue. This research proposes a new three-dimensional hybrid color space termed SKN by employing the Genetic Algorithm heuristic and Principal Component Analysis to find the optimal representation of human skin color in over seventeen existing color spaces. Genetic Algorithm heuristic is used to find the optimal color component combination setup in terms of skin detection accuracy while the Principal Component Analysis projects the optimal Genetic Algorithm solution to a less complex dimension. Pixel wise skin detection was used to evaluate the performance of the proposed color space. We have employed four classifiers including Random Forest, Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine and Multilayer Perceptron in order to generate the human skin color predictive model. The proposed color space was compared to some existing color spaces and shows superior results in terms of pixel-wise skin detection accuracy. Experimental results show that by using Random Forest classifier, the proposed SKN color space obtained an average F-score and True Positive Rate of 0.953 and False Positive Rate of 0.0482 which outperformed the existing color spaces in terms of pixel wise skin detection accuracy. The results also indicate that among the classifiers used in this study, Random Forest is the most suitable classifier for pixel wise skin detection applications. PMID:26267377
Kuriyama, Takeo; Esashi, Jyunko; Hasegawa, Masami
Brown and green are the most commonly imitated colors in prey animals because both colors occur in a range of habitats. Many researchers have evaluated survival with respect to background color matching, but the pigment cell mechanisms underlying such coloration are not known. Dorsal coloration of East Asian Takydromus lizards has shifted from green to brown or from brown to green on multiple occasions during the diversification of the genus, thus giving us an opportunity to examine the cellular mechanisms of background color matching. Brown and green skin were found to differ with respect to the morphological characteristics of iridophores, with different thicknesses of the reflecting platelets and the cytoplasmic spacing between platelets, despite a shared vertical arrangement of pigment cells, i.e., xanthophores in the upper layer, iridophores in the middle layer, and melanophores at the bottom of the dermal layer, among the different Takydromus lizards. Iridophores of brown skin reflected longer wavelengths of light than those of green skin, which may be attributed to the thicker platelets and longer distances between platelets in brown skin. We discuss the potential role of genetic and intracellular mechanisms explaining the thickness and orientation of the light-reflecting platelets of iridophores in Takydromus lizards.
Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Al-Saleh, Yousef; Khan, Nasiruddin; Sabico, Shaun; Aljohani, Naji; Alfawaz, Hanan; Alsulaimani, Maha; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz M; Alokail, Majed S
Accumulating evidence suggests an increased prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the Middle East and North African countries. Sunlight has long been recognized as a major provider of vitamin D and lighter skin color has been associated with better vitamin D status. In this context, we aimed to determine whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D[25-(OH)D] concentrations are related to skin color, sun exposure and gender among healthy Saudi children and adults. A total of 808 Saudi children (age=14.6±0.04years) and 561 (age=31.4±0.3years) adults of both genders were included in this study. Levels of sun exposure and skin color were determined using a standard questionnaire. Anthropometry and plasma 25-(OH)D concentrations were analyzed. On the basis of duration of sun exposure (<20min vs. >20min), a significantly lower concentration of 25-(OH)D (40.9±1.2 vs. 35.5±1.8nmol/l; p<0.019) was demonstrated in dark-skinned boys with exposure time less than 20min than those exposed longer than 20min. We were unable to show an effect of sunlight exposure or skin color on vitamin D status of children or adults, except in dark-skinned boys who had lower 25(OH)D concentrations associated with limited sun exposure.
Yoo, Yang Mo; Managuli, Ravi; Kim, Yongmin
We have developed a new adaptive clutter rejection technique where an optimum clutter filter is dynamically selected according to the varying clutter characteristics in ultrasound color Doppler imaging. The selection criteria have been established based on the underlying clutter characteristics (i.e., the maximum instantaneous clutter velocity and the clutter power) and the properties of various candidate clutter filters (e.g., projection-initialized infinite impulse response and polynomial regression). We obtained an average improvement of 3.97 dB and 3.27 dB in flow signal-to-clutter-ratio (SCR) compared to the conventional and down-mixing methods, respectively. These preliminary results indicate that the proposed adaptive clutter rejection method could improve the sensitivity and accuracy in flow velocity estimation for ultrasound color Doppler imaging. For a 192 x 256 color Doppler image with an ensemble size of 10, the proposed method takes only 57.2 ms, which is less than the acquisition time. Thus, the proposed method could be implemented in modern ultrasound systems, while providing improved clutter rejection and more accurate velocity estimation in real time.
Cuervo, José J; Belliure, Josabel; Negro, Juan J
When integumentary tissue pigments are contained in chromatophores, tissue color might not depend exclusively on the amount of pigment. Whether coloration does or does not reflect pigment concentration may be very significant for intraspecific communication, for example when pigment concentration provides fitness-related information. We studied the pigment responsible for the orange/red ventral tail coloring in a lacertid lizard species (Acanthodactylus erythrurus), and whether the color was related to skin pigment concentration. The pigment was identified as a pterin, a higher concentration of which resulted in darker, more red-saturated, redder (less orange) ventral tail skin color. The dorsal tail integument, even though it appears mostly gray to the naked eye, also contained pterins, and furthermore, the dorsal and ventral pterin concentrations were positively correlated. A possible explanation for these results is that pterins accumulate in the skin of the whole tail, even if only needed in the ventral part, but are concealed in the dorsal part. In this way, ventral orange/red coloration would accurately reflect pterin concentration, which provides the basis for a signaling function, while dorsal coloration would become less conspicuous as an anti-predatory mechanism.
Taylor, Michael J.; Morris, Tim
Variations in illumination can have significant effects on the apparent colour of skin, which can be damaging to the efficacy of any colour-based segmentation approach. We attempt to overcome this issue by presenting a new adaptive approach, capable of generating skin colour models at run-time. Our approach adopts a Viola-Jones feature-based face detector, in a moderate-recall, high-precision configuration, to sample faces within an image, with an emphasis on avoiding potentially detrimental false positives. From these samples, we extract a set of pixels that are likely to be from skin regions, filter them according to their relative luma values in an attempt to eliminate typical non-skin facial features (eyes, mouths, nostrils, etc.), and hence establish a set of pixels that we can be confident represent skin. Using this representative set, we train a unimodal Gaussian function to model the skin colour in the given image in the normalised rg colour space - a combination of modelling approach and colour space that benefits us in a number of ways. A generated function can subsequently be applied to every pixel in the given image, and, hence, the probability that any given pixel represents skin can be determined. Segmentation of the skin, therefore, can be as simple as applying a binary threshold to the calculated probabilities. In this paper, we touch upon a number of existing approaches, describe the methods behind our new system, present the results of its application to arbitrary images of people with detectable faces, which we have found to be extremely encouraging, and investigate its potential to be used as part of real-time systems.
Chajra, Hanane; Redziniak, Gérard; Auriol, Daniel; Schweikert, Kuno; Lefevre, Fabrice
Background 3,4,5-Trihydroxybenzoic acid glucoside (THBG), a molecule produced by an original biocatalysis-based technology, was assessed in this study with respect to its skin photoprotective capacity and its skin color control property on Asian-type skin at a clinical level and on skin explant culture models. Methods The double-blinded clinical study was done in comparison to a vehicle by the determination of objective color parameters thanks to recognized quantitative and qualitative analysis tools, including Chroma-Meter, VISIA-CR™, and SIAscope™. Determination of L* (brightness), a* and b* (green–red and blue–yellow chromaticity coordinates), individual typology angle, and C* (chroma) and h* (hue angle) parameters using a Chroma-Meter demonstrated that THBG is able to modify skin color while quantification of ultraviolet (UV) spots by VISIA-CR™ confirmed its photoprotective effect. The mechanism of action of THBG molecule was determined using explant skin culture model coupled to histological analysis (epidermis melanin content staining). Results We have demonstrated that THBG was able to modulate significantly several critical parameters involved in skin color control such as L* (brightness), a* (redness), individual typology angle (pigmentation), and hue angle (yellowness in this study), whereas no modification occurs on b* and C* parameters. We have demonstrated using histological staining that THBG decrease epidermis melanin content under unirradiated and irradiated condition. We also confirmed that THBG molecule is not a sunscreen agent. Conclusion This study demonstrated that THBG controls skin tone via the inhibition of melanin synthesis as well as the modulation of skin brightness, yellowness, and redness. PMID:26648748
Randeberg, Lise L.; Svaasand, Lars O.
A device independent method for skin color visualization has been developed. Colors reconstructed from a reflectance spectrum are presented on a computer screen by sRGB (standard Red Green Blue) color coordinates. The colors are presented as adjacent patches surrounded by a medium grey border. CIELAB color coordinates and CIE (International Commission on Illumination) color difference (Delta) E are computed. The change in skin color due to a change in average blood content or scattering properties in dermis is investigated. This is done by analytical simulations based on the diffusion approximation. It is found that an 11% change in average blood content and a 15% change in scattering properties will give a visible color change. A supposed visibility limit for (Delta) E is given. This value is based on experimental testing and the known properties of the human visual system. This limit value can be used as a tool to determine when to terminate laser treatment of port- wine stain due to low treatment response, i.e. low (Delta) E between treatments. The visualization method presented seems promising for medical applications as port-wine stain diagnostics. The method gives good possibilities for electronic transfer of data between clinics because it is device independent.
Lefevre, C E; Ewbank, M P; Calder, A J; von dem Hagen, E; Perrett, D I
Recently, the importance of skin colour for facial attractiveness has been recognized. In particular, dietary carotenoid-induced skin colour has been proposed as a signal of health and therefore attractiveness. While perceptual results are highly consistent, it is currently not clear whether carotenoid skin colour is preferred because it poses a cue to current health condition in humans or whether it is simply seen as a more aesthetically pleasing colour, independently of skin-specific signalling properties. Here, we tested this question by comparing attractiveness ratings of faces to corresponding ratings of meaningless scrambled face images matching the colours and contrasts found in the face. We produced sets of face and non-face stimuli with either healthy (high-carotenoid coloration) or unhealthy (low-carotenoid coloration) colour and asked participants for attractiveness ratings. Results showed that, while for faces increased carotenoid coloration significantly improved attractiveness, there was no equivalent effect on perception of scrambled images. These findings are consistent with a specific signalling system of current condition through skin coloration in humans and indicate that preferences are not caused by sensory biases in observers.
Beleza, Sandra; Johnson, Nicholas A; Candille, Sophie I; Absher, Devin M; Coram, Marc A; Lopes, Jailson; Campos, Joana; Araújo, Isabel Inês; Anderson, Tovi M; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Nordborg, Magnus; Correia E Silva, António; Shriver, Mark D; Rocha, Jorge; Barsh, Gregory S; Tang, Hua
Variation in human skin and eye color is substantial and especially apparent in admixed populations, yet the underlying genetic architecture is poorly understood because most genome-wide studies are based on individuals of European ancestry. We study pigmentary variation in 699 individuals from Cape Verde, where extensive West African/European admixture has given rise to a broad range in trait values and genomic ancestry proportions. We develop and apply a new approach for measuring eye color, and identify two major loci (HERC2[OCA2] P = 2.3 × 10(-62), SLC24A5 P = 9.6 × 10(-9)) that account for both blue versus brown eye color and varying intensities of brown eye color. We identify four major loci (SLC24A5 P = 5.4 × 10(-27), TYR P = 1.1 × 10(-9), APBA2[OCA2] P = 1.5 × 10(-8), SLC45A2 P = 6 × 10(-9)) for skin color that together account for 35% of the total variance, but the genetic component with the largest effect (~44%) is average genomic ancestry. Our results suggest that adjacent cis-acting regulatory loci for OCA2 explain the relationship between skin and eye color, and point to an underlying genetic architecture in which several genes of moderate effect act together with many genes of small effect to explain ~70% of the estimated heritability.
Doi, Motonori; Tominaga, Shoji
The present paper describes a method for modeling human skin coloring and estimating the surface-spectral reflectance by using the Kubelka-Munk theory. First, human skin is modeled as two layers of turbid materials. Second, we describe the reflectance estimation problem as the Kubelka-Munk equations with unknown six parameters. These parameters are the regular reflectance at skin surface and the five weights for spectral absorption of such different pigments as melanin, carotene, oxy-hemoglobin, deoxy-hemoglobin, and bilirubin. Moreover, the optical coefficients of spectral absorption and scattering for the two skin layers and the thickness values of these layers are used for the solution. Finally, experiments are done for estimating the skin surface-spectral reflectance on some body parts, such as the cheeks of human face, the palm, the backs of hand, the inside of arm, and the outside of arm. It is confirmed that the proposed method is more reliable in all cases.
Yang, Bor-Wen; Chan, Li-Ming; Wang, Kai-Cheng
In the present cosmetic market, the skin image obtained from a hand-held camera is two-dimensional (2-D). Due to insufficient penetration, only the skin surface can be detected, and thus phenomena in the dermis cannot be observed. To take the place of the conventional 2D camera, a new hand-held imaging system is proposed for three-dimensional (3-D) skin imaging. Featuring non-invasiveness, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become one of the popular medical imaging techniques. The dermal images shown in OCT-related reports were mainly single-colored because of the use of a monotonic light source. With three original-colored beams applied in OCT, a full-colored image can be derived for dermatology. The penetration depth of the system ranges from 0.43 to 0.78 mm, sufficient for imaging of main tissues in the dermis. Colorful and non-invasive perspectives of deep dermal structure help to advance skin science, dermatology and cosmetology.
Templer, Donald I.; Rushton, J. Philippe
In 50 U.S. states, we found a positive manifold across 11 measures including IQ, skin color, birth rate, infant mortality, life expectancy, HIV/AIDS, violent crime, and state income with the first principal component accounting for 33% of the variance (median factor loading = 0.34). The correlation with a composite of total violent crime was…
Stephens, Dionne P.; Fernandez, Paula
This study relies on qualitative methods to investigate Hispanic women's skin color perceptions. The primary goal is to identify the relevance of these perceptions on their beliefs about their own physical attractiveness. Thirty-four self-identified White-Hispanic women attending a large Hispanic Serving Institution in the southeastern United…
Jensen, Arthur R.
A large number of national and geographic population samples were used to test the hypothesis that the variation in mean values of skin color in the diverse populations are consistently correlated with the mean measured or estimated IQs of the various groups, as are some other physical variables, known as an ecological correlation. Straightforward…
Lin, Frank R; Maas, Paige; Chien, Wade; Carey, John P; Ferrucci, Luigi; Thorpe, Roland
Epidemiologic studies of hearing loss in adults have demonstrated that the odds of hearing loss are substantially lower in black than in white individuals. The basis of this association is unknown. We hypothesized that skin pigmentation as a marker of melanocytic functioning mediates this observed association and that skin pigmentation is associated with hearing loss independent of race/ethnicity. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 1,258 adults (20-59 years) in the 2003-2004 cycle of the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey who had assessment of Fitzpatrick skin type and pure-tone audiometric testing. Audiometric thresholds in the worse hearing ear were used to calculate speech- (0.5-4 kHz) and high-frequency (3-8 kHz) pure-tone averages (PTA). Regression models were stratified by Fitzpatrick skin type or race/ethnicity to examine the association of each factor with hearing loss independent of the other. Models were adjusted for potential confounders (demographic, medical, and noise exposure covariates). Among all participants, race/ethnicity was associated with hearing thresholds (black participants with the best hearing followed by Hispanics and then white individuals), but these associations were not significant in analyses stratified by skin color. In contrast, in race-stratified analyses, darker-skinned Hispanics had better hearing than lighter-skinned Hispanics by an average of -2.5 dB hearing level (HL; 95% CI, -4.8 to -0.2) and -3.1 dB HL (95% CI, -5.3 to -0.8) for speech and high-frequency PTA, respectively. Associations between skin color and hearing loss were not significant in white and black participants. Our results demonstrate that skin pigmentation is independently associated with hearing loss in Hispanics and suggest that skin pigmentation as a marker of melanocytic functioning may mediate the strong association observed between race/ethnicity and hearing loss.
Boussaid, Farid; Chai, Douglas; Bouzerdoum, Abdesselam
In this paper, a current-mode VLSI architecture enabling on read-out skin detection without the need for any on-chip memory elements is proposed. An important feature of the proposed architecture is that it removes the need for demosaicing. Color separation is achieved using the strong wavelength dependence of the absorption coefficient in silicon. This wavelength dependence causes a very shallow absorption of blue light and enables red light to penetrate deeply in silicon. A triple-well process, allowing a P-well to be placed inside an N-well, is chosen to fabricate three vertically integrated photodiodes acting as the RGB color detector for each pixel. Pixels of an input RGB image are classified as skin or non-skin pixels using a statistical skin color model, chosen to offer an acceptable trade-off between skin detection performance and implementation complexity. A single processing unit is used to classify all pixels of the input RGB image. This results in reduced mismatch and also in an increased pixel fill-factor. Furthermore, the proposed current-mode architecture is programmable, allowing external control of all classifier parameters to compensate for mismatch and changing lighting conditions.
Jin, S.; Lee, J. H.; Seo, D. W.; Cahyadi, M.; Choi, N. R.; Heo, K. N.; Jo, C.; Park, H. B.
Shank skin color of Korean native chicken (KNC) shows large color variations. It varies from white, yellow, green, bluish or grey to black, whilst in the majority of European breeds the shanks are typically yellow-colored. Three shank skin color-related traits (i.e., lightness [L*], redness [a*], and yellowness [b*]) were measured by a spectrophotometer in 585 progeny from 68 nuclear families in the KNC resource population. We performed genome scan linkage analysis to identify loci that affect quantitatively measured shank skin color traits in KNC. All these birds were genotyped with 167 DNA markers located throughout the 26 autosomes. The SOLAR program was used to conduct multipoint variance-component quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses. We detected a major QTL that affects b* value (logarithm of odds [LOD] = 47.5, p = 1.60×10−49) on GGA24 (GGA for Gallus gallus). At the same location, we also detected a QTL that influences a* value (LOD = 14.2, p = 6.14×10−16). Additionally, beta-carotene dioxygenase 2 (BCDO2), the obvious positional candidate gene under the linkage peaks on GGA24, was investigated by the two association tests: i.e., measured genotype association (MGA) and quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT). Significant associations were detected between BCDO2 g.9367 A>C and a* (PMGA = 1.69×10−28; PQTDT = 2.40×10−25). The strongest associations were between BCDO2 g.9367 A>C and b* (PMGA = 3.56×10−66; PQTDT = 1.68×10−65). However, linkage analyses conditional on the single nucleotide polymorphism indicated that other functional variants should exist. Taken together, we demonstrate for the first time the linkage and association between the BCDO2 locus on GGA24 and quantitatively measured shank skin color traits in KNC. PMID:27383802
Krishna, Sheila; Miller, Lloyd S
Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen that is responsible for the vast majority of bacterial skin and soft tissue infections in humans. S. aureus can also become more invasive and cause life-threatening infections such as bacteremia, pneumonia, abscesses of various organs, meningitis, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, and sepsis. These infections represent a major public health threat due to the enormous numbers of these infections and the widespread emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains. MSRA is endemic in hospitals worldwide and is rapidly spreading throughout the normal human population in the community. The increasing frequency of MRSA infections has complicated treatment as these strains are more virulent and are increasingly becoming resistant to multiple different classes of antibiotics. The important role of the immune response against S. aureus infections cannot be overemphasized as humans with certain genetic and acquired immunodeficiency disorders are at an increased risk for infection. Understanding the cutaneous immune responses against S. aureus is essential as most of these infections occur or originate from a site of infection or colonization of the skin and mucosa. This review will summarize the innate immune responses against S. aureus skin infections, including antimicrobial peptides that have direct antimicrobial activity against S. aureus as well as pattern recognition receptors and proinflammatory cytokines that promote neutrophil abscess formation in the skin, which is required for bacterial clearance. Finally, we will discuss the recent discoveries involving IL-17-mediated responses, which provide a key link between cutaneous innate and adaptive immune responses against S. aureus skin infections.
Nessvi, Sofia; Johansson, Lisa; Jopson, Jan; Stewart, Alistair; Reeder, Anthony; McKenzie, Richard; Scragg, Robert K
The study aim was to determine the contribution of ethnicity, objectively measured skin color and skin reaction-to-sun exposure to variations in 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3) ]. A multiethnic sample (European, Maori, Pacific and Asian) of 503 adult volunteers aged 18-85 years, recruited from Auckland and Dunedin in New Zealand, answered a questionnaire on sun exposure and self-defined ethnicity. Skin color was measured using a spectrophotometer and the Individual Typology Angle (ITA) calculated. A blood sample was collected 4 weeks later to measure 25(OH)D(3). 25(OH)D(3) was associated with ethnicity, but not self-reported skin reaction-to-sun exposure. Amongst the ethnic groups, Asians had the lowest mean 25(OH)D level (37.0 nmol L(-1)) and Europeans with lighter colored skin had the highest (57.9 nmol L(-1)). An association also was seen between 25(OH)D(3) and skin color, with an increase of 2-3 nmol L(-1) per 10° increase in ITA value, indicating higher 25(OH)D(3) with lighter skin color; but much of this association disappeared after adjusting for ethnicity. In contrast, ethnicity remained associated with 25(OH)D(3) after adjusting for ITA skin color and skin reaction-to-sun exposure. These results indicate that self-defined ethnicity was a major determinant of variations in serum 25(OH)D(3), while objective measures of skin color explained relatively little additional variation.
Ivanovici, Mihai; Stoica, Diana
Most of the existing diffusion models are defined for gray-scale images. We propose a diffusion model for color images to be used as external energy for active contours. Our diffusion model is based on the first-order moment of the correlation integral expressed using ΔE distances in the CIE Lab color space. We use a multi-scale approach for active contours, the diffusion being independently computed at various scales. We validate the model on synthetic images, including multi-fractal color textures, as well as medical images representing melanoma. We conclude that the proposed diffusion model is valid for use in skin lesion segmentation in color images using active contours.
Duong, Tuan A.
Artificial neural networks that would utilize the cascade error projection (CEP) algorithm have been proposed as means of autonomous, real-time, adaptive color segmentation of images that change with time. In the original intended application, such a neural network would be used to analyze digitized color video images of terrain on a remote planet as viewed from an uninhabited spacecraft approaching the planet. During descent toward the surface of the planet, information on the segmentation of the images into differently colored areas would be updated adaptively in real time to capture changes in contrast, brightness, and resolution, all in an effort to identify a safe and scientifically productive landing site and provide control feedback to steer the spacecraft toward that site. Potential terrestrial applications include monitoring images of crops to detect insect invasions and monitoring of buildings and other facilities to detect intruders. The CEP algorithm is reliable and is well suited to implementation in very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuitry. It was chosen over other neural-network learning algorithms because it is better suited to realtime learning: It provides a self-evolving neural-network structure, requires fewer iterations to converge and is more tolerant to low resolution (that is, fewer bits) in the quantization of neural-network synaptic weights. Consequently, a CEP neural network learns relatively quickly, and the circuitry needed to implement it is relatively simple. Like other neural networks, a CEP neural network includes an input layer, hidden units, and output units (see figure). As in other neural networks, a CEP network is presented with a succession of input training patterns, giving rise to a set of outputs that are compared with the desired outputs. Also as in other neural networks, the synaptic weights are updated iteratively in an effort to bring the outputs closer to target values. A distinctive feature of the CEP neural
Zhu, Wenbin; Wang, Lanmei; Dong, Zaijie; Chen, Xingting; Song, Feibiao; Liu, Nian; Yang, Hui; Fu, Jianjun
Red tilapia is becoming more popular for aquaculture production in China in recent years. However, the pigmentation differentiation in genetic breeding is the main problem limiting its development of commercial red tilapia culture and the genetic basis of skin color variation is still unknown. In this study, we conducted Illumina sequencing of transcriptome on three color variety red tilapia. A total of 224,895,758 reads were generated, resulting in 160,762 assembled contigs that were used as reference contigs. The contigs of red tilapia transcriptome had hits in the range of 53.4% to 86.7% of the unique proteins of zebrafish, fugu, medaka, three-spined stickleback and tilapia. And 44,723 contigs containing 77,423 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified, with 16,646 contigs containing more than one SSR. Three skin transcriptomes were compared pairwise and the results revealed that there were 148 common significantly differentially expressed unigenes and several key genes related to pigment synthesis, i.e. tyr, tyrp1, silv, sox10, slc24a5, cbs and slc7a11, were included. The results will facilitate understanding the molecular mechanisms of skin pigmentation differentiation in red tilapia and accelerate the molecular selection of the specific strain with consistent skin colors. PMID:27511178
Roelants, Kim; Fry, Bryan G; Norman, Janette A; Clynen, Elke; Schoofs, Liliane; Bossuyt, Franky
The Tree of Life is rife with adaptive convergences at all scales and biological levels of complexity. However, natural selection is not likely to result in the independent evolution of identical gene products. Here we report such a striking example of evolutionary convergence in the toxic skin secretions of two distantly related frog lineages. Caeruleins are important decapeptides in pharmacological and clinical research  and are commonly believed to represent a single evolutionary class of peptides [2-4]. Instead, our phylogenetic analyses combining transcriptome and genome data reveal that independently evolved precursor genes encode identical caeruleins in Xenopus and Litoria frogs. The former arose by duplication from the cholecystokinin (cck) gene, whereas the latter was derived from the gastrin gene. These hormone genes that are involved in many physiological processes diverged early in vertebrate evolution, after a segmental duplication during the Cambrian period. Besides implicating convergent mutations of the peptide-encoding sequence, recurrent caerulein origins entail parallel shifts of expression from the gut-brain axis to skin secretory glands. These results highlight extreme structural convergence in anciently diverged genes as an evolutionary mechanism through which recurrent adaptation is attained across large phylogenetic distances.
Tsumura, Norimichi; Kawazoe, Daisuke; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Ojima, Nobutoshi; Miyake, Yoichi
A simple regression-based model of skin diffuse reflectance is developed based on reflectance samples calculated by Monte Carlo simulation of light transport in a two-layered skin model. This reflectance model includes the values of spectral reflectance in the visible spectra for Japanese women. The modified Lambert Beer law holds in the proposed model with a modified mean free path length in non-linear density space. The averaged RMS and maximum errors of the proposed model were 1.1 and 3.1%, respectively, in the above range.
Gupta, Maya R; Garcia, Eric K; Chin, Erika
Local learning methods, such as local linear regression and nearest neighbor classifiers, base estimates on nearby training samples, neighbors. Usually, the number of neighbors used in estimation is fixed to be a global "optimal" value, chosen by cross validation. This paper proposes adapting the number of neighbors used for estimation to the local geometry of the data, without need for cross validation. The term enclosing neighborhood is introduced to describe a set of neighbors whose convex hull contains the test point when possible. It is proven that enclosing neighborhoods yield bounded estimation variance under some assumptions. Three such enclosing neighborhood definitions are presented: natural neighbors, natural neighbors inclusive, and enclosing k-NN. The effectiveness of these neighborhood definitions with local linear regression is tested for estimating lookup tables for color management. Significant improvements in error metrics are shown, indicating that enclosing neighborhoods may be a promising adaptive neighborhood definition for other local learning tasks as well, depending on the density of training samples.
Ferreira, Vanessa; Fernandes, Fátima; Pinto-Carnide, Olinda; Valentão, Patrícia; Falco, Virgílio; Martín, Juan Pedro; Ortiz, Jesús María; Arroyo-García, Rosa; Andrade, Paula B; Castro, Isaura
A germplasm set of twenty-five grapevine accessions, forming eleven groups of possible berry skin color mutants, were genotyped with twelve microsatellite loci, being eleven of them identified as true color mutants. The polyphenolic profiling of the confirmed mutant cultivars revealed a total of twenty-four polyphenols, comprising non-colored compounds (phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavonols and a stilbene) and anthocyanins. Results showed differences in the contribution of malvidin-3-O-glucoside to the characteristic Pinot Noir anthocyanins profile. Regarding the two Pique-Poul colored variants, the lighter variant was richer than the darker one in all classes of compounds, excepting anthocyanins. In Moscatel Galego Roxo the F3'H pathway seems to be more active than F3'5'H, resulting in higher amounts of cyanidin, precursor of the cyanidin derivatives. As far as we are aware, this is the first time that a relationship between the content of polyphenolic compounds is established in groups of grape berry skin color mutant cultivars.
Sommers, Marilyn S.; Fargo, Jamison D.; Baker, Rachel B.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Buschur, Carol; Zink, Therese M.
Little is known about the role of skin color in the forensic sexual assault examination. The purpose of this study was to determine whether anogenital injury prevalence and frequency vary by skin color in women after consensual sexual intercourse. The sample consisted of 120 healthy (63 Black, 57 White) women who underwent a forensic sexual assault examination following consensual sexual intercourse. Experienced sexual assault forensic examiners using visual inspection, colposcopy technique with digital imaging, and toluidine blue application documented the number, type, and location of anogenital injuries. Although 55% of the total sample was observed to have at least one anogenital injury of any type following consensual intercourse, the percentages significantly differed for White (68%) and Black (43%) participants (p 0.02). When the presence of anogenital injury was analyzed by specific anatomical region, a significant difference between White and Black participants was only evident for the external genitalia (White = 56%, Black = 24%, p = .003), but not for the internal genitalia (White = 28%, Black = 19%, p = .20) or anus (White = 9%, Black = 10%, p = 0.99). A one standard deviation-unit increase in L* values (lightness) was related to a 150% to 250% increase in the odds of external genitalia injury prevalence (p < 0.001). While Black and White participants had a significantly different genital injury prevalence, dark skin color rather than race was a strong predictor for decreased injury prevalence. Sexual assault forensic examiners, therefore, may not be able to detect injury in women with dark skin as readily as women with light skin, leading to health disparities for women with dark skin. PMID:19947958
values formed the test samples. This process guaranteed that the CIELAB test samples were in the gamut for each printer, but each printer had a...digital images has recently led to increased consumer demand for accurate color reproduction. Given a CIELAB color one would like to reproduce, the color...management problem is to determine what RGB color one must send the printer to minimize the error between the desired CIELAB color and the CIELAB
Taylor, Susan C; Arsonnaud, Stéphanie; Czernielewski, Janusz
The Taylor Hyperpigmentation Scale is a new visual scale developed to provide an inexpensive and convenient method to assess skin color and monitor the improvement of hyperpigmentation following therapy. The tool consists of 15 uniquely colored plastic cards spanning the full range of skin hues and is applicable to individuals with Fitzpatrick skin types I to VI. Each card contains 10 bands of increasingly darker gradations of skin hue that represent progressive levels of hyperpigmentation. This article describes the ongoing development of the Taylor Hyperpigmentation Scale and reports the results of a recent validation study of the use of this newly developed chart in individuals with skin of color. In the study, skin color and an area of hyperpigmentation in 30 subjects of white, African American, Asian, or Hispanic ancestry (approximately 5 from each of the 6 skin types) were evaluated by 10 investigators. The results of the study revealed significant variation among intraindividual and interindividual ratings by investigators of skin hue (P < .0001) and hyperpigmentation (P = .0008); however, most investigators rated the scale as useful and easy to use, and 60% stated they would use it in clinical practice to document the response of hyperpigmentation to therapeutic agents. A heuristic evaluation of the results of this study provided insight into essential considerations for the continued effort to develop a useful and simple scale for assessing skin color and pigmentation.
Weiner, Lorin; Fu, Wenyu; Chirico, William J; Brissette, Janice L
The pigmentation of mammalian skin and hair develops through the interaction of two basic cell types - pigment donors and recipients. The pigment donors are melanocytes, which produce and distribute melanin through specialized structures. The pigment recipients are epithelial cells, which acquire melanin and put it to use, collectively yielding the pigmentation visible to the eye. This review will focus on the pigment recipients, the historically less understood cell type. These end-users of pigment are now known to exert a specialized control over the patterning of pigmentation, as they identify themselves as melanocyte targets, recruit pigment donors, and stimulate the transfer of melanin. As such, this review will discuss the evidence that the skin is like a coloring book: the pigment recipients create a 'picture,' a blueprint for pigmentation, which is colorless initially but outlines where pigment should be placed. Melanocytes then melanize the recipients and 'color in' the picture.
Dunham, Yarrow; Dotsch, Ron; Clark, Amelia R.; Stepanova, Elena V.
We examined the development of racial categorizations of faces spanning the European–East Asian (“White–Asian”) categorical continuum in children between the ages of four and nine as well as adults. We employed a stimulus set that independently varied skin color and other aspects of facial physiognomy, allowing the contribution of each to be assessed independently and in interaction with each other. Results demonstrated substantial development across this age range in children’s ability to draw on both sorts of cue, with over twice as much variance explained by stimulus variation in adults than children. Nonetheless, children were clearly sensitive to both skin color and other aspects of facial physiognomy, suggesting that understanding of the White-Asian category boundary develops in a somewhat different way than understanding of the White-Black category boundary, in which attention to features other than skin color appear only somewhat later. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for theories of social categorization. PMID:27355683
Désy, Marie-Christine; Lepage, Jean-François
It has been suggested that physical similarity with an observed model facilitates action-perception and understanding. Indeed, a number of studies have shown that observing actors of one's own race facilitate motor, sensory and pain resonance, possibly mediated by the human mirror-neuron system (hMNS). However, most of these studies have used stimuli that included emotional or cultural components, hence obscuring the precise contribution of physical similarity to resonance phenomena per se. The goal of the present study was to assess the effect of physical similarity (skin color) on motor resonance using stimuli that have no emotional and cultural components. We used both behavioral (imitation) and electrophysiological measures (mu-rhythm) to assess the effects of skin color on the hMNS during the observation of simple finger movements. Our results show that, in line with previous results, observation of biological movements resulted in faster reaction times and greater mu-rhythm suppression compared to non-biological movements. However, physical similarity did not affect imitation speed or mu-rhythm desynchronization. These results suggest that physical similarity with an observed action in terms of skin color does not modulate hMNS activity, and that the enhanced resonance effects reported in the previous studies are likely attributable to cultural and emotional aspects.
Kikuchi, Ayano; Hirai, Keita; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Tsumura, Norimichi; Miyake, Yoichi
We investigated the relationship between ambient illumination and psychological effect by applying a modified color harmony model. We verified the proposed model by analyzing correlation between psychological value and modified color harmony score. Experimental results showed the possibility to obtain the best color for illumination using this model.
Başak, K; Başak, P Y; Doğuç, D K; Aylak, F; Oğuztüzün, S; Bozer, B M; Gültekin, F
Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and cytochrome P450 family 1 subfamily A polypeptide 1 (CYP1A1) metabolize and detoxify carcinogens, drugs, environmental pollutants, and reactive oxygen species. Changes of GST expression in tissues and gene mutations have been reported in association with many neoplastic skin diseases and dermatoses. Widely used artificial food coloring additives (AFCAs) also reported to effect primarily behavioral and cognitive function and cause neoplastic diseases and several inflammatory skin diseases. We aimed to identify the changes in expression of GSTs, CYP1A1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in rat skin which were maternally exposed AFCAs. A rat model was designed to evaluate the effects of maternal exposure of AFCAs on skin in rats. "No observable adverse effect levels" of commonly used AFCAs as a mixture were given to female rats before and during gestation. Immunohistochemical expression of GSTs, CYP1A1, and VEGF was evaluated in their offspring. CYP1A1, glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP), glutathione S-transferase alpha (GSTA), glutathione S-transferase mu (GSTM), glutathione S-transferase theta (GSTT), and VEGF were expressed by epidermal keratinocytes, dermal fibroblasts, sebaceous glands, hair follicle, and subcutaneous striated muscle in the normal skin. CYP1A1, GSTA, and GSTT were expressed at all microanatomical sites of skin in varying degrees. The expressions of CYP1A1, GSTA, GSTT, and VEGF were decreased significantly, while GSTM expression on sebaceous gland and hair follicle was increased. Maternal exposure of AFCAs apparently effects expression of the CYP1A1, GSTs, and VEGF in the skin. This prominent change of expressions might play role in neoplastic and nonneoplastic skin diseases.
Baker, Rachel B; Fargo, Jamison D; Shambley-Ebron, Donna; Sommers, Marilyn S
Differences in anogenital injury resulting from rape may occur because of racial or skin color differences in adult women. It is critical to determine if these differences also are associated with differences in injury prevalence and frequency in adolescents and young adults. In a retrospective review of medical records, we examined whether Black adolescent/young adult females had different anogenital injuries as compared to White females following rape. Next, we examined whether skin color differences explained a significant amount of the racial difference in injuries. We reviewed charts of 234 female victims of rape ages 14 to 29. Overall injury prevalence was 62.8%. Race was significantly associated with frequency of injuries in several anatomical locations, with White victims having a higher frequency of injuries than Black victims. Skin color was significantly associated with injury frequency in many anatomical locations, with victims with light skin sustaining more injuries than victims with dark skin. Even when skin color was included in the relationship, race remained a statistically significant factor, suggesting that the relationship between race and injuries may be more complicated than merely a skin color difference that has been mislabeled a racial difference.
Abstract As genetic model systems, fish have played a key role in our understanding of a wide range of biological processes, including vertebrate pigmentation. In this review, we focus on one aspect of pigmentation, skin pigmentation, which has been of momentous importance in human history. Two fish models, medaka and zebrafish, played important roles in demystifying skin color and, by extension, the concept of “race.” Related thinking has the potential to make two additional contributions to human welfare. Fish can be used to validate gene candidates from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in what has been called “Systems Genetics.” Because fish are familiar vertebrates, and share genetic mechanisms of skin color with humans, they also have outstanding potential as an educational tool—to “demystify” race, to increase public understanding of the role of model systems and evolution in science, and to enhance appreciation of both genetic and environmental factors that impact human health and society. PMID:19133821
Firooz, Alireza; Zartab, Hamed; Sadr, Bardia; Bagherpour, Leili Naraghi; Masoudi, Aidin; Fanian, Ferial; Dowlati, Yahya; Ehsani, Amir Hooshang; Samadi, Aniseh
Background: The exposure of skin to ultraviolet radiation and temperature differs significantly during the day. It is reasonable that biophysical parameters of human skin have periodic daily fluctuation. The objective of this study was to study the fluctuations of various biophysical characteristics of Middle Eastern skin in standardized experimental conditions. Materials and Methods: Seven biophysical parameters of skin including stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, pH, sebum, elasticity, skin color, and erythema index were measured at three time points (8 a.m., 12 p.m. and 4 p.m.) on the forearm of 12 healthy participants (mean age of 28.4 years) without any ongoing skin disease using the CK MPA 580 device in standard temperature and humidity conditions. Results: A significant difference was observed between means of skin color index at 8 a.m. (175.42 ± 13.92) and 4 p.m. (164.44 ± 13.72, P = 0.025), between the pH at 8 a.m. (5.72 ± 0.48) and 4 p.m. (5.33 ± 0.55, P = 0.001) and pH at 12 p.m. (5.60 ± 0.48) and 4 p.m. (5.33 ± 0.55, P = 0.001). Other comparisons between the means of these parameters at different time points resulted in nonsignificant P values. Conclusion: There are daytime changes in skin color index and pH. Skin color index might be higher and cutaneous pH more basic in the early morning compared to later of the day. PMID:27904203
Li, Hong-Tao; He, Xin; Zhou, Zhi-Yong; Zhao, Song-Hua; Zhang, Wen-Xiang; Liu, Gang; Zhao, Zong-Sheng; Jia, Bin
Slc7a11 belongs to solute transporter gene family, encoding cystine/glutamate transporter xCT. It regulates switching between eumelanin and pheomelanin synthesis. In the present study, Real-time PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of Slc7a11 in the skin of Kazakh lambs with different coat colors (black, brown and white), and then the prokaryotic expression plasmid PET-32a-sxCT was constructed to induce the expression of fusion protein. The target pro-tein was purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatographic separation, and then was used to immunize rabbit in order to produce rabbit anti-sxCT polyclonal antibody. Finally, the expression levels of sxCT were detected in the skin of Kazakh lambs with different hair colors by Western blotting analysis. Results showed that the mRNA expression levels of Slc7a11 differed significantly in the skin of Kazakh lambs with different coat colors, with the highest level in brown coat color, followed by the black, and then the white. The sxCT protein was also detected in the skin of different coat colors by polyclonal antibody, with the highest level in brown coat color, followed by the black, and then the white. It is, therefore, concluded that slc7a11 gene might be associated with the phenotype of coat color in Kazakh sheep.
Linder, N; Regev, A; Gazit, G; Carplus, M; Mandelberg, A; Tamir, I; Reichman, B
The estimation of plasma bilirubin concentration in neonates, using a transcutaneous, noninvasive jaundice meter, is significantly affected by many factors, such as gestational age, birthweight, phototherapy, and skin pigmentation. In an attempt to minimize the influence of skin color and hence circumvent the need for standardization curves for different ethnic populations, we obtained noninvasive jaundice meter readings from the infant's midsternum within 4 hours of birth and subtracted this measurement from subsequent reading in infants with hyperbilirubinemia. These results were correlated with simultaneous plasma bilirubin determinations. By this method, a single standardization curve and improved sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for the noninvasive determination of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in a population of mixed ethnic origin was obtained.
Hofer, H J; Blaschke, J; Patolia, J; Koenig, D E
Current vision science adaptive optics systems use near infrared wavefront sensor 'beacons' that appear as red spots in the visual field. Colored fixation targets are known to influence the perceived color of macroscopic visual stimuli (Jameson, D., & Hurvich, L. M. (1967). Fixation-light bias: An unwanted by-product of fixation control. Vision Research, 7, 805-809.), suggesting that the wavefront sensor beacon may also influence perceived color for stimuli displayed with adaptive optics. Despite its importance for proper interpretation of adaptive optics experiments on the fine scale interaction of the retinal mosaic and spatial and color vision, this potential bias has not yet been quantified or addressed. Here we measure the impact of the wavefront sensor beacon on color appearance for dim, monochromatic point sources in five subjects. The presence of the beacon altered color reports both when used as a fixation target as well as when displaced in the visual field with a chromatically neutral fixation target. This influence must be taken into account when interpreting previous experiments and new methods of adaptive correction should be used in future experiments using adaptive optics to study color.
Dong, Qiqi; Liu, Zhaohui
Color filter array (CFA) is one of the key points for single-sensor digital cameras to produce color images. Bayer CFA is the most commonly used pattern. In this array structure, the sampling frequency of green is two times of red or blue, which is consistent with the sensitivity of human eyes to colors. However, each sensor pixel only samples one of three primary color values. To render a full-color image, an interpolation process, commonly referred to CFA demosaicing, is required to estimate the other two missing color values at each pixel. In this paper, we explore an adaptive progressive interpolation based on the edge type algorithm. The proposed demosaicing method consists of two successive steps: an interpolation step that estimates missing color values according to various edges and a post-processing step by iterative interpolation.
Carroll, Joseph; Neitz, Maureen; Hofer, Heidi; Neitz, Jay; Williams, David R
There is enormous variation in the X-linked L/M (long/middle wavelength sensitive) gene array underlying "normal" color vision in humans. This variability has been shown to underlie individual variation in color matching behavior. Recently, red-green color blindness has also been shown to be associated with distinctly different genotypes. This has opened the possibility that there may be important phenotypic differences within classically defined groups of color blind individuals. Here, adaptive optics retinal imaging has revealed a mechanism for producing dichromatic color vision in which the expression of a mutant cone photopigment gene leads to the loss of the entire corresponding class of cone photoreceptor cells. Previously, the theory that common forms of inherited color blindness could be caused by the loss of photoreceptor cells had been discounted. We confirm that remarkably, this loss of one-third of the cones does not impair any aspect of vision other than color.
Schaeff, C M; Best, P B; Rowntree, V J; Payne, R; Jarvis, C; Portway, V A
Distribution and inheritance of dorsal skin color markings among two populations of southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) suggest that two genes influence dorsal skin color. The grey-morph and partial-grey-morph phenotypes (previously known as partial albino and grey-blaze, respectively) appear to be controlled by an X-linked gene, whereas the white blaze appears controlled by an autosomal gene (recessive phenotype). Calving intervals, calf size, and length of sighting history data suggest that partial-grey-morph, white-blaze, and black cows experience similar levels of reproductive success. Grey-morph cows (XgXg) are rare or absent in the two populations, but this was not unexpected given observed population frequencies of grey-morph males (XgY) and partial-grey-morph females (XGXg). The proportion of partial-grey-morph calves produced by black cows (XGXG) suggests that the reproductive success of grey-morph males was equal to that of black males, however, larger sample sizes are required to determine whether grey-morph males tend to have shorter sighting histories. The reproductive success of white-blaze males appeared similar to that of black males among whales off Argentina. There were significantly fewer white-blaze calves than expected off South Africa, which could be due to white-blaze males experiencing reduced reproductive success or to sighting blases that result in white-marked calves being misidentified as black calves. The relative frequencies of both types of dorsal color markings varied between the South African and Argentinian right whale populations, suggesting limited nuclear gene flow between these populations; analyses using other nuclear markers are under way to confirm the extent of gene flow.
Dario, Paulo; Mouriño, Helena; Oliveira, Ana Rita; Lucas, Isabel; Ribeiro, Teresa; Porto, Maria João; Costa Santos, Jorge; Dias, Deodália; Corte Real, Francisco
DNA phenotyping research is one of the most emergent areas of forensic genetics. Predictions of externally visible characteristics are possible through analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms. These tools can provide police with "intelligence" in cases where there are no obvious suspects and unknown biological samples found at the crime scene do not result in any criminal DNA database hits. IrisPlex, an eye color prediction assay, revealed high prediction rates for blue and brown eye color in European populations. However, this is less predictive in some non-European populations, probably due to admixing. When compared to other European countries, Portugal has a relatively admixed population, resulting from a genetic influx derived from its proximity to and historical relations with numerous African territories. The aim of this work was to evaluate the utility of IrisPlex in the Portuguese population. Furthermore, the possibility of supplementing this multiplex with additional markers to also achieve skin color prediction within this population was evaluated. For that, IrisPlex was augmented with additional SNP loci. Eye and skin color prediction was estimated using the multinomial logistic regression and binomial logistic regression models, respectively. The results demonstrated eye color prediction accuracies of the IrisPlex system of 90 and 60% for brown and blue eye color, respectively, and 77% for intermediate eye color, after allele frequency adjustment. With regard to skin color, it was possible to achieve a prediction accuracy of 93%. In the future, phenotypic determination multiplexes must include additional loci to permit skin color prediction as presented in this study as this can be an advantageous tool for forensic investigation.
Mosher, J.A.; Henny, C.J.
We measured oxygen consumption rates of 8 Screech? Owls (4 red and 4 gray phase) at 4 environmental temperatures, -10?, -5?, 5?, and 15?C. These data demonstrated a significant difference in oxygen uptake between color phases at -10? and -5?C. This supports our hypothesis that red phase Screech Owls are restricted in their northern distribution by color-related metabolic differences from the gray phase birds. The problems of low red phase occurrence in the Gulf Coast states and their absence from the Western states remain to be studied.
Ruiz, David; Egea, José; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Gil, María I
Thirty-seven apricot varieties, including four new releases (Rojo Pasión, Murciana, Selene, and Dorada) obtained from different crosses between apricot varieties and three traditional Spanish cultivars (Currot, Mauricio, and Búlida), were separated according to flesh color into four groups. The L*, a*, b*, hue angle, and chroma color measurements on the skin and flesh as well as other quality indices including flesh firmness, soluble solids, titratable acidity, and pH were plotted against the total carotenoid content measured by HPLC. Among the 37 apricot varieties, the total carotenoid content ranged from 1,512 to 16,500 microg 100 g(-1) of edible portion, with beta-carotene as the main pigment followed by beta-cryptoxanthin and gamma-carotene. The wide range of variability in the provitamin A content in the apricot varieties encouraged these studies in order to select the breeding types with enhanced carotenoid levels as the varieties with a higher potential health benefit. The carotenoid content was correlated with the color measurements, and the hue angle in both flesh and peel was the parameter with the best correlation (R = 0.92 and 0.84, respectively). An estimation of the carotenoid content in apricots could be achieved by using a portable colorimeter, as a simple and easy method for field usage applications.
Brewer, Jonathan; Bloksgaard, Maria; Kubiak, Jakub; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Bagatolli, Luis A
A multiphoton excitation-based fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy method, Raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS), was used to measure the local diffusion coefficients of distinct model fluorescent substances in excised human skin. In combination with structural information obtained by multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscopy imaging, the acquired diffusion information was processed to construct spatially resolved diffusion maps at different depths of the stratum corneum (SC). Experiments using amphiphilic and hydrophilic fluorescently labeled molecules show that their diffusion in SC is very heterogeneous on a microscopic scale. This diffusion-based strategy was further exploited to investigate the integrity of liposomes during transdermal penetration. Specifically, the diffusion of dual-color fluorescently labeled liposomes--containing an amphiphilic fluorophore in the lipid bilayer and a hydrophilic fluorophore encapsulated in the liposome lumen--was measured using cross-correlation RICS. This type of experiment allows discrimination between separate (uncorrelated) and joint (correlated) diffusion of the two different fluorescent probes, giving information about liposome integrity. Independent of the liposome composition (phospholipids or transfersomes), our results show a clear lack of cross-correlation below the skin surface, indicating that the penetration of intact liposomes is highly compromised by the skin barrier.
Soyemi, Olusola O; Landry, Michelle R; Yang, Ye; Idwasi, Patrick O; Soller, Babs R
The application of partial least squares (PLS) regression to visible-near-infrared (VIS-NIR) spectroscopy for modeling important blood and tissue parameters is generally complicated by the variation in skin pigmentation (melanin) across the human population. An orthogonal correction method for removing the influence of skin pigmentation has been demonstrated in diffuse reflectance spectra from two-layer tissue-mimicking phantoms. The absorption properties of the phantoms were defined by lyophilized human hemoglobin (bottom layer) and synthetic melanin (top layer). Tissue-like scattering was simulated in both layers with intralipid. The approach uses principal components analysis (PCA) loading vectors from a separate set of phantom spectra that encode the unwanted melanin variation to remove the effect of melanin from the test phantoms. The preprocessing of phantom spectra using this orthogonal correction method resulted in PLS models with reduced complexity and enhanced prediction performance. Preliminary results from a separate study that evaluates the feasibility of defining skin color variation in an experiment with a single human subject are also presented.
Dad, Nisrine; En-Nahnahi, Noureddine; Ouatik, Said El Alaoui; Oumsis, Mohammed
A set of invariant quaternion moments based on an adaptation of the three-dimensional (3-D) spherical harmonic transform (SHT) for describing two-dimensional color shapes is proposed. The use of quaternions to deal with the color part is beneficial in the way the three color components are integrated in a single feature. An adequate mapping from the 3-D SHT to the unit disc allows a fast and accurate computation of the proposed moments. Experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance of the obtained moments in terms of color image reconstruction, robustness to geometric and photometric transformations, content-based color shape retrieval, and computation time. For this purpose, two image databases (COIL-100 and ALOI) are used. Results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed moments in dealing with the color information.
Perry, Brea L.; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Oser, Carrie B.
This study examined the influence of concurrent racism and sexism experiences (i.e. gendered racism) on African American women’s suicidal ideation and behavior in the context of disadvantaged socioeconomic status. Drawing on a stress process framework, the moderating effects of ethnic identity and skin color were explored using multiple regression analyses. Data were from 204 low-income African American women in the B-WISE (Black Women in a Study of Epidemics) project. Findings suggested that experiencing gendered racism significantly increased these women’s risk for suicidal ideation or behavior, though only among women with medium or dark skin color. Also, having strong ethnic identity buffered the harmful effects of gendered racism. The moderating properties of skin color and ethnic identity affirmation likely operate through psychosocial pathways, blocking internalization of negative stereotypes and reducing the level of distress experienced in response to gendered racism. PMID:23459264
Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...
Au, Lauren E; Harris, Susan S; Dwyer, Johanna T; Jacques, Paul F; Sacheck, Jennifer M
The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which constitutive skin color explains racial/ethnic differences in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations in urban schoolchildren. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to determine associations of 25OHD with parent-reported race/ethnicity and constitutive skin color as measured by reflectance colorimeter [individual typology angle (ITA°; higher value corresponds to lighter skin)] in 307 Greater Boston schoolchildren aged 9-15 during October-December 2011. Nearly 60% of all children were inadequate in 25OHD (<20 ng/mL). Prevalence of inadequate 25OHD differed by race/ethnicity (p<0.001): white (46.6%), black (74.5%), Hispanic (64.7%), Asian (88.9%), and multi-racial/other (52.7%). Serum 25OHD increased 0.6 ng/mL per 10° increase in ITA° value (p<0.001). The prediction of 25OHD by race/ethnicity was slightly stronger than the prediction by skin color in separate models (R2=0.19, R2=0.16, respectively). Most of the variability in 25OHD in race/ethnicity was due to constitutive skin color in this group of racially diverse US children.
Agbai, Oma N; Buster, Kesha; Sanchez, Miguel; Hernandez, Claudia; Kundu, Roopal V; Chiu, Melvin; Roberts, Wendy E; Draelos, Zoe D; Bhushan, Reva; Taylor, Susan C; Lim, Henry W
Skin cancer is less prevalent in people of color than in the white population. However, when skin cancer occurs in non-whites, it often presents at a more advanced stage, and thus the prognosis is worse compared with white patients. The increased morbidity and mortality associated with skin cancer in patients of color compared with white patients may be because of the lack of awareness, diagnoses at a more advanced stage, and socioeconomic factors such as access to care barriers. Physician promotion of skin cancer prevention strategies for all patients, regardless of ethnic background and socioeconomic status, can lead to timely diagnosis and treatment. Public education campaigns should be expanded to target communities of color to promote self-skin examination and stress importance of photoprotection, avoidance of tanning bed use, and early skin cancer detection and treatment. These measures should result in reduction or earlier detection of cutaneous malignancies in all communities. Furthermore, promotion of photoprotection practices may reduce other adverse effects of ultraviolet exposure including photoaging and ultraviolet-related disorders of pigmentation.
Del Rossi, Gianluca; Lisman, Peter; Signorile, Joseph
The thermoforming process involves the heating of plastic sheets to a critical temperature followed by the shaping of the heated material into a three-dimensional structure. Given that custom-fabricated mouthguards are produced using the thermoforming process, the adaptation of plastic sheets to a stone model of the dentition is likely to be affected by the ability of the mouthguard material to be heated. The purpose of this study was to establish if material color affected the adaptation and fit of custom-made mouthguards. Twelve stone models were used in this investigation. Five mouthguards were produced using each model. These mouthguards were made using clear-, white-, black-, blue- and green-colored ethyl vinyl acetate. The force required to remove the various colored mouthguards from the corresponding stone models was determined using a strain gauge housed within a specially designed apparatus. Each of the mouthguards were tested three times at two different angles of pull -45 degrees and 90 degrees . Statistical tests performed using the average amount of force required for mouthguard removal revealed an angle by color interaction. Post hoc analyses revealed that the mean force required to remove the clear-colored mouthguards from their respective stone models was significantly less than the force required to pull away blue-, black- and green-colored mouthguards. This difference between clear- and dark-colored mouthguards was observed at both angles tested with the exception of the black mouthguard which differed from the clear-colored mouthguard only when removed at an angle of 90 degrees . The results of the present study indicate that by using dark-colored mouthguard material, one can achieve superior adaptation and thus produce a more firmly fitting mouthguard.
Kuang, Zhijie; Lu, Peng; Wang, Xiaojie; Lu, Xiaofeng
Color harmony is one of the key aspects in aesthetic quality classification for photos. The existing color harmony models either are in lack of quantization schemes or can assess simple color patterns only. Therefore, these models cannot be applied to assess color harmony of photos directly. To address this problem, we proposed a simple data-based self-adaptive color harmony model. In this model, the hue distribution of a photo is fitted by mean shift based method, then features are extracted according to this distribution and finally the Gaussian mixture model is applied for learning features extracted from all the photos. The experimental results on eight categories datasets show that the proposed method outperforms the classic rule-based methods and the state-of-the-art data-based model.
In recent years, some researchers considered image color quantization as a single-objective problem and applied heuristic algorithms to solve it. This paper establishes a multiobjective image color quantization model with intracluster distance and intercluster separation as its objectives. Inspired by a multipopulation idea, a multiobjective image color quantization algorithm based on self-adaptive hybrid differential evolution (MoDE-CIQ) is then proposed to solve this model. Two numerical experiments on four common test images are conducted to analyze the effectiveness and competitiveness of the multiobjective model and the proposed algorithm. PMID:27738423
Hoekstra, Hopi E; Drumm, Kristen E; Nachman, Michael W
Patterns of geographic variation in phenotype or genotype may provide evidence for natural selection. Here, we compare phenotypic variation in color, allele frequencies of a pigmentation gene (the melanocortin-1 receptor, Mc1r), and patterns of neutral mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in rock pocket mice (Chaetodipus intermedius) across a habitat gradient in southern Arizona. Pocket mice inhabiting volcanic lava have dark coats with unbanded, uniformly melanic hairs, whereas mice from nearby light-colored granitic rocks have light coats with banded hairs. This color polymorphism is a presumed adaptation to avoid predation. Previous work has demonstrated that two Mc1r alleles, D and d, differ by four amino acids, and are responsible for the color polymorphism: DD and Dd genotypes are melanic whereas dd genotypes are light colored. To determine the frequency of the two Mc1r allelic classes across the dark-colored lava and neighboring light-colored granite, we sequenced the Mc1r gene in 175 individuals from a 35-km transect in the Pinacate lava region. We also sequenced two neutral mtDNA genes, COIII and ND3, in the same individuals. We found a strong correlation between Mc1r allele frequency and habitat color and no correlation between mtDNA markers and habitat color. Using estimates of migration from mtDNA haplotypes between dark- and light-colored sampling sites and Mc1r allele frequencies at each site, we estimated selection coefficients against mismatched Mc1r alleles, assuming a simple model of migration-selection balance. Habitat-dependent selection appears strong but asymmetric: selection is stronger against light mice on dark rock than against melanic mice on light rock. Together these results suggest that natural selection acts to match pocket mouse coat color to substrate color, despite high levels of gene flow between light and melanic populations.
Gagne, Jean-Pierre; Laplante-Levesque, Ariane; Labelle, Maude; Doucet, Katrine; Potvin, Marie-Christine
A program designed to evaluate the benefits of an audiovisual-frequency modulated (FM) system led to some questions concerning the effects of illumination level and a talker's skin color on speech-reading performance. To address those issues, the speech of a Caucasian female was videotaped under 2 conditions: a light skin color condition and a…
Telzer, Eva H.; Vazquez Garcia, Heidie A.
Research has increasingly identified race as a salient characteristic that affects one's life experiences and psychological well-being. However, little is known about how skin color affects the emotional health of Latinos. The present study examined how skin color relates to the self-perceptions of immigrant (N = 26) and U.S.-born (N = 55) Latina…
Ellers, Jacintha; Boggs, Carol L
Correlated evolution of mate signals and mate preference may be constrained if selection pressures acting on mate preference differ from those acting on mate signals. In particular, opposing selection pressures may act on mate preference and signals when traits have sexual as well as nonsexual functions. In the butterfly Colias philodice eriphyle, divergent selection on wing color across an elevational gradient in response to the thermal environment has led to increasing wing melanization at higher elevations. Wing color is also a long-range signal used by males in mate searching. We conducted experiments to test whether sexual selection on wing melanization via male mate choice acts in the same direction as natural selection on mate signals due to the thermal environment. We performed controlled mate choice experiments in the field over an elevational range of 1500 meters using decoy butterflies with different melanization levels. Also, we obtained a more direct estimate of the relation between wing color and sexual selection by measuring mating success in wild-caught females. Both our experiments showed that wing melanization is an important determinant of female mating success in C. p. eriphyle. However, a lack of elevational variation in male mate preference prevents coevolution of mate signals and mate preference, as males at all elevations prefer less-melanized females. We suggest that this apparently maladaptive mate choice may be maintained by differences in detectability between the morphs or by preservation of species recognition.
Sommers, Marilyn S.; Zink, Therese M.; Fargo, Jamison D.; Baker, Rachel B.; Buschur, Carol; Shambley-Ebron, Donna Z.; Fisher, Bonnie S.
Purpose The study objectives were to (1) estimate the frequency, prevalence, type, and location of anogenital injury in black and white women after consensual sex and (2) investigate the role of skin color in the detection of injury during the forensic sexual assault examination. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive design was used with 120 healthy volunteers who underwent a well-controlled forensic examination after consensual sexual intercourse. Results Fifty-five percent of the sample had at least 1 anogenital injury after consensual intercourse; percentages significantly differed between white (68%) and black (43%) participants (P = .02). Race/ethnicity was a significant predictor of injury prevalence and frequency in the external genitalia but not in the internal genitalia or anus. However, skin color variables—lightness/darkness–, redness/greenness–, and yellowness/blueness–confounded the original relationship between race/ethnicity and injury occurrence and frequency in the external genitalia, and 1 skin color variable—redness/greenness —was significantly associated with injury occurrence and frequency in the internal genitalia. Conclusions Although differences exist in anogenital injury frequency and prevalence between black and white women, such differences can be more fully explained by variations in skin color rather than race/ethnicity. Clinical recommendations and criminal justice implications are discussed. PMID:18926341
Burriss, Robert P.; Troscianko, Jolyon; Lovell, P. George; Fulford, Anthony J. C.; Stevens, Martin; Quigley, Rachael; Payne, Jenny; Saxton, Tamsin K.; Rowland, Hannah M.
Human ovulation is not advertised, as it is in several primate species, by conspicuous sexual swellings. However, there is increasing evidence that the attractiveness of women’s body odor, voice, and facial appearance peak during the fertile phase of their ovulatory cycle. Cycle effects on facial attractiveness may be underpinned by changes in facial skin color, but it is not clear if skin color varies cyclically in humans or if any changes are detectable. To test these questions we photographed women daily for at least one cycle. Changes in facial skin redness and luminance were then quantified by mapping the digital images to human long, medium, and shortwave visual receptors. We find cyclic variation in skin redness, but not luminance. Redness decreases rapidly after menstrual onset, increases in the days before ovulation, and remains high through the luteal phase. However, we also show that this variation is unlikely to be detectable by the human visual system. We conclude that changes in skin color are not responsible for the effects of the ovulatory cycle on women’s attractiveness. PMID:26134671
Yin, Wei; Cheng, Xiaosheng; Cui, Haihua; Li, Dawei; Zhou, Lei
This paper presents an approach to extract accurate color edge information using encoded patterns in hue, saturation, and intensity (HSI) color space. This method is applied to one-shot shape acquisition. Theoretical analysis shows that the hue transition between primary and secondary colors in a color edge is based on light interference and diffraction. We set up a color transition model to illustrate the hue transition on an edge and then define the segmenting position of two stripes. By setting up an adaptive HSI color space, the colors of the stripes and subpixel edges are obtained precisely without a dark laboratory environment, in a low-cost processing algorithm. Since this method does not have any constraints for colors of neighboring stripes, the encoding is an easy procedure. The experimental results show that the edges of dense modulation patterns can be obtained under a complicated environment illumination, and the precision can ensure that the three-dimensional shape of the object is obtained reliably with only one image.
Jablonski, Nina G.; Chaplin, George
Human skin pigmentation is the product of two clines produced by natural selection to adjust levels of constitutive pigmentation to levels of UV radiation (UVR). One cline was generated by high UVR near the equator and led to the evolution of dark, photoprotective, eumelanin-rich pigmentation. The other was produced by the requirement for UVB photons to sustain cutaneous photosynthesis of vitamin D3 in low-UVB environments, and resulted in the evolution of depigmented skin. As hominins dispersed outside of the tropics, they experienced different intensities and seasonal mixtures of UVA and UVB. Extreme UVA throughout the year and two equinoctial peaks of UVB prevail within the tropics. Under these conditions, the primary selective pressure was to protect folate by maintaining dark pigmentation. Photolysis of folate and its main serum form of 5-methylhydrofolate is caused by UVR and by reactive oxygen species generated by UVA. Competition for folate between the needs for cell division, DNA repair, and melanogenesis is severe under stressful, high-UVR conditions and is exacerbated by dietary insufficiency. Outside of tropical latitudes, UVB levels are generally low and peak only once during the year. The populations exhibiting maximally depigmented skin are those inhabiting environments with the lowest annual and summer peak levels of UVB. Development of facultative pigmentation (tanning) was important to populations settling between roughly 23° and 46° , where levels of UVB varied strongly according to season. Depigmented and tannable skin evolved numerous times in hominin evolution via independent genetic pathways under positive selection. PMID:20445093
Wittkopp, P J; Smith-Winberry, G; Arnold, L L; Thompson, E M; Cooley, A M; Yuan, D C; Song, Q; McAllister, B F
Pigmentation is one of the most variable traits within and between Drosophila species. Much of this diversity appears to be adaptive, with environmental factors often invoked as selective forces. Here, we describe the geographic structure of pigmentation in Drosophila americana and evaluate the hypothesis that it is a locally adapted trait. Body pigmentation was quantified using digital images and spectrometry in up to 10 flies from each of 93 isofemale lines collected from 17 locations across the United States and found to correlate most strongly with longitude. Sequence variation at putatively neutral loci showed no evidence of population structure and was inconsistent with an isolation-by-distance model, suggesting that the pigmentation cline exists despite extensive gene flow throughout the species range, and is most likely the product of natural selection. In all other Drosophila species examined to date, dark pigmentation is associated with arid habitats; however, in D. americana, the darkest flies were collected from the most humid regions. To investigate this relationship further, we examined desiccation resistance attributable to an allele that darkens pigmentation in D. americana. We found no significant effect of pigmentation on desiccation resistance in this experiment, suggesting that pigmentation and desiccation resistance are not unequivocally linked in all Drosophila species. PMID:20606690
Hu, Qing-ping; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Liu, Chao
LLL (Low-light-level) / infrared image fusion can integrate both bands information of the target, it is beneficial for target detection and scene perception in the low visibility weather such as night, haze, rain, and snow. The quality of fused image is declined, when any channel image quality drops. There will be great changes in the brightness, contrast and noise on LLL images when environment illumination has obvious changes, but the current color fusion methods is not adapted to the environment illumination change in larger dynamic range. In this paper, LLL image characteristics are analyzed under different environment illumination, and a kind of adaptive color fusion method is proposed based on the RGB color space. The fused image can get better brightness and signal-to-noise ratio under the different intensity of illumination.
which typically require batteries. However, a few displays have had solar - cells integrated into them to harvest energy [60,61]. Speed. Ideally, speed...the mechanisms of their adaptive coloration. This review includes detailed subsections on the chro- matophore organs, iridophores and leucophore cells ...mitochondria muscle cellnerve axon glial cell chromatophore structure nucleus cytoelastic sacculus capsules with charged pigment black state
Choi, Mi Soo; Hong, Seung Phil; Park, Byung Cheol
Nodular tuberculid (NT) was originally described by Jordaan et al. in 2000 in 4 patients from South Africa. It appeared as nodules on the legs; the pathologic changes were situated in the deep dermis and adjacent subcutaneous fat. A 34-year-old woman visited our hospital with subcutaneous skin-colored or slightly erythematous round to oval nodules. Skin biopsies revealed granulomatous inflammation at the dermo-subcutaneous junction with vasculitis. Chest X-ray, tuberculosus (TB)-polymerase chain reaction and TB culture of the skin specimen were normal. A QuantiFERON®-TB Gold test (QUIAGEN, Germany) was positive, which suggested a diagnosis of latent TB infection. The patient was treated with anti-TB medication and her condition has not recurred. Herein, we report a case of a patient with latent TB diagnosed by a positive QuantiFERON®-TB Gold test whose skin lesions had the clinical and histopathologic features of NT. PMID:28223755
Huang, Li; Li, Jun; Anboukaria, Housseni; Luo, Zhenhua; Zhao, Mian; Wu, Hua
Animal skin, which is the tissue that directly contacts the external surroundings, has evolved diverse functions to adapt to various environments. Amphibians represent the transitional taxon from aquatic to terrestrial life. Exploring the molecular basis of their skin function and adaptation is important to understand the survival and evolutionary mechanisms of vertebrates. However, comprehensive studies on the molecular mechanisms of skin functions in amphibians are scarce. In this study, we sequenced the skin transcriptomes of seven anurans belonging to three families and compared the similarities and differences in expressed genes and proteins. Unigenes and pathways related to basic biological processes and special functions, such as defense, immunity, and respiration, were enriched in functional annotations. A total of 108 antimicrobial peptides were identified. The highly expressed genes were similar in species of the same family but were different among families. Additionally, the positively selected orthologous groups were involved in biosynthesis, metabolism, immunity, and defense processes. This study is the first to generate extensive transcriptome data for the skin of seven anurans and provides unigenes and pathway candidates for further studies on amphibian skin function and adaptation. PMID:27040083
Jacobs, Leonie C; Liu, Fan; Pardo, Luba M; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Kayser, Manfred; Nijsten, Tamar
Actinic keratosis (AK) is a pre-malignant skin disease, highly prevalent in elderly Europeans. This study investigates genetic susceptibility to AK with a genome-wide association study (GWAS). A full body skin examination was performed in 3194 elderly individuals from the Rotterdam Study (RS) of exclusive north-western European origin (aged 51-99 years, 45% male). Physicians graded the number of AK into four severity levels: none (76%), 1-3 (14%), 4-9 (6%) and ≥10 (5%), and skin color was quantified using a spectrophotometer on sun-unexposed skin. A GWAS for AK severity was conducted, where promising signals at IRF4 and MC1R (P < 4.2 × 10(-7)) were successfully replicated in an additional cohort of 623 RS individuals (IRF4, rs12203592, Pcombined = 6.5 × 10(-13) and MC1R, rs139810560, Pcombined = 4.1 × 10(-9)). Further, in an analysis of ten additional well-known human pigmentation genes, TYR also showed significant association with AK (rs1393350, P = 5.3 × 10(-4)) after correction for multiple testing. Interestingly, the strength and significance of above-mentioned associations retained largely the same level after skin color adjustment. Overall, our data strongly suggest that IRF4, MC1R and TYR genes likely have pleiotropic effects, a combination of pigmentation and oncogenic functions, resulting in an increased risk of AK.
Cecala, Aaron L; Smalianchuk, Ivan; Khanna, Sanjeev B; Smith, Matthew A; Gandhi, Neeraj J
When the head does not move, rapid movements of the eyes called saccades are used to redirect the line of sight. Saccades are defined by a series of metrical and kinematic (evolution of a movement as a function of time) relationships. For example, the amplitude of a saccade made from one visual target to another is roughly 90% of the distance between the initial fixation point (T0) and the peripheral target (T1). However, this stereotypical relationship between saccade amplitude and initial retinal error (T1-T0) may be altered, either increased or decreased, by surreptitiously displacing a visual target during an ongoing saccade. This form of motor learning (called saccadic adaptation) has been described in both humans and monkeys. Recent experiments in humans and monkeys have suggested that internal (proprioceptive) and external (target shape, color, and/or motion) cues may be used to produce context-dependent adaptation. We tested the hypothesis that an external contextual cue (target color) could be used to evoke differential gain (actual saccade/initial retinal error) states in rhesus monkeys. We did not observe differential gain states correlated with target color regardless of whether targets were displaced along the same vector as the primary saccade or perpendicular to it. Furthermore, this observation held true regardless of whether adaptation trials using various colors and intrasaccade target displacements were randomly intermixed or presented in short or long blocks of trials. These results are consistent with hypotheses that state that color cannot be used as a contextual cue and are interpreted in light of previous studies of saccadic adaptation in both humans and monkeys.
Karch, Barry K; Hardie, Russell C
Digital color cameras using a single detector array with a Bayer color filter array (CFA) require interpolation or demosaicing to estimate missing color information and provide full-color images. However, demosaicing does not specifically address fundamental undersampling and aliasing inherent in typical camera designs. Fast non-uniform interpolation based super-resolution (SR) is an attractive approach to reduce or eliminate aliasing and its relatively low computational load is amenable to real-time applications. The adaptive Wiener filter (AWF) SR algorithm was initially developed for grayscale imaging and has not previously been applied to color SR demosaicing. Here, we develop a novel fast SR method for CFA cameras that is based on the AWF SR algorithm and uses global channel-to-channel statistical models. We apply this new method as a stand-alone algorithm and also as an initialization image for a variational SR algorithm. This paper presents the theoretical development of the color AWF SR approach and applies it in performance comparisons to other SR techniques for both simulated and real data.
Cavina-Pratesi, C; Kentridge, R W; Heywood, C A; Milner, A D
Previous neuroimaging research suggests that although object shape is analyzed in the lateral occipital cortex, surface properties of objects, such as color and texture, are dealt with in more medial areas, close to the collateral sulcus (CoS). The present study sought to determine whether there is a single medial region concerned with surface properties in general or whether instead there are multiple foci independently extracting different surface properties. We used stimuli varying in their shape, texture, or color, and tested healthy participants and 2 object-agnosic patients, in both a discrimination task and a functional MR adaptation paradigm. We found a double dissociation between medial and lateral occipitotemporal cortices in processing surface (texture or color) versus geometric (shape) properties, respectively. In Experiment 2, we found that the medial occipitotemporal cortex houses separate foci for color (within anterior CoS and lingual gyrus) and texture (caudally within posterior CoS). In addition, we found that areas selective for shape, texture, and color individually were quite distinct from those that respond to all of these features together (shape and texture and color). These latter areas appear to correspond to those associated with the perception of complex stimuli such as faces and places.
Laparra, Valero; Jiménez, Sandra; Camps-Valls, Gustavo; Malo, Jesús
Mechanisms of human color vision are characterized by two phenomenological aspects: the system is nonlinear and adaptive to changing environments. Conventional attempts to derive these features from statistics use separate arguments for each aspect. The few statistical explanations that do consider both phenomena simultaneously follow parametric formulations based on empirical models. Therefore, it may be argued that the behavior does not come directly from the color statistics but from the convenient functional form adopted. In addition, many times the whole statistical analysis is based on simplified databases that disregard relevant physical effects in the input signal, as, for instance, by assuming flat Lambertian surfaces. In this work, we address the simultaneous statistical explanation of the nonlinear behavior of achromatic and chromatic mechanisms in a fixed adaptation state and the change of such behavior (i.e., adaptation) under the change of observation conditions. Both phenomena emerge directly from the samples through a single data-driven method: the sequential principal curves analysis (SPCA) with local metric. SPCA is a new manifold learning technique to derive a set of sensors adapted to the manifold using different optimality criteria. Here sequential refers to the fact that sensors (curvilinear dimensions) are designed one after the other, and not to the particular (eventually iterative) method to draw a single principal curve. Moreover, in order to reproduce the empirical adaptation reported under D65 and A illuminations, a new database of colorimetrically calibrated images of natural objects under these illuminants was gathered, thus overcoming the limitations of available databases. The results obtained by applying SPCA show that the psychophysical behavior on color discrimination thresholds, discount of the illuminant, and corresponding pairs in asymmetric color matching emerge directly from realistic data regularities, assuming no a priori
Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; So, Suzanna; Bai, Grace J.; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.
The current study examined a model of desensitization to community violence exposure—the pathologic adaptation model—in male adolescents of color. The current study included 285 African American (61%) and Latino (39%) male adolescents (W1 M age = 12.41) from the Chicago Youth Development Study to examine the longitudinal associations between community violence exposure, depressive symptoms, and violent behavior. Consistent with the pathologic adaptation model, results indicated a linear, positive association between community violence exposure in middle adolescence and violent behavior in late adolescence, as well as a curvilinear association between community violence exposure in middle adolescence and depressive symptoms in late adolescence, suggesting emotional desensitization. Further, these effects were specific to cognitive-affective symptoms of depression and not somatic symptoms. Emotional desensitization outcomes, as assessed by depressive symptoms, can occur in male adolescents of color exposed to community violence and these effects extend from middle adolescence to late adolescence. PMID:27653968
Kita, Ryosuke; Fraser, Hunter B.
Sun-exposure is a key environmental variable in the study of human evolution. Several skin-pigmentation genes serve as classical examples of positive selection, suggesting that sun-exposure has significantly shaped worldwide genomic variation. Here we investigate the interaction between genetic variation and sun-exposure, and how this impacts gene expression regulation. Using RNA-Seq data from 607 human skin samples, we identified thousands of transcripts that are differentially expressed between sun-exposed skin and non-sun-exposed skin. We then tested whether genetic variants may influence each individual’s gene expression response to sun-exposure. Our analysis revealed 10 sun-exposure-dependent gene expression quantitative trait loci (se-eQTLs), including genes involved in skin pigmentation (SLC45A2) and epidermal differentiation (RASSF9). The allele frequencies of the RASSF9 se-eQTL across diverse populations correlate with the magnitude of solar radiation experienced by these populations, suggesting local adaptation to varying levels of sunlight. These results provide the first examples of sun-exposure-dependent regulatory variation and suggest that this variation has contributed to recent human adaptation. PMID:27760139
Supple, Megan A.; Hines, Heather M.; Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K.; Lewis, James J.; Nielsen, Dahlia M.; Lavoie, Christine; Ray, David A.; Salazar, Camilo; McMillan, W. Owen; Counterman, Brian A.
Identifying the genetic changes driving adaptive variation in natural populations is key to understanding the origins of biodiversity. The mosaic of mimetic wing patterns in Heliconius butterflies makes an excellent system for exploring adaptive variation using next-generation sequencing. In this study, we use a combination of techniques to annotate the genomic interval modulating red color pattern variation, identify a narrow region responsible for adaptive divergence and convergence in Heliconius wing color patterns, and explore the evolutionary history of these adaptive alleles. We use whole genome resequencing from four hybrid zones between divergent color pattern races of Heliconius erato and two hybrid zones of the co-mimic Heliconius melpomene to examine genetic variation across 2.2 Mb of a partial reference sequence. In the intergenic region near optix, the gene previously shown to be responsible for the complex red pattern variation in Heliconius, population genetic analyses identify a shared 65-kb region of divergence that includes several sites perfectly associated with phenotype within each species. This region likely contains multiple cis-regulatory elements that control discrete expression domains of optix. The parallel signatures of genetic differentiation in H. erato and H. melpomene support a shared genetic architecture between the two distantly related co-mimics; however, phylogenetic analysis suggests mimetic patterns in each species evolved independently. Using a combination of next-generation sequencing analyses, we have refined our understanding of the genetic architecture of wing pattern variation in Heliconius and gained important insights into the evolution of novel adaptive phenotypes in natural populations. PMID:23674305
Richard, Aline; Rohrmann, Sabine; Quack Lötscher, Katharina C
Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy has negative clinical consequences, such as associations with glucose intolerance, and has been shown to be distributed differently in certain ethnic groups. In some countries, a difference in the rate of vitamin D deficiency was detected in pregnant women depending on their skin color. We examined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) in women in early pregnancy in Switzerland and evaluated the association of skin color with vitamin D deficiency. In a single-center cohort study, the validated Fitzpatrick scale and objective melanin index were used to determine skin color. Of the 204 pregnant women included, 63% were vitamin D deficient. The mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 26.1 ng/mL (95% confidence interval (CI) 24.8-27.4) in vitamin D-sufficient women and 10.5 ng/mL (95% CI 9.7-11.5) in women with deficiency. In the most parsimonious model, women with dark skin color were statistically significantly more often vitamin D deficient compared to women with light skin color (OR 2.60; 95% CI 1.08-6.22; adjusted for age, season, vitamin D supplement use, body mass index, smoking, parity). This calls for more intense counseling as one policy option to improve vitamin D status during pregnancy, i.e., use of vitamin D supplements during pregnancy, in particular for women with darker skin color.
Richard, Aline; Rohrmann, Sabine; Quack Lötscher, Katharina C.
Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy has negative clinical consequences, such as associations with glucose intolerance, and has been shown to be distributed differently in certain ethnic groups. In some countries, a difference in the rate of vitamin D deficiency was detected in pregnant women depending on their skin color. We examined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) in women in early pregnancy in Switzerland and evaluated the association of skin color with vitamin D deficiency. In a single-center cohort study, the validated Fitzpatrick scale and objective melanin index were used to determine skin color. Of the 204 pregnant women included, 63% were vitamin D deficient. The mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 26.1 ng/mL (95% confidence interval (CI) 24.8–27.4) in vitamin D–sufficient women and 10.5 ng/mL (95% CI 9.7–11.5) in women with deficiency. In the most parsimonious model, women with dark skin color were statistically significantly more often vitamin D deficient compared to women with light skin color (OR 2.60; 95% CI 1.08–6.22; adjusted for age, season, vitamin D supplement use, body mass index, smoking, parity). This calls for more intense counseling as one policy option to improve vitamin D status during pregnancy, i.e., use of vitamin D supplements during pregnancy, in particular for women with darker skin color. PMID:28287422
Dreiss, A N; Antoniazza, S; Burri, R; Fumagalli, L; Sonnay, C; Frey, C; Goudet, J; Roulin, Alexandre
Local adaptation is a major mechanism underlying the maintenance of phenotypic variation in spatially heterogeneous environments. In the barn owl (Tyto alba), dark and pale reddish-pheomelanic individuals are adapted to conditions prevailing in northern and southern Europe, respectively. Using a long-term dataset from Central Europe, we report results consistent with the hypothesis that the different pheomelanic phenotypes are adapted to specific local conditions in females, but not in males. Compared to whitish females, reddish females bred in sites surrounded by more arable fields and less forests. Colour-dependent habitat choice was apparently beneficial. First, whitish females produced more fledglings when breeding in wooded areas, whereas reddish females when breeding in sites with more arable fields. Second, cross-fostering experiments showed that female nestlings grew wings more rapidly when both their foster and biological mothers were of similar colour. The latter result suggests that mothers should particularly produce daughters in environments that best match their own coloration. Accordingly, whiter females produced fewer daughters in territories with more arable fields. In conclusion, females displaying alternative melanic phenotypes bred in habitats providing them with the highest fitness benefits. Although small in magnitude, matching habitat selection and local adaptation may help maintain variation in pheomelanin coloration in the barn owl.
Yoo, Yang Mo; Kim, Yongmin
Clutter rejection is essential for accurate flow estimation in ultrasound color Doppler imaging. In this article, we present a new adaptive clutter rejection (ACR) technique where an optimum filter is dynamically selected depending upon the underlying clutter characteristics (e.g., tissue acceleration and power). We compared the performance of the ACR method with other adaptive methods, i.e., down-mixing (DM) and adaptive clutter filtering (ACF), using in vivo data acquired from the kidney, liver and common carotid artery. With the kidney data, the ACR method provided an average improvement of 3.05 dB and 1.7 dB in flow signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) compared with DM and ACF, respectively. With the liver data, SCR was improved by 2.75 dB and 1.8 dB over DM and ACF while no significant improvement with ACR was found in the common carotid artery data. Thus, the proposed adaptive method could provide more accurate flow estimation by improving clutter rejection in abdominal ultrasound color Doppler imaging pending validation.
Kreit, Eric; Mäthger, Lydia M; Hanlon, Roger T; Dennis, Patrick B; Naik, Rajesh R; Forsythe, Eric; Heikenfeld, Jason
Adaptive reflective surfaces have been a challenge for both electronic paper (e-paper) and biological organisms. Multiple colours, contrast, polarization, reflectance, diffusivity and texture must all be controlled simultaneously without optical losses in order to fully replicate the appearance of natural surfaces and vividly communicate information. This review merges the frontiers of knowledge for both biological adaptive coloration, with a focus on cephalopods, and synthetic reflective e-paper within a consistent framework of scientific metrics. Currently, the highest performance approach for both nature and technology uses colourant transposition. Three outcomes are envisioned from this review: reflective display engineers may gain new insights from millions of years of natural selection and evolution; biologists will benefit from understanding the types of mechanisms, characterization and metrics used in synthetic reflective e-paper; all scientists will gain a clearer picture of the long-term prospects for capabilities such as adaptive concealment and signaling.
Kreit, Eric; Mäthger, Lydia M.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Dennis, Patrick B.; Naik, Rajesh R.; Forsythe, Eric; Heikenfeld, Jason
Adaptive reflective surfaces have been a challenge for both electronic paper (e-paper) and biological organisms. Multiple colours, contrast, polarization, reflectance, diffusivity and texture must all be controlled simultaneously without optical losses in order to fully replicate the appearance of natural surfaces and vividly communicate information. This review merges the frontiers of knowledge for both biological adaptive coloration, with a focus on cephalopods, and synthetic reflective e-paper within a consistent framework of scientific metrics. Currently, the highest performance approach for both nature and technology uses colourant transposition. Three outcomes are envisioned from this review: reflective display engineers may gain new insights from millions of years of natural selection and evolution; biologists will benefit from understanding the types of mechanisms, characterization and metrics used in synthetic reflective e-paper; all scientists will gain a clearer picture of the long-term prospects for capabilities such as adaptive concealment and signalling. PMID:23015522
Jeffrey Kuo, Chung-Feng; Chang, Alvin; Joseph Kuo, Ping-Chen; Lee, Chi-Lung; Wu, Han-Cheng
This study developed a 3D software and hardware measurement system, and proposes an innovative stripes adaptive detection algorithm. The fringe intensity is regulated automatically according to the reflection coefficient of different analytes, in order to avoid overexposure. For the measurement of the object in discontinuously changing height, a novel intensity difference coding unwrapping phase technology is used, thus overcoming the technological bottleneck of traditional phase unwrapping. In order to increase the measurement efficiency, the stripe pattern is combined with intensity coding pattern by three-channel color information, in order to generate an adaptive compound color stripe pattern. The measurement efficiency is increased by approximately two times compared with traditional gray stripe pattern. In order to increase the measurement accuracy, the uneven brightness is corrected by using brightness gain function. The three-channel intensity nonlinear response is corrected by cubic spline interpolation system response inverse function. The three-channel image is corrected by color cross-talk correction technology. The experiment proved that the system repeatability is 20 μm. The traditional phase-shifting profilometry is improved successfully, overcoming the technical measurement bottleneck of discontinuous change in the analyte height, so as to attain low cost, high measurement accuracy, efficiency and measurement reliability.
Hillis, James M; Brainard, David H
Color vision is useful for detecting surface boundaries and identifying objects. Are the signals used to perform these two functions processed by common mechanisms, or has the visual system optimized its processing separately for each task? We measured the effect of mean chromaticity and luminance on color discriminability and on color appearance under well-matched stimulus conditions. In the discrimination experiments, a pedestal spot was presented in one interval and a pedestal + test in a second. Observers indicated which interval contained the test. In the appearance experiments, observers matched the appearance of test spots across a change in background. We analyzed the data using a variant of Fechner's proposal, that the rate of apparent stimulus change is proportional to visual sensitivity. We found that saturating visual response functions together with a model of adaptation that included multiplicative gain control and a subtractive term accounted for data from both tasks. This result suggests that effects of the contexts we studied on color appearance and discriminability are controlled by the same underlying mechanism.
Hillis, James M.; Brainard, David H.
Color vision is useful for detecting surface boundaries and identifying objects. Are the signals used to perform these two functions processed by common mechanisms, or has the visual system optimized its processing separately for each task? We measured the effect of mean chromaticity and luminance on color discriminability and on color appearance under well-matched stimulus conditions. In the discrimination experiments, a pedestal spot was presented in one interval and a pedestal + test in a second. Observers indicated which interval contained the test. In the appearance experiments, observers matched the appearance of test spots across a change in background. We analyzed the data using a variant of Fechner's proposal, that the rate of apparent stimulus change is proportional to visual sensitivity. We found that saturating visual response functions together with a model of adaptation that included multiplicative gain control and a subtractive term accounted for data from both tasks. This result suggests that effects of the contexts we studied on color appearance and discriminability are controlled by the same underlying mechanism.
Stepanova, Elena V; Strube, Michael J
Participants (N = 106) performed an affective priming task with facial primes that varied in their skin tone and facial physiognomy, and, which were presented either in color or in gray-scale. Participants' racial evaluations were more positive for Eurocentric than for Afrocentric physiognomy faces. Light skin tone faces were evaluated more positively than dark skin tone faces, but the magnitude of this effect depended on the mode of color presentation. The results suggest that in affective priming tasks, faces might not be processed holistically, and instead, visual features of facial priming stimuli independently affect implicit evaluations.
Münch, M; Plomp, G; Thunell, E; Kawasaki, A; Scartezzini, J L; Herzog, M H
Light adaptation is crucial for coping with the varying levels of ambient light. Using high-density electroencephalography (EEG), we investigated how adaptation to light of different colors affects brain responsiveness. In a within-subject design, sixteen young participants were adapted first to dim white light and then to blue, green, red, or white bright light (one color per session in a randomized order). Immediately after both dim and bright light adaptation, we presented brief light pulses and recorded event-related potentials (ERPs). We analyzed ERP response strengths and brain topographies and determined the underlying sources using electrical source imaging. Between 150 and 261 ms after stimulus onset, the global field power (GFP) was higher after dim than bright light adaptation. This effect was most pronounced with red light and localized in the frontal lobe, the fusiform gyrus, the occipital lobe and the cerebellum. After bright light adaptation, within the first 100 ms after light onset, stronger responses were found than after dim light adaptation for all colors except for red light. Differences between conditions were localized in the frontal lobe, the cingulate gyrus, and the cerebellum. These results indicate that very short-term EEG brain responses are influenced by prior light adaptation and the spectral quality of the light stimulus. We show that the early EEG responses are differently affected by adaptation to different colors of light which may contribute to known differences in performance and reaction times in cognitive tests.
Belot, Nathalie; Sim, Bushra; Longmore, Christopher Longmore; Roscoe, Lottie; Treasure, Carol
Skin sensitisation is the process by which a substance leads to an allergic reaction following skin contact. The process has been described as an adverse outcome pathway (AOP), including several key events, from skin penetration and covalent protein binding, to keratinocyte activation, dendritic cell activation and T-lymphocyte proliferation. The in vitro assay KeratinoSens™ measures the activation of keratinocytes. It is fully accepted at a regulatory level (OECD TG 442d) and appropriate for compliance with a range of legislation including the EU Cosmetics Regulation, REACH, and the CLP Regulation. Currently, many in vitro methods use animal-derived components in the cell culture systems. Many stakeholders in the cosmetics industry have both scientific and ethical concerns relating to this issue and have stated a strong preference for fully human in vitro test systems. We have adapted the KeratinoSensTM method to animal product-free conditions, and carried out an in-house validation with 21 reference substances, including those listed in the Performance Standards associated with OECD TG442d. The modified method was shown to be totally equivalent to the Validated Reference Method (VRM), with comparable values for accuracy (85.7%), sensitivity (84.6%) and specificity (87.5%), and all acceptance criteria being met. In Europe, data generated by the adapted method may be used in REACH submissions, and we are now seeking approval to list the adaptation in OECD TG 442d, enabling formal compliance with a range of global regulations.
da Silva, Rogério Ferreira; Oliveira Lima, Marcus Eugênio
Social judgments are often influenced by racism. Voluntary crimes against life, and in particular the crime of homicide, may be the most critical situations of the impact of racism in social judgments. We analyzed 114 homicide trials conducted by the 1st Jury Court, in a Brazilian judicial capital, concluded between 2003 and 2007, for the purpose of investigating the effects of skin color and the socioeconomic status of the defendant and the victim of homicides in the jury trial court's decision. The results indicate that the social and economic profile of defendants and victims of homicide is identical. They are almost all poor (more than 70%), with low education (more than 73%) and frequently non-Whites (more than 88%). We found that judges assign longer sentences to black (β = .34, p = .01) and poor defendants (β = .23, p < .05). We even verified that the poorer the defendant, the higher was the corresponding conviction rate (Wald's Test = 5.90, p < .05). The results are discussed based on theories of social psychology and criminological sociology, which consider the relationship between skin color and socioeconomic status in social judgments and in discrimination.
Latreille, Julie; Ezzedine, Khaled; Elfakir, Anissa; Ambroisine, Laurence; Gardinier, Sophie; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Gruber, Florian; Rees, Jonathan; Tschachler, Erwin; Guinot, Christiane
The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene is known to play a major role in skin and hair pigmentation and to be highly polymorphic in Caucasians. This study was performed to investigate the relationships between MC1R gene polymorphisms and skin color in a large sample of French middle-aged Caucasian women. The codons 60 to 265 and the codon 294 of the MC1R gene were sequenced in 488 women. The skin color was measured on the inner side of the forearm using a spectrophotometric instrument. Fifteen variants were identified: Arg151Cys, Arg160Trp, Arg142His, Asp294His, Ile155Thr, Asp84Glu, Val60Leu, Val92Met, Arg163Gln, Ser83Pro, Thr95Met, Pro256Ser, Val265Ile, Ala166Ala and Gln233Gln. Women carrying Arg151Cys, Asp294His, Arg160Trp and Asp84Glu variants had a significantly higher reflectance in the red region, which indicates a lower level of functional melanin. This association was the most pronounced for women carrying Asp84Glu. In contrast, no significant difference was observed for other variants. Moreover, associations between MC1R polymorphisms and the risks of experiencing sunburn and of having freckles were found independently of skin color. Our findings support the hypothesis that MC1R polymorphisms do not necessarily alter the skin color but should sensitize the skin to UV-induced DNA damage.
Wang, Zhaohui; Hardeberg, Jon Yngve
Spatial filtering, which aims to mimic the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) of the human visual system (HVS), has previously been combined with color difference formulae for measuring color image reproduction errors. These spatial filters attenuate imperceptible information in images, unfortunately including high frequency edges, which are believed to be crucial in the process of scene analysis by the HVS. The adaptive bilateral filter represents a novel approach, which avoids the undesirable loss of edge information introduced by CSF-based filtering. The bilateral filter employs two Gaussian smoothing filters in different domains, i.e., spatial domain and intensity domain. We propose a method to decide the parameters, which are designed to be adaptive to the corresponding viewing conditions, and the quantity and homogeneity of information contained in an image. Experiments and discussions are given to support the proposal. A series of perceptual experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of our approach. The experimental sample images were reproduced with variations in six image attributes: lightness, chroma, hue, compression, noise, and sharpness/blurriness. The Pearson's correlation values between the model-predicted image difference and the observed difference were employed to evaluate the performance, and compare it with that of spatial CIELAB and image appearance model.
Gautam, Pramod; Chaurasia, Amit; Bhattacharya, Aniket; Grover, Ritika; Mukerji, Mitali; Natarajan, Vivek T
Several studies have demonstrated the role of climatic factors in shaping skin phenotypes, particularly pigmentation. Keratinization is another well-designed feature of human skin, which is involved in modulating transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Although this physiological process is closely linked to climate, presently it is not clear whether genetic diversity is observed in keratinization and whether this process also responds to the environmental pressure. To address this, we adopted a multipronged approach, which involved analysis of 1) copy number variations in diverse Indian and HapMap populations from varied geographical regions; 2) genetic association with geoclimatic parameters in 61 populations of dbCLINE database in a set of 549 genes from four processes namely keratinization, pigmentation, epidermal differentiation, and housekeeping functions; 3) sequence divergence in 4,316 orthologous promoters and corresponding exonic regions of human and chimpanzee with macaque as outgroup, and 4) protein sequence divergence (Ka/Ks) across nine vertebrate classes, which differ in their extent of TEWL. Our analyses demonstrate that keratinization and epidermal differentiation genes are under accelerated evolution in the human lineage, relative to pigmentation and housekeeping genes. We show that this entire pathway may have been driven by environmental selection pressure through concordant functional polymorphisms across several genes involved in skin keratinization. Remarkably, this underappreciated function of skin may be a crucial determinant of adaptation to diverse environmental pressures across world populations.
Mexico is the main ‘Hass’ avocado exporter in the world. More than 100,000 ton are exported every year being the USA, Japan, the European Union, and Canada the main importer countries. Recently, ‘Hass’ avocado shipments to Canada containing fruit with skin blackening have been rejected since this ch...
Mexico is the main ‘Hass’ avocado exporter in the world. More than 100,000 tons are exported every year being the U.S., Japan, the European Union, and Canada the main importer countries. Shipments to Canada containing fruits with blackening skin have been rejected since this characteristic is associ...
Barbosa, Alexandra; Mäthger, Lydia M; Chubb, Charles; Florio, Christopher; Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Hanlon, Roger T
Among the changeable camouflage patterns of cuttlefish, disruptive patterning is shown in response to certain features of light objects in the visual background. However, whether animals show disruptive patterns is dependent not only on object size but also on their body size. Here, we tested whether cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) are able to match their disruptive body patterning with increasing size of background objects as they grow from hatchling to adult size (0.7 to 19.6 cm mantle length; factor of 28). Specifically, do cuttlefish have a single ;visual sampling rule' that scales accurately during ontogeny? For each of seven size classes of cuttlefish, we created black and white checkerboards whose check sizes corresponded to 4, 12, 40, 120, 400 and 1200% of the area of the cuttlefish's White square, which is a neurophysiologically controlled component of the skin. Disruptive body patterns were evoked when, regardless of animal size, the check size measured either 40 or 120% of the area of the cuttlefish's White square, thus demonstrating a remarkable ontogenetic conformity to a single visual sampling rule. Cuttlefish have no known visual feedback loop with which to adjust their skin patterns. Since the area of a cuttlefish's White square skin component is a function of body size, our results indicate that cuttlefish are solving a visual scaling problem of camouflage presumably without visual confirmation of the size of their own skin component.
Goldsmith, Arthur H.; Hamilton, Darrick; Darity, William, Jr.
This paper develops and tests a theory, referred to as "preference for whiteness," which predicts that the interracial (white-black) and intraracial wage gap widens as the skin shade of the black worker darkens. Using data drawn from the Multi City Study of Urban Inequality and the National Survey of Black Americans, we report evidence…
Xu, Qi; Ma, Xiaochuan; Yan, Shefeng; Hao, Chengpeng; Shi, Bo
In this article, we consider the problem of adaptive detection for a multichannel signal in the presence of spatially and temporally colored compound-Gaussian disturbance. By modeling the disturbance as a multichannel autoregressive (AR) process, we first derive a parametric generalized likelihood ratio test against compound-Gaussian disturbance (CG-PGLRT) assuming that the true multichannel AR parameters are perfectly known. For the two-step GLRT design criterion, we combine the multichannel AR parameter estimation algorithm with three covariance matrix estimation strategies for compound-Gaussian environment, then obtain three adaptive CG-PGLRT detectors by replacing the ideal multichannel AR parameters with their estimates. Owing to treating the random texture components of disturbance as deterministic unknown parameters, all of the proposed detectors require no a priori knowledge about the disturbance statistics. The performance assessments are conducted by means of Monte Carlo trials. We focus on the issues of constant false alarm rate (CFAR) behavior, detection and false alarm probabilities. Numerical results show that the proposed adaptive CG-PGLRT detectors have dramatically ease the training and computational burden compared to the generalized likelihood ratio test-linear quadratic (GLRT-LQ) which is referred to as covariance matrix based detector and relies more heavily on training.
Baraas, Rigmor C.; Carroll, Joseph; Gunther, Karen L.; Chung, Mina; Williams, David R.; Foster, David H.; Neitz, Maureen
Tritan color-vision deficiency is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with mutations in the short-wavelength-sensitive- (S-) cone-pigment gene. An unexplained feature of the disorder is that individuals with the same mutation manifest different degrees of deficiency. To date, it has not been possible to examine whether any loss of S-cone function is accompanied by physical disruption in the cone mosaic. Two related tritan subjects with the same novel mutation in their S-cone-opsin gene, but different degrees of deficiency, were examined. Adaptive optics was used to obtain high-resolution retinal images, which revealed distinctly different S-cone mosaics consistent with their discrepant phenotypes. In addition, a significant disruption in the regularity of the overall cone mosaic was observed in the subject completely lacking S-cone function. These results taken together with other recent findings from molecular genetics indicate that, with rare exceptions, tritan deficiency is progressive in nature.
Chouinard, Philippe A; Goodale, Melvyn A
We used fMRI to identify brain areas that adapted to either animals or manipulable artifacts while participants classified highly-rendered color photographs into subcategories. Several key brain areas adapted more strongly to one class of objects compared to the other. Namely, we observed stronger adaptation for animals in the lingual gyrus bilaterally, which are known to analyze the color of objects, and in the right frontal operculum and in the anterior insular cortex bilaterally, which are known to process emotional content. In contrast, the left anterior intraparietal sulcus, which is important for configuring the hand to match the three-dimensional structure of objects during grasping, adapted more strongly to manipulable artifacts. Contrary to what a previous study has found using gray-scale photographs, we did not replicate categorical-specific adaptation in the lateral fusiform gyrus for animals and categorical-specific adaptation in the medial fusiform gyrus for manipulable artifacts. Both categories of objects adapted strongly in the fusiform gyrus without any clear preference in location along its medial-lateral axis. We think that this is because the fusiform gyrus has an important role to play in color processing and hence its responsiveness to color stimuli could be very different than its responsiveness to gray-scale photographs. Nevertheless, on the basis of what we found, we propose that the recognition and subsequent classification of animals may depend primarily on perceptual properties, such as their color, and on their emotional content whereas other factors, such as their function, may play a greater role for classifying manipulable artifacts.
Fleming, Stephen B.; Wise, Lyn M.; Mercer, Andrew A.
Orf virus is the type species of the Parapoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae. It induces acute pustular skin lesions in sheep and goats and is transmissible to humans. The genome is G+C rich, 138 kbp and encodes 132 genes. It shares many essential genes with vaccinia virus that are required for survival but encodes a number of unique factors that allow it to replicate in the highly specific immune environment of skin. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that both viral interleukin-10 and vascular endothelial growth factor genes have been “captured” from their host during the evolution of the parapoxviruses. Genes such as a chemokine binding protein and a protein that binds granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-2 appear to have evolved from a common poxvirus ancestral gene while three parapoxvirus nuclear factor (NF)-κB signalling pathway inhibitors have no homology to other known NF-κB inhibitors. A homologue of an anaphase-promoting complex subunit that is believed to manipulate the cell cycle and enhance viral DNA synthesis appears to be a specific adaptation for viral-replication in keratinocytes. The review focuses on the unique genes of orf virus, discusses their evolutionary origins and their role in allowing viral-replication in the skin epidermis. PMID:25807056
Lindgren, Johan; Alwmark, Carl; Caldwell, Michael W; Fiorillo, Anthony R
The physical nature of water and the environment it presents to an organism have long been recognized as important constraints on aquatic adaptation and evolution. Little is known about the dermal cover of mosasauroids (a group of secondarily aquatic reptiles that occupied a wide array of predatory niches in the Cretaceous marine ecosystems 92-65 Myr ago), a lack of information that has hindered inferences about the nature and level of their aquatic adaptations. A newly discovered Plotosaurus skeleton with integument preserved in three dimensions represents not only the first documented squamation in a mosasaurine mosasaur but also the first record of skin in an advanced member of the Mosasauroidea. The dermal cover comprises keeled and possibly osteoderm-reinforced scales that presumably contributed to an anterior-posterior channelling of the water flow and a reduction of microturbulent burst activities along the surface of the skin. Thus, hydrodynamic requirements of life in the water might have influenced the evolution of multiple-keeled body scales in advanced mosasauroids.
Abbas, A A; Guo, X; Tan, W H; Jalab, H A
In a computerized image analysis environment, the irregularity of a lesion border has been used to differentiate between malignant melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions. The accuracy of the automated lesion border detection is a significant step towards accurate classification at a later stage. In this paper, we propose the use of a combined Spline and B-spline in order to enhance the quality of dermoscopic images before segmentation. In this paper, morphological operations and median filter were used first to remove noise from the original image during pre-processing. Then we proceeded to adjust image RGB values to the optimal color channel (green channel). The combined Spline and B-spline method was subsequently adopted to enhance the image before segmentation. The lesion segmentation was completed based on threshold value empirically obtained using the optimal color channel. Finally, morphological operations were utilized to merge the smaller regions with the main lesion region. Improvement on the average segmentation accuracy was observed in the experimental results conducted on 70 dermoscopic images. The average accuracy of segmentation achieved in this paper was 97.21 % (where, the average sensitivity and specificity were 94 % and 98.05 % respectively).
Pezdirc, Kristine; Hutchesson, Melinda J; Whitehead, Ross; Ozakinci, Gozde; Perrett, David; Collins, Clare E
Fruit and vegetables contain carotenoid pigments, which accumulate in human skin, contributing to its yellowness. This effect has a beneficial impact on appearance. The aim was to evaluate associations between diet (fruit, vegetable and dietary carotenoid intakes) and skin color in young women. Ninety-one Caucasian women (Median and Interquartile Range (IQR) age 22.1 (18.1-29.1) years, BMI 22.9 (18.5-31.9) kg/m2) were recruited from the Hunter region (Australia). Fruit, vegetable and dietary carotenoid intakes were estimated by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Skin color was measured at nine body locations (sun exposed and unexposed sites) using spectrophotometry. Multiple linear regression was used to assess the relationship between fruit and vegetable intakes and skin yellowness adjusting for known confounders. Higher combined fruit and vegetable intakes (β = 0.8, p = 0.017) were associated with higher overall skin yellowness values. Higher fruit combined fruit and vegetable intakes (β = 1.0, p = 0.004) were associated with increased unexposed skin yellowness. Combined fruit and vegetables plus dietary carotenoid intakes contribute to skin yellowness in young Caucasian women. Evaluation of interventions using improvements in appearance as an incentive for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in young women is warranted.
Pezdirc, Kristine; Hutchesson, Melinda J.; Whitehead, Ross; Ozakinci, Gozde; Perrett, David; Collins, Clare E.
Fruit and vegetables contain carotenoid pigments, which accumulate in human skin, contributing to its yellowness. This effect has a beneficial impact on appearance. The aim was to evaluate associations between diet (fruit, vegetable and dietary carotenoid intakes) and skin color in young women. Ninety-one Caucasian women (Median and Interquartile Range (IQR) age 22.1 (18.1–29.1) years, BMI 22.9 (18.5–31.9) kg/m2) were recruited from the Hunter region (Australia). Fruit, vegetable and dietary carotenoid intakes were estimated by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Skin color was measured at nine body locations (sun exposed and unexposed sites) using spectrophotometry. Multiple linear regression was used to assess the relationship between fruit and vegetable intakes and skin yellowness adjusting for known confounders. Higher combined fruit and vegetable intakes (β = 0.8, p = 0.017) were associated with higher overall skin yellowness values. Higher fruit combined fruit and vegetable intakes (β = 1.0, p = 0.004) were associated with increased unexposed skin yellowness. Combined fruit and vegetables plus dietary carotenoid intakes contribute to skin yellowness in young Caucasian women. Evaluation of interventions using improvements in appearance as an incentive for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in young women is warranted. PMID:26184306
Maroñas, O; Söchtig, J; Ruiz, Y; Phillips, C; Carracedo, Á; Lareu, M V
This review examines the potential application of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based predictive tests for skin, hair, and eye color to forensic analysis in support of police investigations lacking DNA database matches or eyewitness testimony. Brief descriptions of the biology of melanogenesis and the main genes involved are presented in order to understand the basis of common pigmentation variation in humans. We outline the most recently developed forensically sensitive multiplex tests that can be applied to investigative analyses. The review also describes the biology of the SNPs with the closest associations to, and therefore the best predictors for, common variation in eye, hair, and skin pigmentation. Because pigmentation pathways are complex in their patterns, many of the better-studied human albinism traits provide insight into how pigmentation SNPs interact, control, or modify gene expression and show varying degrees of association with the key genes identified to date. These aspects of SNP action are discussed in an overview of each of the functional groups of pigmentation genes.
McDowell, Mark; Gray, Elizabeth
Utilizing a Compact Color Microscope Imaging System (CCMIS), a unique algorithm has been developed that combines human intelligence along with machine vision techniques to produce an autonomous microscope tool for biomedical, industrial, and space applications. This technique is based on an adaptive, morphological, feature-based mapping function comprising 24 mutually inclusive feature metrics that are used to determine the metrics for complex cell/objects derived from color image analysis. Some of the features include: Area (total numbers of non-background pixels inside and including the perimeter), Bounding Box (smallest rectangle that bounds and object), centerX (x-coordinate of intensity-weighted, center-of-mass of an entire object or multi-object blob), centerY (y-coordinate of intensity-weighted, center-of-mass, of an entire object or multi-object blob), Circumference (a measure of circumference that takes into account whether neighboring pixels are diagonal, which is a longer distance than horizontally or vertically joined pixels), . Elongation (measure of particle elongation given as a number between 0 and 1. If equal to 1, the particle bounding box is square. As the elongation decreases from 1, the particle becomes more elongated), . Ext_vector (extremal vector), . Major Axis (the length of a major axis of a smallest ellipse encompassing an object), . Minor Axis (the length of a minor axis of a smallest ellipse encompassing an object), . Partial (indicates if the particle extends beyond the field of view), . Perimeter Points (points that make up a particle perimeter), . Roundness [(4(pi) x area)/perimeter(squared)) the result is a measure of object roundness, or compactness, given as a value between 0 and 1. The greater the ratio, the rounder the object.], . Thin in center (determines if an object becomes thin in the center, (figure-eight-shaped), . Theta (orientation of the major axis), . Smoothness and color metrics for each component (red, green, blue
Montalvo, Frank F.
Failure to understand the role of skin color in the development of ethnoracial identity among Hispanic Americans has led to continued psychic and educational problems for them, hidden the cause of real and potential divisiveness in the community, and prevented the development of effective strategies for overcoming ethnic prejudice. The ethnic…
Pavlova, P.; Borisova, E.; Pavlova, E.; Avramov, L.
The suggested technique is a subsequent stage for data obtaining from diffuse reflectance spectra and images of diseased tissue with a final aim of skin cancer diagnostics. Our previous work allows us to extract patterns for some types of skin cancer, as a ratio between spectra, obtained from healthy and diseased tissue in the range of 380 - 780 nm region. The authenticity of the patterns depends on the tested point into the area of lesion, and the resulting diagnose could also be fixed with some probability. In this work, two adaptations are implemented to localize pixels of the image lesion, where the reflectance spectrum corresponds to pattern. First adapts the standard to the personal patient and second - translates the spectrum white point basis to the relative white point of the image. Since the reflectance spectra and the image pixels are regarding to different white points, a correction of the compared colours is needed. The latest is done using a standard method for chromatic adaptation. The technique follows the steps below: -Calculation the colorimetric XYZ parameters for the initial white point, fixed by reflectance spectrum from healthy tissue; -Calculation the XYZ parameters for the distant white point on the base of image of nondiseased tissue; -Transformation the XYZ parameters for the test-spectrum by obtained matrix; -Finding the RGB values of the XYZ parameters for the test-spectrum according sRGB; Finally, the pixels of the lesion's image, corresponding to colour from the test-spectrum and particular diagnostic pattern are marked with a specific colour.
Zhou, Xiaoming; Zhang, Congyao; Liu, Dong C
Color flow imaging has been well applied in clinical diagnosis. For the high quality color flow images, clutter filter is important to separate the Doppler signals from blood and tissue. Traditional clutter filters, such as finite impulse response, infinite impulse response and regression filters, were applied, which are based on the hypothesis that the clutter signal is stationary or tissue moves slowly. However, in realistic clinic color flow imaging, the signals are non-stationary signals because of accelerated moving tissue. For most related papers, simulated RF signals are widely used without in vivo I/Q signal. Hence, in this paper, adaptive polynomial regression filter, which is down mixing with instantaneous clutter frequency, was proposed based on in vivo carotid I/Q signal in realistic color flow imaging. To get the best performance, the optimal polynomial order of polynomial regression filter and the optimal polynomial order for estimation of instantaneous clutter frequency respectively were confirmed. Finally, compared with the mean blood velocity and quality of 2-D color flow image, the experiment results show that adaptive polynomial regression filter, which is down mixing with instantaneous clutter frequency, can significantly enhance the mean blood velocity and get high quality 2-D color flow image.
Yang, Xinwang; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yue; Lee, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Yun
Elucidating the mechanisms of high-altitude adaptation is an important research area in modern biology. To date, however, knowledge has been limited to the genetic mechanisms of adaptation to the lower oxygen and temperature levels prevalent at high altitudes, with adaptation to UV radiation largely neglected. Furthermore, few proteomic or peptidomic analyses of these factors have been performed. In this study, the molecular adaptation of high-altitude Odorrana andersonii and cavernicolous O. wuchuanensis to elevated UV radiation was investigated. Compared with O. wuchuanensis, O. andersonii exhibited greater diversity and free radical scavenging potentiality of skin antioxidant peptides to cope with UV radiation. This implied that O. andersonii evolved a much more complicated and powerful skin antioxidant peptide system to survive high-altitude UV levels. Our results provided valuable peptidomic clues for understanding the novel molecular basis for adaptation to high elevation habitats. PMID:26813022
Yang, Xinwang; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yue; Lee, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Yun
Elucidating the mechanisms of high-altitude adaptation is an important research area in modern biology. To date, however, knowledge has been limited to the genetic mechanisms of adaptation to the lower oxygen and temperature levels prevalent at high altitudes, with adaptation to UV radiation largely neglected. Furthermore, few proteomic or peptidomic analyses of these factors have been performed. In this study, the molecular adaptation of high-altitude Odorrana andersonii and cavernicolous O. wuchuanensis to elevated UV radiation was investigated. Compared with O. wuchuanensis, O. andersonii exhibited greater diversity and free radical scavenging potentiality of skin antioxidant peptides to cope with UV radiation. This implied that O. andersonii evolved a much more complicated and powerful skin antioxidant peptide system to survive high-altitude UV levels. Our results provided valuable peptidomic clues for understanding the novel molecular basis for adaptation to high elevation habitats.
Acceptable chip color and high specific gravity are important characteristics for chipping potatoes. High specific gravity in U.S. chipping varieties traces back to B5141-6 (‘Lenape’). In an effort to expand the germplasm base for high specific gravity, a long-day adapted diploid hybrid Solanum p...
Landaeta-Hernández, Antonio; Zambrano-Nava, Sunny; Hernández-Fonseca, Juan P; Godoy, Rosario; Calles, Marcos; Iragorri, José L; Añez, Lauderys; Polanco, Miguel; Montero-Urdaneta, Merilio; Olson, Tim
The variation in hair coat and skin histology traits of Criollo Limonero cattle was analyzed using 213 Criollo Limonero females. Skin biopsies were obtained from slick-haired (N=16) and normal-haired (N=14) animals. Measured traits included hair length (HL), color coat (CC), number of hair follicles per square centimeter (NHF), sweat glands per square centimeter (NSG), sweat glands size (SGS), sebaceous glands per square centimeter (NSBG), blood vessels per square centimeter (NBV), and thickness of epidermis (TE). Hair length differed (P<0.001) between slick- and normal-haired animals (4.9 ± 0.12 vs 10.9 ± 0.20, respectively). Differences (P<0.01) in CC (Bayo = 144/67.6% vs Red = 69/32.4%) and HL (slick-haired = 199/93.4% vs normal-haired = 14/6.5%) were found. Distribution of slick- and normal-haired animals differed (P<0.01) between bayo-coated and red-coated (139/62.2% vs 9/4.2%; respectively). Most (P<0.05) red-coated animals belonged to a single family. No differences (P>0.05) were found between slick-haired and normal-haired animals in NHF (637 ± 164 vs 587 ± 144, respectively), NSG (556 ± 134 vs 481 ± 118, respectively), NSBG (408 ± 87 vs 366 ± 77, respectively), NBV (1628 ± 393 vs 1541 ± 346, respectively), and TE (1.24 ± 0.14 vs 1.32 ± 0.12, respectively). However, SGS was greater (P<0.01) in slick-haired than normal-haired animals. In conclusion, Criollo Limonero cattle are predominantly bayo-coated, slick-haired, with a reduced number of hair follicles relative to Zebu cattle, sweat and sebaceous glands in proportion to hair follicle numbers, and with a high blood flow irrigating the skin. There is a sub-group of red-coated animals with yellow or cream skin, thicker epidermis, and with a higher frequency of normal-haired animals. It appears that the slick hair gene has been favored by natural selection in this breed.
Simmons, Grant H; Wong, Brett J; Holowatz, Lacy A; Kenney, W Larry
Heat is the most abundant byproduct of cellular metabolism. As such, dynamic exercise in which a significant percentage of muscle mass is engaged generates thermoregulatory demands that are met in part by increases in skin blood flow. Increased skin blood flow during exercise adds to the demands on cardiac output and confers additional circulatory strain beyond that associated with perfusion of active muscle alone. Endurance exercise training results in a number of physiological adaptations which ultimately reduce circulatory strain and shift thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow to higher levels of blood flow for a given core temperature. In addition, exercise training induces peripheral vascular adaptations within the cutaneous microvasculature indicative of enhanced endothelium-dependent vasomotor function. However, it is not currently clear how (or if) these local vascular adaptations contribute to the beneficial changes in thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow following exercise training. The purpose of this Hot Topic Review is to synthesize the literature pertaining to exercise training-mediated changes in cutaneous microvascular reactivity and thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow. In addition, we address mechanisms driving changes in cutaneous microvascular reactivity and thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow, and pose the question: what (if any) is the functional role of increased cutaneous microvascular reactivity following exercise training?
Gynther, B D; Vickery, R M; Rowe, M J
1. Slowly adapting type II (SAII) afferent fibres that supply the forelimb were isolated from the medial cutaneous nerve of anaesthetized cats and examined for their capacity to signal information about vibrotactile events in the hairy skin. 2. The SAII fibres had a single spot-like receptive field focus where they were highly sensitive to steady indentation and vibration applied with probes normal to the skin surface. However, their sensitivity was affected profoundly by the size of the stimulus probe, its position in relation to the receptive field focus and, to a lesser extent, the magnitude of any pre-indentation on which vibration was superimposed. Small stimulus probes (e.g. 250 microns diameter) were much more effective than larger (> or = 1-2 mm) ones, and small shifts in the position of the perpendicularly applied probe away from the receptive field focus led to a marked decline in responsiveness. 3. With appropriate choice of stimulus parameters for vibratory stimuli applied at the receptive field focus, the SAII fibres could respond at low threshold (< 100 microns), with a tightly phase-locked, regular 1:1 impulse pattern (one impulse per vibration cycle) that accurately signalled the vibration frequency over a bandwidth that extended to 600 Hz. Furthermore, their responses remained phase-locked up to 1000 Hz. Phase-locking in SAII fibres was marginally tighter than that in SAI fibres and comparable to that of Pacinian corpuscle fibres. 4. The sensitivity of forelimb SAII fibres to tangential skin stretch was directionally selective; stretch across the forelimb was much more effective than along its long axis. Vibration associated with tangential skin stretch led to a marked spatial expansion of the field of vibration sensitivity. SAII fibres could therefore signal information about natural stimuli that contain elements of skin stretch and vibration, as may be encountered when the forelimb brushes against textured surfaces. Should the SAII fibres fail to
Yang, Yanan; Yao, Gaifang; Yue, Wenquan; Zhang, Shaoling; Wu, Jun
Anthocyanin concentration is the key determinant for red skin color in pear fruit. However, the molecular basis for development of red skin is complicated and has not been well-understood thus far. “Starkrimson” (Pyrus communis L.), an introduced red pear cultivated in the north of China and its green mutant provides a desirable red/green pair for identification of candidate genes involved in color variation. Here, we sequenced and annotated the transcriptome for the red/green color mutant at three stages of development using Illumina RNA-seq technology. The total number of mapped reads ranged from 26 to 46 million in six libraries. About 70.11–71.95% of clean reads could be mapped to the reference genome. Compared with green colored fruit, a total of 2230 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in red fruit. Gene Ontology (GO) terms were defined for 4886 differential transcripts involved in 15 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. Three DEGs were identified as candidate genes in the flavonoid pathway, LAR, ANR, and C3H. Tellingly, higher expression was found for genes encoding ANR and LAR in the green color mutant, promoting the proanthocyanidin (PA) pathway and leading to lower anthocyanin. MYB-binding cis-motifs were identified in the promoter region of LAR and ANR. Based on these findings, we speculate that the regulation of PA biosynthesis might be a key factor for this red/green color mutant. Besides the known MYB and MADS transcription families, two new families, AP2 and WRKY, were identified as having high correlation with anthocyanin biosynthesis in red skinned pear. In addition, qRT-PCR was used to confirm the transcriptome results for 17 DEGs, high correlation of gene expression, further proved that AP2 and WARK regulated the anthocyanin biosynthesis in red skinned “Starkrimson,” and ANR and LAR promote PA biosynthesis and contribute to the green skinned variant. This study can serve as a valuable new resource
Yang, Yanan; Yao, Gaifang; Yue, Wenquan; Zhang, Shaoling; Wu, Jun
Anthocyanin concentration is the key determinant for red skin color in pear fruit. However, the molecular basis for development of red skin is complicated and has not been well-understood thus far. "Starkrimson" (Pyrus communis L.), an introduced red pear cultivated in the north of China and its green mutant provides a desirable red/green pair for identification of candidate genes involved in color variation. Here, we sequenced and annotated the transcriptome for the red/green color mutant at three stages of development using Illumina RNA-seq technology. The total number of mapped reads ranged from 26 to 46 million in six libraries. About 70.11-71.95% of clean reads could be mapped to the reference genome. Compared with green colored fruit, a total of 2230 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in red fruit. Gene Ontology (GO) terms were defined for 4886 differential transcripts involved in 15 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. Three DEGs were identified as candidate genes in the flavonoid pathway, LAR, ANR, and C3H. Tellingly, higher expression was found for genes encoding ANR and LAR in the green color mutant, promoting the proanthocyanidin (PA) pathway and leading to lower anthocyanin. MYB-binding cis-motifs were identified in the promoter region of LAR and ANR. Based on these findings, we speculate that the regulation of PA biosynthesis might be a key factor for this red/green color mutant. Besides the known MYB and MADS transcription families, two new families, AP2 and WRKY, were identified as having high correlation with anthocyanin biosynthesis in red skinned pear. In addition, qRT-PCR was used to confirm the transcriptome results for 17 DEGs, high correlation of gene expression, further proved that AP2 and WARK regulated the anthocyanin biosynthesis in red skinned "Starkrimson," and ANR and LAR promote PA biosynthesis and contribute to the green skinned variant. This study can serve as a valuable new resource laying a
Devecıoğlu, Ismaıl; Güçlü, Burak
Previous histological and neurophysiological studies have shown that the innervation density of rapidly adapting (RA) mechanoreceptive fibers increases towards the fingertip. Since the psychophysical detection threshold depends on the contribution of several RA fibers, a high innervation density would imply lower thresholds. However, our previous human study showed that psychophysical detection thresholds for the Non-Pacinian I channel mediated by RA fibers do not improve towards the fingertip. By recording single-unit spike activity from rat RA fibers, here we tested the hypothesis that the responsiveness of RA fibers is asymmetric in the proximo-distal axis which may counterbalance the effects of innervation density. RA fibers (n = 32) innervating the digital glabrous skin of rat hind paw were stimulated with 40-Hz sinusoidal mechanical bursts at five different stimulus locations relative to the receptive field (RF) center (two distal, one RF center, two proximal). Different contactor sizes (area: 0.39, 1.63, 2.96 mm²) were used. Rate-intensity functions were constructed based on average firing rates, and the absolute spike threshold and the entrainment threshold were obtained for each RA fiber. Thresholds for proximal stimulus locations were found to be significantly higher than those for distal stimulus locations, which suggests that the mechanical stimulus is transmitted better towards the proximal direction. The effect of contactor size was not significant. Mechanical impedance of the rat digital glabrous skin was further measured and a lumped-parameter model was proposed to interpret the relationship between the asymmetric response properties of RA fibers and the mechanical properties of the skin.
Ankad, Balachandra S.; Beergouder, Savitha L.
Background Pityriasis lichenoides is an uncommon skin disease that presents in three different forms: pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta (PLEVA), pityriasis lichenoides chronica (PLC) and febrile ulceronecrotic-Mucha-Habermann disease. These represent a spectrum of a disease. PLEVA presents as skin eruption of multiple, small, red papules that develop into polymorphic lesions with periods of varying remissions, as well as possible sequels of hyper/hypopigmentation and varicella-like scars. Diagnosis of this condition is mainly clinical, and sometimes clinical differentiation from other conditions may be a difficult task that often requires histological analysis. In this study, PLEVA lesions were examined by dermoscopy, and the significance of specific dermoscopic findings was investigated in order to facilitate their differentiation from other inflammatory conditions. Objectives To evaluate dermoscopic patterns in PLEVA and to correlate these patterns with histopathology. Materials and methods The study was conducted at S. Nijalingappa Medical College, Bagalkot. It was an observational case series study and patients were selected randomly. Ethical clearance and informed consent were obtained. PLEVA lesions in early and late phases were evaluated. A manual DermLite 3 (3Gen, San Juan Capistrano, CA) dermoscope attached to a Sony (Cyber Shot DSC-W800, Sony Electronics Inc., San Diego, California, USA, digital, 14 mega pixels) camera was employed. Histopathology was done to confirm the diagnosis. Data was collected and analyzed. Results were statistically described in terms of frequencies and types of dermoscopic patterns. Results There was a total of 14 patients; 8 males and 6 females. Mean age of patients was 19 years. Mean duration of disease was 7 months. Dermoscopy in early-phase lesions revealed amorphous brownish areas around the hair follicles, dotted vessels, and scaling. Dermoscopy in late-phase lesions showed whitish-structureless areas and
Yoo, Yang Mo; Sikdar, Siddhartha; Karadayi, Kerem; Kolokythas, Orpheus; Kim, Yongmin
In three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound color Doppler imaging (CDI), effective rejection of flash artifacts caused by tissue motion (clutter) is important for improving sensitivity in visualizing blood flow in vessels. Since clutter characteristics can vary significantly during volume acquisition, a clutter rejection technique that can adapt to the underlying clutter conditions is desirable for 3D CDI. We have previously developed an adaptive clutter rejection (ACR) method, in which an optimum filter is dynamically selected from a set of predesigned clutter filters based on the measured clutter characteristics. In this article, we evaluated the ACR method with 3D in vivo data acquired from 37 kidney transplant patients clinically indicated for a duplex ultrasound examination. We compared ACR against a conventional clutter rejection method, down-mixing (DM), using a commonly-used flow signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) and a new metric called fractional residual clutter area (FRCA). The ACR method was more effective in removing the flash artifacts while providing higher sensitivity in detecting blood flow in the arcuate arteries and veins in the parenchyma of transplanted kidneys. ACR provided 3.4 dB improvement in SCR over the DM method (11.4 +/- 1.6 dB versus 8.0 +/- 2.0 dB, p < 0.001) and had lower average FRCA values compared with the DM method (0.006 +/- 0.003 versus 0.036 +/- 0.022, p < 0.001) for all study subjects. These results indicate that the new ACR method is useful for removing nonstationary tissue motion while improving the image quality for visualizing 3D vascular structure in 3D CDI.
Zhang, X J; Wang, L X; Chen, X X; Liu, Y L; Meng, R; Wang, Y J; Zhao, Z Y
Pre-selection for fruit skin color at the seedling stage would be highly advantageous, with marker-assisted selection offering a potential method for apple pre-selection. A and MdMYB1 alleles are allele-specific DNA markers that are potentially associated with apple skin color, and co-segregate with the Rf and Rni loci, respectively. Here, we assessed the potential application of these 2 alleles for marker-assisted breeding across 30 diverse cultivars and 2 apple seedling progenies. The red skin color phenotype was usually associated with the MdMYB1-1 allele and A(1) allele, respectively, while the 2 molecular markers provided approximately 91% predictability in the 'Fuji' x 'Cripps Pink' and 'Fuji' x 'Gala' progenies. The results obtained from the 30 cultivars and 2 progenies were consistent for the 2 molecular markers. Hence, the results supported that Rf and Rni could be located in a gene cluster, or even correspond to alleles of the same gene. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that red/yellow dimorphism is controlled by a monogenic system, with the presence of the red anthocyanin pigmentation being dominant. In addition, our results supported that the practical utilization of the 2 function markers to efficiently and accurately select red-skinned apple cultivars in apple scion breeding programs.
Welfer, Daniel; Scharcanski, Jacob; Kitamura, Cleyson M; Dal Pizzol, Melissa M; Ludwig, Laura W B; Marinho, Diane Ruschel
The identification of some important retinal anatomical regions is a prerequisite for the computer aided diagnosis of several retinal diseases. In this paper, we propose a new adaptive method for the automatic segmentation of the optic disk in digital color fundus images, using mathematical morphology. The proposed method has been designed to be robust under varying illumination and image acquisition conditions, common in eye fundus imaging. Our experimental results based on two publicly available eye fundus image databases are encouraging, and indicate that our approach potentially can achieve a better performance than other known methods proposed in the literature. Using the DRIVE database (which consists of 40 retinal images), our method achieves a success rate of 100% in the correct location of the optic disk, with 41.47% of mean overlap. In the DIARETDB1 database (which consists of 89 retinal images), the optic disk is correctly located in 97.75% of the images, with a mean overlap of 43.65%.
Strazzieri-Pulido, Kelly Cristina; Santos, Vera Lúcia Conceição de Gouveia; Carville, Keryln
AIMS: to perform the cultural adaptation of the STAR Skin Tear Classification System into the Portuguese language and to test the content validity and inter-rater reliability of the adapted version. METHODS: methodological study with a quantitative approach. The cultural adaptation was developed in three phases: translation, evaluation by a committee of judges and back-translation. The instrument was tested regarding content validity and inter-rater reliability. RESULTS: the adapted version obtained a regular level of concordance when it was applied by nurses using photographs of friction injuries. Regarding its application in clinical practice, the adapted version obtained a moderate and statistically significant level of concordance. CONCLUSION: the study tested the content validity and inter-rater reliability of the version adapted into the Portuguese language. Its inclusion in clinical practice will enable the correct identification of this type of injury, as well as the implementation of protocols for the prevention and treatment of friction injuries. PMID:25806644
Manríquez, Patricio H; Lagos, Nelson A; Jara, María Elisa; Castilla, Juan Carlos
We report a mechanism of crypsis present during the vulnerable early post-metamorphic ontogeny (=20 mm peristomal length) of the muricid snail Concholepas concholepas, a rocky shore keystone predator characteristic of the southeastern Pacific coast. In the field, we found a significant occurrence (>95%) of specimens bearing patterns of shell coloration (dark or light colored) that matched the background coloration provided by patches of Concholepas' most abundant prey (mussels or barnacles respectively). The variation in shell color was positively associated with the color of the most common prey (r = 0.99). In laboratory experiments, shell coloration of C. concholepas depended on the prey-substrate used to induce metamorphosis and for the post-metamorphic rearing. The snail shell color matched the color of the prey offered during rearing. Laboratory manipulation experiments, switching the prey during rearing, showed a corresponding change in snail shell color along the outermost shell edge. As individuals grew and became increasingly indistinguishable from the surrounding background, cryptic individuals had higher survival (71%) than the non cryptic ones (4%) when they were reared in the presence of the predatory crab Acanthocyclus hassleri. These results suggest that the evolution of shell color plasticity during the early ontogeny of C. concholepas, depends on the color of the more abundant of the consumed prey available in the natural habitat where settlement has taken place; this in turn has important consequences for their fitness and survivorship in the presence of visual predators.
McIntyre, Sarah; Seizova-Cajic, Tatjana; Holcombe, Alex O
After prolonged exposure to a surface moving across the skin, this felt movement appears slower, a phenomenon known as the tactile speed aftereffect (tSAE). We asked which feature of the adapting motion drives the tSAE: speed, the spacing between texture elements, or the frequency with which they cross the skin. After adapting to a ridged moving surface with one hand, participants compared the speed of test stimuli on adapted and unadapted hands. We used surfaces with different spatial periods (SPs; 3, 6, 12 mm) that produced adapting motion with different combinations of adapting speed (20, 40, 80 mm/s) and temporal frequency (TF; 3.4, 6.7, 13.4 ridges/s). The primary determinant of tSAE magnitude was speed of the adapting motion, not SP or TF. This suggests that adaptation occurs centrally, after speed has been computed from SP and TF, and/or that it reflects a speed cue independent of those features in the first place (e.g., indentation force). In a second experiment, we investigated the properties of the neural code for speed. Speed tuning predicts that adaptation should be greatest for speeds at or near the adapting speed. However, the tSAE was always stronger when the adapting stimulus was faster (242 mm/s) than the test (30-143 mm/s) compared with when the adapting and test speeds were matched. These results give no indication of speed tuning and instead suggest that adaptation occurs at a level where an intensive code dominates. In an intensive code, the faster the stimulus, the more the neurons fire.
Dickensheets, David L.; Kreitinger, Seth; Peterson, Gary; Heger, Michael; Rajadhyaksha, Milind
Reflectance Confocal Microscopy, or RCM, is being increasingly used to guide diagnosis of skin lesions. The combination of widefield dermoscopy (WFD) with RCM is highly sensitive (~90%) and specific (~ 90%) for noninvasively detecting melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin lesions. The combined WFD and RCM approach is being implemented on patients to triage lesions into benign (with no biopsy) versus suspicious (followed by biopsy and pathology). Currently, however, WFD and RCM imaging are performed with separate instruments, while using an adhesive ring attached to the skin to sequentially image the same region and co-register the images. The latest small handheld RCM instruments offer no provision yet for a co-registered wide-field image. This paper describes an innovative solution that integrates an ultra-miniature dermoscopy camera into the RCM objective lens, providing simultaneous wide-field color images of the skin surface and RCM images of the subsurface cellular structure. The objective lens (0.9 NA) includes a hyperhemisphere lens and an ultra-miniature CMOS color camera, commanding a 4 mm wide dermoscopy view of the skin surface. The camera obscures the central portion of the aperture of the objective lens, but the resulting annular aperture provides excellent RCM optical sectioning and resolution. Preliminary testing on healthy volunteers showed the feasibility of combined WFD and RCM imaging to concurrently show the skin surface in wide-field and the underlying microscopic cellular-level detail. The paper describes this unique integrated dermoscopic WFD/RCM lens, and shows representative images. The potential for dermoscopy-guided RCM for skin cancer diagnosis is discussed.
Micheletti, Steven; Parra, Eliseo; Routman, Eric J.
Recently, studies of adaptive color variation have become popular as models for examining the genetics of natural selection. We examined color pattern polymorphism and genetic variation in a population of side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) that is found in habitats with both dark (lava) and light colored (granite) substrates. We conducted a limited experiment for adult phenotypic plasticity in laboratory conditions. We recorded both substrate and lizard color patterns in the field to determine whether lizards tended to match their substrate. Finally we examined genetic variation in a gene (melanocortin 1 receptor) that has been shown to affect lizard color in other species and in a presumably neutral gene (mitochondrial cytochrome b). Populations were sampled in the immediate area of the lava flows as well as from a more distant site to examine the role of population structure. Our captive Uta did not change color to match their background. We show that side-blotched lizards tend to match the substrate on which it was caught in the field and that variation in the melanocortin 1 receptor gene does not correlate well with color pattern in this population. Perhaps the most remarkable result is that this population of side-blotched lizards shows extremely high levels of variation at both genetic markers, in the sense of allele numbers, with relatively low levels of between-allele sequence variation. Genetic variation across this small region was as great or greater than that seen in samples of pelagic fish species collected worldwide. Statistical analysis of genetic variation suggests rapid population expansion may be responsible for the high levels of variation. PMID:23133520
... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...
... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...
sun exposure, and dietary calcium and vitamin D intake are ascertained. Finally, the melanin content of the skin is measured using a skin reflectance...meter called a Dermaspectrometer, to measure baseline skin melanin content, which is known to inhibit vitamin D synthesis from sunlight. This...three hospitals in Chicago, along with demographic and medical information, BMI, and skin melanin content using a portable narrow-band reflectometer
Skin tone variation within the United States' black population has long been associated with intraracial stratification. Skin tone differentials in socioeconomic status reflect both the inherited privileges of a mulatto elite and contemporary preferences for lighter skin. Three influential studies have claimed that such differentials in…
... melanin production: Your genes Heat Injury Exposure to radiation (such as from the sun) Exposure to heavy metals Changes in hormone levels ... or giant nevi Mongolian blue spots Pityriasis alba Radiation therapy Rashes Sensitivity to the sun due to medicine reactions or certain drugs Sunburn ...
Verhaegen, Pauline D; Schouten, Hennie J; Tigchelaar-Gutter, Wikky; van Marle, Jan; van Noorden, Cornelis J; Middelkoop, Esther; van Zuijlen, Paul P
Surgeons are often faced with large defects that are difficult to close. Stretching adjacent skin can facilitate wound closure. In clinical practice, intraoperative stretching is performed in a cyclical or continuous fashion. However, exact mechanisms of tissue adaptation to stretch remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated collagen and elastin orientation and morphology of stretched and nonstretched healthy skin and scars. Tissue samples were stretched, fixed in stretched-out position, and processed for histology. Objective methods were used to quantify the collagen orientation index (COI), bundle thickness, and bundle spacing. Also sections were analyzed for elastin orientation and quantity. Significantly more parallel aligned collagen bundles were found after cyclical (COI = 0.57) and continuous stretch (COI = 0.57) compared with nonstretched skin (COI = 0.40). Similarly, more parallel aligned elastin was found after stretch. Also, significantly thicker collagen bundles and more bundle spacing were found after stretch. For stretched scars, significantly more parallel aligned collagen was found (COI = 0.61) compared with nonstretched scars (COI = 0.49). In conclusion, both elastin and collagen realign in a parallel fashion in response to stretch. For healthy skin, thicker bundles and more space between the bundles were found. Rapid changes in extension, alignment, and collagen morphology appear to be the underlying mechanisms of adaptation to stretching.
Yu, Xiuju; He, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Junbing; He, Junping; Fan, Ruiwen; Wang, Haidong; Geng, Jianjun; Dong, Changsheng
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met signaling has been considered as a key pathway in both melanocyte development and melanogenesis. To understand better the expression patterns and tissue distribution characterization of HGF and its receptor c-Met in skin of white versus brown alpaca (Vicugna pacos), we detected the tissue distribution of HGF and c-Met using immunohistochemistry and analyzed the expression patterns by using Western blot and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated that HGF staining robustly increased in the dermal papilla and mesenchymal cells of white alpaca skin compared with that of brown. However, c-Met staining showed strongly positive result, particularly inhair matrix and root sheath in brown alpaca skin. Western blot and qPCR results suggested that HGF and c-Met were expressed at significantly high levels in white and brown alpaca skins, respectively, and protein and transcripts possessed the same expression pattern in white and brown alpaca skins. The results suggested that HGF/c-Met signaling functions in alpaca coat color formation offer essential theoretical basis for further exploration of the role of HGF/c-Met signaling in pigment formation.
Kennedy, C; ter Huurne, J; Berkhout, M; Gruis, N; Bastiaens, M; Bergman, W; Willemze, R; Bavinck, J N
Individuals carrying melanocortin 1 receptor gene variants have an increased risk for the development of cutaneous melanoma. Melanocortin 1 receptor gene variants are also associated with other risk factors for melanoma such as fair skin and red hair. We evaluated the relationship of melanocortin 1 receptor gene variants, fair skin, red hair and the development of melanoma in 123 patients with cutaneous melanoma and 385 control subjects. To analyze the association between melanocortin 1 receptor gene variants and skin type or hair color we also made use of 453 patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer. We analyzed the coding sequence of the melanocortin 1 receptor gene region by single-stranded conformation polymorphism analysis, followed by DNA sequence analysis. Risk of melanoma dependent on the various melanocortin 1 receptor variant alleles was estimated by exposure odds ratios. The analyses of all different melanocortin 1 receptor gene variants combined, showed that the presence of melanocortin 1 receptor gene variants amounted to a higher melanoma risk, which, in stratified analyses, was independent of skin type and hair color. The odds ratios after adjusting for skin type were 3.6 (95% CI 1.7-7.2) for two variants and 2.7 (95% CI 1.5-5.1) for one variant, respectively. Compound heterozygotes and homozygotes for the Val60Leu, Val92Met, Arg142His, Arg151Cys, Arg160Trp, Arg163Gln, and His260Pro variants had odds ratios of about 4 to develop melanoma, whereas heterozygotes for these variants had half the risk. The presence of the melanocortin 1 receptor gene variant Asp84Glu appeared to impose the highest risk for cutaneous melanoma with odds ratios of 16.1 (95% CI 2.3-139.0) and 8.1 (95% CI 1.2-55.9) in compound heterozygotes and heterozygotes, respectively. The broad confidence intervals, when the different variants were analyzed separately, however, do not allow drawing definite conclusions about the magnitude of these risks. Of the more frequently occurring
Jacobs, Leonie C; Hamer, Merel A; Gunn, David A; Deelen, Joris; Lall, Jaspal S; van Heemst, Diana; Uh, Hae-Won; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Beekman, Marian; Slagboom, P Eline; Kayser, Manfred; Liu, Fan; Nijsten, Tamar
Facial pigmented spots are a common skin aging feature, but genetic predisposition has yet to be thoroughly investigated. We conducted a genome-wide association study for pigmented spots in 2,844 Dutch Europeans from the Rotterdam Study (mean age: 66.9±8.0 years; 47% male). Using semi-automated image analysis of high-resolution digital facial photographs, facial pigmented spots were quantified as the percentage of affected skin area (mean women: 2.0% ±0.9, men: 0.9% ±0.6). We identified genome-wide significant association with pigmented spots at three genetic loci: IRF4 (rs12203592, P=1.8 × 10(-27)), MC1R (compound heterozygosity score, P=2.3 × 10(-24)), and RALY/ASIP (rs6059655, P=1.9 × 10(-9)). In addition, after adjustment for the other three top-associated loci the BNC2 locus demonstrated significant association (rs62543565, P=2.3 × 10(-8)). The association signals observed at all four loci were successfully replicated (P<0.05) in an independent Dutch cohort (Leiden Longevity Study n=599). Although the four genes have previously been associated with skin color variation and skin cancer risk, all association signals remained highly significant (P<2 × 10(-8)) when conditioning the association analyses on skin color. We conclude that genetic variations in IRF4, MC1R, RALY/ASIP, and BNC2 contribute to the acquired amount of facial pigmented spots during aging, through pathways independent of the basal melanin production.
Balaban, Murat O; Stewart, Kelsie; Fletcher, Graham C; Alçiçek, Zayde
Ten gurnard and 10 snapper were stored on ice. One side always contacted the ice; the other side was always exposed to air. At different intervals for up to 12 d, the fish were placed in a light box, and the images of both sides were taken using polarized and nonpolarized illumination. Image analysis resulted in average L*, a*, and b* values of skin, and average L* values of the eyes. The skin L* value of gurnard changed significantly over time while that of snapper was substantially constant. The a* and b* values of both fish decreased over time. The L* values of eyes were significantly lower for polarized images, and significantly lower for the side of fish exposed to air only. This may be a concern in quality evaluation methods such as QIM. The difference of colors between the polarized and nonpolarized images was calculated to quantify the reflection off the surface of fish. For accurate measurement of surface color and eye color, use of polarized light is recommended.
Caulier, Yannick; Bernhard, Luc; Spinnler, Klaus
This paper proposes a new type of color coded light structures for the inspection of complex moving objects. The novelty of the methods relies on the generation of free-form color patterns permitting the projection of color structures adapted to the geometry of the surfaces to be characterized. The point correspondence determination algorithm consists of a stepwise procedure involving simple and computationally fast methods. The algorithm is therefore robust against varying recording conditions typically arising in real-time quality control environments and can be further integrated for industrial inspection purposes. The proposed approach is validated and compared on the basis of different experimentations concerning the 3D surface reconstruction by projecting adapted spatial color coded patterns. It is demonstrated that in case of certain inspection requirements, the method permits to code more reference points that similar color coded matrix methods.
Foi, Alessandro; Katkovnik, Vladimir; Egiazarian, Karen
The shape-adaptive discrete cosine transform ISA-DCT) transform can be computed on a support of arbitrary shape, but retains a computational complexity comparable to that of the usual separable block-DCT (B-DCT). Despite the near-optimal decorrelation and energy compaction properties, application of the SA-DCT has been rather limited, targeted nearly exclusively to video compression. In this paper, we present a novel approach to image filtering based on the SA-DCT. We use the SA-DCT in conjunction with the Anisotropic Local Polynomial Approximation-Intersection of Confidence Intervals technique, which defines the shape of the transform's support in a pointwise adaptive manner. The thresholded or attenuated SA-DCT coefficients are used to reconstruct a local estimate of the signal within the adaptive-shape support. Since supports corresponding to different points are in general overlapping, the local estimates are averaged together using adaptive weights that depend on the region's statistics. This approach can be used for various image-processing tasks. In this paper, we consider, in particular, image denoising and image deblocking and deringing from block-DCT compression. A special structural constraint in luminance-chrominance space is also proposed to enable an accurate filtering of color images. Simulation experiments show a state-of-the-art quality of the final estimate, both in terms of objective criteria and visual appearance. Thanks to the adaptive support, reconstructed edges are clean, and no unpleasant ringing artifacts are introduced by the fitted transform.
Chavez-Dueñas, Nayeli Y.; Adames, Hector Y.; Organista, Kurt C.
The psychological literature on colorism, a form of within-group racial discrimination, is sparse. In an effort to contribute to this understudied area and highlight its significance, a concise and selective review of the history of colorism in Latin America is provided. Specifically, three historical eras (i.e., conquest, colonization, and…
Yamamoto, H.; Hatori, Y.; Murakami, H.
This paper proposes a new approach to the composite coding of the NTSC color TV signal, i.e., an interfield-intrafield adaptive prediction. First, concerning prediction efficiency for various moving pictures, an advantage of this coding scheme over interframe coding is clarified theoretically and experimentally. This adaptive prediction gives very good and stable performance for still to violently moving pictures. A 30 Mbit/s codec, based on this idea, and its performance are presented. Field transmission testing through an Intelsat satellite using this codec is also described. The picture quality is satisfactory for practically all the pictures expected in broadcast TV programs, and it is subjectively estimated to be a little better than that of the half-transponder FM transmission now employed in the Intelsat system.
... Treatments and Side Effects Managing Cancer-related Side Effects Skin Problems Pressure Sores A skin or pressure sore ... Content Usage Policy . Skin Problems Dry Skin Itching Skin Color Changes Pressure Sores Scars ... and Paying for Treatment Treatments and Side Effects Survivorship: During and After Treatment Caregivers and Family ...
Lecas, Sarah; Boursier, Elsa; Fitoussi, Richard; Vié, Katell; Momas, Isabelle; Seta, Nathalie; Achard, Sophie
More than a barrier against environmental agents, skin reflects individual health and is a visible sign of ageing with the progressive loss of skin integrity. In order to evaluate the consequences of an environmental complex mixture, with tobacco smoke (TS) as model, on cellular and morphological changes, a 3D skin model was used. Morphologically, tissue integrity was intact after one TS-exposure while the superficial layers were drastically reduced after two TS-exposures. However, TS modified epidermal organisation at the molecular level after just one exposure. A decrease in loricrin protein staining was showed in the epidermis, while production of inflammatory cytokines (IL-8, IL-1α, IL-18) and metalloproteinase (MMP-1, MMP-3) were stimulated. Oxidative stress was also illustrated with an increase in 4-HNE protein staining. Moreover, terminal differentiation, cell-cell junction and anchorage gene expression was down-regulated in our model after one TS-exposure. In conclusion, tobacco smoke impacted the fundamental functions of skin, namely tissue anchorage, cornification and skin desquamation. Oxidative stress resulted in skin ageing. The tissue was even reactive with the inflammatory pathways, after one TS-exposure. The 3D-RHE model is appropriate for evaluating the impact of environmental pollutants on skin ageing.
Sonneck-Museux, N.; Scheer, E.; Perez, L.; Agay, D.; Autrique, L.
Laser technology is increasingly used, and it is crucial for both safety and medical reasons that the impact of laser irradiation on human skin can be accurately predicted. This study is mainly focused on laser-skin interactions and potential lesions (burns). A mathematical model dedicated to heat transfers in skin exposed to infrared laser radiations has been developed. The model is validated by studying heat transfers in human skin and simultaneously performing experimentations an animal model (pig). For all experimental tests, pig's skin surface temperature is recorded. Three laser wavelengths have been tested: 808 nm, 1940 nm and 10 600 nm. The first is a diode laser producing radiation absorbed deep within the skin. The second wavelength has a more superficial effect. For the third wavelength, skin is an opaque material. The validity of the developed models is verified by comparison with experimental results (in vivo tests) and the results of previous studies reported in the literature. The comparison shows that the models accurately predict the burn degree caused by laser radiation over a wide range of conditions. The results show that the important parameter for burn prediction is the extinction coefficient. For the 1940 nm wavelength especially, significant differences between modeling results and literature have been observed, mainly due to this coefficient's value. This new model can be used as a predictive tool in order to estimate the amount of injury induced by several types (couple power-time) of laser aggressions on the arm, the face and on the palm of the hand.
Wellnitz, Scott A; Lesniak, Daine R; Gerling, Gregory J; Lumpkin, Ellen A
Touch is initiated by diverse somatosensory afferents that innervate the skin. The ability to manipulate and classify receptor subtypes is prerequisite for elucidating sensory mechanisms. Merkel cell-neurite complexes, which distinguish shapes and textures, are experimentally tractable mammalian touch receptors that mediate slowly adapting type I (SAI) responses. The assessment of SAI function in mutant mice has been hindered because previous studies did not distinguish SAI responses from slowly adapting type II (SAII) responses, which are thought to arise from different end organs, such as Ruffini endings. Thus we sought methods to discriminate these afferent types. We developed an epidermis-up ex vivo skin-nerve chamber to record action potentials from afferents while imaging Merkel cells in intact receptive fields. Using model-based cluster analysis, we found that two types of slowly adapting receptors were readily distinguished based on the regularity of touch-evoked firing patterns. We identified these clusters as SAI (coefficient of variation = 0.78 +/- 0.09) and SAII responses (0.21 +/- 0.09). The identity of SAI afferents was confirmed by recording from transgenic mice with green fluorescent protein-expressing Merkel cells. SAI receptive fields always contained fluorescent Merkel cells (n = 10), whereas SAII receptive fields lacked these cells (n = 5). Consistent with reports from other vertebrates, mouse SAI and SAII responses arise from afferents exhibiting similar conduction velocities, receptive field sizes, mechanical thresholds, and firing rates. These results demonstrate that mice, like other vertebrates, have two classes of slowly adapting light-touch receptors, identify a simple method to distinguish these populations, and extend the utility of skin-nerve recordings for genetic dissection of touch receptor mechanisms.
Shrivastava, Vimal K; Londhe, Narendra D; Sonawane, Rajendra S; Suri, Jasjit S
Psoriasis is an autoimmune skin disease with red and scaly plaques on skin and affecting about 125 million people worldwide. Currently, dermatologist use visual and haptic methods for diagnosis the disease severity. This does not help them in stratification and risk assessment of the lesion stage and grade. Further, current methods add complexity during monitoring and follow-up phase. The current diagnostic tools lead to subjectivity in decision making and are unreliable and laborious. This paper presents a first comparative performance study of its kind using principal component analysis (PCA) based CADx system for psoriasis risk stratification and image classification utilizing: (i) 11 higher order spectra (HOS) features, (ii) 60 texture features, and (iii) 86 color feature sets and their seven combinations. Aggregate 540 image samples (270 healthy and 270 diseased) from 30 psoriasis patients of Indian ethnic origin are used in our database. Machine learning using PCA is used for dominant feature selection which is then fed to support vector machine classifier (SVM) to obtain optimized performance. Three different protocols are implemented using three kinds of feature sets. Reliability index of the CADx is computed. Among all feature combinations, the CADx system shows optimal performance of 100% accuracy, 100% sensitivity and specificity, when all three sets of feature are combined. Further, our experimental result with increasing data size shows that all feature combinations yield high reliability index throughout the PCA-cutoffs except color feature set and combination of color and texture feature sets. HOS features are powerful in psoriasis disease classification and stratification. Even though, independently, all three set of features HOS, texture, and color perform competitively, but when combined, the machine learning system performs the best. The system is fully automated, reliable and accurate.
Tian, Xue; Meng, Xiaolin; Wang, Liangyan; Song, Yunfei; Zhang, Danli; Ji, Yuankai; Li, Xuejun; Dong, Changsheng
Slc7a11 encoding solute carrier family 7 member 11 (amionic amino acid transporter light chain, xCT), has been identified to be a critical genetic regulator of pheomelanin synthesis in hair and melanocytes. To better understand the molecular characterization of Slc7a11 and the expression patterns in skin of white versus brown alpaca (lama paco), we cloned the full length coding sequence (CDS) of alpaca Slc7a11 gene and analyzed the expression patterns using Real Time PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The full length CDS of 1512bp encodes a 503 amino acid polypeptide. Sequence analysis showed that alpaca xCT contains 12 transmembrane regions consistent with the highly conserved amino acid permease (AA_permease_2) domain similar to other vertebrates. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that alpaca xCT had the highest identity and shared the same branch with Camelus ferus. Real Time PCR and Western blotting suggested that xCT was expressed at significantly high levels in brown alpaca skin, and transcripts and protein possessed the same expression pattern in white and brown alpaca skins. Additionally, immunohistochemical analysis further demonstrated that xCT staining was robustly increased in the matrix and root sheath of brown alpaca skin compared with that of white. These results suggest that Slc7a11 functions in alpaca coat color regulation and offer essential information for further exploration on the role of Slc7a11 in melanogenesis.
Woodbury, C Jeffery; Koerber, H Richard
Despite intensive study, our understanding of the neuronal structures responsible for transducing the broad spectrum of environmental energies that impinge upon the skin has rested on inference and conjecture. This major shortcoming motivated the development of ex vivo somatosensory system preparations in neonatal mice in the hope that their small size might allow the peripheral terminals of physiologically identified sensory neurons to be labeled intracellularly for direct study. The present report describes the first such study of the peripheral terminals of four slowly adapting type I low-threshold mechanoreceptors (SAIs) that innervated the back skin of neonatal mice. In addition, this report includes information on the central anatomy of the same SAI afferents that were identified peripherally with both physiological and anatomical means, providing an essentially complete view of the central and peripheral morphology of individual SAI afferents in situ. Our findings reveal that SAIs in neonates are strikingly adult-like in all major respects. Afferents were exquisitely sensitive to mechanical stimuli and exhibited a distinctly irregular, slowly adapting discharge to stimulation of 1-4 punctate receptive fields in the skin. Their central collaterals formed transversely oriented and largely nonoverlapping arborizations limited to regions of the dorsal horn corresponding to laminae III-V. Their peripheral arborizations were restricted entirely within miniaturized touch domes, where they gave rise to expanded disc-like endings in close apposition to putative Merkel cells in basal epidermis. These findings therefore provide the first direct confirmation of the functional morphology of this physiologically unique afferent class.
Kynard, B.; Zhuang, P.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Z.
We conducted laboratory experiments with Volga River Russian sturgeon, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, to develop a conceptual model of early behavior. We daily observed fish from day-0 (embryos, first life interval after hatching) to day-29 feeding larvae for preference of bright habitat and cover, swimming distance above the bottom, up- and downstream movement, and diel activity. Hatchling embryos initiated a downstream migration, which suggests that predation risk of embryos at spawning sites is high. Migration peaked on days 0-5 and ceased on day 7 (8-day migration). Migrants preferred bright, open habitat and early migrants swam-up far above the bottom (maximum daily median, 140 cm) in a vertical swim tube. Post-migrant embryos did not prefer bright illumination but continued to prefer white substrate, increased use of cover habitat, and swam on the bottom. Larvae initiated feeding on day 10 after 170.6 cumulative temperature degree-days. Larvae did not migrate, weakly preferred bright illumination, preferred white substrate and open habitat, and swam near the bottom (daily median 5-78 cm). The lack of a strong preference by larvae for bright illumination suggests foraging relies more on olfaction than vision for locating prey. A short migration by embryos would disperse wild sturgeon from a spawning area, but larvae did not migrate, so a second later migration by juveniles disperses young sturgeon to the sea (2-step migration). Embryo and larva body color was light tan and tail color was black. The migration, behavior, and light body color of Russian sturgeon embryos was similar to species of Acipenser and Scaphirhynchus in North America and to Acipenser in Asia that migrate after hatching as embryos. The similarity in migration style and body color among species with diverse phylogenies likely reflects convergence for common adaptations across biogeographic regions. ?? 2002 Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Lu, Taoran; Pu, Fangjun; Yin, Peng; Pytlarz, Jaclyn; Chen, Tao; Husak, Walt
High Dynamic Range (HDR) and Wider Color Gamut (WCG) content represents a greater range of luminance levels and a more complete reproduction of colors found in real-world scenes. The characteristics of HDR/WCG content are very different from the SDR content. It poses a challenge to the compression system which is originally designed for SDR content. Recently in MPEG/VCEG, two directions have been taken to improve compression performances for HDR/WCG video using HEVC Main10 codec. The first direction is to improve HDR-10 using encoder optimization. The second direction is to modify the video signal in pre/post processing to better fit compression system. The process therefore is out of coding loop and does not involve changes to the HEVC specification. Among many proposals in the second direction, reshaper is identified to be the key component. In this paper, a novel luma reshaper is presented which re-allocates the codewords to help codec improve subjective quality. In addition, encoder optimization can be performed jointly with reshaping. Experiments are conducted with ICtCp color difference signal. Simulation results show that if both joint optimization of reshaper and encoder are carried out, there is evidence that improvement over the HDR-10 anchor can be achieved.
Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Castro-Vázquez, Lucía; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Pérez-Coello, María Soledad
The effects of the joint prefermentative maceration and hyperoxygenation of Airén white must and wine on the phenolic content, chromatic characteristics, volatile composition, and sensory characteristics, not previously described in combination, have been evaluated. A total of 20 phenolic and 149 volatile compounds have been identified and quantified for that purpose. As a consequence of the oxygen addition, the concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavan-3-ols decreased (above all t-GRP and (+)-catechin), leading to color stabilization, but also the concentrations of several volatile compounds with a great importance for quality aroma decreased. Prefermentative skin maceration, previously applied to the hyperoxygenation of Airén musts, provided the aforementioned color stabilization in the respective wine but also increased the content of short-chain fatty acid esters and terpenes and decreased the concentration of C(6) alcohols. That combination of prefermentative treatments (skin maceration followed by must hyperoxygenation) produced an improvement of the global impression of the final wine based on significantly better scores of tropical fruit, body, and herbaceous notes.
Chatelain, M.; Gasparini, J.; Jacquin, L.; Frantz, A.
Trace metals produced by anthropogenic activities are of major importance in urban areas and might constitute a new evolutionary force selecting for the ability to cope with their deleterious effects. Interestingly, melanin pigments are known to bind metal ions, thereby potentially sequestering them in inert body parts such as coat and feathers, and facilitating body detoxification. Thus, a more melanic plumage or coat coloration could bring a selective advantage for animals living in polluted areas. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the link between melanin-based coloration and zinc and lead concentrations in feathers of urban feral pigeons, both at capture time and after one year of captivity in standardized conditions. Results show that differently coloured pigeons had similar metal concentrations at capture time. Metal concentrations strongly decreased after one year in standardized conditions, and more melanic pigeons had higher concentrations of zinc (but not lead) in their feathers. This suggests that more melanic pigeons have a higher ability to store some metals in their feathers compared with their paler counterparts, which could explain their higher success in urbanized areas. Overall, this work suggests that trace metal pollution may exert new selective forces favouring more melanic phenotypes in polluted environments. PMID:24671830
Dunaev, A V; Sidorov, V V; Krupatkin, A I; Rafailov, I E; Palmer, S G; Stewart, N A; Sokolovski, S G; Rafailov, E U
Multi-functional laser non-invasive diagnostic systems allow the study of a number of microcirculatory parameters, including index of blood microcirculation (Im) (by laser Doppler flowmetry, LDF) and oxygen saturation (StO2) of skin tissue (by tissue reflectance oximetry, TRO). This research aimed to use such a system to investigate the synchronization of microvascular blood flow and oxygen saturation rhythms under normal and adaptive change conditions. Studies were conducted on eight healthy volunteers of 21-49 years. These volunteers were observed between one and six months, totalling 422 basic tests (3 min each). Measurements were performed on the palmar surface of the right middle finger and the lower forearm's medial surface. Rhythmic oscillations of LDF and TRO were studied using wavelet analysis. Combined tissue oxygen consumption data for all volunteers during 'adaptive changes' increased relative to normal conditions with and without arteriovenous anastomoses. Data analysis revealed resonance and synchronized rhythms in microvascular blood flow and oxygen saturation as an adaptive change in myogenic oscillation (vasomotion) resulting from exercise and possibly psychoemotional stress. Synchronization of myogenic rhythms during adaptive changes may lead to increased oxygen consumption as a result of increased microvascular blood flow velocity.
Yokoyama, S; Zhang, H; Radlwimmer, F B; Blow, N S
The coelacanth, a "living fossil," lives near the coast of the Comoros archipelago in the Indian Ocean. Living at a depth of about 200 m, the Comoran coelacanth receives only a narrow range of light, at about 480 nm. To detect the entire range of "color" at this depth, the coelacanth appears to use only two closely related paralogous RH1 and RH2 visual pigments with the optimum light sensitivities (lambdamax) at 478 nm and 485 nm, respectively. The lambdamax values are shifted about 20 nm toward blue compared with those of the corresponding orthologous pigments. Mutagenesis experiments show that each of these coadapted changes is fully explained by two amino acid replacements.
Pritamdas, K; Singh, Kh Manglem; Singh, L Lolitkumar
A new adaptive switching algorithm is presented where two adaptive filters are switched correspondingly for lower and higher noise ratio of the image. An adaptive center weighted vector median filter is used for the lower noise ratio whereas for higher noise ratio the noisy pixels are detected based on the comparison of the difference between the mean of the vector pixels in the window and the approximated variance of the vector pixels in the window. Then the window comprising the detected noisy pixel is further considered where the pixels are given exponential weights according to their similarity to the other neighboring pixels, spatially and radio metrically. The noisy pixels are then replaced by the weighted average of the pixels within the window. The filter is able to preserve higher signal content in the higher noise ratio as compared to other robust filters in comparison. With a little high in computational complexity, this technique performs well both in lower and higher noise ratios. Simulation results on various RGB images show that the proposed algorithm outperforms many other existing nonlinear filters in terms of preservation of edges and fine details.
Ryan, Terence J.
The skin is constantly on the move and at a temperature below 37ºC. The epidermis is a factory, and its blood supply and lymphatic drainage, as well as adipose tissue, are much dependent on movement and influenced by cooling. Neither histopathology (still pictures) nor in vitro studies at 37ºC reflect the true picture. Recent publications neglect older literature exploring these issues. PMID:23130182
Jain, Veena; Das, Taposh K.; Pruthi, Gunjan; Shah, Naseem; Rajendiran, Suresh
Statement of Problem: Change in color and loss of marginal adaptation of tooth colored restorative materials is not acceptable. Bleaching is commonly used for treating discolored teeth. However, the literature is scanty regarding its effect on color and marginal adaptation of direct and indirect composite laminate veneers (CLVs) under in vivo conditions. Purpose: Purpose of the study was to determine the effect of bleaching on color change and marginal adaptation of direct and indirect CLVs over a period of time when exposed to the oral environment. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, a total of 14 subjects irrespective of age and sex indicated for CLV restorations on maxillary anterior teeth were selected following the inclusion and exclusion criteria. For each subject, indirect CLVs were fabricated and looted in the first quadrant (Group 1) and direct CLV's (Group 2), were given in the second quadrant. Color change was assessed clinically using intra-oral digital spectrophotometer and marginal adaptation was assessed on epoxy resin replica of the tooth-restoration interface under scanning electron microscope. After 6 months, the subjects underwent a home bleaching regimen for 14 days using 10% carbamide peroxide. The assessment of color change and marginal adaptation was done at 6 months after veneering (0–180 days), immediately after the bleaching regimen (0–194 days) and 3 months after the bleaching regimen (0–284 days). Results: The difference in median color change (ΔE) between the groups was tested using Wilcoxon rank sum test while the median color change with time within the groups was tested using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The difference in the rates of marginal adaptation was tested between the groups using Chi-square/Fisher's exact test. Bleaching led to statistically significant color change at cervical (CE), middle and incisal (IE) regions when direct and indirect composites were compared (P < 0.05). During intra-group comparison, direct
You, Wei; Wang, Yuanyuan
In the conventional eigenfilter used to reject clutter components of ultrasound color flow imaging, input samples are required to be statistically stationary. However, clutter movements may vary over the depth of the imaged area, which makes the eigenfilter less efficient. In the current study, a novel clutter rejection method is proposed based on the recursive eigendecomposition algorithm. In this method, the current eigenvector matrix of the ultrasound echo correlation matrix, which will be used to construct the clutter subspace, is determined by previous eigenvector matrices and the current input. After the estimated clutter signal is obtained by projecting the original input into the clutter space, each filtered output is eventually obtained by subtracting the estimated clutter signal from the original input. This procedure is iterated for each sample volume along the depth. During the updating process, a forgetting factor is introduced to determine proper weights for different inputs. Simulated data in 3 situations and in vivo data collected from human carotid arteries are used to compare the proposed method with other popular clutter filters. Results show that the proposed method can achieve the most accurate velocity profiles in all simulation situations and introduces the fewest velocity artifacts in the tissue region in the in vivo experiment.
Frentiu, Francesca D; Bernard, Gary D; Cuevas, Cristina I; Sison-Mangus, Marilou P; Prudic, Kathleen L; Briscoe, Adriana D
Butterflies and primates are interesting for comparative color vision studies, because both have evolved middle- (M) and long-wavelength- (L) sensitive photopigments with overlapping absorbance spectrum maxima (lambda(max) values). Although positive selection is important for the maintenance of spectral variation within the primate pigments, it remains an open question whether it contributes similarly to the diversification of butterfly pigments. To examine this issue, we performed epimicrospectrophotometry on the eyes of five Limenitis butterfly species and found a 31-nm range of variation in the lambda(max) values of the L-sensitive photopigments (514-545 nm). We cloned partial Limenitis L opsin gene sequences and found a significant excess of replacement substitutions relative to polymorphisms among species. Mapping of these L photopigment lambda(max) values onto a phylogeny revealed two instances within Lepidoptera of convergently evolved L photopigment lineages whose lambda(max) values were blue-shifted. A codon-based maximum-likelihood analysis indicated that, associated with the two blue spectral shifts, four amino acid sites (Ile17Met, Ala64Ser, Asn70Ser, and Ser137Ala) have evolved substitutions in parallel and exhibit significant d(N)/d(S) >1. Homology modeling of the full-length Limenitis arthemis astyanax L opsin placed all four substitutions within the chromophore-binding pocket. Strikingly, the Ser137Ala substitution is in the same position as a site that in primates is responsible for a 5- to 7-nm blue spectral shift. Our data show that some of the same amino acid sites are under positive selection in the photopigments of both butterflies and primates, spanning an evolutionary distance >500 million years.
The adaptation to land from amphibians to amniotes was accompanied by drastic changes of the integument, some of which might be reconstructed by studying the formation of the stratum corneum during embryogenesis. As the first amniotes were reptiles, the present review focuses on past and recent information on the evolution of reptilian epidermis and the stratum corneum. We aim to generalize the discussion on the evolution of the skin in amniotes. Corneous cell envelopes were absent in fish, and first appeared in adult amphibian epidermis. Stem reptiles evolved a multilayered stratum corneum based on a programmed cell death, intensified the production of matrix proteins (e.g., HRPs), corneous cell envelope proteins (e.g., loricrine-like, sciellin-like, and transglutaminase), and complex lipids to limit water loss. Other proteins were later produced in association to the soft or hairy epidermis in therapsids (e.g., involucrin, profilaggrin-filaggrin, trichohyalin, trichocytic keratins), or to the hard keratin of hairs, quills, horns, claws (e.g., tyrosine-rich, glycine-rich, sulphur-rich matrix proteins). In sauropsids special proteins associated to hard keratinization in scales (e.g., scale beta-keratins, cytokeratin associated proteins) or feathers (feather beta-keratins and HRPs) were originated. The temporal deposition of beta-keratin in lepidosaurian reptiles originated a vertical stratified epidermis and an intraepidermal shedding layer. The evolutions of the horny layer in Therapsids (mammals) and Saurospids (reptiles and birds) are discussed. The study of the molecules involved in the dermo-epidermal interactions in reptilian skin and the molecular biology of epidermal proteins are among the most urgent future areas of research in the biology of reptilian skin.
Wu, Guangxi; Zhao, He; Li, Chenhao; Rajapakse, Menaka Priyadarsani; Wong, Wing Cheong; Xu, Jun; Saunders, Charles W.; Reeder, Nancy L.; Reilman, Raymond A.; Scheynius, Annika; Sun, Sheng; Billmyre, Blake Robert; Li, Wenjun; Averette, Anna Floyd; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Heitman, Joseph; Theelen, Bart; Schröder, Markus S.; De Sessions, Paola Florez; Butler, Geraldine; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Boekhout, Teun; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Dawson, Thomas L.
Malassezia is a unique lipophilic genus in class Malasseziomycetes in Ustilaginomycotina, (Basidiomycota, fungi) that otherwise consists almost exclusively of plant pathogens. Malassezia are typically isolated from warm-blooded animals, are dominant members of the human skin mycobiome and are associated with common skin disorders. To characterize the genetic basis of the unique phenotypes of Malassezia spp., we sequenced the genomes of all 14 accepted species and used comparative genomics against a broad panel of fungal genomes to comprehensively identify distinct features that define the Malassezia gene repertoire: gene gain and loss; selection signatures; and lineage-specific gene family expansions. Our analysis revealed key gene gain events (64) with a single gene conserved across all Malassezia but absent in all other sequenced Basidiomycota. These likely horizontally transferred genes provide intriguing gain-of-function events and prime candidates to explain the emergence of Malassezia. A larger set of genes (741) were lost, with enrichment for glycosyl hydrolases and carbohydrate metabolism, concordant with adaptation to skin’s carbohydrate-deficient environment. Gene family analysis revealed extensive turnover and underlined the importance of secretory lipases, phospholipases, aspartyl proteases, and other peptidases. Combining genomic analysis with a re-evaluation of culture characteristics, we establish the likely lipid-dependence of all Malassezia. Our phylogenetic analysis sheds new light on the relationship between Malassezia and other members of Ustilaginomycotina, as well as phylogenetic lineages within the genus. Overall, our study provides a unique genomic resource for understanding Malassezia niche-specificity and potential virulence, as well as their abundance and distribution in the environment and on human skin. PMID:26539826
Hickman, Heather D.; Reynoso, Glennys V.; Ngudiankama, Barbara F.; Rubin, Erica J.; Magadán, Javier G.; Cush, Stephanie S.; Gibbs, James; Molon, Barbara; Bronte, Vincenzo; Bennink, Jack R.; Yewdell, Jonathan W.
SUMMARY Despite extensive ex vivo investigation, the spatiotemporal organization of immune cells interacting with virus-infected cells in tissues remains uncertain. To address this, we used intravital multiphoton microscopy to visualize immune cell interactions with virus-infected cells following epicutaneous vaccinia virus (VV) infection of mice. VV infects keratinocytes in epidermal foci, and numerous migratory dermal inflammatory monocytes outlying the foci. We observed Ly6G+ innate immune cells infiltrating and controlling foci, while CD8+ T cells remained on the periphery killing infected monocytes. Most antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in the skin did not interact with virus-infected cells. Blocking the generation of reactive nitrogen species relocated CD8+ T cells into foci, modestly reducing viral titers. Depletion of Ly6G+ and CD8+ cells dramatically increased viral titers, consistent with their synergistic but spatially segregated viral clearance activities. These findings highlight previously unappreciated differences in the anatomic specialization of antiviral immune cell subsets. PMID:23414756
Miyagi, Ryutaro; Terai, Yohey
The amazing coloration shown by diverse cichlid fish not only fascinates aquarium keepers, but also receives great attention from biologists interested in speciation because of its recently-revealed role in their adaptive radiation in an African lake. We review the important role of coloration in the speciation and adaptive evolution of Lake Victoria cichlids, which have experienced adaptive radiation during a very short evolutionary period. Mature male cichlids display their colors during mate choice. The color of their skin reflects light, and the reflected light forms a color signal that is received by the visual system of females. The adaptive divergence of visual perceptions shapes and diverges colorations, to match the adapted visual perceptions. The divergence of visual perception and coloration indicates that the divergence of color signals causes reproductive isolation between species, and this process leads to speciation. Differences in color signals among coexisting species act to maintain reproductive isolation by preventing hybridization. Thus, the diversity of coloration has caused speciation and has maintained species diversity in Lake Victoria cichlids.
Anstis, Stuart; Vergeer, Mark; Van Lier, Rob
It has long been known that colored images may elicit afterimages in complementary colors. We have already shown (Van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009) that one and the same adapting image may result in different afterimage colors, depending on the test contours presented after the colored image. The color of the afterimage depends on two adapting colors, those both inside and outside the test. Here, we further explore this phenomenon and show that the color-contour interactions shown for afterimage colors also occur for "real" colors. We argue that similar mechanisms apply for both types of stimulation.
... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color chart. 51.2276 Section 51.2276 Agriculture....2276 Color chart. The color chart (USDA Walnut Color Chart) to which reference is made in §§ 51.2281 and 51.2282 illustrates the four shades of walnut skin color listed as color classifications....
... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color chart. 51.2276 Section 51.2276 Agriculture....2276 Color chart. The color chart (USDA Walnut Color Chart) to which reference is made in §§ 51.2281 and 51.2282 illustrates the four shades of walnut skin color listed as color classifications....
Bonamonte, Domenico; Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni
The diagnosis of skin diseases relies on several clinical signs, among which color is of paramount importance. In this review, we consider certain clinical presentations of both eczematous and noneczematous contact dermatitis in which color plays a peculiar role orientating toward the right diagnosis. The conditions that will be discussed include specific clinical-morphologic subtypes of eczematous contact dermatitis, primary melanocytic, and nonmelanocytic contact hyperchromia, black dermographism, contact chemical leukoderma, and others. Based on the physical, chemical, and biologic factors underlying a healthy skin color, the various skin shades drawing a disease picture are thoroughly debated, stressing their etiopathogenic origins and histopathologic aspects.
You, Wei; Wang, Yuanyuan
A fast clutter rejection method for ultrasound color flow imaging is proposed based on the first-order perturbation as an efficient implementation of eigen-decomposition. The proposed method is verified by simulated data. Results show that the proposed method can be adaptive to non-stationary clutter movements and its computational complexity is lower than that of the conventional eigen-based clutter rejection methods.
Geunyong Park; Sunmi Yeo; Jae Jin Lee; Changhan Yoon; Hyun-Woo Koh; Hyungjoon Lim; Youngtae Kim; Hwan Shim; Yangmo Yoo
Effective rejection of time-varying clutter originating from slowly moving vessels and surrounding tissues is important for depicting hemodynamics in ultrasound color Doppler imaging (CDI). In this paper, a new adaptive clutter rejection method based on spectral analysis (ACR-SA) is presented for suppressing nonstationary clutter. In ACR-SA, tissue and flow characteristics are analyzed by singular value decomposition and tissue acceleration of backscattered Doppler signals to determine an appropriate clutter filter from a set of clutter filters. To evaluate the ACR-SA method, 20 frames of complex baseband data were acquired by a commercial ultrasound system equipped with a research package (Accuvix V10, Samsung Medison, Seoul, Korea) using a 3.5-MHz convex array probe by introducing tissue movements to the flow phantom (Gammex 1425 A LE, Gammex, Middleton, WI, USA). In addition, 20 frames of in vivo abdominal data from five volunteers were captured. From the phantom experiment, the ACR-SA method provided 2.43 dB (p <; 0.001) and 1.09 dB ( ) improvements in flow signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) compared to static (STA) and down-mixing (ACR-DM) methods. Similarly, it showed smaller values in fractional residual clutter area (FRCA) compared to the STA and ACR-DM methods (i.e., 2.3% versus 5.4% and 3.7%, respectively, ). The consistent improvements in SCR from the proposed ACR-SA method were obtained with the in vivo abdominal data (i.e., 4.97 dB and 3.39 dB over STA and ACR-DM, respectively). The ACR-SA method showed less than 1% FRCA values for all in vivo abdominal data. These results indicate that the proposed ACR-SA method can improve image quality in CDI by providing enhanced rejection of nonstationary clutter.
Visscher, Marty O; Bailey, J Kevin; Hom, David B
Patients and clinicians use skin color attributes such as color uniformity, color distribution, and texture to infer physiologic health status. Normalization of skin color, surface texture, and height are important treatment goals in the treatment of scars. Skin color, structure, and response to trauma, vary with ethnicity. The incidence of hypertrophic and keloid scar formation is influenced by these inherent skin attributes. Skin type influences the response to various modalities including laser therapy and surgical intervention, and skin differences must be considered in treatment planning to achieve optimal results.
Komine, Ritsuko; Nishimaki, Toshiyuki; Kimura, Tetsuaki; Oota, Hiroki; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Homma, Noriko; Fukamachi, Shoji
Teleosts have two paralogous growth-hormone receptors (GHRs). In vitro studies demonstrated that both receptors bind to and transmit the signal of the growth hormone (GH). However, one of the GHRs (GHR1) was shown to bind more strongly to somatolactin-α (SLα), a fish-specific peptide hormone that is closely related to GH, and is, therefore, termed somatolactin receptor (SLR). In this study, we questioned whether the dual binding of GHR1/SLR causes a crosstalk (reciprocal activation or inhibition) between GH and SLα signals in vivo. For this purpose, we newly established a transgenic medaka that overexpresses GH (Actb-GH:GFP) and assessed its phenotype. The body weight of these transgenic medaka is about twice that of wild-type fish, showing that functional GH was successfully overexpressed in Actb-GH:GFP fish. The transgenic medaka, especially female fish, showed severe infertility, which was a common side effect in GH transgenesis. The skin color, which reflects the effects of SLα most conspicuously in medaka, was similar to that of neither the SLα-overexpressing nor the SLα-deficient medaka, indicating that GH overexpression does not enhance or suppress the SLα signal. We also verified that a transgenic medaka that overexpressed SLα grew and reproduced normally. Therefore, regardless of the in vitro binding relationships, the GH and SLα signals seem not to crosstalk significantly in vivo even when these hormones are overexpressed.
Silverstein, Louis D.; Lepkowski, James S.; Carter, Robert C.; Carter, Ellen C.
An algorithmic approach to color selection, which is based on psychophysical models of color processing, is described. The factors that affect color differentiation, such as wavelength separation, color stimulus size, and brightness adaptation level, are discussed. The use of the CIE system of colorimetry and the CIELUV color difference metric for display color modeling is examined. The computer program combines the selection algorithm with internally derived correction factors for color image field size, ambient lighting characteristics, and anomalous red-green color vision deficiencies of display operators. The performance of the program is evaluated and uniform chromaticity scale diagrams for six-color and seven-color selection problems are provided.
... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...
Tiwari, Mayank; Lamba, Subir Singh; Gupta, Bhupendra
This paper proposes an efficient method to improve visibility of dark color images and video sequences. Visibility improvement of dark color images play a significant role in computer vision, digital image processing and pattern recognition. In the proposed method we have worked in hue-saturation-value (HSV) color model. The proposed method initially decomposes the V-plane of the input image into low and high frequency components using DCT; it then estimates the singular value matrix of the low-frequency component. After applying certain processing to improve visibility of the dark color image, it reconstructs the processed image by applying inverse DCT. Experimental results show that the proposed method produces enhanced images of comparable or higher quality than those produced using previous state-of-the-art methods.
... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color classifications. 51.1436 Section 51.1436... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Color Classifications § 51.1436 Color classifications. (a) The skin color of pecan kernels may be described in terms of the color...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color classifications. 51.1436 Section 51.1436... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Color Classifications § 51.1436 Color classifications. (a) The skin color of pecan kernels may be described in terms of the color...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color classifications. 51.1436 Section 51.1436... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Color Classifications § 51.1436 Color classifications. (a) The skin color of pecan kernels may be described in terms of the color...
Purmann, Sascha; Pollmann, Stefan
To process information selectively and to continuously fine-tune selectivity of information processing are important abilities for successful goal-directed behavior. One phenomenon thought to represent this fine-tuning are conflict adaptation effects in interference tasks, i.e., reduction of interference after an incompatible trial and when incompatible trials are frequent. The neurocognitive mechanisms of these effects are currently only partly understood and results from brainimaging studies so far are mixed. In our study we validate and extend recent findings by examining adaption to recent conflict in the classical Stroop task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Consistent with previous research we found increased activity in a fronto-parietal network comprising the medial prefrontal cortex, ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex, and posterior parietal cortex when contrasting incompatible with compatible trials. These areas have been associated with attentional processes and might reflect increased cognitive conflict and resolution thereof during incompatible trials. While carefully controlling for non-attentional sequential effects we found smaller Stroop interference after an incompatible trial (conflict adaptation effect). These behavioral conflict adaptation effects were accompanied by changes in activity in visual color-selective areas (V4, V4α), while there was no modulation by previous trial compatibility in a visual word-selective area (VWFA). Our results provide further evidence for the notion, that adaptation to recent conflict seems to be based mainly on enhancement of processing of the task-relevant information. PMID:25784868
Hong, Sang-Wook; Kang, Min-Suk
Chromatic induction compellingly demonstrates that chromatic context as well as spectral lights reflected from an object determines its color appearance. Here, we show that when one colored object moves around an identical stationary object, the perceived saturation of the stationary object decreases dramatically whereas the saturation of the moving object increases. These color appearance shifts in the opposite directions suggest that normalization induced by the object’s motion may mediate the shift in color appearance. We ruled out other plausible alternatives such as local adaptation, attention, and transient neural responses that could explain the color shift without assuming interaction between color and motion processing. These results demonstrate that the motion of an object affects both its own color appearance and the color appearance of a nearby object, suggesting a tight coupling between color and motion processing. PMID:27824098
Takeda, Mamoru; Nishikawa, Toshimi; Sato, Sumie; Aiyama, Shigeo; Matsumoto, Shigeji
To elucidate the excitatory mechanism of mechanoreceptors innervating the frog skin, we examined the effects of gadolinium (Gd3+) and tetrodotoxin (TTX) on the response of single-unit activity of slowly adapting type I mechanoreceptors to mechanical stimulation topically applied to the receptive field (RF). Recordings were made from 46 fibers responding to mechanical stimulation with von Frey hairs, which caused an irregular firing pattern with slow adaptation. Application of a mechanically gated channel blocker, Gd3+ (30 microM), and a Na+ channel blocker, TTX (3 microM), caused the suppression of discharge rates, which was characterized by the conversion of a slowly adapting to a rapidly adapting discharge pattern. The administration of a high-voltage-activated (HVA) Ca2+ channel blocker, Cd2+ (100 microm), inhibited the unit discharge and caused the conversion of a slowly adapting to a rapidly adapting discharge pattern. Tonic discharges evoked by anodal electrical stimulation were inhibited by the application of Gd3+ or TTX. Electron microscopic examination showed that the cytoplasm of Merkel cells seen in the RF contained numerous Merkel granules. These results suggest that the excitatory mechanism of frog cutaneous mechanoreceptors may be mediated by the activation of Gd(3+)-sensitive stretch-activated channels in the Merkel cell-neurite complex, which are related to the Na+ influx via voltage-gated Na+ channels and/or the Ca2+ influx through HVA Ca2+ channels.
Broom, Donald M
The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and
Matsubara, H. Matsufuji, N.; Tsuji, H.; Yamamoto, N.; Karasawa, K.; Nakajima, M.; Karube, M.; Takahashi, W.
Purpose: Skin toxicity caused by radiotherapy has been visually classified into discrete grades. The present study proposes an objective and continuous assessment method of skin erythema in digital images taken under arbitrary lighting conditions, which is the case for most clinical environments. The purpose of this paper is to show the feasibility of the proposed method. Methods: Clinical data were gathered from six patients who received carbon beam therapy for lung cancer. Skin condition was recorded using an ordinary compact digital camera under unfixed lighting conditions; a laser Doppler flowmeter was used to measure blood flow in the skin. The photos and measurements were taken at 3 h, 30, and 90 days after irradiation. Images were decomposed into hemoglobin and melanin colors using independent component analysis. Pixel values in hemoglobin color images were compared with skin dose and skin blood flow. The uncertainty of the practical photographic method was also studied in nonclinical experiments. Results: The clinical data showed good linearity between skin dose, skin blood flow, and pixel value in the hemoglobin color images; their correlation coefficients were larger than 0.7. It was deduced from the nonclinical that the uncertainty due to the proposed method with photography was 15%; such an uncertainty was not critical for assessment of skin erythema in practical use. Conclusions: Feasibility of the proposed method for assessment of skin erythema using digital images was demonstrated. The numerical relationship obtained helped to predict skin erythema by artificial processing of skin images. Although the proposed method using photographs taken under unfixed lighting conditions increased the uncertainty of skin information in the images, it was shown to be powerful for the assessment of skin conditions because of its flexibility and adaptability.
Describes sessions in two schools that focused on recent work with 2,857 children in Europe researching the children's perceptions of sun on skin. Investigates children's ideas about skin on different parts of the body, which was most vulnerable to the sun, and different types and colors. (Author/CCM)
Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is known to suppress immune responses in human subjects. The purpose of this study was to develop dose responses across a broad range of skin pigmentation in order to facilitate risk assessment. UVR was administered using FS 20 bulbs. Skin pigmentation...
Pires, Sandrine; Bergé, Joel; Baghi, Quentin; Touboul, Pierre; Métris, Gilles
The MICROSCOPE space mission, launched on April 25, 2016, aims to test the weak equivalence principle (WEP) with a 10-15 precision. Reaching this performance requires an accurate and robust data analysis method, especially since the possible WEP violation signal will be dominated by a strongly colored noise. An important complication is brought by the fact that some values will be missing—therefore, the measured time series will not be strictly regularly sampled. Those missing values induce a spectral leakage that significantly increases the noise in Fourier space, where the WEP violation signal is looked for, thereby complicating scientific returns. Recently, we developed an inpainting algorithm to correct the MICROSCOPE data for missing values. This code has been integrated in the official MICROSCOPE data processing and analysis pipeline because it enables us to significantly measure an equivalence principle violation (EPV) signal in a model-independent way, in the inertial satellite configuration. In this work, we present several improvements to the method that may allow us now to reach the MICROSCOPE requirements for both inertial and spin satellite configurations. The main improvement has been obtained using a prior on the power spectrum of the colored noise that can be directly derived from the incomplete data. We show that after reconstructing missing values with this new algorithm, a least-squares fit may allow us to significantly measure an EPV signal with a 0.96 ×10-15 precision in the inertial mode and 1.20 ×10-15 precision in the spin mode. Although, the inpainting method presented in this paper has been optimized to the MICROSCOPE data, it remains sufficiently general to be used in the general context of missing data in time series dominated by an unknown colored noise. The improved inpainting software, called inpainting for colored-noise dominated signals, is freely available at http://www.cosmostat.org/software/icon.
Zeng, Nan; Crisman, Jill D.
This paper evaluates the accuracy of three color categorization techniques in describing vehicles colors for a system, AutoColor, which we are developing for Intelligent Transportation Systems. Color categorization is used to efficiently represent 24-bit color images with up to 8 bits of color information. Our inspiration for color categorization is based on the fact that humans typically use only a few color names to describe the numerous colors they perceive. Our Crayon color categorization technique uses a naming scheme for digitized colors which is roughly based on human names for colors. The fastest and most straight forward method for compacting a 24-bit representation into an 8-bit representation is to use the most significant bits (MSB) to represent the colors. In addition, we have developed an Adaptive color categorization technique which can derive a set of color categories for the current imaging conditions. In this paper, we detail the three color categorization techniques, Crayon, MSB, and Adaptive, and we evaluate their performance on representing vehicle colors in our AutoColor system.
... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Kernel color classification. 51.1403 Section 51.1403... Color Classification § 51.1403 Kernel color classification. (a) The skin color of pecan kernels may be described in terms of the color classifications provided in this section. When the color of kernels in a...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Kernel color classification. 51.1403 Section 51.1403... Color Classification § 51.1403 Kernel color classification. (a) The skin color of pecan kernels may be described in terms of the color classifications provided in this section. When the color of kernels in a...
A sampling of publications resulting from this grant is provided. One is on the subject of NF-ÎºB-Mediated HER2 Overexpression in Radiation-Adaptive Resistance. Another is on NF-ÎºB-mediated adaptive resistance to ionizing radiation.
Mathur, Neha; Glesk, Ivan; Buis, Arjan
Monitoring of the interface temperature at skin level in lower-limb prosthesis is notoriously complicated. This is due to the flexible nature of the interface liners used impeding the required consistent positioning of the temperature sensors during donning and doffing. Predicting the in-socket residual limb temperature by monitoring the temperature between socket and liner rather than skin and liner could be an important step in alleviating complaints on increased temperature and perspiration in prosthetic sockets. In this work, we propose to implement an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference strategy (ANFIS) to predict the in-socket residual limb temperature. ANFIS belongs to the family of fused neuro fuzzy system in which the fuzzy system is incorporated in a framework which is adaptive in nature. The proposed method is compared to our earlier work using Gaussian processes for machine learning. By comparing the predicted and actual data, results indicate that both the modeling techniques have comparable performance metrics and can be efficiently used for non-invasive temperature monitoring.
... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color classifications. 51.1436 Section 51.1436... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Color Classifications § 51.1436 Color classifications. (a) The skin color of pecan kernels may be described in terms...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color classifications. 51.1436 Section 51.1436... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Color Classifications § 51.1436 Color classifications. (a) The skin color of pecan kernels may be described in terms...
Bargatze, L. F.
Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted
... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ...
Woodbury, C J; Ritter, A M; Koerber, H R
Adult skin sensory neurons exhibit characteristic projection patterns in the dorsal horn of the spinal gray matter that are tightly correlated with modality. However, little is known about how these patterns come about during the ontogeny of the distinct subclasses of skin sensory neurons. To this end, we have developed an intact ex vivo somatosensory system preparation in neonatal mice, allowing single, physiologically identified cutaneous afferents to be iontophoretically injected with Neurobiotin for subsequent histological analyses. The present report, centered on rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors, represents the first study of the central projections of identified skin sensory neurons in neonatal animals. Cutaneous afferents exhibiting rapidly adapting responses to sustained natural stimuli were encountered as early as recordings were made. Well-stained representatives of coarse (tylotrich and guard) and fine-diameter (down) hair follicle afferents, along with a putative Pacinian corpuscle afferent, were recovered from 2-7-day-old neonates. All were characterized by narrow, uninflected somal action potentials and generally low mechanical thresholds, and many could be activated via deflection of recently erupted hairs. The central collaterals of hair follicle afferents formed recurrent, flame-shaped arbors that were essentially miniaturized replicas of their adult counterparts, with identical laminar terminations. The terminal arbors of down hair afferents, previously undescribed in rodents, were distinct and consistently occupied a more superficial position than tylotrich and guard hair afferents. Nevertheless, the former extended no higher than the middle of the incipient substantia gelatinosa, leaving a clear gap more dorsally. In all major respects, therefore, hair follicle afferents display the same laminar specificity in neonates as they do in adults. The widely held misperception that their collaterals extend exuberant projections into pain
Jaworska, Joanna S; Natsch, Andreas; Ryan, Cindy; Strickland, Judy; Ashikaga, Takao; Miyazawa, Masaaki
The presented Bayesian network Integrated Testing Strategy (ITS-3) for skin sensitization potency assessment is a decision support system for a risk assessor that provides quantitative weight of evidence, leading to a mechanistically interpretable potency hypothesis, and formulates adaptive testing strategy for a chemical. The system was constructed with an aim to improve precision and accuracy for predicting LLNA potency beyond ITS-2 (Jaworska et al., J Appl Toxicol 33(11):1353-1364, 2013) by improving representation of chemistry and biology. Among novel elements are corrections for bioavailability both in vivo and in vitro as well as consideration of the individual assays' applicability domains in the prediction process. In ITS-3 structure, three validated alternative assays, DPRA, KeratinoSens and h-CLAT, represent first three key events of the adverse outcome pathway for skin sensitization. The skin sensitization potency prediction is provided as a probability distribution over four potency classes. The probability distribution is converted to Bayes factors to: 1) remove prediction bias introduced by the training set potency distribution and 2) express uncertainty in a quantitative manner, allowing transparent and consistent criteria to accept a prediction. The novel ITS-3 database includes 207 chemicals with a full set of in vivo and in vitro data. The accuracy for predicting LLNA outcomes on the external test set (n = 60) was as follows: hazard (two classes)-100 %, GHS potency classification (three classes)-96 %, potency (four classes)-89 %. This work demonstrates that skin sensitization potency prediction based on data from three key events, and often less, is possible, reliable over broad chemical classes and ready for practical applications.
Jaworska, Joanna; Harol, Artsiom; Kern, Petra S; Gerberick, G Frank
There is an urgent need to develop data integration and testing strategy frameworks allowing interpretation of results from animal alternative test batteries. To this end, we developed a Bayesian Network Integrated Testing Strategy (BN ITS) with the goal to estimate skin sensitization hazard as a test case of previously developed concepts (Jaworska et al., 2010). The BN ITS combines in silico, in chemico, and in vitro data related to skin penetration, peptide reactivity, and dendritic cell activation, and guides testing strategy by Value of Information (VoI). The approach offers novel insights into testing strategies: there is no one best testing strategy, but the optimal sequence of tests depends on information at hand, and is chemical-specific. Thus, a single generic set of tests as a replacement strategy is unlikely to be most effective. BN ITS offers the possibility of evaluating the impact of generating additional data on the target information uncertainty reduction before testing is commenced.
Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.
Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.
... rose in full bloom. If you have a color vision defect, you may see these colors differently than most people. There are three main kinds of color vision defects. Red-green color vision defects are the most ...
Liu, Zhao; Zerubia, Josiane
The presence of illumination variation in dermatological images has a negative impact on the automatic detection and analysis of cutaneous lesions. This paper proposes a new illumination modeling and chromophore identification method to correct lighting variation in skin lesion images, as well as to extract melanin and hemoglobin concentrations of human skin, based on an adaptive bilateral decomposition and a weighted polynomial curve fitting, with the knowledge of a multi-layered skin model. Different from state-of-the-art approaches based on the Lambert law, the proposed method, considering both specular reflection and diffuse reflection of the skin, enables us to address highlight and strong shading effects usually existing in skin color images captured in an uncontrolled environment. The derived melanin and hemoglobin indices, directly relating to the pathological tissue conditions, tend to be less influenced by external imaging factors and are more efficient in describing pigmentation distributions. Experiments show that the proposed method gave better visual results and superior lesion segmentation, when compared to two other illumination correction algorithms, both designed specifically for dermatological images. For computer-aided diagnosis of melanoma, sensitivity achieves 85.52% when using our chromophore descriptors, which is 8~20% higher than those derived from other color descriptors. This demonstrates the benefit of the proposed method for automatic skin disease analysis.
Harrison, Shannon C.; Bergfeld, Wilma F.
The incidence of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers is increasing worldwide. Ultraviolet light exposure is the most important risk factor for cutaneous melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Nonmelanoma skin cancer includes basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Constitutive skin color and genetic factors, as well as immunological factors, play a role in the development of skin cancer. Ultraviolet light also causes sunburn and photoaging damage to the skin. PMID:23015891
Young, Cherie M.; Kindred, Chesahna; Taylor, Susan C.
Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of a topical gel containing clindamycin 1.2% and tretinoin 0.025% for the treatment of acne and acne-induced postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) in darker skinned patients. Design: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Setting: Two United States clinical sites. Participants: Thirty-three patients 12 years of age or older with skin types IV to VI, mild-to-moderate facial acne, and PIH were enrolled. Measurements: Patients applied clindamycin phosphate/tretinoin gel or a nonmedicated vehicle each evening and a sun protection factor 30 sunscreen daily. Changes in skin erythema and hyperpigmentation were measured using a chromameter and photographic images. Efficacy was assessed using the Evaluators Global Acne Severity Scale, lesion counts, Post-inflammatory Hyperpigmentation Severity Scales and Patient’s Global Assessment Scale. Safety and tolerability were assessed by adverse event reports and a Safety Assessment Scale. Results: The mean (SD) baseline inflammatory lesion count was 11.9 (11.1) in clindamycin/tretinoin-treated patients, decreasing by 5.5 (6.56) after 12 weeks while the mean baseline inflammatory lesion count was 13.6 (11.15) in placebo-treated patients, decreasing by 4.1 (11.36) (p=0.05 for change from baseline, clindamycin/tretinoin vs. placebo). Clindamycin/tretinoin-treated patients generally demonstrated superior efficacy versus placebo treatment. The clindamycin/tretinoin topical gel was well tolerated, causing little or no irritation, although one patient withdrew due to periorbital edema of moderate severity possibly related to clindamycin/tretinoin gel. Conclusion: Although limited by small sample size, the results of this pilot study suggest clindamycin phosphate 1.2% and tretinoin 0.025% topical gel is a safe and effective option for treating mild-to-moderate acne in patients with skin of color. PMID:22798973
Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...
Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.
Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…
... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly uniform in color. 51.1447 Section 51.1447... color. Fairly uniform in color means that 90 percent or more of the kernels in the lot have skin color within the range of one or two color classifications....
... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fairly uniform in color. 51.1447 Section 51.1447... § 51.1447 Fairly uniform in color. Fairly uniform in color means that 90 percent or more of the kernels in the lot have skin color within the range of one or two color classifications....
... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fairly uniform in color. 51.1447 Section 51.1447... § 51.1447 Fairly uniform in color. Fairly uniform in color means that 90 percent or more of the kernels in the lot have skin color within the range of one or two color classifications....
... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly uniform in color. 51.1447 Section 51.1447... color. Fairly uniform in color means that 90 percent or more of the kernels in the lot have skin color within the range of one or two color classifications....
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly uniform in color. 51.1447 Section 51.1447... color. Fairly uniform in color means that 90 percent or more of the kernels in the lot have skin color within the range of one or two color classifications....
Ichihara, Yasuyo G.
In this study, we measure the colors used in a Japanese Animations. The result can be seen on CIE-xy color spaces. It clearly shows that the color system is not a natural appearance system but an imagined and artistic appearance system. Color constancy of human vision can tell the difference in skin and hair colors between under moonlight and day light. Human brain generates a match to the memorized color of an object from daylight viewing conditions to the color of the object in different viewing conditions. For example, Japanese people always perceive the color of the Rising Sun in the Japanese flag as red even in a different viewing condition such as under moonlight. Color images captured by a camera cannot present those human perceptions. However, Japanese colorists in Animation succeeded in painting the effects of color constancy not only under moonlight but also added the memory matching colors. They aim to create a greater impact on viewer's perceptions by using the effect of the memory matching colors. In this paper, we propose the Imagined Japanese Animation Color System. This system in art is currently a subject of research in Japan. Its importance is that it could also provide an explanation on how human brain perceives the same color under different viewing conditions.
The coelacanth, a "living fossil," lives at a depth of about 200 m near the coast of the Comoros archipelago in the Indian Ocean and receives only a narrow range of light at about 480 nm. To see the entire range of "color" the Comoran coelacanth appears to use only rod-specific RH1 and cone-specific RH2 visual pigments, with the optimum light sensitivities (lambda max) at 478 nm and 485 nm, respectively. These blue-shifted lambda max values of RH1 and RH2 pigments are fully explained by independent double amino acid replacements E122Q/A292S and E122Q/M207L, respectively. More generally, currently available mutagenesis experiments identify only 10 amino acid changes that shift the lambda max values of visual pigments more than 5 nm. Among these, D83N, E1220, M207L, and A292S are associated strongly with the adaptive blue shifts in the lambda max values of RH1 and RH2 pigments in vertebrates.
... have trouble telling the difference between red and green. This is the most common type of color ... color blindness often have problems seeing reds and greens, too. The most severe form of color blindness ...
Bruno, Nicola; Martani, Margherita; Corsini, Claudia; Oleari, Claudio
Recent literature suggests that individuals may consume less food when this is served on red plates. We explored this intriguing effect in three experiments. Independent groups of participants were presented with constant amounts of popcorns, chocolate chips, or moisturizing cream, on red, blue, or white plates. They were asked to sample the foods (by tasting them) or the cream (by rubbing it on the hand and forearm) as they wished and to complete mock "sensory analysis" questionnaires. Results confirmed that red plates reduce taste-related consumption and extended this effect to the touch-related consumption of moisturizing cream. Suggesting that the effect was not due to a decrease in the consciously experienced appeal of products on red plates, overall appreciation of the foods or cream did not differ according to plate color. After careful photometric measures of the materials used for each food-plate pairing, we determined that food and cream consumption was not predicted by Michelson (achromatic) contrast. Although the origin of the intriguing effect of the color red on consumption remains unclear, our results may prove useful to future potential explanations.
Masaoka, Kenichiro; Berns, Roy S; Fairchild, Mark D; Moghareh Abed, Farhad
Widely varying estimates of the number of discernible object colors have been made by using various methods over the past 100 years. To clarify the source of the discrepancies in the previous, inconsistent estimates, the number of discernible object colors is estimated over a wide range of color temperatures and illuminance levels using several chromatic adaptation models, color spaces, and color difference limens. Efficient and accurate models are used to compute optimal-color solids and count the number of discernible colors. A comprehensive simulation reveals limitations in the ability of current color appearance models to estimate the number of discernible colors even if the color solid is smaller than the optimal-color solid. The estimates depend on the color appearance model, color space, and color difference limen used. The fundamental problem lies in the von Kries-type chromatic adaptation transforms, which have an unknown effect on the ranking of the number of discernible colors at different color temperatures.
Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A
Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, “goose bumps”, redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377
Pramanik, T; Khatiwada, B; Pandit, R
Color vision deficiency, most of the time remains an unnoticed problem; even many doctors/health professionals do not know the severity of their color vision deficiency and their disability. Some common difficulties reported by medical practitioners and students of health sciences were in recognizing- widespread body color changes (pallor, cyanosis, icterus, rashes, erythema of skin), colorful charts, slides, test-strips of blood and urine, body products: blood or bile in urine, faeces, sputum, vomitus, microscopy, oral and throat lesions, titration end-points, tissue identification (surgery) etc. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the presence of congenital color vision deficiency among the students of health sciences. The study was carried out among the medical and dental male students of Nepal Medical College and Teaching Hospital (n = 215) from November 2, 2012 to December 4, 2012 with the help of Ishihara chart which was shown to all male participants and were asked to read the impressions in the color chart. The impressions perceived by a person with normal color vision were different from the impressions perceived by a person with color vision deficiency. After careful screening, it was noted that among the study population (n = 215), 12 were color deficient (5.58% of our study population). Among them, one could not appreciate color (total color blindness according to the chart used), protanomaly was detected in 1, deuteranomaly in 3 and deuteranopia in 7 volunteers. Students of health sciences must be made aware of their congenital color vision deficiency and its effects on their work. Screening enables the students and later the health professionals to become aware of limitations in their powers of observation and devise ways of overcoming them. The patient is protected from harm and legal action may be avoided when the health professional have adapted their practice to their deficiency. Medical/ dental students and health professionals must be
Biologic activities of molecular chaperones and pharmacologic chaperone imidazole-containing dipeptide-based compounds: natural skin care help and the ultimate challenge: implication for adaptive responses in the skin.
Babizhayev, Mark A; Nikolayev, Gennady M; Nikolayeva, Juliana G; Yegorov, Yegor E
Accumulation of molecular damage and increased molecular heterogeneity are hallmarks of photoaged skin and pathogenesis of human cutaneous disease. Growing evidence demonstrates the ability of molecular chaperone proteins and of pharmacologic chaperones to decrease the environmental stress and ameliorate the oxidation stress-related and glycation disease phenotypes, suggesting that the field of chaperone therapy might hold novel treatments for skin diseases and aging. In this review, we examine the evidence suggesting a role for molecular chaperone proteins in the skin and their inducer and protecting agents: pharmacologic chaperone imidazole dipeptide-based agents (carcinine and related compounds) in cosmetics and dermatology. Furthermore, we discuss the use of chaperone therapy for the treatment of skin photoaging diseases and other skin pathologies that have a component of increased glycation and/or free radical-induced oxidation in their genesis. We examine biologic activities of molecular and pharmacologic chaperones, including strategies for identifying potential chaperone compounds and for experimentally demonstrating chaperone activity in in vitro and in vivo models of human skin disease. This allows the protein to function and traffic to the appropriate location in the skin, thereby increasing protein activity and cellular function and reducing stress on skin cells. The benefits of imidazole dipeptide antioxidants with transglycating activity (such as carcinine) in skin care are that they help protect and repair cell membrane damage and help retain youthful, younger-looking skin. All skin types will benefit from daily, topical application of pharmacologic chaperone antioxidants, anti-irritants, in combination with water-binding protein agents that work to mimic the structure and function of healthy skin. General strategies are presented addressing ground techniques to improve absorption of usually active chaperone proteins and dipeptide compounds, include
Cafarchia, C; Latrofa, M S; Figueredo, L A; da Silva Machado, M L; Ferreiro, L; Guillot, J; Boekhout, T; Otranto, D
Three lipid-dependent Malassezia isolates (here named 114A, 114B and 114C) recovered from a dog with skin lesions were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. All presented ovoid cells and buds formed on a narrow base. Most of the results from physiological tests were consistent with those of Malassezia furfur. The phylogenetic analysis of ITS-1 and LSU nucleotide sequences was concordant in placing all three clinical Malassezia isolates close to M. furfur. However, the phylogenetic data on the chs-2 sequence revealed that clinical isolate 114A is distinct from M. furfur and was closely affiliated to the sequence of M. pachydermatis with high nodal support. In particular, lipid-dependent isolates 114A displayed chs-2 sequences similar (100%) to that of the non-lipid dependent species Malassezia pachydermatis. The presence of the genetic and physiological polymorphisms detected in these three isolates of M. furfur could have resulted from a process of adaptation of this anthropophilic species to a new host.
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grape skin extract (enocianina). 73.170 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape skin extract (enocianina) is a purplish-red liquid prepared by...
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grape skin extract (enocianina). 73.170 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape skin extract (enocianina) is a purplish-red liquid prepared by...
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grape skin extract (enocianina). 73.170 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape skin extract (enocianina) is a purplish-red liquid prepared by...
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grape skin extract (enocianina). 73.170 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape skin extract (enocianina) is a purplish-red liquid prepared by...
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grape skin extract (enocianina). 73.170 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape skin extract (enocianina) is a purplish-red liquid prepared by...
Discrimination based on gradations of skin color can occur within and between racial or ethnic groups, including blacks, Latinos, and Asians. Lighter skin and Caucasian features tend to be viewed more positively than darker-skin qualities. Where a person of color falls along the "color line" may affect his or her social status, employment…
Davis, Wendy; Ohno, Yoshi
The color rendering index (CRI) has been shown to have deficiencies when applied to white light-emitting-diode-based sources. Furthermore, evidence suggests that the restricted scope of the CRI unnecessarily penalizes some light sources with desirable color qualities. To solve the problems of the CRI and include other dimensions of color quality, the color quality scale (CQS) has been developed. Although the CQS uses many of elements of the CRI, there are a number of fundamental differences. Like the CRI, the CQS is a test-samples method that compares the appearance of a set of reflective samples when illuminated by the test lamp to their appearance under a reference illuminant. The CQS uses a larger set of reflective samples, all of high chroma, and combines the color differences of the samples with a root mean square. Additionally, the CQS does not penalize light sources for causing increases in the chroma of object colors but does penalize sources with smaller rendered color gamut areas. The scale of the CQS is converted to span 0-100, and the uniform object color space and chromatic adaptation transform used in the calculations are updated. Supplementary scales have also been developed for expert users.
Yokota, Tomoyuki; Zalar, Peter; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Jinno, Hiroaki; Matsuhisa, Naoji; Kitanosako, Hiroki; Tachibana, Yutaro; Yukita, Wakako; Koizumi, Mari; Someya, Takao
Thin-film electronics intimately laminated onto the skin imperceptibly equip the human body with electronic components for health-monitoring and information technologies. When electronic devices are worn, the mechanical flexibility and/or stretchability of thin-film devices helps to minimize the stress and discomfort associated with wear because of their conformability and softness. For industrial applications, it is important to fabricate wearable devices using processing methods that maximize throughput and minimize cost. We demonstrate ultraflexible and conformable three-color, highly efficient polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) and organic photodetectors (OPDs) to realize optoelectronic skins (oe-skins) that introduce multiple electronic functionalities such as sensing and displays on the surface of human skin. The total thickness of the devices, including the substrate and encapsulation layer, is only 3 μm, which is one order of magnitude thinner than the epidermal layer of human skin. By integrating green and red PLEDs with OPDs, we fabricate an ultraflexible reflective pulse oximeter. The device unobtrusively measures the oxygen concentration of blood when laminated on a finger. On-skin seven-segment digital displays and color indicators can visualize data directly on the body. PMID:27152354
Jakovels, Dainis; Spigulis, Janis; Rogule, Laura
An experimental RGB imaging system based on commercial color camera was constructed, and its potential for mapping of hemoglobin distribution in skin was studied. Two types of LEDs (RGB and white "warm" LEDs) were compared as illuminators for acquiring images of vascular and pigmented skin malformations. A novel approach for studies of skin capillary refill by RGB analysis has been proposed and discussed.
Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.
Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based on cone outputs, color-emotion associations, and Palmer and Schloss's ecological valence theory. The ecological valence theory postulates that color serves an adaptive "steering' function, analogous to taste preferences, biasing organisms to approach advantageous objects and avoid disadvantageous ones. It predicts that people will tend to like colors to the extent that they like the objects that are characteristically that color, averaged over all such objects. The ecological valence theory predicts 80% of the variance in average color preference ratings from the Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (WAVEs) of correspondingly colored objects, much more variance than any of the other models. We also describe how hue preferences for single colors differ as a function of gender, expertise, culture, social institutions, and perceptual experience.
... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Kernel color classification. 51.1403 Section 51.1403... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Kernel Color Classification § 51.1403 Kernel color classification. (a) The skin color of pecan kernels may be described in terms of the...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Kernel color classification. 51.1403 Section 51.1403... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Kernel Color Classification § 51.1403 Kernel color classification. (a) The skin color of pecan kernels may be described in terms of the...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good green color. 51.1011 Section 51.1011 Agriculture... Standards for Persian (Tahiti) Limes Definitions § 51.1011 Good green color. Good green color means that the skin of the lime is of a good green color characteristic of the Persian variety....
... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Good green color. 51.1011 Section 51.1011 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... green color. Good green color means that the skin of the lime is of a good green color characteristic...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Good green color. 51.1011 Section 51.1011 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... green color. Good green color means that the skin of the lime is of a good green color characteristic...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Good green color. 51.1011 Section 51.1011 Agriculture... Standards for Persian (Tahiti) Limes Definitions § 51.1011 Good green color. Good green color means that the skin of the lime is of a good green color characteristic of the Persian variety....
... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Good green color. 51.1011 Section 51.1011 Agriculture... Standards for Persian (Tahiti) Limes Definitions § 51.1011 Good green color. Good green color means that the skin of the lime is of a good green color characteristic of the Persian variety....
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kernel color classification. 51.1403 Section 51.1403... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Kernel Color Classification § 51.1403 Kernel color classification. (a) The skin color of pecan kernels may be described in terms of the...
Kuriki, Ichiro; Lange, Ryan; Muto, Yumiko; Brown, Angela M; Fukuda, Kazuho; Tokunaga, Rumi; Lindsey, Delwin T; Uchikawa, Keiji; Shioiri, Satoshi
Despite numerous prior studies, important questions about the Japanese color lexicon persist, particularly about the number of Japanese basic color terms and their deployment across color space. Here, 57 native Japanese speakers provided monolexemic terms for 320 chromatic and 10 achromatic Munsell color samples. Through k-means cluster analysis we revealed 16 statistically distinct Japanese chromatic categories. These included eight chromatic basic color terms (aka/red, ki/yellow, midori/green, ao/blue, pink, orange, cha/brown, and murasaki/purple) plus eight additional terms: mizu ("water")/light blue, hada ("skin tone")/peach, kon ("indigo")/dark blue, matcha ("green tea")/yellow-green, enji/maroon, oudo ("sand or mud")/mustard, yamabuki ("globeflower")/gold, and cream. Of these additional terms, mizu was used by 98% of informants, and emerged as a strong candidate for a 12th Japanese basic color term. Japanese and American English color-naming systems were broadly similar, except for color categories in one language (mizu, kon, teal, lavender, magenta, lime) that had no equivalent in the other. Our analysis revealed two statistically distinct Japanese motifs (or color-naming systems), which differed mainly in the extension of mizu across our color palette. Comparison of the present data with an earlier study by Uchikawa & Boynton (1987) suggests that some changes in the Japanese color lexicon have occurred over the last 30 years.
Pramanik, T; Sherpa, M T; Shrestha, R
Color vision deficiency, most of the time remains an unnoticed problem; although it is not very rare. The faculty of appreciation of color is essential for our smooth daily activities. Unfortunately, even many doctors do not know the severity of their color vision deficiency and tend to assume it as slight, and a few, as in the general population, do not know about their disability. Some common difficulties reported by medical practitioners and medical students were in recognizing- widespread body color changes (pallor, cyanosis, jaundice, rashes, erythema of skin), colorful charts, slides, test-strips for blood and urine, body products: blood or bile in urine, faeces, sputum, vomit, microscopy, mouth and throat conditions, impressions presented in the Ishihara chart, titration end-points, tissue identification (surgery) etc. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the presence of congenital color vision deficiencies among the medical students. The study was carried out among the 1st and 2nd year medical students of Nepal Medical College and Teaching Hospital (n= 120) with the help of Ishihara chart, that was shown to all participants. They were asked to read the impressions in the color chart. The impression perceived by a person with normal color vision was different from the impression perceived by a person with color vision deficiency. It was noted that, among the study population (n=120) 5.83% of the volunteers were color weak. Amongst the color-deficient volunteers, 57.0% were protanopic while 43.0% were deuteranopic. Medical students must be made aware of their congenital color vision deficiency and its effects on their work. Screening will enable the student and later the doctor to become aware of limitations in their powers of observation and devise ways of overcoming them; the patient will be protected from harm and litigation may be avoided when doctors have adapted their practice to their deficiency. Medical students and physicians must be screened
Byrne, Alex; Hilbert, David R
The target article is an attempt to make some progress on the problem of color realism. Are objects colored? And what is the nature of the color properties? We defend the view that physical objects (for instance, tomatoes, radishes, and rubies) are colored, and that colors are physical properties, specifically, types of reflectance. This is probably a minority opinion, at least among color scientists. Textbooks frequently claim that physical objects are not colored, and that the colors are "subjective" or "in the mind." The article has two other purposes: First, to introduce an interdisciplinary audience to some distinctively philosophical tools that are useful in tackling the problem of color realism and, second, to clarify the various positions and central arguments in the debate. The first part explains the problem of color realism and makes some useful distinctions. These distinctions are then used to expose various confusions that often prevent people from seeing that the issues are genuine and difficult, and that the problem of color realism ought to be of interest to anyone working in the field of color science. The second part explains the various leading answers to the problem of color realism, and (briefly) argues that all views other than our own have serious difficulties or are unmotivated. The third part explains and motivates our own view, that colors are types of reflectances and defends it against objections made in the recent literature that are often taken as fatal.
Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...
... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...
Price, Luke L A
The Shannon entropy [Bell Syst. Tech J.27, 379 (1948)] of spectral distributions is applied to the problem of color rendering. With this novel approach, calculations for visual white entropy, spectral entropy, and color rendering are proposed, indices that are unreliant on the subjectivity inherent in reference spectra and color samples. The indices are tested against real lamp spectra, showing a simple and robust system for color rendering assessment. The discussion considers potential roles for white entropy in several areas of color theory and psychophysics and nonextensive entropy generalizations of the entropy indices in mathematical color spaces.
Mulligan, Jeffrey B.
A color algebra refers to a system for computing sums and products of colors, analogous to additive and subtractive color mixtures. We would like it to match the well-defined algebra of spectral functions describing lights and surface reflectances, but an exact correspondence is impossible after the spectra have been projected to a three-dimensional color space, because of metamerism physically different spectra can produce the same color sensation. Metameric spectra are interchangeable for the purposes of addition, but not multiplication, so any color algebra is necessarily an approximation to physical reality. Nevertheless, because the majority of naturally-occurring spectra are well-behaved (e.g., continuous and slowly-varying), color algebras can be formulated that are largely accurate and agree well with human intuition. Here we explore the family of algebras that result from associating each color with a member of a three-dimensional manifold of spectra. This association can be used to construct a color product, defined as the color of the spectrum of the wavelength-wise product of the spectra associated with the two input colors. The choice of the spectral manifold determines the behavior of the resulting system, and certain special subspaces allow computational efficiencies. The resulting systems can be used to improve computer graphic rendering techniques, and to model various perceptual phenomena such as color constancy.
modification of existing JPEG compression and decompression software available from Independent JPEG Users Group to process CIELAB color images and to use...externally specificed Huffman tables. In addition a conversion program was written to convert CIELAB color space images to red, green, blue color space
Colors are powerful tools for engaging children, from the youngest years onward. We hang brightly patterned mobiles above their cribs and help them learn the names of colors as they begin to record their own ideas in pictures and words. Colors can also open the door to an invisible world of electromagnetism, even when children can barely imagine…
Abscess - skin; Cutaneous abscess; Subcutaneous abscess; MRSA - abscess; Staph infection - abscess ... Skin abscesses are common and affect people of all ages. They occur when an infection causes pus ...
Skin color can be an important feature when tracking skin-colored objects. Particularly this is the case for computer-vision-based human-computer interfaces (HCI). Humans have a highly developed feeling of space and, therefore, it is reasonable to support this within intelligent HCI, where the importance of augmented reality can be foreseen. Joining human-like interaction techniques within multimodal HCI could, or will, gain a feature for modern mobile telecommunication devices. On the other hand, real-time processing plays an important role in achieving more natural and physically intuitive ways of human-machine interaction. The main scope of this work is the development of a stereoscopic computer-vision hardware-accelerated framework for real-time skin feature identification in the sense of a single-pass image segmentation process. The hardware-accelerated preprocessing stage is presented with the purpose of color and spatial filtering, where the skin color model within the hue-saturation-value (HSV) color space is given with a polyhedron of threshold values representing the basis of the filter model. An adaptive filter management unit is suggested to achieve better segmentation results. This enables the adoption of filter parameters to the current scene conditions in an adaptive way. Implementation of the suggested hardware structure is given at the level of filed programmable system level integrated circuit (FPSLIC) devices using an embedded microcontroller as their main feature. A stereoscopic clue is achieved using a time-sequential video stream, but this shows no difference for real-time processing requirements in terms of hardware complexity. The experimental results for the hardware-accelerated preprocessing stage are given by efficiency estimation of the presented hardware structure using a simple motion-detection algorithm based on a binary function.
Hu, X; Johnston, W M; Seghi, R R
Color information from different color-measuring systems varies during color matching in maxillofacial prosthetics. We studied the hypothesis that a non-contact measuring system and 4 contact color-measuring instruments perform comparably in accuracy and precision on measurements of pigmented maxillofacial elastomer specimens having human skin colors. Measurement comparisons in accuracy on opaque standard color patches were made in Phase I. In Phase II, the system with the best accuracy was used as the reference instrument, and comparisons in accuracy and precision on elastomer specimens were made. The CIEDE2000 color difference formula was used. Repeated-measures ANOVA with Tukey testing and linear regression analysis for CIELAB and color differences among the instruments were performed. The contact measuring systems perform differently in accuracy, possibly due to edge loss and other factors, but performed comparably in precision with the non-contact measuring instrument. This non-contact system is recommended for color measurement of maxillofacial prosthetic materials.
Steinbring, E.; Melbourne, J.; Metevier, A. J.; Koo, D. C.; Chun, M. R.; Simard, L.; Larkin, J. E.; Max, C. E.
We have employed laser guide star (LGS) adaptive optics (AO) on the Keck II telescope to obtain near-infrared (NIR) images in the Extended Groth Strip deep galaxy survey field. This is a continuation of our Center for Adaptive Optics Treasury Survey program of targeting 0.5 < z < 1 galaxies where existing images with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are already in hand. Our AO field has already been imaged by the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Near Infrared Camera and Multiobject Spectrograph (NICMOS). Our AO images at 2.2 μm (K') are comparable in depth to those from the HST, have Strehl ratios up to 0.4, and full width at half-maximum resolutions superior to that from NICMOS. By sampling the field with the LGS at different positions, we obtain better quality AO images than with an immovable natural guide star. As examples of the power of adding LGS AO to HST data, we study the optical to NIR colors and color gradients of the bulge and disk of two galaxies in the field with z = 0.7. All authors except L.S. are affiliated with the Center for Adaptive Optics.
Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul
We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…
In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…
In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction are taken up in the current commentary, especially with regard to the neuropsychological evidence. Data from aphasic patients also argue for a priority for abstract thought, but nevertheless it may still be that the use of color terms is the only way in which to form color categories even if both linguistic and attentional factors play an important role.
Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A
The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders.
Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.
Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.
Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.
Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…
The idea of electric charges and electricity in general is a familiar one to the science savvy viewer. However, electromagnetism is but one of the four fundamental forces and not the strongest one. The strongest of the fundamental forces is called the strong nuclear force and it has its own associated charge. Physicists call this charge âcolorâ in analogy with the primary colors, although there is no real connection with actual color. In this video, Fermilabâs Dr. Don Lincoln explains why it is that we live in a colorful world.
[figure removed for brevity, see original site]Released 3 May 2004 This nighttime visible color image was collected on January 1, 2003 during the Northern Summer season near the North Polar Troughs. This daytime visible color image was collected on September 4, 2002 during the Northern Spring season in Vastitas Borealis. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 79, Longitude 346 East (14 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with
Sciara, Frank J.
College students who were preparing for service-oriented careers as teachers, social workers, nurses, and probation officers, were studied to determine whether the students held prejudicial attitudes based on skin color. Photographs of blacks and Caucasians, matched so that paired persons were of the same racial group, sex, and age level, and…
Buainain De Castro Maymone, Mayra; Kundu, Roopal V.
Aging is an inevitable and complex process that can be described clinically as features of wrinkles, sunspots, uneven skin color, and sagging skin. These cutaneous effects are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors and often are varied based on ethnic origin given underlying structural and functional differences. The authors sought to provide updated information on facets of aging and how it relates to ethnic variation given innate differences in skin structure and function. Publications describing structural and functional principles of ethnic and aging skin were primarily found through a PubMed literature search and supplemented with a review of textbook chapters. The most common signs of skin aging despite skin type are dark spots, loss of elasticity, loss of volume, and rhytides. Skin of color has many characteristics that make its aging process unique. Those of Asian, Hispanic, and African American descent have distinct facial structures. Differences in the concentration of epidermal melanin makes darkly pigmented persons more vulnerable to dyspigmentation, while a thicker and more compact dermis makes facial lines less noticeable. Ethnic skin comprises a large portion of the world population. Therefore, it is important to understand the unique structural and functional differences among ethnicities to adequately treat the signs of aging. PMID:26962390
Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.
This booklet was designed to convey metric information in pictoral form. The use of pictures in the coloring book enables the more mature person to grasp the metric message instantly, whereas the younger person, while coloring the picture, will be exposed to the metric information long enough to make the proper associations. Sheets of the booklet…
Seo, InSeok; Liu, Yang; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos
Colorimetry has been used as an objective measure of perceived skin color by human eye to document and score physiological responses of the skin from external insults. CIE color space values (L*, a* and b*) are the most commonly used parameters to correlate visually perceived color attributes such as L* for pigment, a* for erythema, and b* for sallowness of the skin. In this study, we investigated the relation of Lab color scale to the amount of major skin chromophores (oxy-, deoxyhemoglobin and melanin) calculated from diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Thirty two healthy human subjects with ages from 20 to 70 years old, skin types I-VI, were recruited for the study. DRS and colorimetry measurements were taken from the left and right cheeks, and on the right upper inner arm. The melanin content calculated from 630-700 nm range of DRS measurements was shown to correlate with the lightness of skin (L*) for most skin types. For subjects with medium-to-light complexion, melanin measured at the blue part spectrum and hemoglobin interfered on the relation of lightness of the skin color to the melanin content. The sallowness of the skin that is quantified by the melanin contribution at the blue part spectrum of DRS was found to be related to b* scale. This study demonstrates the importance of documenting skin color by assessing individual skin chromophores with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, in comparison to colorimetry assessment.
Davis, Erica C.
Acne vulgaris is one of the most common conditions for which all patients, including those with skin of color (Fitzpatrick skin types IV–VI), seek dermatological care. The multifactorial pathogenesis of acne appears to be the same in ethnic patients as in Caucasians. However, there is controversy over whether certain skin biology characteristics, such as sebum production, differ in ethnic patients. Clinically, acne lesions can appear the same as those seen in Caucasians; however, histologically, all types of acne lesions in African Americans can be associated with intense inflammation including comedones, which can also have some degree of inflammation. It is the sequelae of the disease that are the distinguishing characteristics of acne in skin of color, namely postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and keloidal or hypertrophic scarring. Although the medical and surgical treatment options are the same, it is these features that should be kept in mind when designing a treatment regimen for acne in skin of color. PMID:20725545
... to the touch may have yellow drainage Of cellulitis: a red, inflamed area on the skin that is tender to the touch may occur in an area of a scratch or cut redness often spreads rapidly over the skin's surface ...
... Diseases Take Big Slice Out of America's Health, Economy (News) Health Tip: Use Caution When Applying Hair Dye Additional ... Skin Diseases Take Big Slice Out of America's Health, Economy THURSDAY, March 2, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Skin diseases ...
... Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkles Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory ... Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkles Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory ...
Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...
The idea of electric charges and electricity in general is a familiar one to the science savvy viewer. However, electromagnetism is but one of the four fundamental forces and not the strongest one. The strongest of the fundamental forces is called the strong nuclear force and it has its own associated charge. Physicists call this charge “color” in analogy with the primary colors, although there is no real connection with actual color. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains why it is that we live in a colorful world.
Misery, L; Loser, K; Ständer, S
Sensitive skin is a clinical condition defined by the self-reported facial presence of different sensory perceptions, including tightness, stinging, burning, tingling, pain and pruritus. Sensitive skin may occur in individuals with normal skin, with skin barrier disturbance, or as a part of the symptoms associated with facial dermatoses such as rosacea, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although experimental studies are still pending, the symptoms of sensitive skin suggest the involvement of cutaneous nerve fibres and neuronal, as well as epidermal, thermochannels. Many individuals with sensitive skin report worsening symptoms due to environmental factors. It is thought that this might be attributed to the thermochannel TRPV1, as it typically responds to exogenous, endogenous, physical and chemical stimuli. Barrier disruptions and immune mechanisms may also be involved. This review summarizes current knowledge on the epidemiology, potential mechanisms, clinics and therapy of sensitive skin.
Gerling, Gregory J; Rivest, Isabelle I; Lesniak, Daine R; Scanlon, Jacob R; Wan, Lingtian
Previous models of touch have linked skin mechanics to neural firing rate, neural dynamics to action potential elicitation, and mechanoreceptor populations to psychophysical discrimination. However, no one model spans all levels. The objective of work herein is to build a multi-level, computational model of tactile neurons embedded in cutaneous skin, and then validate its predictions of skin surface deflection, single-afferent firing to indenter shift, and population response for sphere discrimination. The model includes a 3D finite element representation of the distal phalange with hyper- and visco-elastic mechanics. Distributed over its surface, a population of receptor models is comprised of bi-phasic functions to represent Merkel cells' transformation of stress/strain to membrane current and a leaky integrate-and-fire neuronal models to generate the timing of action potentials. After including neuronal noise, the predictions of two population encoding strategies (gradient sum and euclidean distance) are compared to psychophysical discrimination of spheres. Results indicate that predicted skin surface deflection matches Srinivasan's observations for 50 micron and 3.17 mm diameter cylinders and single-afferent responses achieve R(2) = 0.81 when compared to Johnson's recordings. Discrimination results correlate with Goodwin's experiments, whereby 287 and 365 m(-1) spheres are more discriminable than 287 and 296 m(-1).
Suskind, Raymond R.
The skin is an important interface between man and his environment; it is an important portal of entry for hazardous agents and a vulnerable target tissue as well. It is a uniquely accessible model system for detecting hazards and for studying mechanisms of a wide variety of biologic funcitons. Environmental causes of skin reactions comprise a vast array of physical, chemical and biological agents. To appreciate the role of the skin as an interface with man's environment, it is necessary to understand the multiple adaptive mechanisms, and the defenses of the skin against the environmental stresses. The skin is endowed with a versatile group of defenses against penetration, fluid loss from the body, thermal stress, solar radiation, physical trauma and microbial agents. Patterns of adverse response range in quality and intensity from uncomplicated itching to metastatic neoplasia. Environmental problems comprise a large segment of disabling skin disease. Although critical epidemiologic data is limited, cutaneous illnesses comprise a significant segment of occupational disease. This represents a significant loss in productivity and a major cause of disability. The most serious research needs include the development of surveillance systems for identifying skin hazards and determining frequency of environmental skin disease; the development of new models for studying cutaneous penetration; the elucidation of the mechanisms of nonallergic inflammatory reactions (primary irritation) and of the accommodation phenomenon; the development of more sensitive models for predicting adverse responses to marginal irritants; the utilization of modern skills of immunobiology and immunochemistry to elucidate mechanisms of allergic responses; the launching of epidemiologic studies to determine the long term effects of PCBs and associated compounds such as dioxins; and the expansion of research in the mechanisms of skin cancer in relation to susceptibility, genetic and metabolic
Skin aging appears to be the result of both scheduled and continuous "wear and tear" processes that damage cellular DNA and proteins. Two types of aging, chronological skin aging and photoaging, have distinct clinical and histological features. Chronological skin aging is a universal and inevitable process characterized primarily by physiologic alterations in skin function. In this case, keratinocytes are unable to properly terminally differentiate to form a functional stratum corneum, and the rate of formation of neutral lipids that contribute to the barrier function slows, causing dry, pale skin with fine wrinkles. In contrast, photoaging results from the UVR of sunlight and the damage thus becomes apparent in sun-exposed skin. Characteristics of this aging type are dry and sallow skin displaying fine wrinkles as well as deep furrows, resulting from the disorganization of epidermal and dermal components associated with elastosis and heliodermatitis. Understanding of the functions of the skin and the basic principles of moisturizer use and application is important for the prevention of skin aging. Successful treatment of dry skin with appropriate skin care products gives the impression of eternal youth.
Ryu, Byong Tae; Yeom, Jee Young; Kim, Choon-Woo; Ahn, Ji-Young; Kang, Dong-Woo; Shin, Hyun-Ho
Subjective image quality is one of the most important performance indicators for digital TVs. In order to improve subjective image quality, preferred color correction is often employed. More specifically, areas of memory colors such as skin, grass, and sky are modified to generate pleasing impression to viewers. Before applying the preferred color correction, tendency of preference for memory colors should be identified. It is often accomplished by off-line human visual tests. Areas containing the memory colors should be extracted then color correction is applied to the extracted areas. These processes should be performed on-line. This paper presents a new method for area extraction of three types of memory colors. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated by calculating the correct and false detection ratios. Experimental results indicate that proposed method outperform previous methods proposed for the memory color extraction.
Carrascosa, R; Alfageme, F; Roustán, G; Suarez, M D
The use of ultrasound imaging has recently been increasing in numerous dermatologic diseases. This noninvasive technique provides additional details on the structure and vascularization of skin lesions. Kaposi sarcoma is a vascular tumor that typically arises in the skin and mucosas. It can spread to lymph nodes and internal organs. We performed B-mode and color Doppler ultrasound studies in 3 patients with a clinical diagnosis of Kaposi sarcoma confirmed by histological examination. We found differences in the ultrasound pattern between nodular and plaque lesions, in both B-mode and color Doppler. We believe that skin ultrasound imaging could be a useful technique for studying cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma, providing additional information on the structural and vascular characteristics of the lesion.
... from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... test - color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Adams AJ, Verdon WA, Spivey BE. ...
van Gemert, M.J.; Jacques, S.L.; Sterenborg, H.J.; Star, W.M.
Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model representing skin geometry, as well as experimental methods to determine the optical properties of each skin layer. These activities are unified under the name skin optics. This paper first reviews the current status of tissue optics, distinguishing between the cases of: dominant absorption, dominant scattering, and scattering about equal to absorption. Then, previously published data as well as some current unpublished data on (human) stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis, have been collected and/or (re)analyzed in terms of absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and anisotropy factor of scattering. The results are that the individual skin layers show strongly forward scattering (anisotropy factors between 0.7 and 0.9). The absorption and scattering data show that for all wavelengths considered scattering is much more important than absorption. Under such circumstances, solutions to the transport equation for a multilayer skin model and finite beam laser irradiation are currently not yet available. Hence, any quantitative dosimetry for skin treated with (laser) light is currently lacking.
The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.
Bentkover, Stuart H
This article presents a comprehensive clinical approach to plasma resurfacing for skin regeneration. Plasma technology, preoperative protocols, resurfacing technique, postoperative care, clinical outcomes, evidence-based results, and appropriate candidates for this procedure are discussed. Specific penetration depth and specific laser energy measurements are provided. Nitrogen plasma skin regeneration is a skin-resurfacing technique that offers excellent improvement of mild to moderate skin wrinkles and overall skin rejuvenation. It also provides excellent improvement in uniformity of skin color and texture in patients with hyperpigmentation with Fitzpatrick skin types 1 through 4.
Newborn skin characteristics; Infant skin characteristics; Neonatal care - skin ... the first few weeks of the baby's life. Newborn skin will vary, depending on the length of the pregnancy. Premature infants have thin, transparent skin. The skin of a ...
Suskind, R.R. )
The skin is an important organ of defense adaptation and a portal of entry for xenobiotics. It is vulnerable to physical, chemical, and biologic agents and capable of expressing responses to these agents in a variety of pathologic patterns. These patterns are characterized by morphologic and functional features which are elicited by careful examination and test procedures. Cutaneous cancer may result from exposure to nonionizing as well as ionizing radiation, to specific identifiable chemical hazards, and may be enhanced by trauma. Cutaneous hazards of chemical sources are largely found in the workplace and among consumer products, including drugs and toilet goods. Environmental skin diseases and injuries are preventable. Prior to use assessment for safety and for possible risks from exposure to an agent, product, or process is of primary importance in the prevention and control of environmental skin disease and injury.
Ma, Ce; Xiao, Chang-Cheng; Hu, Hong-Ju; Huang, Xiao-San; Zhang, Shao-Ling; Wu, Jun
The present study was conducted to reveal the effect of bags with different colors on the fruit coloration of 'Yunhongli No. 2'. The differences in fruit skin color, chlorophyll, flavonoids, total phenol, anthocyanin contents and the activities of related enzymes involved in anthocyanin synthesis among different bagging treatments were evaluated. The results showed that dark treatment at the fruit development stage was beneficial to skin coloration after bag removing. After removing bags, the anthocyanin content in the treatment of natural light was highest and the red coloration of the fruit skin were best, followed by the treatment of white bags. The different bagging treatments significantly affected the contents of chlorophyll, flavonoids, total phenol, anthocyanin in the fruit skin, thereby affected the skin coloration. The activities of related enzymes for anthocyanin synthesis showed significant differences among the different bagging treatments. The correlation analysis suggested that the anthocyanin content was significantly positively related with the activities of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) and UDP-glucose flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransf-erase (UFGT), however, it had no significant correlation with the activity of phenylalanin ammo-nialyase (PAL).
... it can get infected by them. Some common types of skin infections are Bacterial: Cellulitis and impetigo. Staphylococcal infections can also affect the skin. Viral: Shingles, warts, and herpes simplex Fungal: Athlete's foot and yeast infections Parasitic: Body lice, head lice, and scabies ...
Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.
The anomously large transmission of nucleons through a nucleus following a hard collision is explored. This effect, known as color transparency, is believed to be a prediction of QCD. The necessary conditions for its occurrence and the effects that must be included a realistic calculation are discussed.
Johnson, Heidi S. S.; Maki, Jennifer A.
This article reports a study conducted by members of the WellU Academic Integration Subcommittee of The College of St. Scholastica's College's Healthy Campus Initiative plan whose purpose was to determine whether changing color in the classroom could have a measurable effect on students. One simple improvement a school can make in a classroom is…
Vojdani, Aristo; Vojdani, Charlene
Artificial food dyes are made from petroleum and have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the enhancement of the color of processed foods. They are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries to increase the appeal and acceptability of their products. Synthetic food colorants can achieve hues not possible for natural colorants and are cheaper, more easily available, and last longer. However, since the use of artificial food coloring has become widespread, many allergic and other immune reactive disorders have increasingly been reported. During the past 50 y, the amount of synthetic dye used in foods has increased by 500%. Simultaneously, an alarming rise has occurred in behavioral problems in children, such as aggression, attention deficit disorder (ADD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The ingestion of food delivers the greatest foreign antigenic load that challenges the immune system. Artificial colors can also be absorbed via the skin through cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. The molecules of synthetic colorants are small, and the immune system finds it difficult to defend the body against them. They can also bond to food or body proteins and, thus, are able to act in stealth mode to circumvent and disrupt the immune system. The consumption of synthetic food colors, and their ability to bind with body proteins, can have significant immunological consequences. This consumption can activate the inflammatory cascade, can result in the induction of intestinal permeability to large antigenic molecules, and could lead to cross-reactivities, autoimmunities, and even neurobehavioral disorders. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recently found a 41% increase in diagnoses of ADHD in boys of high-school age during the past decade. More shocking is the legal amount of artificial colorants allowed by the FDA in the foods, drugs, and cosmetics that we consume and use every day. The consuming public is largely
Bird, Chris M.; Berens, Samuel C.; Horner, Aidan J.; Franklin, Anna
The areas of the brain that encode color categorically have not yet been reliably identified. Here, we used functional MRI adaptation to identify neuronal populations that represent color categories irrespective of metric differences in color. Two colors were successively presented within a block of trials. The two colors were either from the same or different categories (e.g., “blue 1 and blue 2” or “blue 1 and green 1”), and the size of the hue difference was varied. Participants performed a target detection task unrelated to the difference in color. In the middle frontal gyrus of both hemispheres and to a lesser extent, the cerebellum, blood-oxygen level-dependent response was greater for colors from different categories relative to colors from the same category. Importantly, activation in these regions was not modulated by the size of the hue difference, suggesting that neurons in these regions represent color categorically, regardless of metric color difference. Representational similarity analyses, which investigated the similarity of the pattern of activity across local groups of voxels, identified other regions of the brain (including the visual cortex), which responded to metric but not categorical color differences. Therefore, categorical and metric hue differences appear to be coded in qualitatively different ways and in different brain regions. These findings have implications for the long-standing debate on the origin and nature of color categories, and also further our understanding of how color is processed by the brain. PMID:24591602
Bird, Chris M; Berens, Samuel C; Horner, Aidan J; Franklin, Anna
The areas of the brain that encode color categorically have not yet been reliably identified. Here, we used functional MRI adaptation to identify neuronal populations that represent color categories irrespective of metric differences in color. Two colors were successively presented within a block of trials. The two colors were either from the same or different categories (e.g., "blue 1 and blue 2" or "blue 1 and green 1"), and the size of the hue difference was varied. Participants performed a target detection task unrelated to the difference in color. In the middle frontal gyrus of both hemispheres and to a lesser extent, the cerebellum, blood-oxygen level-dependent response was greater for colors from different categories relative to colors from the same category. Importantly, activation in these regions was not modulated by the size of the hue difference, suggesting that neurons in these regions represent color categorically, regardless of metric color difference. Representational similarity analyses, which investigated the similarity of the pattern of activity across local groups of voxels, identified other regions of the brain (including the visual cortex), which responded to metric but not categorical color differences. Therefore, categorical and metric hue differences appear to be coded in qualitatively different ways and in different brain regions. These findings have implications for the long-standing debate on the origin and nature of color categories, and also further our understanding of how color is processed by the brain.
Mäthger, Lydia M.; Denton, Eric J.; Marshall, N. Justin; Hanlon, Roger T.
Octopus, squid and cuttlefish are renowned for rapid adaptive coloration that is used for a wide range of communication and camouflage. Structural coloration plays a key role in augmenting the skin patterning that is produced largely by neurally controlled pigmented chromatophore organs. While most iridescence and white scattering is produced by passive reflectance or diffusion, some iridophores in squid are actively controlled via a unique cholinergic, non-synaptic neural system. We review the recent anatomical and experimental evidence regarding the mechanisms of reflection and diffusion of light by the different cell types (iridophores and leucophores) of various cephalopod species. The structures that are responsible for the optical effects of some iridophores and leucophores have recently been shown to be proteins. Optical interactions with the overlying pigmented chromatophores are complex, and the recent measurements are presented and synthesized. Polarized light reflected from iridophores can be passed through the chromatophores, thus enabling the use of a discrete communication channel, because cephalopods are especially sensitive to polarized light. We illustrate how structural coloration contributes to the overall appearance of the cephalopods during intra- and interspecific behavioural interactions including camouflage. PMID:19091688
Mäthger, Lydia M; Denton, Eric J; Marshall, N Justin; Hanlon, Roger T
Octopus, squid and cuttlefish are renowned for rapid adaptive coloration that is used for a wide range of communication and camouflage. Structural coloration plays a key role in augmenting the skin patterning that is produced largely by neurally controlled pigmented chromatophore organs. While most iridescence and white scattering is produced by passive reflectance or diffusion, some iridophores in squid are actively controlled via a unique cholinergic, non-synaptic neural system. We review the recent anatomical and experimental evidence regarding the mechanisms of reflection and diffusion of light by the different cell types (iridophores and leucophores) of various cephalopod species. The structures that are responsible for the optical effects of some iridophores and leucophores have recently been shown to be proteins. Optical interactions with the overlying pigmented chromatophores are complex, and the recent measurements are presented and synthesized. Polarized light reflected from iridophores can be passed through the chromatophores, thus enabling the use of a discrete communication channel, because cephalopods are especially sensitive to polarized light. We illustrate how structural coloration contributes to the overall appearance of the cephalopods during intra- and interspecific behavioural interactions including camouflage.
Filoteo-Razo, J. D.; Estudillo-Ayala, J. M.; Hernández-Garcia, J. C.; Trejo-Durán, M.; Muñoz-Lopez, A.; Jauregui-Vázquez, D.; Rojas-Laguna, R.
This paper presents the design and implementation of an optical sensor to detect color changes in fruit by means of white light reflection to measure fruit ripeness in industrial and agricultural applications. The system consists of a LED RGB array including photodetectors, a power source and plastic optic fiber (POF). By means of Labview ® graphic interface we can control the power emission of the diodes digitally mixing the colors at different intensities until we achieve white light to be used as a source for the color sensor. We used an ATmega2560 microcontroller as a data collection device to monitor the colors obtained and to show them as color models using Matlab ®. We show results from tests conducted using two guava samples, observing the evolution of the color change on the fruit skin until they became overripe.
Kamali, Mostafa; Samei, Golnoosh
Melanoma is a fatal cancer with a growing incident rate. However it could be cured if diagnosed in early stages. The first step in detecting melanoma is the separation of skin lesion from healthy skin. There are particular features associated with a malignant lesion whose successful detection relies upon accurately extracted borders. We propose a two step approach. First, we apply K-means clustering method (to 3D RGB space) that extracts relatively accurate borders. In the second step we perform an extra refining step for detecting the fading area around some lesions as accurately as possible. Our method has a number of novelties. Firstly as the clustering method is directly applied to the 3D color space, we do not overlook the dependencies between different color channels. In addition, it is capable of extracting fine lesion borders up to pixel level in spite of the difficulties associated with fading areas around the lesion. Performing clustering in different color spaces reveals that 3D RGB color space is preferred. The application of the proposed algorithm to an extensive data-base of skin lesions shows that its performance is superior to that of existing methods both in terms of accuracy and computational complexity.
Sköld, Helen Nilsson; Amundsen, Trond; Svensson, Per Andreas; Mayer, Ian; Bjelvenmark, Jens; Forsgren, Elisabet
Physiological color change in camouflage and mating is widespread among fishes, but little is known about the regulation of such temporal changes in nuptial coloration and particularly concerning female coloration. To better understand regulation of nuptial coloration we investigated physiological color change in female two-spotted gobies (Gobiusculus flavescens). Females of this species develop an orange belly that acts as an ornament. The orange color is caused by the color of the gonads combined with the chromathophore based pigmentation and transparency of the skin. Often during courtship and female-female competition, a rapid increase in orange coloration, in combination with lighter sides and back that increases skin and body transparency, gives the belly an intense 'glowing' appearance. To understand how this increased orange coloration can be regulated we analysed chromatic and transparency effects of neurohumoral agents on abdominal skin biopsies in vitro. We found prolactin and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) to increase orange coloration of the skin. By contrast, melatonin and noradrenaline increased skin transparency, but had a negative effect on orange coloration. However, mixtures of melatonin and MSH, or melatonin and prolactin, increased both orange coloration and transparency. This effect mimics the chromatic 'glow' effect that commonly takes place during courtship and intra sexual aggression. Notably, not only epidermal chromatophores but also internal chromatophores lining the peritoneum responded to hormone treatments. There were no chromatic effects of the sex steroids 17beta-estradiol, testosterone or 11-ketotestosterone. We hypothesize that similar modulation of nuptial coloration by multiple hormones may be widespread in nature.
Davies, Wayne L; Carvalho, Livia S; Tay, Boon-Hui; Brenner, Sydney; Hunt, David M; Venkatesh, Byrappa
The cartilaginous fishes reside at the base of the gnathostome lineage as the oldest extant group of jawed vertebrates. Recently, the genome of the elephant shark, Callorhinchus milii, a chimaerid holocephalan, has been sequenced and therefore becomes the first cartilaginous fish to be analyzed in this way. The chimaeras have been largely neglected and very little is known about the visual systems of these fishes. By searching the elephant shark genome, we have identified gene fragments encoding a rod visual pigment, Rh1, and three cone visual pigments, the middle wavelength-sensitive or Rh2 pigment, and two isoforms of the long wavelength-sensitive or LWS pigment, LWS1 and LWS2, but no evidence for the two short wavelength-sensitive cone classes, SWS1 and SWS2. Expression of these genes in the retina was confirmed by RT-PCR. Full-length coding sequences were used for in vitro expression and gave the following peak absorbances: Rh1 496 nm, Rh2 442 nm, LWS1 499 nm, and LWS2 548 nm. Unusually, therefore, for a deep-sea fish, the elephant shark possesses cone pigments and the potential for trichromacy. Compared with other vertebrates, the elephant shark Rh2 and LWS1 pigments are the shortest wavelength-shifted pigments of their respective classes known to date. The mechanisms for this are discussed and we provide experimental evidence that the elephant shark LWS1 pigment uses a novel tuning mechanism to achieve the short wavelength shift to 499 nm, which inactivates the chloride-binding site. Our findings have important implications for the present knowledge of color vision evolution in early vertebrates.
Kamilar, Jason M; Heesy, Christopher P; Bradley, Brenda J
Reddish pelage and red hair ornaments have evolved many times, independently, during primate evolution. It is generally assumed that these red-coat phenotypes, like red skin phenotypes, play a role in sociosexual signaling and, thus evolved in tandem with conspecific color vision. This study examines the phylogenetic distribution of color vision and pelage coloration across the primate order to ask: (1) did red pelage and trichromacy coevolve; or (2) did trichromacy evolve first, and then subsequently red pelage evolved as an exaptation? We collected quantitative, color-corrected photographic color data for 142 museum research skins from 92 species representing 41 genera spanning all major primate lineages. For each species, we quantified the ratio of Red/Green values (from a RGB color model) at 20 anatomical landmarks. For these same species, we compiled data on color vision type (routine trichromatic, polymorphic, routine dichromatic, monochromatic) and data on variables that potentially covary with visual system (VS) and coloration, including activity pattern and body mass dimorphism (proxy for sexual selection). We also considered whether the long-term storage of research skins might influence coloration. Therefore, we included the time since the specimen was collected as an additional predictor. Analyzing the data with phylogenetic generalized least squares models, we found that the amount of red hair present in primates is associated with differences in VSs, but not in the direction expected. Surprisingly, trichromatic primate species generally exhibited less red hair compared to red-green colorblind species. Thus, our results do not support the general assumption that color vision and red pelage coloration are a coevolutionary product of sociosexual signaling in primates. In addition, we did not find an effect of activity pattern, body mass dimorphism, or time since collection on the redness of primate hair. Our results have important implications for the
Evans, Eric B; Helmes, C Tucker; Kirsch, Taryn; Ruble, Karen M
Colors are frequently added to disposable diapers to enhance the diapering experience. The colors in the interior of diapers are composed of nonsensitizing pigments that are bound during the fiber-making process into the fibers of the nonwoven that covers the absorbent core materials. In the past, the use of color in diapers has been called into question based on the presumed use of disperse dyes, known sensitizers in the textile industry, and erroneous reports in literature. In fact, disperse dyes are not used in leading disposable diapers; the colors used in these disposable diapers are nonsensitizing pigments with favorable safety profiles. Numerous safety tests, such as skin patch tests with pigments used on diaper backsheets, have found no evidence of skin irritation or sensitization.
Goljan, Miroslav; Fridrich, Jessica
Color interpolation is a form of upsampling, which introduces constraints on the relationship between neighboring pixels in a color image. These constraints can be utilized to substantially boost the accuracy of steganography detectors. In this paper, we introduce a rich model formed by 3D co-occurrences of color noise residuals split according to the structure of the Bayer color filter array to further improve detection. Some color interpolation algorithms, AHD and PPG, impose pixel constraints so tight that extremely accurate detection becomes possible with merely eight features eliminating the need for model richification. We carry out experiments on non-adaptive LSB matching and the content-adaptive algorithm WOW on five different color interpolation algorithms. In contrast to grayscale images, in color images that exhibit traces of color interpolation the security of WOW is significantly lower and, depending on the interpolation algorithm, may even be lower than non-adaptive LSB matching.
Color changes in Chameleo gracilis are under neuroendocrine control. Denervation of the limbs, by removal of the sciatic or brachial nerves, does not interfere with the normal color changes in the affected limbs. Denervated skins, placed back onto C. gracilis, show color changes in synchrony with the rest of the animal. Pieces of isolated skin turn very dark or black in alpha-melanophore stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and green in adrenaline, but do not show any color changes in physiological saline. Hypophysectomized animals turn green but never turn dark. Injections of alpha-MSH cause intact or hypophysectomized animals to turn dark or black, while injections of adrenaline cause them to turn light green. Injections of physiological saline have no effect. Crude pituitary extracts cause darkening of isolated skins or of intact animals injected with such extracts. Similar treatment with crude extracts of adrenal glands causes the skins to become light green. Electrical stimulation of transected spinal cord leads to localized lightening of the skin but never to darkening of the same. Light, temperature, darkness, and color of the surroundings influence color change. Color change to green at night and to darker colors in the daytime suggests a possible circadian rhythm in the phenomenon.
Lakio, Satu; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Yliruusi, Jouko
Drying is one of the standard unit operations in the pharmaceutical industry and it is important to become aware of the circumstances that dominate during the process. The purpose of this study was to test microcapsulated thermochromic pigments as heat indicators in a fluid bed drying process. The indicator powders were manually granulated with alpha-lactose monohydrate resulting in three particle-size groups. Also, pellets were coated with the indicator powders. The granules and pellets were fluidized in fluid bed dryer to observe the progress of the heat flow in the material and to study the heat indicator properties of the indicator materials. A tristimulus colorimeter was used to measure CIELAB color values. Color indicator for heat detection can be utilized to test if the heat-sensitive API would go through physical changes during the pharmaceutical drying process. Both the prepared granules and pellets can be used as heat indicator in fluid bed drying process. The colored heat indicators give an opportunity to learn new aspects of the process at real time and could be exploded, for example, for scaling-up studies.
Color as dramatic, dynamic and dazzling as the iridescent hues on the wings of certain butterflies has never been encountered in the art world. Unlike and unmatched by the chemical pigments of the artists' palette, this changeable color is created by transparent, colorless nanostructures that, as with prisms, diffract and reflect light to render spectral color visible. Until now, iridescent colors, by their very nature, have defied artists' best efforts to fully capture these rainbow hues. Now, for the first time, the artist and researcher Franziska Schenk employs latest nature-inspired color-shift technology to actually simulate the iridescence of butterflies and beetles on canvas. Crucially, studying the ingenious ways in which a range of such displays are created by insects has provided the artist with vital clues on how to adapt and adopt these challenging optical nano-materials for painting. And indeed, after years of meticulous and painstaking research both in the lab and studio, the desired effect is achieved. The resulting paintings, like an iridescent insect, do in fact fluctuate in perceived color - depending on the light and viewing angle. In tracing the artist's respective biomimetic approach, the paper not only provides an insight into the new color technology's evolution and innovative artistic possibilities, but also suggests what artists can learn from nature.
... exposure to ultraviolet light, which is found in sunlight and in lights used in tanning salons.What ... the safe-sun guidelines.1. Avoid the sun.Sunlight damages your skin. The sun is strongest during ...
... that need skin grafts to heal Venous ulcers, pressure ulcers , or diabetic ulcers that do not heal Very ... chap 17. Read More Burns Patient Instructions Preventing pressure ulcers Surgical wound care - open Review Date 3/13/ ...
... wear sunscreen and protective clothing, such as a hat, to prevent painful sunburns. Protecting your skin now ... happens in a split second, without you ever thinking about it. previous continue Dermis = Lots of Blood ...
... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...
The cutaneous surface is continually influenced by aging and environmental factors. A longer life span is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of problems associated with aging skin. Although most of these changes and lesions are not life threatening, the premalignant lesions must be recognized and treated. The common aging and actinic skin changes are discussed and appropriate management is described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469067
Thorell, Lisa G.
Several human cognitive studies have reported that color facilitates certain learning, memory and search tasks. Consideration of the color-opponent organization of human color vision and the spatial modulation transfer function for color suggests several simple sensory explanations.
Soaking up the sun’s rays may give you a great tan, but it may increase your risk of skin cancer in the future. This is especially true if, for example, you have lighter skin or a family history of skin cancer. Any change to the color of your skin indicates damage from ultraviolet (UV) rays, which can lead to skin cancer. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), skin cancer is most common type of cancer diagnosed in the United States. Statistics from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) show that only 2 percent of all skin cancers are melanoma, but melanoma is the cause of most skin cancer–related deaths. Skin cancer is composed of basal and squamous cells, and begins in the outer layer of the skin.
Kraeling, Margaret E K; Bronaugh, Robert L; Jung, Connie T
Lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) is the principal color ingredient in henna, a color additive approved with limitations for coloring hair by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under 21 CFR 73.2190. In 2002, the scientific committee on cosmetics and non-food products (SCCNFP), now known as the scientific committee for consumer products (SCCP), evaluated the safety of lawsone as a coloring agent in hair dye products of the European Union (EU). The SCCNFP concluded that lawsone was mutagenic and not suitable for use as a hair coloring agent. As a result, studies were conducted to measure the extent of lawsone absorption through human skin. Lawsone skin absorption was determined from two hair coloring products and two shampoo products, all containing henna. [(14)C]-Lawsone (sp. act. 22.9 mCi/mmol) was added to each commercial product and the products were applied to dermatomed, nonviable human skin mounted in flow-through diffusion cells perfused with a physiological buffer (HEPES-buffered Hanks' balanced salt solution, pH 7.4). Products remained on the skin for 5 minutes (shampoos) and 1 hour (hair color paste). For the henna hair paste products, 0.3 and 1.3% of the applied dose was absorbed into the receptor fluid in 24 hours while 2.2 and 4.0% remained in the skin. For both henna shampoo products, 0.3% of the applied dose was absorbed into the receptor fluid at 24 hours while 3.6 and 6.8% remained in the skin. For all products, most of the lawsone applied was washed from the surface of the skin (83-102%) at the end of the exposure period. Extended absorption studies were conducted for 72 hours to determine if skin levels of lawsone in the 24 hour studies might eventually be percutaneously absorbed. These studies determined that the majority of the lawsone remained in the skin with only a small but significant increase (for three out of four products) in receptor fluid values. Therefore, it appears that receptor fluid values would give a good estimate of
Rifkin, Riaan F.; Dayet, Laure; Queffelec, Alain; Summers, Beverley; Lategan, Marlize; d’Errico, Francesco
Archaeological indicators of cognitively modern behaviour become increasingly prevalent during the African Middle Stone Age (MSA). Although the exploitation of ochre is viewed as a key feature of the emergence of modern human behaviour, the uses to which ochre and ochre-based mixtures were put remain ambiguous. Here we present the results of an experimental study exploring the efficacy of ochre as a topical photoprotective compound. This is achieved through the in vivo calculation of the sun protection factor (SPF) values of ochre samples obtained from Ovahimba women (Kunene Region, Northern Namibia) and the Palaeozoic Bokkeveld Group deposits of the Cape Supergroup (Western Cape Province, South Africa). We employ visible spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and granulometric analyses to characterise ochre samples. The capacity of ochre to inhibit the susceptibility of humans to the harmful effects of exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is confirmed and the mechanisms implicated in the efficacy of ochre as a sunscreen identified. It is posited that the habitual application of ochre may have represented a crucial innovation for MSA humans by limiting the adverse effects of ultraviolet exposure. This may have facilitated the colonisation of geographic regions largely unfavourable to the constitutive skin colour of newly arriving populations. PMID:26353012
Rifkin, Riaan F; Dayet, Laure; Queffelec, Alain; Summers, Beverley; Lategan, Marlize; d'Errico, Francesco
Archaeological indicators of cognitively modern behaviour become increasingly prevalent during the African Middle Stone Age (MSA). Although the exploitation of ochre is viewed as a key feature of the emergence of modern human behaviour, the uses to which ochre and ochre-based mixtures were put remain ambiguous. Here we present the results of an experimental study exploring the efficacy of ochre as a topical photoprotective compound. This is achieved through the in vivo calculation of the sun protection factor (SPF) values of ochre samples obtained from Ovahimba women (Kunene Region, Northern Namibia) and the Palaeozoic Bokkeveld Group deposits of the Cape Supergroup (Western Cape Province, South Africa). We employ visible spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and granulometric analyses to characterise ochre samples. The capacity of ochre to inhibit the susceptibility of humans to the harmful effects of exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is confirmed and the mechanisms implicated in the efficacy of ochre as a sunscreen identified. It is posited that the habitual application of ochre may have represented a crucial innovation for MSA humans by limiting the adverse effects of ultraviolet exposure. This may have facilitated the colonisation of geographic regions largely unfavourable to the constitutive skin colour of newly arriving populations.
Roy, Shambhu; Kulkarni, Rohan; Hewitt, Nicola J; Aardema, Marilyn J
The in vitro human reconstructed skin micronucleus (RSMN) assay in EpiDerm™ is a promising novel animal alternative for evaluating genotoxicity of topically applied chemicals. It is particularly useful for assessing cosmetic ingredients that can no longer be tested using in vivo assays. To advance the use of this test especially for regulatory decision-making, we have established the RSMN assay in our laboratory according to Good Laboratory Practice and following the principles of the OECD test guideline 487 in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus test. Proficiency with the assay was established by correctly identifying direct-acting genotoxins and genotoxins requiring metabolism, as well as non-genotoxic/non-carcinogenic chemicals. We also report the analysis of our historical control data that demonstrate vehicle control and positive control values for %micronuclei in binucleated cells are in the ranges reported previously. Technical issues including evaluating various solvents with both 48h and 72h treatment regimens were investigated. For the first time, mechanistic studies using CREST analysis revealed that the RSMN assay is suitable for distinguishing aneugens and clastogens. Moreover, the assay is also suitable for measuring cytokines as markers for proliferative and toxic effects of chemicals.
Zaidi, Qasim; Ennis, Robert; Cao, Dingcai; Lee, Barry
After fixating on a colored pattern, observers see a similar pattern in complementary colors when the stimulus is removed [1-6]. Afterimages were important in disproving the theory that visual rays emanate from the eye, in demonstrating interocular interactions, and in revealing the independence of binocular vision from eye movements. Afterimages also prove invaluable in exploring selective attention, filling in, and consciousness. Proposed physiological mechanisms for color afterimages range from bleaching of cone photopigments to cortical adaptation [4-9], but direct neural measurements have not been reported. We introduce a time-varying method for evoking afterimages, which provides precise measurements of adaptation and a direct link between visual percepts and neural responses . We then use in vivo electrophysiological recordings to show that all three classes of primate retinal ganglion cells exhibit subtractive adaptation to prolonged stimuli, with much slower time constants than those expected of photoreceptors. At the cessation of the stimulus, ganglion cells generate rebound responses that can provide afterimage signals for later neurons. Our results indicate that afterimage signals are generated in the retina but may be modified like other retinal signals by cortical processes, so that evidence presented for cortical generation of color afterimages is explainable by spatiotemporal factors that modify all signals.
Liu, Qiang; Wan, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Zhen; Li, Chan; Liang, Jin-Xing
The present paper aims at developping a method to reasonably set up the typical spectral color dataset for different kinds of Chinese cultural heritage in color rendering process. The world famous wall paintings dating from more than 1700 years ago in Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes was taken as typical case in this research. In order to maintain the color constancy during the color rendering workflow of Dunhuang culture relics, a chromatic adaptation based method for developping the spectral dataset of typical colors for those wall paintings was proposed from the view point of human vision perception ability. Under the help and guidance of researchers in the art-research institution and protection-research institution of Dunhuang Academy and according to the existing research achievement of Dunhuang Research in the past years, 48 typical known Dunhuang pigments were chosen and 240 representative color samples were made with reflective spectral ranging from 360 to 750 nm was acquired by a spectrometer. In order to find the typical colors of the above mentioned color samples, the original dataset was devided into several subgroups by clustering analysis. The grouping number, together with the most typical samples for each subgroup which made up the firstly built typical color dataset, was determined by wilcoxon signed rank test according to the color inconstancy index comprehensively calculated under 6 typical illuminating conditions. Considering the completeness of gamut of Dunhuang wall paintings, 8 complementary colors was determined and finally the typical spectral color dataset was built up which contains 100 representative spectral colors. The analytical calculating results show that the median color inconstancy index of the built dataset in 99% confidence level by wilcoxon signed rank test was 3.28 and the 100 colors are distributing in the whole gamut uniformly, which ensures that this dataset can provide reasonable reference for choosing the color with highest
Witzel, Christoph; Franklin, Anna
If the most typical red, yellow, green, and blue were particularly colorful (i.e., saturated), they would "jump out to the eye." This would explain why even fundamentally different languages have distinct color terms for these focal colors, and why unique hues play a prominent role in subjective color appearance. In this study, the subjective saturation of 10 colors around each of these focal colors was measured through a pairwise matching task. Results show that subjective saturation changes systematically across hues in a way that is strongly correlated to the visual gamut, and exponentially related to sensitivity but not to focal colors.
Ochiai, Nobuhisa; Kondo, Hiroyuki
The effects of color perception are utilized in visual displays for the purpose of safety in the workplace and in daily life. These effects, generally known as color functionality, are divided into four classifications: visibility, legibility, conspicuity and discriminability. This article focuses on the relationship between the color functionality of color schemes used in visual displays for occupational and environmental safety and color vision deficiency (particularly congenital red-green color deficiency), a critical issue in ophthalmology, and examines the effects of color functionality on the perception of the color red in individuals with protan defects. Due to abrupt system reforms, current Japanese clinical ophthalmology finds itself in a situation where it is insufficiently prepared to handle congenital red-green color deficiencies. Indeed, occupational problems caused by color vision deficiencies have been almost completely neglected, and are an occupational safety and health concern that will need to be solved in the future. This report will present the guidelines for the color vision testing established by the British Health and Safety Executive (HSE), a pioneering example of a model meant to solve these problems. Issues relating to the creation of guidelines adapted to Japanese clinical ophthalmology will also be examined, and we will discuss ways to utilize color functionality used in visual displays for occupational and environmental safety to help manage color vision deficiency.
Costas, R; Garcia-Palmieri, M R; Sorlie, P; Hertzmark, E
The association of skin color with coronary heart disease risk factors was studied in 4,000 urban Puerto Rican men. Skin color on the inner upper arm was classified according to the von Luschan color tiles. Using this grading, men were separated into two groups of light or dark skin color. The dark group had a lower socioeconomic status (SES) based on income, education, and occupation. Dark men had slightly higher mean systolic blood pressures (SBP) and lower mean serum cholesterol levels than the light, but the relative weights and cigarette smoking habits of both groups were similar. After controlling for the differences in SES, skin color showed a small but statistically significant association with SBP. Whether this association with skin color represents genetic or environmental influences on SBP could not be determined from this study. PMID:7235099
Yen, Jonathan; Mukherjee, Debarghar; Lim, SukHwan; Tretter, Daniel
Object segmentation is important in image analysis for imaging tasks such as image rendering and image retrieval. Pet owners have been known to be quite vocal about how important it is to render their pets perfectly. We present here an algorithm for pet (mammal) fur color classification and an algorithm for pet (animal) fur texture classification. Per fur color classification can be applied as a necessary condition for identifying the regions in an image that may contain pets much like the skin tone classification for human flesh detection. As a result of the evolution, fur coloration of all mammals is caused by a natural organic pigment called Melanin and Melanin has only very limited color ranges. We have conducted a statistical analysis and concluded that mammal fur colors can be only in levels of gray or in two colors after the proper color quantization. This pet fur color classification algorithm has been applied for peteye detection. We also present here an algorithm for animal fur texture classification using the recently developed multi-resolution directional sub-band Contourlet transform. The experimental results are very promising as these transforms can identify regions of an image that may contain fur of mammals, scale of reptiles and feather of birds, etc. Combining the color and texture classification, one can have a set of strong classifiers for identifying possible animals in an image.
Addor, Flavia Alvim Sant'Anna
Recent studies about the cutaneous barrier demonstrated consistent evidence that the stratum corneum is a metabolically active structure and also has adaptive functions, may play a regulatory role in the inflammatory response with activation of keratinocytes, angiogenesis and fibroplasia, whose intensity depends primarily on the intensity the stimulus. There are few studies investigating the abnormalities of the skin barrier in rosacea, but the existing data already show that there are changes resulting from inflammation, which can generate a vicious circle caused a prolongation of flare-ups and worsening of symptoms. This article aims to gather the most relevant literature data about the characteristics and effects of the state of the skin barrier in rosacea.
Addor, Flavia Alvim Sant'Anna
Recent studies about the cutaneous barrier demonstrated consistent evidence that the stratum corneum is a metabolically active structure and also has adaptive functions, may play a regulatory role in the inflammatory response with activation of keratinocytes, angiogenesis and fibroplasia, whose intensity depends primarily on the intensity the stimulus. There are few studies investigating the abnormalities of the skin barrier in rosacea, but the existing data already show that there are changes resulting from inflammation, which can generate a vicious circle caused a prolongation of flare-ups and worsening of symptoms. This article aims to gather the most relevant literature data about the characteristics and effects of the state of the skin barrier in rosacea. PMID:26982780
Gasman, Marybeth; Abiola, Ufuoma
Complexion privilege and color bias have long acted in concert with racism to foster intraracial forms of stratification among African Americans such as the tendency for educational levels and other measureable outcomes (e.g., income) to correspond with skin tone. In this article, we examine the salience of color prejudice at Historically Black…
... DM. Dermal and subcutaneous tumors. In: James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM, eds. Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical ... Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...
Thompson, Hyacinth; North, Jacqui; Davenport, Rebecca; Williams, Julia
Peristomal skin problems are thought to be common (Herlufsson et al, 2006; Williams et al, 2010), and can interfere with the security of stoma products. Stoma patients are reliant on the integrity of their peristomal skin to maintain a normal lifestyle. Bekkers et al (1996) highlighted that, if the peristomal skin becomes damaged, it not only affects the person physically, but also psychologically, ultimately prolonging rehabilitation and adaptation to the stoma. Therefore, it can be concluded that maintaining skin integrity is a basic and essential skill in ensuring good stoma management. This article explores the assessment of four stoma patients, highlighting the importance of matching their skin type with their skin barrier for optimum skin protection. The patients have kindly agreed for their case studies to be published as a means of informing others. All names have been changed in line with Nursing and Midwifery Council (2010) guidelines to maintain patient confidentiality. This article was originally presented at the World Council of Enterostomal Therapists' (WCET) annual conference in 2010, receiving first prize at poster presentations.
According to predictive coding models of perception, what we see is determined jointly by the current input and the priors established by previous experience, expectations, and other contextual factors. The same input can thus be perceived differently depending on the priors that are brought to bear during viewing. Here, I show that expected (diagnostic) colors are perceived more vividly than arbitrary or unexpected colors, particularly when color input is unreliable. Participants were tested on a version of the 'Spanish Castle Illusion' in which viewing a hue-inverted image renders a subsequently shown achromatic version of the image in vivid color. Adapting to objects with intrinsic colors (e.g., a pumpkin) led to stronger afterimages than adapting to arbitrarily colored objects (e.g., a pumpkin-colored car). Considerably stronger afterimages were also produced by scenes containing intrinsically colored elements (grass, sky) compared to scenes with arbitrarily colored objects (books). The differences between images with diagnostic and arbitrary colors disappeared when the association between the image and color priors was weakened by, e.g., presenting the image upside-down, consistent with the prediction that color appearance is being modulated by color knowledge. Visual inputs that conflict with prior knowledge appear to be phenomenologically discounted, but this discounting is moderated by input certainty, as shown by the final study which uses conventional images rather than afterimages. As input certainty is increased, unexpected colors can become easier to detect than expected ones, a result consistent with predictive-coding models.
Han, Jiali; Kraft, Peter; Colditz, Graham A; Wong, Jason; Hunter, David J
Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants are associated with red hair and fair skin color. We assessed the associations of common MC1R genotypes with the risks of 3 types of skin cancer simultaneously in a nested case-control study within the Nurses' Health Study (219 melanoma, 286 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and 300 basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cases, and 873 controls). We found that the 151Cys, 160Trp and 294His variants were significantly associated with red hair, fair skin color and childhood tanning tendency. The MC1R variants, especially the 151Cys variant, were associated with increased risks of the 3 types of skin cancer, after controlling for hair color, skin color and other skin cancer risk factors. Carriers of the 151Cys variant had an OR of 1.65 (95% CI, 1.04-2.59) for melanoma, 1.67 (1.12-2.49) for SCC and 1.56 (1.03-2.34) for BCC. Women with medium or olive skin color carrying 1 nonred hair color allele and 1 red hair color allele had the highest risk of melanoma. A similar interaction pattern was observed for red hair and carrying at least 1 red hair color allele on melanoma risk. We also observed that the 151Cys variant contributed additional melanoma risk among red-haired women. The information on MC1R status modestly improved the risk prediction; the increase was significant for melanoma and BCC (p, 0.004 and 0.05, respectively). These findings indicated that the effects of the MC1R variants on skin cancer risk were independent from self-reported phenotypic pigmentation.
Byrne, Alex; Hilbert, David R
This paper critically examines color relationalism and color relativism, two theories of color that are allegedly supported by variation in normal human color vision. We mostly discuss color relationalism, defended at length in Jonathan Cohen's The Red and the Real, and argue that the theory has insuperable problems.
Walmsley, Bonnie Brown; Camp, Anne-Marie
Presents a cross-curricular theme unit on colors that includes a pullout poster and a resource list. Social studies activities highlight flags of the world. Science activities teach about colors of animals and the science of color. Language arts activities describe colorful language. Mathematics activities involve sorting and graphing colors. (SM)
DeTemple, Duane W.; Walker, Dean A.
Describes three activities in discrete mathematics that involve coloring geometric objects: counting colored regions of overlapping simple closed curves, counting colored triangulations of polygons, and determining the number of colors required to paint the plane so that no two points one inch apart are the same color. (MKR)
Hong, Sang Wook; Blake, Randolph
Color-graphemic synesthetes perceive colors when viewing alphanumeric characters. Theories of color-graphemic synesthesia posit that synesthetic color experience arises from activation of neural mechanisms also involved in ordinary color vision. To learn how early in visual processing those mechanisms exist, we performed several experiments. In one experiment, real colors were altered in appearance by the lightness of their backgrounds, but the appearance of synesthetic colors was immune to surrounding light levels. In the second experiment using a hue cancellation technique, adaptation to synesthetic color had no subsequent effect on the amount of cancelling light to achieve equilibrium yellow, whereas adaptation to real colors did. In the third experiment, vivid synesthetic color had no influence on equilibrium yellow settings of the actual color of the characters evoking synesthesia. Because brightness contrast and chromatic adaptation are putatively mediated by neural mechanisms early in visual processing including retina and primary visual cortex, our results imply that neural events responsible for synesthetic color emerge subsequent to these early visual stages.
Dontsov, R G; Uryvaev, Iu V
Application of measured skin stimulation (contrary to classic dermographism) revealed a microcirculation variety of changes and restoration (skin vessel selfregulation). The reaction phases were measured versus classic dermographism. The types of skin vessel reactions is found to depend upon the stimulus strength. The dynamics of pattern change of skin vessels is described to differentiate hatched zone (central) and surrounding ones. A tendency of appearing of the surrounding zone before the central those was found. Restoration of the microcirculation after skin stimulation (the period of vessel reaction disappearance) is detected by 3 factor relations: latency of appearance of the 1st phase reaction, phase quantity, and skin color. Dependence of parameters (vessel dilatation or constriction; pressure threshold evoking skin vessel reaction; latency of appearance and of restoration of the background color) is described to correlate with skin color (2nd, 4th, and 5th phototypes of the Fitz-Patrick classification).
Dragonflies including damselflies are colorful and large-eyed insects, which show remarkable sexual dimorphism, color transition, and color polymorphism. Recent comprehensive visual transcriptomics has unveiled an extraordinary diversity of opsin genes within the lineage of dragonflies. These opsin genes are differentially expressed between aquatic larvae and terrestrial adults, as well as between dorsal and ventral regions of adult compound eyes. Recent topics of color formation in dragonflies are also outlined. Non-iridescent blue color is caused by coherent light scattering from the quasiordered nanostructures, whereas iridescent color is produced by multilayer structures. Wrinkles or wax crystals sometimes enhances multilayer structural colors. Sex-specific and stage-specific color differences in red dragonflies is attributed to redox states of ommochrome pigments.
Color quality is an important consideration when evaluating LED-based products for general illumination. This fact sheet reviews the basics regarding light and color and summarizes the most important color issues related to white-light LED systems.
... Coordinator Color blindness Simulations Normal Color Vision Deuteranopia Color blindness marked by confusion of purplish red and green Tritanopia A dichromatism in which the spectrum is seen in tones of red and green. ...
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Ranabhatt, Rani; Singh, Kamleshwar; Siddharth, Ramashanker; Tripathi, Shuchi; Arya, Deeksha
Color matching to the surrounding skin is extremely important in patients wearing maxillofacial prostheses. It is of utmost importance to know the different techniques of color matching and coloring in maxillofacial prostheses. The purpose of this study is to review the literature data with regard to color matching in maxillofacial prosthetics. An electronic search of peer review restricted to English language dental literature was conducted to identify the relevant scientific article on color matching and coloring in maxillofacial prostheses. The publication year was up to December 2015 so that the search could include all the articles provided in that particular database. Two independent observers independently read the abstracts and later preselected full-text articles. A full-text review was carried out only for 15 articles. Out of the 15 articles, 7 were related to coloring using tinting, spraying, milling, and use of commercial cosmetics. Three studies were related to shade matching in maxillofacial prostheses. Two studies conducted the measurement of color in maxillofacial prostheses. Only one study had explained color and its relevance in maxillofacial prosthetics. Only one study was done for reproducing silicone shade guide matching Indian skin color. In addition, a single pilot study was done to measure facial skin and lip color in a human population sample stratified by race, gender, and age. Currently, there is no evidence discussing the best technique available for perfectly matching the color for the fabrication of maxillofacial prostheses. However, the latest instruments such as spectrophotometer and colorimeters are believed to have improved efficiency in matching the color.
Inamura, Taisuke; Shioiri, Satoshi; Tsujimura, Sei-ichi; Yaguchi, Hirohisa
We modified a two-stage model for color discrimination proposed in a previous study [Color Res. Appl.25, 105 (2000)]; in order to extend the model to wider conditions, we considered the conditions with luminance modulations in addition to color modulations. Using the modified model, we successfully predicted color discrimination data with test color changes along both the chromatic and luminance axes under a variety of background colors. Both qualitative and quantitative assessments in modeling showed that nonlinearity is required in both the cone and the cone-opponent stages to interpret adaptation effects of both color and luminance on color discrimination. This fact suggests that the nonlinear properties at each stage have different roles in color perception.
Peter Wilcox is a new, medium-maturing, purple-skin, yellow-flesh potato cultivar for fresh market. Peter Wilcox also produces light-colored chips, although it is being released primarily as a fresh market potato because of its skin and flesh colors. Tubers of Peter Wilcox are attractive, smooth, wi...
Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...
Oleari, Claudio; Melgosa, Manuel; Huertas, Rafael
The most widely used color-difference formulas are based on color-difference data obtained under D65 illumination or similar and for a 10° visual field; i.e., these formulas hold true for the CIE 1964 observer adapted to D65 illuminant. This work considers the psychometric color-vision model based on the Optical Society of America-Uniform Color Scales (OSA-UCS) system previously published by the first author [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 677 (2004); Color Res. Appl. 30, 31 (2005)] with the additional hypothesis that complete illuminant adaptation with perfect color constancy exists in the visual evaluation of color differences. In this way a computational procedure is defined for color conversion between different illuminant adaptations, which is an alternative to the current chromatic adaptation transforms. This color conversion allows the passage between different observers, e.g., CIE 1964 and CIE 1931. An application of this color conversion is here made in the color-difference evaluation for any observer and in any illuminant adaptation: these transformations convert tristimulus values related to any observer and illuminant adaptation to those related to the observer and illuminant adaptation of the definition of the color-difference formulas, i.e., to the CIE 1964 observer adapted to the D65 illuminant, and then the known color-difference formulas can be applied. The adaptations to the illuminants A, C, F11, D50, Planckian and daylight at any color temperature and for CIE 1931 and CIE 1964 observers are considered as examples, and all the corresponding transformations are given for practical use.
Leiter, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas; Garbe, Claus
Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are now the most common types of cancer in white populations. Both tumor entities show an increasing incidence rate worldwide but a stable or decreasing mortality rate. NMSC is the most common cancer in white-skinned individuals with a worldwide increasing incidence. NMSC is an increasing problem for health care services worldwide which causes significant morbidity. The rising incidence rates of NMSC are probably caused by a combination of increased exposure to ultraviolet (UV) or sun light, increased outdoor activities, changes in clothing style, increased longevity, ozone depletion, genetics and in some cases, immune suppression. An intensive UV exposure in childhood and adolescence was causative for the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) whereas for the etiology of SCC a chronic UV exposure in the earlier decades was accused. Cutaneous melanoma is the most rapidly increasing cancer in white populations, in the last 3 decades incidence rates have risen up to 5-fold. In 2008 melanoma was on place 5 in women and on place 8 in men of the most common solid tumor entities in Germany. The frequency of its occurrence is closely associated with the constitutive color of the skin, and the geographical zone. Changes in outdoor activities and exposure to sunlight during the past 50 years are an important factor for the increasing incidence of melanoma. Mortality rates of melanoma show a stabilization in the USA, Australia and also in European countries. In contrast to SCC, melanoma risk seems to be associated with an intermittent exposure to sunlight. Prevention campaigns aim on reducing incidence and achieving earlier diagnosis, which resulted in an ongoing trend toward thin melanoma since the last two decades. However, the impact of primary prevention measures on incidence rates of melanoma is unlikely to be seen in the near future, rather increasing incidence rates to 40-50/100,000 inhabitants/year should be expected in
Orava, Joni; Heikkila, Noora; Jaaskelainen, Timo; Parkkinen, Jussi
A method of producing inkless parameric color pairs is studied. In this method, colors are formed additively using diffraction gratings with differing grating periods as primary colors. Gratings with different grating periods reflect different spectral radiance peaks of a fluorescent lamp to the desired viewing angle, according to the grating equation. Four spectral peaks of a 4000 K fluorescent lamp--red, green, cyan, and blue-are used as the primary colors. The colors are mixed additively by fixing the relative areas of different grating periods inside a pixel. With four primary colors it is possible to mix certain colors with different triplets of primary colors. Thus, it is theoretically possible to produce metameric colors. In this study, three parameric color pairs are fabricated using electron beam lithography, electroplating, and hot embossing. The radiance spectra of the color pairs are measured by spectroradiometer from hot-embossed plastic samples. The CIELAB DeltaE(ab) and CIEDE2000 color differences between radiance spectra of the color pairs are calculated. The CIEDE2000 color differences of color pairs are between 2.6 and 7.2 units in reference viewing conditions. The effects of viewing angle and different light sources are also evaluated. It is found that both the viewing angle and the light source have very strong influences on the color differences of the color pairs.
Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; George, Kerry A.; Wu, Hong-Lu
We review the methods for estimating the probability of increased incidence of skin cancers from space radiation exposure, and describe some of the individual factors that may contribute to risk projection models, including skin pigment, and synergistic effects of combined ionizing and UV exposure. The steep dose gradients from trapped electrons, protons, and heavy ions radiation during EVA and limitations in EVA dosimetry are important factors for projecting skin cancer risk of astronauts. We estimate that the probability of increased skin cancer risk varies more than 10-fold for individual astronauts and that the risk of skin cancer could exceed 1 % for future lunar base operations for astronauts with light skin color and hair. Limitations in physical dosimetry in estimating the distribution of dose at the skin suggest that new biodosimetry methods be developed for responding to accidental overexposure of the skin during future space missions.
Davis, Wendy; Ohno, Yoshi
Several aspects of the Color Rendering Index (CRI) are flawed, limiting its usefulness in assessing the color rendering capabilities of LEDs for general illumination. At NIST, we are developing recommendations to modify the CRI that would overcome these problems. The current CRI is based on only eight reflective samples, all of which are low to medium chromatic saturation. These colors do not adequately span the range of normal object colors. Some lights that are able to accurately render colors of low saturation perform poorly with highly saturated colors. This is particularly prominent with light sources with peaked spectral distributions as realized by solid-state lighting. We have assembled 15 Munsell samples that overcome these problems and have performed analysis to show the improvement. Additionally, the CRI penalizes lamps for showing increases in object chromatic saturation compared to reference lights, which is actually desirable for most applications. We suggest a new computation scheme for determining the color rendering score that differentiates between hue and saturation shifts and takes their directions into account. The uniform color space used in the CRI is outdated and a replacement will be recommended. The CRI matches the CCT of the reference to that of the test light. This can be problematic when lights are substantially bluish or reddish. Lights of extreme CCTs are frequently poor color renderers, though they can score very high on the current CRI. An improved chromatic adaptation correction calculation would eliminate the need to match CCT and an updated correction is being considered.
Korzan, Wayne J.; Robison, Rex R.; Zhao, Sheng; Fernald, Russell D.
Within species, color morphs may enhance camouflage, improve communication and/or confer reproductive advantage. However, in the male cichlid Astatotilapia burtoni, body color may also signal a behavioral strategy. A. burtoni live in a lek-like social system in Lake Tanganyika, Africa where bright blue or yellow territorial (T) males (together ~ 10–30% of the population) are reproductively capable and defend territories containing food with a spawning site. In contrast, nonterritorial (NT) males are smaller, cryptically colored, shoal with females and have regressed gonads. Importantly, males switch between these social states depending on their success in aggressive encounters. Yellow and blue morphs were thought to be adaptations to particular habitats, but they co-exist both in nature and in the laboratory. Importantly, individual males can switch colors so we asked whether color influences behavioral and hormonal profiles. When pairing territorial males with opposite colored fish, yellow males became dominant over blue males significantly more frequently. Moreover, yellow T males had significantly higher levels of 11-ketotosterone than blue T males while only blue NT males had higher levels of the stress hormone cortisol compared to the other groups. Thus color differences alone predict dominance status and hormone profiles in T males. Since T males can and do change color, this suggests that A. burtoni may use color as a flexible behavioral strategy. PMID:18586245
Liao, Shih-Fang; Yang, Tsung-Hsun; Lee, Cheng-Chung
This research intends to explore with a uniform color space based on the CIE 1931 x-y chromatic coordinate system. The goal is to improve the non-uniformity of the CIE 1931 x-y chromaticity diagram such as to approach the human color sensation as possible; however, its simple methodology still can be kept. In spite of the existence of various kinds of the uniform color coordinate systems built up early (CIE u'-v', CIE Lab, CIE LUV, etc.), the establishment of a genuine uniform color space is actually still an important work both for the basic research in color science and the practical applications of colorimetry, especially for recent growing request in illumination engineering and in display technology. In this study, the MacAdam ellipses and the Munsell color chips are utilized for the comparison with the human color sensation. One specific linear transformation matrix is found for the CIE 1931 color matching functions (see manuscript) to become the novel uniform ones. With the aid of the optimization method, the transformation matrix can be easily discovered and makes the 25 MacAdam ellipses are similar to each other in the novel uniform color space. On the other hand, the perfectiveness of the equal-hue curves and the equal-chroma contours from the Mnusell color chips evaluates for the best optimization conditions among several different definitions for the similarity of all the MacAdam ellipses. Finally, the color difference between any two colors can be simply measured by the Euclidean distance in the novel uniform color space and is still fitted to the human color sensation.
Guimberteau, J-C; Delage, J-P; Wong, J
As the follow up article to "Introduction to the knowledge of subcutaneous sliding system in humans" published in the "Annales de chirurgie plastique" we further investigate the architecture of the skin and comment on the subcutaneous multifibrillar and microvacuolar arrangements that provide form, mobility, adaptability and resistance to force of gravity. The study aimed to highlight the direct link between the skin and subcutaneous environment in dynamic living tissue. Through high resolution endoscopic observations made during live surgery it is revealed how microvacuoles and microspaces can provide dynamic structure and form during movement between the epidermis, dermis and hypodermis. The study reveals intriguing morphodynamics which are necessary to maintain mobility and continuity to neighboring tissues. The polyhedric design of the skin surface directly relates to multifibrillar pillars beneath the skin which dictate their patterning and movement. The concept of tissue continuity is realised by the chaotic and fractal organisation of multifibrils interlaced with cellular components which characteristics alter depending on the state of hydration. Understanding the integral arrangement that provides continuity of all the structures below the skin provides an appreciation to how skin behaves in relation to movement of the rest of the body.
Sousa, Céu M; Berthet, Jerome; Delbaere, Stephanie; Polónia, André; Coelho, Paulo J
Photochromic molecules can reversibly develop color upon irradiation with UV light. These smart molecules, mainly in the naphthopyran family, have been applied with success to ophthalmic lenses that darken quickly under sunlight and revert to the uncolored state after several minutes in the dark. This slow adaptation to the absence of light is one of the limitations and is due to the formation of an unwanted photoisomer. We have designed a new naphthopyran with a bridged structure which prohibits the formation of the undesirable, persistent photoisomer and thus shows a very fast switching between the uncolored and colored states. UV irradiation of a hybrid siloxane matrix doped with the new fused naphthopyran leads to the formation of a pink coloration bleaching in a few milliseconds, in the absence of light, at room temperature. This new fused naphthopyran is easily prepared in three steps from readily accessible precursors and is amenable to structural modifications to tailor color and lifetime of the colored photoisomer.
Brawner, E. L.; Martin, R.; Pate, W.
Testing device, which determines ability of a technician to identify color-coded electric wires, is superior to standard color blindness tests. It tests speed of wire selection, detects partial color blindness, allows rapid testing, and may be administered by a color blind person.
Harris, Judy J.
Describes the "color system" as a way of grouping children into different personality types based on a certain color: orange, blue, green, and gold. Lists stress producers for specific color people. Asserts that, through making groups of different colors, children begin to see the various specialties others can bring to the group and learn to…
color image recording system is derived and the equations representing the model and the equations of colorimetry are expressed in matrix form. Computer ... algorithms are derived which correct color errors introduced by imperfections in the color recording system. The sources of color error which are
Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A.
Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin. PMID:26795476
Recounts a debate between Theodore Roosevelt and Abbott Thayer in 1909-12 over whether animal coloration was an adaptation resulting from natural selection or whether the animal's environment acted directly on it to form its color patterns. (ZWH)
In this paper a new method determining the degree of skin burns in quantities is put forward. Firstly, with Photoshop9.0 software, we analyzed the statistical character of skin burns images' histogram, and then turned the images of burned skins from RGB color space to HSV space, to analyze the transformed color histogram. Lastly through Photoshop9.0 software we get the percentage of the skin burns area. We made the mean of images' histogram,the standard deviation of color maps,and the percentage of burned areas as indicators of evaluating burns,then distributed indicators the weighted values,at last get the burned scores by summing the products of every indicator of the burns and the weighted values. From the classification of burned scores, the degree of burns can be evaluated.
Chambah, Majed; Semani, Dahbia; Renouf, Arnaud; Courtellemont, Pierre; Rizzi, Alessandro
We present in this paper some advances in color restoration of underwater images, especially with regard to the strong and non uniform color cast which is typical of underwater images. The proposed color correction method is based on ACE model, an unsupervised color equalization algorithm. ACE is a perceptual approach inspired by some adaptation mechanisms of the human visual system, in particular lightness constancy and color constancy. A perceptual approach presents a lot of advantages: it is unsupervised, robust and has local filtering properties, that lead to more effective results. The restored images give better results when displayed or processed (fish segmentation and feature extraction). The presented preliminary results are satisfying and promising.
Guevara, Yanina; Gaber, Rikki; Clayman, Marla L; Gordon, Elisa J; Friedewald, John; Robinson, June K
Sun protection education is needed for kidney transplant recipients, whose increased risk of skin cancer could be ameliorated with sun protection. Cognitive interviews with 24 participants equally stratified among non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic/Latino kidney transplant recipients were performed to evaluate a sun protection education workbook. Study participants were recruited over the phone using a registry of 700 kidney transplant recipients. Participants included 12 women and 12 men with a median age of 52. In 16 of the cognitive interviews with non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanic/Latinos, pictures of skin cancer were requested by the participants in order to see the appearance of skin cancer. Kidney transplant recipients with skin of color did not consider themselves at risk to develop skin cancer and wanted to see examples of skin cancer occurring on people with skin of color. Based on these results, the workbook was modified to include pictures of squamous cell carcinoma on varying skin tones. Then, 8 participants evaluated the revised workbook in cognitive interviews and found the photographs acceptable and necessary to demonstrate the severity of skin cancer and personalize their risk of developing skin cancer. The participants progressed from having knowledge of skin cancer to believing that they could develop skin cancer because they observed skin cancers on people with their skin tone. Using pictures of skin cancers occurring on people with similar skin tone may heighten a kidney transplant recipients' sense of vulnerability and possibly improve the use of sun protection.
Sefc, Kristina M.; Brown, Alexandria C.; Clotfelter, Ethan D.
Animal colors play important roles in communication, ecological interactions and speciation. Carotenoid pigments are responsible for many yellow, orange and red hues in animals. Whereas extensive knowledge on the proximate mechanisms underlying carotenoid coloration in birds has led to testable hypotheses on avian color evolution and signaling, much less is known about the expression of carotenoid coloration in fishes. Here, we promote cichlid fishes (Perciformes: Cichlidae) as a system in which to study the physiological and evolutionary significance of carotenoids. Cichlids include some of the best examples of adaptive radiation and color pattern diversification in vertebrates. In this paper, we examine fitness correlates of carotenoid pigmentation in cichlids and review hypotheses regarding the signal content of carotenoid-based ornaments. Carotenoid-based coloration is influenced by diet and body condition and is positively related to mating success and social dominance. Gaps in our knowledge are discussed in the last part of this review, particularly in the understanding of carotenoid metabolism pathways and the genetics of carotenoid coloration. We suggest that carotenoid metabolism and transport are important proximate mechanisms responsible for individual and population-differences in cichlid coloration that may ultimately contribute to diversification and speciation. PMID:24667558
Hubel, Paul M.; Bautsch, Markus
Although it is well known that luminance resolution is most important, the ability to accurately render colored details, color textures, and colored fabrics cannot be overlooked. This includes the ability to accurately render single-pixel color details as well as avoiding color aliasing. All consumer digital cameras on the market today record in color and the scenes people are photographing are usually color. Yet almost all resolution measurements made on color cameras are done using a black and white target. In this paper we present several methods for measuring and quantifying color resolution. The first method, detailed in a previous publication, uses a slanted-edge target of two colored surfaces in place of the standard black and white edge pattern. The second method employs the standard black and white targets recommended in the ISO standard, but records these onto the camera through colored filters thus giving modulation between black and one particular color component; red, green, and blue color separation filters are used in this study. The third method, conducted at Stiftung Warentest, an independent consumer organization of Germany, uses a whitelight interferometer to generate fringe pattern targets of varying color and spatial frequency.
Baek, YeSeul; Kwak, Youngshin; Woo, Sungjoo; Park, Chongwook
The goal of this study is to evaluate the difference of the preferred hues of familiar objects between the color deficient observer and the normal observer. Thirteen test color images were chosen covering fruit colors, natural scene and human faces. It contained red, yellow, green, blue, purple and skin color. Two color deficient observer (deuteranomal) and two normal observers were participated in this experiment. They controlled the YCC hue of the objects in the images to obtain the most preferred and the most natural image. The selected images were analyzed using CIELAB values of each pixel. Data analysis results showed that in the case of naturalness, both groups selected the similar hues for the most of image, while, in the case of preference, the color deficient observer preferred more reddish or more greenish images. Since the deuteranomalous observer has relatively week perception for red and green region, they may prefer more reddish or greenish color. The color difference between natural hue and preferred hue of deuteranomal observer is bigger than those of normal observer.
Arimoto-Kobayashi, Sakae; Machida, Masaki; Okamoto, Keinosuke; Yamaguchi, Akie
Pigments extracted from natural products are widely used for food coloration in Japan. An investigation concerning the photo-mutagenicity and photo-carcinogenicity of frequently used colorants in Japan was performed. Colorants examined were from Laccifer lacca (lac-color), Coccus cacti (cochineal-color), Carthamus tinctorius (carthamus yellow), Gardenia augusta (gardenia yellow and gardenia blue), Monascus anka and Monascus purpureus (monascus red), the skin of Vitis vinifera and Vitis labrusca (grape-skin color), Tamarindus indica (tamarind brown) and Beta vulgaris (beet red). No significant increase in bacterial mutation was found when Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100 and TA102 were simultaneously treated with colorants and subjected to UVA irradiation for 30 min. When colorant solutions were subjected to UVA irradiation for 4 h, irradiated solutions containing lac-color became slightly mutagenic toward S.typhimurium TA98 without metabolic activation. A decrease in cell survival resulted when WTK-1 cells were subjected to UVA irradiation for 60 min in the presence of purpurin at 1 mg/ml. Delayed cytotoxicity was also observed following 24 h incubation in fresh medium of samples that were subjected to UVA irradiation for 60 min in the presence of colorant (carthamus yellow, grape-skin color, gardenia blue, cochineal-color, monascus red or purpurin).
Kovach, Amy L.
Presents an activity on natural selection and how the peppered moth's adaptive values for their colors changed during the Industrial Revolution in Manchester, England, influencing their survival and ultimately affecting the survival of their offspring. Includes activity objectives. (Author/KHR)
Oranges, Teresa; Dini, Valentina; Romanelli, Marco
Significance: The skin is a complex and dynamic organ that performs several vital functions. The maturation process of the skin starts at birth with the adaption of the skin to the comparatively dry environment compared to the in utero milieu. This adaptive flexibility results in the unique properties of infant skin. To deliver appropriate care to infant skin, it is necessary to understand that it is evolving with unique characteristics. Recent Advances: The role of biophysical noninvasive techniques in the assessment of skin development underlines the importance of an objective evaluation of skin physiology parameters. Skin hydration, transepidermal water loss, and pH values are measurable with specific instruments that give us an accurate and reproducible assessment during infant skin maturation. The recording of these values, following standard measurement procedures, allows us to evaluate the integrity of the skin barrier and to monitor the functionality of the maturing skin over time. Critical Issues: During the barrier development, impaired skin function makes the skin vulnerable to chemical damage, microbial infections, and skin diseases, possibly compromising the general health of the infant. Preterm newborns, during the first weeks of life, have an even less developed skin barrier and, therefore, are even more at risk. Thus, it is extremely important to evaluate the risk of infection, skin breakdown, topical agent absorption, and the risk of thermoregulation failure. Future Directions: Detailed and objective evaluations of infant skin maturation are necessary to improve infant skin care. The results of these evaluations should be formed into general protocols that will allow doctors and caregivers to give more personalized care to full-term newborns, preterm newborns, and infants. PMID:26487977
Tomozawa, M.; Watson, E.B.; Acocella, J.
A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10[sup 7] rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency. 3 figs.
Tomozawa, Minoru; Watson, E. Bruce; Acocella, John
A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10.sup.7 rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency.
... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. This type of skin ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...
... SKIN CONDITIONS HEALTH TOPICS FOR PROFESSIONALS Rash and Skin Condition Finder 1 Select Age Group Infant Child ... Toe Toe Webspace Toe Nail CLOSE About the Skin Condition Finder Have a health question or concern? ...
... Home > Resources > Skin Complications of IBD Go Back Skin Complications of IBD Email Print + Share After arthritis, ... about 5% of people with inflammatory bowel disease. SKIN DISORDERS COMMONLY SEEN IN IBD ERHTHEMA NODOSUM The ...
Ritter disease; Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSS) ... Scalded skin syndrome (SSS) is caused by infection with certain strains of Staphylococcus bacteria. The bacteria produce a toxin that causes the skin ...
... time. Some common medications that can cause skin allergy include penicillin, sulfa drugs, barbiturates and anticonvulsants just to mention a few. Some of the symptoms from drug allergies might be hives, skin rash, itchy skin or ...
... Why Deadly Skin Cancers Spread 2000 News Release Learning About Skin Cancer What are the most common ... skin surface. When a melanoma becomes thick and deep, the disease often spreads to other parts of ...
Kim, M. Y.; George, K. A.; Cucinotta, F. A.
Methods for estimating the probability of excess incidence of skin cancer from space radiation exposure, must consider the variability of skin doses at specific anatomical areas, and the individual factors that may contribute to risk projection models, including skin pigment, and synergistic effects from combined ionizing radiation and UV exposure. Using the multiplicative risk model for transferring the Japanese survivor data to the US population, epidemiological data for the increased risk for skin locations exposed to combined UV and ionizing radiation, and models of space radiation environments, transport, and anatomical shielding, we estimate the skin cancer risk for future lunar and Mars missions. Our model projects that individual variations in the probability for increased skin cancer risk varies more than 10-fold and that an excess cancer risk greater than 1% could occur for astronauts with light skin and hair color exposed to medium class solar particle events during future lunar base operations, or from galactic cosmic rays on Mars missions.
Helbig, Ralf; Nickerl, Julia; Neinhuis, Christoph; Werner, Carsten
Springtails, arthropods who live in soil, in decaying material, and on plants, have adapted to demanding conditions by evolving extremely effective and robust anti-adhesive skin patterns. However, details of these unique properties and their structural basis are still unknown. Here we demonstrate that collembolan skin can resist wetting by many organic liquids and at elevated pressures. We show that the combination of bristles and a comb-like hexagonal or rhombic mesh of interconnected nanoscopic granules distinguish the skin of springtails from anti-adhesive plant surfaces. Furthermore, the negative overhang in the profile of the ridges and granules were revealed to be a highly effective, but as yet neglected, design principle of collembolan skin. We suggest an explanation for the non-wetting characteristics of surfaces consisting of such profiles irrespective of the chemical composition. Many valuable opportunities arise from the translation of the described comb-like patterns and overhanging profiles of collembolan skin into man-made surfaces that combine stability against wear and friction with superior non-wetting and anti-adhesive characteristics. PMID:21980383
Helbig, Ralf; Nickerl, Julia; Neinhuis, Christoph; Werner, Carsten
Springtails, arthropods who live in soil, in decaying material, and on plants, have adapted to demanding conditions by evolving extremely effective and robust anti-adhesive skin patterns. However, details of these unique properties and their structural basis are still unknown. Here we demonstrate that collembolan skin can resist wetting by many organic liquids and at elevated pressures. We show that the combination of bristles and a comb-like hexagonal or rhombic mesh of interconnected nanoscopic granules distinguish the skin of springtails from anti-adhesive plant surfaces. Furthermore, the negative overhang in the profile of the ridges and granules were revealed to be a highly effective, but as yet neglected, design principle of collembolan skin. We suggest an explanation for the non-wetting characteristics of surfaces consisting of such profiles irrespective of the chemical composition. Many valuable opportunities arise from the translation of the described comb-like patterns and overhanging profiles of collembolan skin into man-made surfaces that combine stability against wear and friction with superior non-wetting and anti-adhesive characteristics.
Pridham, Thomas G.
A report summarizing the results of an international workshop on determination of color of streptomycetes is presented. The results suggest that the color systems which seem most practically appealing and effective to specialists on actinomycetes are those embracing a limited number of color names and groups. The broad groupings allow placement of isolates into reasonably well-defined categories based on color of aerial mycelium. Attempts to expand such systems (more color groups) lead to difficulties. It is common knowledge that many, if not all, of the individual groups would in these broad systems contain strains that differ in many other respects, e.g., spore-wall ornamentation, color of vegetative (substratal) mycelium, morphology of chains of spores, and numerous physiological criteria. Also, cultures of intermediate color can be found, which makes placement difficult. As it now stands, color as a criterion for characterization of streptomycetes and streptoverticillia is in questionable status. Although much useful color information can be obtained by an individual, the application of this information to that in the literature or its use in communication with other individuals leaves much to be desired. More objective methods of color determination are needed. At present, the most effective method that could be used internationally is the color-wheel system of Tresner and Backus. Furthermore, the significance of color in speciation of these organisms is an open question. Obviously, more critical work on the color problem is needed. PMID:14264847
Osborne, Daniel L; Hames, Raymond
The ancestral state of human skin pigmentation evolved in response to high ultraviolet radiation (UVR) stress. Some argue that pigmentation evolved to limit folate photolysis, therein limiting neural tube defects. Pigmentation also protects against sunburn which decreases the efficiency of sweating and potentiates skin infection. Pigmentation increases the efficacy of skin as a barrier to infection. Skin cancer has been rejected or minimized as a selective pressure because it is believed to have little or no effect on mortality during reproductive years. This argument ignores evidence of human longevity as a derived life history trait and the adaptive value of investment in offspring and kin, particularly during the post-reproductive lifespan. Opponents argue that lifespan in prehistoric hunter-gatherers was too short to be relevant to the evolution of skin pigmentation. This argument is flawed in that it relies on estimates of longevity at birth rather than adolescence. When appropriate estimates are used, it is clear that human longevity has a deep evolutionary history. We use a life history perspective to demonstrate the value of skin pigmentation as an adaptation to skin cancer with the following points: UVR exposure increases dysregulation of gene expression in skin cells leading to immortal cell lines; cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) affects individuals throughout reproductive years; and lifespan was longer than has previously been acknowledged, providing the opportunity for kin selection. This hypothesis is not at odds with the folate or barrier hypotheses. We stress that the evolution of skin pigmentation is complex and is an ongoing process.
Oliver, William R.
Contrast enhancement methods have a long history of use in image processing for forensics and have been used to effect in the evaluation patterned injury of the skin. Most contrast enhancement methods, however, were developed for the evaluation of greyscale images and involve the manipulation of one dimension of data at a time. Contrast enhancement in a three- or more dimensional space poses challenges to the implementation of histogram equalization and similar algorithms. A number of approaches to dealing with this problem have been suggested, including performing operations on each channel independently or by various color `explosion' methods. Our laboratory has been investigating dispersion- and diffusion-based methods by modeling changes in color space as biological processes. In short, we model the migration and dispersion of points in color space as migration and differentiation. In this model, biological differentiation signals are used for segmentation in color space (color quantization) and chemoattractant and diffusion models are used for swarming and dispersal. The results of this method are compared with more traditional methods. Implementation issues are discussed. Extensions to the use of reaction-diffusion equations for color-space segmentation are discussed.
Discusses problems with color quality in Web sites. Topics include differences in monitor settings, including contrast; amount of video RAM; user preference settings; browser-safe colors; cross-platform readability; and gamma values. (LRW)
Photographs and text describe techniques by which color negative film can be developed and printed. An equipment list, by which black and white printing facilities can be converted to make color prints, is provided. (CP)
Geen, Michael R S; Johnston, Gregory R
The color-mediated thermoregulation hypothesis predicts that dark body color (low reflectance) allows organisms to gain heat more efficiently than does pale coloration (high reflectance). This prediction is intuitive and widely assumed to be true, but has poor empirical support. We used rare, captive-bred, mutant melanistic, albino and wild-type Australian bluetongue lizards, Tiliqua scincoides to measure the effects of skin reflectance on the heating and cooling rates. We measured heating under an artificial radiant heat source and cooling rates in an ice-cooled box using live lizards in a room with still air. The effect of skin reflectance on heat transfer was clear, despite the substantial influence of body size. Melanistic T. scincoides showed low reflectance and gained heat faster than highly reflective albinos. Melanistic lizards also lost heat faster than albinos. Wild-type lizards were intermediate in reflectance, gained heat at rates indistinguishable from melanistic lizards, and lost heat at rates indistinguishable from albino lizards. This study system allowed us to control for variables that were confounded in other studies and may explain the inconsistent support for the color-mediated thermoregulation hypothesis. Our results provide clear evidence that skin reflectance influences the rate of heating and cooling in ectotherms.
Zukauskas, Artūras; Vaicekauskas, Rimantas; Vitta, Pranciškus; Tuzikas, Arūnas; Petrulis, Andrius; Shur, Michael
A source of white light with continuously tuned color rendition properties, such as color fidelity, as well as color saturating and color dulling ability has been developed. The source, which is composed of red (R), amber (A), green (G), and blue (B) light-emitting diodes, has a spectral power distribution varied as a weighted sum of "white" RGB and AGB blends. At the RGB and AGB end-points, the source has a highest color saturating and color dulling ability, respectively, as follows from the statistical analysis of the color-shift vectors for 1269 Munsell samples. The variation of the weight parameter allows for continuously traversing all possible metameric RAGB blends, including that with the highest color fidelity. The source was used in a psychophysical experiment on the estimation of the color appearance of familiar objects, such as vegetables, fruits, and soft-drink cans of common brands, at correlated color temperatures of 3000 K, 4500 K, and 6500 K. By continuously tuning the weight parameter, each of 100 subjects selected RAGB blends that, to their opinion, matched lighting characterized as "most saturating," "most dulling," "most natural," and "preferential". The end-point RGB and AGB blends have been almost unambiguously attributed to "most saturating" and "most dulling" lighting, respectively. RAGB blends that render a highest number of colors with high fidelity have, on average, been attributed to "most natural" lighting. The "preferential" color quality of lighting has, on average, been matched to RAGB blends that provide color rendition with fidelity somewhat reduced in favor of a higher saturation. Our results infer that tunable "color rendition engines" can validate color rendition metrics and provide lighting meeting specific needs and preferences to color quality.
Morales, Maria Cristina
A significant number of Latina/os are turning to employment in ethnic niches as an alternative to general labor markets. This study places special focus on how skin color segmentation or colorism influences job-market allocation. The hypothesis is that dark-skinned Latina/os are more likely to be employed in ethnically homogeneous jobsites or…
Color wheels are a traditional project for many teachers. The author has used them in art appreciation classes for many years, but one problem she found when her pre-service art education students created colored wheels was that they were boring: simple circles, with pie-shaped pieces, which students either painted or colored in. This article…
Sikri, Vimal K
The success of restorative dentistry is determined on the basis of functional and esthetic results. To achieve esthetics, four basic determinants are required in sequence; viz., position, contour, texture and color. The knowledge of the concept of color is essential for achieving good esthetics. This review compiles the various aspects of color, its measurements and shade matching in dentistry. PMID:21217954
Congenital and acquired color vision defects are described in the context of physiological data. Light sources, photometry, color systems and test methods are described. A list of medicines is also presented. The practical social consequences of color vision deficiencies are discussed.
In spite of repeated research into the matter, no evidence has been discovered to support the claim that color television is superior to black-and-white television as an instructional aid. It is possible that there are advantages to color television which are unmeasured or unmeasurable, but the current claims for color; that it heightens realism,…
Shawsheen Valley Regional Vocational-Technical High School, Billerica, MA.
This manual contains a work sample intended to assess a handicapped student's ability to see likenesses or differences in colors or shades, identifying or matching certain colors, and selecting colors that go together. Section 1 describes the assessment and lists related occupations and DOT codes. Instructions to the evaluator are provided in the…
Skin to skin care has been practised in primitive and high technology cultures for body temperature preservation in neonates. Regional skin temperature and heat flow was measured in moderately hypothermic term neonates to quantitate the heat transfer occurring during one hour of skin to skin care. Nine healthy newborns with a mean rectal temperature of 36.3 degrees C were placed skin to skin on their mothers' chests. The mean (SD) rectal temperature increased by 0.7 (0.4) degrees C to 37.0 degrees C. The heat loss was high (70 Wm-2) from the unprotected skin of the head to the surrounding air. Minute heat losses occurred from covered areas; and heat was initially gained from areas in contact with the mother's skin. The total dry heat loss during skin to skin care corresponded to heat loss during incubator care at 32-32.5 degrees C. The reduced heat loss, and to a minor extent, the initial heat flux from the mothers allowed heat to be conserved, leading to rewarming. PMID:8949698
Chow, Tze-Yin; Lam, Kin-Man; Wong, Kwok-Wai
We present an efficient and reliable algorithm to detect human faces in an image under different lighting conditions. In our algorithm, skin-colored pixels are identified using a region-based approach, which can provide more reliable skin color segmentation under various lighting conditions. In addition, to compensate for extreme lighting conditions, a color compensation scheme is proposed, and the distributions of the skin-color components under various illuminations are modeled by means of the maximum-likelihood method. With the skin-color regions detected, a ratio method is proposed to determine the possible positions of the eyes in the image. Two eye candidates form a possible face region, which is then verified as a face or not by means of a two-stage procedure with an eigenmask. Finally, the face boundary region of a face candidate is further verified by a probabilistic approach to reduce the chance of false alarms. Experimental results based on the HHI MPEG-7 face database, the AR face database, and the CMU pose, illumination, and expression (PIE) database show that this face detection algorithm is efficient and reliable under different lighting conditions and facial expressions.
Zhang, Yan-Ping; Wang, Zhong-Duo; Guo, Yu-Song; Liu, Li; Yu, Juan; Zhang, Shun; Liu, Shao-Jun; Liu, Chu-Wu
In this study, morphology observation and illumina sequencing were performed on two different coloration skins of crimson snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus), the black zone and the red zone. Three types of chromatophores, melanophores, iridophores and xanthophores, were organized in the skins. The main differences between the two colorations were in the amount and distribution of the three chromatophores. After comparing the two transcriptomes, 9200 unigenes with significantly different expressions (ratio change ≥ 2 and q-value ≤ 0.05) were found, of which 5972 were up-regulated in black skin and 3228 were up-regulated in red skin. Through the function annotation, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of the differentially transcribed genes, we excavated a number of uncharacterized candidate pigment genes as well as found the conserved genes affecting pigmentation in crimson snapper. The patterns of expression of 14 pigment genes were confirmed by the Quantitative real-time PCR analysis between the two color skins. Overall, this study shows a global survey of the morphological characters and transcriptome analysis of the different coloration skins in crimson snapper, and provides valuable cellular and genetic information to uncover the mechanism of the formation of pigment patterns in snappers. PMID:26569232
Montoya, L. C.; Bellman, D. R. (Inventor)
A skin friction measuring device for measuring the resistance of an aerodynamic surface to an airstream is described. It was adapted to be mounted on an aircraft and is characterized by a friction plate adapted to be disposed in a flush relationship with the external surface of the aircraft and be displaced in response to skin friction drag. As an airstream is caused to flow over the surface, a potentiometer connected to the plate for providing an electrical output indicates the magnitude of the drag.
Poncini, Laurence; Wimmer, Franz L.
Proposes that colored compounds be classified by reference to a standard color-order system incorporating a color dictionary. Argues that the colors of new compounds could be incorporated into the characterization process and into computer storage systems. (TW)
Halder, Rebat M; Brooks, Howard L; Callender, Valerie D
Acne is the most common disorder observed in ethnic skin. Clinical presentation is different than in white skin. Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation is a common sequelae of acne in darker skin. The management of acne in ethnic skin is based largely on the prevention and treatment of hyperpigmentation.
Alattar, Osama M.; Reed, Alastair M.
Watermarking of printed materials has usually focused on process inks of cyan, magenta, yellow and black (CMYK). In packaging, almost three out of four printed materials include spot colors. Spot colors are special premixed inks, which can be produced in a vibrant range of colors, often outside the CMYK color gamut. In embedding a watermark into printed material, a common approach is to modify the luminance value of each pixel in the image. In the case of process color work pieces, the luminance change can be scaled to the C, M, Y and K channels using a weighting function, to produce the desired change in luminance. In the case of spot color art designs, there is only one channel available and the luminance change is applied to this channel. In this paper we develop a weighting function to embed the watermark signal across the range of different spot colors. This weighting function normalizes visibility effect and signal robustness across a wide range of different spot colors. It normalizes the signal robustness level over the range of an individual spot color"s intensity levels. Further, it takes into account the sensitivity of the capturing device to the different spot colors.
This image mosaic illustrates how scientists use the color calibration targets (upper left) located on both Mars Exploration Rovers to fine-tune the rovers' sense of color. In the center, spectra, or light signatures, acquired in the laboratory of the colored chips on the targets are shown as lines. Actual data from Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's panoramic camera is mapped on top of these lines as dots. The plot demonstrates that the observed colors of Mars match the colors of the chips, and thus approximate the red planet's true colors. This finding is further corroborated by the picture taken on Mars of the calibration target, which shows the colored chips as they would appear on Earth.
Simunovic, Matthew P
Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations.
Chakraborti, Damayanti; Kaur, Ravneet; Umbaugh, Scott; LeAnder, Robert
Dermoscopic images are obtained using the method of skin surface microscopy. Pigmented skin lesions are evaluated in terms of texture features such as color and structure. Artifacts, such as hairs, bubbles, black frames, ruler-marks, etc., create obstacles that prevent accurate detection of skin lesions by both clinicians and computer-aided diagnosis. In this article, we propose a new algorithm for the automated detection of hairs, using an adaptive, Canny edge-detection method, followed by morphological filtering and an arithmetic addition operation. The algorithm was applied to 50 dermoscopic melanoma images. In order to ascertain this method's relative detection accuracy, it was compared to the Razmjooy hair-detection method , using segmentation error (SE), true detection rate (TDR) and false positioning rate (FPR). The new method produced 6.57% SE, 96.28% TDR and 3.47% FPR, compared to 15.751% SE, 86.29% TDR and 11.74% FPR produced by the Razmjooy method . Because of the 7.27-9.99% improvement in those parameters, we conclude that the new algorithm produces much better results for detecting thick, thin, dark and light hairs. The new method proposed here, shows an appreciable difference in the rate of detecting bubbles, as well.
Delbaere, M; Delaporte, T; Toussoun, G; Delay, E
Skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) has emerged as the surgical technique best adapted to the treatment of early breast cancers or breast cancer recurrences after conservative treatment; the technique is particularly appreciated by the patients who had been expecting the development of immediate, high-quality breast reconstruction for over 15 years. SSM preserves anatomical landmarks on the skin surface (notably the under-breast fold and the conical shape of the breast). The procedure must be performed by a skilled surgical team in order to maximize the quality of breast resection and reconstruction, particularly to avoid postoperative complications, notably damage to blood vessels within the skin flap and prosthesis infection. These complications generally affect the cosmetic outcome of the reconstruction, with serious short-term and long-term consequences for the acceptability of the surgical procedure, and may sometimes compromise the delivery of adjuvant treatments (either chemo- or radiotherapy). Based on our previous experience (1000 new cases since 1992), we will compare the advantages and drawbacks of the procedure, discuss its indications, describe the clinical situations encountered and the various specific interventions available, as well as the methods to reduce the risks of tissue damage and skin necrosis.
Uccula, Arcangelo; Enna, Mauro; Mulatti, Claudio
In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e., who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions - e.g., color, shape, or movement illusions - while reading. This condition would interest the 12-14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature.
Uccula, Arcangelo; Enna, Mauro; Mulatti, Claudio
In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e., who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g., color, shape, or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12–14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature. PMID:25120525
is used to generate full color. By spectral tuning of the xenon arc-lamp backlight and the color polarizers, a color gamut comparable to that of a...5 1.2 Phase IV Accom plishments ................................... 5 1.2.1 Subtractive Color Gamut ...Technical Achievem ents .............................................. 8 2.1 Subtractive Color Gamut 2.1.1 Sub Color LC Technology
Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund
The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition…
Dobos, Gabor; Trojahn, Carina; D'Alessandro, Brian; Patwardhan, Sachin; Canfield, Douglas; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Kottner, Jan
Photoaging is associated with increasing pigmentary heterogeneity and darkening of skin color. However, little is known about age-related changes in skin pigmentation on sun-protected areas. The aim of this explorative study was to measure skin color and dyspigmentation using image processing and to evaluate the reliability of these parameters. Twenty-four volunteers of three age-groups were included in this explorative study. Measurements were conducted at sun-exposed and sun-protected areas. Overall skin-color estimates were similar among age groups. The hyper- and hypopigmentation indices differed significantly by age groups and their correlations with age ranged between 0.61 and 0.74. Dorsal forearm skin differed from the other investigational areas (p<0.001). We observed an increase in dyspigmentation at all skin areas, including sun-protected skin areas, already in young adulthood. Associations between age and dyspigmentation estimates were higher compared to color parameters. All color and dyspigmentation estimates showed high reliability. Dyspigmentation parameters seem to be better biomarkers for UV damage than the overall color measurements.
The evidence base is supportive of early skin to skin contact (SSC) for optimal newborn-physiological adaptation, bonding and breastfeeding, and national guidelines encourage SSC as soon as possible, regardless of mode of birth. With an ever-rising caesarean (CS) rate, implementing SSC in theatre stands to benefit an increasing number of mothers and babies. While it may be best practice, in reality there is a lot of variation from trust to trust, and many hospitals do not facilitate it, citing numerous reasons as to why it is not possible. Midwives may feel that they should focus on norma birth, but it is our role to provide holistic care and normalise birth in all settings. This article looks at current evidence and the role of the midwife around facilitating SSC in theatre with an example from practice of how change has been implemented so that mothers and babies get the best start in life.
Colvocoresses, Alden P.
The color-sensing capability of the human eye is a powerful tool. In remote sensing we should use color to display data more meaningfully, not to re-create the scene. Color disappears with distance, and features change color with viewing angle. Color infrared film lets us apply color with additional meaning even though we introduce a false color response. Although the marginal gray scale on an ERTS (Earth Resources Technology Satellite) image may indicate balance between the green, red, and infrared bands, and although each band may be printed in a primary color, tests show that we are not fully applying the three primary colors. Therefore, contrast in the green band should be raised. For true three-color remote sensing of the Earth, we must find two generally meaningful signatures in the visible spectrum, or perhaps extend our spectral range. Before turning to costly digital processing we should explore analog processing. Most ERTS users deal with relative spectral radiance; the few concerned with absolute radiance could use the computer-compatible tapes or special annotations. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), which assigns the range and contrast to the ERTS image, controls processing and could adjust the density range for maximum contrast in any ERTS scene. NASA cannot alter processing for local changes in reflective characteristics of the Earth but could adjust for Sun elevation and optimize the contrast in a given band.
da Pos, Osvaldo
Color is a visible aspect of objects and lights, and as such is an objective characteristic of our phenomenal world. Correspondingly also objects and lights are objective, although their subjectivity cannot be disregarded since they belong to our phenomenal world. The distinction between perception and sensation deals with colors seen either in complex displays or in isolation. Reality of colors is apparently challenged by virtual reality, while virtual reality is a good example of what colors are. It seems difficult to combine that aspect of reality colors have in our experience and the concept that colors represent something in the external environment: the distinction between stimulation and perceived object is crucial for understanding the relationships between phenomenal world and physical reality. A modern concept of isomorphism seems useful in interpreting the role of colors. The relationship between the psychological structure of colors and the physical stimulation is enlightened by the analysis of pseudocolors. The perceptual, subjective characteristics of colors go along with the subjectivity of scientific concepts. Colors, emotions, and concepts are all in some people's mind: none of them is independent of the subject mind. Nevertheless they can be communicated from person to person by an appropriate scientific terminology.
Chau, Wing K.; Wong, S. K. M.; Yang, Xuedong; Wan, Shijie J.
Two issues are involved in color image quantization: color palette selection and color mapping. A common practice for color palette selection is to minimize the color distortion for each pixel (the median-cut, the variance-based and the k-means algorithms). After the color palette has been chosen, a quantized image may be generated by mapping the original color of each pixel onto its nearest color in the color palette. Such an approach can usually produce quantized images of high quality with 128 or more colors. For 32 - 64 colors, the quality of the quantized images is often acceptable with the aid of dithering techniques in the color mapping process. For 8 - 16 color, however, the above statistical method for color selection becomes no longer suitable because of the great reduction of color gamut. In order to preserve the color gamut of the original image, one may want to select the colors in such a way that the convex hull formed by these colors in the RGB color space encloses most colors of the original image. Quantized images generated in such a geometrical way usually preserve a lot of image details, but may contain too much high frequency noises. This paper presents an effective algorithm for the selection of very small color palette by combining the strengths of the above statistical and geometrical approaches. We demonstrate that with the new method images of high quality can be produced by using only 4 to 8 colors.
Thornton, M. Julie
Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity. Its protective function becomes compromised and aging is associated with impaired wound healing, hair loss, pigmentary changes and skin cancer. Skin aging can be significantly delayed by the administration of estrogen. This paper reviews estrogen effects on human skin and the mechanisms by which estrogens can alleviate the changes due to aging. The relevance of estrogen replacement, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and phytoestrogens as therapies for diminishing skin aging is highlighted. Understanding estrogen signaling in skin will provide a basis for interventions in aging pathologies. PMID:24194966
Roca-Vila, Jordi; Parraga, C Alejandro; Vanrell, Maria
Color constancy is usually measured by achromatic setting, asymmetric matching, or color naming paradigms, whose results are interpreted in terms of indexes and models that arguably do not capture the full complexity of the phenomenon. Here we propose a new paradigm, chromatic setting, which allows a more comprehensive characterization of color constancy through the measurement of multiple points in color space under immersive adaptation. We demonstrated its feasibility by assessing the consistency of subjects' responses over time. The paradigm was applied to two-dimensional (2-D) Mondrian stimuli under three different illuminants, and the results were used to fit a set of linear color constancy models. The use of multiple colors improved the precision of more complex linear models compared to the popular diagonal model computed from gray. Our results show that a diagonal plus translation matrix that models mechanisms other than cone gain might be best suited to explain the phenomenon. Additionally, we calculated a number of color constancy indices for several points in color space, and our results suggest that interrelations among colors are not as uniform as previously believed. To account for this variability, we developed a new structural color constancy index that takes into account the magnitude and orientation of the chromatic shift in addition to the interrelations among colors and memory effects.
White, James M.; Faber, Vance; Saltzman, Jeffrey S.
An image population having a large number of attributes is processed to form a display population with a predetermined smaller number of attributes which represent the larger number of attributes. In a particular application, the color values in an image are compressed for storage in a discrete lookup table (LUT) where an 8-bit data signal is enabled to form a display of 24-bit color values. The LUT is formed in a sampling and averaging process from the image color values with no requirement to define discrete Voronoi regions for color compression. Image color values are assigned 8-bit pointers to their closest LUT value whereby data processing requires only the 8-bit pointer value to provide 24-bit color values from the LUT.
Mendenhall, Michael J; Nunez, Abel S; Martin, Richard K
Skin detection is a well-studied area in color imagery and is useful in a number of scenarios to include search and rescue and computer vision. Most approaches focus on color imagery due to cost and availability. Many of the visible-based approaches do well at detecting skin (above 90%) but they tend to have relatively high false-alarm rates (8%-15%). This article presents a novel feature space for skin detection in visible and near infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The features are derived from known spectral absorption of skin constituents to include hemoglobin, melanin, and water as well as scattering properties of the dermis. Fitting a Gaussian mixture to skin and background distributions and using a likelihood ratio test detector, the features presented here show dominating performance when comparing receiver-operating characteristic curves (ROCs) and statistically significant improvement when comparing equal error rates and area under the ROC (AUC). A detection/false-alarm probability of 98.6%/1.1% is achieved for the averaged equal error rate (EER). EER values for the proposed feature space show a 5.6%-11.2% increase in detection probability with a 6.0%-11.6% decrease in false-alarm probability compared to well performing color-based features. The AUC shows a 0.034-0.173 increase in total area under the curve compared to well performing color-based features.
Seddon, J M; Egan, K M; Zhang, Y; Gelles, E J; Glynn, R J; Tucker, C A; Gragoudas, E S
A pilot study was conducted to investigate the use of skin microtopography as a semiquantitative noninvasive method for estimating cumulative sun exposure in epidemiologic studies of eye disease. The subjects received a kit through the mail containing materials needed to make a replica of the skin texture of a sun-exposed area of the hand. Each subject previously had undergone a skin biopsy around the same site to evaluate elastotic degeneration, and all were interviewed about past sun exposures. A gradable skin impression was obtained from 96 of 115 (83%) participants after two mailings. The impressions were graded according to the degree of skin texture alteration using standard photographs; interobserver reliability was 0.73 using a weighted kappa statistic. The impression score was correlated most strongly with age (r = 0.53). Independent predictors of higher impression scores (more skin texture changes) were older age, cigar or pipe smoking, less education, lighter iris color, lighter skin color, male gender, and tendency to sunburn. After adjustment for age and the other predictor variables, the biopsy score was not correlated with the impression grade (r = 0.18, P = 0.13). Behaviors indexing sun exposure were not correlated with microtopography. These results suggest that skin microtopography as done in this study reflects aging from intrinsic parameters more than from actinic damage.
The color theory conceived and commercialized by Albert H. Munsell (1858-1918) has become a universal part of the lexicon of soil science. An American painter noted for his seascapes and portraits, he had a long-standing interest in the description of color. Munsell began studies aimed at standardizing color description, using hue, value, and chroma scales, around 1898. His landmark treatise, "A Color Notation," was published in 1905. Munsell died about 30 years before his color charts came into wide-spread use in soil survey programs in the United States. Dorothy Nickerson, who began her career as secretary and laboratory assistant to Munsell's son, and later spent 37 years at USDA as a color-science specialist, did much to adapt the Munsell Color System to soil-color usage. The legacy of color research pioneered by A.H. Munsell is honored today by the Munsell Color Science Laboratory established in 1983 at the Rochester Institute of Technology.
This image taken on Mars by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rover's color calibration target, also known as the MarsDial. The target's mirror and the shadows cast on it by the Sun help scientists determine the degree to which dusty martian skies alter the panoramic camera's perception of color. By adjusting for this effect, Mars can be seen in all its true colors.
Hiltunen, Jouni; Jaeaeskelaeinen, Timo; Parkkinen, Jussi P. S.
Surface color measurement is of importance in a very wide range of industrial applications including paint, paper, printing, photography, textiles, plastics and so on. For a demanding color measurements spectral approach is often needed. One can measure a color spectrum with a spectrophotometer using calibrated standard samples as a reference. Because it is impossible to define absolute color values of a sample, we always work with approximations. The human eye can perceive color difference as small as 0.5 CIELAB units and thus distinguish millions of colors. This 0.5 unit difference should be a goal for the precise color measurements. This limit is not a problem if we only want to measure the color difference of two samples, but if we want to know in a same time exact color coordinate values accuracy problems arise. The values of two instruments can be astonishingly different. The accuracy of the instrument used in color measurement may depend on various errors such as photometric non-linearity, wavelength error, integrating sphere dark level error, integrating sphere error in both specular included and specular excluded modes. Thus the correction formulas should be used to get more accurate results. Another question is how many channels i.e. wavelengths we are using to measure a spectrum. It is obvious that the sampling interval should be short to get more precise results. Furthermore, the result we get is always compromise of measuring time, conditions and cost. Sometimes we have to use portable syste or the shape and the size of samples makes it impossible to use sensitive equipment. In this study a small set of calibrated color tiles measured with the Perkin Elmer Lamda 18 and the Minolta CM-2002 spectrophotometers are compared. In the paper we explain the typical error sources of spectral color measurements, and show which are the accuracy demands a good colorimeter should have.
Wang, Ynjiun P.
A new breed of CMOS color sensor called MonoColor sensor is developed for a barcode reading application in AIDC industry. The RGBW color filter array (CFA) in a MonoColor sensor is arranged in a 8 x 8 pixels CFA with only 4 pixels of them are color (RGB) pixels and the rest of 60 pixels are transparent or monochrome. Since the majority of pixels are monochrome, MonoColor sensor maintains 98% barcode decode performance compared with a pure monochrome CMOS sensor. With the help of monochrome and color pixel fusion technique, the resulting color pictures have similar color quality in terms of Color Semantic Error (CSE) compared with a Bayer pattern (RGB) CMOS color camera. Since monochrome pixels are more sensitive than color pixels, a MonoColor sensor produces in general about 2X brighter color picture and higher luminance pixel resolution.
2004-01-01This false-color image shows visible mineral changes between the materials that make up the rim of the impact crater known as 'Endurance.' The image was taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity using all 13 color filters. The cyan blue color denotes basalts, whereas the dark green color denotes a mixture of iron oxide and basaltic materials. Reds and yellows indicate dusty material containing sulfates. Scientists are very interested in exploring the interior and exterior material around the crater's rim for clues to the processes that formed the crater, as well as the rocks and textures that define the crater.
Lindsey, Delwin T; Brown, Angela M
We analyzed the World Color Survey (WCS) color-naming data set by using k-means cluster and concordance analyses. Cluster analysis relied on a similarity metric based on pairwise Pearson correlation of the complete chromatic color-naming patterns obtained from individual WCS informants. When K, the number of k-means clusters, varied from 2 to 10, we found that (i) the average color-naming patterns of the clusters all glossed easily to single or composite English patterns, and (ii) the structures of the k-means clusters unfolded in a hierarchical way that was reminiscent of the Berlin and Kay sequence of color category evolution. Gap statistical analysis showed that 8 was the optimal number of WCS chromatic categories: RED, GREEN, YELLOW-OR-ORANGE, BLUE, PURPLE, BROWN, PINK, and GRUE (GREEN-OR-BLUE). Analysis of concordance in color naming within WCS languages revealed small regions in color space that exhibited statistically significantly high concordance across languages. These regions agreed well with five of six primary focal colors of English. Concordance analysis also revealed boundary regions of statistically significantly low concordance. These boundary regions coincided with the boundaries associated with English WARM and COOL. Our results provide compelling evidence for similarities in the mechanisms that guide the lexical partitioning of color space among WCS languages and English.
[figure removed for brevity, see original site]Released 5 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on November 18, 2003 during the Southern Summer season in Terra Cimmeria. This daytime visible color image was collected on September 4, 2002 during the Northern Spring season in Vastitas Borealis. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -23.7, Longitude 135.6 East (224.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with
High Dynamic Range Image (HDRI) rendering and animation of color in the camouflage of chameleons is developed utilizing thin film optics. Chameleons are a lizard species, and have the ability to change their skin color. This change in color is an expression of the physical and physiological conditions of the lizard, and plays a part in communication. The different colors that can be produced depending on the species include pink, blue, red, orange, green, black, brown and yellow. The modeling, simulation, and rendering of the color, which their skin incorporates, thin film optical stacks. The skin of a chameleon has four layers, which together produce various colors. The outside transparent layer has chromatophores cells, of two kinds of color, yellow and red. Next there are two more layers that reflect light: one blue and the other white. The innermost layer contains dark pigment granules or melanophore cells that influences the amount of reflected light. All of these pigment cells can rapidly relocate their pigments, thereby influencing the color of the chameleon. Techniques like subsurface scattering, the simulation of volumetric scattering of light underneath the objects surface, and final gathering are defined in custom shaders and material phenomena for the renderer. The workflow developed to model the chameleon's skin is also applied to simulation and rendering of hair and fur camouflage, which does not exist in nature.